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Sample records for eastern uttar pradesh

  1. DEMOGRAPHIC STUDY OF PSORIASIS IN EASTERN UTTAR PRADESH INDIA

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    Mrityunjay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune - mediated inflammatory skin disease. It ranges in severity from a few scattered red, scaly plaques to involvement of almost the entire body surface. OBJECTIVE: Demographic study of psoriasis in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients of both gender and age diagnosed with psoriasis were enrolled for the study. Apart from the onset, duration, symptoms, lesion’s location, aggravating factors and association with other diseases were noted. Routine investigations were done in each and every patient. RESULT: There were 342 patients (207 males and 135 females, with ages between 1 and 74 years. Disease was more prevalent in house hold workers as seen in 99 (28.94% patients. The most common type of psoriasis was chronic p laque psoriasis found in 255 (74.56% patients. The scalp was the most common site of involvement seen in 243( 79.82% patients. Nails were also affected in psoriasis and finger nail involvement (132 patients was more than toe nails (82 patients. Most com mon aggravating factor for psoriasis was winter followed by trauma. Psoriasis was associated with other diseases in 138 patients. Disease was cleared spontaneously in 30(8.77% patients and with proper treatment in in159 (46.49% of cases while disease per sisted in 153(44.73% cases. LIMITATION: Limitation includes case series study design from one tertiary center. CONCLUSION: Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing and remitting dermatosis that can affect any age group and sex with different clinical presentation s and influenced by environmental factors.

  2. An epidemiological study of dementia among the habitants of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

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    K Poddar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is one of the most serious health problems of the elderly and their caregivers. Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dementia in the community, its sociodemographic and behavioral associates to determine the risk factors among resident of two districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This study was based on 2890 subjects aged 50 years and above, residing in rural areas of Mirzapur and urban areas of the Varanasi district of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Efforts were made to identify the subjects of age 50 years and above using cluster sampling. The Hindi Mental State Examination was used as the instrument tool to determine the score and a cut-off score of ≤23 was considered as the presence of dementia among the identified subjects. Results: The overall prevalence of dementia was found to be 5.1%. This percentage was increasing with age and decreasing with educational level. Among females, the prevalence of dementia was observed (7.2% to be double than that in males (3.8%. Widows/widowers/unmarried had a double prevalence (9.3% as compared with married (4.3% people. The age, gender, marital status, education, occupation, number of family members in the household and liquor addiction were found to be significantly associated with dementia. The relative risk for the above-mentioned variables was found to be more than 1.

  3. Entomological and serological investigation of Japanese encephalitis in endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Nyari, Nikky; Singh, Dharamveer; Kakkar, Kavita; Sharma, Swati; Pandey, S N; Dhole, T N

    2015-12-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito borne pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The objective of this work was to evaluate the entomological based virological surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in the highly endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh. The study was carried out during September 2010 to March 2013 in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 251 adult mosquito pools and 64 water samples containing larvae were collected from the District of Gorakhpur. Water pH, turbidity, and oxygen level were analyzed for vector breeding index (BI). In addition, 393 serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) suspected cases were collected from the district hospital. The various Culex species found included, Cx. quinquefasciatus (26.83%), Cx. vishnui (22.29%), Cx. pseudovishnui (20.73%), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (12.71%), Cx. whitmorei (9.04%), and Cx. gelidus (8.25%). Highest minimum infection rate (MIR) was calculated for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (2.32), followed by Cx. vishnui (1.98) and Cx. pseudovishnui (0.71). All the larvae samples were negative for JEV. The mean number larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. pseudovishnui was negatively correlated with pH (r = - 0.45 and r = - 0.63) and turbidity (r = - 0.30 and r = - 0.37). In contrast, positive correlation was observed in case of Cx. quinquefasciatus. A total of 41 clinical samples were found positive for JEV by IgM ELISA. The rainfall was significantly associated with Japanese encephalitis incidence and showed positive correlation to disease transmission (p = 0.02, r = 0. 66). The findings showed the rapid dissemination of JEV within a population, facilitated by different species of Culex in the region. As JE is a vaccine-preventable disease, an immunization programme, an effective vector control strategy and application of standard hygiene practices in these endemic areas could result in a considerable

  4. Arsenic occurrence and accumulation in soil and water of eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Srivastava, Saumya; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic in the soil and water of eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh (Ballia and Ghazipur) was estimated. Survey results revealed that arsenic in soil samples ranged from 5.40 to 15.43 parts per million (ppm). In water samples, it ranged from 43.75 to 620.75 parts per billion (ppb) which far exceeded the permissible limit of 10 ppb as recommended by the World Health Organization. Maximum concentration of arsenic in water was found in Haldi village of Ballia (620.75 ppb). However, mean arsenic concentration in water followed the order: Karkatpur (257.21 ppb) soil, maximum arsenic was detected in soil of Sohaon (15.43 ppm). Mean arsenic levels in soils followed the order: Karkatpur (9.24 ppm) Arsenic levels were higher in soils collected from 15-30 cm depth than 0-15 cm from the soil surface.

  5. Invasive Alien Species of Terrestrial Vegetation of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh

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    Sumit Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetational landscape of north-eastern Terai region at the foot hills of Central Himalayas is a mosaic of grassland, old-field, wasteland, and forest ecosystems. Like many other parts of the country, this region is also infested with alien intruders which not only interfere with the growth and production of food crops but also exercise adverse effects on the biodiversity of native species. The present study attempts to catalogue the invasive alien species of the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh especially with reference to their habit, taxonomic position, and nativity. A total of 1135 plant species within 580 genera under 119 families are so far known to occur in the region. Of these, only 149 species within 100 genera under 41 families have been found to be invasive aliens as evident from their center of origin, past history, nature of aggregation, and invasion observed under field conditions. About 80% of these invaders have been introduced from neotropics. Out of 173 invasive plants across India, this region shares 149 species, out of which 66% of species have come from Tropical America, 14% from African continent, and the rest from other countries. A better planning in the form of early identification and reporting of infestation and spread of noxious weeds is needed for their control.

  6. "Tinni" Rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Production: An Integrated Sociocultural Agroecosystem in Eastern Uttar Pradesh of India

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    Singh, Ranjay K.; Turner, Nancy J.; Pandey, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, ` tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively selected Bhar villages. Two distinct varieties of tinni (` tinni patali' and ` tinni moti') with differing habitats and phenotypic characters were identified. Seven microecosystems (Kari, Badaila, Chammo, Karmol, Bhainsiki, Bhainsala and Khodailia) were found to support these varieties in differing proportions. Tinni rice can withstand more extreme weather conditions (the highest as well as lowest temperatures and rainfall regimes) than the `genetically improved' varieties of rice ( Oriza sativa L.) grown in the region. Both tinni varieties are important bioresources for the Bhar's subsistence livelihoods, and they use distinctive conservation approaches in their maintenance. Bhar women are the main custodians of tinni rice agrobiodiversity, conserving tinni through an institution called Sajha. Democratic decision-making at meetings organized by village elders determines the market price of the tinni varieties. Overall, the indigenous institutions and women's participation seem to have provided safeguards from excessive exploitation of tinni rice varieties. The maintenance of tinni through cultural knowledge and institutions serves as an example of the importance of locally maintained crop varieties in contributing to people's resilience and food security in times of rapid social and environmental change.

  7. Untouchable castes of Uttar Pradesh

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    Kharinin Artem Igorevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Untouchable Castes of Uttar Pradesh are examined in this article. This region is one of the most populated in India. Also it is one of the most social mixed-composed in whole State. That’s why main conclusions which were made on this material can be extrapolated to all social space of country. The authors choose four ethno-caste groups, which represent the majority in untouchables and the three smallest in jaties. Their positions in regional hierarchy and economic specialization are analyzed in detail. There are a lot of information about their number, social structure, literacy rating, endogamy, day-to-day practices, customs and other features. Special accents were pointed on mind orientation of their elites toward integration in modern society or, conversely, toward the conservation of traditional forms of existence. The issues of origin and social evolution of untouchable castes of Uttar Pradesh are examined. There is assessment of castes’ sanskritization or other forms of social selfdevelopment. The quality of “scheduled” castes social environment is analyzed. As a marks of its positiveness the data about discrimination untouchables from other social groups and degree of political representativeness of “scheduled” castes, accessibility of education and labour were chosen. The conclusions were made about development degree of some castes. The factors that play role in positive changes in contemporary conditions were determined. The authors put forward their own hypothesis of future development of untouchable castes in Uttar Pradesh. Empiric base of this article was established on sources that have Indian origin and historical and social research of outstanding western indologies.

  8. Integrated energy planning for sustainable development in rural areas: A case study from Eastern Uttar Pradesh

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    Shweta Singh, Usha Bajpai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy is required for every aspect of our daily life. At present, commercial energy consumption makes up about 65% of the total energy consumed in India. This includes coal with the largest share of 55%, followed by oil at 31%, natural gas at 11% and hydro energy at 3%. Non-commercial energy sources consisting of firewood, cow dung and agriculture wastes account for over 30% of the total energy consumption. The critical feature of India’s energy sector and linkages to economy is the import dependence on crude and petroleum products. Import bill is likely to grow to more than 100% in the near future because of population explosion and improved living standard in the country. Being a tropical country India has unlimited potential for producing renewable energy sources. These sources of energy can play an important role in the sustainable development by providing basic energy needs of rural and remote areas. A survey of energy consumption pattern has been carried out in different sector domestic, agricultural, transport, rural industries and miscellaneous uses in a cluster of 3 villages, district Ballia, Uttar Pradesh India during 2008. The questionnaires have been filled by gram pradhan, respective old persons and head of the family of the surveyed households. This paper discusses the current energy status, choice of energy options and potential of renewable energy systems for creating sustainable livelihoods in rural areas. The outline plan at decentralized level was prepared with the objective of providing energy security in villages by meeting total energy needs for cooking, lighting and motive power through various forms of available renewable energy sources.

  9. Seasonal occurrence of phlebotominae sand flies (Phlebotominae: Diptera) and it's correlation with Kala-Azar in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Singh, N S; Singh, Doris Phillips

    2009-05-01

    In this investigation, the species composition of sand flies, and their seasonality, nocturnal activity, sex ratio, and resting site, for implementation of future control measures, were surveyed in eastern (Gonda and Basti) Uttar Pradesh, India. Adult sand flies (2,893) were collected from internal and external sites by sticky and light traps. The sand flies were captured using light traps hung at different heights in trees and in peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary areas of a forest during both dry and rainy months. The traps were kept out between sunset and sunrise of the following day. In the extradomiciliary environment, the traps were installed at 1, 3 and 5 m above the ground. In this investigation, a total of 5 species were obtained: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, Sergentomyia sintoni, S. punjabensis and S. dentata. The number of sand flies peaked in September and declined by December. The maximum and minimum numbers were found at 8:00 PM and 5:00 to 6:00 AM, respectively. The female to male ratio of the phlebotominae sand flies varied from a high in October to a low in June. The number of sand flies in the external regions was significantly more (p sand flies. Using the results of this investigation, health workers in this area may be better able to control and prevent leishmaniasis.

  10. Goiter prevalence and iodine nutritional status of school children in a sub-Himalayan Tarai region of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

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    Chandra, A K; Bhattacharjee, A; Malik, T; Ghosh, S

    2008-06-01

    The present work was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of goiter, state of iodine nutrition of the population, distribution of iodine through edible salt, bioavailability of iodine, consumption of common goitrogenic food that generally interfere with iodine nutrition in Naugarh sub-division of Siddharthnagar district in Uttar Pradesh, India. Five areas were selected from 5 Community Development (CD) Blocks taking one from each by purposive sampling method. In each area, Primary and Junior high schools were selected by simple random sampling to get representative target population. Clinical goiter survey was conducted in 1663 school-aged children from both sexes (6-12 yrs), along with the biochemical analysis of iodine (I) and thiocyanate (SCN) in 200 urine samples, iodine content in 175 edible salt samples and 20 water samples collected from the selected study areas. The studied region is severely affected by Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) as goiter prevalence is 30.2% (grade 1: 27.1% grade 2:3.1%). Median urinary iodine level was 96 microg/L indicating biochemical iodine deficiency. The mean urinary thiocyanate was 0.810+/-0.490 mg/dL and mean of I/SCN ratios in all the studied areas were above the critical level of 7. However, 22% of the individual had I/SCN ratio salt samples had adequate iodine i.e., >or=15 ppm while iodine content in drinking water varied between 7.5-10.7 microg/L. Iodine deficiency is the primary cause, however the consumption of cyanogenic food may have important role for the persistence of IDD in the studied region during post salt iodization phase.

  11. Cyanobacterial diversity shifts induced by butachlor in selected Indian rice fields in Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Western Bihar analyzed with PCR and DGGE.

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    Kumari, Nidhi; Narayan, Om Prakash; Rai, Lal Chand

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of 30 mg/kg butachlor on the cyanobacterial diversity of rice fields in Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Western Bihar in India. A total of 40 samples were grouped into three classes [(i) acidic, (ii) neutral, and (iii) alkaline soils], based on physicochemical and principle component analyses. Acidic soils mainly harbored Westillopsis, Trichormus, Anabaenopsis, and unicellular cyanobacteria; whereas Nostoc, Anabaena, Calothrix, Tolypothrix, and Aulosira were found in neutral and alkaline soils. Molecular characterization using 16S rRNA PCR and DGGE revealed the presence of 13 different phylotypes of cyanobacteria in these samples. Butachlor treatment of the soil samples led to the disappearance of 5 and the emergence of 2 additional phylotypes. A total of 40 DGGE bands showed significant reproducible changes upon treatment with butachlor. Phylogenetic analyses divided the phylotypes into five major clusters exhibiting interesting links with soil pH. Aulosira, Anabaena, Trichormus, and Anabaenopsis were sensitive to butachlor treatment, whereas uncultured cyanobacteria, a chroococcalean member, Westillopsis, Nostoc, Calothrix, Tolypothrix, Rivularia, Gloeotrichia, Fischerella, Leptolyngbya, and Cylindrospermum, appeared to be tolerant against butachlor at their native soil pH. Butachlor-induced inhibition of nitrogen fixation was found to be 65% (maximum) and 33% (minimum) in the soil samples of pH 9.23 and 5.20, respectively. In conclusion, low butachlor doses may prove beneficial in paddy fields having a neutral to alkaline soil pH.

  12. High prevalence of oncogenic HPV-16 in cervical smears of asymptomatic women of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India: A population-based study

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    Shikha Srivastava; Sadhana Gupta; Jagat Kumar Roy

    2012-03-01

    In developing countries like India, occurrence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer as well as in the asymptomatic population was observed to be very high. Studies on HPV prevalence have been conducted in different parts of the country but no data were available from the eastern region of Uttar Pradesh (UP). The present study aimed to determine the status of HPV prevalence and its association with different socio-demographic factors in this population. Prevalence of HPV was investigated in a total of 2424 cervical scrape samples of asymptomatic women. Primer sets from L1 consensus region of viral genome were used to detect the presence of HPV, and the positive samples were genotyped by sequencing. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate association of socio-demographic factors with HPV. 9.9% of the clinically asymptomatic women were found to be infected with HPV comprising 26 different genotypes. Among HPV-positive women, 80.8% showed single infection, while 15.4% harboured multiple infections. HPV-16 (63.7%) was the most prevalent, followed by HPV-31 (6.7%), HPV-6 (5.4%), HPV-81 (4.6%) and HPV-33 (4.2%). Significant association of HPV with non-vegetarian diet ( < 0.05) and rural residential areas ( < 0.01) were observed. High prevalence of HPV-16 in asymptomatic women of this population, a frequency comparable to invasive cervical cancers, highlights an urgent need for a therapeutic HPV vaccine covering HPV-16 and other high-risk types to provide protection against the disease.

  13. Debt sustainability of state finances of Uttar Pradesh government

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    Maurya, Nagendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Serious deterioration in government fiscal finances in the late 1990s and early 2000s asked for prudent fiscal management. The fiscal deterioration of 1990s and 2000s led to elevated levels of debt liabilities at both the national and sub-national level. Uttar Pradesh (UP) fiscal position during 1990s and 2000s was one of the most vulnerable. Fiscal and revenue deficit and debt levels were appallingly high creating unmanageable pressure on fiscal finances. The UP government has enacted its FR...

  14. Domestic violence and contraceptive adoption in Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Stephenson, Rob; Koenig, Michael A; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the association between domestic violence and the subsequent adoption of modern contraception in North India. Matched data on married couples who were not practicing contraception are analyzed from companion surveys of married husbands and wives in five districts of Uttar Pradesh. By means of hazard modeling, a significant negative association was found between a husband's reporting of using physical domestic violence against his wife and the couple's adoption of a modern method of contraception. Community norms that were more tolerant of domestic violence were, in contrast, not a significant predictor of subsequent method adoption. The results highlight the need to address the issue of support for women experiencing domestic violence within existing family planning services and to sensitize service providers to the specific needs of women experiencing such violence.

  15. Herpetofauna of Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Abhijit Das

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A herpetofaunal inventory based on field surveys, literature records and photographic records is presented for Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and its environs, situated in the Terai region of Uttar Pradesh, India. We list a total of 10 species of amphibians and 42 species of reptiles from the area. Compiled observations presented here include biological notes on the Critically Endangered Gavialis gangeticus and new locality records and natural history information of poorly known species including Polypedates taeniatus and Sibynophis sagittarius. Besides recording members of currently recognized species complexes, the study also documents species that were either conferred to closely related species (e.g., Fejervarya cf. teraiensis or their identity remains to be ascertained (e.g., Kaloula sp.. The present study indicates that species count at Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary is likely to increase with additional surveys and systematic work.

  16. Agricultural practices and irrigation water demand in Uttar Pradesh

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    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Brozovic, N.; Mijic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in farming practices within Uttar Pradesh, particularly advances in irrigation technology, have led to a significant drop in water tables across the region. While the acquisition of monitoring data in India is a challenge, current water use practices point towards water overdraught. This is exacerbated by government and state policies and practices, including the subsidising of electricity, seeds and fertilizer, and an agreement to buy all crops grown, promoting the over use of water resources. Taking India's predicted population growth, increases in industrialisation and climate change into account, both farmland and the water resources it depends upon will be subject to increased pressures in the future. This research is centred around irrigation demands on water resources within Uttar Pradesh, and in particular, quantifying those demands both spatially and temporally. Two aspects of this will be presented; the quantification of irrigation water applied and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices. Calculating the volumes of applied irrigation water in the absence of observed data presents a major challenge and is achieved here through the use of crop models. Regional crop yields provided by statistical yearbooks are replicated by the crop models AquaCrop and InfoCrop, and by doing so the amount of irrigation water needed to produce the published yields is quantified. In addition, proxy information, for example electrical consumption for agricultural use, is used to verify the likely volumes of water abstracted from tubewells. Statistical analyses of borehole distribution and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices, particularly farmer decision making, collected during a field trip are also presented. The evolution of agricultural practices, technological advancement and water use for irrigation is reconstructed through the use of multiple regression and principle component analysis

  17. Dust Quantization and Effects on Agriculture Over Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Munshi, Pavel; Tiwari, Shubhansh

    2017-01-01

    Dust plays a very important role in the atmosphere and the biosphere. In this communication, the effect of atmospheric dust on the yields of certain crops grown in Uttar Pradesh, India is assessed. Coherent physical and thermodynamic fingerprints of dust parameters such as from Satellite data- KALPANA-1, MODIS, OMI, CALIPSO; Model data- DREAM, HYSPLIT, ECMWF; have been considered to run the APSIM model to derive the impacts. This paper assesses dust as a physical atmospheric phenomenon including its Long Range Transport (LRT) and dispersion along with considerable variations of Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs) over the subcontinent of India. While AODs significantly increase by more dust concentration, the local dispersion of pollutants is a major concern with deposition of atmospheric dust such as sulphates and other chemical constituents that affect agricultural land. An approach in atmospheric physics is also taken to parameterize the model outputs. This communication indicates dust to be a positive factor for the cultivation of certain crops such as wheat, maize in the experimental location. Initial results suggest that LRT dust is a viable counterpart to decrease the concentration of soil acidity and related parameters thus enhancing the vitality of crops.

  18. IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE IN ETAWAH: A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

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    C M Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the coverage of immunization among children of 12-23 months age group in rural Etawah (a border District of Uttar Pradesh? Objectives: 1. To assess the immunization coverage among 12-23 months age group children in rural Etawah. 2. To study the association of different socio-demographic factors with utilization of immunization services. Study Design: A community based cross sectional study. Setting: The present study was conducted in Saifai Block of District Etawah. Participants: Two hundred and ten children of 12-23 months were included in the study. Results: The percentage of completely immunized children was found to be 40%. The present study revealed that approximately 79.0% children were immunized against BCG, while the corresponding figure for measles vaccination was just 42.4%. Drop-out rate for complete immunization was 48.1%. Conclusion: Overall coverage of immunization services among children aged 12-23 months was lower than the national figures for rural Etawah. Literacy status of parents was significantly associated with the percentage of fully immunized children and the drop-out rate was also found to be higher among children of illiterate mothers. So there is need and scope of more focused Information, education and communication efforts towards parents regarding immunization services.

  19. Management of childhood diarrhea among private providers in Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Christa L. Fisher Walker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Uttar Pradesh (UP, India, a new initiative to introduce zinc and reinvigorate ORS for diarrhea treatment in the public and private sectors was rolled out in selected districts. We conducted an external evaluation of the program that included assessing the knowledge and practices of private sector providers 6 months after the initial program rollout.

  20. Generating Demand for contraceptives in India: A Case Study of IEC Activities in Uttar Pradesh.

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    Khan, M E; Patel, B C

    1992-01-01

    The article presents a review of current Governmental family welfare program information, education and communications (IEC) activities in Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in India (139 million in 1991). The review is based on available literature. The extent of general outreach of mass media as well as constraints and problems related to provision of appropriate IEC are discussed. Suggestions for improvement are made, particularly in terms of interpersonal communication.

  1. Maxillofacial Fractures: Its features and Occurrence in Western Uttar Pradesh,India- A Retrospective Study.

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    Dr. Swapnil S. Bumb

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The successful surgical treatment of maxillofacial fractures consists of early recognition of fractured site, etiologic factors and demographic patterns. In Western Uttar Pradesh, Road Traffic Accidents are leading cause of maxillofacial fractures followed by facial assault. Mandibular fractures followed by upper face fractures are the leading causes of maxillofacial fractures. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the pattern of maxillofacial fractures in western Uttar Pradesh, India. Material & Methods: This study is conducted at Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College & Research Center and associated Teerthankar Mahaveer Dental College & Research Center, TMU are situated on Moradabad –Delhi national highway. Most patients admitted here were referral patients from adjacent territory. Results: There were about 76% cases of mandibular and 24% cases of mid-face fractures. Among mid-face fractures Zygoma fractures constituted about 35.5% cases. Male to female ratio was found to be 3.5:1. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that RTAs remain the biggest etiological factor of maxillofacial fractures in (Western Uttar Pradesh India.

  2. Identification of different lineages of measles virus strains circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India

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    Shakya Akhalesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic analysis of measles viruses associated with recent cases and outbreaks has proven to bridge information gaps in routine outbreak investigations and has made a substantial contribution to measles control efforts by helping to identify the transmission pathways of the virus. Materials and methods The present study describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Uttar Pradesh, India isolated between January 2008 and January 2011. In the study, 526 suspected measles cases from 15 outbreaks were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and tested for the presence of measles specific IgM; throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and RT-PCR. Genotyping of circulating measles viruses in Uttar Pradesh was performed by sequencing a 450-bp region encompassing the nucleoprotein hypervariable region and phylogenetic analysis. Results and conclusion Based on serological results, all the outbreaks were confirmed as measles. Thirty eight strains were obtained. Genetic analysis of circulating measles strains (n = 38 in Uttar Pradesh from 235 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases from 526 suspected measles cases between 2008 and 2011 showed that all viruses responsible for outbreaks were within clade D and all were genotype D8. Analysis of this region showed that it is highly divergent (up to 3.4% divergence in the nucleotide sequence and 4.1% divergence in the amino acid sequence between most distant strains. Considerable genetic heterogeneity was observed in the MV genotype D8 viruses in North India and underscores the need for continued surveillance and in particular increases in vaccination levels to decrease morbidity and mortality attributable to measles.

  3. Socioeconomic and geographical disparities in under-five and neonatal mortality in Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Dettrick, Zoe; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    As a part of the Millennium Development Goals, India seeks to substantially reduce its burden of childhood mortality. The success or failure of this goal may depend on outcomes within India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh. This study examines the level of disparities in under-five and neonatal mortality across a range of equity markers within the state. Estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were computed using five datasets, from three available sources: sample registration system, summary birth histories in surveys, and complete birth histories. Disparities were evaluated via comparisons of mortality rates by rural-urban location, ethnicity, wealth, and districts. While Uttar Pradesh has experienced declines in both rates of under-five (162-108 per 1,000 live births) and neonatal (76-49 per 1,000 live births) mortality, the rate of decline has been slow (averaging 2 % per annum). Mortality trends in rural and urban areas are showing signs of convergence, largely due to the much slower rate of change in urban areas. While the gap between rich and poor households has decreased in both urban and rural areas, trends suggest that differences in mortality will remain. Caste-related disparities remain high and show no signs of diminishing. Of concern are also the signs of stagnation in mortality amongst groups with greater ability to access services, such as the urban middle class. Notwithstanding the slow but steady reduction of absolute levels of childhood mortality within Uttar Pradesh, the distribution of the mortality by sub-state populations remains unequal. Future progress may require significant investment in quality of care provided to all sections of the community.

  4. New mosquito records of an area known for Japanese encephalitis hyperendemicity, Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Kanojia, P C; Geevarghese, G

    2005-03-01

    During long-term ecological studies carried out between 1990 and 2000, a total of 67 mosquito species were collected from Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India, of which 43 were documented for the 1st time. The genus Aedes was represented by 15 species, Anopheles by 15, Culex by 24, Mansonia by 3, and Mimomyia, Ochlerotatus, and Verrallina by 2 each. The genera Aedeomyia, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, and Uranotaenia were represented by single species. The impact of ecological changes on mosquito fauna in Gorakhpur District is discussed. The role of culicine mosquitoes in disease transmission in the area is highlighted.

  5. Understanding health information needs and gaps in the health care system in Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Kapadia-Kundu, Nandita; Sullivan, Tara M; Safi, Basil; Trivedi, Geetali; Velu, Sanjanthi

    2012-01-01

    Health information and the channels that facilitate the flow and exchange of this information to and among health care providers are key elements of a strong health system that offers high-quality services,yet few studies have examined how health care workers define, obtain, and apply information in the course of their daily work. To better understand health information needs and barriers across all of levels of the health care system, the authors conducted a needs assessment in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Data collection consisted of 46 key informant interviews and 9 focus group discussions. Results of the needs assessment pointed to the following themes: (a) perceptions or definitions of health information related to daily tasks performed at different levels of the health system; (b) information flow in the public health structure; (c) need for practical information; and (d) criteria for usability of information. This needs assessment found that health information needs vary across the health system in Uttar Pradesh. Information needs are dynamic and encompass programmatic and service delivery information. Providing actionable information across all levels is a key means to strengthen the health system and improve the quality of services. An adequate assessment of health information needs, including opportunities, barriers, and gaps, is a prerequisite to designing effective communication of actionable information.

  6. A Meta-Analysis: Colostrum Feeding Practices in Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Manish Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the natural first food for babies. It continues to provide up to half or more of the child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one third during the second year of life. Breastfeeding is the safest, least allergic and best infant feeding method. It has nutritional, immunological, behavioral and economic benefits and provides desirable mother infant bonding.Objective: To do the meta- analysis of Colostrum feeding practices of baseline study of 2004 with other studies conducted after 2004 in Uttar Pradesh.Material & Methods: The Baseline study on Colostrum feeding practices in Uttar Pradesh was done in 2004. The meta-analysis was done taking seven other studies following this one taking same variable.Results: In baseline study of 2004, the colostrum given was found to be 22.22%.Conclusion: Deprivation from colostrum feeding and suboptimal breast feeding practices are significant risk factors for under-nutrition among under-fives. There is need for promotion and protection of optimal breast feeding practices for improving nutritional status of children.

  7. Growth and Financing of Elementary Education in Uttar Pradesh:A Province in India

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    P. Geetha Rani

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article attempts to study financing patterns of elementary education in Uttar Pradesh. A review of educational development in the state reveals that the goal of universalizing elementary education in a resource-poor state seems to be elusive in the near future. Neither the financing pattern of education per se nor elementary education in particular is conducive to achieving the target of universal elementary education. The magnitude of out-of-school children (leaving or dropped-out children vis-à-vis the resources allocated toward elementary education provides a gloomy picture in the state. Financing the additional resources required to universalize elementary education in the state would require significant reallocations in overall expenditure with federal assistance, since the fiscal situation in Uttar Pradesh is highly imbalanced. The state and central government should bear the entire responsibility of funding and ensure the twin principles of equity and efficiency in the public education system in the state. This requires an indomitable political commitment in terms of reorientation of spending priorities and improving the efficiency of resource use in the state. This study reaffirms that the goal of universal elementary education could become a reality only if there is a joint commitment between the federal and state polities.

  8. NEWBORN CARE PRACTICES AMONG SLUM DWELLERS IN ALIGARH CITY, UTTAR PRADESH

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    Mohd. Haroon Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The newborn health challenge faced by India is more formidable than that experienced by any other country in the world. The current neonatal mortality rate (NMR of 44 per 1,000 live births, accounts for nearly two-thirds of all infant mortality and translates into at least two newborn deaths every minute. Methods: The present community based study was conducted in the field practice area of the Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC, Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Purposive sampling i.e. nonrandom sampling to include subjects that serve the specific purpose was used. Two hundred pregnant women were chosen for the study. The study was carried out from one year. Data were analyzed with Epi Info version 3.5.1. Percentages, and Chi Square Test used. Objective was to study the knowledge and practices related to newborn care among slum dwellers in Aligarh, UP. Results: Majority of pregnant women (75% had more than one live issue. Majority of pregnant women 91.5% delivered at home by untrained dais. Unhygienic delivery practices were common. There were low level of breastfeeding practices, practices to prevent hypothermia and knowledge of danger signs in newborns requiring medical consultation, among pregnant women in periurban area of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh India. Conclusion: It was concluded that there was a poor newborn care practices among slum dwellers in Aligarh.

  9. Family Engagement in Education in Uttar Pradesh, India: Factors Associated with the Involvement of Families in Their Children's Education

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    Sanchez, Amanda Joy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which families within the Shravasti district of Uttar Pradesh, India are engaged in their children's education, as well as to examine the child, family, school, and community factors that are potentially associated with families' involvement in their children's education. Additionally,…

  10. Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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    Bussmann Rainer W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.

  11. Contextual influences on reproductive health service use in Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong

    2002-12-01

    This study examines the determinants of the use of four types of reproductive health-care services in Uttar Pradesh, India: contraceptive services, antenatal care, delivery in a medical institution, and services dealing with reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections. The analysis uses a multilevel modeling strategy to assess the presence of household- and community-level variation in service use. The influence of community-level characteristics and reproductive health-care service attributes on service use is examined. The results highlight strong community-level influences on service use, although the type of community effect varies by service type. The role of some individual and household factors in determining a person's use of services is mediated by the characteristics of the community in which the individual lives. The results demonstrate the need to look beyond individual factors when examining health-care-seeking behavior, and illustrate that there is no singular "community" effect on service use.

  12. A CORRELATION AND REGRESSION STUDY ON THE GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN ALIGARH CITY, UTTAR PRADESH

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    Ummatul Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground water is the vital source of sustenance and survival of every living organism. The present study aimed at a statistical regression analysis of Groundwater at 16 locations of Aligarh city, Uttar Pradesh. A correlation study has been carried out amongst all possible pairs of 15 physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total acidity, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total solid, total dissolved solid, total suspended solid and chloride to assess groundwater quality. The correlation analysis provides an excellent tool for the prediction of parameter values within reasonable degree of accuracy. The existence of strong correlation between Total Hardness & Magnesium and Total Dissolved Solid & Total Solid are ascertained. The analysis reveals that the groundwater of the area needs some treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from the perils of contamination.

  13. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

    2012-08-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  14. Successful polio eradication in Uttar Pradesh, India: the pivotal contribution of the Social Mobilization Network, an NGO/UNICEF collaboration

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    Coates, Ellen A; Waisbord, Silvio; Awale, Jitendra; Solomon, Roma; Dey, Rina

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Uttar Pradesh, India, in response to low routine immunization coverage and ongoing poliovirus circulation, a network of U.S.-based CORE Group member and local nongovernmental organizations partnered with UNICEF, creating the Social Mobilization Network (SMNet). The SMNet's goal was to improve access and reduce family and community resistance to vaccination. The partners trained thousands of mobilizers from high-risk communities to visit households, promote government-run child imm...

  15. Impact evaluation of the Urban Health Initiative in urban Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Achyut, Pranita; Benson, Aimee; Calhoun, Lisa M.; Corroon, Meghan; Guilkey, David K.; Kebede, Essete; Lance, Peter M.; Mishra, Anurag; Nanda, Priya; O'Hara, Rick; Sengupta, Ranajit; Speizer, Ilene S.; Stewart, John F.; Winston, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The Urban Health Initiative (UHI) was initiated in 2009 with the goal of increasing family planning (FP) use among the poor in urban areas of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Measurement, Learning & Evaluation project (MLE) was tasked with rigorous impact evaluation of the UHI. This paper presents the impact evaluation findings of the UHI program. Study design The MLE design includes a longitudinal sample of women and health facilities with baseline (2010) and endline (2014) data collection in six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. At baseline, samples representative of women in each city were selected with oversampling of the poor. Eighty-four percent of women interviewed at baseline were reinterviewed 4 years later at endline. The longitudinal data support a within/fixed-effects approach to identification of program impact on changes in modern FP use. Results Impact evaluation results show significant effects of exposure to both demand and supply side program activities. In particular, women exposed to brochures (marginal effect: 6.96, p < .001), billboards/posters/wall hangings (marginal effect: 2.09, p < .05), and FP on the television (marginal effect: 2.46, p < .001) were significantly more likely to be using a modern method at endline. In addition, we found borderline significance for being exposed to a community health worker (marginal effect: 1.66, p < .10) and living close to an improved public and private supply environment where UHI undertook activities (marginal effects and p values: 2.48, p < .05 and 1.56, p < .10, respectively). Conclusions UHI program activities were designed to complement the Government of India's strategies aimed at ensuring access to and provision of FP to urban poor populations. The effective demand- and supply-side strategies of the UHI program are therefore likely to be sustainable and scalable to other urban areas in India. Implications statement Findings from this study are important for designing sustainable and

  16. Statistical Analysis of Ground Water Quality in Rural Areas of Uttar Pradesh City, India

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    Smita Sood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of groundwater for the existence of human society cannot be exaggerated. Groundwater is the major source of water in both rural and urban India.Duringlast decade, it was observed that ground water get polluted drastically and hence, resulted into many water borne diseases which is a cause of many health hazards. In this paper an attempt has been made to test groundwater quality of different villages of Uttar Pradesh, India on the basis of thirteen parameters like pH, total dissolved solids, conductivity, total hardness, biological oxygen demand etc. The results obtained were compared with the BIS (IS 10500:1991 Permissible Standards for drinking water. Normal Distribution analysis was applied to describe various characteristics of the samples collected and Correlation Analysiswas done on the samples which measured the strength of association between twowaterparameters.On the basis of results obtained from analytical and statistical analysis, it was revealed that all the water sources chosen for study are not suitable for the utilization of water.

  17. Anthropometric Somatotype of Kshatriya and Kurmi of Uttar Pradesh: population and gender differences

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    Shivani Chandel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the population and gender related variations of the somatotype, employing Heath and Carter's method, in Kshatriya and Kurmi population residing in a rural region of Uttar Pradesh. The sample included 1008 adult Kshatriya (252 males and 252 females and Kurmi (252 males and 252 females, belonging to the age group of 18-40 yrs. The population and gender differences were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. The results suggest that average body physique of Kshatriya males is Ectomorphic-Mesomorph (2.2 - 4.6 - 3.9 while that of Kshatriya females is Balanced mesomorph (2.5- 4.7- 2.1. Kurmi males are also Ectomorphic- Mesomorph (2.3 - 6.5 - 3.4 and Kurmi females are Balanced mesomorph (2.3 - 4.7 - 2.9. It means that, in general, both Kshatriya and Kurmi males have linear and muscular body physique whereas females are muscular in their body physique. The overall high mesomorphic ratings in both the populations can be attributed to the occupation of agriculture and factory work involving high physical activity.

  18. Couple Interaction and Predicting Vulnerability to Domestic Violence in Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Singh, Brijesh P; Singh, Kaushalendra K; Singh, Neha

    2014-08-01

    Domestic violence, when conducted against women, is a type of gender-based violence that negatively impacts a woman's physical and psychological health, causing insecurity, lack of safety, and loss of health and self-worth. Domestic violence is an important consideration for sexual, reproductive, and child health, as it can affect contraceptive behaviors of couples as well as levels of infant mortality. In the present analysis, an attempt has been made to study the relationship between women's experience of domestic violence and couple interaction after controlling for certain socioeconomic and demographic variables using logistic regression. This study looks at data from the National Family Health Survey-III conducted from 2005 to 2006 in Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. Findings reveal that 43% of women suffer from domestic violence in the society as a whole; however, if a couple makes joint decisions in household matters, the prevalence of domestic violence is observed to be 24% less. Education and occupation of women, standard of living, media exposure, and partner's alcoholic behaviors are also found to be possible predictors of domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Spatial variation in level of agricultural development in Bulandshahr district of western Uttar Pradesh (India

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    Gomatee Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an attempt has been made to find out the spatial variation in the adaptation of improved agricultural practices to ascertain the level of agricultural development in Bulandshahr district of western Uttar Pradesh. The spatial variation of agricultural development is determined with the help of nine variables viz. net sown area, irrigated area, cropping intensity, crops productivity, area under HYV, agricultural labourers, role of banks and agricultural machinery. Beside this, the development of blocks are taken with their respective categories viz. high, medium and low on the basis of scores (like mean SD of these variables. These analyses have been carried out by transforming and combining the data related to nine variables, using ‘Z’ score to get the composite score. On the basis of Composite Score, developments of blocks have been again categorized in to three categories i.e. high, medium and low. Results of the aforesaid analysis shows that the modern technological inputs have reciprocal relationship with agricultural development in the study area.

  20. Evaluation of Primary Immunization Coverage in an Industrial City of Uttar Pradesh

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    Chaturvedi R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is gradual albeit a slow progress in the performance of routine immunization in India over last few years. Six states with high population contribute to 80% of 8.1 million unimmunized children in the country out of which 52% of the total unimmunized reside in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar alone. Objectives :1. To study the primary immunization coverage of children aged 12-23 months in the slums of Kanpur Nagar 2.To calculate drop out rate for various vaccines. Methodology: 30 cluster sampling technique. Results: 52.38% study subjects were fully immunized, 29.52% were partially immunized and 18.10% were not immunized at all. Coverage was highest for BCG vaccine (81.90% and lowest for Hepatitis B3(41.90%. Drop out rate for DPT / OPV (I-III, DPTI – Measles and BCG – Measles was 25.88%, 34.70% and 35.46% respectively. Conclusion: Sustained efforts are required to achieve the target of universal coverage of immunization in children.

  1. How the local community views wildlife conservation: a case of Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Mohd. Shahnawaz Khan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the local community’s attitudes towards wildlife conservation in Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary (HWS, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the largest sanctuary in the state and under the highest anthropogenic pressure. People engage in fishing, livestock grazing, fuel wood/fodder collection, cash cropping of cucurbits in the sandy river banks for sustenance and commercial extraction of sand and grass for construction. These activities threaten the survival of threatened species like Swamp Deer Rucervus duvaucelii, Gangetic Dolphin Platanista gangetica, Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata and Gharial Gavialis gangeticus. Interviews were conducted with heads of randomly selected families and ‘yes/no’ opinions were taken. Questions included direct statements on biodiversity status and relationship with the Sanctuary resources. Data was classified in percent values and it was found that there is no difference in people’s perception on increase, decrease or stability of biodiversity. Further, a majority of people find life around a protected area disadvantageous, or with dismal advantages. Building on this premise the study suggests that a better share in development and alternative livelihood options for the local community of HWS can decrease their dependence on natural resources and improve conservation as a favourable option in the present perceptions of the people.

  2. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Ashish Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to find the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur city, Uttar Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1343 school children, residing in the city since childhood and consuming the groundwater, in the age group of 7-17 years was selected from various schools. Schools were selected from all four directions of the city. Children were categorized in five age groups and were examined for dental fluorosis. Dean′s criteria for assessment of dental fluorosis were used, and observations were recorded on a study specific performa. Results: Among the 1343 children examined, 243 (18% were found to be having dental fluorosis, among which number of males (131 was more than females (112. Among the different grades of fluorosis observed, mild dental fluorosis was observed in most of the cases (158. It was observed that the southern part of the city had a maximum number of cases of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: It was evident from the results that the city had a good number of cases of dental fluorosis and that the groundwater in certain areas had more than normal quantity of fluoride. Since this study was the first attempt in this area, more studies can be undertaken to substantiate our findings.

  3. THE STUDY OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING IN UTTAR PRADESH

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    Anurag Srivastava

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH QUESTION What are the socio-demographic profile trends of Organophosphorus poisoning in Uttar Pradesh. DESIGN Prospective study; Interview technique. SAMPLE SIZE A total of 41 cases of OP poisoning were studied. All the information was recorded on a specially prepared Performa which included age, sex, duration of poisoning, amount of poisoning and way of poisoning. RESULT In this study 85% patients belonged to 15 years’ to 30 years’ age group, most of them 60.9% were female patients; 65.9% patients belonged to rural areas and 34.1% patients belonged to urban areas; 51.2% patients were admitted to our side with complaint of organophosphate poisoning within 12 hours; 41.5% patients were unable to tell the amount of poisoning they exposed; 24.4% had just exposed or taken less than 5 grams of poison and 34.1% had taken the poisoning more than 5 grams. Most of the patients, 78.6% had taken organophosphate for suicidal purpose and 21.4% patients were exposed to poison accidentally. Ratio of suicidal to accidental poisoning in rural areas is 2.4:1 and in urban areas is 3.7:1.

  4. The effect of family sex composition on fertility desires and family planning behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Calhoun, Lisa M; Nanda, Priya; Speizer, Ilene S; Jain, Meenakshi

    2013-09-11

    A cultural preference for sons has been well documented in India, resulting in skewed sex ratios, especially exhibited in northwest India. Previous research has shown that family sex composition is associated with family planning (FP) use and couples' desire for more children. This study examines family sex composition and fertility and FP behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India; little work has examined these issues in urban settings where family sizes are smaller and FP use is common. Data for this analysis comes from a 2010 representative survey of married, non-pregnant fecund women aged 15-49 from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Multivariate analyses are used to examine the association between family sex composition and fertility desires and FP use. The multivariate results indicate that family sex composition is associated with fertility desires and FP use. Women without living children and without at least one child of each sex are significantly less likely to want no more children and women with both sons and daughters but more sons are significantly more likely to want no more children as compared to women that have both sons and daughters but more daughters. Women with no living children and women with daughters but no sons are less likely to be modern FP users than nonusers whereas women with both sons and daughters but more sons are more likely to be modern FP users than nonusers as compared to women with both sons and daughters but more daughters. These findings confirm that family sex composition affects fertility behavior and also reveals that preference for sons persists in urban Uttar Pradesh. These results underscore the importance of programs and policies that work to enhance the value of girl children.

  5. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

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    Jubin Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.

  6. Seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in dairy animals with reproductive disorders in Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Sahzad; Reddy, N C Prakash; Shende, A N

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory and reproductive disorders in dairy animals due to various etiological agents have led to significant economic losses to dairy industry. These losses are due to abortions, metritis, retention of placenta, repeat breeding, death of animals, loss of production and trade restrictions etc. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, BHV-1) in dairy animals of western parts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Anti BHV-1 antibodies were measured using a commercial ELISA kit (SYANOVIR® IBR-Ab). Blood samples were collected from a total of 134 animals of different age, gender from 8 districts. Overall individual seroprevalence was 32.84%. The study revealed that BHV-1 is comparatively more widespread in cattle (46.51%) than buffalo (35.28%). Comparison of different sex groups of animals revealed that the higher numbers of infected animals were identified in male (48.00%) than female (29.35%). The seropositivity of IBR increased with age of animals. The highest prevalence of IBR (66.67%) was observed in animals aged more than 8 years. As vaccination against IBR is not practiced in the region and higher percent positivity (>20%) in all age group of animals indicated the natural circulation of BHV-1 virus in the population. Because of less awareness on the vaccination of animals against this virus, the disease may spread rapidly. The results of present study also indicate that strict monitoring and surveillance of IBR is need of today to protect the animals from infection and further spread.

  7. Groundwater quality in Ghaziabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India: Multivariate and health risk assessment.

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    Chabukdhara, Mayuri; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Kotecha, Yatharth; Nema, Arvind K

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the quality of groundwater and potential health risk due to ingestion of heavy metals in the peri-urban and urban-industrial clusters of Ghaziabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Furthermore, the study aimed to evaluate heavy metals sources and their pollution level using multivariate analysis and fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), respectively. Multivariate analysis using principle component analysis (PCA) showed mixed origin for Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe, and Ni, natural source for Cu and Mn and anthropogenic source for Cr. Among all the metals, Pb, Cd, Fe and Ni were above the safe limits of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO) except Ni. Health risk in terms of hazard quotient (HQ) showed that the HQ values for children were higher than the safe level (HQ = 1) for Pb (2.4) and Cd (2.1) in pre-monsoon while in post-monsoon the value exceeded only for Pb (HQ = 1.23). The health risks of heavy metals for the adults were well within safe limits. The finding of this study indicates potential health risks to the children due to chronic exposure to contaminated groundwater in the region. Based on FCA, groundwater pollution could be categorized as quite high in the peri-urban region, and absolutely high in the urban region of Ghaziabad district. This study showed that different approaches are required for the integrated assessment of the groundwater pollution, and provides a scientific basis for the strategic future planning and comprehensive management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender-Based Violence in Rural Uttar Pradesh, India: Prevalence and Association With Reproductive Health Behaviors.

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    Ahmad, Jaleel; Khan, M E; Mozumdar, Arupendra; Varma, Deepthi S

    2015-05-06

    This study explores the prevalence of different forms of domestic violence and their impact on women's reproductive health behavior in rural Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. Data were collected as a part of a large household survey carried out in 2009-2010. A multistage stratified systematic sampling design was used. A total of 4,223 married women aged 15 to 49 years and 2,274 husbands of these women were interviewed. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. More than one third of married women in rural UP had experienced one or more forms of violence, such as verbal abuse, physical manhandling, and sexual abuse by their spouse. Nearly 47% of the women had experienced some form of violence during their last pregnancy. Significant associations were found between violence and incorrect reproductive health behaviors, pregnancy complications, poor birth preparedness, poor likelihood of institutional delivery, limited postnatal care, and limited spousal communication for family planning. After controlling for socio-economic variables in multivariate analysis, only pregnancy complications (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.40, 1.85]) and lack of delivery preparedness (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = [0.68, 0.93]) were found to be significantly associated with violence. Husband's attitude and reporting of violence by their wives in different situations were not significantly associated. This study provides evidence of the association of violence on the reproductive health behavior of married women in rural India. The results argue for frontline health workers to identify and counsel pregnant women experiencing violence during antenatal check-up to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Marital violence and women's reproductive health care in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Morrison, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Although the impact of marital violence on women's reproductive health is recognized globally, there is little research on how women's experience of and justification of marital violence in developing country settings is linked to sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptom reporting, and seeking care for the symptoms. This study analyzes data on 9,639 currently married women from India's 2006-2007 National Family Health Survey-3 from the Central/Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The likelihood of currently married women's reporting STIs or symptoms, and the likelihood of seeking care for these, are analyzed using multivariate logistic regression techniques. Currently married women's experience of physical, sexual, and emotional marital violence in the last 12 months was significantly associated with greater likelihood of reporting a STI or symptom (odds ratio [OR], 1.364 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.171-1.588] for physical violence; OR, 1.649 [95% CI, 1.323-2.054] for sexual violence; OR, 1.273 [95% CI, 1.117-1.450] for emotional violence). Experience of physical violence (OR, 0.728; 95% CI, 0.533-0.994) and acceptance of any justification for physical violence (OR, 0.590; 95% CI, 0.458-0.760) were significantly associated with decreased chance of seeking care, controlling for other factors. This study suggests that experiencing marital violence may have a negative impact on multiple aspects of women's reproductive health, including increased self-report of STI symptoms. Moreover, marital physical violence and accepting justification for such violence are associated with decreased chance of seeking care. Thus, policies and programs to promote reproductive health should incorporate decreasing gender-based violence, and overcoming underlying societal gender inequality. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Men’s attitudes on gender equality and their contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Men play crucial role in contraceptive decision-making, particularly in highly gender-stratified populations. Past research examined men’s attitudes toward fertility and contraception and the association with actual contraceptive practices. More research is needed on whether men’s attitudes on gender equality are associated with contraceptive behaviors; this is the objective of this study. Methods This study uses baseline data of the Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Health Initiative in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state. Outcomes are current use of contraception and contraceptive method choice. Key independent variables are three gender measures: men’s attitudes toward gender equality, gender sensitive decision making, and restrictions on wife’s mobility. Multivariate analyses are used to identify the association between the gender measures and contraceptive use. Results Most men have high or moderate levels of gender sensitive decision-making, have low to moderate levels of restrictions on wife’s mobility, and have moderate to high levels of gender equitable attitudes in all four cities. Gender sensitive decision making and equitable attitudes show significant positive association and restrictions on wife’s mobility showed significant negative relationship with current contraceptive use. Conclusion The study demonstrates that contraceptive programs need to engage men and address gender equitable attitudes; this can be done through peer outreach (interpersonal communication) or via mass media. Engaging men to be more gender equal may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in contexts where men play a crucial role in household decision-making. PMID:24894376

  11. Men's attitudes on gender equality and their contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anurag; Nanda, Priya; Speizer, Ilene S; Calhoun, Lisa M; Zimmerman, Allison; Bhardwaj, Rochak

    2014-06-04

    Men play crucial role in contraceptive decision-making, particularly in highly gender-stratified populations. Past research examined men's attitudes toward fertility and contraception and the association with actual contraceptive practices. More research is needed on whether men's attitudes on gender equality are associated with contraceptive behaviors; this is the objective of this study. This study uses baseline data of the Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Health Initiative in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state. Outcomes are current use of contraception and contraceptive method choice. Key independent variables are three gender measures: men's attitudes toward gender equality, gender sensitive decision making, and restrictions on wife's mobility. Multivariate analyses are used to identify the association between the gender measures and contraceptive use. Most men have high or moderate levels of gender sensitive decision-making, have low to moderate levels of restrictions on wife's mobility, and have moderate to high levels of gender equitable attitudes in all four cities. Gender sensitive decision making and equitable attitudes show significant positive association and restrictions on wife's mobility showed significant negative relationship with current contraceptive use. The study demonstrates that contraceptive programs need to engage men and address gender equitable attitudes; this can be done through peer outreach (interpersonal communication) or via mass media. Engaging men to be more gender equal may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in contexts where men play a crucial role in household decision-making.

  12. Molecular characterization of dengue viruses circulating during 2009-2012 in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gitika; Jain, Amita; Prakash, Om; Prakash, Shantanu; Kumar, Rashmi; Garg, Ravindra K; Pandey, Nidhi; Singh, Mastan

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world; in India it has taken endemic proportion implicating all the four known dengue virus serotypes. Dengue infection is caused by a small, single stranded RNA virus comprising of four antigenically distinct virus serotypes designated as dengue virus type 1-4 (DENV-1-4). On the basis of genomic variations, each serotype is classified further into its genotypes. Epidemiological studies have shown that the emergence of a newer dengue serotype/genotype after an interval always leads to a major outbreak; therefore a continuous epidemiological surveillance is needed to monitor the epidemiology of dengue viruses. The present study was planned to identify the serotype/genotype of dengue viruses circulating in Uttar Pradesh, India. Of 433 dengue suspected patients, tested by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), 136 were positive for dengue virus RNA. Of these, DENV-1, 2, and 3 were detected in 26 (19.1%), 77 (56.6%), and 33 (24.3%) patients, respectively. Of 136 RT-PCR positive samples, 24 samples were sequenced to identify their genotypes. For sequencing C-prM gene junction of dengue virus genome was chosen. Phylogenetic analysis of sequenced dengue strains revealed that all the 12 DENV-1 strains were genotype III, all the eight DENV-2 strains were genotype IV (Cosmopolitan genotype) and among four DENV-3 strains, three were genotype III and one was genotype I. In conclusion, the co-circulation of multiple dengue virus serotypes and genotypes is alarming in U.P., India.

  13. Uterotonic use during childbirth in Uttar Pradesh: accounts from community members and health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzabagi, Ellie; Deepak, Nitya Nand; Koski, Alissa; Tripathi, Vandana

    2013-08-01

    this qualitative study aimed to document provider and community practices regarding uterotonic use during labour and delivery in Uttar Pradesh, India, as well as the knowledge, attitudes, and values that underlie such use. a total of 140 in-depth interviews were conducted between May and July 2011 in Agra and Gorakhpur districts, with clinicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law with at least one grandchild, traditional birth attendants, unlicensed village doctors, and pharmacist assistants at chemical shops. interviews reveal that injectable uterotonic use for the purposes of labour augmentation is widespread in both clinical and community settings. However, use of uterotonics for postpartum haemorrhage prevention and treatment appears to be relatively limited and was rarely discussed by respondents. Key beliefs underlying uterotonic use were identified, including high valuation of labour pain, rapid delivery, and biomedical intervention, particularly administration of medicines. Other factors promoting the use of uterotonics for labour augmentation included lack of knowledge about adverse effects, provider beliefs that prolonged labour poses risks to the baby, community perceptions that modern women are less able to have spontaneous delivery, and financial incentives for uterotonic administration. major challenges to overcome in minimising uterotonic misuse include entrenched use for labour augmentation in both institutional and community deliveries, perceptions of injectable uterotonics as curative agents symbolic of biomedical care, and the widespread availability of these drugs. The findings demonstrate a need for programmes that reduce inappropriate use of uterotonics, promote appropriate use for postpartum haemorrhage prevention and treatment, and ensure adherence to evidence-based guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K

    2010-10-01

    Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Prevalence and Genetic Analysis of Bitter Taste Perception for Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Among Some Muslim Populations of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ruqaiya; Shah, Ahsana; Afzal, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    The ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter organic compound, described as a bimodal autosomal trait is widely used to know the heritable trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. The present study was carried out to analyze the prevalence of PTC taste sensitivity and to determine the gene frequencies among some Muslim populations of Uttar Pradesh, India. This study has some physiological relevance to highlight the adaptability of endogamous groups to behavioral traits in the same place. Unrelated, healthy individuals of both sexes (Male-403, Female-418) belonging to different populations of Uttar Pradesh, India were randomly selected with the age range of 16-45 years observed for phenylthiocarbamide to taste sensitivity. PTC tasting ability was measured by using a serial dilution method of Harris and Kalmus. The phenotypic frequency of tasters was higher as compared to non-tasters, and the same is statistically significant (χ(2)= 11.92, df = 5, P = 0.036). There were more females among tasters (67.94%) than males (64.76%). This observation was statistically significant (χ(2) = 14.79, df = 5, P = 0.011). The frequency of PTC tasters is greater than non-tasters and the females have lower non-taster pheno-types as compared to males. This type of study will provide background information about genetic structure of population and serves as useful interaction of genetics, food preferences and dietary patterns.

  16. Prevalence and Genetic Analysis of Bitter Taste Perception for Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC Among Some Muslim Populations of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaiya Hussain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC, a bitter organic compound, described as a bimodal autosomal trait is widely used to know the heritable trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. The present study was carried out to analyze the prevalence of PTC taste sensitivity and to determine the gene frequencies among some Muslim populations of Uttar Pradesh, India. This study has some physiological relevance to highlight the adaptability of endogamous groups to behavioral traits in the same place.Unrelated, healthy individuals of both sexes (Male-403, Female-418 belonging to different populations of Uttar Pradesh, India were randomly selected with the age range of 16-45 years observed for phenylthiocarbamide to taste sensitivity. PTC tasting ability was measured by using a serial dilution method of Harris and Kalmus.The phenotypic frequency of tasters was higher as compared to non-tasters, and the same is statistically significant (χ(2= 11.92, df = 5, P = 0.036. There were more females among tasters (67.94% than males (64.76%. This observation was statistically significant (χ(2 = 14.79, df = 5, P = 0.011.The frequency of PTC tasters is greater than non-tasters and the females have lower non-taster pheno-types as compared to males. This type of study will provide background information about genetic structure of population and serves as useful interaction of genetics, food preferences and dietary patterns.

  17. Groundwater flow modelling of Yamuna–Krishni interstream, a part of central Ganga Plain Uttar Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Izrar Ahmed; Rashid Umar

    2009-10-01

    Groundwater is a major source of water for agricultural and domestic requirements in western Uttar Pradesh.Due to increasing agricultural requirements the abstraction of groundwater has increased manifold in the last two-to-three decades.The quaternary alluvium hosts the aquifer in the region.The study area forms a part of Yamuna –Krishni inter fluve.Although the area hosts potential aquifers these have been adversely affected by poor management.For effective ground water management of a basin it is essential that a careful water balance study should be carried out. Keeping this in mind groundwater flow modelling was attempted to simulate the behaviour of the flow system and evaluate the water balance.The groundwater flow modelling was carried out.The horizontal flows,seepage losses from unlined canals,recharge from rainfall and irrigation return flows were applied using different boundary packages available in Visual MODFLOW,Pro 4.1. The river aquifer interaction was simulated using the river boundary package.Hydraulic conductivity values were applied to specific zones and these ranged from 9.8 to 26.6 m/day.Recharge due to rainfall and irrigation returns were assigned to respective zones.Pumping rates of 500 m3/day, 1000 m3/day, 1500 m3/day, 2000 m3/day and 2500 m3/day were applied to appropriate areas of the model to simulate areas of stress.The zone budget shows a water balance de ficit for the period June 2006 to June 2007. The total recharge to the study area is 160.21 million m3 (Mcum). The groundwater draft through pumping is of the order of 233.56 Mcum, thus leaving a deficit balance of −73.35 Mcum. The sensitivity of the model to input parameters was tested by varying the parameters of interest over a range of values, monitoring the response of the model and determining the root mean square error of the simulated groundwater heads to the measured heads. These analyses showed that the model is most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and

  18. Reaching the goal of Universal Salt Iodization (USI): experience of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C; Dwivedi, Shraddha; Singh, Richa; Mukherjee, Ashish

    2007-12-01

    In 2002, the percentage of households consuming iodized salt in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in India dropped to as low as 6%. This implied that 3.5 million newborns in this non-salt producing state, with 180 million population, were at risk of brain damage unless universal accessibility and consumption of iodized salt was ensured and sustained. Urgent measures were introduced in 3 phases in the statefor accelerating procurement, distribution and consumption of iodized salt. In the first phase, a study on mapping of salt wholesalers and understanding the salt trading system--including understanding the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of salt traders was undertaken to accelerate efforts to influence availability, marketing, and accessibility of iodized salt. The study revealed that a total of only 344 primary wholesalers supplied salt to the entire state. Of these, 126 wholesalers marketed 80% of salt and were located in only 15 of the total 70 districts of the state. This finding became a very strong basis for the program in phase II, which focused on the critical group of wholesalers and set up a system to frequently interact with them. The salt wholesalers were equipped with Salt Testing Kits (STKs) to ensure adequate iodine content in the salt procured by them and adherence to the legal ban on the sale of non-iodized salt for human consumption. Simultaneously, a "child-to-community" approach was launched through involvement of middle and high school children to create demand and monitor consumption of iodized salt at the household level. Over 217,000 salt samples (about 26,000 samples per quarter) were brought in by school children and tested for iodine content. The school activities resulted not only in influencing consumption of iodized salt, but also galvanized the entire chain linking consumers, retailers, and wholesalers. In less than 2 years, salt procured with nil iodine decreased from 38% to 15.3%, and salt marketed with adequate iodine level

  19. Follow-up examinations: are multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Uttar Pradesh, India, on track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, U C; Nagaraja, S B; Tripathy, J P; Sahu, S K; Parmar, M; Rade, K; Bhatnagar, S; Ranjan, A; Sachdeva, K S

    2015-03-21

    Contexte : Tous les patients atteints de tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MDR) qui avaient achevé 6 mois de traitement dans le cadre du Programme National Révisé de Lutte contre la Tuberculose (RNTCP) dans l’Uttar Pradesh, le plus grand état dans le nord de l’Inde.Objectif : Déterminer la proportion de patients TB-MDR bénéficiant d’examens de suivi régulier et la vision des prestataires et des patients sur ces services de suivi.Méthodes : Une étude rétrospective de cohorte a été réalisée grâce à la revue des dossiers de 64 patients TB-MDR éligibles enregistrés entre avril et juin 2013 dans 11 districts de l’état. Les patients et le personnel du RNTCP des districts sélectionnés ont également été interviewés grâce à un questionnaire semi-structuré.Résultats : Au total, 34 (53,1%) patients ont bénéficié d’examens de culture de crachats au 3(e) mois, 43 (67,2%) au 4(e) mois, 36 (56,3%) au 5(e) mois et 37 (57,8%) au 6(e) mois. Les principaux facteurs associés à un suivi irrégulier émanant des entretiens étaient le nombre élevé de consultations, la distance à parcourir, les ruptures de stock dans les structures et le manque de connaissances des patients vis-à-vis du programme de suivi.Conclusion : La majorité des patients TB-MDR ont eu un suivi irrégulier. Les facteurs liés aux prestataires dépassent ceux liés aux patients en matière d’examens de suivi médiocres. Le RNTCP devrait se concentrer sur la décentralisation des services de suivi, assurer la logistique et le conseil centré sur le patient afin d’accroitre la régularité du suivi.

  20. De-skilling in Handloom Sector. A study of the handloom Weavers of Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanusree Shaw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of capitalist control and technological changes in the handloom industry of Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The Karl Marx and Harry Braverman’s concept of deskilling is one of the consequences of the capitalistic control and technological changes and it studied theoretically and empirically in the field area. Deskilling is a feature of the labour process theory and it is a process that gives rise to alienation of labour. The handloom industry of Varanasi is dominated by the system of monopoly capitalism where Merchant/Master weaver/Gaddidar controls over the labour process. The ‘logic’ of capitalist production requires the constant transformation of the techniques of producing. This involves increasing mechanization and automation and as a corollary, the displacement of skills. In Varanasi, such mechanization and automation has taken place. As a result the artisan becomes deskilled and loss of job from the traditional handloom industry.

  1. Chronic complications in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural area of western Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Results: There were 174 males and 132 females. Majority were less than 60 years of age. 20.26% of patients had neuropathy 15.36%, retinopathy and 5.56%, nephropathy. Risk factors of macro-vascular complication such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia were observed in 38.9, 55.9%, and 54.6% of patients respectively. Coronary artery disease was noticed in 9.15%. Conclusions: Present study shows that high prevalence of micro vascular complications was present at diagnosis along with cardiovascular risk factors among T2DM patient from rural area of western Uttar Pradesh, India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2292-2296

  2. Job satisfaction and Job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital in central Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job satisfaction defined as the end state of feeling, the feeling that is experienced after a task is accomplished. Job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or need of the worker. Objectives: To study the relationship between job satisfaction and job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital and to find the co-relates of job stress and job satisfaction. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study carried out for a period of 2 month among various employees working in Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, a tertiary care level hospital. A total 225 Participants 75 from each medical, paramedical and office staff were selected by purposive sampling technique. The study was conducted using pretested structured questionnaire regarding socio-demographic profile, job satisfaction and job stress. Data was analyzed using chi square test. Result: A total of 225 participants,75 from each medical, paramedical and office staff were interviewed. On doing analysis of questionnaire regarding job satisfaction and job stress it was found that majority believe that their job was well recognized and working in a good institute and were not satisfied with the management and salary and were coping well with their job stress and were having average level of satisfaction. Conclusion: The present study conclude that majority of the participants felt they are well recognized with their job, working in a good institute but not satisfied with the management and salary.

  3. Tree resources Of Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India with especial emphasis on conservation status, phenology and economic values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uttar Pradesh, one of the most populated states of India along international border of Nepal, contributes only about 3% of total forest & tree cover of the country as the major parts of the area is covered by agriculture lands and human populations. The forests are quite fragmented and facing severe anthropogenic pressure in many parts. To protect the existing biodiversity, several forest covers have been declared as National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. In the present study, Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (KWS has been selected to assess tree diversity, their phenology and economic values as the trees are the major constituent of any forest and more fascinating among all plant groups. The sanctuary consists of tropical moist deciduous type of vegetation and situated along the Indo-Nepal boarder in Bahraich district of Uttar Pradesh, India. After, thorough assessment of the area, a list of 141 tree species belonging to 101 genera and 38 families have been prepared. The family Fabaceae exhibits highest generic and species diversity with 14 genera and 23 species. The genus Ficus of Moraceae has been found the largest with 11 species. Maximum trees with about 51 species have been found to flower in post winter season (February to March in the forest. About 62 trees are used as medicinal for various purposes, 50 as ornamental & avenue trees, 37 as timber wood, 36 as edible, 16 as fire wood and 12 as fodder. Since the sanctuary area has been surrounded by several villages and facing anthropogenic pressure, the public awareness program related with biodiversity conservation and sustainable uses is highly needed to protect the forest covers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9949 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 122-133

  4. A strategic assessment of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzuba Ilana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a preventable disease, cervical cancer claims the lives of almost half a million women worldwide each year. India bears one-fifth of the global burden of the disease, with approximately 130,000 new cases a year. In an effort to assess the need and potential for improving the quality of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in Uttar Pradesh, a strategic assessment was conducted in three of the state's districts: Agra, Lucknow, and Saharanpur. Methods Using an adaptation of stage one of the World Health Organization's Strategic Approach to Improving Reproductive Health Policies and Programmes, an assessment of the quality of cervical cancer services was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of stakeholders. The assessment included a review of the available literature, observations of services, collection of hospital statistics and the conduct of qualitative research (in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to assess the perspectives of women, providers, policy makers and community members. Results There were gaps in provider knowledge and practices, potentially attributable to limited provider training and professional development opportunities. In the absence of a state policy on cervical cancer, screening of asymptomatic women was practically absent, except in the military sector. Cytology-based cancer screening tests (i.e. pap smears were often used to help diagnose women with symptoms of reproductive tract infections but not routinely screen asymptomatic women. Access to appropriate treatment of precancerous lesions was limited and often inappropriately managed by hysterectomy in many urban centers. Cancer treatment facilities were well equipped but mostly inaccessible for women in need. Finally, policy makers, community members and clients were mostly unaware about cervical cancer and its preventable nature, although with information, expressed a strong interest in having services

  5. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF ICDS FOOD FORTIFICATION IN THE STATE OF UTTAR-PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Janak Yadav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The concept of food fortification is relatively uncommon in India. Hence, sometimes due to ignorance or due to paucity of research to assess the impact of fortifying supplementary food in large feeding programmes, there is an apprehension that fortification may either lead to imbalance of nutrients in the body or may not really improve the nutritional status of people consuming marginal diets. This has lead to a prudent approach in taking bold decisions to fortify the ICDS supplementary food to reduce micronutrient malnutrition in different states. The current research planned to provide empirical evidence on the impact of fortified ICDS supplementary food through a well-conducted community based research study among the children between 12-59 months under programmatic conditions in state of Uttar Pradesh. Methods: The sampling design adopted was quasi experimental design under programme conditions. The study was taken up in Kanpur dehat district of UP. The block where fortified food was to be initiated constituted the experimental universe where as those blocks where   fortified food was not to be initiated form the control universe.  One block namely Maitha was taken as Experimental block and Rajpur as Control block.  The base line was done in both the blocks. However, no intervention with fortified food could take place in Maitha and hence substituted by neighboring block Rasulabad. This block was named as benchmark block. Later after six months; benchmark survey was done in Rasulabad block. An end line survey was done after one year of intervention in all three blocks. At the base line, care was taken that experimental block and control block match in terms of socio economic and demographic parameters. Later, while substituting Maitha by Rasulabad at bench mark stage, it was assured that these two blocks matched in terms of socio economic and demographic parameters.The sample size worked out as 750 which were

  6. How do People in Rural India Perceive Improved Stoves and Clean Fuel? Evidence from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Bhojvaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved cook stoves (ICS have been widely touted for their potential to deliver the triple benefits of improved household health and time savings, reduced deforestation and local environmental degradation, and reduced emissions of black carbon, a significant short-term contributor to global climate change. Yet diffusion of ICS technologies among potential users in many low-income settings, including India, remains slow, despite decades of promotion. This paper explores the variation in perceptions of and preferences for ICS in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, as revealed through a series of semi-structured focus groups and interviews from 11 rural villages or hamlets. We find cautious interest in new ICS technologies, and observe that preferences for ICS are positively related to perceptions of health and time savings. Other respondent and community characteristics, e.g., gender, education, prior experience with clean stoves and institutions promoting similar technologies, and social norms as perceived through the actions of neighbours, also appear important. Though they cannot be considered representative, our results suggest that efforts to increase adoption and use of ICS in rural India will likely require a combination of supply-chain improvements and carefully designed social marketing and promotion campaigns, and possibly incentives, to reduce the up-front cost of stoves.

  7. Costs and consequences of a cash transfer for hospital births in a rural district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Diane

    2014-08-01

    The Janani Suraksha Yojana, India's "safe motherhood program," is a conditional cash transfer to encourage women to give birth in health facilities. Despite the program's apparent success in increasing facility-based births, quantitative evaluations have not found corresponding improvements in health outcomes. This study analyses original qualitative data collected between January, 2012 and November, 2013 in a rural district in Uttar Pradesh to address the question of why the program has not improved health outcomes. It finds that health service providers are focused on capturing economic rents associated with the program, and provide an extremely poor quality care. Further, the program does not ultimately provide beneficiaries a large net monetary transfer at the time of birth. Based on a detailed accounting of the monetary costs of hospital and home deliveries, this study finds that the value of the transfer to beneficiaries is small due to costs associated with hospital births. Finally, this study also documents important emotional and psychological costs to women of delivering in the hospital. These findings suggest the need for a substantial rethinking of the program, paying careful attention to incentivizing health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Successful polio eradication in Uttar Pradesh, India: the pivotal contribution of the Social Mobilization Network, an NGO/UNICEF collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Ellen A; Waisbord, Silvio; Awale, Jitendra; Solomon, Roma; Dey, Rina

    2013-03-01

    In Uttar Pradesh, India, in response to low routine immunization coverage and ongoing poliovirus circulation, a network of U.S.-based CORE Group member and local nongovernmental organizations partnered with UNICEF, creating the Social Mobilization Network (SMNet). The SMNet's goal was to improve access and reduce family and community resistance to vaccination. The partners trained thousands of mobilizers from high-risk communities to visit households, promote government-run child immunization services, track children's immunization history and encourage vaccination of children missing scheduled vaccinations, and mobilize local opinion leaders. Creative behavior change activities and materials promoted vaccination awareness and safety, household hygiene, sanitation, home diarrheal-disease control, and breastfeeding. Program decision-makers at all levels used household-level data that were aggregated at community and district levels, and senior staff provided rapid feedback and regular capacity-building supervision to field staff. Use of routine project data and targeted research findings offered insights into and informed innovative approaches to overcoming community concerns impacting immunization coverage. While the SMNet worked in the highest-risk, poorly served communities, data suggest that the immunization coverage in SMNet communities was often higher than overall coverage in the district. The partners' organizational and resource differences and complementary technical strengths posed both opportunities and challenges; overcoming them enhanced the partnership's success and contributions.

  9. A Study of Non-Communicable Morbidity Pattern in Geriatric Patients attending a Referral Railway Hospital in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh

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    A Mohapatra, SK Handoo, IS Gambhir, SC Mohapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available hospital in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh? Objectives: 1 To identify the various morbidities in the geriatric population attending the OPD of the selected hospital. 2 To observe the sex-wise difference of such morbidities among the studied subjects. Study design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study location: the North Central Railway Hospital of Allahabad. Study duration: 1 year (from March, 2010 to February, 2011. Material and method: Medical record analysis, clinical history taking and examination using a pretested questionnaire. Results: Total 467 respondents were included in the study (235 males and 232 females. Three-fourth of the subjects rated their health status as either ‘mostly’ or ‘somewhat’ healthy. Nearly 62% had vision abnormality while 15.2% suffered from impaired hearing. Respiratory (43.5% and musculoskeletal symptoms were among the most commonly observed morbidities. Diabetes mellitus and overactive bladder syndrome were significantly commoner among males while respiratory complaints, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and low back ache were more common in females as compared to males. Discharge per vaginum was the most common gynecological problem noted (41.4% of all female patients. Conclusion: The study identifies the common morbidities in geriatric hospital attendees and underscores the need for appropriate resource allocation and arrangements.

  10. Recurrent floods and prevalence of diarrhea among under five children: observations from Bahraich district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pooran C; Kaushal, Sonia; Aribam, Bijaya S; Khattri, Prashant; D'Aoust, Olivia; Singh, Mongjam M; Marx, Michael; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea is an important problem among the under-five children in India. The paper examines long-term impacts of recurrent floods on diarrhea among under-five children in Uttar Pradesh, India. A two stage stratified cluster survey was conducted in flood affected (exposed) and non-flood affected areas (unexposed). The long-term impact of the floods was not clearly marked in the overall prevalence of diarrhea with the exposed group having prevalence of 55.1% as against 56.2% in the unexposed group of children under five. Economic condition of the household is associated with the prevalence of diarrhea in both exposed and unexposed strata. Anemia was found to be a significant risk factor for diarrhea among children in both the flood exposed and non-flood exposed populations. The recurrent floods did not have any significant effect on the prevalence of diarrhea in relation to gender, religion, caste, and household size. The study indicates that the long-term impacts of floods are very differently manifested than the immediate impacts.

  11. Human Resources for Cancer Control in Uttar Pradesh, India: A Case Study for Low and Middle Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daphtary, Maithili; Agrawal, Sushma; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2014-01-01

    For addressing the growing burden of cancer in low and middle income countries, an important first step is to estimate the human resources required for cancer control in a country, province, or city. However, few guidelines are available to decision makers in that regard. Here, we propose a methodology for estimating the human and other resources needed in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India as a case study. Information about the population of UP and its cities was obtained from http://citypopulation.de/. The number of new cancer cases annually for the commonest cancers was estimated from GLOBOCAN 20081. For estimating the human resources needed, the following assumptions were made: newly diagnosed cancer patients need pathology for diagnosis and for treatment surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The percentage of patients requiring each of those modalities, their average lengths of stay as in-patients, and number of in-patient oncology beds were estimated. The resources already available in UP were determined by a telephone survey and by searching the websites of radiation therapy centers and medical colleges. Twenty-four radiation oncologists at 24 cancer centers in 10 cities responded to the survey. As detailed in this manuscript, an enormous shortage of human resources for cancer control exists in UP. Human resources are the key to diagnosing cancers early and treating them appropriately. Addressing the shortage will not be easy but we hope that the methodology described here can guide decision makers and form a framework for discussion among the various stakeholders. This methodology is readily adaptable to local practices and data. PMID:25237650

  12. Human resources for cancer control in uttar pradesh, India: a case study for low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daphtary, Maithili; Agrawal, Sushma; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2014-01-01

    For addressing the growing burden of cancer in low and middle income countries, an important first step is to estimate the human resources required for cancer control in a country, province, or city. However, few guidelines are available to decision makers in that regard. Here, we propose a methodology for estimating the human and other resources needed in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India as a case study. Information about the population of UP and its cities was obtained from http://citypopulation.de/. The number of new cancer cases annually for the commonest cancers was estimated from GLOBOCAN 2008. For estimating the human resources needed, the following assumptions were made: newly diagnosed cancer patients need pathology for diagnosis and for treatment surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The percentage of patients requiring each of those modalities, their average lengths of stay as in-patients, and number of in-patient oncology beds were estimated. The resources already available in UP were determined by a telephone survey and by searching the websites of radiation therapy centers and medical colleges. Twenty-four radiation oncologists at 24 cancer centers in 10 cities responded to the survey. As detailed in this manuscript, an enormous shortage of human resources for cancer control exists in UP. Human resources are the key to diagnosing cancers early and treating them appropriately. Addressing the shortage will not be easy but we hope that the methodology described here can guide decision makers and form a framework for discussion among the various stakeholders. This methodology is readily adaptable to local practices and data.

  13. Knowledge of and attitudes to leprosy among patients and community members: a comparative study in Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Barkataki, Pramila; Kumar, Sheo; Rao, P S S

    2006-03-01

    The roles of literacy and gender in enhancing help seeking behaviour in leprosy need further research in order to maximize the effectiveness of health education programmes. A study on leprosy knowledge and attitudes was carried out in Uttar Pradesh, one of the hyper endemic states for leprosy in north India, on a random sample of 130 leprosy patients, 120 non-leprosy patients, and 150 community members. A questionnaire was prepared, tested and administered in Hindi, the local language, by a qualified interviewer. Statistical analyses were done in each group by gender and literacy, and compared. Almost everyone in the three groups knew of leprosy, but only a larger proportion of leprosy patients (60%) mentioned anaesthetic patch, as compared to about 20% or less in the other groups. A vast majority in all groups mentioned bad blood, or divine curse as the cause. Even among leprosy patients, less than 10% of illiterates and only about 40% of literates cited infection as the cause of leprosy. Literates had a better, though still quite a poor knowledge on the symptoms as well as the causation of leprosy. However, almost all stated that leprosy was curable, though they couldn't mention MDT specifically. They felt that not all patients need have deformity. About 20-30% of the leprosy affected, but nearly 50-60% in the other groups stated that there was discrimination. Nearly 70% felt that leprosy affected social participation, over 90% attributing this to adverse social stigma. Multivariate analyses, adjusted for sex, confirmed the significant association of literacy with both knowledge and attitudes. In the light of massive health education and IEC campaigns, the findings from this study are disappointing. Adult literacy programmes combined with more innovative focused approaches to suit various target audiences can impact knowledge and attitudes better.

  14. Adherence to zinc supplementation guidelines for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five in Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Laura M Lamberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on adherence to the recommended dose and duration of zinc supplementation for diarrheal episodes in children under five years of age. In selected districts of Uttar Pradesh, India, we sought to assess adherence to the nationally advised zinc treatment regimen (ie, 10 mg/day for ages 2–6 months and 20 mg/day for ages 7–59 months for 14 days among caregivers of zinc–prescribed children. We identified and conducted follow–up visits to children advised zinc for the treatment of diarrhea. At the initial visit, we collected data on the treatment instructions received from providers. Caregivers were asked to record treatments administered on a pictorial tracking form and were asked to retain all packaging for collection at follow–up. We quantified the average dose and duration of zinc therapy and built logistic regression models to assess the factors associated with caregiver adherence to national guidelines. Caregivers administered zinc for an average of 10.7 days (standard deviation (SD = 3.9 days; median = 13 days, and 47.8% continued treatment for the complete 14 days. Among children receiving zinc syrups and tablets respectively, the age appropriate dose was received by 30.8% and 67.3%. Adherence to age appropriate dose and continuation of zinc for 14 days were highly associated with having received appropriate provider instructions. Our results indicate moderate–to–good adherence to national zinc treatment guidelines for diarrhea among caregivers in rural India. Our findings also highlight the importance of provider guidance in ensuring adherence to zinc dose and duration. Programs aiming to scale–up zinc treatment for childhood diarrhea should train providers to successfully communicate dosing instructions to caregivers, while also addressing the tendency of caregivers to terminate treatment once a child appears to have recovered from an acute diarrheal episode.

  15. An external evaluation of the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT program in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Laura M Lamberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To address inadequate coverage of oral rehydration salts (ORS and zinc supplements for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five, the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT program was carried out from 2011–2013 in Gujarat and from 2011–2014 in Uttar Pradesh (UP, India. The program focused on improving the diarrhea treatment practices of public and private sector providers. We conducted cross–sectional household surveys in program districts at baseline and endline and constructed state–specific logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to assess changes in ORS and zinc treatment during the program period. Between baseline and endline, zinc coverage increased from 2.5% to 22.4% in Gujarat and from 3.1% to 7.0% in UP; ORS coverage increased from 15.3% to 39.6% in Gujarat but did not change in UP. In comparison to baseline, children with diarrhea in the two–weeks preceding the endline survey had higher odds of receiving zinc treatment in both Gujarat (odds ratio, OR = 11.2; 95% confidence interval (CI 6.4–19.3 and UP (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4–3.9, but the odds of receiving ORS only increased in Gujarat (OR = 3.6; 95% CI 2.7–4.8; UP OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.7–1.2. Seeking care outside the home, especially from a public sector source, was associated with higher odds of receiving ORS and zinc. Conclusions During the duration of the DAZT program, there were modest improvements in the treatment of diarrhea among young children. Future programs should build upon and accelerate this trend with continued investment in public and private sector provider training and supply chain sustainability, in addition to targeted care–giver demand generation activities.

  16. A Comparative Study on the Reasons for Use and Non-Use of Self-Medication among Students of a Medical College in Western Uttar Pradesh

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    Shyam B Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Self-medication is selection and use of non-prescription medicines by individuals' own initiatives to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The objective of study was to assess the reason for use and non-use of self-medication among first and second year undergraduate students of a Medical College in western Uttar Pradesh. Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out among undergraduate students of Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences (SRMS-IMS, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh. First and second year medical students were included in the study after explaining to them the nature and purpose of study. Results: The study included 97 students in first year and 69 students in second year. Awareness of knowledge of treatment was the most common reason given for self-medication among both first year (45.0% and second year (46.9% students. The most common reason for not taking self-medication was risk of adverse effects among both first (45.4% and second year (33.4% students. Conclusion: The study emphasises that there is a need to create awareness by educational material designed to bring about correct decision making in relation to the practice of self-medication. " [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(1.000: 25-28

  17. Emergency Referral Transport for Maternal Complication: Lessons from the Community Based Maternal Death Audits in Unnao District, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Sunil Saksena Raj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background An effective emergency referral transport system is the link between the home of the pregnant woman and a health facility providing basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric care. This study attempts to explore the role of emergency transport associated with maternal deaths in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh (UP. Methods A descriptive study was carried out to assess the causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao district, UP, through community based Maternal Death Review (MDR using verbal autopsy, in a sample of 57 maternal deaths conducted between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. A facility review was also conducted in 15 of the 16 block level and district health facilities to collect information on preparedness of the facilities for treating obstetric complications including referral transportation. A descriptive analysis was carried out using ratios and percentages to analyze the availability of basic facilities which may lead to maternal deaths. Results It was found that there were only 10 ambulances available at 15 facilities against 19 required as per Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS. About 47% of the deaths took place in a facility, 30% enroute to a health facility and 23% at home. Twenty five percent of women were taken to one facility, 32% were taken to two facilities, and 25% were taken to three facilities while 19% were not taken to any facility before their death. Sixteen percent of the pregnant women could not arrange transportation to reach any facility. The mean time to make arrangements for travel from home to facility-1 and facility-2 to facility-3 was 3.1 hours; whereas from facility-1 to facility-2 was 9.9 hours. The mean travel time from home to facility-1 was 1 hour, from facility-1 to facility-2 was 1.4 hours and facility-2 to facility-3 was 1.6 hours. Conclusion The public health facility review and MDR, clearly indicates that the inter-facility transfers appropriateness and timeliness of

  18. Implementation and results of an integrated data quality assurance protocol in a randomized controlled trial in Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Gass, Jonathon D; Misra, Anamika; Yadav, Mahendra Nath Singh; Sana, Fatima; Singh, Chetna; Mankar, Anup; Neal, Brandon J; Fisher-Bowman, Jennifer; Maisonneuve, Jenny; Delaney, Megan Marx; Kumar, Krishan; Singh, Vinay Pratap; Sharma, Narender; Gawande, Atul; Semrau, Katherine; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2017-09-07

    There are few published standards or methodological guidelines for integrating Data Quality Assurance (DQA) protocols into large-scale health systems research trials, especially in resource-limited settings. The BetterBirth Trial is a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the BetterBirth Program, which seeks to improve quality of facility-based deliveries and reduce 7-day maternal and neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity in Uttar Pradesh, India. In the trial, over 6300 deliveries were observed and over 153,000 mother-baby pairs across 120 study sites were followed to assess health outcomes. We designed and implemented a robust and integrated DQA system to sustain high-quality data throughout the trial. We designed the Data Quality Monitoring and Improvement System (DQMIS) to reinforce six dimensions of data quality: accuracy, reliability, timeliness, completeness, precision, and integrity. The DQMIS was comprised of five functional components: 1) a monitoring and evaluation team to support the system; 2) a DQA protocol, including data collection audits and targets, rapid data feedback, and supportive supervision; 3) training; 4) standard operating procedures for data collection; and 5) an electronic data collection and reporting system. Routine audits by supervisors included double data entry, simultaneous delivery observations, and review of recorded calls to patients. Data feedback reports identified errors automatically, facilitating supportive supervision through a continuous quality improvement model. The five functional components of the DQMIS successfully reinforced data reliability, timeliness, completeness, precision, and integrity. The DQMIS also resulted in 98.33% accuracy across all data collection activities in the trial. All data collection activities demonstrated improvement in accuracy throughout implementation. Data collectors demonstrated a statistically significant (p = 0.0004) increase in accuracy throughout

  19. Outcomes of polio eradication activities in Uttar Pradesh, India: the Social Mobilization Network (SM Net and Core Group Polio Project (CGPP

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    Singh Vibha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary strategy to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus in India is to improve supplemental immunization activities and routine immunization coverage in priority districts with a focus on 107 high-risk blocks of western Uttar Pradesh and central Bihar. Villages or urban areas with a history of wild poliovirus transmission, or hard-to-reach or resistant populations are categorized as high-risk areas within blocks. The Social Mobilization Network (SM Net was formed in Uttar Pradesh in 2003 to support polio eradication efforts through improved planning, implementation and monitoring of social mobilization activities in those high-risk areas. In this paper, we examine the vaccination outcomes in districts of SM Net where the CORE Group works. Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis of routine monitoring information collected by the SM Net and the Government of India. These data include information about vaccination outcomes in SM Net areas and non-SM Net areas within the districts where the CORE Group operates. Statistical analysis was used to compare, between SM Net and non-SM Net areas, vaccination outcomes considered sensitive to social mobilization efforts of the SM Net. We employed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE statistical method to account for Intra-cluster Correlation (ICC, and used 'Quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion (QIC' as the model selection method. Results Vaccination outcomes in SM Net areas were as high as or higher than in non-SM Net areas. There was considerable variation in vaccination outcomes between districts. Conclusions While not conclusive, the results suggest that the social mobilization efforts of the SM Net and the CORE Group are helping to increase vaccination levels in high-risk areas of Uttar Pradesh. Vaccination outcomes in CORE Group areas were equal or higher than in non-CORE, non-SM Net areas. This occurred even though SM Net areas are those with

  20. Adding content to contacts: measurement of high quality contacts for maternal and newborn health in Ethiopia, north east Nigeria, and Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Tanya Marchant

    Full Text Available Families in high mortality settings need regular contact with high quality services, but existing population-based measurements of contacts do not reflect quality. To address this, in 2012, we designed linked household and frontline worker surveys for Gombe State, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Uttar Pradesh, India. Using reported frequency and content of contacts, we present a method for estimating the population level coverage of high quality contacts.Linked cluster-based household and frontline health worker surveys were performed. Interviews were conducted in 40, 80 and 80 clusters in Gombe, Ethiopia, and Uttar Pradesh, respectively, including 348, 533, and 604 eligible women and 20, 76, and 55 skilled birth attendants. High quality contacts were defined as contacts during which recommended set of processes for routine health care were met. In Gombe, 61% (95% confidence interval 50-72 of women had at least one antenatal contact, 22% (14-29 delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 7% (4-9 had a post-partum check and 4% (2-8 of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was reduced to 11% (6-16, 8% (5-11, 0%, and 0% respectively. In Ethiopia, 56% (49-63 had at least one antenatal contact, 15% (11-22 delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 3% (2-6 had a post-partum check and 4% (2-6 of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was 4% (2-6, 4% (2-6, 0%, and 0%, respectively. In Uttar Pradesh 74% (69-79 had at least one antenatal contact, 76% (71-80 delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 54% (48-59 had a post-partum check and 19% (15-23 of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was 6% (4-8, 4% (2-6, 0%, and 0% respectively.Measuring content of care to reflect the quality of contacts can reveal missed opportunities to deliver best possible health care.

  1. Adding Content to Contacts: Measurement of High Quality Contacts for Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia, North East Nigeria, and Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Marchant, Tanya; Tilley-Gyado, Ritgak Dimka; Tessema, Tsegahun; Singh, Kultar; Gautham, Meenakshi; Umar, Nasir; Berhanu, Della; Cousens, Simon; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna RM

    2015-01-01

    Background Families in high mortality settings need regular contact with high quality services, but existing population-based measurements of contacts do not reflect quality. To address this, in 2012, we designed linked household and frontline worker surveys for Gombe State, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Uttar Pradesh, India. Using reported frequency and content of contacts, we present a method for estimating the population level coverage of high quality contacts. Methods and Findings Linked cluster-based household and frontline health worker surveys were performed. Interviews were conducted in 40, 80 and 80 clusters in Gombe, Ethiopia, and Uttar Pradesh, respectively, including 348, 533, and 604 eligible women and 20, 76, and 55 skilled birth attendants. High quality contacts were defined as contacts during which recommended set of processes for routine health care were met. In Gombe, 61% (95% confidence interval 50-72) of women had at least one antenatal contact, 22% (14-29) delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 7% (4-9) had a post-partum check and 4% (2-8) of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was reduced to 11% (6-16), 8% (5-11), 0%, and 0% respectively. In Ethiopia, 56% (49-63) had at least one antenatal contact, 15% (11-22) delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 3% (2-6) had a post-partum check and 4% (2-6) of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was 4% (2-6), 4% (2-6), 0%, and 0%, respectively. In Uttar Pradesh 74% (69-79) had at least one antenatal contact, 76% (71-80) delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 54% (48-59) had a post-partum check and 19% (15-23) of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was 6% (4-8), 4% (2-6), 0%, and 0% respectively. Conclusions Measuring content of care to reflect the quality of contacts can reveal missed opportunities to deliver best possible health care. PMID:26000829

  2. Microsatellite diversity delineates genetic relationships of Shia and Sunni Muslim populations of Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Dubey, Bhawna; Ramakodi Meganathan, Poorlin; Noor, Sabahat; Haque, Ikramul

    2009-08-01

    In this study we characterize the genetic diversity and relationships between the Shia and Sunni Muslim populations of North India and geographically targeted neighboring and global populations. We examined a number of parameters of population genetic and forensic interest based on the allele frequencies from 15 autosomal STR loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D3S1358, THO1, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D5S818, and FGA). All the studied loci were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except loci D18S51 and FGA for both Muslim populations, even after applying the Bonferroni correction. The combined power of exclusion and combined power of discrimination values for all 15 STR loci were 0.9999 and >0.99999, respectively, in both Muslim populations. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.6784 (TPOX) to 0.9027 (FGA) for Shia Muslims and from 0.7152 (CSF1PO) to 0.9120 (D18S51) for Sunni Muslims. The observed heterozygosity (H(o)) ranged from 0.5833 (D18S51) to 0.8595 (VWA) in Shia Muslims and from 0.6818 (CSF1PO) to 0.8333 (D21S11) in Sunni Muslims and was lower than the expected heterozygosity (H(e)) for 11 out of the 15 STRs typed. We analyzed the genetic affinities of the Shia and Sunni Muslim populations with their geographically closest neighboring North Indian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and European populations using distance-based methods, including neighbor-joining trees and multidimensional scaling. In addition, we estimated the genetic contribution of the putative parental populations included in the analysis to the Shia and Sunni Muslim gene pool using admixture analysis. Although we observed a certain degree of genetic contribution from Iran to both Muslim populations, the results of the phylogenetic analyses based on autosomal STRs suggest genetic relatedness with some of the geographically closest neighboring Hindu religious populations.

  3. Attitudes and practices of auxiliary nurse midwives and accredited social health activists in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar regarding polio immunization in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Naveen; Choudhury, Panna; Gargano, Lisa M; Weiss, Paul S; Pazol, Karen; Vashishtha, Vipin M; Bahl, Sunil; Jafari, Hamid S; Kumar, Amod; Arora, Manisha; Venczel, Linda; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B; Hughes, James M

    2013-08-01

    Although India was removed from the list of polio endemic countries in January 2012, maintaining the focus on polio vaccination is critically important to prevent reintroduction of the virus. In 2009-2010, we conducted a study to assess the attitudes and practices of frontline health workers in India regarding polio immunization in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. More than 95% of auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and accredited social health activists (ASHAs) agreed that polio supplementary immunization campaigns helped in increasing acceptance of all vaccines. The majority of ANMs (60-70%) and ASHAs (56-71%) believed that polio immunization activities benefitted or greatly benefitted other activities they were carrying out. Less than 5% of ANMs and ASHAs felt they were very likely to face resistance when promoting or administering polio vaccine. This study provides information that may be useful for programs in other countries for polio eradication and in India for measles elimination.

  4. Addressing Issues of Malnutrition in Children through Public Nutrition using Local Resources of Agriculture and Land Use: Evidence from the Field Based Evaluation Study in Uttar Pradesh

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    Nemthianngai Guite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Public Nutrition refers to work in the interest of the public; with the participation of the public; and with all sectors involved in society, not just the health sector, nor mainly the health sector, though for the benefit of population health and nutrition. Action outside of the health sector, particularly with regard to food systems is required, such as capacitating women in agriculture and land use for increased vegetable production. Rationale: Adopting public health approach, an evidence from a field project wherein the evaluation study was conducted by Oxfam India (a leading non-profit organization, and where the authors coordinated and documented field evidence through conducting end line evaluation study is discussed in this paper, in order to highlight the achievement of women farmers in ensuring food and nutrition security by strengthening low cost vegetable production in Shaharanpur and Pilibhit, Uttar Pradesh. Objective of the study: To assess the success and impact of measures adopted under the project in order to enhance the capacity and skills of women vegetable farmers in sustainable farming practices. Materials and Methods: Purposive Non Probability Sampling adopted to include key set of stakeholders, which includes 100 women vegetable farmers, 8 NGO and 5 government officials respectively drawn from Shahjahanpur and Pilibhit district of Uttar Pradesh.  The methods which were used to gather quantitative and qualitative data for the study were: In-depth Interview, Focused Group Discussion (FGD, Case Studies. Results: Child nutrition is positively and independently associated with increased vegetable production through agriculture and land use by women in the villages. It enhanced the nutritional status of women and improved the health status of their family members as well. Conclusion: The public nutrition approach will make it possible to increase the impact of current initiatives which aim to reverse the course

  5. Impact of community-based behaviour-change management on perceived neonatal morbidity: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Shivgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Willis, Jeffrey R; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Mohanty, Saroj; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Aarti; Singh, Jai V; Misra, Rajendra P; Awasthi, Shally; Singh, Pramod; Gupta, Amit; Baqui, Abdullah H; Santosham, Mathuram; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2012-08-01

    In the context of high neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in developing country settings, a promising strategy for enhancing newborn health is promotion of preventive newborn care practices. We measured the effect of a behaviour-change intervention on perceived neonatal illnesses in rural Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was nested in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of the impact of a package of essential newborn care on NMR. We prospectively enrolled 802 mothers and administered a questionnaire on perceived neonatal morbidities. Regression analysis showed that newborns in the intervention clusters had significantly lower risk of perceived diarrhoea [adjusted relative risk (aRR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.90] and skin-related complications [aRR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-1.00] compared to newborns in the comparison area. Assuming incidence of perceived illnesses is a proxy for actual morbidity rates, we conclude that promotion of preventive care practices through behaviour-change interventions was effective in reducing neonatal morbidities.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Japanese encephalitis Disease and Detection of Disease Hotspots: a Case Study of Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Verma, S.; Gupta, R. D.

    2014-11-01

    In recent times, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) has emerged as a serious public health problem. In India, JE outbreaks were recently reported in Uttar Pradesh, Gorakhpur. The present study presents an approach to use GIS for analyzing the reported cases of JE in the Gorakhpur district based on spatial analysis to bring out the spatial and temporal dynamics of the JE epidemic. The study investigates spatiotemporal pattern of the occurrence of disease and detection of the JE hotspot. Spatial patterns of the JE disease can provide an understanding of geographical changes. Geospatial distribution of the JE disease outbreak is being investigated since 2005 in this study. The JE incidence data for the years 2005 to 2010 is used. The data is then geo-coded at block level. Spatial analysis is used to evaluate autocorrelation in JE distribution and to test the cases that are clustered or dispersed in space. The Inverse Distance Weighting interpolation technique is used to predict the pattern of JE incidence distribution prevalent across the study area. Moran's I Index (Moran's I) statistics is used to evaluate autocorrelation in spatial distribution. The Getis-Ord Gi*(d) is used to identify the disease areas. The results represent spatial disease patterns from 2005 to 2010, depicting spatially clustered patterns with significant differences between the blocks. It is observed that the blocks on the built up areas reported higher incidences.

  7. Screening of native plants and algae growing on fly-ash affected areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India for accumulation of toxic heavy metals.

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    Dwivedi, S; Srivastava, S; Mishra, S; Dixit, B; Kumar, A; Tripathi, R D

    2008-10-30

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly-ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 17 plants (9 aquatic, 6 terrestrial and 2 algal species) were collected and screened for heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Si, Al, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg and As) accumulation. Differential accumulation of various heavy metals by different species of plants was observed. Hydrilla verticillata was found to be the most efficient metal accumulator among 9 aquatic plants, Eclipta alba among 6 terrestrial plants and Phormedium papyraceum between 2 algal species. In general, the maximum levels of most metals were found in terrestrial plants while the lowest in algal species. However, translocation of the metals from root to shoot was found to be higher in aquatic plants than terrestrial ones. These results suggest that various aquatic, terrestrial and algal species of plants may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated areas.

  8. Determinants of non-use of family planning methods by young married women (15-24 years living in urban slums of Uttar Pradesh

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    Kriti Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate of Uttar Pradesh is 2.7 with annual growth rate of 16.5. Age specific marital fertility rate (ASMFR in Uttar Pradesh is highest in the age group of 20-24 years (383.9 followed by 15-19 years (271.0 age group. Use of contraceptives is also very low in this most productive age group. Among the Young married women in the age group of 15-24 years the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR is only 27.75% which is quite low than the target CPR of 60%. State level data presents a grim picture of contraceptive use in the slum areas in comparison to non-slum areas. This slum population is the most vulnerable section of our society. Aims & Objectives: i To assess the prevalence of non-use of contraceptives among young married women living in urban slums. ii To understand the reasons for non-use of contraceptives among young married women. iii To explore the factors influencing non-use of contraceptive among young married women. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the urban slums of Lucknow. Out of the eight Nagar-Nigam zones in Lucknow, one Urban-Primary Health Centre was selected randomly from each zone. From each Urban- Primary Health Centre, 2 slums were selected randomly. In selected slum, all the households were visited until at least 33 young married women (15-24 years were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to obtain the desired sample size of 535. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results: Current use of contraceptives was found to be 33.8 % and almost two-thirds (66.2% of the participants were not using any form of contraceptive method. The important reasons for non-use of contraception were embarrassment / hesitancy / shyness regarding family planning, lack of knowledge about the contraceptive method or place of availability of services, opposition to contraceptive use by husband or family members and women’s desire to get pregnant. About one third of the women had no

  9. Support for children identified with acute flaccid paralysis under the global polio eradication programme in Uttar Pradesh, India: a qualitative study

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    Yotsu Rie R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cases of polio in India declined after the implementation of the polio eradication programme especially in these recent years. The programme includes surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP to detect and diagnose cases of polio at early stage. Under this surveillance, over 40,000 cases of AFP are reported annually since 2007 regardless of the number of actual polio cases. Yet, not much is known about these children. We conducted a qualitative research to explore care and support for children with AFP after their diagnosis. Methods The research was conducted in a district of western Uttar Pradesh classified as high-risk area for polio. In-depth interviews with parents of children with polio (17, with non-polio AFP (9, healthcare providers (40, and key informants from community including international and government officers, religious leaders, community leaders, journalists, and academics (21 were performed. Results Minimal medicine and attention were provided at government hospitals. Therefore, most parents preferred private-practice doctors for their children with AFP. Many were visited at homes to have stool samples collected by authorities. Some were visited repetitively following the sample collection, but had difficulty in understanding the reasons for these visits that pertained no treatment. Financial burden was a common concern among all families. Many parents expressed resentment for their children's disease, notably have been affected despite receiving multiple doses of polio vaccine. Both parents and healthcare providers lacked information and knowledge, furthermore poverty minimised the access to available healthcare services. Medicines, education, and transportation means were identified as foremost needs for children with AFP and residual paralysis. Conclusions Despite the high number of children diagnosed with AFP as part of the global polio eradication programme, we found they were not provided with

  10. Support for children identified with acute flaccid paralysis under the global polio eradication programme in Uttar Pradesh, India: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsu, Rie R; Abba, Katharine; Smith, Helen; Das, Abhijit

    2012-03-22

    Cases of polio in India declined after the implementation of the polio eradication programme especially in these recent years. The programme includes surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) to detect and diagnose cases of polio at early stage. Under this surveillance, over 40,000 cases of AFP are reported annually since 2007 regardless of the number of actual polio cases. Yet, not much is known about these children. We conducted a qualitative research to explore care and support for children with AFP after their diagnosis. The research was conducted in a district of western Uttar Pradesh classified as high-risk area for polio. In-depth interviews with parents of children with polio (17), with non-polio AFP (9), healthcare providers (40), and key informants from community including international and government officers, religious leaders, community leaders, journalists, and academics (21) were performed. Minimal medicine and attention were provided at government hospitals. Therefore, most parents preferred private-practice doctors for their children with AFP. Many were visited at homes to have stool samples collected by authorities. Some were visited repetitively following the sample collection, but had difficulty in understanding the reasons for these visits that pertained no treatment. Financial burden was a common concern among all families. Many parents expressed resentment for their children's disease, notably have been affected despite receiving multiple doses of polio vaccine. Both parents and healthcare providers lacked information and knowledge, furthermore poverty minimised the access to available healthcare services. Medicines, education, and transportation means were identified as foremost needs for children with AFP and residual paralysis. Despite the high number of children diagnosed with AFP as part of the global polio eradication programme, we found they were not provided with sufficient medical support following their diagnosis. Improvement in

  11. Seeds of prevention: the impact on health behaviors of young adolescent girls in Uttar Pradesh, India, a cluster randomized control trial.

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    Kapadia-Kundu, Nandita; Storey, Douglas; Safi, Basil; Trivedi, Geetali; Tupe, Rama; Narayana, G

    2014-11-01

    Of the world's 1.2 billion adolescents (10-19 years), India is home to the largest number globally, about 243 million. However not much is known about the health of young adolescent girls (11-14 years) in India who enter puberty with substantial nutritional and health deficits. Identifying early adolescence as a "gateway" moment, the Saloni pilot study is arandomized control trial (RCT) to improve nutrition, hygiene and reproductive health behaviors in 30 schools in rural Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. A prevention model that includes Sadharanikaran, an ancient Indian theory of communication, guided the development of the intervention. The Saloni strategy includes a 10 session in-school intervention based on compassion, self efficacy, emotional well being, peer and parental support, packaged in the form of short, easy-to-use instructional modules. A diary designed to engage adolescent girls is provided to each girl. The cluster RCT was conducted from January 2010 to October 2011 with adolescent girls (11-14 years of age) in Hardoi district. The trial is a two-level, nested RCT with the unit of randomization being the block with 15 schools in the intervention arm and 15 schools in the control arm. A sample of 1200 girls was randomly selected. The intervention had a significant impact on more than 13 preventive health behaviors. About 65 percent girls in the intervention group had adopted 13 or more health behaviors at end line compared 4.5 percent in the control group at end line and 5 percent at baseline. Behavioral impact was demonstrated in all three areas of nutrition, hygiene and reproductive health. The study provides evidence that early adolescence is indeed a "gateway moment" to build nutritional and health reserves.

  12. A study of trace element contamination using multivariate statistical techniques and health risk assessment in groundwater of Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Kumar, Manoj; Ramanathan, A L; Tripathi, Ritu; Farswan, Sandhya; Kumar, Devendra; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2017-01-01

    This study is an investigation on spatio-chemical, contamination sources (using multivariate statistics), and health risk assessment arising from the consumption of groundwater contaminated with trace and toxic elements in the Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. In this study 33 tubewell water samples were analyzed for 28 elements using ICP-OES. Concentration of some trace and toxic elements such as Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and U exceeded their corresponding WHO (2011) guidelines and BIS (2012) standards while the other analyzed elements remain below than those values. Background γ and β radiation levels were observed and found to be within their acceptable limits. Multivariate statistics PCA (explains 82.07 cumulative percent for total 6 of factors) and CA indicated (mixed origin) that natural and anthropogenic activities like industrial effluent and agricultural runoff are responsible for the degrading of groundwater quality in the research area. In this study area, an adult consumes 3.0 L (median value) of water therefore consuming 39, 1.94, 1461, 0.14, 11.1, 292.6, 13.6, 23.5 μg of Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and U from drinking water per day respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) value exceeded the safe limit of 1 which for As, B, Al, Cr, Mn, Cd, Pb and U at few locations while hazard index (HI) > 5 was observed in about 30% of the samples which indicated potential health risk from these tubewells for the local population if the groundwater is consumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integration of family planning with maternal health services: an opportunity to increase postpartum modern contraceptive use in urban Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achyut, Pranita; Mishra, Anurag; Montana, Livia; Sengupta, Ranajit; Calhoun, Lisa M; Nanda, Priya

    2016-04-01

    Maternal health (MH) services provide an invaluable opportunity to inform and educate women about family planning (FP). It is expected that this would enable women to choose an appropriate method and initiate contraception early in the postpartum period. In this study we examined interactions with health providers for MH services, and the effect of FP information provision during these interactions on the postpartum use of modern contraceptive methods. This study used midline data collected from 990 women who had delivered a live birth between January 2010 and the date of the midline survey in 2012. These women were asked a series of questions about their last delivery, including interactions with health providers during pregnancy, delivery and the postpartum period, if they received FP information during these interactions, and their contraceptive use during the postpartum period. The study found that FP information provision as part of antenatal care in the third trimester, delivery and the postpartum period have a positive association with postpartum modern contraceptive use in urban Uttar Pradesh. However, health providers often miss these opportunities. Despite a high proportion of women coming into contact with health providers when utilising MH services, only a small proportion received FP information during these interactions. Integration of FP with MH services can increase postpartum modern contraceptive use. With the launch of the National Urban Health Mission, there now exists appropriate policy and programmatic environments for integration of FP and MH services in urban settings in India. However, this will require a concentrated effort both to enhance the capacity of health providers and encourage supportive supervision. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Challenges and interventions in meeting delivery of nutrition in mid-day meal scheme: a pilot in district Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh

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    Iksha Chhabra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing cooked food to about hundred million children under mid-day meal scheme has been accomplished. Focus has now shifted to delivery of nutrition since the National Food Security Act specifies statutory quantities of protein and calories. Aims & Objectives: Delivery of nutrition requires comprehensive overhaul to include interventions in area of storage, preparation and practices, stoves, human resource development and community participation. Methodology: Based on a baseline survey of 70 schools through random selection in two blocks of Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh these concerns were investigated in details for specific interventions. Results: Nutrition: Both Faizabad and MHRD’s all India data establish that net quantities consumed by a child (quantity served minus plate waste cannot provide prescribed nutrition. It reiterated the fact that mid-day meal is first and major meal for most rural children. Experiments conducted to standardize quantities, consistencies and splitting meal into snack plus meal improved nutritional delivery. Hygiene and food safety: In both blocks food was delivered at high temperature enabling food safety standards to be met with improved hygiene and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs. Human Resource: A pictorial training manual was prepared to train master trainers as well as cooks. Location specific training using local idiom and practices were used and campaign was conducted to enhance community participation in 45 villages. Fuel efficiency: Low cost smokeless chullahs (stoves designed locally resulted in fuel savings. High efficiency cook stoves were also tested, however their cost limits reproduction. Conclusion: Accomplishing comprehensive improvement within existing cost of conversion per child is a challenge particularly since there are no economies of scale in rural areas. The methodologies created in the pilot for hygiene and food safety, awareness and capacity building through campaigns and

  15. Entomological and serological investigation of Japanese encephalitis in endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Nikky Nyari

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The findings showed the rapid dissemination of JEV within a population, facilitated by different species of Culex in the region. As JE is a vaccine-preventable disease, an immunization programme, an effective vector control strategy and application of standard hygiene practices in these endemic areas could result in a considerable reduction in morbidity and mortality due to JE.

  16. Effect of traffic air pollution on spirometeric parameters in Eastern Uttar Pradesh population, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Singh; Devesh Kumar; Farhat Ali; Gaurav Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the present era of the 21st century there are lots of discussion on environmental population and its impact on life and various clinical studies done to find out the effect of air pollution on respiratory physiology, particularly pulmonary functions. Pulmonary function tests give valuable information about lung physiology in health and disease. In the present study to assess the pulmonary function test between the population groups exposed to traffic related air pollution. ...

  17. Prevalence and spectrum of von Willebrand disease in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

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    Kumar Sandip

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Von Willebrand disease is the most common inherited bleeding disorder with a prevalence of ≈ 1% in the general population. Studies available from India are limited, showing a prevalence of ≈ 10% of vWD amongst inherited bleeding disorders. Aims: This study aims to know the prevalence and subtypes of vWD in patients presenting with various bleeding manifestations to university hospital. Settings and Design: We investigated 840 patients presenting with bleeding manifestations in the period from August 2004 to August 2008 for bleeding disorders. Materials and Methods: Tests performed for the diagnosis of vWD included platelet count, bleeding time (BT, prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, Factor VIII:C assay, von Willebrand Factor Antigen assay and Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Results: Amongst 840 patients, 230 (27.38% had inherited bleeding disorder. Out of these, 40 (17.39% patients were identified as vWD. Type 1 in 17 (42.5%, Type 2 in 11 (27.5% and Type 3 vWD was present in 12 (30.0% patients. Patients′ age ranged from five months to 45 years, with 17 males and 23 females. Positive family history was seen in 12 patients (30%. Muco-cutaneous bleeding was the most common presentation. Menorrhagia was present in 100% women of reproductive age group, and hemarthrosis was seen in two male patients. Conclusions: We felt that Type I vWD with infrequent and mild bleeding episodes remain undiagnosed either because of unawareness of the disease in society or due to paucity of diagnostic facilities available in our country. Therefore, an awareness program along with enhancement of diagnostic facilities for vWD is required in our country to identify these patients for proper management thus avoiding hemorrhagic complications.

  18. Detection of rifampicin resistance in tuberculosis by molecular methods: A report from Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

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    R Tripathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of drug resistance tuberculosis (TB by the gold standard method is labour intensive and time consuming. Hence, there is an urgent need for introduction of rapid diagnostic techniques. Line probe assay (LPA and cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT have been introduced in India under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program. Spot and morning sputum samples of previously treated patients by anti-TB drugs were subjected to LPA or CBNAAT. Total 682/1253 (54.4% were diagnosed as rifampicin-resistant. The patients could be diagnosed early by molecular methods and put on second line treatment.

  19. Effect of community-based behaviour change management on neonatal mortality in Shivgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

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    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Mohanty, Saroj; Kumar, Aarti; Misra, Rajendra P; Santosham, Mathuram; Awasthi, Shally; Baqui, Abdullah H; Singh, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Ahuja, Ramesh C; Singh, Jai Vir; Malik, Gyanendra Kumar; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Black, Robert E; Bhandari, Mahendra; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2008-09-27

    In rural India, most births take place in the home, where high-risk care practices are common. We developed an intervention of behaviour change management, with a focus on prevention of hypothermia, aimed at modifying practices and reducing neonatal mortality. We did a cluster-randomised controlled efficacy trial in Shivgarh, a rural area in Uttar Pradesh. 39 village administrative units (population 104,123) were allocated to one of three groups: a control group, which received the usual services of governmental and non-governmental organisations in the area; an intervention group, which received a preventive package of interventions for essential newborn care (birth preparedness, clean delivery and cord care, thermal care [including skin-to-skin care], breastfeeding promotion, and danger sign recognition); or another intervention group, which received the package of essential newborn care plus use of a liquid crystal hypothermia indicator (ThermoSpot). In the intervention clusters, community health workers delivered the packages via collective meetings and two antenatal and two postnatal household visitations. Outcome measures included changes in newborn-care practices and neonatal mortality rate compared with the control group. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered as International Standard Randomised Control Trial, number NCT00198653. Improvements in birth preparedness, hygienic delivery, thermal care (including skin-to-skin care), umbilical cord care, skin care, and breastfeeding were seen in intervention arms. There was little change in care-seeking. Compared with controls, neonatal mortality rate was reduced by 54% in the essential newborn-care intervention (rate ratio 0.46 [95% CI 0.35-0.60], p<0.0001) and by 52% in the essential newborn care plus ThermoSpot arm (0.48 [95% CI 0.35-0.66], p<0.0001). A socioculturally contextualised, community-based intervention, targeted at high-risk newborn-care practices, can lead to substantial

  20. Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Datta, A.

    2006-01-01

    he high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh, India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12 carni

  1. Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Datta, A.

    2006-01-01

    he high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh, India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12 carni

  2. Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Datta, A.

    2006-01-01

    he high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh, India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12

  3. A study on socio-demographic profile and feasibility of DOTS provider registered under RNTCP in Varanasi district Uttar Pradesh

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    Mohd. Afzalul Haque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is a major chronic disorder affecting the larger population more than any other disease in the country. DOTS was introduced in India in 1993 as part of the Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP following a review of India’s National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP a year earlier (1 .Patient satisfaction is an important parameter for assessing the quality of patient care services. There is need to assess the health care provider regarding the consumer satisfaction as often as possible, this paper summarizes our experience about role of DOTS provider in the management of TB patient in rural population of Varanasi districts Utter Pradesh. Objective: (1 To assess the perception of registered tuberculosis patients regarding DOTS provider for the treatment of tuberculosis. (2 To assess the accessibility, acceptability & availability of community DOTS provider. Design: A longitudinal study. Setting: Three microscopic centre of Cholapur Tuberculosis unit of Varanasi districts. Methods: Registered patients were interviewed twice: once in the beginning and another at the completion of the treatment or after the permanent discontinuation of the treatment. Patients were interviewed for their socio-demographic profiles, opinion about DOTS and its providers. Side effects experienced and action taken etc. Data was collected on a semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire. DOTS providers were interviewed and treatment cards analyzed for any interruption of treatment and action taken. Data was collected from 1st June 2004 to 31th June 2005 till the completion of the regimen. Results: Majority of DOTS providers were young males (82.7% of 26 years to 40 years, while the representation of females was only 5 (17.3%. Almost more than 80% of the patients started their treatment within 1-10 days. For majority of cases (83% the distance of DOTS provider from patient’s house was within 1 km. Mean time spent to go to DOTS provider was 27

  4. Measuring communication competence and effectiveness of ASHAs (accredited social health activist) in their leadership role at rural settings of Uttar Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Archana; Srivastava, Arun

    2016-01-01

    beneficiaries' perspectives and their expectations regarding ASHAs communication process in the leadership role which she performs. Such understanding will not only be instructive but may also prove transformative for the benefit of both ASHAs and her community, whose support is critical to the success of the programme. This learning will feed into the policy planning and communication and capacity building strategy of the ASHA programme and may lead to better and more effective strategies and tools of communication. Originality/value - Research study is original. Keeping the observers' status in mind, questionnaire was translated in Hindi language. Twenty ASHAs were selected randomly from small villages of Uttar Pradesh, the largest state in India. The scale was presented to at least five observers (all females) for one ASHA. These observers/judges were the ones who knew ASHA well and with whom she had communicated at some point of time as part of her work.

  5. Volatile Constituents of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Root Oil from Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya

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    Jayashankar Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil extracted from Valeriana hardwickii Wall. roots growing wild in Talle Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Thirty-one compounds representing 89.6% of the total oil were identified. The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpenes from which oxygenated sesquiterpenes (25.7%. Methyl linoleate (21.1% and Valeracetate (11.6% were the major constituents present in the oil. Whereas, Bornyl acetate (11.2% and α-Terpinyl acetate (4.7% were the only oxygenated monoterpenes identified in the investigated sample. Essential oil and its constituents of V. hardwickii may be used as the substitute of highly traded Indian Valerian (V. jatamansi and European V. officinalis.

  6. The Association between Provider Practice and Knowledge of ORS and Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India: A Multi-Site Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Laura M Lamberti

    Full Text Available Programs aimed at reducing the burden of diarrhea among children under-five in low-resource settings typically allocate resources to training community-level health workers, but studies have suggested that provider knowledge does not necessarily translate into adequate practice. A diarrhea management program implemented in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India trained private sector rural medical practitioners (RMPs and public sector Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs and Anganwadi workers (AWWs in adequate treatment of childhood diarrhea with oral rehydration salts (ORS and zinc. We used cross-sectional program evaluation data to determine the association between observed diarrhea treatment practices and reported knowledge of ORS and zinc among each provider cadre.We conducted principal components analysis on providers' responses to diarrhea treatment questions in order to generate a novel scale assessing ORS/zinc knowledge. We subsequently regressed a binary indicator of whether ORS/zinc was prescribed during direct observation onto the resulting knowledge scores, controlling for other relevant knowledge predictors.There was a positive association between ORS/zinc knowledge score and prescribing ORS and zinc to young children with diarrhea among private sector RMPs (aOR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.29-4.17 and public sector ASHAs and AWWs (aOR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.90-3.24. Controlling for knowledge score, receipt of training in the preceding 6 months was a good predictor of adequate prescribing in the public but not the private sector. In the public sector, direct access to ORS and zinc supplies was also highly associated with prescribing.To enhance the management of childhood diarrhea in India, programmatic activities should center on increasing knowledge of ORS and zinc among public and private sector providers through biannual trainings but should also focus on ensuring sustained access to an adequate supply chain.

  7. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data.

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    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3-200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector's non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with private

  8. Alarmingly High Incidence of Eosinophilia in Barabanki and Neighboring Districts of Eastern Uttar Pradesh: A Prospective Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Neha; Rai, Narendra

    2016-12-01

    Eosinophilia is very common among rural poulation in Barabanki and neighbouring districts with no access to hygienic mode of stool disposition. Significant proportions of these children are suffering from anemia, undernutrition, anorexia, pain abdomen, cough and hence long term morbidity. This adds to the DALY of a developing country like India. All these chronic problems are preventable and treatable with simple corrective steps of which the most important ones are access to safe drinking water and toilet. The present study was conducted to study clinical and laboratory profile of patients with eosinophilia and to identify possible causes. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Poor Affordability and Low Access to Primary Education with Special Reference to Eastern Uttar Pradesh: Reflections from DISE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulochana, Rosy

    2015-01-01

    "Access to basic education" continues to be a matter of serious concern in India. While the quantitative expansion of the system appears to be very impressive, the achievement of the goal of universalisation of primary education has still remained elusive. This is because the government continues its celebration through reflecting on…

  10. Disjunctive Grade Variation from Greenschist to Granulite Facies, Siyom Valley, Eastern Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, G. L.; Bhowmik, S. K.; Aitchison, J. C.; Ireland, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Siyom Valley section in eastern Arunachal Pradesh exposes an inverted metamorphic succession (Nandini & Thakur, 2011), metapelitic assemblages increasing in grade northwards from chlorite, through biotite, garnet-staurolite and kyanite-bearing schist to kyanite-sillimanite migmatite. Grade changes are mostly controlled by shallowly north, and northwest-dipping fault structures. Two textural stages of garnet growth can be identified in the ilmenite-bearing amphibolite facies rocks, staurolite having formed late in, or after, deformation responsible for the main penetrative foliation (S2). Kyanite and rutile inclusions in garnet indicate that their growth in migmatite preceded that of matrix sillimanite, ilmenite and cordierite, though unrecrystallized kyanite is also common in the feldspathic matrix. Preliminary data indicate the pronounced tectonic thinning of metasedimentary protoliths during exhumation, and the probability of a pronounced step in grade in the middle part of the river section. Similarities with sections in the Sikkim (Dasgupta et al., 2004) and western Arunachal Pradesh (Goswami et al., 2009) Himalaya reflect the lateral continuity of the south-vergent thrusts that controlled the exhumation of the high-grade rocks, with debate concerning the location and significance of the Main Central Thrust zone begging protolith and metamorphic age data. Dasgupta, S.,Ganguly, J. & Neogi, S., 2004. Inverted metamorphic sequence in the Sikkim Himalayas: crystallization history, P-T gradient and implications. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 22, 395-412. Goswami, S., Bhowmik, S.K. & Dasgupta, S., 2009. Petrology of a non-classical Barrovian inverted metamorphic sequence from the western Arunachal Himalaya, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 36, 390-406. Nandini, P. & Thakur, S.S., 2011. Metamorphic evolution of the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence, Siyom Valley, NE Himalaya, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 40, 1089-1100

  11. Taxonomic Diversity of Lianas in Tropical Forests of Northern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Maradana TARAKESWARA NAIDU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important in forest ecosystem and strongly influence the forest dynamics and diversity. Lianas are common in the tropical moist deciduous and rain forests, which are competing with other forest trees. Little information is known on the habitat specialization in tropical lianas diversity and the root causes for variation among forests in liana species composition. A total of 170 liana species (≥ 1.5 cm girth at breast height representing 109 genera and 43 families were reported in 5×5 m quadrate samples along with their climbing modes in the tropical forests of northern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India. A total of 210 grids were sampled in study area and reported that Convolvulaceae was the dominant family with 23 species followed by Papilionaceae, 22 species and Asclepiadaceae, 19 species and Ipomoea was the largest genera. Woody lianas were dominated by 128 species and these are classified into six climbing modes consisting in stem climbers (53.5% that were the most predominant followed by stragglersunarmed (14.7%, stragglers armed and tendril climbers (13.5% each, root climbers (2.9% and hook climbers (1.8%. The most dominant liana species in the northern Eastern Ghats were Acacia sinuata and Bauhinia vahlii. The results of this investigation suggests that better management and protection is an important for in situ conservation of liana diversity and involving local people is emphasized.

  12. HYDROGEOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF GROUND WATER IN DIFFERENT GEOMARPHIC UNITS OF KRISHNA EASTERN DELTA, ANDHRA PRADESH

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    SITARAMA PRASAD KUDARAVALLI,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Krishna Eastern delta is located South of Vijayawada City in Andhra Pradesh. The area of the Krishna Eastern delta enclosed between Latitude 15042’N – 16042’ N and Longitude 80042’ E – 81036’ E. The present study is done on Krishna Eastern delta separately because the physiographic and lithological configuration of this part of the delta varies widely with that of the Western part. Moreover, the aquifer of this region has unique hydrochemical characteristics. In recent years the ground water in this region has been subjected to intensive exploitation for both irrigation and domestic purposes and accordingly high seasonal hydrochemical modulations were noticed in this part of the delta region. Kulakarni KM et.al. (1998 have studied drinking water salinity problem in Coastal Orissa. In this context a detailed study has been made to update the hydrogeochemical information of the aquifer system of this region. In addition to the earlier works carried out by Nageswara Rao, K. et.al. in the year 1979 and 1985. The details viz., land form locations in the delta region were taken from the study. The seasonal variation of groundwater quality in different geological units in Krishna Eastern Delta has been subjected to study by collecting water samples in different open wells in the study area and subjecting them to detailed chemical analysis. This data has been utilized to draw contour diagrams of different water quality parameters for different seasons. The present study is an attempt to visualize the spatial water quality variations in different geomorphic units present in the deltaic environment. The chemical parameter of Electrical Conductivity was taken as the prime parameter to focus the seasonal spatial variations of different geomorphic forms and the data was used to draw contours for different seasons. The detailed studies of Ground Water Department, District Office were also studied in many unpublished reports for understanding

  13. Metamorphism of cordierite gneisses from Eastern Ghat Granulite Terrain, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, D. S. N.; Charan, S. Nirmal

    1988-01-01

    Cordierite-bearing metapelites of the Eastern Ghat granulite terrain occur in close association of Khondalites, quartzites, calc-silicate rocks and charnockites. Rocks occurring between Bobbili in the north and Guntur in the south of Andhra Pradesh are studied. The association of the mineral and textural relationships suggest the following metamorphic reactions: Garnet + sillimanite + quartz = cordierite, hypersthene + sillimanite + quartz = cordierite, sillimanite + spinel = cordierite + corundum, and biotite + quartz + sillimanite = cordierite + K=feldspar. Generally the minerals are not chemically zoned except garnet-biotite showing zoning when they come in close contact with one another. The potential thermometers are provided by the Fe-Mg distribution of coexisting biotite-garnet and cordierite-garnet. Conflicting interpretation of the P/T dependence of these reactions involving cordierite are due to H2O in the cordierite. The presence of alkali feldspar-quartz assemblage which is common in these gneisses will be constrained from melting only if H2O activity is less than 0.5. The piezometric array inferred is convex towards the temperature array, indicating a rapid and isothermal crustal uplift probably aided by thrust tectonics.

  14. Comparative survey of entomophagy and entomotherapeutic practices in six tribes of eastern Arunachal Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-07-19

    A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), followed by 10 each of the Orthoptera and Hymenoptera, 9 of the Hemiptera, 3 Lepidoptera, 2 Isoptera and one each of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Mantodea. As far as therapeutic uses of insects are concerned, 4 species (Hemiptera) were mentioned by the Wangcho (Wancho). Food insects are chosen by members of the various tribes according to traditional beliefs, taste, regional and seasonal availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only certain, but sometimes all, developmental stages are consumed. Preparation of the food insects for consumption involves mainly roasting or boiling. With the degradation of natural resources, habitat loss, rapid population growth, and increasing 'westernization' , the traditional wisdom of North-East Indian tribals related to insect uses is at risk of being lost.

  15. Protocol for the economic evaluation of the diarrhea alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration salt therapy at scale through private and public providers in rural Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillcutt, Samuel D; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Walker, Christa L Fischer; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2014-11-19

    Child diarrhea persists as a leading public health problem in India despite evidence supporting zinc and low osmolarity oral rehydration salts as effective treatments. Across 2 years in 2010-2013, the Diarrhea Alleviation using Zinc and Oral Rehydration Salts Therapy (DAZT) program was implemented to operationalize delivery of these interventions at scale through private and public sector providers in rural Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of DAZT program activities relative to status quo conditions existing before the study, comparing a Monte Carlo simulation method with net-benefit regression, discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. A control group was not included in the 'before and after' study design as zinc has proven effectiveness for diarrhea treatment. Costs will be calculated using a societal perspective including program implementation and household out-of-pocket payments for care seeking, as well as estimates of wages lost. Outcomes will be measured in terms of episodes averted in net-benefit regression and in terms of the years of life lost component of disability-adjusted life years in the method based on Monte Carlo simulation. The Lives Saved Tool will be used to model anticipated changes in mortality over time and deaths averted based on incremental changes in coverage of oral rehydration salts and zinc. Data will derive from cross-sectional surveys at the start, midpoint, and endpoint of the program. In addition, Lives Saved Tool (LiST) projections will be used to define the reference case value for the ceiling ratio in terms of natural units. This study will be useful both in its application to an economic evaluation of a public health program in its implementation phase but also in its comparison of two methodological approaches to cost-effectiveness analysis. Both policy recommendations and methodological lessons learned will be discussed, recognizing the limitations in drawing

  16. Determinants of performance of supplemental immunization activities for polio eradication in Uttar Pradesh, India: social mobilization activities of the Social mobilization Network (SM Net and Core Group Polio Project (CGPP

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    Weiss William M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary strategy to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus in India is to improve supplemental immunization activities (SIAs and routine immunization coverage in priority districts. The CORE Group, part of the Social Mobilization Network (SM Net, has been successful in improving SIA coverage in high-risk areas of Uttar Pradesh (UP. The SM Net works through community level mobilisers (from the CORE Group and UNICEF and covers more than 2 million children under the age of five. In this paper, we examine the reasons the CORE Group had been successful through exploration of which social mobilization activities of the CORE Group predicted better performance of SIAs. Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis of routine monitoring information collected by the CORE Group and the Government of India for SIAs. These data included information about vaccination outcomes of SIAs in CORE Group areas and non-CORE Group areas within the districts where the CORE Group operates, along with information about the number of various social mobilization activities carried out for each SIA. We employed Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model (GLLAMM statistical analysis methods to identify which social mobilization activities predicted SIA performance, and to account for the intra-class correlation (ICC between multiple observations within the same geographic areas over time. Results The number of mosque announcements carried out was the most consistent determinant of improved SIA performance across various performance measures. The number of Bullawa Tollies carried out also appeared to be an important determinant of improved SIA performance. The number of times other social mobilization activities were carried out did not appear to determine better SIA performance. Conclusions Social mobilization activities can improve the performance of mass vaccination campaigns. In the CORE Group areas, the number of mosque announcements and

  17. The first record of Stripe-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis Bennett, 1835 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae from the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Kumpatla Balaji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been no records of the Stripe-necked Mongoose from the entire range of the Eastern Ghats. This is the first photographic evidence reported on distribution of Stripe-necked Mongoose from Papikonda National Park and its adjacent reserve forests in the Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh.   

  18. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Siwalik Group of far eastern Himalaya, Kameng section, Arunashal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, Francois; Huyghe, Pascale; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    and climate of this part of the chain. The purpose of this communication is to report new paleomagnetic results from the Siwalik Group in the remote far eastern district of Arunachal Pradesh, where no previous studies have been conducted. We performed a magnetostratigraphic study along the Kameng river section where a thick series of Siwalik sediments is well exposed and accessible. On the section we studied, several magnetostratigraphic correlations are possible but results show that the age of the deposits ranges between 18 My and 3 My. The main facies transitions occur at the same time as those of the central part of the range (Ojha et al 2008, Gautam et al 2000). Analysing the paleostreams of the oldest part of the section reveals that the transport direction of sediments was North-East South-West. Their origin is thus very likely the Himalayan syntaxis. Thermochronological analyses, which are currently in progress, will enable us to choose between the various possible correlations, and the isotopic analysis will help us to determine the exact provenance of the sediments.

  19. Tree diversity, stand structure, and community composition of tropical forests in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Maradana Tarakeswara Naidu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity and density of trees were assessed in four 1-ha plots (at 457–925 m in elevation in the Eastern Ghats of the Andhra Pradesh region comprising mostly of tropical deciduous forests based on a census of all trees with girth at breast height ≥ 15cm. We compared tree community characteristics like stem density, basal area, diversity, and species composition of four plots using a tree dataset of eight belt transects (5 m×1000 m in the study area. A total of 2,227 individuals of 44 families, 98 genera, and 129 species were recorded. Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Anacardiaceae, showed the greatest importance value index. It was noticed that the most species were contributed by Euphorbiaceae and the tree density varied from 435 ha–1 to 767 ha–1 with an average basal area of 25.82 m2/ha. Shannon–Weiner index (H' ranged from 3.76 to 3.96, the Simpson index ranged from 0.96 to 0.97, evenness index ranged from 0.60 to 0.78, and species richness index ranged from 10.04 to 11.24. At present the biodiversity of these forests are under threat due to the anthropogenic and upcoming mining activities. The present study will help us to understand the patterns of tree species composition and diversity in the Eastern Ghats of India.

  20. Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with different land use systems of Arunachal Pradesh of Eastern Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, A; Nath, P C; Shukla, A K

    2015-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are the main component of soil microbial population in most agroecosystems. They forms a close association with more than 80% of the plant species making immobilized mineral nutrients available to the plants in order to sustain normal growth and reproduction. In this study the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi has been examined in seven land use ecosystems of Arunachal Pradesh in Eastern Himalayan region. A total of 24 species of AM fungi belonging to 4 genera viz., Glomus, Scutellospora, Aculospora and Gigaspora were isolated from the soil samples collected from different land use systems. Glomus was the dominant genera and Glomus occulatum was the most abundant species in all the seven land use systems. Total spore number was highly variable among all the land use systems. Species richness was recorded highest in natural forest that maintains a faster nutrient cycle with the highest diversity index. The Jhum fallow land and tea garden has the least number of AM fungal species due to high disturbance of fire and application of fungicides and inorganic fertilizer. Further the plant species composition, particularly the ground vegetation coverage and disturbance level affects the distribution of the AM fungal species. In our study it has been shown that AMF diversity is significantly affected by the land use practices practiced by the people. Hence, the AM fungi isolated from different land use system may be useful in improving the agriculture practices particularly the plantation crops in the region.

  1. Structure and floristic composition of tree stand in tropical forest in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Sudhakar Reddy; Shilpa Babar; Giriraj Amamath; Chiranjibi Pattanaik

    2011-01-01

    The changes in species composition,abundance and forest stand structure were analyzed across altitudinal regimes in tropical forests of Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh,India.Three 1-ha plots were established with one each in low,medium and high altitudes.A total of 153 species,2129 stems (709 stems ·ha-l) of>10 cm girth were enumerated.Species richness and diversity pattern varied along altitudinal gradient and increased with the altitude.Species richness varied from 52 to 110 species·ha-1 and stand density from 639 to 836 stems·ha-1 with average basal area of 34.39 m2·ha-1.Shannon-Wiener index (H) ranged from 4.55 to 5.17.Low altitude (i.e.,Site 1) is dominated by Xylia xylocarpa (59.22) and Lagerstroemia parviflora (23.90),medium altitude (i.e.,Site 2) by Xylia xylocarpa (45.50) Bursera serrata (17.29),and high altitude (i.e.,Site 3) has Schleichera oleosa (28.25) Pterocarpus marsupium (26.55) as predominant species.Taxonomically,Rubiaceae (12 species),Fabaceae (12),Euphorbiaceae (11),Rutaceae (7) and Lauraceae (7) were dominant families.Density-wise,Fabaceae,Combretaceae,Euphorbiaceae,Anacardiaceae and Myrtaceae were abundant.Thus,conservation assessment based on altitudinal regimes and the information on species structure and function can provide baseline information for monitoring and sustaining the biodiversity.

  2. Morbidity pattern and their socio-demographic co-relates among rural primary school children in eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

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    Amit Kaushik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the morbidity pattern among primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what their socio-demographic co-relates are? Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates associated with morbidity. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were included in the study by total enumeration of the students present on the day of survey. Results: The present cross-sectional study revealed overall more prevalence of morbidity among female students (86.1% as compared to their male counterparts (84.4%. Children belonging to scheduled caste, socio-economic status class IV, those whose parents were illiterate and those belonging to joint family had higher prevalence of any morbidity. Caste, socio-economic status, parents’ education and type of family were significantly associated with morbidity among school children. Conclusion:  Prevalence of morbidities was found to be 2.3 morbidities per child (prevalence and 2.8 morbidities per sick child. Female students suffered more in comparison to their male counterparts. Nutritional deficiencies were most prevalent. Socio-economic status, caste, literacy of parents and type of family had significant association with morbidity.

  3. New records of damselfly Lestes thoracicus Laidlaw, 1920 (Odonata: Zygoptera: Lestidae from Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh states, central India

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    S.S. Talmale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new distribution record of an Odonata species from Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh is reported. Lestes thoracicus Laidlaw, 1920 is recorded for the first time from Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. Previously the species was recorded only from Bihar, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Orissa, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Diagnostic characters with photographic details of male anal appendages are also given for easy identification of this rare damselfly species.

  4. A preliminary study on the activity budget of post released Eastern Hoolock Gibbon Hoolock leuconedys (Mammalia: Primates: Hylobatidae in Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Kuladeep Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Wildlife Trust of India has taken a long term responsibility to identify a suitable habitat for the threatened families of Eastern Hoolock Gibbon from a village called Dello in Arunachal Pradesh to a nearby forested area which was the earlier home of this species. There is an ongoing successful rescue and translocation programme since November, 2011 in which four Eastern Hoolock Gibbon families comprising 11 individuals were translocated in three different habitat types in and around the forested area of the Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary.  Post-release monitoring is an obvious and required technique to study the rescued families of Eastern Hoolock Gibbons after translocation to confirm their post-release survival and better livelihood.  The regular monitoring of the activity patterns has helped to understand the habitat utilization and resource use in the newly released sites. Along with the rescue operation, there is an additional task to find out the potential habitats to define as ideal release sites for gibbons.  The post release monitoring was studied through the instantaneous scan sampling method to collect the information mostly about their activity patterns.  The present study describes the overall activity patterns and resource use in the released gibbons on the basis of utilization of different habitat types.  It was observed that the ranging pattern was mostly influenced by the resource availability and forest type.  The gibbon family released in the denser forest habitat developed a general food habit whereas the family from the thinner forest area became the specialist consumer.  However, further detailed study with sufficient data is required to comment on their general ecology.  

  5. Genetic affinities between endogamous and inbreeding populations of Uttar Pradesh

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    Borkar Minal

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has experienced several waves of migration since the Middle Paleolithic. It is believed that the initial demic movement into India was from Africa along the southern coastal route, approximately 60,000–85,000 years before present (ybp. It has also been reported that there were two other major colonization which included eastward diffusion of Neolithic farmers (Elamo Dravidians from Middle East sometime between 10,000 and 7,000 ybp and a southern dispersal of Indo Europeans from Central Asia 3,000 ybp. Mongol entry during the thirteenth century A.D. as well as some possible minor incursions from South China 50,000 to 60,000 ybp may have also contributed to cultural, linguistic and genetic diversity in India. Therefore, the genetic affinity and relationship of Indians with other world populations and also within India are often contested. In the present study, we have attempted to offer a fresh and immaculate interpretation on the genetic relationships of different North Indian populations with other Indian and world populations. Results We have first genotyped 20 tetra-nucleotide STR markers among 1800 north Indian samples of nine endogamous populations belonging to three different socio-cultural strata. Genetic distances (Nei's DA and Reynold's Fst were calculated among the nine studied populations, Caucasians and East Asians. This analysis was based upon the allelic profile of 20 STR markers to assess the genetic similarity and differences of the north Indian populations. North Indians showed a stronger genetic relationship with the Europeans (DA 0.0341 and Fst 0.0119 as compared to the Asians (DA 0.1694 and Fst – 0.0718. The upper caste Brahmins and Muslims were closest to Caucasians while middle caste populations were closer to Asians. Finally, three phylogenetic assessments based on two different NJ and ML phylogenetic methods and PC plot analysis were carried out using the same panel of 20 STR markers and 20 geo-ethnic populations. The three phylogenetic assessments revealed that north Indians are clustering with Caucasians. Conclusion The genetic affinities of Indians and that of different caste groups towards Caucasians or East Asians is distributed in a cline where geographically north Indians and both upper caste and Muslim populations are genetically closer to the Caucasians.

  6. Drinking water assessment of 4 locations from Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh

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    Shikha Bisht

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study drinking water samples from 4 different locations in Ghaziabad were collected by random grab sampling. These were analyzed for physiochemical and elemental parameters. The parameters tested were pH, Nitrate, Fluoride, Chloride, Sulphate, Total Dissolved solids, Hardness, Alkalinity, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Boron, Zinc, Selenium, Manganese, Iron, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic and Mercury.

  7. Elderly Adi Women of Arunachal Pradesh: "Living Encyclopedias" and Cultural Refugia in Biodiversity Conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  8. An assessment of abundance, habitat use and activity patterns of three sympatric pheasants in an Eastern Himalayan Lowland tropical Forest of Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    K. Muthamizh Selvan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Himalayan biodiversity hotspot is rich in pheasant diversity, as eleven of the seventeen pheasant species in India occur here. Despite the richness, these pheasants have been least studied in their natural habitats and their current population status, ecology and behavioural patterns are unknown. We estimated abundance, habitat use and activity pattern of three pheasants, i.e. Red Jungle Fowl Gallus gallus (RJF, Kalij Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos (KP and Grey Peacock Pheasant Polyplectron bicalcaratum (GPP in Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary and Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh. Data collected from line transects and camera traps were used for estimating abundance, habitat use and activity patterns. Program Oriana 4.2 was used to determine the activity pattern of three species. Questionnaire survey was conducted around the protected area to determine the conservation threats for these species. Red jungle fowl had the highest density of 12.9 individuals/km2 and a photographic rate of 3.19/100 trap nights among all the pheasants. Shrub cover, litter cover and grass cover were positively associated (p<0.001 with pheasant detections, where as disturbance (p<0.001 was negatively correlated. 60% of habitat overlap was observed between KP and RJF. Dillenia indica dominated habitats were significantly correlated with pheasants detections (R=0.34, p<.0001. The mean activity of GPP, RJF and KP were 6.30 hrs ± 3.37 hrs, 7.49 hrs ± 0.14 hrs and 8.29 hrs ± 0.18 hrs respectively. Additional studies on current status of these species and management plans are critical for pheasant conservation in this critical biodiversity hotspot.

  9. Final plea for conservation of Gaultheria akaensis Panda and Sanjappa (Ericaceae, an extremely threatened, endemic medicinal plant from Aka Hill in Arunachal Pradesh of eastern Himalaya, India

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    S. Panda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in 2002 from Aka Hill in Arunachal Pradesh, the population of Gaultheria akaensis Panda and Sanjappa, a Critically Endangered, endemic medicinal plant is on the verge of extinction and currently represented by two individuals only. No trace of this species found in other Himalayan parts of India as well in Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar. Detailed phenological observation was also done from 2002 - 2011. The species is threatened due to road extension and hydro-electric projects. To this problem, the author put a board for conservation to create awareness among local ethnic people. This paper provides description, ethnic use, photographs and maps for easy identification for the purpose of better conservation.

  10. Tectonics, exhumation, and drainage evolution of the eastern Himalaya since 13 Ma from detrital geochemistry and thermochronology, Kameng River Section, Arunachal Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirouze, F.; Huyghe, P.; van der Beek, P.; Chauvel, C.; Chakraborty, T.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Bernet, M.

    2013-01-01

    The exhumation history of the central Himalaya is well documented, but lateral variations in exhumation remain poorly constrained. In this study, we identify sediment source areas and examine the late Neogene exhumation history of the eastern Himalaya from the synorogenic sedimentary record of its f

  11. Can grass phytoliths and indices be relied on during vegetation and climate interpretations in the eastern Himalayas? Studies from Darjeeling and Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Oindrila; Ghosh, Ruby; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Thapa, Kishore Kumar; Bera, Subir

    2016-02-01

    While documenting the vegetation response to climatic changes in mountains, the use of grass phytolith data relies on the ability of phytolith assemblages or indices to differentiate the elevationally stratified vegetation zones. To infer the potential and limitations of grass phytolith assemblages and indices to reconstruct vegetation vis-à-vis climate in the Himalayan mountain regions, we analyzed phytolith assemblages from 66 dominant grasses and 153 surface soils from four different forest types along the c. 130-4000 m a.s.l. elevation gradients in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas. Grass short cell phytolith assemblages from modern grasses show significant variability with rising elevation. To test the reliability of the above observation, phytoliths from the soil samples were subjected to linear discriminant analysis (DA). DA classified 85.3% and 92.3% of the sites to their correct forest zones in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas respectively. Relative abundance of bilobate, cross, short saddle, plateau saddle, rondel and trapeziform types allow discrimination of the phytolith assemblage along the elevation gradient. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on the soil phytolith data further revealed their relationships with the climatic variables. Temperature and evapotranspiration were found to be the most influential for differential distribution of grass phytolith assemblages with rising elevation in the eastern Himalayas. We also tested the reliability of phytolith indices (Ic, Iph and Fs) for tracing the dominance of different grass subfamilies in the eastern Himalayas. Ic proved to be most reliable in discriminating C3/C4 grass along the elevation gradient while Iph and Fs proved to be less reliable. We observed that in the monsoon dominated eastern Himalayas, a little adjustment in Ic index may enhance the accuracy of interpretations. In future studies more precise identification of phytolith sub-types from additional sites in the eastern

  12. Quick control of bubonic plague outbreak in Uttar Kashi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Veena; Rana, U V S; Jain, S K; Kumar, Kaushal; Pal, I S; Arya, R C; Ichhpujani, R L; Lal, Shiv; Agarwal, S P

    2004-12-01

    A localized outbreak of bubonic plague occurred in village Dangud (population 332), district Uttar Kashi, Uttaranchal, India in the second week of October 2004. 8 cases were considered outbreak associated based on their clinical and epidemiological characteristics; 3 (27.3%) of them died within 48 hours of developing illness. All the 3 fatal cases and five surviving cases had enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes. None of them had pneumonia. The age of the cases ranged from 23-70 years and both sexes were affected. No such illness was reported from adjoining villages. The outbreak was fully contained within two weeks of its onset by supervised comprehensive chemoprophylaxis using tetracycline. A total of approximately 1250 persons were given chemoprophylaxis in three villages. There was no clear history of rat fall in the village. No flea was found on rodents or animals. 16 animal serum samples were found to be negative for antibodies against F-1 antigen of Y. pestis. However, Y. pestis was isolated from two rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) trapped in the village. One case and three animal sera showed borderline sero-positivity against rickettsial infection. The diagnosis of plague was confirmed by detection of four fold rise of antibody titre against F-1 antigen of Yersinia pestis in paired sera of three cases (one of the WHO approved criteria of diagnosis of confirmed plague). This outbreak and the occurrence of earlier outbreaks of plague in Surat (Gujarat) and Beed (Maharashtra) in 1994 and in district Shimla (Himachal Pradesh) in 2002 confirm that plague infection continue to exist in sylvatic foci in many parts of India which is transmitted to humans occasionally. Thus, there is a strong need for the States to monitor the plague activity in known sylvatic foci regularly and have a system of surveillance to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of cases to control the disease. This investigation highlights that with high index of suspicion the

  13. Assessment of risk factors for overweight and obesity among school going children in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

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    Atul Watharkar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. Objective: To determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among school going children of age group 12-15 years in Kanpur. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to August 2014 among students of age group 12-15 years in four schools of Kanpur that were selected by using multistage random sampling. Sample size was 806. The information about dietary habits and physical activity pattern was obtained by direct interview method. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques for the same and BMI was calculated. Student who had BMI >85th and <95th percentile of reference population were classified as overweight and BMI for age >95th percentile of reference population were classified as obese. Results: The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 3.97% and 9.80%  respectively and consuming fast foods and carbonated drinks regularly, low levels of physical activity, watching television for more than 2 hours per day or playing computer games for more than 2 hours per day were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle are the major risk factors for overweight/ obesity in adolescents. Intervention measures focusing mainly on increasing the physical activity, decreasing consumption of energy dense foods and providing psychological support is essential to fight this new emerging problem of obesity in adolescents.

  14. Age and growth of Labeo gonius (Cyprinidae) in Kali river, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Asian_Fish_Sci_5_257.pdf.txt stream_source_info Asian_Fish_Sci_5_257.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Dynamics of contraceptive use among schedule caste women in Uttar Pradesh

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    Mahesh Nath Singh

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Results from the logistic analysis give a clear picture that women with the information/knowledge are more likely to use the method in the near future. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 566-574

  16. PERINATAL ASPHYXIA-CLINICAL PROFILE IN M R A MEDICAL COLLEGE AMBEDKAR NAGAR UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia is a condition during the first and second stage of labour in which impaired gas exchange leads to fetal hypoxia and hypercarbia. Perinatal asphyxia is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Although many studies are there but no such study was available from the studied area. So this study was conducted to know the clinical correlations of perinatal asphyxia in this area. AIMS: This study was conducted to study various maternal and neonatal risk factors for perinatal asphyxia and to study the various clinical features of perinatal asphyxia with special reference to central nervous system and to grade the encephalopathy as per Sarnat and Sarnat staging. SETTINGS: Neonatal intensive care unit of MRA Medical College Ambedkar Nagar. DESIGN: Observational study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Neonates admitted in NICU with history of perinatal asphyxia as per the definition by WHO. RESULTS: Various feto-maternal factors were associated with asphyxiated neonates. Those observed to be significantly associated with asphyxia (in decreasing order of risk included no antenatal check-ups (50%, home delivery (40%,fetal distress (25%, meconium stained liquor (23.3%, prolonged labour (20%, prolonged rupture of membranes(16.7% antepartum haemorrhage (13.3%,severe anemia (10%, eclampsia(8.3%,premature rupture of membrane (6.6%, obstructed labour (5%.In many of the cases more than one risk factor was associated. Of the total 120 asphyxiated neonates 80 (66.6% had encephalopathy. As per Sarnat and Sarnat staging 24(20% were in stage 1, 36(30% were in stage 2 and 20(16.6% were in stage 3 of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy. Other than neurological dysfunction symptoms which were also associated in asphyxiated newborn were feeding difficulties(75%, respiratory distress (25%, meconium aspiration syndrome(13.3%,acute renal Failure(8.3%,apnea(4.2%. CONCLUSION: Perinatal asphyxia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Many cases are due to poor antenatal checkups and home delivery. We recommend that more and more expectant mother to be motivated for antenatal examination to detect any pregnancy complication at its earliest and to promote more and more of institutional deliveries.

  17. Incidence of phyllodes tumors of breast at a single centre in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Sanjay Singh

    2016-12-01

    Results: Out of these 15, 14 were female and 1 was male. 14 of them undergo wide local excision under general anesthesia while in one of the patients simple mastectomy was done. Based on tumor histology they are divided into 3 histotypes i. e. benign, borderline, and malignant. 12 patients were found to be benign, 3 borderline and none malignant. Out of 3 borderline disease patients 1 developed recurrence 8 months later to initial surgery. Wide local excision was done for total of 10 times and every time histopathology revealed borderline phyllodes but last report revealed sarcomatous changes. Patient also developed lung metastases and so was referred to oncology department and review histopathology revealed low grade spindle cell sarcoma. Full radiotherapy and complete course of MAID chemotherapy regimen was given but patient still developed local recurrence and metastasis to lungs. All patients in benign category were doing well and none of them developed recurrences in due course. Conclusions: Phyllodes tumor is an interesting entity for both surgeons as well as pathologists because of its rare occurrence and varied histological features. Rapidly growing nature of this tumor does not necessarily indicate malignant disease. No correlation was found between tumor size and recurrence. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(12.000: 5452-5455

  18. Contraceptive use by the rural women of Uttar Pradesh - A socio-demographic study

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    Ambesh Chandra Rajpurohit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The single most important problem that developing countries like India are facing today is uncontrolled growth of population. It is important to study the dynamics of contraceptive use, to understand current contraceptive use, preference and problems of different methods as well as their intention to use contraceptive methods in the future. Objective: To assess the knowledge and perception about contraceptive methods as well as use of the different methods among ever married women in the rural area of north India. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The married women residing for at least six months in the area was considered as a resident and included in the study.  The data was collected by using structured questionnaire. A total of 520 ever married women were included in this study. The chi-square and logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis of the data. Results: All the women were aware at least one of the method of contraceptives.  The contraceptive use was observed to be 26.2%. The contraceptive use was higher among the women of age 41-50 years (34.4% (p=0.0001.  The percentage of contraceptive use was higher among literate women than illiterates. There was significant (p<0.05 association between education of women and husband with use of contraceptive methods. The contraceptive use was higher among OBC (33.5% compared with upper class (28.7% and SC (16.3% and this was statistically significant (p=0.01.  A significant (p<0.01 association was observed between contraceptive use with living number of children. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age of women, education of women & husband and number of living children were found to be significant factors associated with the use of contraceptive use. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that although the knowledge about contraceptive methods was universal, however its use over the years has not increased much.

  19. Enrolment in community-based health insurance schemes in rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Pradeep; Chakraborty, Arpita; Dror, David M; Bedi, Arjun S

    2014-12-01

    This article assesses insurance uptake in three community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes located in rural parts of two of India's poorest states and offered through women's self-help groups (SHGs). We examine what drives uptake, the degree of inclusive practices of the schemes and the influence of health status on enrolment. The most important finding is that a household's socio-economic status does not appear to substantially inhibit uptake. In some cases scheduled caste/scheduled tribe households are more likely to enrol. Second, households with greater financial liabilities find insurance more attractive. Third, access to the national hospital insurance scheme Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana does not dampen CBHI uptake, suggesting that the potential for greater development of insurance markets and products beyond existing ones would respond to a need. Fourth, recent episodes of illness and self-assessed health status do not influence uptake. Fifth, insurance coverage is prioritized within households, with the household head, the spouse of the household head and both male and female children of the household head, more likely to be insured as compared with other relatives. Sixth, offering insurance through women's SHGs appears to mitigate concerns about the inclusiveness and sustainability of CBHI schemes. Given the pan-Indian spread of SHGs, offering insurance through such groups offers the potential to scale-up CBHI. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of rare Eimeria canis from the non descript dogs of Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Vikrant Sudan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of parasites particularly helminths, arthropods and protozoans affect dogs but when it comes to intestinal coccidians, their number is scanty.  Eimeria canis is perhaps the most under reported parasite of dogs. The present paper deals with the prevalence of E.canis in dogs with no possible history of deworming from Mathura region, India.  Finally, the morphology of the parasite, present scenario, reasons for under reporting vis-à-vis future projections are being described.

  1. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of surface water quality of Pratapgarh district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    The hydrogeochemical study of surface water in Pratapgarh district has been carried out to assess the major ion chemistry and water quality for drinking and domestic purposes. For this purpose, twenty-five surface water samples were collected from river, ponds and canals and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, hardness, major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), major anions (HCO3 -, F-, Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-) and dissolved silica concentration. The analytical results show mildly acidic to alkaline nature of surface water resources of Pratapgarh district. HCO3 - and Cl- are the dominant anions, while cation chemistry is dominated by Na+ and Ca2+. The statistical analysis and data plotted on the Piper diagram reveals that the surface water chemistry is mainly controlled by rock weathering with secondary contributions from agriculture and anthropogenic sources. Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 -, Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- and Na+-HCO3 --Cl- are the dominant hydrogeochemical facies in the surface water of the area. For quality assessment, values of analysed parameters were compared with Indian and WHO water quality standards, which shows that the concentrations of TDS, F-, NO3 -, Na+, Mg2+ and total hardness are exceeding the desirable limits in some water samples. Water Quality Index (WQI) is one of the most effective tools to communicate information on the quality of any water body. The computed WQI values of Pratapgarh district surface water range from 28 to 198 with an average value of 82, and more than half of the study area is under excellent to good category.

  2. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

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    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  3. WHO Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy: Epidemiology of Default in Treatment in Agra District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Girdhar, Anita; Chakma, Joy Kumar; Girdhar, Bhuwneswar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To study the magnitude of default, time of default, its causes, and final clinical outcome. Methods. Data collected in active surveys in Agra is analyzed. Patients were given treatment after medical confirmation and were followed up. The treatment default and other clinical outcomes were recorded. Results. Patients who defaulted have comparable demographic characteristics. However, among defaulters more women (62.7% in PB, 42.6% in MB) were seen than those in treatment completers (PB 52.7% and MB 35.9%). Nerve involvement was high in treatment completers: 45.7% in PB and 91.3% in MB leprosy. Overall default rate was lower (14.8%) in ROM than (28.8%) in standard MDT for PB leprosy (χ 1 2 = 11.6, P = 0.001) and also for MB leprosy: 9.1% in ROM compared to 34.5% in MDT (χ 1 2 = 6.0, P = 0.015). Default rate was not different (28.8% versus 34.5%, P > 0.05) in both types of leprosy given MDT. Most patients defaulted at early stage of treatment and mainly due to manageable side effects. Conclusion. The default in standard MDT both for PB and MB leprosy was observed to be significantly higher than in ROM treatment. Most defaults occurred at early stage of treatment and major contribution of default is due to side effects like drowsiness, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, and so forth, related to poor general health. Although about half of the defaulters were observed to be cured 2.2% in PB-MDT and 10.9% of MB-MDT developed disability. This is an issue due to default. Attempts are needed to increase treatment compliance. The use of specially designed disease related health education along with easily administered drug regimens may help to reduce default. PMID:25705679

  4. Microbiological study of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital of western Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Amit Garg

    2016-07-01

    Results: Out of one hundred twenty (120 samples, eighty (66.67% samples were found positive for bacterial infection. In which 22 (27.50% E.coli, 14 (17.50% Klebsiella pneumonia, 10 (12.50% pseudomonas, 17 (21.25% Staphylococcus aureus, 6 (7.50% coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS and 11(13.75% Enterococcous sp. was identified. Conclusions: The blood culture positivity rate was 66.67%. E. coli, Klebsiella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest agent. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2701-2704

  5. Rural development and communication: a community media project in Uttar Pradesh (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiani, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Loaded with 16% of the world’s population, India is a challenged country. More than a third of its citizens live below the poverty line - on less than a dollar a day. These people have no proper electricity, no proper drinking water supply, no proper sanitary facilities and well over 40% are illiterates. More than 65% live in rural areas and 60% earn their livelihood from agriculture. Only a meagre 3.63% have access to telephone and less than 1% have access to a computer. Therefore, ...

  6. A political economy of education in India: the case of Uttar Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kingdon, Geeta; Muzammil, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    While there has been encouraging progress over the last fifteen years in terms of increased school enrolment rates, there are continuing concerns about education in India, especially in terms of quality. Debates continue about the role and efficacy of reforms such as educational decentralisation, use of contract teachers (para-teachers), curriculum reform, the provision of mid-day meals and the use of 'second-track' approaches such as the Education Guarantee Scheme schools. However, the role ...

  7. Glycoprotein C gene based molecular subtyping of a bovine herpesvirus -1 isolate from uttar pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Chintu; Nandi, S; Chander, V; Mohapatra, T K

    2012-12-01

    Bovine herpesvirus -1 (BHV-1) is the etiological agent of many clinical syndromes in cattle which causes huge economic losses to the animal husbandry sector annually. Since the first report of its presence in India in 1976, the disease is considered to be endemic in the country. In the present study, a case of keratoconjunctivitis in a cow was investigated to find out the underlying cause of the condition. The clinical material (ocular swab) was tested by BHV-1 glycoprotein D gene specific PCR using in house designed primers and found to be positive by the presence of a 212 bp DNA product in agarose gel electrophoresis. The virus was isolated in MDBK cell line in the third passage and the serum from the animal, was positive for antibodies against BHV-1 by ELISA. A 575 bp segment of the glycoprotein C gene of the isolate was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. On phylogenetic analysis, it was seen that the sequence matched with published BHV-1.1 sequences from USA and Uruguay whereas it was divergent from Brazilian BHV-1.1 isolates. This study highlights the isolation, rapid and sensitive detection of BHV-1 virus from clinical cases and its subtyping by nucleotide sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis which gives invaluable information about the molecular epidemiology of BHV-1 subtypes prevalent in the country.

  8. Glycoprotein C Gene Based Molecular Subtyping of a Bovine Herpesvirus -1 Isolate from Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus -1 (BHV-1) is the etiological agent of many clinical syndromes in cattle which causes huge economic losses to the animal husbandry sector annually. Since the first report of its presence in India in 1976, the disease is considered to be endemic in the country. In the present study, a case of keratoconjunctivitis in a cow was investigated to find out the underlying cause of the condition. The clinical material (ocular swab) was tested by BHV-1 glycoprotein D gene specific PC...

  9. Healthcare seeking behavior among self-help group households in rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Raza (Wameq); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); D.M. Dror (David); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: In recent years, supported by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), a number of communitybased health insurance (CBHI) schemes have been operating in rural India. Such schemes design their benefit packages according to local priorities. This paper examines

  10. LSCS notes audit in a tertiary referral centre of Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Uma Pandey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstetrics is a very litigious branch as the nature of job is highly pressured and it deals with two lives a mother and baby/babies. There are situations where there are no mistakes but there is no and lsquo;documentation' of due to high turnover of labouring women which leads to difficulty in dealing with medico legal cases. It is due to this reasons we decided to do an audit of our Caesarean section operative notes. Methods: We planned to audit the quality of caesarean section documentation in a University teaching hospital of North India at Banaras Hindu University. The study involved 57 case notes from the first January 2015 to 24 February 2015. The proforma was filled by residents within 72 hours of the operative procedure. Results: Date of Lower Segment Caesarean Section (LSCS was from 01.01.2015 to 24.02.2015 and total of 57 case notes were included in this study. Hospital number, date of LSCS and time of LSCS was written in the operative notes of all patients. Written consent was also taken from patient party in all cases of LSCS. There were 6 cases of General anaesthesia (GA in which two GA were preceded by spinal which had failed. Hand writing was legible in all records and was written by second year residents and signed. Conclusions: The above audit done at University teaching hospital of North India at Banaras Hindu University which included 57 notes shows a very high quality of record maintenance. This audit was conducted while the Obstetric team was aware that audit of record keeping is taking place. It is difficult to ascertain whether such a high level of record maintenance is a true reflection or a Hawthorne effect. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1414-1416

  11. WHO Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy: Epidemiology of Default in Treatment in Agra District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the magnitude of default, time of default, its causes, and final clinical outcome. Methods. Data collected in active surveys in Agra is analyzed. Patients were given treatment after medical confirmation and were followed up. The treatment default and other clinical outcomes were recorded. Results. Patients who defaulted have comparable demographic characteristics. However, among defaulters more women (62.7% in PB, 42.6% in MB were seen than those in treatment completers (PB 52.7% and MB 35.9%. Nerve involvement was high in treatment completers: 45.7% in PB and 91.3% in MB leprosy. Overall default rate was lower (14.8% in ROM than (28.8% in standard MDT for PB leprosy (χ12=11.6, P=0.001 and also for MB leprosy: 9.1% in ROM compared to 34.5% in MDT (χ12=6.0, P=0.015. Default rate was not different (28.8% versus 34.5%, P>0.05 in both types of leprosy given MDT. Most patients defaulted at early stage of treatment and mainly due to manageable side effects. Conclusion. The default in standard MDT both for PB and MB leprosy was observed to be significantly higher than in ROM treatment. Most defaults occurred at early stage of treatment and major contribution of default is due to side effects like drowsiness, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, and so forth, related to poor general health. Although about half of the defaulters were observed to be cured 2.2% in PB-MDT and 10.9% of MB-MDT developed disability. This is an issue due to default. Attempts are needed to increase treatment compliance. The use of specially designed disease related health education along with easily administered drug regimens may help to reduce default.

  12. Prevalence and effect of myths in clinical orthopaedics in Western part of Uttar Pradesh

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    Arun Vashisht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myths in the field of medicine regarding the treatment of health problems are frequently observed, which may not only retard the recovery but often be harmful for the patients. We were baffled to see lot of patients under the influence of certain myths about treatment of their orthopaedic ailments. The aim of this observational, prospective study was to dispel the misconceptions and to create awareness in the society about the bad effects of these myths. Methods: 1285 patients aged 20-55 years, suffering from fractures, neck pain, backache, osteoarthritis knee, myofascial trigger points, episacroiliac lipomas etc. and being under the influence of one or the other myth about the treatment of their ailments, were included in this study. Results: All Patients were counseled and made to realize the harmful effects of their false beliefs regarding treatment of their orthopaedic ailments. Every patient was treated as necessitated for the ailment. All patients were found satisfied at the end of treatment, and were happy after dispelling their myths. Conclusions: Misconceptions do not have any scientific basis rather these are rooted in the society due to high rate of illiteracy and lack of health education. Being a part and parcel of the health care system, it becomes our duty to create awareness among patients about the harmful effects of the prevailing false beliefs by imparting proper health care advice and treatment to relieve the sufferings of our patients. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2197-2201

  13. Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod K; Bikundia, Devendra Singh; Sarswat, Ankur; Mohan, Dinesh

    2012-07-01

    The groundwater quality for drinking, domestic and irrigation in the village Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, U.P., India, has been assessed. Groundwater samples were collected, processed and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc. A number of groundwater samples showed levels of electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, chloride, calcium, sodium, potassium and iron exceeding their permissible limits. Except iron, the other metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed below the permissible limits. The correlation matrices for 28 variables were performed. EC, salinity, TS and TDS had significant positive correlations among themselves and also with NO (3) (-) , Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+). Fluoride was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. NO (3) (-) was significantly positively correlated with Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Chloride also correlated significantly with alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Sodium showed a strong and positive correlation with K(+) and Ca(2+). pH was negatively correlated with most of the physicochemical parameters. This groundwater is classified as a normal sulfate and chloride type. Base-exchange indices classified 73% of the groundwater sources as the Na(+)-SO (4) (2-) type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 67% of groundwater sources belong to a deep meteoric water percolation type. Hydrochemical groundwater evaluations revealed that most of the groundwaters belong to the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO (4) (2-) type followed by Na(+)-K(+)-HCO (3) (-) type. Salinity, chlorinity and SAR indices indicated that majority of groundwater samples can be considered suitable for irrigation purposes.

  14. Assessment of underground water potential zones using modern geomatics technologies in Jhansi district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, N. K.; Shukla, A. K.; Shukla, S.; Pandey, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ground water is a distinguished component of the hydrologic cycle. Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which will continue to be followed in the future. The uncertainty about the occurrence, distribution and quality aspect of the ground water and the energy requirement for its withdrawal impose restriction on exploitation of ground water. The main objective of the study is assessment of underground water potential zones of Jhansi city and surrounding area, by preparing underground water potential zone map using Geographical Information System (GIS), remote sensing, and validation by underground water inventory mapping using GPS field survey done along the parts of National Highway 25 and 26 and some state highway passing through the study area. Study area covers an area of 1401 km2 and its perimeter is approximate 425 km. For this study Landsat TM (0.76-0.90 um) band data were acquired from GLCF website. Sensor spatial resolution is 30 m. Satellite image has become a standard tool aiding in the study of underground water. Extraction of different thematic layers like Land Use Land Cover (LULC), settlement, etc. can be done through unsupervised classification. The modern geometics technologies viz. remote sensing and GIS are used to produce the map that classifies the groundwater potential zone to a number of qualitative zone such as very high, high, moderate, low or very low. Thematic maps are prepared by visual interpretation of Survey of India topo-sheets and linearly enhanced Landsat TM satellite image on 1 : 50,000 scale using AutoCAD, ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS 11 software packages.

  15. Forensic importance of maxillary sinus in gender determination: A morphometric analysis from Western Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhi Sidhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study of anthropometric characteristics is of fundamental importance to solve problems related to identification. Craniometrical features are included among these characteristics, which are closely connected to forensic dentistry. Radiography is used in forensic for the identification of humans especially in cases where the body is decomposed, fragmented, or burned. Radiology can assist in giving accurate dimensions for which certain formulae can be applied to determine the gender. It has been reported that maxillary sinuses remain intact, although the skull and other bones may be badly disfigured in victims who are incinerated and therefore, that maxillary sinuses can be used for identification. Aim: This study has been carried out to check the accuracy and reliability of maxillary sinus in gender determination using morphometric parameters. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalogram of 50 subjects (25 males and 25 females were taken and morphometric parameters of maxillary sinus were analyzed using AutoCAD 2010 software (Autodesk, Inc.. Results: The mean area and perimeter of maxillary sinus in males was 1.7261 cm 2 and 5.2885 cm whereas, the mean area and perimeter in females was 1.3424 cm 2 and 4.3901 cm. In-group centroids if someone′s discriminant function (DF score is close to 0.838 then the subject are supposed to be male. Whereas, those having DF score closer to −0.838 are supposed to be females. DF analysis showed that, 76% of the original grouped cases were correctly classified. Hence, the overall sensitivity and specificity was found to be 80% and 72%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that morphometric analysis (area and perimeter of maxillary sinus using AutoCAD 2010 software can assist in gender determination.

  16. A retrospective study of fungal corneal ulcer from the western part of Uttar Pradesh

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    Dharmendra Prasad Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious keratitis is a major cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. Fungus is an important aetiological agent of infectious keratitis following corneal trauma with vegetative matter. This infection should be promptly treated to limit the morbidity and dangerous sequelae. The purpose of this study was to detect causative agents from corneal scrapings and to identify the predisposing factors of mycotic keratitis. Methods: Corneal scrapings were taken in full aseptic precautions in total 112 suspected patients for fungal etiology and were subjected to direct examination by 10% KOH mount, gram stain and culture. Results: A total 112 cases of suspected corneal ulcers were subjected to KOH mount to detect fungal elements in corneal scraping and culture to isolate aetiological agents. In our study 29 (25.8% samples were found positive in KOH mount and fungus was isolated from the all KOH positive samples. Males were more commonly affected and were mostly in the age group of 30-50 years. Fusarium species was the most common fungus isolated followed by Aspergillus species. Conclusion: Mycotic keratitis is a serious problem usually following corneal trauma, it requires rapid detection and identification of fugal agents for treatment to prevent disastrous consequences. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 880-882

  17. Healthcare seeking behavior among self-help group households in rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Raza (Wameq); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); D.M. Dror (David); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: In recent years, supported by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), a number of communitybased health insurance (CBHI) schemes have been operating in rural India. Such schemes design their benefit packages according to local priorities. This paper examines hea

  18. Healthcare seeking behaviour among self-help group households in Rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Raza (Wameq); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); D.M. Dror (David); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In recent years, supported by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), a number of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes have been operating in rural India. Such schemes design their benefit packages according to local priorities. This paper examines healthcare seekin

  19. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  20. A checklist of the flowering plants of Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, a tropical moist deciduous forest along the Indo-Nepal boarder comprises of 778 species of angiosperms, out of which 613 species are dicots under 386 genera and 91 families and 165 species are monocots under 103 genera and 23 families.  It contains 82 species that are in cultivation and/or growing as alien invasives.  The species include 149 trees, 81 shrubs, 445 herbs and 103 climbers.  Fabaceae with 100 species and Poaceae with 65 species occupy the first position in dicots and monocots, respectively.  Cyperus with 14 species has been found to be the largest genus represented while 355 genera are represented by solitary species.  The present study enumerates all species of flowering plants occurring in the sanctuary area with their correct name along with first citation and some important references pertaining to the flora of the study area.  Important synonyms have also been provided.  For majority of species the representative voucher specimens have also been supplied.  The paper also briefly deals with the vegetation types of the area. The outcome of the work is based on extensive field survey of the area conducted during 2008–2011, study of literature and examination of specimens of earlier collections housed at BSA, BSIP, CDRI and LWG.

  1. A STUDY OF MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

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    Suneel Kumar Kaushal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight is defined as the live births with less than 2.5 kg weight. LBW is one of the serious challenges in maternal and child health in both developed and developing countries. Objective: (1 To study the proportion of low birth weight neonates among hospital based deliveries. (2 To evaluate selected maternal factors associated with low birth weight in institutionally delivered newborn. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in S.N. Hospital, Agra from 1st September, 2007 to 31st August, 2009 from medical record section of Obstetrics & Gynaecology department. Mode of delivery, birth weight and sex of baby, age of mother, parity, gestational period were taken as variables. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was applied to observe the significance of association. Results: Proportion of LBW was found to be 38% and was higher in teenage pregnancy, in Muslim females, in high parity and among newborn females. Conclusion: Relationship of birth weight with sex of new born, birth order of new born, mode of delivery, gestational period and with parity of mother was found to be significant..

  2. Prehistoric chronology of Madhya Pradesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    , Jabalpur, Rewa, Sidhi, Bastar, Raipur, Bilaspur, Raisen, Sehore, Guna, Gwalior etc. by Archaeological Survey of India and many universities. An attempt has been made in this paper to give a clear picture of Stone Age succession in Madhya Pradesh from Lower...

  3. Hydrogeochemistry for the assessment of groundwater quality in Varanasi: a fast-urbanizing center in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhana Raju, Nandimandalam; Shukla, U K; Ram, Prahlad

    2011-02-01

    The hydrogeochemical parameters for groundwater samples of the Varanasi area, a fast-urbanizing region in India, were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry, weathering and solute acquisition processes controlling water composition, and suitability of water quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Sixty-eight groundwater samples were collected randomly from dug wells and hand pumps in the urban Varanasi area and analyzed for various chemical parameters. Geologically, the study area comprises Quaternary alluvium made up of an alternating succession of clay, silty clay, and sand deposits. The Total dissolved solids classification reveals that except two locations, the groundwater samples are desirable for drinking, and all are useful for irrigation purposes. The cationic and anionic concentrations indicated that the majority of the groundwater samples belong to the order of Na>Ca>Mg>K and HCO3>Cl>SO4 types, respectively. Geochemical classification of groundwater based on the Chadha rectangular diagram shows that the majority (81%) of groundwater samples belong to the calcium-bicarbonate type. The HCO3/(HCO3+SO4) ratio (0.87) indicates mostly carbonic acid weathering process due to presence of kankar carbonate mixed with clay/fine sand. The high nitrate concentration (>45 mg/l) of about 18% of the groundwater samples may be due to the local domestic sewage, leakage of septic tanks, and improper management of sanitary landfills. In general, the calculated values of sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index indicate good to permissible use of water for irrigation, and only a few locations demand remedial measures for better crop yields.

  4. Implications of Kali–Hindon inter-stream aquifer water balance for groundwater management in western Uttar Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashid Umar; M Muqtada A Khan; Izrar Ahmed; Shakeel Ahmed

    2008-02-01

    The Kali–Hindon inter-stream region extends over an area of 395 km2 within the Ganga–Yamuna interfluve. It is a fertile tract for sugarcane cultivation. Groundwater is a primary resource for irrigation and industrial purposes. In recent years, over-exploitation has resulted in an adverse impact on the groundwater regime. In this study, an attempt has been made to calculate a water balance for the Kali–Hindon inter-stream region. Various inflows and outflows to and from the aquifer have been calculated. The recharge due to rainfall and other recharge parameters such as horizontal inflow, irrigation return flow and canal seepage were also evaluated. Groundwater withdrawals, evaporation from the water table, discharge from the aquifer to rivers and horizontal subsurface outflows were also estimated. The results show that total recharge into the system is 148.72million cubic metres (Mcum), whereas the total discharge is 161.06 Mcum, leaving a deficit balance of −12.34Mcum. Similarly, the groundwater balance was evaluated for the successive four years. The result shows that the groundwater balance is highly sensitive to variation in rainfall followed by draft through pumpage. The depths to water level are shallow in the canal-irrigated northern part of the basin and deeper in the southern part. The pre-monsoon and post-monsoon water levels range from 4.6 to 17.7m below ground level (bgl) and from 3.5 to 16.5m bgl respectively. It is concluded that the groundwater may be pumped in the canal-irrigated northern part, while withdrawals may be restricted to the southern portion of the basin, where intense abstraction has led to rapidly falling water table levels.

  5. Water quality index development for groundwater quality assessment of Greater Noida sub-basin, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Sajal Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The water quality index (WQI is an important parameter for determining the drinking water quality for the end users. The study for the same has been carried on the groundwater by collecting 47 groundwater samples from 25 blocks of Greater Noida city, India. In order to develop WQI the samples were subjected to a comprehensive physicochemical and biological analysis of 11 parameters such as pH, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, total dissolved solids, fluorides, bicarbonate, sodium and potassium. Geographical information system has been used to map the sampling area. The coordinates in terms of latitude and longitude of the sampling locations were recorded with the help of global positioning system. Piper plots and cation–anion correlation matrix were plotted from the values obtained by the analysis of various parameters. The WQI index for the same has been calculated and the values ranged from 53.69 to 267.85. The WQI values from present study indicate the very poor quality water in the area dominated by industrial and construction activities. Poor water quality has been observed in commercial zone of the study area. The analysis reveals the fact that the ground water of the Greater Noida needs a degree of treatment before consumption and needs to be protected from further contamination.

  6. THE STUDY OF ANAEMIA & ITS RELATED SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AMONGST PREGNANT WOMEN IN RURAL COMMUNITY OF UTTAR PRADESH

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    Shams Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnant women is one of India’s major public health problems and is a major factor responsible for low birth weight. One fifth of the maternal deaths occurred worldwide due to anemia . OBJECTIVES: To find out prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women and it s association with socio demographic factors. Study Design: Cross sectional study. SETTING : The study was conducted in village Khera at RHTC , Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre , G h aziabad. MATERIAL & METHODS: The study was carried from Oct 2012 to June 2013. A total of 321 pregnant women with gestational period between 12 to 20 weeks were registered. H a emoglobin was estimated and peripheral smear examination was carried out. Statistical Analysis: Chi - Squar e test. RESULTS: A high prevalence of anaemia (79.75% was observed in pregnant women. Majority of the primipara were moderately anaemic (58.38% and were less than 20 years of age. 37% of multipara pregnant women were severely anaemic . Occurrence of anaemia in pregnancy was found to be inversely proportional to the socioeconomic class. Statistic ally significant association (P< 0.05 were found amongst anaemic pregnant women with their age , parity and socioeconomic class.

  7. A comparative study of morbidity pattern among rural and urban postmenopausal women of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Ankita Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The study shows that postmenopausal women in India suffer from various vasomotor, physical as well as psychiatric problems related to menopausal hormonal changes with varied frequencies. There is a need to address their problem and establish health care centers for them. Postmenopausal women should be sensitized for availing the health facilities for their health problems by information education and communication (IEC and behaviour change communication (BCC. Family support should be ensured by creating awareness in community. Awareness regarding menopause and problems among women related to it need to be improved. Health workers, ASHA, Aanganwadi workers can help women to understand about the menopausal symptoms, if they are given adequate training.

  8. Petro-mineralogical Studies of the Paleoproterozoic Phosphorites in the Sonrai basin, Lalitpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dar, Shamim A., E-mail: sjshamim@gmail.com; Khan, K. F.; Khan, Saif A.; Khan, Samsuddin [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Geology (India); Masroor Alam, M. [Aligarh Muslim University, Geology Section Department of Civil Engineering (India)

    2015-09-15

    The Paleoproterozoic phosphorites constitute an economically significant component of the Sonrai basin of Lalitpur district. These are associated with ferruginous shale, ironstone, limestone and quartz breccia. Petro-mineralogical studies of samples of the phosphorites, using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, reveal that the collophane (carbonate-fluorapatite) is the dominant phosphate mineral. Calcite, dolomite, quartz, mica and haematite are the dominant gangue constituents. The phosphate minerals occur as oolites mutually replaced by carbonate and silica. The presence of iron oxides has been found in most of the thin sections. There is meagre evidence of organic matter in the form of filaments of microbial phosphate laminae in the samples of phosphorite. The mineral assemblages, their texture and various forms in these phosphorites may be due to some environmental vicissitudes followed by replacement processes and biogenic activities.

  9. Anxiety among people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral treatment attending tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Mukesh Shukla

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: People living with HIV/AIDS need to be periodically educated and informed about various issues associated with the disease severity and antiretroviral treatment along with its side-effects so that they could better cope with disease and its treatment outcomes over time and be able to seek early treatment accordingly. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2897-2901

  10. Anxiety among people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral treatment attending tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Shukla; Monika Agarwal,; Jai Vir Singh; Anand Kumar Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the major health challenges faced by India is the rapid growth of HIV/AIDS and its impact upon human life. Co-morbidities like anxiety are often overlooked while providing ART services to HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore the present study was conducted to assess the anxiety and associated factors among PLHA (People Living with HIV/AIDS) on antiretroviral treatment attending tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow. Methods: Hospital and #8209;based cross-sectional study was conduc...

  11. Utility of Papanicolaou test in diagnosis of cervical lesions: a study in a tertiary care centre of western Uttar Pradesh

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    Mithila Bisht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among females in India. It is also one of the major causes of deaths among them. Papanicolaou (Pap cytological test helps in detecting the early epithelial abnormalities in cervical cells. The morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer has come down in countries with well-established screening programmes at national level. This study was conducted to emphasize the value of cervical screening as a tool for early detection of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of cervix. Slide positivity rate was computed and clinico-pathological correlation was done. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2014 (3 years, on 2202 women aged between 20-70 years coming for a Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital in Bareilly, India. After staining with conventional Papanicolaou technique, all cases were classified as per Bethesda nomenclature (2001. Results: Out of 2202 cases, 85.16% slides were found to be negative for intraepithelial abnormalities and 14.84% slides were labelled as positive for epithelial lesions. 97.67% of high grade lesions were found in women more than 40 years. Smears with epithelial cell abnormality were found more common in older age groups whereas smears negative for epithelial cell abnormality were found more common in young age groups. Conclusion: Pap test is a cost effective cancer screening and is a simple method to detect various lesions of cervix, non-neoplastic as well as neoplastic. High risk screening programmes should be directed to all women >40 years. Pap test is especially useful to diagnose precancerous lesions of cervix, thereby early detection of these lesions and subsequent proper treatment can be helpful in prevention of cervical cancer. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1070-1076

  12. Determination of the biometric characteristics of palatine rugae patterns in Uttar Pradesh population: A cross-sectional study

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    Harjeet Kaur Sekhon

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study concluded that rugae pattern are highly individualistic and can be used as a supplementary method for personal identification and sex determination. Further inter-observer and intra-observer variability were not found to be significant, which further validates the use of rugoscopy as a forensic tool.

  13. Coverage & missed opportunity for Japanese encephalitis vaccine, Gorakhpur division, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2015: Implications for Japanese encephalitis control

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    Manoj V Murhekar

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The survey results showed that three of the four children aged 25-36 months in Gorakhpur division had received at least one dose of JE vaccine. The coverage of second dose of JE vaccine, however, was low. Failure to administer vaccination simultaneously was the most common reason for MoV for JE vaccine. Training vaccinators about correct vaccination schedule and removing their misconception about administering vaccines simultaneously would substantially improve JE vaccine coverage in Gorakhpur.

  14. A study of supply, procurement, and distribution Of i fa under rch programme in lucknow district, uttar pradesh

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    Richa Singh

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the Government's National Nutritional Anaemia Control Programme ( NNACP Program, now a part of RCH, has been limited due to poor supply and distribution system of iron supplements. In this paper, an attempt has been made to assess the current supply, procurement and distribution system of IFA tablets from the Lucknow district up to the Sub Centre level,The study revealed that the supply pattern of IFA tablets, which are provided through KIT A. has been grossly erratic at all the levels, Contrary to the RCH guidelines, the grass root level workers are no where involved in demand estimation procedure, which is done by GOI on the basis of fixed population of a sub-centre of 5000. The transportation of these kits to the sub-centre also poses a problem with ANMs'. Though the tablets are supplied for pregnant and lactating women, and children aged one to five years, the monitoring of distribution of IFA at State, district, PHC and sub-centre levels, if any, is done only for pregnant women.

  15. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN BEEDI WORKERS IN BUNDELKHAND REGION OF UTTAR PRADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

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    Mohd Shamim Ansari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of this paper is to explore link between socio-economic positions of women working in unorganized sector with special reference to beedi rolling. In India Beedi making is an age old industry and one of the largest job providers for women in the unorganized sector. Women are having inherent advantage in this job in this job of beedi rolling due to deft fingers; yet significant gender bias exists. The job is mainly done by weaker economic class in the country who don’t have adequate education and skill to look for alternate job. The work of beedi rolling is preferred by the women because it can be carried from home along with domestic chores. Thus, they supplement family income along with managing the household jobs. However, in the recent year the trade is shrinking thus there is situation of underemployment.

  16. MANAGING CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS IN PRIVATE HEALTH CARE FACILITIES - A STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO GREATER NOIDA CITY OF UTTAR PRADESH

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    Arun Kumar Panda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Customer relationship management (CRM which has overriding significance for any business isno less significant for hospital services. Hospitals are most important elements in any health caredelivery system. A hospital plays a major role in maintaining and restoring the health of the people.Care of the sick and injured, preventive health care, health research, and training of medical andparamedical staff are general broad functions of a hospital. It involves to the outpatient and inpatienthospital services and on many occasions emergency medical services. An important resource in ahospital is a human resource. This should be particularly emphasized. This should be particularlyemphasized in the content of a hospital since relationship of medical staff plays important role intreating patients - the hospital customers. In health care, CRM practices are essentially patient -focused strategies that involve effective management of hospital interface and interaction withpatients. Effective CRM practices in a hospital may mean providing services related information toa patient very quickly. Responding to the patent appointment and an admission requests promptly,dealing with patient queries and complaints expeditiously, exercising all kinds of flexibilities inserving patients to the patients. This research paper made an attempt to analyze the factorsinfluencing the customers to select the hospital and to suggest better ways and means to retain thecustomers. For the study, the researcher has collected data from 200 respondents of 10 privatehospitals located in Greater Noida city. For this purpose stratified random sampling method was usedto select the samples. The present study highlights the extent of utilization of the hospital services bythe selected sample respondents. It also shed light on the common problems faced by therespondents. The major features of the service sectors especially on hospital performance is projectedin order to utilize the services as per the expectation of the patients (customer.The collected data were analyzed through percentage, average, range, standard deviation and weighted average. Chi-square test was also employed to find the associationship of overallsatisfaction with different demographic variables. Likert’s scaling technique is used to identify thecustomer preference and satisfaction on hospital services. Henry Garrets ranking method is also usedto judge the ranking especially on the hospital services.

  17. PREVALENCE AND PREDICTORS OF TOBACCO USE; A CROSS- SECTIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY IN ALIGARH DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

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    S Dixit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. WHO estimates one billion deaths in 21st century because of tobacco, if current trends of use continue. Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted over a period of one year among 848 individuals (>15 years from urban and rural field practicing areas of the department of community medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh. Door to door survey was done. Households were the primary sampling unit. Data analysis has been done using SPSS version 14.0. To test significance chi square test have been used as applicable. Results: 249 (29.4% ever used smoked tobacco. Out of which, 224 (26.4% respondents were current smokers and rest 25 (3% were ever smokers. A total of 311 (36.7% study subjects were found user for non smoked substances and out of these, 204 (24 % were current users and rest 107 (12.7% were ever users. A total of 422 (49.8% subjects were found user (including current and ever user both for any form of the tobacco products (either smoked, non smoked or both. Tobacco use was found significantly associated with socio-economic status, literacy level, parental tobacco use, parental education and male gender. Conclusions: The study documented prevalence and predictors of tobacco use. The study population is at risk of tobacco related morbidity and mortality and needs action targeting the most vulnerable population. Health promotion, health education and behavior change communication as tools, can prove valuable for effective control of tobacco risk behavior.

  18. A STUDY TO ASSESS THE ATTITUDE REGARDING HIV/AIDS AMONG COLLEGE GOING ADOLESCENTS OF DISTT. AGRA OF UTTAR PRADESH

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    Dinesh Kumar Verma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the altitude regarding HIV/A IDS among college going adolescents.Method: 500 adolescents from two intermediate college were selected randomly. The information was collected by interviewing the students one by one in privacy through a pre-tested interview schedule.Result: Attitude of the students towards HIV victims was sympathetic but in many aspects, negative attitude towards PLHA was also observed. About 50% students were not in the favour of working with PLHA. 54.5% females did not like to share shaving blade while 63.4% females liked to share clothes with HI V Positives as compared to 49% males.Conclusion : Fear and intolerant attitude towards PLHA were prevalent in adolescents. HIV/AIDS education designed in a way to raise the knowledge and change the attitudes making them respectful to community values, is urgently needed from media, schools/colleges and health professionals.

  19. Job satisfaction and Job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital in central Uttar Pradesh, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruchi Yadav; Dhiraj Kumar Srivastava; Sanjeev Yadav; Sandip Kumar; Pankaj Kumar Jain; Sachin Gupta

    2017-01-01

    ...: To study the relationship between job satisfaction and job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital and to find the co-relates of job stress and job satisfaction. Materials & Methods...

  20. Rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of phosphorites of the Sonrai area of Paleoproterozoic Bijawar basin, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. F. Khan; Shamim A. Dar; Saif A. Khan

    2012-01-01

    The rare earth element (REE) data from the Paleoproterozoic Bijawar basin,Sonrai phosphorites were used to interpret the depositional conditions of the phosphorites.The post archean Australian shales (PAAS) normalized REE patterns of the Sonrai phosphorites were characterized by negative Ce and positive Eu anomalies.Middle rare earth elements (MREE)-ennchment was a characteristic feature.Phosphorites showing the diagenetic effects on the REE patterns were limited.The observed Eu anomaly was indicative of an anoxic (or sulphate reducing) diagenetic environment of phosphate formation.Mixing of sea water and upwelling during the Paleoproterozoic was responsible for the recording of positive Eu and negative Ce anomalies in the Sonrai phosphorites.

  1. Biodiversity and Indigenous Uses of Medicinal Plant in the Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandauli District, Uttar Pradesh

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    Maurya Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional medicines are very important part of Indian culture. In this study the outcome of two-year study of ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary (CPWLS and nearby area is reported. Information related to different plants which are used by local community in the treatment of many common diseases and well-being in the area was collected. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interview of about 122 participants and thorough observations and conversations with local communities. Approximately 100 plants belonging to 43 families used by the local healers were reported in this study. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lawsonia inermis, Gymnema sylvestre, Dalbergia sissoo, Cassia fistula Linn., Butea monosperma (Lam. Kuntze., Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Albizia lebbeck Benth., Aegle marmelos Correa., Sphaeranthus indicus Linn., and Solanum surattense Burm. f. The most frequent ailments reported were hepatitis, jaundice, constipation, and skin and urinary problems. The parts of the plants most frequently used were fruit, roots, and whole plants (17% followed by leaves (16% and bark (15%. This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the search for new drugs based on local uses of medicinal plants.

  2. First report of Eutropis innovate (Blanford, 1870 (Reptilia: Scincidae from Nallamalai Hills, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    K.T. Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first record of Eutropis innotata (Blanford, 1870 based on a specimen collected in 2002 from Gundla Brahmeswaram Metta Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India. The habitat from where it was collected is relatively undisturbed patch of forest in the Nallamalai Hills of Eastern Ghats. This constitutes the range extension of this species from central India to Nallamalai Hills in Eastern Ghats in peninsular India. We provide details on its diagnosis, habits and habitat, and key to species belonging to the genus Eutropis Fitzinger, 1843.

  3. STATUS OF SCHEDULE TRIBES IN ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Dr. P. Subramanyachary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schedule Tribes (ST’s are Indian population groups that are explicitly recognized by the constitution of India order 1950. The order lists 744 tribes across 22 states in its first schedule. In Andhra Pradesh 33 types of Schedule Tribes are living in 8 districts. ST’s are 6.6% are in total population of Andhra Pradesh. They have rich heritage along with their innocent life style. As they are living in hill areas and forests they have some peculiar characters like indications of primitive traits, distinctive culture, and shyness of contact with other communities, geographical isolation, backwardness etc. So, for their development central and state governments are implementing different programmes and schemes since 1951. After the Ministry of Tribal affairs were constituted in 1999, there is more focus on development of Schedule Tribes in Indian society especially in Andhra Pradesh. The persisting problems like low literacy and high drop-outs, inadequate health services, lack of nutrition food, extreme poverty, and ineffective implementation of schemes etc are putting them away from economic development. Hence, there should be more commitment by both central and state government and local bodies to develop Schedule Tribes in the society. As literacy is 37% NGO’s and other voluntary organizations have to play key role to bring awareness among schedule tribes regarding programs and scheme for their development. Awareness and participation of Schedule Tribes in the implementation of policies leads to prosperity of ST community in the state as well as country.

  4. Review - The Sherthukpens of Arunachal Pradesh

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    Christopher Weedall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Anita Sharma. 2013. The Sherthukpens of Arunachal Pradesh: A Narrative of Cultural Heritage and Folklore. New Delhi: Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage and Aryan Books International. Scheduled tribes – indigenous people who are acknowledged to some formal extent by national legislation – of Arunachal Pradesh, formerly part of the North-East Frontier Association, in North-East India, have been largely neglected in terms of cultural and linguistic study, with a few exceptions, such as Elwin (1958, 1959, 1988, Das (1995, and Chowdhury (1973. This region, however, is home to a diverse group of individuals who have only recently been introduced to modernization. For this reason, until recently, most tribes in the area have retained traditions that were maintained for centuries or longer. Due to the contemporary influx of roads, electricity, and television, these traditions have been threatened and are gradually giving way to modern (largely Western ideas and practices. It is for this reason that Anita Sharma's The Sherthukpens of Arunachal Pradesh: A Narrative of Cultural Heritage and Folklore (henceforth Sherthukpens comes at an opportune time to investigate and record the heritage of the Sherthukpen people as it was and is now becoming. Sherthukpens is a hardbound book with a well-made, ...

  5. Maternal Health Situation in Bihar and Madhya Pradesh: A Comparative Analysis of State Fact Sheets of National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal health constitutes the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. Bihar and Madhya Pradesh (MP) constitute the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and are consistently having poor maternal health indicators. Aim The main objective of this study was to assess the maternal health situation of Bihar and MP based on National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) and 4 fact sheets. Materials and Methods The study adopted a narrative description in which the NFHS fact sheets (NFHS-3 & 4) of both these states were obtained from appropriate sources and compared for various maternal health indicators. Results and Discussion Albeit progress has been observed from NFHS-3 to NFHS-4 however, the progress is very dismal compared with the progress of other similar Indian states. Relatively MP has shown better progress compared to Bihar. Poor performance is being observed in all the three levels of maternal health; pregnancy {Ante-Natal Care (ANC), Tetanus toxoid (TT) and Iron and Folic Acid (IFA)}, child birth (Institutional delivery by Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA), Caesarean Section (CS) and post partum care (hospital stay and Janani Suraksha Yojna (JSY). The poor performance of both these states in all these indicators requires multipronged approach strong political will, health system strengthening, community mobilization and awareness. Conclusion Given the status of maternal health in India and more especially in states BIMARU (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh) and EAG states (Empowered action group), improvement in the performance of maternal health related activities is highly necessary. PMID:27790466

  6. Worlds apart 1: Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Reaping rewards of social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, R

    1994-01-01

    Tamil Nadu had a 1991 annual growth rate of 1.1% compared to a rate of over 2% in the northern states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. The lower fertility and mortality in Tamil Nadu was achieved through a sustained, multifaceted social and economic effort and through promotion, reach, and quality of family planning in a short time period. Political leadership and media efforts since the 1960s have strengthened support for the small family norm, later marriage, and improved status of women. Infrastructure development includes roads and water supplies in every village, rural electrification, and a government center in every village. Tamil Nadu devotes over 33% of its total budget to health and education. Special emphasis was placed on a program initiated in 1982 to provide a nutritious midday meal in school to every child living in poverty. In 1994, this program cost Rs. 3350. The result has been increasing school enrollment, greater retention of female children, reductions in malnutrition, and opportunities for local part-time employment and increased social status in the community. In some locations, the meal program includes day care centers and meals for the aged. Another social program provides cash loans of Rs. 5000 to couples at first marriage who are over the age of 18 years with a completed high school degree. Rs. 300 are provided for nutritional support for the first two pregnancies. Rs. 10,000 are also given to girls whose family income is under Rs. 12,000 a year. Financial assistance is available for widows who remarry and for intercaste marriages. A new program provides a gold ring, educational expenses, and Rs. 20 for families with an only girl child or two girl children and which accept a permanent method of family planning. A negligible 20,000 couples joined the program, although about 15% of the total population was eligible. 50-55% of women receive state subsidies and loans. Collectives exist in 12,000 women's groups. Tamil

  7. Problems and prospects in North Eastern Coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, A.K.; Jha, M.N.

    1989-02-01

    North eastern region, very well known as land of seven sisters, comprises of the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. Some of the minerals like oil and coal are concealed in this region in dense forests and difficult terrain. North Eastern Coalfields being directly administered by Coal India Ltd. is responsible for exploitation of coal in this region. At present all the working mines are situated in the State of Assam only. One Simsong UG project will be started this year in the State of Meghalaya and coal deposits of Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh are likely to be worked in Eighth Five Year Plan. In the remaining three States, i.e. Mizoram, Manipur and Tripura no occurrence of coal deposit has been found so far. 6 tabs.

  8. Intangible Cultural Heritages of Arunachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmirekha Sarma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intangible cultural heritage includes traditions or living expressions, inherited from our predecessors and transmitted to our successors orally or by gesture, discussed mainly within five broad domains: oral traditions and expressions including language; performing arts; social practices, rituals, festive events; knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and traditional craftsmanship. Intangible cultural heritage, which only can be experienced, virtually could be anything; objects, songs, stories or skills; are considered important to preserve for future generations, because these create a community’s identity and forming the belongingness to a country, a tradition or a way of life. With 31 indigenous communities with different oral traditions and languages, Arunachal Pradesh, a hill state of India is known to be one of the magnificent multilingual and multicultural indigenous peoples areas of the world. By songs, dances, dresses, rituals or simply the gestures, the people express and maintain their different living styles which make Arunachal Pradesh vivaciously vibrant in the realms of intangible cultural heritages.

  9. Glof Study in Tawang River Basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R.; Padhee, S. K.; Dutta, S.

    2014-11-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is one of the major unexpected hazards in the high mountain regions susceptible to climate change. The Tawang river basin in Arunachal Pradesh is an unexplored region in the Eastern Himalayas, which is impending to produce several upcoming hydro-electric projects (HEP). The main source of the river system is the snow melt in the Eastern Himalayas, which is composed of several lakes located at the snout of the glacier dammed by the lateral or end moraine. These lakes might prove as potential threat to the future scenario as they have a tendency to produce flash flood with large quantity of sediment load during outbursts. This study provides a methodology to detect the potential lakes as a danger to the HEP sites in the basin, followed by quantification of volume of discharge from the potential lake and prediction of hydrograph at the lake site. The remote location of present lakes induced the use of remote sensing data, which was fulfilled by Landsat-8 satellite imagery with least cloud coverage. Suitable reflectance bands on the basis of spectral responses were used to produce informational layers (NDWI, Potential snow cover map, supervised classification map) in GIS environment for discriminating different land features. The product obtained from vector overlay operation of these layers; representing possible water area, was further utilized in combination with Google earth to identify the lakes within the watershed. Finally those identified lakes were detected as potentially dangerous lakes based on the criteria of elevation, area, proximity from streamline, slope and volume of water held. HEC-RAS simulation model was used with cross sections from Google Earth and field survey as input to simulate dam break like situation; hydrodynamic channel routing of the outburst hydrograph along river reach was carried out to get the GLOF hydrograph at the project sites. It was concluded from the results that, the assessed GLOF would be a

  10. Butterflies (Lepidoptera of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, western Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sondhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex in western Arunachal Pradesh, India, covering the protected areas of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakke Tiger Reserve and Sessa Orchid Wildlife Sanctuary were surveyed over a 5-year period (2009–2014.  A total of 421 butterfly species were recorded during the survey, including two species new to India (Gonepteryx amintha thibetana and Bhutanitis ludlowi and several species rediscoveries and range extensions in the Eastern Himalaya, most notably Arhopala belphoebe, Sovia separata magna, Aulocera saraswati vishnu, Calinaga aborica, Callerebia annada annada, and Callerebria scanda opima.  Here we provide an annotated checklist of butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, including historical records, distributions, abundance, habitats and other notes on these 421 species. An additional 42 species recorded in older literature or by other authors in recent times are also listed, taking the total number of species recorded in the landscape to 463.  

  11. KAP Study on Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs Among Married women (15-44 years in rural area of Etawah, Uttar Pradesh

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    Vidya Rani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: High level of gynaecological morbidity, especially RTIs/STIs, if untreated, it can lead to adverse health outcomes such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy and increases vulnerability to transmission of HIV/AIDS. Sexually transmitted infections are worldwide major concern in developing countries.  The major aspect of the control and prevention of disease and health protection is health education. Since knowledge plays an important role in people attitude and behaviours.Aims & Objectives: To assess the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices about RTIs among married women age 15-44 years in rural Etawah.  Material Methods:  A cross sectional study was done on 370 married women of rural area of Etawah district. Multi stage random sampling was adopted. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, Attitudes and Practices about RTIs among married women. Chi -square test used for analysis. Data collection on morbidity pattern among married women was based only on symptoms.Result: In the present study 42.16 % were aware about RTIs. As per their knowledge about symptoms, mode of transmission and source of infections 35.41 % women told vaginal discharge as commonest symptom of RTIs, 40.0% women perceived sexual contact with multiple partner as the main route of transmission and 29.46% married women gained knowledge about RTIs from health worker followed by doctors 28.10%.Conclusion: Only 42.16% had knowledge of RTIs and only 61 infected women sought treatment out of 173 symptomatic women. There is need to educate women on preventive strategies as women are less likely to seek treatment for symptomatic infections because of stigma associated with RTIs.

  12. Description of Pallisentis (Brevitritospinus punctati n. sp. (Acantho¬cephala: Quadrigyridae from Channa punctatus in Ba¬reilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Neelima GUPTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Pallisentis is an endoparasitic acanthocephalan inhabit­ing the intestinal walls. Hooks and spines of the worm are significant taxonomical and adaptive tools.Methods: The parasites were fixed, dehydrated and examined under Olym­pus BX 53 Microscope with DIC attachment, digital camera and CELLSENS imag­ing system [Light microscopy (LM] and fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer, dehydrated, rotary-coated with gold palladium in NeoCoater 100-240V and examined in Neo JCM-6000 [scanning electron microscopy (SEM].Results: P. punctati n. sp. (prevalence 65.51%; mean intensity 3-6 par/host is de­scribed. Females almost twice as large as males; proboscis hooks small; collar spine rows similar [16] and constant in both sexes but number of spines per row greater in females [22] than males [14]; trunk spine rows 28-39 (spines per row 14-18 in females and 20-26 (spines per row 10-12 in males. spine length of females almost twice as long as males, spines extend up to posterior testis in males and ¾ of total body length in females, Saefftigen’s pouch present, nuclei in cement gland 10-11, seminal vesicle, bursa and egg size small. SEM indicated lack of micro sculptures, and spines embedded on pre-trunk and trunk. Sex-based differences apparent (hook sizes, greater number of spines per row and longer spines in pre-trunk and trunk of females. Male trunk spine was narrower and of lateral spine with characteristic hooked appearance.Conclusion: A new species of Pallisentis based on LM and SEM is described, sexual diversity in hook and spine structure is reported.

  13. Prevalence of dental diseases in 5- to 14-year-old school children in rural areas of the Barabanki district, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Meghna Singh

    2011-01-01

    Results: The prevalence of gingivitis, fluorosis, and malocclusion was 78.35%, 33.37%, and 34.09%, respectively. The difference between age groups for the prevalence of gingivitis was highly significant, and was more among girls as compared to boys. A significant increase in the prevalence of malocclusion was observed with age. No significant difference was found among genders for the prevalence of malocclusion. An increase in the prevalence of fluorosis was highly significant with age. The difference in fluorosis was insignificant between boys and girls.

  14. Revisiting community case management of childhood pneumonia: perceptions of caregivers and grass root health providers in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, northern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shally Awasthi

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is the leading cause of under-five mortality globally with almost one-quarter of deaths occurring in India.To identify predisposing, enabling and service-related factors influencing treatment delay for CAP in rural communities of two states in India. Factors investigated included recognition of danger signs of CAP, health care decision making, self-medication, treatment and referral by local practitioners, and perceptions about quality of care.Qualitative research employing case studies (CS of care-seeking, key informant interviews (KII, semi-structured interviews (SSI and focus group discussions (FGD with both video presentations of CAP signs, and case scenarios. Interviews and FGDs were conducted with parents of under-five children who had suffered CAP, community health workers (CHW, and rural medical practitioners (RMP.From September 2013 to January 2014, 30 CS, 43 KIIs, 42 SSIs, and 42 FGDs were conducted. Recognition of danger signs of CAP among caregivers was poor. Fast breathing, an early sign of CAP, was not commonly recognized. Chest in-drawing was recognized as a sign of serious illness, but not commonly monitored by removing a child's clothing. Most cases of mild to moderate CAP were brought to RMP, and more severe cases taken to private clinics in towns. Mothers consulted local RMP directly, but decisions to visit doctors outside the village required consultation with husband or mother-in-law. By the time most cases reached a public tertiary-care hospital, children had been ill for a week and treated by 2-3 providers. Quality of care at government facilities was deemed poor by caregivers.To reduce CAP-associated mortality, recognition of its danger signs and the consequences of treatment delay needed to be better recognized by caregivers, and confidence in government facilities increased. The involvement of RMP in community based CAP programs needs to be investigated further given their widespread popularity.

  15. A STUDY OF THE MORBIDITY PROFILE, PERSONAL HYGIENE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS OF DISTRICT GHAZIABAD IN UTTAR PRADESH

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    Ravi Kant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : As part of the rural outreach programme and school health programme of Santosh Hospital, medical examination of school children, studying in Government Primary and Middle Schools of the nine villages where the outreach programme was in progress, was carried out. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : The aim of this study was to find out the morbidity profile, nutritional status and level of personal hygiene of the school children. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A team of doctors examined all the students of the concerned schools on a fixed date. Health status was assessed by detailed clinical history and thorough check - up by resident doctors in Ophthalmology, ENT, Pediatrics and Dentistry. Level of personal hygiene was assessed by checking the cleanliness of clothes, hair, nails, face and freedom from any skin infections. Nutritional status was assessed by calculating Body Mass Index (BMI and the weight status was then classified according to WHO BMI for AGE classification. The study was conducted between 04 August 2014 to 21 November 2014 and a total of 421 students were examined. RESULTS : Maximum (41.33% children were found to have dental caries, followed by anemia in 11.64% students. Fever and upper respiratory tract infections were found in 9.5% children and defective vision in 3.09% students. Complaints of pain abdomen was given by 2.38% children and 2.85% of them gave history of worm infestation. A number of students were found to be suffering from skin infections like pyoderma (4.99%, scabies (3.09% and fungal infections (2.61%. CONCLUSIONS : The government health department should regularly carry out school health check - up as well as health education sessions to educate the children, parents as well as school teachers on various preventive measures including improvement in nutritional status and personal hygiene.

  16. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE ATTENDING RURAL TERTIARY CARE INSTITUTE OF WESTERN UTTAR PRADESH

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    Amit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge among women of child bearing age and is associated with adverse obstetric and gynaecologic outcomes. OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of BV by use of Nugent’s criteria and to identify modifiable and nonmodifiable, the risk factors associated with BV in women of reproductive age. METHODOLOGY A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013, among women of child bearing age with complaints of vaginal discharge, attending Gynaecology and Obstetric OPD at UPRIMS & R, Saifai, Etawah. Bacterial morphotypes indicative of BV were identified by Nugent’s criteria. A pre-coded questionnaire was used to collect demographic and behavioural characteristics (including contraceptive usage, douching practice in the study participants. DATA ANALYSIS Bivariate and multivariate analyses by logistic regression method performed. Crude Odds ratio and Adjusted Odds Ratio for the association between BV and demographic or behavioural characteristics was calculated using Poisson regression. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were calculated keeping Nugent score of 7 for BV as ‘Gold standard.’ RESULTS A prevalence of 31.5.0%, (95% CI 25.6-38.2 was obtained from the study population. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Amsler’s criteria for clinical diagnosis of BV was 67.7%, 89.39%, 74.58% and 85.02% respectively. Low socioeconomic status including occupation, illiteracy, Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD usage, douching practice and condom usage were significantly associated with BV. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of BV was 31.5% in this population. Concordance between Amsel’s criteria and Nugent’s was low (67.67%. Among individual Amsel’s parameters, vaginal pH >4.5 had highest sensitivity (84.61% and demonstration of ‘Clue Cell’ was most specific (92.2%. Risk factors for BV ought to be evaluated in larger population for development of interventional strategies.

  17. Seroprevalence of Rotavirus infection in pig population of Arunachal Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garam, G. B.; Bora, D. P.; Borah, B.; Bora, M.; Das, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to find out the seroprevalence of Rotavirus(RV) infection among the pig population of Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Serums samples were collected from piglets of age ranging from 1 week to 6 months and the sows associated with the piglets that were reared under organized and unorganized system of management in six different districts of Arunachal Pradesh. The prevalence of RV specific antibodies was detected using a polyclonal antibody-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). Results: The study revealed that out of 394 serum samples, 255 (64.72%) samples were found to be positive for RV-specific antibody in i-ELISA. Considering the samples from different districts, Papumpare district of Arunachal Pradesh showed highest numbers of seropositive animals (68.75%) followed by upper Subansiri (64.91%) while West Siang district showed lowest positivity rate (61.22%). Conclusion: As considerable seropositivity was recorded among pig population of Arunachal Pradesh in this study, there is urgent need to establish high-impact and cost-effective public health intervention tools, key among them being the introduction of strict hygiene practice and RV vaccination program, to greatly reduce the number of deaths due to diarrheal diseases. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of RV infection from pigs of Arunachal Pradesh. PMID:27956785

  18. Additions to the hyphomycete genus Veronaea as phytoparasitic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharwar, R N; Singh, R K

    2004-01-01

    Three new species of Veronaea, V. ficina on Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae), V. grewiicola on Grewia asiatica L. (Tiliaceae), and V. hippocratiae on Hippocratia arborea Willd. (Celastraceae), collected from forests of Nepal and the Terai belt of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, are described, illustrated and compared with related taxa.

  19. Antiaris toxic aria (Moraceae - a new distribution record to the Eastern Ghats

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    K. Ravikumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiaris toxicaria (Pers. Lesch. (Moraceae - a paleotropical species has so far been reported only from the Western Ghats and Andaman islands in India. The present collections from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh form a new report to the entire Eastern Ghats. Provided here are the latest nomenclature, brief description and some notes on its distribution.

  20. Women in MGNREGS in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vij, Sumit; Jatav, Manoj; Barua, Anamika; Bhattarai, Madhusudhan

    2017-01-01

    Based on secondary data from the National Sample Survey Offi ce and a household-level survey of four villages in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, the study found that the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme has a number of direct and indirect benefi ts. Overall, it was found

  1. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra

  2. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra Pra

  3. Butterflies (Lepidoptera of Dibang Valley, Mishmi Hills, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Gogoi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the result of a butterfly diversity survey in the Mishmi Hills, Arunachal Pradesh including the Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary. The survey was conducted from March 7 to June 22, 2011. 294 butterfly species were recorded. The survey also resulted in the sighting of elusive butterflies like Meandrusa payeni evan, Meandrusa lachinus lachinus, Byasa polla and Spindasis rukmini.

  4. Structure of Charnockitic basement in a part of the Krishna–Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I V Radhakrishna Murthy; S Bangaru Babu

    2006-08-01

    A regional magnetic survey was carried out over an area of 8000 km2 in Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh,India,which is covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) viz., the Khondalitic series and Charnockites in the northern half and Permian to Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in the southern half,and forms a part of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin. The survey brought out a strong NE –SW trending anomaly in the area covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB),and a mild ENE –WSW trending anomaly in the area covered by the sediments of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin.The NE –SW trending anomaly in the northern half could be attributed to the exposed/near surface Charnockite basement that has come closer to the surface as a result of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB)tectonics.Explanation of the mild ENE –WSW trending anomaly over the sediments of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin required a faulted magnetic basement at depth downthrown towards the south.It is therefore concluded that the Charnockitic basement together with the Khondalite group of rocks which are folded and faulted during the different phases of tectonics of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) extend into the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin and further,were involved in faulting during the phases of formation and sedimentation in the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin.

  5. Groundwater governance: A tale of three participatory models in Andhra Pradesh, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V Ratna Reddy; M Srinivasa Reddy; Sanjit Kumar Rout

    2014-01-01

    .... The main focus of the study is to understand the functioning and efficiency of groundwater management institutions by comparing and contrasting three participatory groundwater models in Andhra Pradesh...

  6. Prevalence of gastro intestinal parasites in ruminants and poultry in Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murthy, G S. S; Rao, P V

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence study was conducted on gastrointestinal parasites of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and poultry belongs to in and around Korutla, Karimangar district (Telangana region) of Andhra Pradesh...

  7. Climate drivers on malaria transmission in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Chenna, Sumana; Parasaram, Vaideesh; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted during the years 2006 to 2012 and provides information on prevalence of malaria and its regulation with effect to various climatic factors in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Correlation analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Hotelling's T² statistics models are adopted to understand the effect of weather variables on malaria transmission. The epidemiological study shows that the prevalence of malaria is mostly caused by the parasite Plasmodium vivax followed by Plasmodium falciparum. It is noted that, the intensity of malaria cases declined gradually from the year 2006 to 2012. The transmission of malaria observed was more during the rainy season, as compared to summer and winter seasons. Further, the data analysis study with Principal Component Analysis and Hotelling's T² statistic has revealed that the climatic variables such as temperature and rainfall are the most influencing factors for the high rate of malaria transmission in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh.

  8. Food processing in Andhra Pradesh: Opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mahendra Dev; N. Chandrasekhara Rao

    2004-01-01

    There has been diversification of Indian diets away from foodgrains to high value products like milk, meat products, vegetables and fruits. Food-processing industry has been registering good growth since the past few decades and particularly after nineties. The conditions are now ideal for the growth of this industry. The central government has taken some steps to deregulate and encourage the sector after 1991. However, the role of states is vital. The government of Andhra Pradesh released a ...

  9. Civil Society Organisations and Elementary Education Delivery in Madhya Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Reetika Syal

    2011-01-01

    Despite various efforts for the past six decades, the Indian government has not achieved universal enrolment in elementary education. The government acknowledges that it may be too big a task to be accomplished by a single agency and has made a space for civil society and non-governmental efforts to achieve this goal alongside the government. In Madhya Pradesh, the CSO’s involvement in elementary education began with individual efforts for curriculum innovation in the 1970s. Persistent effort...

  10. Evaluation of telemedicine centres in Madhya Pradesh, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Surya; Gupta, Arti; Khan, Asif; Pakhare, Abhijit

    2016-04-01

    In a developing country such as India, there is substantial inequality in health care distribution. Telemedicine facilities were established in Madhya Pradesh in 2007-2008. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the infrastructure, equipment, manpower, and functional status of Indian Space and Research Organisation (ISRO) telemedicine nodes in Madhya Pradesh. All district hospitals and medical colleges with nodes were visited by a team of three members. The study was conducted from December 2013-January 2014. The team recorded the structural facility situation and physical conditions on a predesigned pro forma. The team also conducted interviews with the nodal officers, data entry operator and other relevant people at these centres. Of the six specialist nodes, four were functional and two were non-functional. Of 10 patient nodes, two nodes were functional, four were semi-functional and four were non-functional. Most of the centres were not working due to a problem with their satellite modem. The overall condition of ISRO run telemedicine centres in Madhya Pradesh was found to be poor. Most of these centres failed to provide telemedicine consultations. We recommend replacing this system with another cost effective system available in the state wide area network (SWAN). We suggest the concept of the virtual out-patient department.

  11. Coastal processes along north Kakinada Coast, Andhra Pradesh based on short-term study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raju, N.S.N.; AshokKumar, K.; Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    Kakinada is situated in the central part of the Andhra Pradesh State on the east coast of India. To cater to recreational activities of the people in this coastal town, the Andhra Pradesh State Government has taken up an interactive to develop...

  12. Correlation of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin with acute kidney injury in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Patel ML; Sachan R; Gangwar R; Sachan P; Natu SM

    2013-01-01

    ML Patel,1 Rekha Sachan,2 Radheyshyam Gangwar,3 Pushpalata Sachan,4 SM Natu51Department of Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3Department of Critical Care, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 4Department of Physiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pra...

  13. Frequency of left-handedness among the Andhra Pradesh people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronamraju, K R

    1975-01-01

    The percentages of left-handed people among the males and females of Andhra Pradesh tribals in India were found to be 15.49 and 7.79, and in Hindus 6.9 and 4.65. The difference between the sexes among tribals is significant. The tribal people studied were Koya Doras, Sugalis (or Lambadis), and Konda Reddis. It is suggested that similar quantitative studies of left-handedness should be made in other tribal and aboriginal populations before they are culturally comditioned to right-handedness.

  14. Medicinal Plants In Traditional Use At Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Nungki Perme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In rural world, the use of medicinal plants in healthcare system is an integral source of easily available remedy. This study was conducted on herbal preparations of different plant parts used by the tribal people of Arunachal Pradesh for controlling the diseases. The villages like Yekar, Dulom, Sippi, Soki, lamdik in Upper Subansiri District, Ngopok, Passighat, in East Siang Distrivt, East Kameng District, West Kameng District, Lower Subansiri District of Arunachal Pradesh, India were surveyed through personal interviews with the villagers and medicine men and assistance of local information.  We recorded the traditional use of 101 medicinal plants species belonging to 50 taxonomic plant families used for treating a total of 156 different diseases/ailments. The informant consensus factor (ICF values demonstrated that local people tend to agree more with each other in terms of the plants used to treat malaria (0.71, jaundice (0.62, urological problems (0.56, dermatological disorders (0.45, pain (0.30, and respiratory disorder (0.33, and while the general health (0.15 and gastro-intestinal disorders category (0.28 were found low ICF values. The highest number of medicinal plants (101 species was reported from the Adi of Lower Dibang Valley followed by the Nocte of the Tirap (25 species and the Nyishi ethnic groups of Papum Pare districts (13 species.

  15. GIS for public health : A study of Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinagesh, B.; Kalpana, Markandey; Kiran, Baktula

    2014-06-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing have capabilities that are ideally suited for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, particularly for the many vector-borne neglected diseases that are often found in poor populations in remote rural areas. They are also highly relevant to meet the demands of outbreak investigation and response, where prompt location of cases, rapid communication of information, and quick mapping of the epidemic's dynamics are vital. The situation has changed dramatically over the past few years. GIS helps in determining geographic distribution of diseases, analysing spatial and temporal trends, Mapping populations at risk, Stratifying risk factors, Assessing resource allocation, Planning and targeting interventions, Monitoring diseases and interventions over time. There are vast disparities in people's health even among the different districts across the state of Andhra Pradesh largely attributed to the resource allocation by the state government. Despite having centers of excellence in healthcare delivery, these facilities are limited and are inadequate in meeting the current healthcare demands. The main objectives are to study the prevalent diseases in Andhra Pradesh, to study the infrastructural facilities available in A.P. The methodology includes the Spatial Database, which will be mostly in the form of digitized format. The Non-Spatial Database includes both secondary data as well as the primary data.

  16. Injection safety for immunisation--Andhra Pradesh experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipilyawar, Satish B; Rao, R Gopal Krishna

    2005-04-01

    Injection safety is one component of a major immunisation project being implemented in partnership with Government of Andhra Pradesh and PATH, an international NGO. Prior to the project wrong and dangerous injection giving practices were present among the staff which needed immediate attention. It was decided to introduce auto disable syringes along with safety boxes with high quality training to staff and make all these available to all districts along with hepatitis B introduction in the routine immunisation. The State of Andhra Pradesh became the first to implement 'bundling' concept in the immunisation project. Implementation was planned to be done in a phased manner to cover all the 23 districts over a five-year period. For routine immunisation sessions, smaller locally produced boxes may be more acceptable. The Government of India made a decision on 21st July, 2004 on implementing injection safety. Injection safety and proper disposal of used needles and syringes can be successfully advocated if medical associations, paediatric associations, key governmental bodies and international agencies come together. PATH established a group and holds the secretariat for the India injection safety coalition on similar basis as the Safe Injection Global Network of WHO (SIGN). Description of AP system for safe disposal of needles and syringes using manual needle-cutters and plastics recycling has been depicted in this article.

  17. Status of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Uttar Dinajpur District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Bhattacharjee, Sharmistha; Nayak, Susmita; Biswas, Asit K; Biswas, Akhil B

    2013-01-01

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BPCR) is crucial in averting maternal morbidity and mortality. To find out awareness and practices regarding BPCR among pregnant and recently delivered women in Uttar Dinajpur, West Bengal. This is a cross-sectional, community-based, mixed methods study. Two-stage, 40 cluster sampling technique was used to select three pregnant and six recently delivered women separately. Information on socio-demographic variables as well as awareness and practices regarding BPCR were collected through semi-structured interview. In-depth interviews with one respondent per cluster were also conducted. For statistical analysis Z test was used. Around 50% of the respondents planned for first antenatal check-up (ANC) within 12 weeks, four or more ANCs and institutional delivery. Proportion of women aware of at least one key danger sign each of pregnancy, labor, postpartum, and newborn ranged from 12.1% to 37.2%, whereas 58.3% knew at least one key component of essential newborn care. Around two-thirds and one-third of women, respectively, especially those from backward and below poverty line (BPL) families knew about cash incentive and referral transport schemes. Proportions of women with first ANC within 12 weeks, four or more ANCs, institutional delivery, saving money, identifying transport, and blood donor were 50.4%, 33.6%, 46.2%, 40.8%, 27.3%, and 9.6%, respectively. Hindu religion, backward castes, BPL status, and education ≥ 5 years influenced the practices except for two regarding ANC. Overall BPCR index of the study population was 34.5. Preparedness in health system, ensuring competence, and motivation of workers are needed for promoting BPCR among the study population.

  18. Maritime History of Andhra Pradesh and Prospects for Marine Archaeological Research

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Archaeological, epigraphical, numismatic and other sources confirm that similar to ports in other coastal states of India, the ports of Andhra Pradesh had played a significant role in spreading Indian culture overseas to other countries. In course...

  19. SPECTRUM OF SECONDARY PERITONITIS IN NORTH COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

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    Janardhana Rao Konkena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Secondary peritonitis due to perforation of Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT is one of the most common surgical emergencies worldwide. The spectrum of aetiology of secondary peritonitis in tropical countries differs from western countries. This study was conducted in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The purpose of this study is to highlight the salient causes of secondary peritonitis and its outcome. METHODS A retrospective analysis of 603 patients of secondary peritonitis was done from January 2013 to December 2015 at King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. All cases which were found to have peritonitis as a result of perforation of any part of GIT at the time of surgery were included in the study. All cases with either primary peritonitis or that due to anastomotic dehiscence were excluded. RESULTS A total of 603 patients were studied. Among them, 493 (81.7% were males and 110 (18.3% were females. Most common cause of secondary peritonitis in our study was acid peptic disease(52.40% followed by appendicular pathology(11.2%, gastrointestinal perforation due to injury of abdomen (9.62%, small bowel perforation due to typhoid aetiology (7.63%, gangrenous bowel (6.30%, ruptured liver abscess (2.98%, biliary peritonitis (1.99% and some miscellaneous rare causes. Overall, mortality in this study was found to be 8.95%. CONCLUSION The spectrum of secondary peritonitis in North Coastal Andhra Pradesh differs from other areas in India and western countries. Highest incidence of secondary peritonitis is due to perforation noted in gastroduodenal region, which is in contrast to western hemisphere where the predominant cause is lower gastrointestinal tract. Considering the relatively higher rate of gastroduodenal perforation quoted in this study, it is vital that awareness about the role of Helicobacter pylori ought to be considered. Special focus must also be made to increase awareness

  20. Emergence of dengue in tribal villages of Mandla district, Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Barde, P.V.; Shukla, M.K.; Kori, B.K.; Chand, G.; Jain, L.; Varun, B.M.; Dutta, D.; K Baruah; Singh, Neeru

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dengue (DEN) is a rapidly spreading arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Although it is endemic in India, dengue virus (DENV) infection has not been reported from tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh. Investigations were conducted to establish the aetiology of sudden upsurge of cases with febrile illness in June 2013 from tribal villages of Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Methods: The rapid response team of the National Institute for Research in Trib...

  1. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ramadass; I B Ramaprasada Rao; N Srinivasulu

    2001-03-01

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either side by the peninsular gneissic complex. The elevation and slab Bouguer corrected residual gravity profile data were interpreted using 2-D prism models. The results indicate a synformal structure having a width of 1.8 km at the surface, tapering at a depth of about 2.6 km with a positive density contrast of 0.15 gm/cc with respect to the surrounding peninsular gneissic complex.

  2. The birds of Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    T.S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avifaunal survey carried out from December 2006 to September 2007 in Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, revealed the presence of a total of 147 species of birds belonging to 43 families. One-hundred-twelve species of birds in Araku Valley were resident breeders, 23 species winter visitors, nine species local migrants, two species passage migrants and one species summer visitor. Many bird species were seen in more than one habitat for nesting, roosting and foraging. The dominant feeding guild of birds was insectivorous. Four globally threatened species, namely, the Purple Wood-Pigeon Columba punicea Blyth, 1842, the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas, 1811, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 and the Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (S.G. Gmelin, 1770, were recorded during the survey from the area

  3. Tree diversity and community characteristics in Talle Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya, India

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    Gyati Yam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in a temperate forest for enumeration of floristic diversity and community characteristics analysis of the Talle Wildlife Sanctuary. A random sampling approach was adopted. Altogether, 63 species were recorded from the sampled area (0.2 ha. Family dominance results showed that Lauraceae was the most dominant followed by Fagaceae. Seventy percent of species showed low frequency distribution and species having higher frequency classes were almost absent or represented by only a few species. Dominance distribution of species resulted in a log normal distribution pattern which further signifies that the forest community was heterogeneous in nature. Species Prediction and Diversity Estimation analysis categorized 80% of the species as a rare species group and 20% as abundant species group. Estimation of coefficient of variation showed that rare species have equal detection possibilities in the sampled area. Distribution of basal cover in different girth classes indicates a reverse trend to that of stand density. The results of this study show that the forest community composition is highly clustered and loosely colonized in nature.

  4. Phytodiversity and conservation of Nithypooja Kona Sacred Grove of Nallamala Hill Range, Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh

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    SKM Basha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sacred groves are climax forests and are the only representatives of natural or near-natural vegetation. These are dedicated to deities or ancestral spirits worshipped by local tribes along with surrounding plants and trees. These are ecosystems by themselves and perform all the ecological functions. Phytodiversity constitute a large segment of the flora which provides raw materials for use by numerous Pharmaceutical industries. The present study will be useful for researchers in the field of Ethan botany, Ethnomedicine, Taxonomy, and Pharmacology for further studies. Nithyapoojakona Sacred grove is one of the important sacred groves in Kadapa district. The present paper deals with the phyto-diversity of the above grove used by local tribes. This paper deals with the 181 species of probable medicinal potential belonging to 138 genera and 71 families. Significant flora are Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Drosera burmaptonni, Orabanche cernua, Neptunia oleracea, Hugonia mystax, Caralluma adsendens , Gloriosa superba, Limnophila spp, Centella sasiatica etc. Word famous Red sanders population of the study area is being destroyed unethically and it is to be protected. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12648 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 271-288

  5. Rediscovery of the Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider 1801) (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    C. Srinivasulu; Venkateshwarlu, D.; M. Seetharamaraju

    2009-01-01

    We report the rediscovery of the Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider 1801) (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India after a gap of about 100 years based on three specimens that were observed in Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh.

  6. EASTERN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVALUATION OF SELECTED ELITE POTATO GENOTYPES IN. EASTERN ... Significant

  7. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Tangjang Sumpam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper documents the uses of plants in traditional herbal medicine for human and veterinary ailments, and those used for dietary supplements, religious purpose, local beverage, and plants used to poison fish and wild animals. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and methods Field research was conducted between April 2006 and March 2009 with randomly selected 124 key informants using semi-structured questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed through informant consensus factor (FIC to determine the homogeneity of informant's knowledge on medicinal plants. Results We documented 50 plants species belonging to 29 families used for treating 22 human and 4 veterinary ailments. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (40% followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. Leaves were most frequently used plant parts. The consensus analysis revealed that the dermatological ailments have the highest FIC (0.56 and the gastro-intestinal diseases have FIC (0.43. FIC values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants in dermatological and gastro-intestinal ailments category among the users. Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically rare and endangered species used as disinfectant for cleaning wounds and parasites like leeches and lice on livestocks. Two plant species (Illicium griffithii and Rubia cordifolia are commonly used for traditional dyeing of clothes and food items. Some of the edible plants recorded in this study were known for their treatment against high blood pressure (Clerodendron colebrookianum, diabetes mellitus (Momordica charantia, and intestinal parasitic worms like round and tape worms (Lindera neesiana, Solanum etiopicum, and Solanum indicum. The Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh have traditionally been using Daphne papyracea for preparing hand-made paper for painting and writing

  8. Recent report of Dark Himalayan Oakblue Arhopala rama Kollar, 1848 (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea: Theclinae from Tenga Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Rachit Pratap Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The known distribution range of Arhopala rama ramosa from India is in Manipur (Evans 1932.  However, sighting of this subspecies from Arunachal Pradesh extends its range to Arunachal Pradesh by ca. 570 kilometers from Manipur. Key identifying features have also been mentioned for both the subspecies. 

  9. Conflict, resistance and alliances in a multi-governance setting: reshaping realities in the Andhra Pradesh irrigation reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.; Molen, van der I.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we will explore how local politics of policy, in the interaction with governance mechanisms, have produced specific polity outcomes in the irrigation sector of Andhra Pradesh. The water sector of Andhra Pradesh, which has been struggling within inefficiency, poor performance, deteri

  10. Rediscovery of the Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider 1801 (Serpentes: Elapidae from Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Srinivasulu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the rediscovery of the Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider 1801 (Serpentes: Elapidae from Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India after a gap of about 100 years based on three specimens that were observed in Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh.

  11. Games for groundwater governance: field experiments in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Ruth Meinzen-Dick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a common-pool resource that is subject to depletion in many places around the world as a result of increased use of irrigation and water-demanding cash crops. Where state capacity to control groundwater use is limited, collective action is important to increase recharge and restrict highly water-consumptive crops. We present results of field experiments in hard rock areas of Andhra Pradesh, India, to examine factors affecting groundwater use. Two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs ran the games in communities where they were working to improve watershed and water management. Results indicate that, when the links between crop choice and groundwater depletion is made explicit, farmers can act cooperatively to address this problem. Longer NGO involvement in the villages was associated with more cooperative outcomes in the games. Individuals with more education and higher perceived community social capital played more cooperatively, but neither gender nor method of payment had a significantly effect on individual behavior. When participants could repeat the game with communication, similar crop choice patterns were observed. The games provided an entry point for discussion on the understanding of communities of the interconnectedness of groundwater use and crop choice.

  12. Exploring the pathways of unsafe abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 40 years after enactment of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971, unsafe abortion continues to be a neglected women's health issue in India. This prospective study of women presenting for post-abortion care in 10 selected hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, aimed to understand the incidence, types and severity of post-abortion complications, probable causes of complications and consequences to women in terms of hospitalisation and incurred costs. Among 1565 women presenting for induced abortion-related services between July and November 2007, 381 women with post-abortion complications consented to participate. Data reveal a high prevalence of post-abortion complications (29%). Approximately half of women originally attempted to induce abortion at home using medication, home-made concoctions or traditional methods. Ninety percent sought care from either qualified (37%) or unqualified providers. More than half of the women were hospitalised as a result of post-abortion complications. This study suggests that supporting access to safely induced abortion services and improving community awareness on legal aspects, safe methods and approved providers are all necessary to reduce morbidity associated with unsafe abortion.

  13. Tuberculosis management practices by private practitioners in Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Shanta Achanta

    Full Text Available SETTING: Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC, and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. DESIGN: Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68% were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6% followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14% private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment. Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. CONCLUSION: Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance.

  14. Emerging energy scenario in Western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, R.K. [Department of Environmental Science, Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni (Solan) 173 230 (India); Chandel, S.S. [Centre for Excellence in Energy and Environment, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur 177005, Himachal Pradesh (India)

    2010-05-15

    The GHGs emitted by using conventional energy sources rapid industrialization and development in hills, are contributing global warming, which has resulted in melting of glaciers located in the state at the rate of 0.3-20 m{sup 2} per year as per recent studies. The shrinking of glaciers, which are the main source of water of Himalayan rivers, can have an adverse impact on the future of hydro-power projects, many of which may become non-functional during next 40-50 years if the current trend of melting of glaciers continues and the other renewable energy sources are required to be tapped to supplement the declining hydro-electricity generation. The energy consumption for cooking, lighting and space heating in the Western Himalayan Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, is highest in the northern India. The fuelwood consumption constitutes about 52% of the total energy consumption of the state. About 2.7 h per person per trip in the rural areas, are spent for the collection of fuelwood mainly during winters. A number of options and potential of renewable energy sources for cooking, heating and lighting in the state have been discussed. The future policy interventions in the energy sector are also presented. (author)

  15. Diphtheria in Andhra Pradesh-a clinical-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Meera; M, Rajarao

    2014-02-01

    Clinical diphtheria is on the increase worldwide, mainly affecting developing countries. We sought to understand its presentation among patients at Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Diphtheria patients presented with fever, pharyngitis, and a patch in the throat. Data collected for each patient included age, clinical presentation, morbidity, mortality, bacteria isolated from culture, and immunization status. Of 61 950 admissions from January 2008 to December 2012, 2925 (4.7%) had clinical diphtheria; 1194 had been immunized and 1731 were non-immunized. Immunized patients had a milder disease. Culture-positive immunized patients were positive for Corynebacterium other than diphtheriae (COD; n=104) or Corynebacterium diphtheriae (CD; n=23); these patients suffered mild disease and recovered completely. In contrast, culture-positive non-immunized patients were positive for COD (n=11) or CD (n=412). Eighty-one patients (3%) died, 77 of whom were non-immunized; death was usually as a result of myocarditis. Seventy-three percent of deaths were in patients aged diphtheria and its severity and morbidity differ considerably in immunized and non-immunized patients. Disease caused by CD can be deadly, while disease due to COD is mild and responds to treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh

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    S. Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasites in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Approximately, 10 g of feces was collected from recently voided feces in airtight fecal collection vials (HiMedia, India. Fecal samples were subjected to the direct method and centrifuge flotation method for finding out parasitic ova. The ova were identified on the basis of morphological characters described by Soulsby, 1982. Result: A total of 78 fecal samples were collected. Of 78, 44 (56.41% samples were found positive. Most of the positive fecal sample showed mixed infection of different helminths parasites egg. Fasciola spp. and Amphistome spp. were the two predominant parasites among the flukes. In nematodes infection, Toxocara vitulorum was the least prevalent GI nematodes. In the case of cestodes Moniezia expansa was little higher (14% in semi-intensive. Conclusion: The present study reveals that Mithun is infected by several GI parasites. Among trematodes, Fasciola, and Amphistomes are predominantly spp. whereas, Strongyle and Trichuris are more prevalent spp. among nematodes and Moniezia among cestodes parasites.

  17. Laboratory investigation of drinking water sources of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, S D; Panda, A K

    2012-06-01

    A total of 70 drinking water sources including piped water supply (n = 36), ground water sources (n = 24, hand pumps and bore wells) and natural water sources (n = 10, springs/step-wells) from various parts of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh were investigated for their suitability for drinking purpose by presumptive coliform test. Three samples were collected from each source during different parts of the year. Piped water sources (91.7%) were most contaminated followed by natural water sources (90%) and ground water sources (62.5%). 70.5% of the total water samples (n = 210) were positive for coliforms. All the three samples from 8.3% (n = 3), 37.5% (n = 9) and 10% (n = 1) piped water, ground water and natural sources respectively, were negative for coliform organisms. A variety of organisms including Proteus, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pasteurella, Enterobacter and Serratia liquefaciens were isolated from water samples positive for coliforms in presumptive coliform test. Thermo-tolerant coliform organisms; Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter were 71.2% (n = 52) of the total bacterial isolations. These findings suggest absence of adequate treatment and disinfection of the water sources supplying drinking water in district Kangra.

  18. Ethnobotanical uses of biofencing plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Devi, Usha

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs) and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints), 14% (asthma), 11% (fever and joint pains), 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite), 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders). Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible), 8 (fodder) and 4 (fiber and ornamental). This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region.

  19. Study of some genetic markers in sishta karanam population, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Naidu V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 76 individuals belonging to Sishta Karanam population, Andhra Pradesh, were tested for polymorphism in ABO and Rh (D blood groups, two serum proteins, Haptoglobin and Ceruloplasmin, and one red cell enzyme, Glyoxalase-I. All the systems except Caeruloplasmin showed polymorphism. The frequency of AB phenotype is found to be highest in the Sishta Karanam when compared to the other caste populations of Andhra Pradesh so far studied. It was observed that the ABO system was not in Hardy-Weinberg Equillibrium. The Hp1-1 phenotype was absent in this population. The Glyoxalase-I locus showed all the 3 phenotypes.

  20. Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata: Insecta of Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Tiple

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dragonfly and damselfly (Odonata species diversity and status were studied in the 1.09sq.km campus of the Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh (Central India. A total of 48 species of odonates belonging to 32 genera of two Sub-orders and 9 families viz., Coenagrionidae, Protoneuridae, Platycnemididae, Lestidae, Chlorocyphidae, Aeshnidae, Gomphidae, Libellulidae and Macromiidae were recorded. Six species previously unrecorded from Madhya Pradesh were added to the checklist. Of the total 48 species, 15 were very common, 15 were common, 16 rare and two very rare. The observations support the value of the TFRI campus in providing valuable resources for Odonata fauna.

  1. A comparative study on nutritional status of under 6 years children in i.c.d.s. And non i.c.d.s. Tribal areas of uttar pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv prakash

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives :To find out the nutritional status of children under six year. .To determine the level of difference in nutritional status of Children under six years in I.C.D.S. and Non I.C.D.S. tribal areas.To assess the impact of I.C.D.S. scheme on nutritional status of children below six years.Study Design : Cross Sectional StudyParticipants : Under six years children.Sample Size : 1536 children of Nighasan block (I.C.D.S. block and 1471 of Ramia Behar block (Non I.C.D.S. block. Key Words : Nutritional status, I.C.D.S., height - weight index, Service impact.Results : All the value for height & weight in both groups were lower as compared to the I.C.M.R. standards. All children in I.C.D.S. group were below the normal weight - height index (i.e. > 0.15 while in Non I.C.D.S. group were below normal wt.-ht. index in all age group except 6 -<24 months male & 3 - < 9 months female. Overall prevalence of P.E.M. in I.C.D.S. group was 90.36& while it was 86.85% in Non I.C.D.S. group. The difference was significant.  

  2. Impact assessment and cost-effectiveness of m-health application used by community health workers for maternal, newborn and child health care services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: An m-health application has been developed and implemented with community health workers to improve their counseling in a rural area of India. The ultimate aim was to generate demand and improve utilization of key maternal, neonatal, and child health services. The present study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of this project. Methods/design: A pre–post quasi-experimental design with a control group will be used to undertake difference in differences analysis for assessing the impact of intervention. The Annual Health Survey (2011 will provide pre-intervention data, and a household survey will be carried out to provide post-intervention data.Two community development blocks where the intervention was introduced will be treated as intervention blocks while two controls blocks are selected after matching with intervention blocks on three indicators: average number of antenatal care checkups, percentage of women receiving three or more antenatal checkups, and percentage of institutional deliveries. Two categories of beneficiaries will be interviewed in both areas: women with a child between 29 days and 6 months and women with a child between 12 and 23 months. Propensity score matched samples from intervention and control areas in pre–post periods will be analyzed using the difference in differences method to estimate the impact of intervention in utilization of key services.Bottom-up costing methods will be used to assess the cost of implementing intervention. A decision model will estimate long-term effects of improved health services utilization on mortality, morbidity, and disability. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed in terms of incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year averted and cost per unit increase in composite service coverage in intervention versus control groups. Conclusions: The study will generate significant evidence on impact of the m-health intervention for maternal, neonatal, and child services and on the cost of scaling up m-health technology for accredited social health activists in India.

  3. Impact assessment and cost-effectiveness of m-health application used by community health workers for maternal, newborn and child health care services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Nimesh, Ruby; Gupta, Aditi; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Tarundeep

    2016-01-01

    An m-health application has been developed and implemented with community health workers to improve their counseling in a rural area of India. The ultimate aim was to generate demand and improve utilization of key maternal, neonatal, and child health services. The present study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of this project. A pre-post quasi-experimental design with a control group will be used to undertake difference in differences analysis for assessing the impact of intervention. The Annual Health Survey (2011) will provide pre-intervention data, and a household survey will be carried out to provide post-intervention data.Two community development blocks where the intervention was introduced will be treated as intervention blocks while two controls blocks are selected after matching with intervention blocks on three indicators: average number of antenatal care checkups, percentage of women receiving three or more antenatal checkups, and percentage of institutional deliveries. Two categories of beneficiaries will be interviewed in both areas: women with a child between 29 days and 6 months and women with a child between 12 and 23 months. Propensity score matched samples from intervention and control areas in pre-post periods will be analyzed using the difference in differences method to estimate the impact of intervention in utilization of key services.Bottom-up costing methods will be used to assess the cost of implementing intervention. A decision model will estimate long-term effects of improved health services utilization on mortality, morbidity, and disability. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed in terms of incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year averted and cost per unit increase in composite service coverage in intervention versus control groups. The study will generate significant evidence on impact of the m-health intervention for maternal, neonatal, and child services and on the cost of scaling up m-health technology for accredited social health activists in India.

  4. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornby Stella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  5. Surveillance of chikungunya virus inAndhraPradesh,Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CVMNareshKumar; P Sangamithra; M Rajasekhar; DVR Saigopal

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The study involved survey and screening of areas suspected of chikungunya virus (CHIKV)infection, characterizing the causative agent and identifying the circulatingCHIKV genotype.Methods: Acute phase samples were screened by the use ofRTPCR using primer setDVRChk-F/DVRChk-R whereas convalescent samples were tested byCHIKV IgM strips. Results: Two hundred and seventy five acute phase samples were screened by RT-PCR, of which 149(54.18%) showed positivity forCHIKV. Later on192 convalescent phase samples were tested forCHIKV specific antibodies in which125(65.10%) samples were found to be positive. Four CHIKV strains were selected and subjected to cloning followed by nucleotide sequencing and were submitted to the GenbankDNAdatabase with the Accession numbers(GQ119362,GQ119363, GQ119364, andFJ225403). The Sequence analysis of“CHIK-Kadapa” strain(GQ119362)with other CHIKV isolates suggested that the present CHIKV strain has (99.23± 0.52) % and100 %identity with Central East South African isolates(CESA) at nucleotide and amino acid levels respectively. Two unique non synonymous mutations S168L andD183Vwere depicted in E1 gene of the selected strains of the present study.Conclusions:The14 months survey revealed the circulation of CHIKV in2008-2009in Andhra Pradesh and the causative agent is identified to be of Central East South African(CESA) origin. The importance of the non synonymous mutations (S168L and D183V) and their role in the mobility and strength of theE1-E1andE1-E2 interactions needs further investigations. The study also urges the need for intensifying the epidemiological and entomological surveillance to combat any suchCHIKV outbreak in the near future.

  6. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal Indonesia Presumed ... human cases in north, central, and southern Laos Malaysia Endemic in Sarawak; sporadic cases reported from all ...

  7. Combining Work and School: The Dynamics of Girls' Involvement in Agricultural Work in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Virginia; Vennam, Uma

    2010-01-01

    Child labour in India has long been the focus of research, policy concern and intervention. This article presents an analysis of children's involvement in agricultural work, particularly cottonseed production, drawing on evidence gathered for Young Lives in 2007 and 2008. In parts of Andhra Pradesh, children work in cotton fields for two or three…

  8. Organizational Climate as Perceived by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Andhra Pradesh in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Talata Chandrakanthi; Gupta, Jancy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify various organizational climatic factors responsible for role performances of veterinary officers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Design/methodology/approach: Study was conducted in 11 selected districts. Data were collected from 220 respondents through a pretested interview schedule and subjected to correlation and multiple…

  9. Radon monitoring in groundwater of some areas of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab states, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Vivek; Bajwa, B S; Virk, H S

    2003-02-01

    Radon measurements have been carried out in groundwater of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab states, India. Radon concentration values in potable water show a wide range of variation from source to source and from place to place. Generally, radon concentration values in thermal springs groundwater have been found to be higher than the values from other sources.

  10. Eddy diffusion coefficients in the coastal waters of north Andhra Pradesh and Orissa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, B.P.; Sarma, V.V.

    and (VI) - off Konark along the east coast in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa states. The values of kx and ky , in area (I) are comparable with those obtained from dye experiment, while they are one order higher in area II, compared to areas I & III. The mean...

  11. Model studies on salt and water balances at Konanki pilot area, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasulu, A.; Sujani Rao, C.; Lakshmi, G.V.; Satyanarayana, T.V.; Boonstra, J.

    2004-01-01

    The salt and water balances at Konanki pilot area in Nagarjunasagar project right canal command in Andhra Pradesh State of India were analysed using SALTMOD. The model was calibrated by using two-year data collected in the pilot area. From the calibration, the leaching efficiencies of the root and t

  12. An Inspector Calls: The Regulation of 'Budget' Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, J.; Dixon, P.

    2005-01-01

    Research explored the regulatory regime, both 'on paper' and 'in practice', for private unaided schools serving low-income families ('budget' private schools), in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Interviews were conducted with school managers, teachers, parents, and senior government officials and politicians. A Supreme Court Judgement rules out…

  13. Organizational Climate as Perceived by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Andhra Pradesh in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Talata Chandrakanthi; Gupta, Jancy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify various organizational climatic factors responsible for role performances of veterinary officers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Design/methodology/approach: Study was conducted in 11 selected districts. Data were collected from 220 respondents through a pretested interview schedule and subjected to correlation and multiple…

  14. New records of potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Arunachal Pradesh, India: five genera and ten species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinivasan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Six genera and eleven wasp species belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are reported from the state of Arunachal Pradesh, of which five genera and 10 species are new records for the state.

  15. Has the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh Addressed the Educational Divide in Accessing Health Care?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rao, Mala; Singh, Prabal Vikram; Katyal, Anuradha; Samarth, Amit; Bergkvist, Sofi; Renton, Adrian; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    .... We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient...

  16. Applicability of Two Universally Accepted Mixed Dentition Analysis on a Sample from Southeastern Region of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobha, M B; Ajs, Sai; Manoj, Kmg; Srideevi, E; Sridhar, M; Pratap, Gmjs

    2016-01-01

    Most of the universally accepted mixed dentition analyses are based on the data derived from northwestern European descent. However, the accuracy of these methods when applied to different ethnic population is questionable. The present study is aimed to evaluate the applicability of Tanaka and Johnston (TJ) and Moyers (50(th) and 75(th) percentile) mixed dentition analysis in a sample from south-eastern region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Study models were prepared from a sample of 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) in the age range of 13-15 years. The mesio-distal dimension of the teeth was measured using a Digital Vernier calipers. The actual values of permanent canine and premolars on the casts were compared with the predicted values from TJ and Moyers analysis. The values derived from this study were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (IBM, Chicago, USA). Pearson's coefficients were used to evaluate the correlations between the groups of teeth. Overestimated values were noticed in males and females of both arches with TJ equation; Males showed no significant difference at Moyers 50(th) percentile (50/100), in both the arches where as females showed higher values in mandibular arch and underestimated values in maxillary arch. At Moyers 75(th) percentile, overestimated values were noticed in males for both the arches whereas in females lesser values were observed. As the values showed significant deviation from TJ and Moyers both at 50 and 75 percentile, its applicability to the present population is limited. So, new regression equations were derived.

  17. Blood group and serum protein polymorphisms in turpu kapu population of vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Komal Madhavi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on two blood group and three serum protein polymorphisms of the Turpu Kapu, an endogamous population of Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh (AP is presented. The gene frequencies for the blood group systems ABO and Rh are within the ranges of distribution reported earlier among the caste populations of Andhra Pradesh. The study population shows highest frequency of Hp1 allele and the lowest frequency of Hp2 allele compared to the other populations of AP. The Cp system is monomorphic, all individuals being the BB type. The GC system exhibits polymorphism with the gene frequencies of GC1 and GC2 alleles showing the highest and lowest frequencies, respectively, as compared to the caste populations reported earlier. The c2 test suggest that this population is in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

  18. Effect of fluoride exposure on the intelligence of school children in Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between exposure to different drinking water fluoride levels and children′s intelligence in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 12-year-old school children of Madhya Pradesh state, India. The children were selected from low (0.05. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the urinary fluoride levels (P 0.000. Reduction in intelligence was observed with an increased water fluoride level (P 0.000. The urinary fluoride level was a significant predictor for intelligence (P 0.000. Conclusion: Children in endemic areas of fluorosis are at risk for impaired development of intelligence.

  19. Radon monitoring of microseismicity in the Kangra and Chambra valleys of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virk, H.S. [Guru Nanak Dev Univ., Amritsar (India). Dept. of Physics

    1995-04-01

    Data on radon emanation collected in soil-gas and groundwater at Palampur in the Kangra valley and Dalhausie in the Chamba valley of Himachal Pradesh is reported. Radon anomalies exhibit correspondence with some of the seismic events that occurred in the region along the Himalayan thrust faults. The study has proven the usefulness of radon as a precursor micro-seismic activity along the major faults. (author).

  20. Further new additions to the lichen mycota of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohabe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the lichen exploration in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh several interesting lichen taxa were collected of which 10 species are reported here as new records for the state. The species includes Biatorella conspersa (Biatorellaceae, Caloplaca bassiae, C. poliotera (Teloschistaceae, Dimelaena tenuis (Physciaceae, Lecanora chlarotera, L. helva, L. interjecta, L. psuedistera (Lecanoraceae, Pertusaria melastomella (Pertusariaceae and Porina tetracerae (Porinaceae. These taxa / species have been enumerated along with their characteristic features and distributional notes.

  1. The legitimation of risk and democracy: A case study of Bt cotton in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the inter-related attempts to secure the legitimation of risk and democracy with regard to Bt cotton, a genetically modified crop, in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. The research included nine months of ethnographic fieldwork, extensive library and newspaper research, as well as university attendance in India, undertaken between June, 2010 and March, 2011. This comparative study (involving organic, NPM and Bt cotton cultivation) was conducted in three villages in Te...

  2. Additions to the floral wealth of Sirmaur District, Himachal Pradesh from Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Subramani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 352 species of phenerogams comprising 251 dicotyledons, 97 monocotyledons and four species of gymnosperms belonging to 85 families collected from Nohra Forest Block of Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary, District Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh are reported as additions to the district.  This includes 13 threatened species under different Red List assessments, both global and regional and 35 species are endemic to western Himalaya.

  3. Reaching the unreached: Mobile surgical camps in a remote village of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Bathla

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Uterovaginal prolapse is not only socially embarrassing and disabling; its surgical treatment is complex and costly too. The free mobile surgical camps under "Project Prolapse" in Shillai, Himachal Pradesh has provided relief to old neglected, disabled women suffering from prolapse in this remote village. Parallel counseling of women and dais for safe hospital delivery and training subordinates in prolapse surgery may help in addressing the problem of POP in this area in the long run.

  4. Urban land use and geohazards in the Itanagar Capital city, Arunachal Pradesh, India: Need for geoethics in urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, Swapna

    2013-04-01

    The capital city, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India is exposed to the multiple geohazards as the city is located in the region which experiences extreme physical phenomenon due to changing climate in the tectonically active North-Eastern Himalayas. The geohazards in Itanagar includes landslides, floods, soil erosion and earthquakes. The high decadal growth rate of 111.36% in 1991-2001 census has brought in many challenges with respect to the capital city developmental planning. Due to rapid and haphazard growth in urban land use the people residing in the city are gradually becoming more vulnerable to the geohazards in the past decades. The city condition at present has raised issues of grave concern related to effective hazard management. It is observed that geoscientific approach is violated at many places in the urban developmental activities along the central spine, the National Highway-52A of the capital city. There is an urgent need of geoscientists to apprise the urban populace about land suitability and stability in terms of rock types, soil, slope, geomorphology, groundwater condition etc. and the vulnerability of the existing urban land use to landslides, flood, soil erosion and earthquakes. In this paper major issue, critical issues and elements at risk are discussed in the context of ethics in geohazard management and developmental planning for urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate.

  5. Descriptive epidemiology of novel influenza A (H1N1, Andhra Pradesh 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh R Allam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first case of pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 in India was reported from Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh on 16 th May 2009. Subsequently, all suspected cases seeking treatment from A (H1N1 treatment centers and their contacts were tested. Laboratory confirmed cases were hospitalized and treated with antivirals according to national guidelines. We reviewed the surveillance data to assess the morbidity and mortality due to A (H1N1 in the state of Andhra Pradesh (population-76,210,007 during the period from May 2009 to December 2010. Materials and Methods: We obtained the line-list of suspected (influenza like illness as per World Health Organization case definition and laboratory confirmed cases of A (H1N1 from the state unit of integrated disease surveillance project. We analyzed the data to describe the distribution of case-patients by time, place and person. Results: During May 2009 to December 2010, a total of 6527 suspected (attack rate: 8.6/100,000 and 1480 (attack rate: 1.9/100,000 laboratory confirmed cases were reported from the State. Nearly 90% of the suspected and 93% of the confirmed cases was from nine districts of Telangana region, which includes Hyderabad. Nearly 65% of total confirmed cases were reported from Hyderabad. The attack rate was maximum (2.6/100,000 in the age group of 25-49 years. The cases peaked during August-October. 109 case-patients died (Case fatality ratio: 7% and most (80% of these patients had comorbid conditions such as diabetes (24%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20%, hypertension (11% and pregnancy (11%. Case fatality was higher (16% among patients who were older than 60 years of age compared with other age groups. Conclusions: In Andhra Pradesh, H1N1 transmission peaked during August-October months and predominately affected adults. Case fatality was higher in patients older than 60 years with comorbid conditions.

  6. Economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India to inform resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Lalit; Kumar, S G Prem; Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi

    2009-01-14

    To conduct composite economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions to inform efficient utilization of resources in India. We obtained output and economic cost data for the 2005-2006 fiscal year from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programmes of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh state of India. Using data from various sources, we developed a model to estimate the number of HIV infections averted. We estimated the additional HIV infections that could be averted if each intervention reached optimal coverage and the associated cost. In a year, 9688 HIV infections were averted by public-funded HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh. Scaling-up interventions to the optimal level would require US$38.8 million annually, 2.8 times the US$13.8 million economic cost in 2005-2006. This could increase the number of HIV infections averted by 2.4-fold, if with higher resources there were many-fold increases in the proportional allocation for programmes for migrant labourers, men who have sex with men and voluntary counselling and testing, and reduction of the high proportion for mass media campaigns to one-third of the 2005-2006 proportion of resource utilization. If the proportions of resource allocation for interventions remained similar to 2005-2006, the higher resources would avert 54% of the additional avertable HIV infections. The recent four-fold increase in public funding for HIV/AIDS control in India should be adequate to scale-up HIV prevention interventions to an optimal level in Andhra Pradesh, but the prevention would be suboptimal if additional investments were not preferentially directed to some particular interventions.

  7. Biogeochemical investigation in south eastern Andhra Pradesh: the distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in plants and soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, K.K.; Raju, A.N. [Sri Venkateswara Univ., Tirupati (India). Dept. of Geology

    2000-09-01

    The concentration of rare earth elements (REE), thorium and uranium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the plant species, Pterocarpus santalinus, P. marsupium and P. dalbergioides, and the soils on which they were growing. Higher concentrations of lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) were observed in both plants and soils. Large amounts of thorium and uranium were found in the soil. In all tree species, the concentration of REEs were higher in the heartwood than the leaves. The heartwood of P. santalinus accumulated larger quantities of uranium (average concentration of 1.22 ppm) and thorium (mean value of 2.57 ppm) than the other two species. (orig.)

  8. Geospatial analysis of HIV-Related social stigma: a study of tested females across mandals of Andhra Pradesh in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandwal, Rashmi; Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Stein, Alfred; Miscione, Gianluca; Garg, Pradeep Kumar; Garg, Rahul Dev

    2010-04-12

    In Geographical Information Systems issues of scale are of an increasing interest in storing health data and using these in policy support. National and international policies on treating HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) positive women in India are based on case counts at Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centers (VCTCs). In this study, carried out in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, these centers are located in subdistricts called mandals, serving for both registration and health facility policies. This study hypothesizes that people may move to a mandal different than their place of residence for being tested for reasons of stigma. Counts of a single mandal therefore may include cases from inside and outside a mandal. HIV counts were analyzed on the presence of outside cases and the most likely explanations for movement. Counts of women being tested on a practitioners' referral (REFs) and those directly walking-in at testing centers (DWs) were compared and with counts of pregnant women. At the mandal level incidence among REFs is on the average higher than among DWs. For both groups incidence is higher in the South-Eastern coastal zones, being an area with a dense highway network and active port business. A pattern on the incidence maps was statistically confirmed by a cluster analysis. A spatial regression analysis to explain the differences in incidence among pregnant women and REFs shows a negative relation with the number of facilities and a positive relation with the number of roads in a mandal. Differences in incidence among pregnant women and DWs are explained by the same variables, and by a negative relation with the number of neighboring mandals. Based on the assumption that pregnant women are tested in their home mandal, this provides a clear indication that women move for testing as well as clues for explanations why. The spatial analysis shows that women in India move towards a different mandal for getting tested on HIV. Given the scale of study

  9. Geospatial analysis of HIV-Related social stigma: A study of tested females across mandals of Andhra Pradesh in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miscione Gianluca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Geographical Information Systems issues of scale are of an increasing interest in storing health data and using these in policy support. National and international policies on treating HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive women in India are based on case counts at Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centers (VCTCs. In this study, carried out in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, these centers are located in subdistricts called mandals, serving for both registration and health facility policies. This study hypothesizes that people may move to a mandal different than their place of residence for being tested for reasons of stigma. Counts of a single mandal therefore may include cases from inside and outside a mandal. HIV counts were analyzed on the presence of outside cases and the most likely explanations for movement. Counts of women being tested on a practitioners' referral (REFs and those directly walking-in at testing centers (DWs were compared and with counts of pregnant women. Results At the mandal level incidence among REFs is on the average higher than among DWs. For both groups incidence is higher in the South-Eastern coastal zones, being an area with a dense highway network and active port business. A pattern on the incidence maps was statistically confirmed by a cluster analysis. A spatial regression analysis to explain the differences in incidence among pregnant women and REFs shows a negative relation with the number of facilities and a positive relation with the number of roads in a mandal. Differences in incidence among pregnant women and DWs are explained by the same variables, and by a negative relation with the number of neighboring mandals. Based on the assumption that pregnant women are tested in their home mandal, this provides a clear indication that women move for testing as well as clues for explanations why. Conclusions The spatial analysis shows that women in India move towards a different

  10. Decadal Variation in Microflora and Fauna in 10 Water Bodies of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Pani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh is gifted with number of water resources of multiple uses. However most of the water bodies have shrunken because of siltation, illegal land filling, conversion, and encroachment. The combination of all these factors ultimately resulted in deterioration of water quality and loss of species. The present study therefore was undertaken to evaluate the impact of urbanization on water quality and bio-diversity of the 10 lakes and wetlands situated within the municipal area of the city. A comparison of data generated over the years depicts considerable reduction in total number of species in the water bodies like Upper Lake, Hathaikheda and Sarangpani Lake.

  11. On the identity and occurrence of Ophioglossum costatum (Pteridophyta: Ophioglossaceae in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Raju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophioglossum costatum (Ophioglossaceae was collected for the first time from Telangana region and reported it as an addition to the fern flora of Andhra Pradesh, India. Ophioglossum costatum is a widespread pantropical species though not collected often owing to its distribution in small, undisturbed specific habitats, ephemeral nature (seasonality: monsoonal appearance and misidentification with O. nudicaule in the herbarium (dugout and mounted specimens. The study stresses the significance of field characters for the correct identification of these rhizomatous geophytic cryptogams and brings out the differences between Ophioglossum costatum and O. nudicaule.

  12. Blocked learning in development aid? Reporting success rather than failure in Andhra Pradesh, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Pasgaard, Maya

    2014-01-01

    for project fund disbursement and staff career promotion within recipient governments and development organizations; and asymmetrical power relations, collusion and collaboration among project actors. The article calls for a critical need to restructure the existing organizational incentive structures within......This article aims to understand why development organizations tend to report project success rather than failure which blocks learning from project problems. Drawing on the case of a World Bank forestry project in Andhra Pradesh, India, the article analyses different interlinked sites of project...... recipient governments and development organizations to cultivate a culture of learning from problems....

  13. STUDY OF SOME ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL PLANTS OF TENDUKHEDA, DISTRICT NARSINGHPUR, MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAIL BALA SANGHI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine was carried out in Tendukheda, district Narsinghpur, Madhya Pradesh with the cooperation of Vaidyas and elderly farmers. Being a remote area, any type of modern healthcare facility is not present here and the poverty of indigenous people makes them completely dependent on the local ethnic medicinal plants for the health of their domestic animals. The study focuses on local medical plants with ethno-veterinary uses. In this paper, 17 plants with ethno-veterinary importance have been reported. The paper contains their botanical names, local names, families, plant parts used, methods of drug preparation and animal disease curing properties.

  14. Geology of radon occurrence around Jari in Parvati Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India); Sharma, K.K.; Ramola, R.C. [H.N.B. Garhwal Univ., Tehri Garhwal (India). Dept. of Physics

    1997-02-01

    Soil gas and indoor radon concentrations have been measured around Jari in Parvati Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India, to study their relationship with the local geology. Both soil gas and indoor radon concentrations were found to be higher near structurally controlled uranium mineralization. Indoor radon levels in the houses of the study area are considerably higher than the ICRP recommended value of 200 Bq m{sup -3}. The high indoor radon concentration found may be attributed to the geology of the area. This area needs more detailed investigation as it may be one of the areas of high radon risk in India. (Author).

  15. A Marchantialean thallus from the Lower Gondwana Sequence of Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarate, O.S.; Budhraja, N. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2007-07-15

    The present paper deals with the critical observation of a thallus section recorded in one of the samples prepared for the coal petrographic study (Pellet No. 3). This sample represents a coal band lying above the 'Queen seam' from Koyagudem area of the Godavari valley coalfield, Andhra Pradesh. The shape of this specimen in transverse section and its cellular organization very closely resemble the anatomical features of extant thalli of the bryophytic (liverwort) family Rebouliaceae, a big group of Marchantiales (Hepaticopsida). A thallus with cellular details assignable to Hepaticae is recorded from the Lower Gondwana Sequence of Godavari valley coalfield.

  16. Genetic structure of Rajaka caste and affinities with other caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvatheesam, C; Babu, B V; Babu, M C

    1997-01-01

    The present study gives an account of the genetic structure in terms of distribution of a few genetic markers, viz., A1A2B0, Rh(D), G6PD deficiency and haemoglobin among the Rajaka caste population of Andhra Pradesh, India. The genetic relationships of the Rajaka caste with other Andhra caste populations were investigated in terms of genetic distance, i.e., Sq B (mn) of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. Relatively lesser distance was established between the Rajaka and two Panchama castes. Also, the pattern of genetic distance corroborates the hierarchical order of the Hindu varna system.

  17. Role of Database Management Systems in Selected Engineering Institutions of Andhra Pradesh: An Analytical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutty Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the function of database management systems from the perspective of librarians working in engineering institutions in Andhra Pradesh. Ninety-eight librarians from one hundred thirty engineering institutions participated in the study. The paper reveals that training by computer suppliers and software packages are the significant mode of acquiring DBMS skills by librarians; three-fourths of the librarians are postgraduate degree holders. Most colleges use database applications for automation purposes and content value. Electrical problems and untrained staff seem to be major constraints faced by respondents for managing library databases.

  18. Challenges for Transformation: A Situational Analysis of Mental Health Care Services in Sehore District, Madhya Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidhaye, Rahul; Raja, Anusha; Shrivastava, Sanjay; Murhar, Vaibhav; Ramaswamy, Rohit; Patel, Vikram

    2015-11-01

    The proportion of individuals with mental disorders receiving evidence based treatments in India is very small. In order to address this huge treatment gap, programme for improving mental health care is being implemented in Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The aim of this study was to complete the situational analysis consisting of two parts; document review of Sehore district mental health programme followed by a qualitative study. The findings suggest that there are major health system challenges in developing and implementing the mental health care plan to be delivered through primary health care system in Sehore district.

  19. Congruence of genomic and ethnolinguistic affinities among five tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh (India)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Namita Mukherjee; Mitashree Mitra; Madan Chakraborty; Partha P. Majumder

    2000-08-01

    The central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh is home to a large number of tribal populations of diverse linguistic and ethnic backgrounds. With a view to examining how well genomic affinities among tribal populations of this state correspond with their ethnic and linguistic affinities, we analysed DNA samples of individuals drawn from five tribes with diverse, but reasonably well-documented, ethnohistorical and linguistic backgrounds. Each DNA sample was scored at 16 biallelic DNA marker loci. On the basis of these data, genomic affinities among these populations were estimated. We have found an extremely good correspondence between the genomic and ethnolinguistic affinities.

  20. Genetic and Biochemical Diversity among Valeriana jatamansi Populations from Himachal Pradesh

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    Sunil Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana jatamansi Jones is an important medicinal plant that grows wild in Himachal Pradesh, India. Molecular and biochemical diversity among 13 natural populations from Himachal Pradesh was assessed using RAPD and GC-MS to know the extent of existing variation. A total of seven genetically diverse groups have been identified based on RAPD analysis which corroborated well with the analysis based on chemical constituents. The essential oil yield ranged from 0.6% to 1.66% (v/w. A negative correlation between patchouli alcohol and viridiflorol, the two major valued constituents, limits the scope of their simultaneous improvement. However, other few populations like Chamba-II and Kandi-I were found promising for viridiflorol and patchouli alcohol, respectively. The analysis of chemical constitution of oil of the populations from a specific region revealed predominance of specific constituents indicating possibility of their collection/selection for specific end uses like phytomedicines. The prevalence of genetically diverse groups along with sufficient chemical diversity in a defined region clearly indicates the role of ecology in the maintenance of evolution of this species. Sufficient molecular and biochemical diversity detected among natural populations of this species will form basis for the future improvement.

  1. Suicide deaths in rural Andhra Pradesh--a cause for global health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohina; Guggilla, Rama; Praveen, Devarsetty; Maulik, Pallab K

    2015-02-01

    To determine the proportion of deaths attributable to suicides in rural Andhra Pradesh, India over a 4-year period using a verbal autopsy method. Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 185,629) were documented over a 4-year period from 2003 to 2007 by non-physician healthcare workers trained in the use of a verbal autopsy tool. Causes of death were assigned by physicians trained in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10. All data were entered and processed electronically using a secure study website. Verbal autopsies were completed for 98.2% (5786) of the deaths (5895) recorded. The crude death rate was 8.0/1000. 4.8% (95% CI 4.3-5.4) of all deaths were suicides, giving a suicide rate of 37.5/100,000 population. Forty-three percent of suicides occurred in the age group 15-29 years, and 62% were in men. In the younger age groups (10-29 years), suicides by women (56%) were more common than by men (44%). Poisoning (40%) was the most common method of self-harm followed by hanging (12%). The suicide rate in this part of rural Andhra Pradesh is three times higher than the national average of 11.2/100,000, but is in line with that reported in the Million Death Study. There is an urgent need to develop strategies targeted at young individuals to prevent deaths by suicide in India. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. SPECTRUM OF THYROID CARCINOMAS IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Madhuri Sepuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of cancer cases. In the Indian subcontinent, thyroid carcinoma exhibits a varied disease profile and geographic differences in the pattern of cancer, the knowledge of which impacts a more favourable clinical outcome. The present study aims to profile Thyroid carcinoma in areas of age, gender, geographic domicile, morphology & clinical features and referral paradigm of cases in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, the tertiary referral hospital for coastal Andhra Pradesh. METHODS & MATERIALS The Retrospective Study 1988-2004 includes 188 patients who attended Department of Nuclear Medicine for pre & postoperative nuclear scan, thyroid carcinoma treatment protocol, whose clinical features, relevant laboratory data, histopathological reports & prognosis were analysed. RESULTS Papillary thyroid carcinoma was present in 79% and Follicular thyroid carcinoma in 19%, Anaplastic & Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in 2% of cases (n=188, male to female ratio 1:0.62. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest 59% of cases who were in their 3rd and 4th decades. West Godavari District had lowest at 5%. Clinical presentation of cases of Thyroid carcinoma as a Nodule (61% which was the most common form lead to maximum number of referrals (n=82 from the Department of Surgery, King George Hospital. CONCLUSION In coastal Andhra Pradesh, papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most dominant form. Women were more affected than men. Painless thyroid nodule was the most common clinical feature. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest number of cases and maximum referrals were from Department of Surgery.

  3. Isolation and diagnosis of Chikungunya virus causing outbreaks in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    C.V.M. Naresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chikungunya fever has recently re-emerged in India with a high morbidity. However, the prevalence of chikungunya fever in India has been underreported due to non-availability of specialized kits to confirm the disease in most of the laboratories. Methods: Nine hundred and fifty six serum samples were collected from subjects presenting with a short febrile illness from various places in Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, between January to October 2009 and were screened for Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV infection. Virus isolation, reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunoglobulin M (IgM rapid strip method were employed for the identification of the causative agent. Results: Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV infection was confirmed in 520 (68.1% patients by RT-PCR. Seventy seven (40.1% patients showed the presence of anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies while 12 (6.3% patients showed the presence of both anti-CHIKV IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies respectively. The isolation of CHIKV was successful from five patients. Conclusions: The re-emergence and persistence of CHIKV in Andhra Pradesh suggests the need for continuous monitoring and identification of the pathogen and thereby prevention of the spread of the virus to other parts of the country.

  4. From anti-arrack to total prohibition: the women's movement in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, R

    2000-01-01

    In Andhra Pradesh, India, an anti-arrack movement was created which grew out of the awareness brought about by the mass-literacy campaigns of the National Literacy Mission (NLC). It began as a spontaneous movement against alcoholism in a remote village in Dubaganta, supported by the NLC in Nellore and adopted by the other districts of Andhra Pradesh. It is noted that there was no organized leadership to start with in the anti-arrack movement. Most of the groundwork was done with local initiative, with women collectively protesting against arrack in their villages. With the movement gathering momentum, political parties entered at the very last stage. Eventually, the movement resulted in the declaration of total prohibition of liquor in India. In addition, it provided a change in the party in power in the state, with the Congress losing to the Telugu Desam Party. It also showed a feminist way of looking at issues, especially politics, thus aligning women's issues to the larger issues of state and society.

  5. Operational challenges in diagnosing multi-drug resistant TB and initiating treatment in Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Sarabjit S Chadha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP, Andhra Pradesh, India. There is limited information on whether MDR-TB suspects are identified, undergo diagnostic assessment and are initiated on treatment according to the programme guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To assess i using the programme definition, the number and proportion of MDR-TB suspects in a large cohort of TB patients on first-line treatment under RNTCP ii the proportion of these MDR-TB suspects who underwent diagnosis for MDR-TB and iii the number and proportion of those diagnosed as MDR-TB who were successfully initiated on treatment. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis, by reviewing RNTCP records and reports, was conducted in four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, among patients registered for first line treatment during October 2008 to December 2009. RESULTS: Among 23,999 TB patients registered for treatment there were 559 (2% MDR-TB suspects (according to programme definition of which 307 (55% underwent diagnosis and amongst these 169 (55% were found to be MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB patients, 112 (66% were successfully initiated on treatment. Amongst those eligible for MDR-TB services, significant proportions are lost during the diagnostic and treatment initiation pathway due to a variety of operational challenges. The programme needs to urgently address these challenges for effective delivery and utilisation of the MDR-TB services.

  6. Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among adolescents in Nellore District of Andhra pradesh, India

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    Sudhakar Kaipa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malocclusion is misalignment of teeth and /or incorrect relation between the teeth of the dental arches. It leads to various unfavorable psychological and social sequelae. The concept of early diagnosis of malocclusion plays a very important role in identifying the disease and performing the treatment. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of malocclusion and to determine orthodontic treatment needs among 13-15 year old school children inNellore district of Andhra Pradesh. Materials & Method: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken among a total of 2126 school children aged 13-15 years. Dental Aesthetic Index was used to assess malocclusion. Results: About 50.8% of them had dental appearance for whom orthodontic treatment need was ′slight′ or ′not indicated and one third of them (31% needed elective treatment. The rest of the children had dental appearance varying from severe to handicapping malocclusion for whom treatment was highly desirable (10.2% or mandatory (8%. Conclusions: Forty nine percent of adolescents from Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh were in need of orthodontic treatment for dental health reasons. Among the components of Dental Aesthetic Index, incisal segment crowding was mainly responsible for allocating subjects into the group of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need. The importance in having this data is in influencing policy makers and government officials to design health education programs and preventive orthodontic treatment programs.

  7. Ethnomedicinal Wisdom Among Local Tribes in Hamirpur Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Swati Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation was focused at documentation, analysis and interpretation of ethnomedicinal phyto wisdom in Hamirpur District of Himachal Pradesh. The impoverished tribal and rural people of Hamirpur District (Himachal Pradesh, India do not receive satisfactory primary healthcare. They have crudely been stillexploiting traditionally the medicinal plants existing in their surrounding environment for diverse purposes including ethnomedicine use. The objective of the study was to document ethnobotanical knowledge primarily of notable herbs employed by the different backward people, whether tribal or rural, in the area under study.Ethnomedicinal data was accessed through structural interviews, and discussions with the tribal/rural informants, healers, medicine-men/women, etc. (with age between 45-65. Minimum five to eight informants were taken into consideration for each claim. This investigation brought on record that people of the study area(Hamirpur generally utilize about 50 plants species belonging several distinct families. Different plant parts such as leaves, flowers, fruit, stem-bark and root are most commonly employed. A fair wide range of diseases are treated by people of Hamirpur district using local medicinal plants. These ethnomedicinal claims may aid in finding novel phytoconstituents for welfare of mankind. The data would be useful for further scientific exploration.

  8. How safe are the global water coverage figures? Case study from Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Sam; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Wate, Satish; Pimpalkar, Sarika

    2011-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation was designed to provide reference figures for access in individual countries to safe water. The JMP is based on non-administrative or nongovernment data from national-level surveys such as the Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey (MICS) or Demographic Health Survey. In the 2007 JMP report, India is noted to have water supply coverage of 89% (95% in urban areas and 85% in rural areas) compared to the Government of India estimates of 95%. The central state of Madhya Pradesh is noted by the Government of India to have coverage of 60%. However, the definition of access to safe water currently does not consider the quality or safety of the water being consumed. This paper, therefore, presents results from the application of a statistical tool (random multiple cluster technique-termed Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality [RADWQ]) to Indore Zone in Madhya Pradesh. When results provided by the RADWQ technique are compared to the JMP MICS data, coverage levels reported in the JMP are reduced by up to 40% due to the high risk of microbiological (thermotolerant coliforms) contamination. In Indore Zone, the coverage of safe water reduced from 42% to 25% through the inclusion of the water safety parameters. The study recommends the inclusion of water quality/safety data in reported data under the UNICEF/WHO JMP.

  9. Diversity of some fauna in National Chambal Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh, India

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    PREMANAND KALKRISHANA MESHRAM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Meshram PM (2010 Diversity of some fauna in National Chambal Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh, India. Biodiversitas 11: 211-215. National Chambal Sanctuary (NCS gives very good account of avifauna. It over emphasizes significant and important birds species available which are of National and International importance. Crocodiles use sand banks for nesting and basking. Fauna in the NCS is very much influenced by various factors like habitat suitability and protection of their habitats. Their distribution is depending on availability of deep water pools. Another important factors on which distribution of animals depends long stretches of long sand banks. Sloppy to steep sand bank with loose soil were good habitats for nesting of crocodiles, turtles and birds. NCS areas were considerably altered and there were disturbance by the sand miners, poachers, fishermen and farmers. Consequently the poor survival is recommended to greater protection by management practices. Effective co-operations between the Forest Department of Madhya Pradesh and neighbouring states were needed as sand mining and poaching becomes an interstate problem. Thus, strategic location of this site in the migratory route of water birds enhances its importance as a significant water bird habitat. In the present study diversity of some fauna in NCS is discussed.

  10. Design of a population-based study of visual impairment in India : The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study

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    Dandona Rakhi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable population-based epidemiologic data regarding vision and ocular morbidity, as well as those about the perceptions of people regarding visual impairment and eye care, are lacking for the most part in the developing world including India. These data are the basis on which effective eye care services can be developed. To meet this need we designed the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, a population-based epidemiology study of 10,000 people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The design of this study is described in this paper. Various options for the sample size, study areas, sampling procedure, and recruitment of subjects were considered. A sample size of 10,000 people, 5,000 each in the < or = 30 and > 30 years age groups, was determined to obtain reasonable confidence in estimating the prevalence of diseases and odds ratios for risk factors of interest. A multistage sampling strategy was chosen for the study which was assumed to give a design effect of 1.5 for the estimates. One urban area, Hyderabad, and three rural areas, West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts, were selected in Andhra Pradesh. Interview instruments were developed to obtain detailed information about demographic data, diet, ocular and systemic history, risk factors for eye diseases, visual function, quality of life, barriers to eye care, and knowledge about eye diseases. A detailed examination procedure was devised to obtain a broad range of normative and abnormal data related to eyes and vision. A protocol was developed for doing automated visual fields, slitlamp and fundus photography. Computer databases were made in FoxPro for data entry and subsequent analysis with SPSS. Pilot studies were done to test the instruments, procedures, and logistics of the study in urban and rural areas. Information from the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study is expected to help in planning and implementation of effective long-term preventive, curative, and

  11. Has the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh Addressed the Educational Divide in Accessing Health Care?: e0145707

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mala Rao; Prabal Vikram Singh; Anuradha Katyal; Amit Samarth; Sofi Bergkvist; Adrian Renton; Gopalakrishnan Netuveli

    2016-01-01

    .... We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient...

  12. What needs to be done for polio eradication in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Yash

    2007-08-29

    Even if wild poliovirus persists in one country only, global polio eradication cannot be achieved, because of the risk of exportation of wild virus to other countries. Among the countries where polio cases are still occurring, India happens to be the largest country. India cannot become polio free unless Uttar Pradesh and Bihar become polio free. There was a quick decline in polio incidence in some states in India, while other states reported decline slowly, but, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have never been polio free since the polio eradication programme was launched in 1995. Despite increase in number of pulse polio immunization (PPI) rounds since year 2000 and introduction of monovalent polio vaccine type 1 (mOPV1) and type 3 (mOPV3) in Uttar Pradesh in 2005, there has been no respite in polio incidence in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Lately, majority of polio cases being reported from other states are occurring in migrant population from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and also molecular study shows that polioviruses being detected in other states have origin in Uttar Pradesh or Bihar. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a new vaccine or strategy specifically for Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

  13. Prevalence of Chronic Mountain Sickness in high altitude districts of Himachal Pradesh

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    Inderjeet Singh Sahota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS is a maladaptation condition that can affect people who reside permanently at high altitude (HA. It is characterized by polycythemia, hypoxemia and dyspnea and can be fatal. Over 140 million people live permanently at HA around the world. Unfortunately, research into CMS is lacking and accurate data on the prevalence of this condition do not exist for many regions around the world. In this study, we sought to examine prevalence rates of CMS in the Indian Himalayas, focusing on the Northern State of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 83 individuals (69 males in eight towns across the HA districts of Sirmaur, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India. Altitudes ranged from 2350 to 4150 m. We used an adapted Qinghai CMS scoring system to diagnose CMS. Information related to subject demographics, medical history, socioeconomic status, and geography were collected to identify risk factors for CMS. Physiologic recordings of oxygen saturation (SpO 2 and pulse rate were made through pulse oximetry. Results: Overall CMS prevalence was 6.17% and mean altitude was 3281 m. At altitudes above 3000 m CMS prevalence rose to 13.73%. All cases of CMS were mild and there was a significant positive correlation between CMS scores and altitude (R = 0.784, P = 0.0213. Mean SpO 2 was 90.7 ± 0.4% and mean pulse rate was 80.3 ± 1.3 bpm. SpO 2 significantly correlated with altitude (R = −0.929, P < 0.001. In our study, age, gender, and tobacco use were not independent risk factors for CMS. Individuals with CMS lived at higher altitudes than their non-CMS counterparts (3736.00 ± 113.30 m vs. 3279.80 ± 69.50 m, respectively; P = 0.017. Conclusion: CMS prevalence in HA towns of the Indian Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh is 6.17% and 13.73% for towns above 3000 m. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of CMS in other regions of the world and to determine risk factors

  14. The emergence of maternal health as a political priority in Madhya Pradesh, India: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Tej Ram; Deo, Prakash Ramchandra; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-09-30

    Politics plays a critical role in agenda setting in health affairs; therefore, understanding the priorities of the political agenda in health is very important. The political priority for safe motherhood has been investigated at the national level in different countries. The objective of this study was to explore why and how maternal health became a political priority at sub-national level in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. This study followed a qualitative design. Data were collected by carrying out interviews and review of documents. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with twenty respondents from four stakeholder groups: government officials, development partners, civil society and academics. Data analysis was performed using thematic analysis. The analysis was guided by Kingdon's multiple streams model. The emergence of maternal health as a political priority in Madhya Pradesh was the result of convergence in the developments in different streams: the development of problem definition, policy generation and political change. The factors which influenced this process were: emerging evidence of the high magnitude of maternal mortality, civil society's positioning of maternal mortality as a human rights violation, increasing media coverage, supportive policy environment and launch of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), the availability of effective policy solutions, India's aspiration of global leadership, international influence, maternal mortality becoming a hot debate topic and political transition at the national and state levels. Most of these factors first became important at national level which then cascaded to the state level. Currently, there is a supportive policy environment in the state for maternal health backed by greater political will and increased resources. However, malnutrition and population stabilization are the competing priorities which may push maternal health off the agenda. The influence of the events and factors

  15. Notes on recollection and extended distribution of Rhynchotechum alternifolium C.B.Clarke (Gesneriaceae in Eastern Himalaya, Bhutan

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    Nripemo Odyuo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhynchotechum alternifolium C.B.Clarke, a Gesneriaceae plant taxon earlier known from India and Myanmar, is reported here as an extended distribution to Bhutan. In India, earlier it was reported from Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur and Nagaland. The last observation of this taxon was in 1962 from Myanmar. During recent field exploration (2015, it is once again reported from Nagaland. Based on herbaria records, it is also recorded from Sikkim Himalaya. Brief taxonomic description along with photographic illustration and distribution map of the taxon is provided. Further investigation is required in the eastern Himalaya and North-eastern region of India to ascertain its present population status as well as IUCN status for conservation point of view.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-6, Issue-2, Mar-May 2017, Page: 1-8

  16. Mithun : The pride animal of north-eastern hilly region of India

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    M. G. Shisode

    Full Text Available Mithun, the pride animal called as ‘Cattle of Hilly Region’ of north-eastern hilly region of India and tropical rain forest of China. The animal plays an important role in the day to day socio-economic life of the local tribal population. Mithun (Bos frontalis is a rear species of livestock and is found in the north-eastern region of our country like Arunachal Pradesh (75 per cent of the total population, Nagaland (60 per cent, Manipur (0.8 per cent andMizoram (0.1 per cent having total population 0.25 million according to census 2003 and also very meager in Myanmar, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. The animal has got good potential for production of quality meat, milk and leather. Mithun is the ‘Cattle of Hilly Region’ and is one of the domesticated animals from the North-eastern hilly region and mainly found in tropical rain forest of North-eastern hilly region. Very meager population is found inMyanmar, Bhutan and China. There are four defined mithun strains depending up on the geographical areas namely Arunachal, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram strains, respectively. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 480-481

  17. Assessment of Water Pollution in Tipparthy Revenue Sub-Division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Medikondu Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study has been carried out to explore the physicochemical characteristics of drinking water sources of Tipparthy revenue sub-division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Totally 49 water samples were collected from the different locations (22 villages of the study area including bore well, open well and hand pump water and analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, total hardness, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, phosphates, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, Iron and dissolved oxygen. On an average, in almost all the samples, one or the other chemical constituent was beyond the permissible limits it was also concluded that water sources in the study area not fit for potability. Sodium absorption ratio (SAR and water quality (WQI studies indicate water available from all sources not fit for irrigation also. The study indicates the need for periodic monitoring of ground water in the study area.

  18. Rhizopalmoxylon nypoides - a new palm root from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathal, P. K.; Srivastava, Rashmi; Mehrotra, R. C.; Alexander, P. O.

    2017-04-01

    A new species of fossil palm rhizome having root-mat under the organ genus Rhizopalamoxylon ( Rhizopalmoxylon nypoides sp. nov.) is reported. The specimen shows the closest resemblance with the modern monotypic genus Nypa Wurmb of the Arecaceae. The specimen was collected from the late Maastrichtian-early Danian sediments of Deccan Intertrappean beds, Mothi, Sagar district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Nypa is a mangrove palm naturally found in estuaries and swamps of the tropical region and represents one of the oldest records of the genus from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of central India. The abundance of palms, including Nypa and previously recorded coastal and mangrove elements such as Acrostichum, Barringtonia, Cocos, Sonneratia and marine algae ( Distichoplax and Peyssonellia) from the Deccan Intertrappean beds indicate marine influence and existence of tropical rainforest ecosystem in the vicinity of fossil locality in contrast to the deciduous forests occurring there at present.

  19. Anti Diabetic Plants Present In West Godavari District Of Andhra Pradesh India- A Short Review.

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    Venkata Narasimha Kadali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered as one of the chronic disease more prevalent in India and rest of the world. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the destruction of different organs in the body.There are lots of synthetic drugs present in the market for the treatment of diabetes but they are prone to noxious effects to human systems. Herbs have natural inhibiting potency against various sorts of diseases and they are the ultimate source of bio active compounds which lacks toxic effects. Medicinal plants which have potent anti hyperglycemic effect have been identified and proved experimentally. In this short review an attempt has been made to review some of the medicinal plants such as Annona reticulata, Carica papaya, Coccinia grandis, Moringa oleifera, Murraya koenigi etc., of about 10 species which are proved to be anti diabetic present in the west godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

  20. Less equal than others? Experiences of AYUSH medical officers in primary health centres in Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, J K

    2012-01-01

    The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) includes, inter alia, the establishment of an AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy) component (practitioner, trained assistants, drugs and equipment) in every primary health centre (PHC). However, five years following the launch of the NRHM, the AYUSH mainstreaming scenario is below expectations, riddled with ethical and governance issues. Accounts from AYUSH practitioners at PHCs in various regions of the state of Andhra Pradesh reveal enormous lacunae in implementation: unfilled positions, inequitable emoluments, inadequate or absent infrastructure, assistance and supplies, unethical interpersonal arrangements, and limited support from non-AYUSH personnel. The widespread negative impact of these conditions undermines the value of AYUSH, demotivating both practitioners and patients, and failing to provide the intended support to the public health system.

  1. A STUDY OF METABOLIC PARAMETER AND MORBIDITY PROFILE AMONG ELDERLY POPULATION IN RURAL COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Shakeela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global population ageing is an important challenge and opportunity faced by all countries. With advances in medicine helping more people to live longer lives, the number of people over age 60 years is expected to double by 2050 and will require radical social change according to a new report released by the WHO for the international day. Present study is designed to evaluate metabolic parameter and morbidity profile in elderly people in rural coastal Andhra Pradesh; 30% of male and 31% of the female was diabetic; 26.4% of the male and 37.5% of the female was having osteoarthritis; 41.18% of the male and 37.5% of the female have acid peptic disease; 10.1% of male and 12.75% of the female have ischemic heart disease. So it is required to provide promotional, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services in an integrated manner for the elderly

  2. Physico-Chemical Analysis of Selected Groundwater Samples of Inkollu Mandal, Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    G. Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical parameters of groundwater quality based on Physic-chemical parameters at Inkollu mandal, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India have been taken up to evaluate its suitability for Drinking purpose. Nine ground water samples were collected from different places of Inkollu mandal of Prakasam district. The quality analysis has been made through the pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Iron. By observing the results, it was shown that the parameters from the water samples were compared with WHO (World Health Organization and BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards, USPH (United state Public health for ground water .The results revealed that some parameters were in high concentration and quality of the potable water has deteriorated to a large extent at some sampling locations.

  3. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

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    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  4. Estimation of genetic parameters of newly introduced tree willow clones in Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Sharma J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Willows being multipurpose species are well recognized in short rotation forestry world over. 200 clones of different species and hybrids were procured from twenty countries over the period of three years. These were subjected for nursery screening and further 18 promising clones were planted in March, 2006 at university main campus Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh. The five years growth performance was evaluated and clone J-799 has given maximum plant height (19.33 m which is at par with the clone NZ-1140 (16.33 m followed by SI-63-007 (14.30 m. As regards with diameter at breast height and volume index, clone J-799 registered first rank followed by NZ-1140 and 131/25 recording 16.50 cm and 0.554 m3, 15.30 cm and 0.386 m3 ;15.30cm and 0.368m3, respectively. Bole straightness was recorded maximum in clone J-795 that is at par with clones J-194, PN-721 and 131/25 followed by clones J-799, SI-63-007, NZ-1140 and SI-64-017. Heritability in broad sense for bole straightness (46.36% and genetic gain of the volume index (67.95% was found highest. Genotypic, phenotypic and environment coefficients of variations were recorded maximum (0.995 for volume index character. Genetic correlation coefficient was highest (0.921 between plant height and volume, while phenotypic correlation coefficient was highest between diameter at breast height and volume index. On the basis of five year growth performance, five clones namely J- 799, NZ-1140, 131/25, SI-63-007 and PN-731 are found suitable for lower and mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh.

  5. Biological Significance of Marine Actinobacteria of East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Alapati; Savithri, Handanahal S

    2017-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis) of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp., Kocuria sp., Nocardiopsis sp., and Streptomyces spp. ISP (International Streptomyces project) -1, ISP-2 and starch casein media supported high antimicrobial potential after 5-6 days of growth. Production of antimicrobials by the strains varied significantly with different carbon and nitrogen sources. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of volatile compounds produced by the strains illustrated an array of antimicrobial compounds such as 1, 2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, 2-piperidinone, pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dion, phenyl ethyl alcohol, 3-phenyl propionic acid etc. Ours is the first report on the study and detection of above mentioned antimicrobial metabolites from Dietzia sp. (A3), Kocuria sp. (A5), and Nocardiopsis sp. (A7). By sequence based analysis for secondary metabolites, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster was noticed in six strains (A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, and A8) and none of them had polyketide synthase (PKS) system. The present study intimates the biological potentiality of the actinobacterial strains isolated from East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India which reveals further scope to investigate new bioactive compounds from them by employing both natural product chemistry and modern biotechnological aspects.

  6. Biological Significance of Marine Actinobacteria of East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Alapati Kavitha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp., Kocuria sp., Nocardiopsis sp., and Streptomyces spp. ISP (International Streptomyces project -1, ISP-2 and starch casein media supported high antimicrobial potential after 5–6 days of growth. Production of antimicrobials by the strains varied significantly with different carbon and nitrogen sources. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS analysis of volatile compounds produced by the strains illustrated an array of antimicrobial compounds such as 1, 2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, 2-piperidinone, pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dion, phenyl ethyl alcohol, 3-phenyl propionic acid etc. Ours is the first report on the study and detection of above mentioned antimicrobial metabolites from Dietzia sp. (A3, Kocuria sp. (A5, and Nocardiopsis sp. (A7. By sequence based analysis for secondary metabolites, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS gene cluster was noticed in six strains (A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, and A8 and none of them had polyketide synthase (PKS system. The present study intimates the biological potentiality of the actinobacterial strains isolated from East Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India which reveals further scope to investigate new bioactive compounds from them by employing both natural product chemistry and modern biotechnological aspects.

  7. SOCIAL AUDIT AND VERBAL AUTOPSY ON MATERNAL DEATHS IN PRAKASAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Venkateswara Rao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To conduct the social audit and verbal autopsy on maternal deaths in Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, for the year 2008-2009, done in the year 2010.DESIGN: It was a Community based maternal death review. Maternal deaths in Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, during the year 2008-2009, were collected from the District Medical and Health Office, and social audit and verbal autopsy was conducted in the field. METHOD: It was a retrospective community based study. A group of three doctors, which includes an Obstetrician and Gynecologist, a Physician and a specialist from Social and Preventive Medicine, conducted social audit and verbal autopsy by interview method in the field with the family members and neighbors of the victim and analyzed the various social causes and delays leading to the maternal death. RESULTS: The various causes leading to delay in the treatment and to the death of the mother were collected and analyzed. Most of the maternal deaths were young primigravidae of 20 to 24 years. About 65.9% cases were during postpartum period. About 30% of them had not decided whether to go to either government or private hospital for antenatal checkup. 30% to 50% of the family members were not sure or not aware of the danger signs of pregnancy and still 25% of them were home deliveries. The probable medical causes leading to maternal deaths were due to Post-partum hemorrhage, anemia and pregnancy induced hypertension. Most of the cases (about 42.2% were due to delay in receiving appropriate care. About 28.7% of them were due to the delay in recognizing the danger signs of pregnancy. Delay in decision making and delay in reaching the care together forms about 40%.

  8. Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens toxin genotypes in enterotoxemia suspected sheep flocks of Andhra Pradesh

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    N. Vinod Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the Clostridium perfringens toxin genotypes prevailing in enterotoxemia suspected sheep flocks in Andhra Pradesh by using multiplex PCR. Materials and Methods: Intestinal scrapings were collected from lambs below three months of age from flocks with similar management from different Districts of Andhra Pradesh, in India. A total of 208 samples were collected with 140 from enterotoxemia suspected flocks and 68 from healthy flocks. Following processing and culture of the samples, colonies were identified by morphological and biochemical tests. All the clostridial isolates were analyzed by multiplex PCR. Results: C. pefringens were isolated from 97 out of 140 enterotoxemia suspected flocks (69.29% and 27 out of 68 healthy flocks (39.71 %. Genotyping of the 97 iolates by multiplex PCR from enterotoxemia suspected flocks indicated C. perfringens type A, C and D 67.01% (65 out of 97; 11.34% (11 out of 97 and 21.65% (21 out of 97 respectively. Isolates from healthy flocks indicated the presence of type A and D 92.59% (25 out of 27 and 7.40% (2 out of 27 respectively. Number of isolates from enterotoxaemia suspected flocks were significantly high (P<0.001 than healthy flocks. Type A is found to be predominant in both enterotoxemia suspected and healthy flocks (67.01% and 92.59%. Conclusions: Prevalence of C. perfringens type C was reported for the first time in India. Clostridium perfringens type D and type C were found to be the major causative types for enterotoxemia.

  9. Fighting malaria in Madhya Pradesh (Central India: Are we loosing the battle?

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    Thimasarn Krongthong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria control in Madhya Pradesh is complex because of vast tracts of forest with tribal settlement. Fifty four million individuals of various ethnic origins, accounting for 8% of the total population of India, contributed 30% of total malaria cases, 60% of total falciparum cases and 50% of malaria deaths in the country. Ambitious goals to control tribal malaria by launching "Enhanced Malaria Control Project" (EMCP by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP, with the World Bank assistance, became effective in September 1997 in eight north Indian states. Under EMCP, the programme used a broader mix of new interventions, i.e. insecticide-treated bed nets, spraying houses with effective residual insecticides, use of larvivorous fishes, rapid diagnostic tests for prompt diagnosis, treatment of the sick with effective radical treatment and increased public awareness and IEC. However, the challenge is to scale up these services. A retrospective analysis of data on malaria morbidity and associated mortality reported under the existing surveillance system of the Madhya Pradesh (Central India for the years 1996–2007 was carried out to determine the impact of EMCP on malaria morbidity and associated mortality. Analysis revealed that despite the availability of effective intervention tools for the prevention and control of malaria, falciparum malaria remains uncontrolled and deaths due to malaria have increased. Precisely, the aim of this epidemiological analysis is to draw lessons applicable to all international aid efforts, bureaucracy, policy makers and programme managers in assessing its project performance as a new Global Malaria Action Plan is launched with ambitious goal of reducing malaria and its elimination by scaling up the use of existing tools.

  10. Self-reported occupational health problems among dentists in Himachal Pradesh, India: A descriptive survey

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    Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupation-related health problems are associated with risk or danger as a consequence of the nature of working conditions. Unique working conditions in dentistry can affect the health of dentists. Aim: The aim of this study is to collect information from dentists in Himachal Pradesh concerning common occupation-related health problems, their knowledge and the precautions they commonly took to avoid such problems. Settings and Design: Questionnaire survey conducted on a systematic random sample of 465 dentists among 1395 dentists registered in the state dental council. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were sent by mail in September 2011 to systematic random sample of 465 dentists. The dentists were asked to complete the questionnaire and return it by mail using the stamped addressed envelope provided. Statistically Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago. Z test was used for statistical comparison. Results: The response rate from the dentists was 81.7%. The most common problem experienced was musculoskeletal pain (46.1% followed by allergic dermatitis of the hands (7.6%. Nearly, all of the respondent dentists wore gloves (100% and face masks (97.4% during work. 1/10 th respondents reported that they had received instructions or training through interactive workshops in occupational health and safety. Conclusions: There seems to be a substantial demand for continuing education on occupational health and safety among dentists in Himachal Pradesh. Hence, more emphasis on occupational health and safety is put into dental training with more continuing education activities on occupational health and safety to practicing dentists.

  11. Incidence of cleft Lip and palate in the state of Andhra Pradesh, South India

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    Reddy Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the incidence of cleft lip and palate defects in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Design Setting: The study was conducted in 2001 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The state has a population of 76 million. Three districts, Cuddapah, Medak and Krishna, were identified for this study owing to their diversity. They were urban, semi-urban and rural, respectively. Literacy rates and consanguinity of the parents was elicited and was compared to national averages to find correlations to cleft births. Type and side of cleft were recorded to compare with other studies around the world and other parts of India. Results: The birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births. This study found that 65% of the children born with clefts were males. The distribution of the type of cleft showed 33% had CL, 64% had CLP, 2% had CP and 1% had rare craniofacial clefts. Unilateral cleft lips were found in 79% of the patients. Of the unilateral cleft lips 64% were left sided. There was a significant correlation of children with clefts being born to parents who shared a consanguineous relationship and those who were illiterate with the odds ratio between 5.25 and 7.21 for consanguinity and between 1.55 and 5.85 for illiteracy, respectively. Conclusion: The birth rate of clefts was found to be comparable with other Asian studies, but lower than found in other studies in Caucasian populations and higher than in African populations. The incidence was found to be similar to other studies done in other parts of India. The distribution over the various types of cleft was comparable to that found in other studies.

  12. Fear of blindness and perceptions about blind people. The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, Pyda; Dandona, Rakhi; Prasad, Mudigonda N; Kovai, Vilas; Dandona, Lalit

    2002-09-01

    This study assessed the fear of being affected by illness and disability including blindness, and perceptions of the population towards blind people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A total of 11,786 subjects of all ages were sampled from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural study areas of Andhra Pradesh using stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling to represent the population of this state. A total of 10,293 subjects of all ages underwent a detailed interview and dilated ocular evaluation. Subjects > 15 years of age (7,432) were interviewed regarding fear of illness/disability and their perceptions of blind people. The fear of blindness was assessed in comparison to cancer, severe mental illness, heart attack, losing limbs, deafness, inability to speak, and paralysis. A majority of the study population feared all the illnesses and disabilities assessed. The prevalence of fear of blindness was 90.9% (95% confidence interval 89.1-92.8%) and 92.1% (95% confidence interval 90.6-93.6%) in urban and rural study areas respectively. With multiple logistic regression the fear of blindness was significantly higher for those with any level of education and for those living in the rural study areas. The proportion of those having positive feelings towards blind people was higher in the urban study area. A high prevalence of blindness, 1.84%, has been reported in this population previously. These data suggest that this population feared blindness, and yet there is a high rate of blindness. This reflects the need for increasing awareness about blindness in this population through eye health promotion strategies in order to reduce blindness, and awareness regarding the availability of rehabilitation services.

  13. mtDNA variation in caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamshad, M; Fraley, A E; Crawford, M H; Cann, R L; Busi, B R; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B

    1996-02-01

    Various anthropological analyses have documented extensive regional variation among populations on the subcontinent of India using morphological, protein, blood group, and nuclear DNA polymorphisms. These patterns are the product of complex population structure (genetic drift, gene flow) and a population history noted for numerous branching events. As a result, the interpretation of relationships among caste populations of South India and between Indians and continental populations remains controversial. The Hindu caste system is a general model of genetic differentiation among endogamous populations stratified by social forces (e.g., religion and occupation). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has unique properties that facilitate the exploration of population structure. We analyzed 36 Hindu men born in Andhra Pradesh who were unrelated matrilineally through at least 3 generations and who represent 4 caste populations: Brahmin (9), Yadava (10), Kapu (7), and Relli (10). Individuals from Africa (36), Asia (36), and Europe (36) were sampled for comparison. A 200-base-pair segment of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS2) of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in all individuals. In the Indian castes 25 distinct haplotypes are identified. Aside from the Cambridge reference sequence, only two haplotypes are shared between caste populations. Middle castes form a highly supported cluster in a neighbor-joining network. Mean nucleotide diversity within each caste is 0.015, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.012 for the Brahmin, Yadava, Kapu, and Relli, respectively. mtDNA variation is highly structured between castes (GST = 0.17; p caste populations of Andhra Pradesh cluster more often with Africans than with Asians or Europeans. This is suggestive of admixture with African populations.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India

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    Kumar G Anil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. Methods Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh, we have recently reported the number of HIV infections averted by each type of HIV prevention intervention and their cost. Using estimates of the age of onset of HIV infection, we used standard methods to calculate the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY saved as a measure of cost-effectiveness of each type of HIV prevention intervention. Results The point estimates of the cost per DALY saved were less than US $50 for blood banks, men who have sex with men programmes, voluntary counselling and testing centres, prevention of parent to child transmission clinics, sexually transmitted infection clinics, and women sex worker programmes; between US $50 and 100 for truckers and migrant labourer programmes; more than US $100 and up to US $410 for composite, street children, condom promotion, prisoners and workplace programmes and mass media campaign for the general public. The uncertainty range around these estimates was very wide for several interventions, with the ratio of the high to the low estimates infinite for five interventions. Conclusions The point estimates for the cost per DALY saved from the averted HIV infections for all interventions was much lower than the per capita gross domestic product in this Indian state. While these indicative cost-effectiveness estimates can inform HIV control planning currently, the wide uncertainty range around estimates for several interventions suggest the need for more firm data for estimating cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in India.

  15. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP ...

  16. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  17. A checklist of the Long-horned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae of Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India with several new reports

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    M. M. Kumawat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Northeastern India is one of the hot spots of mega biodiversity of the world.  The collections of cerambycid beetles were made from the forest region of Arunachal Pradesh, India during 2008–2013.  A total of 49 species of cerambycids were collected during the survey, belonging to three subfamilies and a checklist of all the species is provided.  Taxonomic synonyms, bibiliography alongwith new distribution and list of host plants of the region are included.  Rhytidodera griseofasciata is reported for the first time from India, besides seven other species, viz., Nupserha nigriceps, Pterolophia (Hylobrotus tuberculatrix, Neocerambyx grandis, Olenecamptus indianus, Obereopsis obscura obscura, Aristobia reticulator, and Sarothrocera lowii are being reported from Arunachal Pradesh for the first time. 

  18. Recent sightings of the Hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1757 on the coast of Northern Andhra Pradesh, India

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    K.L.N Murthy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The coast of Northern Andhra Pradesh has predominantly rocky and sandy shores with sporadic nesting sites of olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea. However, there have been rare sightings of hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata along this coast in the past couple of decades and their nesting is seldom observed. Carcasses of two adult hawksbill turtles were observed on 29/12/2010 and 07/03/2011 along the coast of Visakhapatnam in Northern Andhra Pradesh, India. These sightings of dead hawksbill turtles along this coast come recently after a long gap of several years and emphasize on the need to carry out surveys in the area for devising effective long term conservation management strategies.

  19. Photographic Record of Smooth-Coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata Geoffroy 1826 in Nyamjang Chu Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Kamal Medhi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A pair of Smooth-coated otters was sighted in remote temperate parts of the Nyamjang Chu valley (Chu = River in westernmost part of Tawang district, Arunachal Pradesh on 1st April 2014. The otters were photographed basking on a riverside rock and identified based on their morphological features. There were no previously published records of Smooth-coated Otters; normally a species found more in plains, from western Arunachal Pradesh and the state as a whole has very scanty information regarding presence and distribution of otters. The sighting signifies the rich biodiversity of Nyamjang Chu, in Pangchen valley and implies initiation of strong conservation measures to safeguard the future of the otters.

  20. Food Price Spikes Are Associated with Increased Malnutrition among Children in Andhra Pradesh, India 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Vellakkal, S; Fledderjohann, J; Basu, S.; Agrawal, S; Ebrahim, S; Campbell, O.; Doyle, P; Stuckler, D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global food prices have risen sharply since 2007. The impact of food price spikes on the risk of malnutrition in children is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations between food price spikes and childhood malnutrition in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's largest states, with >85 million people. Because wasting (thinness) indicates in most cases a recent and severe process of weight loss that is often associated with acute food shortage, we tested the hypothes...

  1. Ficus palaeoracemosa sp. nov. – A new fossil leaf from the Kasauli Formation of Himachal Pradesh and its palaeoclimatic significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gaurav Srivastava; Rashmi Srivastava; R C Mehrotra

    2011-04-01

    A new fossil leaf impression is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kasauli–Kalka road section, Himachal Pradesh. The characteristic leaf venation pattern suggests that it has a close affinity with Ficus L., particularly with F. racemosa L. (= F. glomerata Roxb.). Its presence indicates a warm and humid climate in the region during the deposition of sediments, in contrast to the present day cooler and less humid climate.

  2. Molestation, Sexual Abuse and Violence against Women in India: An Overview of Crime Cases in Himachal Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Dr Bhawana

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women is the most prevalent expression of gender-based discrimination. The International developments of a country have been mirrored and assessed by efforts at the national level. Nearly all countries have taken steps to tackle violence, through specific legal frameworks, institutions and policies etc. India is no exception. This paper throws a light on incidence of Violence against women in India. Also the cases of Himachal Pradesh are highlighted to study comparative posit...

  3. Using environmental niche modeling to find suitable habitats for the Hard-ground Barasingha in Madhya Pradesh, India

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    C. P. Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subspecies of Swamp Deer, the Hard-ground Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii branderi Pocock, is presently found only in Kanha Tiger Reserve (KTR in Madhya Pradesh, India. This subspecies is highly vulnerable to extinction, and reintroduction in suitable sites is the need of the hour.  Environmental niche models (GARP, SVM, ED, CSM aimed at providing a detailed prediction of species distribution by relating presence of species to 19 bioclimatic indices were developed, using swamp deer occurrence records in KTR. The predictions were appropriately weighted with the prevailing LU/LC classes to identify suitable habitats in Madhya Pradesh, India. The result shows that the southern region of Madhya Pradesh is suitable for the sustenance of Barasingha with varying degrees of habitability. Vicarious validation shows that most of these forest areas were the same as that of historical records dating back to 50 years. However, land use maps can help identify areas where this subspecies can be reintroduced. 

  4. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only ... EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin ...

  5. A cohort study of lymphatic filariasis on socio economic conditions in Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Suryanaryana Murty Upadhyayula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of socioeconomic variables on lymphatic filariasis in endemic villages of Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS: A pilot scale study was conducted in 30 villages of Karimnagar district from 2004 to 2007. These villages were selected based on previous reports from department of health, Government of Andhra Pradesh, epidemiology, entomology and socioeconomic survey was conducted as per protocol. Collected data were analysed statistically by Chi square test, Principal Component Analysis, Odds ratio, Bivariate, multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Total of 5,394 blood samples collected and screened for microfilaria, out of which 199 were found to be positive (3.7%. The socioeconomic data of these respondents/participants were correlated with MF prevalence. The socioeconomic variables like educational status (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.6, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.1-6.5, house structure (hut OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-3.1; tiled OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.8-2 and participation in mass drug administration program (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.3-2.6 were found to be highly associated with the occurrence of filarial disease. The socioeconomic index was categorized into low (3.6%; OR-1.1, 95% CI: 0.7-1.5 medium (4.9%; OR-1.5, 95% CI = 1-2.1 and high (3.3% in relation to percentage of filarial parasite prevalence. A significant difference was observed among these three groups while comparing the number of cases of filaria with the type of socioeconomic conditions of the respondents (P = 0.067. CONCLUSIONS: From this study it is inferred that age, education of family, type of house structure and awareness about the filarial disease directly influenced the disease prevalence. Beside annual mass drug administration program, such type of analysis should be undertaken by health officials to target a few socioeconomic factors to reduce the disease burden. Health education

  6. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shalini; Dhar, Prasenjit; Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Vivek; Sharma, Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV) among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrhea or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis from CPV vaccinated or non-vaccinated dogs. Samples were tested using CPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting VP2 gene, multiplex PCR for detection of CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants, and a PCR for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. Results: No sample was found positive for the original CPV strain usually present in the vaccine. However, about 50% (52 out of 102) of the samples were found to be positive with CPV-2ab PCR assay that detects newer variants of CPV circulating in the field. In addition, multiplex PCR assay that identifies both CPV-2ab and CPV-2b revealed that CPV-2b was the major antigenic variant present in the affected dogs. A PCR positive isolate of CPV-2b was adapted to grow in MDCK cells and produced characteristic cytopathic effect after 5th passage. Multiple sequence alignment of VP2 structural gene of CPV-2b isolate (Accession number HG004610) used in the study was found to be similar to other sequenced isolates in NCBI sequence database and showed 98-99% homology. Conclusion: This study reports the first detection of CPV-2b in dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh and absence of other antigenic types of CPV. Further, CPV-specific PCR assay can be used for rapid confirmation of circulating virus strains under field conditions. PMID:27733797

  7. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh

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    Shalini Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrhea or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis from CPV vaccinated or non-vaccinated dogs. Samples were tested using CPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting VP2 gene, multiplex PCR for detection of CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants, and a PCR for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. Results: No sample was found positive for the original CPV strain usually present in the vaccine. However, about 50% (52 out of 102 of the samples were found to be positive with CPV-2ab PCR assay that detects newer variants of CPV circulating in the field. In addition, multiplex PCR assay that identifies both CPV-2ab and CPV-2b revealed that CPV-2b was the major antigenic variant present in the affected dogs. A PCR positive isolate of CPV-2b was adapted to grow in MDCK cells and produced characteristic cytopathic effect after 5th passage. Multiple sequence alignment of VP2 structural gene of CPV-2b isolate (Accession number HG004610 used in the study was found to be similar to other sequenced isolates in NCBI sequence database and showed 98-99% homology. Conclusion: This study reports the first detection of CPV-2b in dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh and absence of other antigenic types of CPV. Further, CPV-specific PCR assay can be used for rapid confirmation of circulating virus strains under field conditions.

  8. Land use change detection in Solan Forest Division, Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Shipra Shah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Monitoring the changing pattern of vegetation across diverse landscapes through remote sensing is instrumental in understanding the interactions of human activities and the ecological environment. Land use pattern in the state of Himachal Pradesh in the Indian Western Himalayas has been undergoing rapid modifications due to changing cropping patterns, rising anthropogenic pressure on forests and government policies. We studied land use change in Solan Forest Division of Himachal Pradesh to assess species wise area changes in the forests of the region. Methods The supervised classification (Maximum likelihood on two dates of IRS (LISS III satellite data was performed to assess land use change over the period 1998–2010. Results Seven land use categories were identified namely, chir pine (Pinus roxburghii forest, broadleaved forest, bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus forest, ban oak (Quercus leucotrichophora forest, khair (Acacia catechu forest, culturable blank and cultivation. The area under chir pine, cultivation and khair forests increased by 191 ha (4.55 %, 129 ha (13.81 % and 77 ha (23.40 %, whereas the area under ban oak, broadleaved, culturable blank and bamboo decreased by 181 ha (16.58 %, 152 ha (6.30 %, 71 ha (2.72 % and 7 ha (0.47 %, respectively. Conclusions The study revealed a decrease in the area under forest and culturable blank categories and a simultaneous increase in the area under cultivation primarily due to the large scale introduction of horticultural cash crops in the state. The composition of forests also exhibited some major changes, with an increase in the area of commercially important monoculture plantation species such as pine and khair, and a decline in the area of oak, broadleaved and bamboo which are facing a high anthropogenic pressure in meeting the livelihood demands of forest dependent communities. In time deforestation, forest degradation and ecological imbalances due to the changing forest species

  9. Socio-epidemiological determinants of 2002 plague outbreak in Himachal Pradesh, India: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Kaur, Harvinder; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Chauhan, Umesh; Singh, Amarjeet

    2014-04-08

    This qualitative investigation was conducted to determine the socio-epidemiological factors related to the plague outbreak (2002) in Himachal Pradesh (HP), India. The data for socio-epidemiological factors related to the plague outbreak (2002) in HP was obtained from residents through 150 in-depth Interviews (IDI) and 30 Focus Group Discussions (FGD) during six visits (from May 2011 to April 2012) by the research team. Natives, health officials and the nomadic population were interviewed. According to their opinion and viewpoints data was collected and their lifestyle and hunting practices were studied in detail. Tape recorders were used during various FGDs and IDIs. The interviews and FGDs were later transcribed and coded. In-depth analysis of the recorded data was done using an inductive thematic analysis approach. The study reports that the outbreak in 2002 in a few villages of Himachal Pradesh was that of plague and it occurred by the contact of an index case with wild animals after hunting and de-skinning. The first wave of plague transmission which took 16 lives of residents was followed by a second wave of transmission in a ward of a tertiary care hospital where one visitor acquired it from relatives of the index case and succumbed. The life-style practices of residents (hunting behavior, long stay in caves and jungles, overcrowding in houses, poor hygiene and sanitation, belief in 'God' and faith healers for cure of diseases) was optimal for the occurrence and rapid spread of such a communicable disease. The man-rodent contact is intensified due to the practice of hunting in such a rodent-ridden environment. The residents harbor a strong belief that plague occurs due to the wrath of gods. Various un-reported outbreaks of plague were also observed by officials, residents and old folk. The persistence of plague in HP is favoured by its hilly terrain, inaccessible areas, inclement weather (snow) in winters, unhygienic lifestyle, hunting practices of residents

  10. Predicting Suitable Habitats for the Vulnerable Eastern Hoolock Gibbon, Hoolock leuconedys, in India Using the MaxEnt Model.

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    Sarma, Kuladip; Kumar, Awadhesh; Krishna, Murali; Medhi, Mintu; Tripathi, Om Prakash

    2015-01-01

    The eastern hoolock gibbon, Hoolock leuconedys, is categorized as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List and assessed as a Schedule I species of the Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972 in India. We predict the potential habitat of H. leuconedys in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India, using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) distribution modelling algorithm. The model was developed using 90 known localities of H. leuconedys in the state. Nineteen environmental parameters along with 12 normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) layers, elevation and land use and land cover (LULC) were used in the modelling. Amongst the environmental input variables, the precipitation of the coldest quarter (BIO 19) had the highest contribution to the model (26.03%) and the twelve NDVI layers collectively contributed 60.91%. Two districts, Lower Dibang Valley and Lohit, which are known to contain H. leuconedys, occupied 64.75% of the predicted distribution area of the species. Thus, we aid in the identification of suitable areas for the reintroduction program of H. leuconedys that is planned by the Gibbon Conservation Breeding Centre, Biological Park, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Limnology and cyanobacterial diversity of high altitude lakes of Lahaul-Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y; Khattar, Jis; Singh, D P; Rahi, P; Gulati, A

    2014-09-01

    Limnological data of four high altitude lakes from the cold desert region of Himachal Pradesh, India, has been correlated with cyanobacterial diversity. Physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of the studied lakes revealed that Sissu Lake is mesotrophic while Chandra Tal, Suraj Tal and Deepak Tal are ultra-oligotrophic. Based on morphology and 16S rRNA gene sequence, a total of 20 cyanobacterial species belonging to 11 genera were identified. Canonical correspondence analysis distinguished three groups of species with respect to their occurrence and nutrient/physical environment demand. The first group, which included Nostoc linckia, N. punctiforme, Nodularia sphaerocarpa, Geitlerinema acutissimum, Limnothrix redekii, Planktothrix agardhii and Plank. clathrata, was characteristic of water with high nutrient content and high temperature. The second group, including Gloeocapsopsis pleurocapsoides, Leptolyngbya antarctica, L. frigida, Pseudanabaena frigida and N. spongiaeforme, occurred in oligotrophic water with high pH and low temperature. The distribution of third group of Cyanobium parvum, Synechocystis pevalekii, L. benthonica, L. foveolarum, L. lurida, L. valderiana, Phormidium autumnale and P. chalybeum could not be associated with a particular environmental condition because of their presence in all sampling sites.

  12. Arsenic accumulation in lichens of Mandav monuments, Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K; Dwivedi, S K

    2009-12-01

    Total arsenic in four different growth forms of lichens growing on old monuments in the city of Mandav, Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India was analyzed. Among the different growth forms, foliose lichens were found to accumulate higher amounts of arsenic followed by leprose form. The squamulose and crustose form accumulates the lower concentration of arsenic and ranged between 0.46 +/- 0.03 and 20.99 +/- 0.58 mircog g(-1) dry weight, while the foliose and leprose lichens have ranges from 10.98-51.95 and 28.63-51.20 mircog g(-1) dry weight, respectively. The substrate having high arsenic ranges also exhibit higher ranges of arsenic on lichens growing on them. The cyanolichens exhibit higher concentration of arsenic than the green photobiont-containing squamulose form. The higher concentration of arsenic was found at site having past mining activities. LSD (1%) shows significant difference for As concentration in lichens thallus between the selected sites and species both.

  13. Feminist Collective Activism in Telangana, South India: Exemplary by the Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samatha Society

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    Ms Julia Guenther

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at contributing to the ongoing debate of feminist standpoint epistemology by introducing a study on feminist collective activism in Sangareddy and Yellareddy, two districts of the newly established 29th state of India, Telangana. The purpose here is to document the work of two sanghams (collectives by the Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samatha Society (APMSS. The focus lies on songs created by Dalit and indigenous women, which are used as a form of, protest against societal and gender inequality. Those songs contribute in making a positive difference on a local level. Analysis of two group interviews strengthens this argument. The sanghams have shown that despite all societal differences, solidarity among women for a common cause can make a difference in combating social issues on a local level. Taking the APMSS as an example, this research shows that the use of a holistic approach to education to support women in their responses to social issues has an overall positive effect on women. Furthermore, and most importantly, women are strengthened in believing that their life-experiences matter. My research shows that literacy is not necessarily needed to be a successful advocate for women´s rights. What is needed, however, is an understanding of local contexts, social issues and ultimately the ability to link them to life-experiences.

  14. BUTTERFLY FAUNA OF SHIVALIK HILLS AREAS OF KANGRA AND HAMIRPUR DISTRICTS OF HIMACHAL PRADESH IN INDIA

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    SANGEETA CHANDEL ٭1, VIJAY KUMAR ٭2, BHAGWATI PRASHAD SHARMA 3 AND REETU PATIYAL 4

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted on the butterfly fauna of Shivalik Hills area of  Kangra and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh in India. The study area was divided into three areas, in which one area is high altitude area Gopalpur via Palampur  up to Billing, second area is the lower part of Kangra districts, from Khundia via Jawalaji, Dehra along the surroundings of  the Pong Dam reservoir up to Jawali areas in the whole  Kangra district and third  area  in  Hamirpur district. In the present study a total of 98 butterfly species were recorded from the different areas of the Kangra and Hamirpur Districts, which belong to five families i.e. Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Papilionidae, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae and 66 genera. The Nymphalidae family was the most diverse family in the study area having 45 species and followed by Lycaenidae family with 20 species, Pieridae 15 species, Papilionidae  9 species and and Hesperiidae 9 species.

  15. Postmenopausal bleeding: clinicopathologic study in a teaching hospital of Andhra Pradesh

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    Kavitha Kothapally

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB requires complete assessment in order to ensure the absence of malignancy and to identify and treat high risk patients such as those with endometrial hyperplasia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance and endometrial pathology in patients with postmenopausal bleeding. Methods: A retrospective study on postmenopausal women visiting Bhaskar Medical College & general hospital, Yenkapally, Andhra Pradesh between 2009-2011 was undertaken. About 30 patients (aged between 50-60 years with postmenopausal bleeding were selected and these patients were evaluated by curettage, pelvic ultrasound and endometrial histology. Results: The commonest finding of pelvic USG was increased endometrial thickness (>4mm (80%. The histopathological analysis showed proliferate endometrium (36.3%, atrophic endometrium (16.6%, cystoglandular hyperplasia (10% and endometrium hyperplasia (6.6%. Incidence of cervical and endometrial carcinomas was 10% and 6.6%, respectively. Conclusion: the postmenopausal bleeding is an important symptom and requires careful and timely assessment to eliminate the possibility of malignancy as soon as possible. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 344-348

  16. Snakebite profile from a medical college in rural setting in the hills of Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Sujeet Raina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the following study is to assess the clinical profiles and manifestations of snakebite patients in the rural hilly setting of Shivalik and the Lesser Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A hospital record-based retrospective descriptive study was carried out that included details on demography, clinical profile, treatment and outcome among 200 patients over a period of 2 years. The data was analyzed using Chi-square test for comparison. Results: 142 (71% patients were young (age group of 16-45 years and the number of male patients was 118 (59% and female patients were 82 (41%. All the cases recorded presented in the months of April to November. Not a single case was recorded from December to March. The most frequently bitten sites were the lower limbs particularly the feet. 86 (43% of the patients presented without any features of envenomation. Neuroparalysis was the commonest presentation in 53 (46% patients followed by hemotoxicity in 36 (31% among symptomatic patients. Early morning neuroparalysis syndrome was the presentation in 26.4% patients. Allergic reactions in the form of early anaphylaxis were noted in 7% patients. Conclusion: Snake bite is a neglected tropical disease affecting poor villagers in rural areas. Future research focusing on understanding epidemiological determinants of snake bite is desired.

  17. Glacier fluctuation using Satellite Data in Beas basin, 1972–2006, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shruti Dutta; A L Ramanathan; Anurag Linda

    2012-10-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as sensitive indicators for regional climate change. Very few studies have been conducted to investigate the long term deglaciation status in the Himalaya. In the present study, glaciers in the Beas basin, Himachal Pradesh, India were mapped by interpretation of various glaciomorphological features using the Landsat and IRS images. The mapping of 224 glaciers during the period 1972–2006 reveals that the glacier cover reduced from 419 to 371 km2, witnessing approximately 11.6% deglaciation in the Beas basin. A higher rate of retreat of the glaciers was observed during 1989–2006 as compared to the retreat during 1972–1989. Also, the loss has been more prominent in the glaciers with an areal extent of 2–5 km2. The number of glaciers increased from 224 to 236 due to fragmentation in this period. The average elevation of the ablation zone basin showed an upward shift from 3898 m (1972) to 4171 m (2006) which may be a consequence of a shift in Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reflecting imbalance.

  18. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGY AND THERAPEUTIC OUTCOME OF SNAKE BITE IN KONASEEMA REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Sai Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Snake bite is a common and frequently devastating environmental and occupational problem, especially in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Snake bite incidence is high in Andhra Pradesh. With the onset of monsoon the incidence of snake bite used to increase. METHODS Present study is a retrospective study in which all the data of snake bite cases admitted in the Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences was collected in last two years; details of the patient was obtained from bed head ticket. RESULTS In two years of data collection, 46 snake bite cases are found as per our record. Out of 46 patients, twenty seven were male and nineteen were female. Maximum twenty two (22 patients were between ages 20 to 40 years. Out of forty six patients, forty four recovered and only two patients died, cause of death was acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. DISCUSSION Most of the patients were given ASV (anti-snake venom, out of that only four patients developed reaction to ASV. Most of the patients who have received ASV were recovered. Only two deaths were reported which was due to acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. CONCLUSION Awareness and education about snake is required.

  19. Morphometric evaluation of Swarnrekha watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India: an integrated GIS-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Singh, Prafull; Pratap, Kamleshwar

    2017-07-01

    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is vital to understand the hydrological setup of any terrain. The present study deals with quantitative evaluation of Swarnrekha Watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India based on IRS satellite data and SRTM DEM. Morphometric parameters of the watershed were evaluated by computations of linear and areal aspect using standard methodology in GIS environment. ARC GIS software was utilized for morphometric component analysis and delineation of the watershed using SRTM digital elevation model (DEM). The watershed is drained by a fifth-order river and shown a dendritic drainage pattern, which is a sign of the homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. The drainage density in the area has been found to be low which indicates that the area possesses highly permeable soils and low relief. The bifurcation ratio varies from 3.00 to 5.60 and elongation ratio is 0.518 which reveals that the basin belongs to the elongated shape basin and has the potential for water management. The main objective of the paper is to extract the morphometric parameters of the watershed and their relevance in water resource evaluation management. The results observed from this work would be useful in categorization of watershed for future water management and selection recharge structure in the area.

  20. Nitrate pollution in groundwater in some rural areas of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, K; Rajesh, R; Murugan, R; Elango, L

    2012-01-01

    Intake of water with high concentration of nitrate is a major problem in many countries as it affects health of humans. The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the causes for higher nitrate concentration in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study area is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from 46 representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to January 2009. The nitrate concentration was analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration recorded during the sampling period was 879.65 mg/L and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. Taking into consideration 45 mg/L of nitrate as the maximum permissible limit for drinking water set by BIS, it was found that 13.78% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond the limit. Overall, wells present in agricultural fields had nitrate levels within permissible limits when compared to those groundwater samples from wells present in settlements which are used for domestic purpose. This indicates that the high nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area is due to poor sanitation facilities and leaching from indiscriminate dumping of animal waste.

  1. Periodontal status of Tibetan refugees residing in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Poonam Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral health is an integral part of the general health, however, oral health has been given lower priority than other health problems especially among the underprivileged refugee population. Out of total refugees in the world, 70% of the refugees belong to Tibet. This study was taken up to assess the periodontal status and treatment needs of Tibetans residing in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India and to explore and suggest better oral health care delivery to them. Materials and Methods: Tibetans above the age of 12 years were included in this cross-sectional study. American Dental Association (ADA Type-3 examination was conducted. Data regarding demography and oral health practices was recorded on a structured format. For recording periodontal status and treatment need index was used. The data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. Results: A total of 550 subjects were examined for CPITN. Maximum subjects 266 (48.3% had a CPITN score of 2 (Calculus and other plaque retentive factors. 27% (149 subjects had healthy peridontium. Female periodontal status was worse than males. It was also found that mean number of healthy sextants was higher in subjects who brush twice a day (3.5 when compared to those who brush once a day (2.4. Conclusion: The study revealed poor periodontal status among Tibetans and dental treatment requirement steadily increased with the advancement of age and was also related to other factors like poverty, education, and their tough life where oral health is given no priority.

  2. WATERSHED MODELING OF KRISHNA DELTA, ANDHRA PRADESH, USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

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    V. MALLIKARJUNA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water is the vital natural resource essential for the survival of mankind. Rainfall is the main source of water which is unevenly distributed spatially and temporally. Unprecedented increase in population, urbanization, agricultural expansion and industrialization leads to higher levels of human activities. As waterdemand increases, issues on water availability and demand become critical. This makes the management of water resources, such as assessing, managing and planning of water resources for sustainable use, a complex task. Therefore, it is essential to make measurement of factors such as size, slope, soil type and land use, vegetation and flow capacity of the channel. The drainage area, length of the water courses and mainstream are the most significant variables for prediction of run-off. Remote Sensing integrated with GeographicalInformation System has been efficiently used in generating input parameters of hydrological models. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to develop a GIS based Watershed Model for theassessment of spatial distribution of runoff for the Krishna Delta in Andhra Pradesh, India. The GIS layers namely, contours, stream network were prepared including watershed boundary. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the study area was also generated in ArcGIS using Contours and Stream layers. Subsequently Slope and Aspect maps were generated for the study area.

  3. Plankton as an indicator of heavy metal pollution in a freshwater reservoir of Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Neetu; Biswas, A K; Raju, C B

    2013-06-01

    Halali Reservoir is an important freshwater body of Madhya Pradesh. The water of the reservoir is used for drinking, irrigation and aquaculture practices. It receives untreated sewage, wastes from small scale industries and agricultural runoff from the catchment area. Various heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) levels were measured in plankton of Halali Reservoir during 2006-2007 by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Mean concentration ranges for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 0.0018-0.0037, 0.0038-0.2257, 0.0013-0.0228, 0.0011-0.0086, 0.0133-0.0494 and 0.0130-0.1168 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Overall, mean Cr concentrations in the plankton were generally the highest of the six metals at four of the five study sites. Metal concentrations at these four sites generally followed the order: Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. Mean concentrations of all metals at a fifth site were consistently lower than at the other sites. The high levels of Cr in the plankton are in agreement with high Cr levels that have been reported in fish from this reservoir, indicating that plankton may serve as a useful indicator of metal pollution in fish.

  4. Seasonal Distribution of Phytoplankton in Riwada Reservoir, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Jyothi KAPARAPU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with seasonal variations, correlation coefficient and biodiversity indices of phytoplankton during April 2011 to March 2012 in the Riwada reservoir, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. Sampling was performed at five stations during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon. There were a total of 57 genera belonging to four major groups i.e., Chlorophyceae (27 genera, Bacillariophyceae (14 genera, Cyanophyceae (13 genera and Euglenophyceae (three genera. Maximum and minimum total phytoplankton population and percentages were recorded at station three in pre monsoon and at station two during monsoon. The maximum and minimum species richness (Menhinick index R2 were found to be 1.29 at station one and 1.10 at station three respectively. Maximum and minimum species diversity (H1 were found at station four (3.98 and station two (3.71. Maximum species evenness was recorded at stations one, being four and five; minimum species evenness was recorded at station two. Correlation coefficient matrix indicated significant positive relationship with water temperature, pH, transparency, biological oxygen demand and chlorides, negative relationship with electric conductivity, total solids, total dissolved solids, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, sulphates and phosphates of water. The diversity indices showed that the reservoir have a well balanced phytoplankton community.

  5. Limnology and cyanobacterial diversity of high altitude lakes of Lahaul-Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Singh; J I S Khattar; D P Singh; P Rahi; A Gulati

    2014-09-01

    Limnological data of four high altitude lakes from the cold desert region of Himachal Pradesh, India, has been correlated with cyanobacterial diversity. Physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of the studied lakes revealed that Sissu Lake is mesotrophic while Chandra Tal, Suraj Tal and Deepak Tal are ultra-oligotrophic. Based on morphology and 16S rRNA gene sequence, a total of 20 cyanobacterial species belonging to 11 genera were identified. Canonical correspondence analysis distinguished three groups of species with respect to their occurrence and nutrient/physical environment demand. The first group, which included Nostoc linckia, N. punctiforme, Nodularia sphaerocarpa, Geitlerinema acutissimum, Limnothrix redekii, Planktothrix agardhii and Plank. clathrata, was characteristic of water with high nutrient content and high temperature. The second group, including Gloeocapsopsis pleurocapsoides, Leptolyngbya antarctica, L. frigida, Pseudanabaena frigida and N. spongiaeforme, occurred in oligotrophic water with high pH and low temperature. The distribution of third group of Cyanobium parvum, Synechocystis pevalekii, L. benthonica, L. foveolarum, L. lurida, L. valderiana, Phormidium autumnale and P. chalybeum could not be associated with a particular environmental condition because of their presence in all sampling sites.

  6. Ianthinite: A rare hydrous uranium oxide mineral from Akkavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yamuna Singh; R Viswanathan; K K Parashar; S K Srivastava; P V Ramesh Babu; P S Parihar

    2014-02-01

    Ianthinite is the only known uranyl oxide hydrate mineral that contains both U6+ and U4+. For the first time, we report ianthinite from India (at Akkavaram, Andhra Pradesh), which is hosted in basement granitoids. The mineral occurs in the form of tiny grains, encrustations and coatings in intimate association with uraninite and uranophane. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveals that d-spacings of the investigated ianthinite are in close agreement with the corresponding values given for ianthinite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) card no. 12-272. The crystallographic parameters of the studied ianthinite are: ao = 11.3 (1) Å, bo = 7.19 (3) Å and co = 30.46 (8) Å, with a unit cell volume of 2474 (27) Å3. The association of investigated ianthinite with uraninite suggests that the former has formed due to oxidation of the latter. Since a major part of the uraninite was exposed to oxidizing meteoric water, much of it has been transformed into hydrous uranium oxide (ianthinite) and very little part remained unaltered as uranium oxide (uraninite). Absence of schoepite in the investigated ianthinite suggests that after its formation it (ianthinite) was not exposed to oxygen/oxidizing meteoric water. As the oxidation was partial and short lived, some amount of primary uraninite is also preserved.

  7. Morphometric evaluation of Swarnrekha watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India: an integrated GIS-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Singh, Prafull; Pratap, Kamleshwar

    2015-10-01

    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is vital to understand the hydrological setup of any terrain. The present study deals with quantitative evaluation of Swarnrekha Watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India based on IRS satellite data and SRTM DEM. Morphometric parameters of the watershed were evaluated by computations of linear and areal aspect using standard methodology in GIS environment. ARC GIS software was utilized for morphometric component analysis and delineation of the watershed using SRTM digital elevation model (DEM). The watershed is drained by a fifth-order river and shown a dendritic drainage pattern, which is a sign of the homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. The drainage density in the area has been found to be low which indicates that the area possesses highly permeable soils and low relief. The bifurcation ratio varies from 3.00 to 5.60 and elongation ratio is 0.518 which reveals that the basin belongs to the elongated shape basin and has the potential for water management. The main objective of the paper is to extract the morphometric parameters of the watershed and their relevance in water resource evaluation management. The results observed from this work would be useful in categorization of watershed for future water management and selection recharge structure in the area.

  8. Sexual Dimorphism in Blood Pressure and Hypertension among Adult Parengi Porjas of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    I. Arjun Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated blood pressure levels as well as the prevalence of hypertension among adult Parengi Porja tribals of village Munchingput Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. A cross-sectional study was used to collect data on systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and pulse rate. A total of 137 adults (100 males and 37 females were measured and classified into three age groups, that is, Gr-I: 23 to 32 years, Gr-II: 33 to 42 years, and Gr-III: ≥ 43 years. Negative significant sex difference in SBP among age group I (t=-2.409; P<0.05 was observed. Positive significant sex difference in DBP among age group I (t=2.545; P<0.05 was also observed. Significant age group difference was noticed for SBP (F=4.332; P<0.01 among males. Based on SBP, the prevalence of prehypertension and stage I hypertension in males was 25.0% and 5.0%, respectively. Similarly, in females the prevalence of prehypertension and stage I hypertension based on SBP was 32.4% and 5.4%, respectively. On the basis of DBP, the prevalence of stage I hypertension in males was 5.0%. Similarly, in females, the prevalence of stage I hypertension based on DBP was 5.4%. Our results suggest that females of this ethnic group were more prone to have prehypertension and stage I hypertension than males.

  9. A 694-year tree-ring based rainfall reconstruction from Himachal Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jayendra; Wilmking, Martin [Greifswald University, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Greifswald (Germany); Yadav, Ram R. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2009-12-15

    We developed ring-width chronologies of Cedrus deodara [(Roxb.) G. Don] and Pinus gerardiana (Wall. Ex. Lamb) from a homogeneous moisture stressed area in Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh. Running correlation using a 50-year window with overlap of 25 years showed strong correlations between these species chronologies during the entire common period (ad 1310-2005). Response function analysis indicated that except for January-February, precipitation has a direct relationship with growth of these species. We therefore combined both the species chronologies to develop a statistically calibrated reconstruction of March-July precipitation that spans from ad 1310-2004, and explains 46% of the variance contained in the instrumental data from the calibration period 1951-1994. In the past 694 years of the reconstruction, the wettest period was in the twentieth century (1963-1992) and the driest in the eighteenth century (1773-1802). The relationships observed between reconstructed precipitation and Indian summer monsoon on interdecadal scale, SOI, PDO and NAO indicate the potential utility of such long-term reconstructions in understanding the large-scale climate variability. Multi-taper method (MTM) spectral analysis indicated significant (p < 0.05) spectral peaks at 2-4, 6, 8, 10, 30, 33, 37 and 40-42 years in the reconstructed precipitation data. (orig.)

  10. Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M

    2011-02-01

    Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Portfolio of Outpatients Attending Centre for Urban Health, Madhya Pradesh, Central India

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    Arti Gupta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge on distribution and burden of diseases in a community is essential for planning of public health services. In the absence of information on morbidity profile through community-based surveys, facility-based data provide a good alternative. The aim of this study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending the Centre for Urban Health All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS Bhopal (CUHA. Methodology: A record-based descriptive study was carried out in the CUHA Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Information on age, gender, residence, new case, and principal diagnosis were extracted from the outpatient registers for the period between January 2014 and December 2014. Only newly registered patients for the study year (2014 were included. Descriptive analysis was done. Results: A total of 6685 new episodes of illnesses were treated. Adults (>15 years constituted about 85.0%. Overall, the respiratory disorders were the most common (27.2% followed by the digestive disorders (10.9%, circulatory disorders (9.9%, musculoskeletal disorders (8.8%, and infectious and parasitic disorders (7.4%. Conclusion: This study gives a brief description of the morbidity profile of patients attending a primary health care center over a period of 1 year. This knowledge would help in planning health services to meet the patients’ needs and help in training health staff.

  12. Two sons and a daughter: sex composition and women's reproductive behaviour in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmeades, Jeffrey; Pande, Rohini; Macquarrie, Kerry; Falle, Tina; Malhotra, Anju

    2012-11-01

    This article examines how the sex composition of women's current children at the start of a pregnancy interval influences both fertility desires and the full range of reproductive actions women may take to realize them, including temporary contraception, abortion and sterilization, in Madhya Pradesh, India, where popular notions of ideal family size and sex composition are dominated by son preference. The analysis is conducted using a dataset of 9127 individual pregnancy intervals from a 2002 statewide representative survey of 2444 women aged 15-39 with at least one child. The results indicate that women's preferences go beyond a singular preference for male children, with the preferred composition of children being two boys and one girl. Women with this composition are 90% less likely to report having wanted another pregnancy (OR 0.097, p < 0.01) relative to those with two girls. These preferences have significant implications for reproductive actions. While sex composition has no statistically significant effect on the use of temporary contraception, those with the preferred sex composition are twice as likely to attempt abortion (OR 2.436, p < 0.01) and twelve times more likely to be sterilized (OR 12.297, p < 0.01) relative to those with two girls only.

  13. Serological evaluation of leptospirosis in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh: A retrospective hospital-based study

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    Velineni S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with humans getting the infection either from rodent hosts or from domestic animals. Urine contaminated environment is the common source of infection. This is an under-reported disease in Andhra Pradesh. We report a retrospective hospital-based study on 55 patients with suspected leptospirosis. Methods : A total of 55 serum samples were collected from patients with suspected leptospirosis and subjected to serological testing by LeptoTek Dri-dot, microscopic agglutination test (MAT and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Identification of the predominant infecting serotype was done using a panel of 12 serovars. Results: MAT analysis of all the 55 samples identified all cases to be positive. The predominant serogroup was Icterohaemorrhagiae (68% followed by Australis (22%, Autumnalis (8% and Javanica (2%. LeptoTek Dri-dot showed a sensitivity of 96% as compared to MAT. IgM ELISA done on 32 samples showed a sensitivity of 86.7% compared to MAT. Conclusions : MAT helped to identify Icterohemorrhagiae as the predominant serovar in this study. Despite the small number of samples analyzed, the data obtained establishes a need for a prospective study in this region.

  14. QUALITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES FOR IRRIGATION- A CASE STUDY FROM SRIKAKULAM AREA, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA.

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    Dr.K.S.S.N.Reddy ,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in the population caused unprecedented increase in demand of water resources. Besides, an improved quality of life is often associated with higher water demands. The suitability of a particular water for irrigation use depends on many factors; chemical quality of water being an important one. Quality criteria for irrigation use are based on the tolerance of plants, properties of soils, climate and irrigation practices, Water consumed by plants should be free from dissolved material. Plants normally retain some nutrients and mineral matter originally dissolved in water, and the cations and anions, so retained is a small part of their total content. The mineral matter retained by plants consists mostly of calcium and magnesium salts (Easton, 1954. Other soluble matter remains behind in the soil. Calcium carbonate may precipitate harmlessly in the soil as solute concentrations increases, but the bulk of the residual solute creates disposable problems that must be solved effectively to maintain the fertility of the irrigated soil. The most pertinent chemical properties patient to the evaluation of solubility of water for agricultural use are as Sodium concentration, an index showing the sodium or alkali hazards., Total concentration of soluble salts, an index showing salinity hazard, Residual SodiumCarbonate concentration. Hence, a scientific study, which includes various integrated methodologies and evaluation of alluvial aquifers, has been proposed in Nagavali and Vamsadhara river basin, in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, Indian.

  15. Water Quality Assessment of River Beas During Winter Season in Himachal Pradesh, India.

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    Suman Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was carried out in 256 km stretch of river Beas in Himachal Pradesh for analysis of important physical, chemical and biological water quality parameters during winter season. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids (TDS, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, Colliform and Escherichia coli were analyzed from six sampling stations i.e. Beaskund , Shamshi, Pandohdam, Dharampur, Nadaun and Pongdam in the study area. The analysis of data reveals that turbidity, cadmium and lead, were found to be higher than the acceptable limit prescribed by Bureau of Indian standards (BIS, 2012 for drinking water in India. Colliform and E.coli were present in all the sampling stations of river Beas except at SS-1 and SS-2. All the other physicochemical parameters excepting pH at SS-5 (8.98±0.057 were within the limit prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO, 2011 and BIS, 2012 for drinking water in India.

  16. Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Chikungunya in Hyderabad and Nalgonda Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, SK; Kadri, SM; Venkatesh, Srinivas; Lal, S; Katyal, RK

    2007-01-01

    After about three decades, Chikungunya infection has re-emerged in India and the first cases were reported in December, 2005. The outbreak has currently affected about 8 states in the country. Although known to be commonly non fatal, since the present outbreak involved a large population, it has been raised as an issue of public health concern and also attracted wide media attention. The clinico-epidemiological and entomological review of the Chikungunya outbreak situation in Hyderabad and Nalgonda Districts of Andhra Pradesh, which started in December 2005, revealed that it is under control. However, preventive efforts need to continue and disease surveillance for early detection of potential outbreaks further strengthening. Given the significantly high House Index, all the three study areas remain at significant risk of outbreaks in the future if appropriate control measures are not put in place. Community support and participation is also crucial for the prevention of future outbreaks and improving the health and well being of population in the districts. PMID:21475442

  17. Clinico-immunological aspects of vernal catarrh in hilly terrains of Himachal Pradesh

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    R Bisht

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Very few immunological studies in vernal catarrh have been conducted in India and abroad, but none in Himachal Pradesh in spite of its high incidence in the State. In the present study 25 patients of vernal catarrh residing at a height ranging between 1000 to 2500 meters above mean sea level have been evaluated. Their immunological status of serum and tears after detailed clinical assessment was studied by single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini et al. The values of serum IgA and IgM were significantly higher in patients than in controls. The serum IgE level had no significant difference. The IgG was significantly lower in patients with vernal catarrh. The values of tear IgM, IgE and IgA in these patients were significantly higher than in controls. However, in no case or control group C3C and C4 were detected in tears. The limbal type of vernal catarrh was found to be the most common in this part of the country. No mixed case was seen. Derangement of the immune system in the pathogenesis of vernal catarrh is suggested.

  18. Prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    B Hari Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions and to determine the potential risk factors associated among general population aged 20-70 years of Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: An oral screening campaign was organized with the help of local general dental practitioners in each district. All the relevant information regarding the subject was documented and clinical examination of the oral soft tissues was carried out. Clinically diagnosed as precancerous lesion or condition were subjected to punch (incisional biopsy biopsy and evaluated histopathologically to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Among 1200 screened, 150 subjects were chewers and 136 subjects were smokers with 29 chewers and 16 smokers had precancerous lesions and conditions. An overall prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions were found to be 4.2% (males 5.5%; females 2.5%. Leukoplakia was seen in 0.8%, Oral submucous fibrosis in 1.3% and lichen planus in 2% of the study population. Conclusions: The prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in our study is higher when compared with the reports from different parts of the country and in South East Asia. These lesions can be prevented from malignant transformation by mass screening, close monitoring, early detection, appropriate treatment plan and prognosis.

  19. A study of infant deaths in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Ushashree Garikipati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of neonatal deaths and its underlying correlates in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India Methods We conducted a two phase cross-sectional study (N=230. Semi-structured questionnaire schedules (in the vernacular-Telugu were used in the initial qualitative phase, to obtain specific information from mothers who delivered in a one year period prior to the study. Information from the analysed qualitative data was used to construct a questionnaire-schedule for the 2nd phase which used quantitative survey techniques. Results It was observed that Infant Mortality ratio (IMR in Vizianagaram district was 239 per 1000 live births in the tribal areas under study. This was ten times higher than that reported by the district (22/1000 and 4-5 times higher than SRS data of 2011 for AP. It was observed that 28% of infants died within first day, 68% within first week (including the first day and 81% within first month. Conclusions The high IMR observed in the within first month of life in tribal areas, interventions to tackle them should be prioritized in this ‘golden period’. The health workers should be re-trained to identify and manage the early warning signs of neonatal complications.

  20. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Karera Block, Madhya Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwaria, Y S; Saksena, D N

    2013-09-01

    To determine prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in school going children of ten villages of Karera block of Shivpuri District, Madhya Pradesh. Fluoride ion concentration was measured in ten hand pump and two wells waters with a fluoride meter (ORION model 720). For the study total 750 school children were selected from ten government primary schools of ten rural villages. The survey was conducted during the period of November 2007 through December 2009. The dental and oral examination was done by two trained dentists. The occurrence and severity of dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's index. Drinking water sources considered for study were hand pumps, and wells. Out of 750 children surveyed, 341 were found affected with dental fluorosis. The boys had greater prevalence (46.75%) as compared to girls (42.18%). Dental fluorosis, as assessed by Dean's Index shows that 20.8% children had grade I, 19.47% grade II, 5.2% grade III. Overall, 45.46% of the sample showed some grades of dental fluorosis. In all the 144 water samples from ten villages fluoride level was higher than permissible limits. The boys had greater prevalence of dental fluorosis over the girls.

  1. A study of cephalic index and facial index in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    K. Lakshmi Kumari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The description of the human body has been a major concern since ancient times. The use of medical terminology enhances reliability of comparison made between studies from different areas thereby contributing higher level of scientific evidence. Cephalic index is an important parameter in forensic medicine, anthropology and genetics to know the sex and racial differences between individuals. Facial index is useful index for forensic scientists, plastic surgeons and anatomist. The parameters are useful for plastic surgeons during treatment of congenital and traumatic deformities, identification of individuals in medicolegal cases by forensic scientists and identifying craniofacial deformities of genetic syndromes by geneticist. Methods: 170 males and 110 female adults from Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India region are included in this study. Anthropometric points for cephalic index were measured by using spreading calipers. Facial index measurements were taken by measuring tape. All measurements were taken in subjects sitting in relaxed condition and subjects head is in anatomical position. Cranial index and facial index were calculated as per the formula. Results: Maximum number of males with mean cephalic index values of 80.21 were observed as mesocephalic and female with mean value of 79.25 observed as brachycephalic. Regarding facial index males were leptoprosopic and females were mesoprosopic. Conclusion: Cephalic index and facial index were terms used by anthropologists, anatomists, plastic surgeons and forensic scientists to identify individual's race and sex for treatment of craniofacial deformities. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 656-658

  2. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis in occupationally exposed human beings of Himachal Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalmali; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Chahota, Rajesh

    2012-06-01

    The chief objective of respective study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings in Himachal Pradesh. A total of 165 serum samples that were obtained from human beings from various regions of the state were screened through a battery of serological tests which included RBPT, STAT, 2-MET, dot-ELISA and indirect-ELISA. 165 of human sera samples included 42 from veterinarians, 40 shepherds, 35 livestock owners, 20 workers at veterinary hospitals/clinics, 16 abattoir workers and 12 veterinary pharmacists. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings was observed to be 6.66% showing highest in abattoir workers (18.75%) followed by pharmacists (8.33%), veterinarians (7.14%), and livestock owners (5.71%) and shepherds (5.00%). In humans it is prevalent as an occult infection or under diagnosed disease, especially; in case of abattoir workers the highest seropositivity for brucella agglutinins was observed. Indirect-ELISA and Dot-ELISA proved best in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  3. Comparison of patient satisfaction with services of vision centers in rural areas of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Kovai Vilas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the satisfaction of patients with the services of Vision Center services (primary eye care in large village (s and small village (s in rural settings in Andhra Pradesh state, India. Materials and Methods: We have administered standard questionnaires to randomly selected patients to assess patient satisfaction when assessing Vision Center Services. We used the Chi-square ( P <0.05 to explore differences in satisfaction of patients with Vision Center services located in the large village (s and small village (s rural settings. Results: Vision Center patients at the large village (s expressed higher levels of satisfaction (median 78% than patients treated at the Vision Center at small village (s (median 69%. The difference was statistically significant (Chi square P value ranging from <0.001 to 0.03 for all the items except two - ′easy to identify vision center location′ and ′spectacles dispensing time′ as compared to other (privately run optometry facilities (Chi square P value=0.498 and 0.993 respectively. The location of the Vision Center, convenience of journey, ophthalmic technician′s behavior with patients, are some of the most important factors that determined the patient perception about Vision Center services. Conclusion: The overall satisfaction levels of the Vision Center experience at 78% and 69% were good. However, continual improvement is to be made in service time, staff performance, cost and quality of vision care, especially at more remote primary eye Care Centers.

  4. Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis among patients with seizures in northern coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bala Chandra Sekhar Pappala; Jyothi Padmaja Indugula; Sateesh Kumar Talabhatula; Ramalakshmi Suryakarani Kolli; Arpit Kumar Shrivastava; Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC) from three neighboring districts of Andhra Pradesh state in India where NCC burden was never explored before. Methods: A total of 160 patients presenting with recent onset seizures were recruited from neurology, general medicine, and pediatric outpatient clinics of a local major tertiary care teaching hospital serving above districts during the period 2011–2014. Brain imaging was performed in all the above cases. A commercial immunoglobulin G-ELISA kit (sensitivity=85%;specificity=94%) was employed for the serological diagnosis of NCC. Results: The recruited patients presented with generalized, simple partial, and complex partial seizures (55%, 31.25% and 13.75% respectively). NCC was diagnosed in 44 of 160 (27.5%) seizure cases based on imaging characteristics, and a positive serum anti-body ELISA. No association was detected between seropositivity with the number and location of the lesion(s) in the brain. Conclusions: The possible potentiality of NCC could be identified as an underlying cause of the recent onset of seizures in this region as explored in the present study. It is recommended that NCC should be suspected as one of the major differential in every recent onset seizure with or without a radio imaging supportive diagnosis, especially in areas endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  5. Dengue Outbreak in a Hilly State of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India

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    Siraj A. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has been reported from plains as well as hilly regions of India including some parts of Northeast India. In July-August 2012, outbreak of fever with unknown origin (FUO indicative of Dengue was reported in Pasighat, East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh (AP state. Serum samples (n = 164 collected from patients from Health Training and Research Centre General Hospital, Pasighat, were tested for NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. NS1-positive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR assay and entomological surveys were carried out. The majority of suspected cases reported NS1 antigen positivity. Females and young adults were mostly affected. The majority of the amplified NS1-positive samples showed Dengue serotype 3 infection. Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus, known as semiurban breeding mosquitoes, was the only potential vector species identified from the affected areas of Pasighat which single handedly contributed to the outbreak. Thus, the present work identifies Dengue as an emerging arboviral infection in hilly state of AP along with a looming risk of its spread to neighbouring areas.

  6. The Best Laid Plans: Access to the Rajiv Aarogyasri community health insurance scheme of Andhra Pradesh

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    H. Narasimhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative assessment of a public health insurance scheme in the state of Andhra Pradesh, south India, called the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (or Aarogyasri, using the case-study method. Focusing on inpatient hospital care and especially on surgical treatments leaves the scheme wanting in meeting the health care needs of and addressing the impoverishing health expenditure incurred by the poor, especially those living in rural areas. Though well-intentioned, people from vulnerable sections of society may find the scheme ultimately unhelpful for their needs. Through an in-depth qualitative approach, the paper highlights not just financial difficulties but also the non-financial barriers to accessing health care, despite the existence of a scheme such as Aarogyasri. Narrative evidence from poor households offers powerful insights into why even the most innovative state health insurance schemes may not achieve their goals and systemic corrections needed to address barriers to health care.

  7. Experience of Percutaneous Trigger Finger Release under Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Sep-Oct 2014 | Vol 4 | Issue 5 | ... Science and Research, Sharda University, Uttar Pradesh, 1Department of Obstetric ... aggressive conservative treatments, such as rest, drug therapy,.

  8. Biodegradation of Navy N5RL1 carpet dye by Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain BHUSS X3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumari, Lata; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Tiwary, Dhanesh; Giri, Deen Dayal; Nath, Gopal; Mishra, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    ... in Bhadohi, Sant Ravidas Nagar and Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolated strain was identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus BHUSS X3 on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis...

  9. Association Between Use of Tobacco and Age on Graying of Hair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    melanosomes, produced by the melanocytes, and are the ... increased oxidative stress.[6] ... Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, DJ College of Dental Sciences, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, 1Chandra Dental ... Statistical analysis.

  10. Micropropagation of an endangered medicinal herb Chlorophytum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... †Present Address: Department of Botany, Shia Post Graduate College, Sitapur Road, Lucknow-226020, Uttar Pradesh, ... in biomass (fresh weight) was obtained. ..... to the problem of asphyxia and hyperhydricity in explants.

  11. Perceived Risks Associated with Contraceptive Method Use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    remains a formidable challenge in the face of a high total fertility ..... contact with providers, representing both missed opportunities .... Condom use and the popular press in. Nigeria. ... planning in urban Uttar Pradesh, India: a mixed methods ...

  12. Knowledge and opinion about smoke-free laws and second-hand smoke among hospitality venue managers in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay K; Arora, Monika; Sharma, Indrani; Nazar, Gaurang P; Modi, Bhavesh; Singh, Deepti; Millett, Christopher; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-01-01

    India's Smoke-Free Law (SFL) was implemented in 2004 and reinforced on 2nd October 2008. This research attempts to understand the knowledge and opinion of hospitality venue (HV) managers about second-hand smoke (SHS) and SFL as well as self-reported compliance with SFL in two Indian states. A survey was conducted among 804 randomly sampled HVs from project STEPS (Strengthening of tobacco control efforts through innovative partnerships and strategies) in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India. Four hundred and three HVs from two districts in Gujarat and 401 HVs from six districts in Andhra Pradesh were selected. The owner, manager or supervisor of each HV was interviewed using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. Association of opinion scales with respondents' background characteristics was assessed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Out of the 403 respondents in Gujarat and 401 in Andhra Pradesh, 56.1% and 84.3% had knowledge about SFL respectively. Compliance of HVs with SFL was 21.8% in Gujarat and 31.2% in Andhra Pradesh as reported by the managers. Knowledge about SHS was noted among 39.7% of respondents in Gujarat and 25.4% in Andhra Pradesh. Bivariate results indicated that more educated HV managers showed higher support for smoke-free public places (P < 0.001) and were more concerned about the health effects of SHS exposure (P = 0.002). Complete self-reported compliance with, and knowledge of SFL as well as SHS was not found in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. The education level of HV managers is an important determinant to ensure compliance with SFL in public places.

  13. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  14. Subscription Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH, the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. All the registered members of the association and currently working as faculty in Community Medicine at various Medical Colleges of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand are only entitled to receive a free copy of the journal. 

  15. DISCOVERING BEIJING Eastern Promise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dongcheng District, literally meaning eastern city, covers Beijing’s downtown area to the northeast of the central axis of old Beijing. The district has a total area of 25 square km and a population of 600,000. With a large number of cultural and historical sites and tourist attractions,

  16. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  17. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  18. Barriers to accessing eye care services among visually impaired populations in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India

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    Kovai Vilas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To understand the reasons why people in rural south India with visual impairment arising from various ocular diseases do not seek eye care. Materials and Methods: A total of 5,573 persons above the age of 15 were interviewed and examined in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh covering the districts of Adilabad, West Godavari and Mahaboobnagar. A pre-tested structured questionnaire on barriers to eye care was administered by trained field investigators. Results: Of the eligible subjects, 1234 (22.1%, N=5573 presented with distant visual acuity < 20/60 or equivalent visual field loss in the better eye. Of these, 898 (72.7%, N=1234 subjects had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision citing personal, economic and social reasons. The analysis also showed that the odds of seeking treatment was significantly higher for literates [odds ratio (OR 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.38 to 2.65], for those who would be defined as blind by visual acuity category (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.90 and for those with cataract and other causes of visual impairment (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.03. Barriers to seeking treatment among those who had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision over the past five years were personal in 52% of the respondents, economic in 37% and social in 21%. Conclusion: Routine planning for eye care services in rural areas of India must address the barriers to eye care perceived by communities to increase the utilization of services.

  19. Outputs and cost of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers form part of the HIV control efforts, but systematic data on the outputs and cost of providing such services in India are not readily available for further planning and use of resources. Methods Detailed cost and output data were collected from written records and interviews for 2005–2006 fiscal year using standardized methods at six sampled HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The total economic cost for these programmes was computed and the relation of unit cost of services per truck driver with programme scale was assessed using regression analysis. Results A total of 120,436 truck drivers were provided services by the six programmes of which 55.9% were long distance truck drivers. The annual economic cost of providing services to a truck driver varied between programmes from US$ 1.52 to 4.56 (mean US$ 2.49. There was an inverse relation between unit economic cost of serving a truck driver and scale of the programme (R2 = 0.63; p = 0.061. The variation between programmes in the average number of contacts made by the programme staff with truck drivers was 1.3 times versus 5.8 times for contacts by peer educators. Only 1.7% of the truck drivers were referred by the programmes for counseling and HIV testing. Conclusion These data provide information for further planning of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers and estimating the resources needed for such programmes. The findings suggest the need to strengthen the role of peer educators and increase referral of truck drivers for HIV testing.

  20. Technical efficiency of public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India: a data envelopment analysis

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    Tej Ram Jat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scarcity of resources for healthcare is a well-acknowledged problem. In this context, efficient utilization of existing financial and human resources becomes crucial for strengthening the healthcare delivery. The assessment of efficiency of health facilities can guide decision makers in ensuring the optimum utilization of available resources. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE of the public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, with special emphasis on maternal healthcare services, using data envelopment analysis (DEA. Methods: Data from 40 district hospitals from January to December 2010 were collected from the health management information system and other records of the department of health and family welfare of the state. DEA was performed with input orientation and variable returns to scale assumption. Results: TE and scale efficiency scores of the district hospitals were 0.90 (SD = 0.14 and 0.88 (SD = 0.15, respectively. Of the total district hospitals in the study, 20 (50% were technically efficient constituting the ‘best practice frontier’. The other half were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 0.79 (SD = 0.12 meaning that these hospitals could produce the same outputs by using 21% less inputs from current input levels. Twenty-six (65% district hospitals were found to be scale inefficient, manifesting a mean score of 0.81 (SD = 0.16. Conclusions: Half of the district hospitals in the study were operating inefficiently. Decision makers and administrators in the state should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase efficiency of these hospitals.

  1. Earned print media in advancing tobacco control in Himachal Pradesh, India: a descriptive study

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    Sharma, Renu; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Gopalan, Balasubramaniam; Badrel, Ramesh Kumar; Rana, Jugdeep Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background The Union-Bloomberg Initiative tobacco control projects were implemented in Himachal Pradesh (a hilly state in North India) from 2007 to 2014. The project focused on the establishment of an administrative framework; increasing the capacity of stakeholders; enforcement of legislation; coalition and networking with multiple stakeholders; awareness generation with focus on earned media and monitoring and evaluation with policy-focussed research. This study aimed to systematically analyse all earned print news items related to the projects. Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, quantitative content analysis of earned print news items was carried out using predetermined codes related to areas of tobacco control policies. We also carried out a cost description of the hypothetical value of this earned media. The area of the news item in cm2 was multiplied by the average rate of space for the paid news item in that particular newspaper. Results There were 6348 news items: the numbers steadily increased with time. Focus on Monitoring tobacco use, Protecting people from tobacco smoke, Offering help to quit, Warning about dangers of tobacco, Enforcing a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, Raising tax on tobacco products was seen in 24, 17, 9, 23, 22 and 3% of news items, respectively. Press releases were highest at 44% and report by correspondents at 24%. Further, 55, 23 and 21% news items focused on smoking, smokeless and both forms of tobacco use, respectively. Sixty-six per cent and 34% news items, respectively, were focused on youth and women. The news items had a hypothetical value of US$1503 628.3, which was three times more than the funds spent on all project activities. Conclusions In the absence of funding for paid media, the project strategically used earned media to promote tobacco control policies in the state. PMID:28589021

  2. Earned print media in advancing tobacco control in Himachal Pradesh, India: a descriptive study.

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    Sharma, Renu; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Gopalan, Balasubramaniam; Badrel, Ramesh Kumar; Rana, Jugdeep Singh

    2017-01-01

    The Union-Bloomberg Initiative tobacco control projects were implemented in Himachal Pradesh (a hilly state in North India) from 2007 to 2014. The project focused on the establishment of an administrative framework; increasing the capacity of stakeholders; enforcement of legislation; coalition and networking with multiple stakeholders; awareness generation with focus on earned media and monitoring and evaluation with policy-focussed research. This study aimed to systematically analyse all earned print news items related to the projects. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, quantitative content analysis of earned print news items was carried out using predetermined codes related to areas of tobacco control policies. We also carried out a cost description of the hypothetical value of this earned media. The area of the news item in cm(2) was multiplied by the average rate of space for the paid news item in that particular newspaper. There were 6348 news items: the numbers steadily increased with time. Focus on Monitoring tobacco use, Protecting people from tobacco smoke, Offering help to quit, Warning about dangers of tobacco, Enforcing a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, Raising tax on tobacco products was seen in 24, 17, 9, 23, 22 and 3% of news items, respectively. Press releases were highest at 44% and report by correspondents at 24%. Further, 55, 23 and 21% news items focused on smoking, smokeless and both forms of tobacco use, respectively. Sixty-six per cent and 34% news items, respectively, were focused on youth and women. The news items had a hypothetical value of US$1503 628.3, which was three times more than the funds spent on all project activities. In the absence of funding for paid media, the project strategically used earned media to promote tobacco control policies in the state.

  3. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child models were used to test associations between indicators of female autonomy and the risk of having a stunted child. Women with higher autonomy {indicated by access to money [odds ratio (OR) = 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.546, 0.981] and freedom to choose to go to the market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy.

  4. Service delivery through public health care system to control sexually transmitted infections in Himachal pradesh

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    Sunite A Ganju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The National AIDS Control Organization has designed multiple synergistic interventions to identify and control curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Objective: To assess the impact of services offered at designated STI clinics in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India and the profile of the attending clients. Materials and Methods: This was a two-year prospective study, conducted from April 2011 to March 2013. Training on delivering STI/RTI services was imparted to the staff of 16 designated STI clinics including recording of data. The staff in each STI clinic comprises of one doctor, one counselor, one nurse, and one laboratory technician. The clients attending these designated clinics were offered counseling, syndromic case management (SCM, and diagnostic services wherever possible. Monthly data of STI clinic attendees was collected, compiled, and analyzed. Results: A total of 65,760 clinic visits were reported, of which 32,385 (49% visits were for index STI/RTI complaint(s. The ratio of male to female attendees was 1:2. The commonest age group accessing the STI clinics was 25-44 years (n = 38,966; 59.3%. According to SCM, 52.9% clients were managed. The commonest presenting syndrome was urethral discharge (n = 4,500; 41% in males, and vaginal discharge (n = 13,305; 56% in females. Genital ulcer disease was treated in 2099 cases. Laboratory tests were performed only in 6466 patients, and 39,597 antenatal mothers were screened for syphilis. Counseling services were provided to 51,298 (f = 34,804; 68%: m = 16,494; 32% clients and of these, 48% (n = 25,056 of the clients were referred to integrated counseling and testing centers. Forty-three clients (m = 24: f = 19 were detected positive for HIV infection. Conclusion: Uniform and standardized services delivered to clients attending public health clinics can gather reliable data to monitor trends of STI infection.

  5. Economic vulnerability to health shocks and coping strategies: evidence from Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Dhanaraj, Sowmya

    2016-07-01

    Empirical research has shown that households in developing countries are unable to sustain current levels of consumption during and after severe health crises due to substantial increase in medical expenditure and/or loss of income. Health events are also found to have an adverse impact on nutritional status and educational attainment of household members. Thus, in this study, we investigate: who are vulnerable to welfare loss from health shocks, what are the household responses to cope with the economic burden of health shocks and if policy responses like state health insurance schemes are effective in reducing the economic vulnerability. We use self-reported measures of health shocks and coping strategies from the longitudinal survey of the ongoing Young Lives project in India [Andhra Pradesh (AP)] to identify the characteristics of vulnerable groups and perform three-level random intercept logistic regression that takes into account contextual or environmental factors. What emerges is socioeconomic status of household (determined by education, wealth, occupation and caste/religious group) and its demographic characteristics like gender of the household head and proportion of elderly and disabled members matter for outcomes related to health events. Households adopt different strategies to cope with the economic costs of ill-health; borrowing is the most widely used strategy. For credit, majority of households rely on informal sources (moneylenders, friends, relatives, etc.) and have little or no access to formal sources. However, health shock to main breadwinner leads to households adopting costly strategies like reducing consumption or sending children to work. We found no evidence that the state health insurance scheme reduced the household welfare loss from health shocks and their coping strategies. The results suggest that health insurance schemes have to be complemented with access to micro-credit and social security schemes for self-employed persons

  6. Effects of consanguineous marriages on fertility among three endogamous groups of Andhra Pradesh.

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    Reddy, P G

    1987-01-01

    To assess interrelationships between consanguineous marriage and fertility, 3 caste groups in Andhra Pradesh--the Desuri Kapu, an affluent agricultural caste; the Devanga, an artisan caste in the middle range of the hierarchy; and the Mala, a scheduled caste at the bottom--were selected for field study. Consanguineous marriages are an essential part of the social structure in this area of southern India. A total of 2524 marriages were analyzed, of which 46% were consanguineous. 19% of consanguineous marriages were between uncle and niece, 22% were between 1st cousins, and 5% were between more distant cousins. The Devanga had the highest rate of related marriages (48%), followed by the Desuri Kapu (47%) and the Mala (41%). Higher caste individuals, and wealthier persons within each caste, are more likely to marry relatives so they can avoid splitting their properties through dowry of bride price. The consanguineous unions as a whole were significantly more fertile than nonconsanguineous unions. The mean number of pregnancies, live births, and surviving offspring was 4.85, 4.44, and 2.99, respectively, among consanguineous couples compared with 3.41, 3.32, and 2.87, respectively, among nonconsanguineous couples. Although the number of pregnancies and live births was significantly higher among consanguineous couples in all 3 castes compared with nonconsanguineous couples, the difference in the number of surviving children between consanguineous and nonconsanguineous unions was not significant among the wealthier castes. This suggests that child mortality is higher among the offspring of consanguineous unions, despite their greater wealth.

  7. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh

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    Saroj Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Results: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%. The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%, clout/influence of the client (45%, risk of losing client (27%, and forced sex (1.2%. Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98% while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  8. Dynamics of forest malaria transmission in Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

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    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India to understand the dynamics of forest malaria transmission in a difficult and hard to reach area where indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets were used for vector control. METHODS: This community based cross-sectional study was undertaken from January 2010 to December 2012 in Baihar and Birsa Community Health Centres of district Balaghat for screening malaria cases. Entomological surveillance included indoor resting collections, pyrethrum spray catches and light trap catches. Anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein. FINDINGS: Plasmodium falciparum infection accounted for >80% of all infections. P. vivax 16.5%, P. malariae 0.75% and remaining were mixed infections of P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. More than, 30% infections were found in infants under 6 months of age. Overall, an increasing trend in malaria positivity was observed from 2010 to 2012 (chi-square for trend  =  663.55; P<0.0001. Twenty five Anopheles culicifacies (sibling species C, D and E were positive for circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum (44% and P. vivax (56%. Additionally, 2 An. fluviatilis, were found positive for P. falciparum and 1 for P. vivax (sibling species S and T. An. fluviatilis sibling species T was found as vector in forest villages for the first time in India. CONCLUSION: These results showed that the study villages are experiencing almost perennial malaria transmission inspite of indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets. Therefore, there is a need for new indoor residual insecticides which has longer residual life or complete coverage of population with long lasting insecticide treated nets or both indoor residual spray and long lasting bed nets for effective vector control. There is a need to undertake a well designed case control study to evaluate the efficacy

  9. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

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    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p control. The percent total solids and suspended solids were more (though not significant) in PLR kheer and palathalikalu. Extruded product (control and PLR) showed no significant difference with length, diameter, weight and volume expansion ratio and water absorption index (WAI). Consumer acceptability was high for PLR products palathalikalu (95%), instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased (P control and PLR) showed no microbial growth during the entire storage period. Considering the poor marketability of PLRVs for consumption as staple rice, the study

  10. INVESTIGATIONS OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STATUS OF GROUND WATER OF SINGRAULI DISTRICT, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA

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    Rajesh Pandey et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground water is the most preferred water source in current scenario. Once believed to be safe from pollution as it is available many band below the surface, is now provided to be prone to pollution by research investigators. Various causes associated for the contamination of ground water. The major cause of the contamination of ground water may be due to improper disposal of industrial waste. The effort was made to assess the quality of ground water and thrash out the portability of ground water by physico-chemical temperament. Present study was carried out to assess the ground water quality of Singrauli district an energy hub station of Madhya Pradesh state of India Study was conduct in year 2012 by selecting 13 different spots, covered all the four directions of Singrauli. Ground water samples were taken from different sources such as bore well, well water, municipal supplier water etc. Investigations of Physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater quality based on Physico-chemical parameters have been taken up to evaluate its suitability for different objects. Quality analysis has been made through in terms of pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Alkalinity. Comparative studies of collected samples indicated that there is no appreciable change in the different parameters during sampling season. The results were compared with standards prescribed by WHO and ICMR. The results showed that high total hardness content indicating the need of some treatment for minimization. Other investigated samples were found within the water quality standards but the quality of water is not completely favorable as per standard human requirement. Water is not completely fit for drinking purpose due to improper management of disposal of industrials, mines waste or garbage in these local energy hub environments.

  11. Seroprevalence of Scrub typhus at a tertiary care hospital in Andhra Pradesh

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    A Ramyasree

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted by the bite of the chigger of a mite. Delay in diagnosis can be fatal otherwise the treatment is simple, doxycycline being the drug of choice. Indirect immunoflurescence is considered gold standard but it is not used in India as it is costly and also not available. There is need for rapid, economic and simple test for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. This study was taken up to study the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in Andhra Pradesh and to compare two commonly used serological methods; rapid test and IgM ELISA. Materials and methods: This is a prospective study in which 100 serum samples from clinically suspected cases collected over a period of 3 months were processed for the detection of IgM antibodies for scrub typhus by ELISA and Rapid test. Samples were also tested for leptospirosis and dengue fever which the other common causes of fever prevalent in this region. Results: Total number of samples processed was 100 of which 52 were males and 48 females. Among the hundred samples 39 were seropositive. Positivity was higher in the age group of patients between 16 and 30 yrs of age. There was 97% correlation between ELISA and rapid method. Of the 100 samples only three samples positive by ELISA were negative by rapid method. Fever was the most common manifestation and there was no eschar and no mortality reported. Conclusion: Scrub typhus should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin along with dengue, malaria and leptospirosis which are the other common endemic infections in this part of the country.

  12. Consumer preferences for household water treatment products in Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet R; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Wood, Siri; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos

    2012-08-01

    Over 5 billion people worldwide are exposed to unsafe water. Given the obstacles to ensuring sustainable improvements in water supply infrastructure and the unhygienic handling of water after collection, household water treatment and storage (HWTS) products have been viewed as important mechanisms for increasing access to safe water. Although studies have shown that HWTS technologies can reduce the likelihood of diarrheal illness by about 30%, levels of adoption and continued use remain low. An understanding of household preferences for HWTS products can be used to create demand through effective product positioning and social marketing, and ultimately improve and ensure commercial sustainability and scalability of these products. However, there has been little systematic research on consumer preferences for HWTS products. This paper reports the results of the first state-of-the-art conjoint analysis study of HWTS products. In 2008, we conducted a conjoint analysis survey of a representative sample of households in Andhra Pradesh (AP), India to elicit and quantify household preferences for commercial HWTS products. Controlling for attribute non-attendance in an error components mixed logit model, the study results indicate that the most important features to respondents, in terms of the effect on utility, were the type of product, followed by the extent to which the product removes pathogens, the retail outlet and, the time required to treat 10 L. Holding all other product attributes constant, filters were preferred to combination products and chemical additives. Department stores and weekly markets were the most favorable sales outlets, followed by mobile salespeople. In general, households do not prefer to purchase HWTS products at local shops. Our results can inform the types of products and sales outlets that are likely to be successful in commercial HWTS markets in AP, as well as the influence of different pricing and financing strategies on product demand

  13. Career satisfaction among medical and dental graduates in a private institution in Indore city, Madhya Pradesh

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    Sandeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Career is the progress and actions taken by a person throughout lifetime, especially those related to that person′s occupation and are often composed of the jobs held, titles earned and work accomplished over a long period of time. It plays a very important role in the success of once life. Aim: The aim was to compare the career satisfaction among medical and dental graduates in a private institution in Indore city, Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: The study included a total of 100 medical graduates and 100 dental graduates and was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was performed for statistical analysis. Results: In medical profession, it was found that majority (87% of the graduates were satisfied with their career. Majority (88% of the graduates believed that their profession had a bright future 10 years from now and majority (74% recommended joining medical profession as a safe and bright career alternative. On the contrary, in dental profession, it was found that more than half (53% of the graduates were unsatisfied with their career. More than 50% of graduates believed that dental profession did not have a bright future 10 years from now and majority (66% of the graduates recommended not to join dental profession. The differences were found to be significantly associated between the two groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The dental graduates were found to be dissatisfied with their career compared with medical graduates. Better job perspectives and better placements needs to be created. Endorsement of effective policies is required.

  14. Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using geospatial technique

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    Soni, Sandeep

    2017-09-01

    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is important for the quantification of the channel network and to understand its geo-hydrological behaviour. Assessment of drainage network and their relative parameters have been quantitatively carried out for the Chakrar watershed of Madhya Pradesh, India, to understand the prevailing geological variation, topographic information and structural setup of the watershed and their interrelationship. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for the delineation and calculation of the morphometric parameters of the watershed. The Chakrar watershed is sprawled over an area of 415 km2 with dendritic, parallel and trellis drainage pattern. It is sub-divided into nine sub-watersheds. The study area is designated as sixth-order basin and lower and middle order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 2.46 km/km2 which exhibits gentle to steep slope terrain, medium dense vegetation, and less permeable with medium precipitation. The mean bifurcation value of the basin is 4.16 and value of nine sub-watersheds varies from 2.83 to 4.44 which reveals drainage networks formed on homogeneous rocks when the influences of geologic structures on the stream network is negligible. Form factor, circularity ratio and elongation ratio indicate an elongated basin shape having less prone to flood, lower erosion and sediment transport capacities. The results from the morphometric assessment of the watershed are important in water resources evaluation and its management and for the selection of recharge structure in the area for future water management.

  15. Optimum stand density of Leucaena leucocephala for wood production in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, J.V.N.S.; Korwar, G.R.; Rao, K.V.; Mandal, U.K.; Rao, G.R.; Srinivas, I.; Venkateswarlu, B. [Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santoshnagar, Hyderabad-500059 (India); Rao, S.N. [Indian Tobacco Company (ITC), Paper Boards and Specialty Papers Division (PSPD), Secunderabad-500003 (India); Kulkarni, H.D. [Indian Tobacco Company (ITC), Paper Boards and Specialty Papers Division (PSPD), Sarapaka, Khammam (Dt), Andhra Pradesh-507 201 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Leucaena leucocephala is widely used as raw material for the manufacture of paper and packaging material and in biomass based power plants in the state of Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. Experiments were conducted to study the affect of tree density on the growth, biomass partitioning and wood productivity. Six treatments 1 x 1 m, 1.3 x 1.3 m, 3 x 0.75 m, 3 x 1 m, 5 x 0.8 m and 3 x 2 m corresponding to a tree density of 10,000, 6666, 4444, 3333, 2500 and 1666 were evaluated with leucaena variety K636. At 51 months after planting, spacings significantly influenced tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), number of branches and biomass partitioning. Wider tree rows resulted in greater tree height and diameter growth resulting in higher per plant productivity. At harvest, 70% of trees in 3 x 2 m attained a diameter of more than 7.5 cm, while 35% of the trees attained the same DBH in 1 x 1 m spacing. Increased spacing levels decreased the relative amount of growth allocated to the bole of the tree. Marketable biomass yield was highest with 1 x 1 m spacing. Spacing of 3 x 0.75 m produced marketable biomass comparable to that of 1 x 1 m and greater proportion of stems with more than 5 cm diameter. Leucaena can be grown at 3 x 0.75 m spacing either for pulpwood or fuelwood depending on the prevailing market prices and demand. (author)

  16. Lesser Himalayan sequences in Eastern Himalaya and their deformation: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonic activity along the northern margin of India

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    Dilip Saha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantial part of the northern margin of Indian plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate during the Caenozoic Himalayan orogeny, obscuring older tectonic events in the Lesser Himalaya known to host Proterozoic sedimentary successions and granitic bodies. Tectonostratigraphic units of the Proterozoic Lesser Himalayan sequence (LHS of Eastern Himalaya, namely the Daling Group in Sikkim and the Bomdila Group in Arunachal Pradesh, provide clues to the nature and extent of Proterozoic passive margin sedimentation, their involvement in pre-Himalayan orogeny and implications for supercontinent reconstruction. The Daling Group, consisting of flaggy quartzite, meta-greywacke and metapelite with minor mafic dyke and sill, and the overlying Buxa Formation with stromatolitic carbonate-quartzite-slate, represent shallow marine, passive margin platformal association. Similar lithostratigraphy and broad depositional framework, and available geochronological data from intrusive granites in Eastern Himalaya indicate strikewise continuity of a shallow marine Paleoproterozoic platformal sequence up to Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan. Multiple fold sets and tectonic foliations in LHS formed during partial or complete closure of the sea/ocean along the northern margin of Paleoproterozoic India. Such deformation fabrics are absent in the upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic Gondwana formations in the Lesser Himalaya of Darjeeling-Sikkim indicating influence of older orogeny. Kinematic analysis based on microstructure, and garnet composition suggest Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of LHS to be distinct from those associated with the foreland propagating thrust systems of the Caenozoic Himalayan collisional belt. Two possibilities are argued here: (1 the low greenschist facies domain in the LHS enveloped the amphibolite to granulite facies domains, which were later tectonically severed; (2 the older deformation and metamorphism relate to a Pacific type

  17. Difficulties in accessing and availing of public health care systems among rural population in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh

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    Geetha Lakshmi Sreerama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Despite policies to make health care accessible to all, it is not universally accessible. Frequent evaluation of barriers to accessibility of health care services paves path for improvement. Hence, present study is undertaken to evaluate the factors and public health policies influencing health care access to rural people in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, which can be interpolated for other regions. Aims: To assess knowledge, perceptions, availing of public health care services, barriers to health care access in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based survey in the Government Maternity Hospital (GMH, Tirupati, a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Fifty women delivered normally in GMH through convenient sampling technique. Data collected on standardized pro forma as per IMS Institute of Healthcare Informatics. Statistical Analysis Used: Is done through MS Excel 2007, Epi Info 7 (of Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA and frequencies were described. Results: Distance, waiting hours, societal responsibility, nature of the illness, presumed commercialization of Medicare system, attitudes of health care providers, and loss of wages were not barriers for accessing health care. Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and availability of ambulance services made great improvements in health care accessibility. Absenteeism of health care providers is a problem. Conclusions: Expanding the ambulance services and ASHA network will be an effective measure for further accessibility to health care. Absenteeism of health care providers needs correction.

  18. Characterization of a potyvirus associated with yellow mosaic disease of jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheera, Y; Vishnu Vardhan, G P; Hema, M; Krishna Reddy, M; Sreenivasulu, P

    2014-01-01

    A virus isolate associated with yellow mosaic disease was purified from commercially cultivated jasmine (Jasminum sambac) from Andhra Pradesh, India and it contained flexuous filamentous particles of ~720 × 13 nm. The denatured purified virus had single major polypeptide of molecular weight 32 kDa. Complementary DNA representing 1678 nucleotides (nt) of the 3' terminus of viral RNA was cloned and sequenced. Comparisons of complete coat protein (CP) gene nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the present virus isolate with certain reported potyviruses revealed 86.1 and 92.7 % identity, respectively with jasmine potyvirus T (JaVT) reported from Taiwan and less than 70 % with other potyviruses. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 3' UTR and CP gene, the present virus isolate was identified as an isolate of JaVT that belongs to the genus Potyvirus and the name Jasmine yellow mosaic virus-Andhra Pradesh (JaYMV-AP) is proposed.

  19. Adapting to climate change in a forest-based land use system. A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshingkar, P.; Bradley, P.N.; Chadwick, M.J.; Leach, G. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Kaul, O.N.; Banerjee, S.P.; Singh, B.; Kanetkar, R. [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    1997-12-31

    Current climate models show an increase of 3 deg C by year 2100 for the state of Himachal Pradesh. The change in rainfall is difficult to predict, a range of -20% to +20% is suggested from different models. Dynamic vegetation modelling shows that under moderate climatic change there could be an 11% increase in the total area under tree cover in Himachal Pradesh. There will be a north-eastwards migration of forest types as cold habitat biomes are replaced by warm weather species. Current anthropogenic pressure from livestock management activities, unsustainable forest product exploitation and habitat fragmentation will probably outweigh any direct impacts of climate change on vegetation. Consequently, the change in the area under different forest types and the species composition within these forest types will differ from model predictions. It is likely that more competitive and robust species such as Chir Pine and Blue Pine will survive and those species which are already overexploited such as the oaks and Deodar will become more endangered. Sustainable adaption strategies should aim at reducing the pressures from subsistence and commercial activities on forests: ongoing efforts in participatory forest management should be strengthened to reflect the interests of various stakeholders. The resilience of forest ecosystems to climate change can also be increased by identifying and planting tree species which can tolerate a wider range of climatic conditions. This will require government and donor commitment to invest in building the necessary institutional and research capacity 147 refs, 42 figs, 12 tabs

  20. Intervention of One Rupee Rice in PDS: Utilisation and Impact in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha States in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahendran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To find out the utilisation and impact of the scheme of pricing one kg rice at one rupee among the poor people and other beneficiaries at PDS outlets in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha states of India. For the purpose of this study, multi-stage random sampling method was used. Quantitative data was collected from the public using structured questionnaire. Data collection was done between 2nd December 2013 and 11th February 2014. The results show that more than 94.8% of poor families are utilising PDS grains in Odisha and 92.5% of BPL families are utilising PDS grains in Andhra Pradesh. In both the state’s 30% of the population is Above Poverty Line (APL families, and they do not buy most of the commodities and more particularly in rice. As part of PDS reform, both these states have improved transparency with computerised ration shops and biometric ration cards and pin numbers. PDS outlets are more useful to poor people than for the Above Poverty Line families. This study suggests that allotments of rice for APL families must be cut to control corruption and leakages, this study also suggest that millets must be introduced in the PDS to increase nutrition security.

  1. Gaps in need, demand, and effective demand for dental care utilization among residents of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Y.; Chakravarty, Kalyan K.; Simhadri, Kavya; Ghenam, Alexis; Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Vundavalli, Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To identify the relation between need, demand, and effective demand for dental services in Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed among populations residing in the rural and urban areas of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were collected from 3102 individuals who were selected through multiphase random sampling. Data regarding self-perceived dental need, dental service utilization, and barriers for utilization were collected through s pretested questionnaire followed by type-III clinical examination to assess the normative need of the individuals. Chi-square test was used to compare independent and dependent variables, and further comparison was done with multivariate logistic regression analysis for significant variables. Results: Less than half (40%) of the participants perceived a need for dental care. Among the people who perceived need for care, only 21.4% utilized dental care and 78.6% of them had unmet dental needs. The two main reasons for not seeking dental care was lack of money, i.e., unaffordable dental treatment (48%) and having the perception that they do not have any dental problem (19.4%). Conclusions: There is an enormous difference between normative need, demand, and actual utilization rates in dental care, and hindrances for effective demand need to be addressed to improve dental care delivery system. PMID:27652242

  2. A Review of the Little Known Ethnic Religious Art and Culture of Arunachal Pradesh, North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Gandhi Deori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arunachal Pradesh, the north-easternmost state of India is a mountainous terrain inhabited by a number of ethnic communities. Due to its geographical isolation, it is still cut off from mainstream India and has limited interaction with the rest of India. There are as many as 26 major tribes and several hundred sub-tribes. They have their own distinct culture, tradition and religious belief system. Some of the ethnic communities namely, Apatani, Nyishi, Galo, Tagin, Tangsa, Wancho, Mishmi etc. have their indigenous religious practices with well-defined belief system but due to limited research there is a paucity of data which fails to present a clear picture of the culture and tradition of the ethnic communities of the region. In many ways, their indigenous religion plays an important role in influencing the peoples’ arts and culture. This paper is an attempt to review the ethnic religious art and culture of the people of Arunachal Pradesh in an effort to highlight and preserve their ethnic cultural identity.

  3. Delineation of structures favourable to groundwater occurrence employing seismic refraction method — A case study from Tiruvuru, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Sundararajan; Y Srinivas; M Narasimha Chary; G Nandakumar; A Hanmantha Chary

    2004-09-01

    The contacts associated with an outlier in biotite gneiss and sandstones near Tiruvuru, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh which are generally favourable for groundwater occurrence were investigated employing refraction seismic method. Results were examined by correlating the signals with local geology, bore well data and other available information in order to improve the reliability of interpretation.

  4. Increasing Choice or Inequality? Pathways through Early Education in Andhra Pradesh, India. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 58. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for…

  5. Microfinance Impact on Socio-Economic Empowerment: A special Reference to Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vachya L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the role of microfinance and its impact on economic and social empowerment of women. There are great debates going on whether forming groups, membership for women, providing credit and imparting some business skills would change the social equations in the society or whether provision of credit may lead to pervasively entrenched political and economic relations among the genders. The proponents argue that providing credit, targeting women can prove to be a suitable mechanism in ameliorating poor women’s socio-economic conditions and thereby can alter the relations between gender and class. Undoubtedly, there have been significant advances in women empowerment in recent years and the concept and practice of SHG-based microfinance has now developed deep roots in many parts of the country. Impact assessment being rather limited so far, it is hard to measure and quantify the effect the Indian microfinance experience so far had on the poverty situation in rural India. The present study seeks to examine the process of women empowerment and changes in the economic status of SHG members in particular and rural women in general. For this study, multi-stage stratified proportionate random sampling technique was adopted for selecting the representative districts, mandals/talukas, villages and households. The primary data was collected from six villages in the three regions (Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana of Andhra Pradesh. Tabular and statistical analyses were applied for examining the data. Empirically acclaimed logistic regression model has been employed for analyzing significant impact of plausible socio-economic factors on women empowerment. The study found that the socio-economic indicators have changed. It also emerged that there has been an increase in women participation in the household decision making process. The study has suggested that the government should prepare suitable plans and programmes

  6. STUDY ON STRESS AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Sai Shankar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Stress is a part of everyone’s life. It is normal f or everybody to experience stress to some extent, but too much stres s may be harmful. Attending college is a rewarding experience but it also can be a time of co nsiderable anxiety and stress for students. Students are subjected to different kinds of experie nces which make them vulnerable to undergo a lot of stress. Of late, there is a growin g appreciation of stress in medical professionals including medical students, who have very busy and demanding schedule. Sources of stress are classified into two main groups – academic pressures and non-academic sources including financial problems. There are different coping stra tegies used by students to manage stress. It is important to understand these strategies and encour age the healthy strategies and discourage the others which are potentially harmful. AIM: to determine the sources of stress in undergraduate medical students and the coping strate gies used by these students in managing their stress. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: An institutional cross sectional study among undergraduate students of a medical college in coas tal Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After the study protocol was given clearance by the Institution Ethics Committee, consent was taken from the undergraduate medical st udents of Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, Amalapuram, and a predesigned and pretested questionnaire was given which captured information r elated to basic demographic details followed by questions related to stress and its sou rces and also the coping strategies used by these students to manage stress. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The data collected was entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed using Epi Info 6 softwa re. Chi Square test was done wherever applicable. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Total 431 out of 550 medical students (78.4 percent participated in the study. There were 261 females and 170 males.

  7. A Study on Saltwater Intrusion Around Kolleru Lake, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    K.Harikrishna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kolleru Lake, the largest natural fresh water lake in Andhra Pradesh in India, located between Krishna and Godavari deltas is acting as a natural flood balancing reservoir and is fed directly by water from the seasonal rivers Budameru, Ramileru and Tammileru, and is also connected to the Krishna and Godavari drainage system consists of over 68 inflowing drains and channels. Over-exploitation of groundwater and land use conversions to aqua-culture are becoming the sources for salt-water intrusion to this lake and coastal aquifers, in specific, are highly vulnerable to seawater intrusion. Hydrogeomorphological study indicates that the potential aquifers around the Kolleru lake are paleo beach ridges and buried river courses. All other geomorphic features either aquiclude or aquitards are may not be considered as prospective zones for groundwater. Though there are number of open wells present in the villages used for potable water earlier, people switched over to imported water as their drinking water source may be due to significant contaminationof groundwater resources. Present land use activities like aqua-culture, agriculture, large-scale industries and allied industries in and around the Kolleru lake region has large contribution for the change of water quality. The paleo beach ridge areas, where the permeability of the sandy soil is very high, are also converted into aqua ponds. Integrated study using remote sensing, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and geophysical investigations revealed the extent of salt-water intrusion up to the northern part of the lake which is about 40 km from the coast line. The electrical resistivity of aquifers is less than 1.0 (ohm-m having salinity of more than 1.2 ppt and the resistivity is around 20 (ohm-m where the salinity is less than 0.5 ppt, has also served as an excellent criteria for delineating the fresh-water and salt-water interface. Lenses of fresh water/ brackish water are noticed only in the beach

  8. Local climate assessments in data scarce mountain areas; for example Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsbauer, Andreas; Salzmann, Nadine; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    High-mountain regions like the Himalayas and their adjacent downstream areas are often highly affected by climate change, climate variability and/or related extremes. As a result of cascading effects of rising air temperatures, melting glaciers, thawing permafrost - as well as anthropogenic water usage or changes in forest and agro-biodiversity - potential impacts on people's livelihood has broadened and increased. However, climate impacts assessments on physical and societal systems are often limited due to the scarcity of reliable long-term observations, particularly in remote high-mountain regions, which additionally also hampers robustness of future projections. Since livelihoods in remote high-mountain regions are particularly vulnerable to climate related impacts, and have typically only low adaptive capacities, studies assessing climate variability pattern of the past and for the future (climate baselines) are a fundamental requirement for sound impact assessments, and as such for preparing and planning adequate adaptation measures. Within the Indian Himalayas Climate Adaptation Programme (IHCAP) an integrated vulnerability and hazard and risk assessment is being conducted for the Kullu district in Himachal Pradesh, India, for the sake of supporting adaptation planning there. Related to these studies, the present work aims to provide an approach and according results for climatological baseline generation for regions without respective observations available or accessible. Here, we use observational gridded data sets (CRU, Delaware) and Reanalyses (ERA-20C, JRA-55, NCEP CFSR, ERA-i, NCEP/NCAR-R1) to provide spatially and temporally continuous data. For the grid boxes covering the area of interest, the time series for temperature are analysed and possible trends and variations are assessed for the time window 1981-2010, as well as the entire time line of the respective gridded dataset. The analyses reveal that the mean annual air temperatures over all levels

  9. AWARENESS OF TUBERCULOSIS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF A TOWN IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Sai Shankar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is an age old disease which has remained as a major global public health problem with socioeconomic implications in developing countries. The interaction with HIV/AIDS and emergence of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis bacilli has worsened the situation. India has a high burden of tuberculosis in terms of incidence, prevalence and mortality. RNTCP in India follows a passive case detection method for case finding in chest symptomatics. This makes it essential for the community at large and the younger generation in particular to have adequate knowledge and awareness regarding tuberculosis since it is highly infectious. High school children can be effectively sensitised and motivated to be change agents in the community and play a key role in combating tuberculosis. AIM To assess the awareness levels of 8 th to 10 th grade school students in Amalapuram, a town in coastal area of Andhra Pradesh regarding tuberculosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS After the study protocol was cleared by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, Amalapuram, permission was sought from the authorities of five private schools and one government school in Amalapuram to carry out this study among the 8 th to 10 th grade students of these schools. A predesigned, pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to capture information related to basic demographic details of the participants followed by questions related tuberculosis to assess their awareness. A cross-sectional survey was carried out and once the filled-in questionnaires were collected, an interactive session was held where various aspects of tuberculosis were elaborately explained, the answers to the questions were told in detail and doubts of the students were clarified. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The data collected was entered into a template created in computer using Microsoft Excel 2007. EPI INFO 6 software was used for

  10. Predictors of ante-natal care, delivery and infant feeding practices among rural women in Madhya Pradesh, India

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    Indrapal Ishwarji Meshram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal and infant mortality rates and prevalence of under nutrition are high in the State Madhya Pradesh. Regular ante-natal check-ups (ANC, delivery by trained health personnel, delivery practices and optimal infant feeding practices are important to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Objectives: The aim was to assess antenatal care, delivery and infant feeding practices of mothers of <1-year-old children in Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: This was community-based cross-sectional study carried out in the rural areas of Madhya Pradesh by adopting systematic random sampling procedure. Data were collected from 5324 mothers having <1-year-old children. Information on household (HH socioeconomic and demographic particulars was collected from the mothers. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed to study the association between dependent and independent variables. Results and Interpretations: About 36% mothers had undergone at least three ante-natal check-ups and 73% delivered either at government or private hospitals. Only 26% mothers initiated breastfeeding within 1-h of birth and 92% fed colostrum. Step-wise regression analysis showed that ante-natal care for <3 times was significantly (P < 0.01 higher among women with high parity (≥5, illiterate women, and among lower socioeconomic group,s while home delivery was higher among women with high parity (≥5 (odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, among Scheduled Caste and Tribe women (OR: 1.5, illiteracy of head of HH (OR: 2, and among lower socioeconomic groups (OR: 1.3. Discarding colostrum was higher among illiterate women (OR: 1.6, belonging to lower socioeconomic groups (OR: 1.4 and delivery conducted by untrained person (OR: 3.9, while initiation of breastfeeding after 1-h of childbirth was higher among ≥30 years women (OR: 1.9, illiterate women (OR: 1.4, and delivery by untrained person (OR: 2.9. Conclusions: It was observed that antenatal care, delivery and infant and

  11. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  12. Prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal village of Himachal Pradesh, India.

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    Priyanka Rani Garg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has now been redefined in terms of “under nutrition” and conceptualized in terms of thinness which is an important problem among children and adolescents in rural areas of developing countries like India. Therefore, present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study design was cross-sectional. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was carried out. Identification of thinness was done according to the new International BMI-based classification cut offs as given by Cole et al., 2007. In general the mean BMI increased with increasing age. Overall age-combined prevalence was 79.5%. Present study indicated the poor health status of the adolescent girls of the selected area which indicates the high nutritional stress among them as evident from the thinness prevalent among them.

  13. Avifauna of Chamba District, Himachal Pradesh, India with emphasis on Kalatop-Khajjiar Wildlife Sanctuary and its surroundings

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    Tariq Ahmed Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The avifaunal diversity of Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh with emphasis on Kalatop-Khajjiar Wildlife Sanctuary and its surrounding was observed for a period of one year between 2012 and 2013.  We observed 95 species of birds belonging to 12 orders and 40 families.  Of this diversity, 41 species were abundant to common, 34 occasional and 20 rare.  Most species were resident (83 species, including two species whose population increased during winters and the rest were migrants (including nine winter migrating species and three summer migrating species.  A total of 302 species of birds have been reported from Chamba District between 1884 and present. Analysis of recent published literature in conjunction with the present study reveals that 178 species of birds have been reported from Chamba District since 2000.  The present study reports 11 new records for the district. 

  14. Rhizopalmoxylon nypoides – a new palm root from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Kathal; Rashmi Srivastava; R C Mehrotra; P O Alexander

    2017-04-01

    A new species of fossil palm rhizome having root-mat under the organ genus Rhizopalamoxylon (Rhizopalmoxylon nypoides sp. nov.) is reported. The specimen shows the closest resemblance with the modern monotypic genus Nypa Wurmb of the Arecaceae. The specimen was collected from the late Maastrichtian–early Danian sediments of Deccan Intertrappean beds, Mothi, Sagar district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Nypa is a mangrove palm naturally found in estuaries and swamps of the tropical region and represents one of the oldest records of the genus from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of centralIndia. The abundance of palms, including Nypa and previously recorded coastal and mangrove elementssuch as Acrostichum, Barringtonia, Cocos, Sonneratia and marine algae (Distichoplax and Peyssonellia)from the Deccan Intertrappean beds indicate marine influence and existence of tropical rainforestecosystem in the vicinity of fossil locality in contrast to the deciduous forests occurring there at present.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER QUALITY IN MUKKAM, CHEPALAKANCHERU AND DALLIPETA: COASTAL VILLAGES OF VIZIANAGARAM DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ram Reddy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work was under taken to analyze the various water quality parameters, viz. pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and to assess the water quality in bore well and well water samples of three coastal villages Mukkam, Chepalakancheru and Dallipeta of Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh. From each of the village, different sampling stations were identified and by composite sampling methods water samples were collected and analyzed for the various parameters. The results were compared with the values stipulated by World Health Organization (WHO, and ARE: 10500 for drinking water quality. In the present investigation the authors found that the overall quality of the three villages is poor and not recommended as potable.

  16. Confidentiality, Privacy, and Respect: Experiences of Female Sex Workers Participating in HIV Research in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Blankenship, Kim M.; Fisher, Celia B.

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) from Andhra Pradesh, India who had participated in HIV research were interviewed to examine participant perspectives on research ethics. Content analysis indicated that aspects of the consent process, staff gender and demeanor, study environment, survey content, time requirements for study participation, and perceived FSW community support for research were key factors influencing whether FSW perceived their confidentiality and privacy had been maintained, and whether they felt the study was conducted respectfully. Findings suggest that partnership with community-based organizations and investigation of participant’s experiences in HIV prevention research can provide critical information to best inform research ethics protocols, a particular priority among research studies with highly stigmatized populations, such as FSW. PMID:24572080

  17. Glacial meltwater impounding: Evidence from the late Quaternary glaciogenic sediments in the Sangla valley, district Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Ganjoo; M N Koul

    2005-08-01

    Sangla valley is situated at an altitude of ∼3500m above mean sea level and lies in the Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh. It is fed by river Baspa, a tributary of river Sutlej, that entrenches through the Quaternary glaciogenic deposits before emerging out of the valley and joining the river Sutlej at Karcham. The unstratified to stratified glaciogenic deposits consist of large boulders to fine silt and are classified into four major depositional facies on the basis of sedimentary texture and depositional environment. The facies — basal conglomerates, debris flow, water/sheet flow and laminites — represents the change in the environment of deposition from glaciofluvial to lacustrine and also the extent of the glacier to the valley floor during late Quaternary.

  18. Impact of Watersheds in Bringing Change in the Farming System in Bastpur of Morena District of Madhya Pradesh

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    Anil Kulshrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Bastpur micro watershed in Morena block of the Morena district of Madhya Pradesh during 2010-11.To assess the impact of watershed development programme in farming system. It could be found that the overall watershed development practices in the study area have positive and effective changes in agricultural area of bajra, and arhar , cropping productivity of gram and arhar, land use, use of land resources, water resources, and livestock due to increase in availability of water and use to improved agricultural inputs like improved seeds, recommended doges of fertilizers, required irrigation, plant protection measures,etc in the study area. It was also found positive change in agricultural land, irrigated area, area under horticultural and vegetables crops. Similarly cattle population was also increased due to sufficient availability of water and fodder in watershed area.

  19. Glyptothorax mibangi, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from the Tisa River, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darshan, Achom; Dutta, Rashmi; Kachari, Akash; Gogoi, Budhin; Das, Debangshu Narayan

    2015-05-22

    Glyptothorax mibangi, a new sisorid catfish, is described from the Tisa River of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in the Ganga-Brahmaputra and Barak-Surma-Meghna basins by the following combination of characters: an obtuse leaf-shaped thoracic adhesive apparatus with a spindle-shaped median depression, skin ridges present over the entire apparatus including the depressed region; ventral surface of pectoral spine and first pelvic-fin ray non-plaited; slender body with depth of 10.4-13.5% SL; caudal peduncle shallow with depth 6.8-8.3% SL; snout long with length 52.9-58.6% HL; and 2+7 gill rakers on the first branchial arch.

  20. IS HEMOGLOBIN E GENE WIDELY SPREAD IN THE STATE OF MADHYA PRADESH IN CENTRAL INDIA? EVIDENCE FROM FIVE TYPICAL FAMILIES

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    R S Balgir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red cell inherited hemoglobin anomalies are commonly encountered in the central region of India. These cause a public health concern due to high degree of morbidity, mortality, and fetal loss in the backward, underprivileged, and vulnerable people. Purpose: To report five typical families of hemoglobin E disorders identified for the first time in the state of Madhya Pradesh from central India. Methods: Out of a total of 445 couples/families (excluding the present study with 1526 persons (848 males and 678 females referred from a tertiary hospital in central India for investigations of anemia/hemoglobinopathies during the period from March 2010 to February 2014, we came across five typical rare couples/families of hemoglobin E disorders worthy of detailed investigations. Laboratory investigations were carried out following the standard procedures after cross checking for quality control from time to time. Results: For the first time, we have encountered nine cases of heterozygous hemoglobin E trait, two members with hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia (double heterozygosity, two cases of sickle cell-hemoglobin E disease (double heterozygosity, and none with homozygous hemoglobin E. Cases  of hemoglobin E trait, hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia, sickle cell-β-thalassemia and sickle cell-E disease showed moderate to severe anemia, and target cells, and reduced values of red cell indices like RBC, Hb level, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC, representing abnormal hematological profile and clinical manifestations before blood transfusion. Conclusions: Double heterozygosity for hemoglobinopathies such as occurrence of β-thalassemia mutation with structurally abnormal hemoglobins (Hb S and Hb E is a rare entity, but occurs with severe clinical manifestations only in those areas or communities where these are highly prevalent, testifying the migrations and genetic admixture. Distribution of hemoglobin E and β-thalassemia in different districts of Madhya Pradesh

  1. Zr, Hf, U, Th and REE-Fertile Lower Proterozoic Potassic Granite from Parts of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamuna SINGH

    2004-01-01

    The medium- to coarse-grained and porphyritic granitoid of Dharmawaram, Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, south India is a biotite-hornblende granite with notable contents of rare metal (Zr, Hf, Th) and rare earth (including Y) minerals like zircon, thorite, allanite, monazite and xenotime. Chemically, it is metaluminous (average A/C+N+K = 0.95)-type, potassic (ay. 5% K2O) granite, with dominantly sub-alkaline characters. It shows up to 8 times enrichment of rare metals (Zr, Hf, U, Th) and rare earths (including Y, Sc), with reference to their abundances in normal unevolved granite, and hence, fertile for some of these elements. Field, petrological, geochemical and isotopic data of potassic granite (PG) indicate involvement of silica-rich metasedimentary-basic crustal rocks (amphibole-quartzite,amphibolite, hornblende-biotite gneiss, etc.) in its genesis, at a depth range of 30 km. Further, chondrite-normalized REE patterns demonstrate that low-degree partial melting of source rocks is the major controlling factor in the genesis of PG.Mild negative Eu-anomaiy (av. Eu/Eu* = 0.48), plots of Ba-Rb-Sr in the field of anomalous granite and K/Rb ratios (av.239) in the range that is shown by normal unevolved granite together indicate less fractionated nature of the PG. Limited fractionation of metalumination-type, involving hornblende, led to occasional weak alumina saturation. Interestingly,geochemical and petrogenetic features of the studied PG broadly match with those potassic granites which are already known to host anomalously high enrichment of rare metals and rare earths in other parts of Andhra Pradesh and adjoining Kamataka.

  2. Climate Change And Mitigation Measures For The Hydrometerological Disaster In Himachal Pradesh India- In Light Of Dams.

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    Vinay K. Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Continuing climate change is predicted to lead to major changes in the climate of the Himalayan region. Casualties and damage due to hazards in mountain regions will increase irrespective of global warming especially where populations are growing and infrastructure is developed at exposed locations. But climate change will definitely increase risk due to the fact that expected increases of heavy rainfall heat waves and glacier melt will amplify hazards in Himalayan region. The rapid release of melt water and rainfall may combine to trigger debris flows and flash flood in higher ranges including the formation of potentially dangerous lakes. These lakes may breach suddenly resulting in discharge of huge volume of water and debris. Himachal Pradesh had experienced a large number of incidences of Hydro-meteorological disaster HMD since its inception in 1971. Flash flood of March 1975 Dec 1988 Satluj flash flood of August 2000 July 2001 June 2005 Flash flood of July 2005 and Cloud burst in June 2013 are the major natural calamities in Himachal Pradesh. Due to continuous HMD brought heavy toll to the state as the loss was estimated in several thousand millions of rupees and also killed several hundreds of people besides large number of cattle heads. Through this paper we carried out a comprehensive study of past HMD and mitigation measures solution and concluded that these disaster are by their nature difficult to predict and control but it is possible to reduce the risk to lives and property through develop mitigation strategy and plan to construct damsbarrages with awareness and knowledge among local communities about the impacts of global warming natural disaster and the threat to the ecosystem communities and infrastructure are generally inadequate.

  3. Attracting doctors to rural areas: A case study of the post-graduate seat reservation scheme in Andhra Pradesh

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    Zubin C Shroff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attracting doctors to rural posts is an ongoing challenge for health departments across different states in India. One strategy adopted by several states to make rural service attractive for medical graduates is to reserve post-graduate (PG seats in medical colleges for doctors serving in the public sector. Objective: This study examines the PG reservation scheme in Andhra Pradesh to understand its role in improving rural recruitment of doctors and specialists, the challenges faced by the scheme and how it can be strengthened. Materials and Methods: Qualitative case study methodology was adopted in which a variety of stakeholders such as government officials, health systems managers and serving Medical Officers were interviewed. This was supplemented with quantitative data on the scheme obtained from the Health, Medical and Family Welfare Department in Andhra Pradesh. Results: The PG reservation scheme appears to have been one of the factors responsible in attracting doctors to the public sector and to rural posts, with a reduction in vacancies at both the Primary Health Centre and Community Health Centre levels. Expectedly, in-service candidates have a better chance of getting a PG seat than general candidates. However, problems such as the mismatch of the demand and supply of certain types of specialist doctors, poor academic performance of in-service candidates as well as quality of services and enforcement of the post-PG bond need to be resolved. Conclusion: The PG reservation scheme is a powerful incentive to attract doctors to rural areas. However, better monitoring of service quality, strategically aligning PG training through the scheme with the demand for specialists as well as stricter enforcement of the financial bond are required to improve the scheme′s effectiveness.

  4. EVALUATION OF ASHA PROGRAMME IN SELECTED BLOCK OF RAISEN DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH UNDER THE NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH MISSION

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    Bhagwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently Government of India is providing comprehensive integrated health care to the rural people under the umbrella of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM. A village level community health worker “Accredited Social Health Activist” (ASHA’ acts as an interface between the community and the public health system. OBJECTIVE : To assess the socio - demographic profile of ASHA workers and to evaluate their knowledge and practice of their responsibilities. SETTINGS & DESIGN : Cross - sectional study , Obedullaganj and Sa n chi blocks of Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh . METHODS & MATERIAL: A cross - sectional study was conducted at obedullaganj and Sanchi in the Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh for a period of 1 year from October 2007 to October 2008 The study participa nts were trained ASHA workers working in the Sanchi & Obedullaganj block. Statistical Analysis : Chi Square test using MS excel & SPSS ver 17. RESULT : Majority of ASHA workers were aware about helping in immunization , accompanying clients for delivery , providing ANC and family planning services as a part of responsibility. About 99% of ASHAs knew registration of births and deaths , assisting Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM in village health planning , creating awareness on basic sanitation and per sonal hygiene. CONCLUSION : Despite the training given to ASHAs , lacunae still exists in their knowledge regarding various aspects of child health morbidity. Monthly meetings can be used as a platform for the reinforcement of various aspects of child health . Periodical refresher training should be conducted for all of the recruited ASHA workers. In the future training sessions , more emphasis should be given to high risk cases requiring prompt referral.

  5. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalised elderly population in oldage homes of jabalpur city, madhya pradesh, India.

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    Deogade, Suryakant C; Vinay, S; Naidu, Sonal

    2013-12-01

    Oral disorders are cumulative throughout life and hence unfavourable outcomes are likely to be greatest among the elderly. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized geriatric population in old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, to assess their prosthetic status and prosthetic needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the four old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh state, India. All residents aged 60 years and above formed the study population. The recording of prosthetic status and prosthetic needs was carried out according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). A total of 224 individuals were included in the study of which 123 were females and 101 were males. Seventy five percent of the females and 55 % of the males had no prostheses in their upper arch and 61 % of the females and 76 % of the males had no prostheses in their lower arch. More number of males presented with 'Bridges' in their upper arch when compared to females (P value = 0.006). Highest prosthetic need in males was multi-unit prosthesis (42 % in upper arch and 41 % in lower arch) whereas, females' required full prosthesis (39 % in both the upper arch and lower arches). Ageing presents some formidable challenges, particularly with the institutionalised. This study clearly demonstrates a high insufficiency of prosthetic care among the institutionalized elderly population. Any preparation towards the provision of oral health care should not be limited to treatment alone but, more importantly focus on empowering this elderly community with information and education programmes.

  6. Dental caries prevalence and treatment needs among 12- and 15- Year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India.

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    Shailee, Fotedar; Sogi, G M; Sharma, K R; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the commonest oral diseases in children. Despite this fact, not many studies have been done on this issue among school children in Shimla. To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among schoolchildren aged 12 years and 15 years in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. With this study we also aimed to establish reliable baseline data. Cross-sectional study. This study was conducted among 12 - and 15 - year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh-India. A sample of 1011 schoolchildren was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recording of dental caries, was done according to WHO diagnostic criteria (1997). The statistical tests used were the t- test, and the Chi-square test. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 years and 15 years respectively. At 12 years of age, the mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. Dental caries was higher in children from government schools as compared to those from private schools. The 'decayed' component was the biggest contributor to the DMFT index. The highest treatment need at both ages was one surface restoration. The caries experience of 12- and 15- year-old children was low compared to WHO - 'recommended' values. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to further improve the dental health of school children in Shimla city.

  7. Cost and efficiency of public sector sexually transmitted infection clinics in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Ramesh YK

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs is an important part of the effort to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS. STI clinics in the government hospitals in India provide services predominantly to the poor. Data on the cost and efficiency of providing STI services in India are not available to help guide efficient use of public resources for these services. Methods Standardised methods were used to obtain detailed cost and output data for the 2003–2004 fiscal year from written records and interviews in 14 government STI clinics in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The economic cost per patient receiving STI treatment was calculated, and the variations of total and unit costs across the STI clinics analysed. Multivariate regression technique was used to estimate incremental unit costs. The optimal number of STIs that could be handled by the clinics was estimated. Results 18807 STIs were diagnosed and treated at the 14 STI clinics in fiscal year 2003–2004 (range 323–2784, median 1199. The economic cost of treating each STI varied 5-fold from Indian Rupees (INR 225.5 (US$ 4.91 to INR 1201.5 (US$ 26.15 between 13 clinics, with one other clinic having a very high cost of INR 2478.5 (US$ 53.94. The average cost per STI treated for all 14 clinics combined was INR 729.5 (US$ 15.88. Personnel salaries made up 76.2% of the total cost. The number of STIs treated per doctor full-time equivalent and cost-efficiency for each STI treated had a significant direct non-linear relation (p 2 = 0.81; power function. With a multiple regression model, apart from the fixed costs, the incremental cost for each STI detected and cost of treatment was INR 55.57 (US$ 1.21 and for each follow-up visit was INR 3.75 (US$ 0.08. Based on estimates of optimal STI cases that could be handled without compromising quality by each doctor full-time equivalent available, it was projected that at 8 of the 14 clinics substantially more STI cases could be

  8. Pollination ecology and fruiting behavior of Pavetta indica L. (Rubiaceae, a keystone shrub species in the southern Eastern Ghats forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    A.J. Solomon Raju

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pavetta indica is a massive bloomer for a brief period in May.  The flowers are hermaphroditic, strikingly protandrous, self and cross-compatible, nectariferous and psychophilous.  They possess secondary pollen presentation mechanism as a device to avoid autonomous autogamy but it does not prevent geitonogamy.  The fruit set largely occurs through geitonogamy and xenogamy.  Butterflies, especially papilionids, pierids, nymphalids, and sphingid hawk moth pollinate the flowers while collecting nectar.  Honey bees and blue-banded digger bees feed on pollen and effect only accidental pollination.  The nectar is sucrose-rich and contains essential and non-essential amino acids.  Birds are seed dispersal agents. Seeds are non-dormant and germinate readily during rainy season but their continued growth and establishment is subject to the availability of soil moisture and nutrients.  The plant is not able to populate itself in its natural area.  The local uses of different parts of the plant have been found to be affecting its reproductive success and natural regeneration rate.  Therefore, regulation of the uses of this plant is recommended for its survival and restoration of its population size in the natural areas due to its role as a keystone species for bees and butterflies during dry season. 

  9. Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb. DC. (Rubiaceae, a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    A.J.S. Raju

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species. It shows massive flowering for about a month during March-April. The floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated nectar having 15-18% sugar concentration are well tailored for visitation by butterflies. The nectar is hexose-rich and contains the essential amino acids such as arginine and histidine and the non-essential amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glysine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine, glutamic acid and serine. The inflorescences with clusters of flowers provide an excellent platform for foraging by butterflies. The flowers are long-lived and attractive to butterflies. A variety of butterflies visit the flowers for nectar and in doing so, they pollinate them. Nymphalids are very diverse and utilize the flowers until exhausted. The flowers being small in size with a small amount of nectar compel the butterflies to do a more laborious search for nectar from a greater number of flowers. But, the clustered state of the flowers is energetically profitable for butterflies to reduce search time and also flight time to collect a good amount of nectar; such a probing behaviour is advantageous for the plant to achieve self- and cross-pollination. Therefore, the study shows that the association between W. tinctoria and butterflies is mutual and such an association is referred to as psychophilous. This plant serves as a key nectar source for butterflies at the study site where floral nectar sources are scarce during the summer season.

  10. Notes on the Eastern Comma Polygonia c-album agnicula Moore, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae from Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Monsoon Jyoti Gogoi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Comma, Polygonia c-album ranges across W.Himalaya up to Sikkim-Bhutan but not reported from North East India. Altogether, three subspecies occur within Indian region.This sighting is not surprising as Tawang dist. shares boundary with Bhutan. This sighting shows that more survey is needed in W. Himalaya to know the butterfly fauna of the region.

  11. Detection and confirmation of PPR virus antigen in sheep and goats by sandwich-ELISA and RT-PCR in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    G. Saritha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild small ruminants. Rapid and accurate laboratory assay are essential to enable the implementation of appropriate control strategies to restrict the spread of PPR. The present study was designed to detect the PPR virus (PPRV antigen (N-gene in nasal swabs and tissue samples. A total of 195 samples comprising of 138 nasal swabs from PPR suspected sheep (n=72 and goats (n=66, and 57 tissue samples comprising of lymph nodes from dead sheep (n=39 and goats (n=18 were collected from certain parts of Andhra Pradesh. The samples were subjected to sandwich-ELISA followed by RT-PCR for confirmatory diagnosis. In this study, PPRV could be detected in 27.53% (n=38/138 nasal swabs and 49.12% (n=28/57 tissue samples. Data showed that PPRV infection is widespread in the Andhra Pradesh, India.

  12. Zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus microsporus and Rhizopus oryzae in Madhya Pradesh (M.P.) Central India: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawange, Shesh R; Singh, S M; Naidu, J; Jain, S; Nagpal, T; Behrani, D S; Mellado, E; Tudela, J L Rodriguez

    2012-08-01

    Zygomycosis encompasses infections due to two distinct orders of fungi, Mucorales and Entomophthorales. With rare exception, Entomophthorales are restricted to tropical areas. By contrast, mucorales are ubiquitous opportunistic fungi, which play a crucial part in the natural decay process. In human pathology, they may be opportunistic agents and be responsible for rare infection called (Mucormycosis) zygomycosis. We report two cases of zygomycosis from Madhya Pradesh, Central India, one caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a diabetic patient and another caused by Rhizopus microsporus in an apparently healthy patient. The cases were diagnosed by direct microscopy, histopathological examination and culture. Both the patients were successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Rhizopus microsporus is, for the first time reported from Madhya Pradesh, India, causing rhino-maxillary orbital zygomycosis.

  13. Odonate Diversity of Manjeera Wildlife Sanctuary with notes on Female Polymorphism of Neurothemis tullia (Drury, 1773 (Odonata: Libellulidae and Some Species Hitherto Unreported From Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Kante Krishna Prasad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 28 species of odonates, including 18 species of dragonflies (Suborder Anisoptera belonging to 3 families and 10 species of damselflies (Suborder Zygoptera belonging to two families were recorded from the Manjeera Wildlife Sanctuary between December 2010 to October 2012. The highest diversity of odonates was that of family Libellulidae (50%, followed by Coenagrionidae (32.14%, Aeshnidae (10.71%, Gomphidae (3.57% and Platycnemididae (3.57%. Four taxa, namely - Anaciaeschna jaspidea (Burmeister, 1839, Coenagrion dyeri (Fraser, 1924, Pseudagrion decorum (Rambur, 1842 and Rhodischnura nursei (Morton, 1907 are reported for the first time from Andhra Pradesh. We are also reporting for the first time the female polymorphism of Neurothemis tullia (Drury, 1773 (Anisoptera; Libellulidae from the Manjeera Wildlife Sanctuary, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh.

  14. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 13- to 15-year-old school children of an area known for endemic fluorosis: Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir K; Prashant G; Subba Reddy V; Mohandas U; Chandu G

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess dental fluorosis and to compare fluorosis in incisor teeth among 13- to 15-year-old school children of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study was conducted. A total of 1000 school children aged 13 to 15 years were selected by stratified cluster sampling from 4 different areas with different levels of naturally occurring fluoride in drinking water. Fluorosis was recorded using TF index (TFI). Result...

  15. Dactylogyrus barnae sp. n. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea infecting gills of Barilius barna Hamilton, 1822 (Pisces: Cyprinidae from a global biodiversity hotspot - Arunachal Pradesh (India

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    Leki Wangchu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was a part of an ongoing parasitological survey to investigate the health status of hill stream fish in river systems of Arunachal Pradesh - A global biodiversity hotspot. Materials and Methods: During the 2013/2015, 18 live specimens of Barilius barna (Cyprinidae were captured from the local rivers of Arunachal Pradesh and examined for parasitic monogenoids. These fish, with their flatworms, were immediately fixed in hot (60°C 4% formalin for later examination. Identification and morphometric description used in this study followed Gussev (1976. Type specimens were deposited in the British Natural History Museum, UK. Results: Dactylogyrus barnae sp. n. is described and illustrated from specimens of B. barna (Hamilton, 1822 from Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species is characterized by a combination of the following characters: Copulatory tube coiled in 1½ counterclockwise rings, vagina consisting of a vaginal tube and vaginal pore, a complex sclerotized plate of unknown function in between male copulatory organ and vagina, and an anteromedial knob-like process on the dorsal bar. Conclusion: D. barnae sp. n. is the fourth species of Dactylogyrus described from the Northeast India and brings the total number of species of Dactylogyrus in Indian waters to 56. B. barna represents a new host record for Dactylogyrus spp., and possibly the first report for any parasite.

  16. Vascular plant diversity in the sacred grove of Modapalli in Viskhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    M. Tarakeswara Naidu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sacred groves are tracts of virgin forest with rich biodiversity, as they have been protected for centuries by the local people for their cultural and religious beliefs and taboos.  Sacred groves are representatives of climax vegetation and exhibit diversity of species such as trees, climbers and other shade loving herbs.  In the present investigation, an attempt was made to study the diversity of a sacred grove of Modapalli, Visakhapatnam District, which comes under the Eastern Ghats of India.  A total of 207 species, 181 genera and 78 families comprising pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms were reported in the sacred grove.  In this study, only one endemic species, i.e., Ophiorrhiza chandrasekharanii and a few threatened species were recorded.  

  17. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  18. SELF-REPORTED EXPERIENCES AND PERCEPTIONS RELATED TO NEEDLE STICK INJURIES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Sai Shankar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Needle Stick Injury, a preventable problem, is a serious concern for all health care providers and workers and poses a significant risk of occupational transmission of blood borne pathogens such as HIV, HBV, HCV and some others. Relevant literature is scanty from India and none could be located from coastal Andhra Pradesh. The present study aims at determining the occurrence of Needle Stick Injuries in various categories of health workers in a tertiary care teaching hospital in coastal Andhra Pradesh, factors associated with these Needle Stick Injuries, circumstances under which they occur and the responses of the health care workers following the injury. The study also aims at assessing the awareness levels of the health care workers regarding diseases transmitted through Needle Stick Injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS After getting the permission from the authorities of KIMS&RF and clearance from IEC of KIMS&RF, an institution based crosssectional study on health care providers involved in diagnosis and treatment of patients and the cleaning staff using predesigned and pretested questionnaire was done after seeking their consent. The data collected included basic demographics of the study subjects, professional status and work experience, history of Needle Stick Injury during the last three years while on their job and the relevant details, perceptions regarding Needle Stick Injuries, knowledge on diseases associated with it and information regarding training on Universal Work Precautions. The data was entered in Microsoft Excel worksheet and analysed statistically using Epi Info version 6 software. RESULTS Of the 353 study subjects (97 males and 256 females who answered the questionnaire, 53% reported to have experienced Needle Stick Injuries and 94% of study subjects believed it to be an important problem. About 43 % met with Needle Stick Injury more than once in the last 3 years. Only 30% reported about the injury and 31% did

  19. Detecting mutation pattern of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Himachal Pradesh using GenoType® MTBDRplus assay

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    C Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in India and a principal cause of death in adults, especially among the economically productive age group. India accounts for one-fifth of the global burden of TB. It is estimated that about 40% of Indian population is infected with TB bacillus. The GenoType® MTBDRplus molecular method allows rapid diagnosis of the clinical samples and detection of the most common mutations in the genes associated with rifampicin (R and isoniazid (H resistance. Aims: To study the drug resistance and mutational patterns in multidrug-resistant (MDR suspects clinical strains using GenoType® MTBDRplus assay. Subjects and Methods: A total of 770 sputum samples of the MDR-TB suspects were included in this study, which were received at Intermediate Reference Laboratory, Government TB Sanatorium, Dharampur, Solan, Himachal Pradesh from the Designated Microscopy Centres of Himachal Pradesh for the culture and susceptibility testing. All the 521 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains were subjected to GenoType® MTBDRplus (HAIN Lifescience assay to detect molecular resistance pattern to first line anti-tubercular drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin. Results: Of 770 samples, 556 (72.20% were from male and 214 (27.80% were from female. Among the 521 MTBC strains, 19.76% were found to be MDR and mono-resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin was detected in 8.63% and 6.14% strains respectively. About 74.81%, 76.35% and 5.40% strains harboured known mutation in rpoB, katG and inhA genes respectively. Conclusions: In rpoB gene, the most common mutation is associated with S531 L region. The GenoType® MTBDRplus assay is a rapid test for the detection of the most common mutations in MDR-TB strains. In our study, unknown rpoB gene mutations were found in 25.18% strains that may further be detected by gene sequencing.

  20. Pattern of Tobacco and Alcohol Use among Elderly Population in a Rural Area of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Sharvanan E Udayar, Praveen B Ashok, Arun D , Sai Sravan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the leading cause of preventable death. Fewer studies have focused on tobacco and alcohol use among rural elderly. Objective of the study was to find out the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among rural elderly population and its association with various sociodemographic factors. Methods: Cross-sectional community based study was conducted in the rural area of V.Kota mandal of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. Studyparticipants were selected using multistage random sampling method. Results: The prevalence of current tobacco users was 40.5%, among them 37.2% men and 1.4% women were current smokers. Among tobacco chewers 37.3% were women and 17.3% were men.Alcohol consumption was seen in 28.7% of the men compared with 0.9% of the women.Tobacco and alcohol use was significantly associated with age, education, economic status, marital status and living arrangements. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption among men in this rural elderly population which needs to addressed immediately to prolong health living years."

  1. Landscape Mapping and Tree Diversity Assessment of Pangi Valley: A Remote Tribal Area of Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya, India

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    Amit KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pangi valley in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh is one of the remote tribal areas in Indian western Himalaya. The plant resources in its landscapes are flourishing under least anthropogenic conditions. For social upliftment of the tribals in this area, a number of developmental activities are being implemented by the government. A study was conducted for mapping of its landuse/landcover using satellite remote sensing to identify major forested landscapes in the region. It was followed by a detailed random stratified sampling of the forested landscapes for phytosociological estimation of its tree species. The 21.97 % of study area was estimated under forests followed by Scrublands and Grassy meadows (18.24 %. Majority of area (54.05 % was Snow and Scree slopes. Among the forests, maximum area was occupied by Mixed Broad Leaved Forest LSE type (36.08% followed by Cedrus deodara (26.94% and Betula utilis (18.07% forest LSE types. These species, owing to immense medicinal properties and value for their economic utilization, feature in threatened and endangered category list of plants. It is, therefore, recommended that the developmental activities may be implemented in scientific way, which may not pose threat to bioresources in this region.

  2. Geomorphological Analysis and Hydrological Potential Zone of Baira River Watershed, Churah in Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Kuldeep Pareta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the quantitative geomorphological analysis and hydrological characterization of 95 micro-watersheds (MWS of Baira river watershed in Himachal Pradesh, India with an area of 425.25 Km2. First time in the world, total 173 morphometric parameters have been generated in a single watershed using satellite remote sensing data (i.e. IRS-P6 ResourceSAT-1 LISS-III, LandSAT-7 ETM+, and LandSAT-8 PAN & OLI merge data, digital elevation models (i.e. IRS-P5 CartoSAT-1 DEM, ASTER DEM data, and soI topographical maps of 1: 50,000 scale. The ninety-five micro-watersheds (MWS of Baira river watershed have been prioritized through the morphometric analysis of different morphometric parameters (i.e. drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture analysis, and relief characterizes . The study has concurrently established the importance of geomorphometry as well as the utility of remote sensing and GIS technology for hydrological characterization of the watershed and there for better resource and environmental managements.

  3. Poverty and development in a marginal community: case study of a settlement of the Sugali Tribe in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasi, Eswarappa

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of poverty and development have many meanings in contemporary globalized societies. Development by definition implies desired changes in terms of livelihood, improved quality of life and better access to assets and services, etc. However in reality development programmes sometimes have negative consequences, perhaps unintended, multiplying the acute scarcity of resources and opportunities, or reproducing poverty. Also, the consequences of developmental programmes often appear to be out of focus, and seen at the ground level, there seems to be a gap between what is intended and what is actualized. In this framework, this paper presents a case study of the social, cultural and economic correlates of the development processes in Adadakulapalle, a settlement of Sugali peoples, once a semi-nomadic tribe, in Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh, South India. The paper shows how factionalism and faction politics affect the implementation of development interventions. It also looks at the poverty in the settlement and focuses on the types of change that people have experienced with the implementation of different schemes by both government and other agencies. The type of change is discussed in the present study through the macro and micro analysis of development programmes.

  4. A study on pulp stones in a group of the population in Andhra Pradesh, India: An institutional study

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    Harsha Vardhan Talla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of pulp stones in a group of the population of Andhra Pradesh. This study also aims to determine the association of pulp stones in different sexes, tooth type, dental arches and sides and with systemic diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 4449 teeth of 2000 patients were examined, comprising of patients with C.V.S. disorders; Type II diabetes mellitus and gastritis were examined. Patients were selected from the radiology department who came for diagnostic radiograph of posterior teeth. The presence or absences of pulp stones were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis of the data was done using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS 15.0-SPSS Inc., 233 South Waker Drive, 11 th floor, Chicago, IL 60606-6412. using Chi-square analysis. Differences were considered as significant when P ≤ 0.05. Results: Pulp stones were found in 799 (17.9% of 4449 teeth detected. Significantly, higher numbers of pulp stones were recorded in patients with systemic diseases. The occurrences of pulp stones were significantly higher in maxillary first and second molars. No significant difference was found between sexes and sides. Conclusions: Positive correlation was found between systemic disorder and occurrence of pulp stones.

  5. Syndepositional and postdepositional features of the manganese ore deposits of the Proterozoic Penganga group, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, P. C.

    1988-04-01

    The Proterozoic Penganga Group consisting of terrigenous and orthochemical sediments including a manganese orebody is well developed in the northwestern part of the Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh. The manganese orebody of unmetamorphosed and undeformed, interbanded manganese oxide ore, chert, and minor calcareous shale has retained excellent syndepositional and postdepositional features both on the macro-and microscales. The primary depositional features include meso- and microbands of manganese oxide and silica of different descriptions, scour-and-fill structures, and Mn oxide micronodules. Spherical siliceous μm-sized structures and other features of biogenic origin have been observed. Diagenetic features such as fabric changes, syneresis cracks, concretionary pods, and Mn oxide nodules have been recorded. They are accompanied by penecontemporaneous deformation structures such as pinch-and-swell structures, gravity-density features, brecciation, and folding and faulting of various kinds. All these features suggest that the manganese orebody was formed in a shallow-marine environment on a stable shelf possibly behind a barrier bar and subsequently underwent diagenetic reorganization and penecontemporaneous deformation when the sediments were still in a hydroplastic state.

  6. Monitoring implementation of desertification combating plan using geomatics – A case study, districts Dhar and Jhabua, Madhya Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dasgupta Arunima; P S Dhinwa; A S Rajawat

    2015-02-01

    The world’s drylands are subject to desertification as a result of extended droughts, climate change, and human activities. Development in drylands depends on addressing degradation of the ecosystem, main-streaming sustainable natural resources management, and building upon the existing adaptive capacities of communities and institutions. In this regard, recent scientific results aimed to promote sustainable development through action plans for combating desertification. In India, under the Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD) programme, remote sensing based integrated land and water resource studies were carried out with an objective to generate locale specific action plans for sustainable development of a region. A specific study was carried out, in districts of Jhabua and Dhar, in Madhya Pradesh using Composite Land Development Sites (CLDS) approach for forest and wasteland development and soil and water conservation. Various treatments were suggested and implemented in 1995. The present study was carried out with an objective to monitor the positive impacts of combating plan implementation through visual interpretation and NDVI analysis of temporal images of LISS III data, since 1991 to 2013. The study reveals that there is substantial increase in the area of irrigated agricultural land with increase in number of check dams along with the stream channels.

  7. Additional record of Batasio merianiensis (Chaudhuri 1913, a catfish (Teleostei: Bagridae in upper Brahmaputra River drainage in Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    L. Tamang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper communicates the extension of the distribution range of Batasio merianiensis in Sille River in the upper Brahmaputra drainage, East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh. Detailed examinations of the specimens revealed existence of few morphological variations against those reported by Heok Hee Ng in 2009 on the following characteristics: by having a longer preanal (70.4-73.4 vs. 66.3-68.2% SL; a longer prepectoral (25.1-29.3 vs. 21.4-25.7% SL; a longer adipose-fin base (22.0-27.6 vs. 16.9-22.2% SL; a shorter post-adipose distance (11.6-13.4 vs.13.4-15.5% SL; a deeper body at anus (depth 18.3-20.8 vs.15.2-18.4% SL and broader head (width 17.6-20.0 vs.13.5-16.2 % HL. Few additional characters of the fish are included along with brief information on its habitat. The LIPUM, the semi-traditional method of fishing in the river is identified as a major threat to this species.

  8. Integrated approach for identification of potential groundwater zones in Seethanagaram Mandal of Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N C Mondal; S N Das; V S Singh

    2008-04-01

    Identifying a good site for groundwater exploration in hard rock terrain is a challenging task. In hard rocks, groundwater occurs in secondary porosity developed due to weathering, fracturing, faulting, etc., which is highly variable within short distance and contributing to near-surface inhomogeneity. In such situations topographic, hydrogeological and geomorphological features provide useful clues for the selection of suitable sites. Initially, based on satellite imagery, topographical, geomorphological and hydrogeological features, an area of about 149km2 was demarcated as a promising zone for groundwater exploration in the hard rock tract of Seethanagaram Mandal, Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh, India. A total of 50 Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were carried out using Wenner electrode configuration. An interactive interpretation of the VES data sharpened the information inferred from geomorphological and hydrogeological reconnaissance. Ten sites were recommended for drilling. Drilling with Down-The-Hole Hammer (DTH) was carried out at the recommended sites down to 50 to 70m depths. The interpreted VES results matched well with the drilled bore well lithologs. The yields of bore wells vary from 900 to 9000 liters per hour (lph).

  9. Cytomorphological studies in some members of tribe Paniceae (Poaceae) from district Kangra of Himachal Pradesh (Western Himalayas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, H; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2013-01-01

    The present paper deals with cytological studies on the population basis of 21 species belonging to 9 genera of tribe Paniceae of family Poaceae from cytologically unexplored area of Western Himalayas i.e. district Kangra of Himachal Pradesh for the assessment of genetic diversity of grass flora. On world-wide basis, the chromosome counts have been made for the first time for three species such as Brachiaria remota (n = 16), Digitaria granularis (n = 36) and Isachne albens (n = 5). Similarly, on India basis, altogether new records are made for two species such as Echinochloa cruspavonis (n = 27) and Paspalum distichum (2n = 50). A comparison of the different euploid cytotypes studied at present for Digitaria adscendens, D. setigera and Oplismenus compositus revealed significant variations in their morphology, depicting increase in some of the characters of polyploid cytotypes. The course of meiosis has been observed to be normal in all the studied populations with high pollen fertility except for two species such as Paspalum dilatatum and P. distichum marked with abnormal meiosis and reduced pollen fertility.

  10. INCIDENCE, RISK FACTORS AND COMPLICATIONS OF ACUTE PERFORATED AND NON - PERFORATED APPENDICITIS IN A RURAL SETUP OF ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Anil Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. The incidence of appendicitis and chances of complication in the form of perforation are dependent on both the patients and non - patient factors . There are various studies conducted to address this problem, but there are no studies conducted to look in to the incidence of appendicitis in east Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Our study was aimed to bridge thi s gap. METHOD S AND MATERIALS: this was a retrospective study, patient data from 2009 - 2014 was analyzed and the age, distance from hospital, educational and socioeconomic background of the patients was collected. The duration between first appearance of sy mptoms and hospitalization was recorded. The incidence of post - op complication was also recorded. RESULTS: T he incidence of perforation was 15% in our study population, most of the patients were from low socioeconomic group and having income less than 5000 /month. The middle age group between 30 - 40 years was commonly affected by the appendicitis. The time laps between appearance of symptoms and hospitalization was found to be a predominant factor in the perforation. Surgical site infection was most common co mplication in the patients treated. CONCLUSION: T he incidence of perforation is still high and the time laps between first appearance of symptoms and hospitalization is a major determinant of perforation or complication in the appendicitis.

  11. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock evaluation in the Subathu Formation of Marhighat, Sirmaur district, Himachal Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O P Thakur; N N Dogra

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the hydrocarbon source rock evaluation of the Subathu Formation exposed at Marhighat on Sarahan–Narag road in Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh. Hydrocarbon potential of these sediments is estimated on the basis of palynofacies analysis and thermal alteration index (TAI) values based on the fossil spores/pollen colouration. The analyses are based on the classification and hydrocarbon generation potential of plant derived dispersed organic matter present in the sediments. The palynofacies analysis of Subathu Formation in the area reveal moderate to rich organic matter, with amorphous organic matter constituting the bulk of the total organic matter, followed by charcoal, biodegraded organic matter, fungal remains, spores/pollen and structured terrestrial organic matter. The TAI value for the organic matter in these sediments has been ascertained as 3.00. A dominance of the sapropelic facies (amorphous organic matter) and the measured TAI values for the Subathu sediments in the Marhighat area suggests a good source-rock potential for the hydrocarbon generation.

  12. Longitudinal studies of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in vector mosquitoes in Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, N; Murty, U S N; Narahari, D; Balasubramanian, A; Samuel, P Philip; Thenmozhi, V; Paramasivan, R; Rajendran, R; Tyagi, B K

    2009-05-01

    A 4-yr (2002-2006) entomological study was carried out in Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh state, south India, to identify the mosquito vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV). In total, 37,139 female mosquitoes belonging five genera and 18 species resting on vegetation were collected in villages and periurban areas at dusk. Mosquito species composition and pattern of JEV infection in mosquitoes varied in periurban and rural areas. In periurban area, Culex gelidus Theobald was abundant, making up 49.7% of total catch followed by Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (44.5%). In rural area, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was predominant, making up 78.9% of total catch followed by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (10.8%), Anopheles subpictus Grassi (7.1%), and Cx. gelidus (1.1%). In light trap collections, Cx. gelidus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus predominated in periurban and rural areas, respectively. Of 50,145 mosquitoes screened JEV isolations were made only from Cx. gelidus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Based on high abundance and frequent JEV isolation, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was found to be the principal vector in both areas, whereas Cx. gelidus plays a secondary vector role in periurban areas only.

  13. MID TERM ASSESSMENT OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS ENDEMIC AREA OF DAMOH AND SAGAR DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH

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    Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi is an important public health problem in India. Filariasis is a major social and the fourth most common cause of disability all over the globe. Filariasis is endemic in 17 States and six Union Territories, with about 553 million people at risk of infection. It has been a major public health problem in India. The Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic filariasis was launched by the WHO in 2000 with the goal of eliminating Lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem by the year 2020. For the effective control of filariasis >65% population of endemic areas should be covered by single dose of Diethylcarbamazine 6mg/kg (DEC. OBJECTIVES: To assess the coverage and compliance of mass drug administration in the selected District and to make independent assessment with respect to process and out - come indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A community based cross sectional study through house to house survey method in selected clusters was adopted. An independent evaluation was done and the outcome was assessed as the coverage and compliance of mass drug administration. RESULTS: In both Damoh and Sagar Districts of Madhya Pradesh, the coverage level for DEC was > 80% in all the Blocks. CONCL USION: The mass drug administration was aimed only to distribute the drug and the issues related to compliance, proper health education and side effects management were not given enough attention. These issues are important to make programme effective.

  14. Water Quality Assessment Using Physico-Chemical Parameters and Heavy Metals of Gobind Sagar Lake, Himachal Pradesh (India

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    Vandana Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the environment has become harmful for the health of living organisms due to excessive pollution and contamination of natural resources. The present investigation has been carried out with the objective to assess the water quality of the Gobind Sagar Lake, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh (India using physico-chemical parameters with heavy metals of the lake. For this study, three sampling sites were identified and samples from different sites were collected in summer season and important parameters [Water Temperature , pH, Total Hardness, Dissolved Carbon Dioxide (CO2, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chloride, Total Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS] with heavy metals [ Lead (P, Copper (Co, Iron (Fe, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni and Manganese (Mn, Chromium (Cr were analyzed. The results revealed that the different conditions of Gobind Sagar Lake in different sampling stations showed fluctuations in some physico-chemical parameters and also in heavy metals. These result depicted that water of lake was polluted in the form of nutrient enrichment which is due to agricultural activities and its runoff in and around catchment area of the lake. There are other many ways that things can end up in the lake as the free style way of disposal of industrial and domestic effluents etc. Results of studies on heavy metals in pollution are well documented revealing the toxic effects of these metals on aquatic organisms.

  15. Ice dynamics of Himalayan glaciers (Himachal Pradesh, India) using TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Saurabh; Braun, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are the natural indicators of climate change. Himalaya is a part of widely spread mountain range consisting of second largest ice mass after polar region. The glaciers in Himalaya are located in Himachal Pradesh and other territories of India. The precipitation in the region is influenced by both Indian summer monsoon and mid-latitude winter westerlies. The glacier discharge influences the river basins and provides fresh water for various infrastructural necessities of urbanization in the state. The study aims to estimate the ice thickness and volume change during the decade (2011-2000) and annually during 2011-2014. For this, TanDEM-X DEMs are subtracted from the SRTM C/X band DEM of 2000. In addition, ice flow dynamics are quantified by the constellation of TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data using SAR offset tracking method. The primary investigations reveal that the terminus velocity of Bada Shigri (G077683E32169N), the biggest glacier of the state, Chhota Shigri( G077513E32227N), a bench-mark glacier, and other glacier (G077547E32162N) in 2011 found out to be < 2cm/day. The upper stream velocities of the glaciers are increased linearly and influenced by glacier tributaries.

  16. The food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Bipan C. Rathore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We documented the food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India, between 2002 and 2004 using scat analysis (n=222, direct observation (n=57, and feeding sign observations (n=57.  We concluded that Himalayan Brown Bears lead a predominantly herbivorous life style as plant matter occurred more frequently in scats (79% than animal matter (21%.  During summer, monsoon and fall, the frequency occurrence of plant matter was 72.2%, 77% and 91% respectively.  During early summer, brown bears foraged primarily on green vegetation such as Rumex nepalensis followed by Chaerophyllum reflexum.  Based on direct feeding observations, brown bears were observed to be feeding on 29 species of plants including agricultural crops and one fungi, Morchella esculenta.  The overuse by livestock, decline in local herbs and excessive extraction of high altitudinal medicinal plants in this habitat may pose a threat to the fragmented brown bear population. 

  17. Assessment of oral mucosal lesions among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional study

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    Nilesh Arjun Torwane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present cross-sectional study following the STROBE guidelines was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among males, females, and eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: Based on convenient non-probability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of examination and who fulfilled the selection criteria were examined. A cross section of the general population (males and females residing in the same locality where these eunuchs live was also examined. The World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment proforma (1997 was used to collect the information on oral mucosal lesions. All the obtained data were analyzed by using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Results: Overall prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 127 (19.9% among the study subjects. Fifty-nine (28.5% eunuchs, 56 (25.7% males, and 12 (5.6% females were observed to have some oral mucosal lesions. Oral submucous fibrosis (6.4%, leukoplakia (5.5%, and traumatic ulceration (4.2% were the major oral mucosal conditions observed. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral mucosal lesions occurring in the eunuch population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve the oral and general health of eunuchs.

  18. Evaluation of functioning of ICDS project areas under Indore and Ujjain divisions of the state of Madhya Pradesh

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    Sanjay Dixit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS is recognized worldwide as one of the most efficient community based programmes promoting early childhood care. Regular evaluations of the programme have been conducted to make it more effective and adequate for the beneficiaries. Objectives: To evaluate the functioning of the Anganwadi Centers under different project areas of Indore and Ujjain Divisions. Methods: Under the present evaluation system one ICDS project and five Anganwadi Centers under the project area (AWCs were visited on a monthly basis and services provided reviewed. Findings reported are from nine project areas under Indore and Ujjain Divisions in the state of Madhya Pradesh from October 2008 – June 2009. Results: A total of 45 centers were evaluated. 29 centers were operating from rented buildings and storage facilities were lacking at 19 of the centers. Though the quality of food was acceptable to the beneficiaries shortage of food was a problem at the centers. Absence of Pre-School Education (PSE and Nutrition and Health Education (NHED Kits compromised PSE and NHED activities at the centers. Unavailability of medicine kits, lack of regular visits by the ANMs to the centers and absence of routine health check up of beneficiaries were other problems encountered under the project areas surveyed. Availability of a doctor under each project area was stated as a major need by the workers. Conclusion: Coordinated steps catering to different services provided at the centers are needed to optimize the functioning of the ICDS scheme.

  19. Influence of age, sex and season on morbidity and mortality pattern in goats under village conditions of Madhya Pradesh

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    Amit Kumar Dohare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study factors affecting morbidity and mortality pattern in goats in Chambal division of Madhya Pradesh under village conditions. Materials and Methods: The sampling scheme adopted during study was stratified three stage random sampling and data on 549 goats were recorded. Results: The overall morbidity and mortality rate was 20.58% and 10.20% respectively. Proportional mortality due to diarrhoea was highest (35.71% followed by pneumonia (28.57% and miscellaneous causes (12.5%. Pattern of morbidity in male and female was almost similar. Age of goats was the most important factor and accounted for 39.29%, 28.57% and 32.14% mortality in 0-3 month, 6-9 month and above 9 months, respectively. The effect of season on goat mortality was significant (p<0.05.The incidence of mortality were 41.07%, 37.5% and 21.43% in winter, rainy and summer season respectively. Conclusion: In goats mortality was significantly influenced by age groups and suggesting that more care and attention need to be paid in kids 0-3 months age irrespective of season. Mortality due to various diseases in kids and adults could be minimized by identifying the cause and giving proper treatment. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 329-331

  20. Rheumatoid Arthritis among Periodontitis Patients in Baddi Industrial Estate of Himachal Pradesh, India: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Yash Paul; Khuller, Nitin; Basavaraj, Patthi; G, Suresh

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. A total of 1520 (852 - periodontal group; 668 - general group) individuals of 30-70 years age group and residents of Baddi industrial estate in Himachal Pradesh, India, were assessed for the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis and Periodontal Disease (PD). The prevalence and severity of periodontitis were determined by recording the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) with loss of attachment, based on WHO guidelines (1997). The criteria considered for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis were as those given by American Rheumatism Association -1988. Frequency distributions for bivariate analysis and logistic regression for multivariate analysis were used for assessment of statistical association between variables. In patients referred for periodontal treatment, the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis was 4.4%. Females (3.2%) and subjects aged above 50 years (3.5%) showed a significantly higher prevalence in comparison to their counterparts (prheumatoid arthritis in females were nearly three times (OR=2.813) higher than those in males, which was also statistically significant (pperiodontal disease are at higher risk of suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and vice versa.

  1. Allele frequency distribution based on 17 STR markers in three major Dravidian linguistic populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, G Hima; Trivedi, R; Kashyap, V K

    2007-07-20

    Allele frequencies for 15 tetranucleotides and 2 pentanucleotides repeat loci were determined in 317 unrelated, healthy individuals of Andhra Pradesh, India, belonging to three pre-dominant endogamous populations namely, Kappu Naidu, Kamma Chaudhary and Kapu Reddy. Adherence to the expectations of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was confirmed for all loci with few exceptions, which were not significant after applying Bonferroni's correction. Statistical parameters of forensic interest; observed heterozygosity, probability of homozygosity, probability of extact test, power of discrimination, match probability, polymorphism information content, power of exclusion and mean paternity index were determined for all loci. The present study reveals that Penta E and D2S1338 are the most informative loci in all the studied populations. The combined power of discrimination was greater than 0.976, whereas the cumulative power of exclusion gave an expected value of 0.9999 for all the tested microsatellite loci. No difference was observed in the discriminatory power of 15 loci in studied populations on comparison with other populations of India. Population differentiation tests revealed significant differences between the studied and neighboring populations at several loci. Analyzed parameters indicate the utility and efficacy of the studied 17 STR systems as a powerful tool in forensic human identification, paternity testing and human population genetic studies.

  2. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

  3. Oral health status and treatment needs among 10126 school children in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Radhakrishna, A. Naga; Kambalimath, Halaswamy V.; Chandrasekhar, Shalini; Deepthi, B.; Ramakrishna, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Oral diseases are affecting a large percentage of children worldwide. This study with Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry collaboration was taken up with the aim to evaluate the oral health status and treatment needs in school-going children of the West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 10126 school children who were randomly selected from 32 schools in West Godavari district. To find the significance of the obtained number of cases for different age groups, Chi-square test of significance was used. Results: The prevalence of dental conditions are as follows: Dental caries 63.5%, periodontal diseases 13.6%, dental anomalies 3.6%, dental trauma 3.2%, and orthodontic treatment 25.1%. Among the different age groups, 11–14 years age group has the highest prevalence of oral health problems. Females were more affected with dental caries (P = 0.17), orthodontic treatment needs (P = 0.12), and dental anomalies (P = 0.86) compared to males which was statistically insignificant. The highest prevalence of dental conditions in the case of females was observed during the age of 11–14 years, and in males, the peak was seen in the 15–18 years age group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that school-going children in West Godavari district suffer from a high prevalence of dental conditions and have higher treatment needs. PMID:27382536

  4. Sex trafficking, physical and sexual violence, and HIV risk among young female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Annie; Sabarwal, Shagun

    2013-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of sex trafficking as a mode of entry into sex work and to examine associations between sex trafficking and HIV vulnerability, recent violence experience, and symptoms of sexual ill health among young female sex workers (FSWs). A cross-sectional survey of 1137 FSWS aged 18-25 years residing in Andhra Pradesh, India, was conducted. In total, 574 (50.5%) FSWs entered sex work via trafficking. Trafficked FSWs had an increased risk of experiencing sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-3.06) and physical/sexual violence (AOR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.24-3.01), and reporting more clients (AOR 2.25; 95% CI, 1.56-3.22) and more work days per week (AOR 1.48; 95% CI, 1.09-2.02). Symptoms of sexual ill health were not associated with mode of entry into sex work. There is a high prevalence of entry into sex work via trafficking among young FSWs. A history of sex trafficking is associated with greater risk of recent physical and sexual violence and of HIV. Public health interventions must focus attention on young FSWs. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Filaria monitoring visualization system: a geographical information system-based application to manage lymphatic filariasis in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Kumaraswamy, Sriram; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao; Pabbisetty, Sampath Kumar; Yellepeddi, Venkata Suryanarayana Murthy

    2012-05-01

    Among various public health diseases, filariasis constitutes a major public health problem in India, wherein an estimated 553.7 million people are at risk of infection. The aim of this article is to present a spatial mapping and analysis of filariasis data over a 3-year period (2004-2007) from Karimnagar, Chittoor, East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. The data include epidemiological and entomological studies (i.e., infection rate, infectivity rate, mosquito per man hour, and microfilaria rate). These parameters were customized on Geographical Information System (GIS) platform and developed filaria monitoring visualization system (FMVS) for identifying the endemic/risk areas of filariasis among these four districts. GIS map for filariasis transmission from the study areas was created and stratified into different spatial entities like low, medium, and high risk zones. On the basis of the data and FMVS maps, it was demonstrated that filariasis remained unevenly distributed within the districts. Balancing the intervention coverage in different villages with overall mass drug administration and continued promotion of the proper use of control measures are necessary for further reduction of filarial cases in these districts.

  6. History of sex trafficking, recent experiences of violence, and HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in coastal Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jhumka; Reed, Elizabeth; Kershaw, Trace; Blankenship, Kim M

    2011-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of sex trafficking as a mode of entry into sex work, and to examine associations between sex trafficking and recent violence experiences and HIV vulnerability among female sex workers (FSWs). In a cross-sectional study in 2006 in coastal Andhra Pradesh, India, 812 FSWs were recruited via respondent-driven sampling to take part in an oral survey of their experiences in sex work. One in 5 (19.3%) FSWs met the UN definition of sex trafficking. Women trafficked into sex work were more likely than other FSWs to report recent violence experiences (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-2.81), more clients per week (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.11-2.41), and more days of sex work per week (AOR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.18-2.63), and were less likely to report use of FSW-focused services (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.86). No significant differences emerged regarding HIV knowledge or consistent condom use. There was a high prevalence of sex trafficking. A history of sex trafficking was associated with a greater vulnerability to recent violence and HIV risk behaviors, underscoring the need for increased attention to the public health needs of trafficked populations. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Paisang ( Quercus griffithii): A Keystone Tree Species in Sustainable Agroecosystem Management and Livelihoods in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Singh, Anshuman; Garnett, Stephen T.; Zander, Kerstin K.; Lobsang; Tsering, Darge

    2015-01-01

    In a study of the traditional livelihoods of 12 Monpa and Brokpa villages in Arunachal Pradesh, India using social-ecological and participatory rural appraisal techniques, we found that the forest tree species paisang ( Quercus griffithii, a species of oak) is vital to agroecosystem sustainability. Paisang trees are conserved both by individuals and through community governance, because their leaves play a crucial role in sustaining 11 traditional cropping systems of the Monpa peoples. An Indigenous institution, Chhopa, regulates access to paisang leaves, ensuring that the relationship between paisang and traditional field crop species within Monpa agroecosystems is sustainable. The Monpa farmers also exchange leaves and agricultural products for yak-based foods produced by the transhumant Brokpa, who are primarily yak herders. Yak herds also graze in paisang groves during winter. These practices have enabled the conservation of about 33 landraces, yak breeds, and a number of wild plants. Paisang thus emerged as a culturally important keystone species in the cultures and livelihoods of both Monpa and Brokpa. Ecological and conservation knowledge and ethics about paisang vary with gender, social systems, and altitudes. Labor shortages, however, have already caused some changes to the ways in which paisang leaves are used and yak grazing patterns are also changing in the face of changes in attitude among local landowners. Given new competing interests, incentives schemes are now needed to conserve the ecologically sustainable traditional livelihoods.

  8. Rearranging social space: Boundary-making and boundary-work in a joint forest management project, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Saito-Jensen Moeko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, there has been an increasing trend in developing countries to shift from state driven approaches to Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM. In order to ensure sustainability of resources, the need for creating and maintaining clear resource use boundaries has been emphasised, both theoretically and in practice. However, there has been less attention to the varied social consequences for involved villages (whose inhabitants can access resources within the new boundaries and for excluded villages (whose inhabitants are prevented from accessing resources due to these boundaries. Drawing on a case study of three villages affected by the Joint Forest Management project in Andhra Pradesh, India, this article shows how resource use boundaries interact with social categories such as caste, gender and livelihood occupation in ways that facilitate asymmetric distribution of costs and benefits among local people. The article calls for more consultative processes in constituting new resources use boundaries and for flexible interventions to reconcile conflicts arising from boundary-making.

  9. Assessment of oral mucosal lesions among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; Chandrashekar, Byarakele; Saxena, Vrinda

    2015-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study following the STROBE guidelines was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among males, females, and eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh India. Based on convenient non-probability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of examination and who fulfilled the selection criteria were examined. A cross section of the general population (males and females) residing in the same locality where these eunuchs live was also examined. The World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment proforma (1997) was used to collect the information on oral mucosal lesions. All the obtained data were analyzed by using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Overall prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 127 (19.9%) among the study subjects. Fifty-nine (28.5%) eunuchs, 56 (25.7%) males, and 12 (5.6%) females were observed to have some oral mucosal lesions. Oral submucous fibrosis (6.4%), leukoplakia (5.5%), and traumatic ulceration (4.2%) were the major oral mucosal conditions observed. The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral mucosal lesions occurring in the eunuch population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve the oral and general health of eunuchs.

  10. Infanticide in Eastern Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcikić, Mladen; Dumencić, Boris; Matuzalem, Elizabeta; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pozgain, Ivan; Ugljarević, Mladen

    2006-06-01

    For the layperson no crime is more difficult to comprehend than the killing of a child by his or her own parents. This is a retrospective study of neonaticide and infanticide in Eastern Croatia from 1980 to 2004. Judicial records of infanticide cases stored in Regional and County Courts were analyzed for the circumstances surrounding the offense. Twenty-four babies were discovered in various places during investigating period of time. The victims were almost equally divided between boys (12) and girls (11). The gender of one baby was unknown. The mean weight of babies was 2.7 SD = 0.66 kg. The perpetrators preferred rubbish-heaps (33.4%), burying in soil (16.7%), various premises in or around the house (16.7%) and garbage cans (12.5%) as places for hiding the dead babies. The most dominant cause of death in sixteen cases of live birth was asphyxia (37%) with equal distribution of smothering, stuffing the mouth with rags and strangulation. Other frequent causes of death were placing the child in a plastic bag and abandonment (25%), brain injury (25%) and wounding using a sharp weapon (12.5%). The cause of death for six babies remained unknown due to advanced decomposition. Two babies were stillborn. The age of accused mothers varied from 16 to 33, mean 24 SD=5.2 years. Most of them were unmarried (60%) and had limited formal education. They usually kept the pregnancy a secret (73%) and gave birth (93%) without public welfare assistance. The mother lived in the terror of shame and with the guilt that accompany conception without marriage. Fear seemed to be a pronounced motivating factor for committing infanticide. The data on court proceedings were available in fifteen cases. The mothers were officially indicted in all cases for infanticide under the Croatian Criminal Code. The perpetrator remained unidentified in nine suspicious crimes. The court convicted ten mothers of the crime of infanticide. Often juries were unwilling to punish the mother, citing the mother

  11. Assessment, prevention and mitigation of landslide hazard in the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Pradesh

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    Patra Punyatoya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are destructive geological processes that have globally caused deaths and destruction to property worth billion dollars. Landslide occurrences are widespread and prolific in India covering more than 15 per cent of the total area. These are mostly concentrated in the Himalayan belt, parts of Meghalaya Plateau, Nilgiri Hills, Western and Eastern Ghats. The slope failure in the hilly terrain is due to geological processes and events. The frequency and magnitude of slope failure also increased due to anthropogenic activities such as road construction, deforestation and urban expansion. Keeping all these problems in mind research focuses on the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Himalaya as it falls under very high risk zone in case of landslides and comprise of three objectives. They are: a to analyse the spatial pattern of landslides in the Lesser Himalaya, b to assess the causes of landslides vulnerability in the study region and c to suggests some preventive measures to mitigate landslides. In this work an attempt has been made to collect data on landslides incidences and damage from the secondary sources like Geological Survey of India, Building Material and Technology Promotion council from Ministry of Urban Affairs. The methodologies adopted for data analysis are simple tabulations, bar diagrams, statistical and mapping techniques to represent the Landslide vulnerability of the Lesser Himalaya. The analysis of the study reveals that there is increase in the number of landslides. The spatial pattern of landslide shows linear patterns, viz. along roads, rivers or lineaments/ faults. Besides, heavy rainfall, floods and earthquakes enhance the vulnerability condition. The landslides may be part and parcel of the Himalayan landscape, but they can be mitigated by some suitable measures. Few methods of landslide prevention in the study region have been suggested.

  12. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  13. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

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    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  14. The effects of climatic factors on the distribution and abundance of Japanese encephalitis vectors in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    U. Suryanarayana Murty, M. Srinivasa Rao , N. Arunachalam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Climatic attributes have been associated with relative mosquito abundanceand transmission of mosquito borne infections in many parts of the world, especially in warm andtropical climatic regions. The main objectives of this study were to assess the change in seasonalpattern of Japanese encephalitis (JE vectors, their density, to elucidate whether the lagged climatevariables (precipitation, temperature and humidity are associated with JE vector density, and todetermine if temperature and precipitation are similarly important for the rise in the number ofpotential mosquito vectors for JE virus in the temperate climate of Andhra Pradesh, India.Methods: Mosquito samples were collected from Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh using handcatch and light-trap methods during 2002 to 2006. The type and abundance of recovered specieswere compared to ecological correlates. In each geographic area, temperature and precipitationare the two possible proxy variables for mosquito density, in conjunction with other seasonalfactors for JE epidemics.Results: Out of the various mosquito species collected, Culex gelidus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchuswere noticed in high numbers. There was considerably high prevalence of Cx. gelidus (68.05% inurban area than in rural areas whereas, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (57.51% was found to be more inrural areas than in the urban area. It is noticed that the factors such as rainfall and temperaturewere found to be correlated with the per man hour (PMH density, whereas the humidity wasinversely correlated with the PMH.Interpretation & conclusion: The environmental and eco-climatic factors are assisting in enhancingthe breeding of these mosquitoes in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Both Cx.tritaeniorhyncus and Cx. gelidus are quite adaptable to these environmental conditions and thisnecessitates immediate control measures in both rural and urban areas of Kurnool district.

  15. A note on the high elevation distribution record of Red Panda Ailurus fulgens (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    D. Dorjee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present record provides one of the highest documented presence information of red pandas in India, in remote parts of western Arunachal Pradesh. The record came in the form of carcass of a Red Panda which was accidentally caught in an animal snare in remote sub-alpine mountain slopes at 4325m above sea level inside a Community Conserved Area in Tawang District, discovered during a monitoring trip by the villagers. The record also showcases the rich biodiversity of the area and the local community’s efforts to safeguard it.

  16. CONTRIBUTION OF MARITAL DISTANCE TO COMMUNITY INBREEDING, HOMOZYGOSIS, AND REPRODUCTIVE WASTAGE FOR RECESSIVELY INHERITED GENETIC DISORDERS IN MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA

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    R S Balgir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recessively inherited genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and β-thalassemia are commonly encountered in heterozygous and homozygous form in India. These hemolytic disorders cause a high degree of reproductive wastage in vulnerable communities. Inbreeding is usually the mating between two related individuals. Homozygosis is antagonistic process of heterosis. Purpose: This study was aimed at finding reproductive outcome in carrier couples of sickle cell disease, and β-thalassemia in terms of reproductive wastage in relation to varied marital distance between partners in Madhya Pradesh. Methods: A total of 107 (35 and 72, respectively carrier couples of β-thalassemia major and sickle cell anemia with confirmed affected offspring after taking detailed reproductive history were studied following the standard methodology in a tertiary hospital in Central India during March 2010 to February 2013. Results: A majority of sickle cell and b-thalassemia carrier couples (77.8% and 65.7%, respectively had married within physical distance of radius less than 50 kms. away from their native places. It was found that as the marital distance between two carrier partners of above disorders decreases, the number of abortions, still-births, neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and mortality under 10 years age increases, and vice versa, implicating inbreeding and homozygosis. The overall reproductive wastage of 28.2% and 18.6% was recorded in carrier couples of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, respectively. Conclusions: Relative small population size clubbed with small marital distance leads to inbreeding resulting in homozygosity which increases chances of affected offspring by recessive or deleterious traits and contributes to decreased fitness of a couple or population in Central India.

  17. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    P.S. Raju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.

  18. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India

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    Meyer-Rochow V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%, fishes (17%, reptiles (8% and amphibians (3%. Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another.

  19. Status of Golden Jackal Canis aureus and ungulates in a small enclosed area- Van Vihar National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India

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    S. Prerna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We estimated densities of Golden Jackals and five ungulate species in Van Vihar National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India.  It is an enclosed area of about 4.45km², out of which 3.5km² is available for free ranging animals.  Twenty-six transects with a combined length of 22.6km and an effort of 50.2km were walked.  A total of 1079 animal detections belonging to six different species were made.  The density of jackals was (17±3.8SE/km2. Among the ungulates, chital had the highest density (118±18.8SE/km2 followed by Sambar (34.1±6.9 SE/km2, Nilgai (13.1±2.8SE/km2, Blackbuck (6.6±1.5 SE/km2 and Wild Pig (3.7±0.8 SE/km2.  The ungulate biomass was found to be (12979.2±2463.26 SEkg/km2.  Chital biomass was the highest at (5574.2±886.58 SEkg/km2, followed by Sambar biomass of (4569.4±913.75 SEkg/km2, Nilgai (2358±523.24 SEkg/km2, Blackbuck (211.2±66.18 SEkg/km2 and Wild Pig (118.4±28.37 SEkg/km2.  The sex ratio was calculated and most ungulates had female-biased adult sex ratio. 

  20. Biomass Resource Assessment and Existing Biomass Use in the Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu States of India

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    Karthikeyan Natarajan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available India is experiencing energy crisis and a widening gap between energy supply and demand. The country is, however, endowed with considerable, commercially and technically available renewable resources, from which surplus agro-biomass is of great importance and a relatively untapped resource. In the policy making process, knowledge of existing biomass use, degree of social reliance, and degree of biomass availability for energy production is unequivocal and pre-conditional. Field observations, documentation, and fill-in sheet tools were used to investigate the potential of biomass resources and the existing domestic, commercial, and industrial uses of biomass in selected Indian states. To do so, a team of field observers/supervisors visited three Indian states namely: Maharashtra (MH, Madhya Pradesh (MP, and Tamil Nadu (TN. Two districts from each state were selected to collect data regarding the use of biomass and the extent of biomass availability for energy production. In total, 471 farmers were interviewed, and approximately 75 farmers with various land holdings have been interviewed in each district. The existing uses of biomass have been documented in this survey study and the results show that the majority of biomass is used as fodder for domestic livestock followed by in-site ploughing, leaving trivial surplus quantities for other productive uses. Biomass for cooking appeared to be insignificant due to the availability and access to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG cylinders in the surveyed districts. Opportunities exist to utilize roadside-dumped biomass, in-site burnt biomass, and a share of biomass used for ploughing. The GIS-based maps show that biomass availability varies considerably across the Taluks of the surveyed districts, and is highly dependent on a number of enviromental and socio-cultural factors. Developing competitive bioenergy market and enhancing and promoting access to more LPG fuel connections seem an appropriate socio

  1. Diversity and population dynamics of phytophagous scarabaeid beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in different landscapes of Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Mandeep Pathania

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scarabaeid beetles constitute a major group of defoliators of cultivated and wild plants. Therefore, it is important to understand their diversity, abundance and distribution for planning effective pest management programmes. We surveyed scarabaeid beetles from 8 landscapes from different zones in Himachal Pradesh (N 32o 29' and E 75o 10', India. In 2011 and 2012, surveys were conducted during 4 months period (May-August by using UV light traps. A total of 13,569 scarabaeid adults of 20 genera and 56 species belonging to subfamilies Melolonthinae, Rutelinae, Cetoniinae and Dynastinae were recorded. The five most common species were Brahmina coriacea, Adoretus lasiopygus, Anomala lineatopennis, Maladera insanabilis and Holotrichia longipennis. They comprised 9.88-10.05, 7.18-7.76, 7.13-7.27, 6.80-7.62 and 5.22-5.30 % during 2011-12, respectively. Anomala (10 species was the most dominant genus in the present study, whereas Melolonthinae was the most dominant subfamily accounting 53.23 percent of total scarabs collected from the study sites. Among different landscapes, Palampur had maximum diversity and abundance, while Shillaroo had least diversity but more abundance of single species B. coriacea. The value of alpha diversity indices viz. Shannon index was maximum (H'=3.01-3.03 at Palampur. This indicates maximum evenness and abundance of species at Palampur. Shillaroo had lowest Shannon index (H'=1.12-1.17 and Pielou's evenness index (J'=0.46-0.49. This showed least species diversity and higher unevenness of scarabaeid beetles at Shillaroo. The results of beta diversity analysis revealed poor similarity of scarabaeid species between different sites confirming that the scarabaeid community in the north western Himalayan regions is much diverse.

  2. Inherited hemolytic disorders with high occurrence of b-thalassemia in Sindhi community of Jabalpur town in Madhya Pradesh, India

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    RS Balgir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemolytic disorders such as hemoglobin disorders, β-thalassemia syndrome, G6PD deficiency, and ABO and Rhesus blood groups are the most common public health problems in India. Community genetic screening provides multifaceted information for finding prevalence, level of health education, preventive strategies such as genetic/marriage counseling to relieve the burden of vulnerable communities. However, such genetic screening studies are scanty in India. This study aims to find the prevalence of inherited hemolytic disorders in Sindhi community, identify the persons for genetic/marriage counseling and to suggest the relevant strategies for prevention and control to the affected families. A cross-sectional random study of 508 persons of Sindhi community belonging to all ages and both sexes was conducted for screening of hemoglobin disorders, G6PD deficiency and ABO and Rhesus (D blood groups following the standard procedures and techniques from Jabalpur town in Central India. High frequency of β-thalassemia trait (20.5%, Hb D trait (2.2% and hemoglobin D/β-thalassemia (0.2%, G6PD deficiency (0.8%, and a low prevalence of Rhesus negative (3.0% blood group was observed in Sindhi community of Jabalpur town in Madhya Pradesh. A case of β-thalassemia major and Hb D-thalassemia were also encountered. Double heterozygosity of Hb D/β-thalassemia showed hypochromic and microcytic red cell morphology with mild anemia. Inherited hemolytic disorders are an important public health challenge in Sindhi community. Preventive genetics program needs to be vigorously taken up to ameliorate the sufferings of at risk communities in India.

  3. Contextual and interdependent causes of climate change adaptation barriers: Insights from water management institutions in Himachal Pradesh, India.

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    Azhoni, Adani; Holman, Ian; Jude, Simon

    2017-01-15

    Research on adaptation barriers is increasing as the need for climate change adaptation becomes evident. However, empirical studies regarding the emergence, causes and sustenance of adaptation barriers remain limited. This research identifies key contextual causes of adaptation barriers in water institutions in the mountainous Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in northern India. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with representatives from twenty-six key governmental, non-governmental, academic and research institutions in the State with responsibilities spanning domestic water supply, irrigation and hydropower generation, environmental monitoring and research. It identified low knowledge capacity and resources, policy implementation gaps, normative attitudes, and unavailability and inaccessibility of data and information compounded with weak interinstitutional networks as key adaptation barriers. Although these barriers are similar to those reported elsewhere, they have important locally-contextual root causes. For instance, inadequate resources result from fragmented resources allocation due to competing developmental priorities and the desire of the political leadership to please diverse electors, rather than climate scepticism. The identified individual barriers are found to be highly inter-dependent and closely intertwined which enables the identification of leverage points for interventions to maximise barrier removal. For instance, breaking down key barriers hindering accessibility to data and information, which are shaped by systemic bureaucracies and cultural attitudes, will involve attitudinal change through sensitisation to the importance of accurate and accessible data and information and the building trust between different actors, in addition to institutional structural changes through legislation and inter-institutional agreements. Approaching barriers as a system of contextually interconnected cultural, systemic, geographical and political

  4. Delivering medical abortion at scale: a study of the retail market for medical abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India.

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    Timothy Powell-Jackson

    Full Text Available Medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol has the potential to contribute to reduced maternal mortality but little is known about the provision or quality of advice for medical abortion through the private retail sector. We examined the availability of medical abortion and the practices of pharmacists in India, where abortion has been legal since 1972.We interviewed 591 pharmacists in 60 local markets in city, town and rural areas of Madhya Pradesh. One month later, we returned to 359 pharmacists with undercover patients who presented themselves unannounced as genuine customers seeking a medical abortion.Medical abortion was offered to undercover patients by 256 (71.3% pharmacists and 24 different brands were identified. Two thirds (68.5% of pharmacists stated that abortion was illegal in India. Only 106 (38.5% pharmacists asked clients the timing of the last menstrual period and 38 (13.8% requested to see a doctor's prescription - a legal requirement in India. Only 59 (21.5% pharmacists correctly advised patients on the gestational limit for medical abortion, 97 (35.3% provided correct information on how many and when to take the tablets in a combination pack, and 78 (28.4% gave accurate advice on where to seek care in case of complications. Advice on post-abortion family planning was almost nonexistent.The retail market for medical abortion is extensive, but the quality of advice given to patients is poor. Although the contribution of medical abortion to women's health in India is poorly understood, there is an urgent need to improve the practices of pharmacists selling medical abortion.

  5. The timing of death in patients with tuberculosis who die during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Andhra Pradesh, South India

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    Jonnalagada Subbanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has 2.0 million estimated tuberculosis (TB cases per annum with an estimated 280,000 TB-related deaths per year. Understanding when in the course of TB treatment patients die is important for determining the type of intervention to be offered and crucially when this intervention should be given. The objectives of the current study were to determine in a large cohort of TB patients in India:- i treatment outcomes including the number who died while on treatment, ii the month of death and iii characteristics associated with "early" death, occurring in the initial 8 weeks of treatment. Methods This was a retrospective study in 16 selected Designated Microscopy Centres (DMCs in Hyderabad, Krishna and Adilabad districts of Andhra Pradesh, South India. A review was performed of treatment cards and medical records of all TB patients (adults and children registered and placed on standardized anti-tuberculosis treatment from January 2005 to September 2009. Results There were 8,240 TB patients (5183 males of whom 492 (6% were known to have died during treatment. Case-fatality was higher in those previously treated (12% and lower in those with extra-pulmonary TB (2%. There was an even distribution of deaths during anti-tuberculosis treatment, with 28% of all patients dying in the first 8 weeks of treatment. Increasing age and new as compared to recurrent TB disease were significantly associated with "early death". Conclusion In this large cohort of TB patients, deaths occurred with an even frequency throughout anti-TB treatment. Reasons may relate to i the treatment of the disease itself, raising concerns about drug adherence, quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs or the presence of undetected drug resistance and ii co-morbidities, such as HIV/AIDS and diabetes mellitus, which are known to influence mortality. More research in this area from prospective and retrospective studies is needed.

  6. Socio-ecological studies on marine fishing villages in the selective south coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh.

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    Jacob, M Jaya Kumar; Rao, P Brahmaji

    2016-12-01

    Coasts are an amazing gift of nature. Industrialization, infrastructure development, urbanisation, tourism, mechanized fishing, disposal of industrial and urban wastes and effluents, are all ringing the death-knell of the sensitive coastal ecosystems of recently separated State of Andhra Pradesh. These modern interventions have been violent, disregarding both nature's rejuvenating mechanisms, and the symbiotic relationship that exist between the coast and traditional marine fishing communities. Modern fishing tecnologies using mechanized trawlers and small meshed nets lead directly to overexploitation, which is not sustainable. It is evident that fish have to breed successfully and need to have time to grow if the yield has to be used sustainably. Multiple pressures and excessive technological invasion on these marine fishing villages had created an environment in which life has become physically and mentally unhealthy. The focus of this paper is to emphasize that investing in large-scale industrial fishing, building bigger boats, and giving subsidies for pursuing deep sea fishing would be a waste of resources as the fish hauls in these selelctive districts i.e. Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore coastal communities have dropped off alarmingly in recent years. It is essential and crucial to focus research and scientific analysis and establish awareness and education to provide a means of distinguishing responses between improvements in quality of ecosystem and those of damages. The study is to elaborate that long-term ecological gains cannot be sacrificed for short-term economic gains that unfortunately lead to environmental damage. Investigating coastal regulations, policies, and their implementation is an urgent social need for the sake of socio-ecological safety and security of coasts and host communities.

  7. Prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India.

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    Priyanka Rani Garg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal Tablo"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Malnutrition has now been redefined in terms of “under nutrition” and conceptualized in terms of thinness which is an important problem among children and adolescents in rural areas of developing countries like India. Therefore, present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study design was cross-sectional. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was carried out. Identification of thinness was done according to the new International BMI-based classification cut offs as given by Cole et al., 2007. In general the mean BMI increased with increasing age. Overall age-combined prevalence was 79.5%. Present study indicated the poor health status of the adolescent girls of the selected area which indicates the high nutritional stress among them as evident from the thinness prevalent among them.

  8. Impact of feeding and breastfeeding practices on the nutritional status of infants in a district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Meshram, I I; A, Laxmaiah; K, Venkaiah; N V, Brahmam G

    2012-01-01

    Infant feeding practices have a major role in determining the nutritional status of children and are associated with household socioeconomic and demographic factors. We did a cross-sectional household study to assess feeding practices of infants and young children in rural areas of Medak district, Andhra Pradesh. A total of 805 child-mother pairs were included using systematic random sampling. Age-specific feeding patterns were described using frequencies, proportions and survival analysis. Logistic regression was done with feeding practice as dependent and sociodemographic factors as independent variables. Breastfeeding was universal in the study area. Only 22% of mothers initiated breastfeeding within one hour whereas 44% initiated it within three hours after delivery. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 5.5 months. Pre-lacteal use was high (44.7%). Only 41% of infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and 58% of infants (6-11 months) received complementary feeding at 6-9 months of age. Timely initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was significantly more likely among mothers belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10-0.76 and OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08-0.76). Timely initiation of complementary feeding was more likely among scheduled caste and scheduled tribe communities (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11-0.54). Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour of birth) and other feeding practices were associated with community, type of family and education of mother. Efforts are needed to promote early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and age-appropriate complementary feeding among infants. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  9. Physico-chemical qualities of water in high altitude rice fish farming system of Ziro valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

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    Saikia, Rajashree; Das, Tapati; Das, Debangshu Narayan

    2015-09-01

    Water in rice fields of mountain valley of Ziro, Arunachal Pradesh was investigated for physico-chemical characterization during rice fish farming season (Kharif) of 2013. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, free carbon dioxide, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus, chloride, total hardness, calcium hardness, alkalinity, pH, total dissolved solids, specific conductivity and water depth were studied. This study revealed that the physical parameters of water in rice fields like water temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, specific conductivity and water depth were 23.5-31.3 degrees C, 5.9-6.9, 250.34-370.5 mgl(-1), 437.75-660.33 μScm(-1) and 3.72-16.9 cm respectively. The chemical features like dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, free CO2, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus, chloride, total hardness Ca hardness, alkalinity were 2.4-12.9 mgl(-1), 1.5-11.1 mgl(-1), 9.7-23.35 mgl(-1), 1.28-3.9 mgl(-1), 0.005-0.539 mgl(-1), 16.6-46.8 mgl(-1), 13.9-34.5 mgl(-1), 9.6-13.53 mgl(-1) and 23.16-43.34 mgl(-1) respectively. On the other hand, investigation on planktonic life forms indicated the presence of 13.5x10(3)-84.9x10(3) indl(-1)" and 1.23x10(3)-4.86x10(3) indl(-1) phytoplankton and zooplankton respectively during the Kharif season. The above physiochemical parameters were found to be conducive for raising fish as companion crop of rice due to occurrence of diversified planktonic life forms in underneath water.

  10. Delivering medical abortion at scale: a study of the retail market for medical abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India.

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    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Acharya, Rajib; Filippi, Veronique; Ronsmans, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol) has the potential to contribute to reduced maternal mortality but little is known about the provision or quality of advice for medical abortion through the private retail sector. We examined the availability of medical abortion and the practices of pharmacists in India, where abortion has been legal since 1972. We interviewed 591 pharmacists in 60 local markets in city, town and rural areas of Madhya Pradesh. One month later, we returned to 359 pharmacists with undercover patients who presented themselves unannounced as genuine customers seeking a medical abortion. Medical abortion was offered to undercover patients by 256 (71.3%) pharmacists and 24 different brands were identified. Two thirds (68.5%) of pharmacists stated that abortion was illegal in India. Only 106 (38.5%) pharmacists asked clients the timing of the last menstrual period and 38 (13.8%) requested to see a doctor's prescription - a legal requirement in India. Only 59 (21.5%) pharmacists correctly advised patients on the gestational limit for medical abortion, 97 (35.3%) provided correct information on how many and when to take the tablets in a combination pack, and 78 (28.4%) gave accurate advice on where to seek care in case of complications. Advice on post-abortion family planning was almost nonexistent. The retail market for medical abortion is extensive, but the quality of advice given to patients is poor. Although the contribution of medical abortion to women's health in India is poorly understood, there is an urgent need to improve the practices of pharmacists selling medical abortion.

  11. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

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    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  12. Effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh

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    Muthyala Pavana Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary dental care can be a way of achieving good oral health for the community. This can be achieved by integration of oral health care with the existing primary health care activities through training of primary health care workers on aspects of oral health. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center (PHC in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Descriptive longitudinal study was conducted from June 2010 to August 2010 at a PHC. Knowledge about oral health among primary health care workers was pretested using a self-administered questionnaire prepared in local language (Telugu. Later after a month health education was provided to the health workers, and pamphlets with information on oral health were distributed. Posttest assessment was done 1-month after providing health education using the same questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 12.0 software, Student′s t-test was used to compare knowledge scores between pre and posttests. Results: A total of 118 Primary Health Care Workers with the majority in the 20-30 years age group participated in the study. Posttest assessment showed a change in knowledge level with an overall increase in knowledge level of primary health care workers with a mean difference of 12.56 ± 3.23, which was highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The knowledge about oral health was poor, and it improved after providing health education to primary health care workers. Change in knowledge was appreciable and may play a key role in oral health promotion of the vast majority of the rural population.

  13. Indoor radon measurements in the dwellings of Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh, India, using LR-115 nuclear track detectors

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    Dhiman, M. [Punjab Technical University (India); Mehra, R. [Department of Physics, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Department of Applied Sciences, Shaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engineering and Technology (India)

    2014-07-01

    Study of indoor radon was carried out in the domestic environment of 15 villages of Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Time integrated track etch technique has been used for the measurement of indoor radon levels. Bare cellulose nitrate LR-115 type II films have been used as detectors in the survey of indoor radon for four seasons of three months each covering a period of one year from March 2012 to March 2013. The houses were chosen randomly in such a way that the dwellings constructed with different types of building materials such as soil, bricks, cement, marble, concrete, wood in different localities of the village are covered. It has been found that indoor radon concentration depends upon the type of house, ventilation condition etc. The calibration constant of 1 track cm{sup -2} day{sup -1} which is equal to 50 Bqm{sup -3} has been used to express radon concentration in Bqm{sup -3}. The conversion factors have been used to calculate the exposure (an exposure of an individual to radon progeny of 1 WLM is equivalent to 3.54 mJ h m{sup -3}), the annual effective dose (1 WLM=3.88 mSv) and the lifetime fatality risk (3 x 10{sup -4} WLM). Indoor radon concentrations were found to vary from 132.25 Bqm{sup -3} to 449.75 Bqm{sup -3} with an average value of 261.40 Bqm{sup -3}. Annual effective dose in these dwellings were found to vary form 2.78 mSv to 7.68 mSv with an average value of 4.5 mSv. The average radon concentration in dwellings in most of the villages falls in the action level (200-600 Bqm{sup -3}) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  14. Dimensions of nutritional vulnerability: Assessment of women and children in Sahariya tribal community of Madhya Pradesh in India