WorldWideScience

Sample records for eastern teratoscincus keyserlingii

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of a gecko and the phylogeneticposition of the Middle Eastern teratoscincus keyserlingii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Fong, Jonathan J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Shafiei,Soheila; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-04-22

    Sqamate reptiles are traditionally divided into six groups: Iguania, Anguimorpha, Scincomorpha, Gekkota (these four are lizards), Serpentes (snakes), and Amphisbaenia (the so-called worm lizards). Currently there are complete mitochondrial genomes from two representatives of the Iguania (Janke et al., 2001; Kumazawa, 2004), three from the Anguimorpha (Kumazawa, 2004; Kumazawa and Endo, 2004), two from the Scincomorpha (Kumazawa and Nishida, 1999; Kumazawa, 2004), two from Serpentes (Kumazawa et al., 1998; Kumazawa, 2004) and 12 from Amphisbaenia (Macey et al., 2004). The only traditional group of Squamata from which a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced is the Gekkota. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus keyserlingii, a Middle Eastern representative of the Gekkota. The gekkonid lizard genus Teratoscincus is distributed throughout the deserts of central and southwest Asia as shown in figure 1, with five species currently recognized (Macey et al. 1997a, 1999b). Included in this figure are the positions of mountain ranges discussed in the text; see also figure 1 in Macey et al. (1999b). Two species, T. bedriagai and T. microlepis, are restricted to Southwest Asia south of the Kopet Dagh and Hindu Kush in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (Anderson, 1999). Two species are found in the deserts of western China and Mongolia, with T. przewalskii occurring in the Taklimakan and lowland Gobi deserts, and T. roborowskii restricted to the Turpan Depression. The fifth species, T. scincus, is sometimes considered to be restricted to the Caspian Basin in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Alternatively, Teratoscincus populations in Southwest Asia, primarily on the Iranian Plateau, situated directly north of the Arabian Plate, are sometimes considered to be a subspecies of T. scincus or, otherwise, to constitute a sixth species, T. keyserlingii. Macey et al. (1999b) assessed the phylogenetic

  2. Seasonal Dynamics of Male and Female Reproductive Systems in the Siberian Salamander, Salamandrella keyserlingii (Caudata, Hynobiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vadim V. YARTSEV; Valentina N. KURANOVA

    2015-01-01

    It is not well known how low temperatures, like a subarctic steppe–tundra climate, inlfuence reproductive traits of ectothermic vertebrates. To begin answering this question, we studied male and female reproductive systems of Salamandrella keyserlingii inhabiting a Tomsk population (southeast of Western Siberia), Russia, in ecological and physiological terms. In males, before spermiation, the testicular size and weight in late April–early May were greatest of all. Spermiation occurred during breeding immigration in spring when mean air temperature was above 10°С, and at the same time rain fell. After spermiation, the testicular size and weight decreased sharply, and the diameter of the vasa deferentia increased. “Spawning” (i.e., simultaneous extrusion of sperm and oviposition) occurred from late April to late May, and this duration lfuctuated in temperature and humidity. The testicular size and weight increased in summer. Sperm mass was detected in the testes by the smear method in April–September, except in June when single fragmented unrealized sperm was detected and in July when spermatids were detected. In females, ovarian weight was greatest in spring before ovulation. From late June, vitellogenesis began in ovarian follicles, in which mint green yolks accumulated. Melanin deposited in the surface of the ovary from July when oviducts were hypertrophying. In contrast, some large-sized females did not show any sexual maturity shortly before hibernation (although these females may be subadults). These results suggest that low temperatures in Siberia induce early timing of gamete maturation in females, but the females’ reproductive cycle might also be biennial. A reproductive cycle in males was annual with the completion of the gamete maturation process in August.

  3. Histological Observation on Skin of Salamandrella keyserlingii%极北鲵皮肤的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田川; 李淑兰; 贾丽丽

    2012-01-01

    To study the microstructure of skin of Salamandrella keyselingii, using paraffin section and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results were as follows: the skin structures were basically the same as Salamandrella keysedingii throughout the body, compsed of epidermis and dermis. However, there were inter-position differences in skin thickness. The skin of the back was the thickest, the other of the abdomen was thinnest. Mucous and granular glands were rich in dermal, in the abdomen skin there were many mucous glands and in the dorsal skin there were many larger granular glands. Moreover, there were specialized mucous glands in dermal of the back. Dermal melanocytes shallowly scattered mainly in dermis. The capillaries which under the epidermis were found. The skin structure of Salamandrella keyserlingii indicated its adaption to live in the moisture areas.%为了研究极北鲵(Salamandrella keyserlingii)皮肤的显微结构,采用苏木精-伊红染色法(Hematoxylin-eosin,HE)来进行研究.结果显示:极北鲵身体各处皮肤结构基本相同,均由表皮和真皮构成,但皮肤各处总厚度不同,躯干背部皮肤最厚、腹部最薄;在真皮层中还有大量的腺体存在,主要是粘液腺和颗粒腺,粘液腺以腹侧皮肤分布为主,颗粒腺以背侧皮肤分布为主,且颗粒腺较粘液腺大,此外,在躯干背侧皮肤中还发现有特殊粘液腺;色素细胞主要分布在真皮疏松层浅表;表皮下还有毛细血管分布.以上极北鲵皮肤结构的特点与其适应栖居潮湿生活环境有关.

  4. EASTERN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVALUATION OF SELECTED ELITE POTATO GENOTYPES IN. EASTERN ... Significant

  5. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP ...

  6. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  7. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only ... EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin ...

  8. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  9. DISCOVERING BEIJING Eastern Promise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dongcheng District, literally meaning eastern city, covers Beijing’s downtown area to the northeast of the central axis of old Beijing. The district has a total area of 25 square km and a population of 600,000. With a large number of cultural and historical sites and tourist attractions,

  10. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  11. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  12. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  13. Preliminary study of polysaccharides in the tragacanth of Astragalus gossipinus Fisch and Astragalus keyserlingii Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ebrahimzadeh F. Mighani

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available From the point of gum production, Fabaceae is one of the most richest plant families. Tragacanth is one of the most important gums and has medicianl, industrial and food applications. The soluble and insoloble fractions are 40 and 60% in white gum and 70 and 30% in yellow gum, respectively. These fractions do not show considerable seasonal variations. Total sugar in white gum and yellow gum are 70% and 90% , respectively; monosaccharides in both kind of tragacanths include galacturonic acid, galactose, glucose, arabinose, xylose, fucose, and rhamnose and the amount of xylose in the composition is higher than that of others. Insoluble fraction of white gum, the amount of xylose is more than that of arabinose pJus fucose while in yellow gum its amount is lower than that of arabinose plus fucose. fln insoluble fraction of both kind of tragacanths, the amount of arabinose plus fucose is high. The quality of white gum, in comparison to yellow gum, is better due to the higher in soluble fraction and arabinose plus fucose to xylose in this fraction . The gum tragacartti of both species has a xylan backbone.

  14. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  15. Infanticide in Eastern Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcikić, Mladen; Dumencić, Boris; Matuzalem, Elizabeta; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pozgain, Ivan; Ugljarević, Mladen

    2006-06-01

    For the layperson no crime is more difficult to comprehend than the killing of a child by his or her own parents. This is a retrospective study of neonaticide and infanticide in Eastern Croatia from 1980 to 2004. Judicial records of infanticide cases stored in Regional and County Courts were analyzed for the circumstances surrounding the offense. Twenty-four babies were discovered in various places during investigating period of time. The victims were almost equally divided between boys (12) and girls (11). The gender of one baby was unknown. The mean weight of babies was 2.7 SD = 0.66 kg. The perpetrators preferred rubbish-heaps (33.4%), burying in soil (16.7%), various premises in or around the house (16.7%) and garbage cans (12.5%) as places for hiding the dead babies. The most dominant cause of death in sixteen cases of live birth was asphyxia (37%) with equal distribution of smothering, stuffing the mouth with rags and strangulation. Other frequent causes of death were placing the child in a plastic bag and abandonment (25%), brain injury (25%) and wounding using a sharp weapon (12.5%). The cause of death for six babies remained unknown due to advanced decomposition. Two babies were stillborn. The age of accused mothers varied from 16 to 33, mean 24 SD=5.2 years. Most of them were unmarried (60%) and had limited formal education. They usually kept the pregnancy a secret (73%) and gave birth (93%) without public welfare assistance. The mother lived in the terror of shame and with the guilt that accompany conception without marriage. Fear seemed to be a pronounced motivating factor for committing infanticide. The data on court proceedings were available in fifteen cases. The mothers were officially indicted in all cases for infanticide under the Croatian Criminal Code. The perpetrator remained unidentified in nine suspicious crimes. The court convicted ten mothers of the crime of infanticide. Often juries were unwilling to punish the mother, citing the mother

  16. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  17. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  18. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  19. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  20. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  1. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  2. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates cu

  3. Astroparticle Physics at Eastern Colombia

    CERN Document Server

    Asorey, Hernan

    2015-01-01

    We present the emerging panorama of Astroparticle Physics at Eastern Colombia, and describe several ongoing projects, most of them related to the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project. This research work is carried out at the Grupo de Investigaciones en Relatividad y Gravitaci\\'on of Universidad Industrial de Santander.

  4. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  5. Language in Education in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, T. P., Ed.

    This volume contains the papers given at the first Eastern Africa Conference on Language and Linguistics, held in Dar es Salaam in December 1968, under the auspices of the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa. The chief aim of the Conference was to bring together scholars and teachers working in Eastern Africa interested…

  6. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    in the area.   The municipalities acknowledge the articulation of the city region and the initiated planning process.  However, the municipalities might see the arena as means to lobby for infrastructure investments in Eastern Jutland, as it is doubtful whether the municipalities will feel encouraged to enter...... a process, which is aiming at increasing the national regulation within their territory.    The result might very well be that the discussion about future infrastructure investments is not linked to discussions about future urban development in Eastern Jutland.  These aspects raises serious questions about...... on which level a serious strategy formation process can take place.  There is a danger that a common strategic spatial plan is more an expression of the lowest common denominator and the municipalities request for infrastructure investments rather than being a spatial strategy with transformative power. ...

  7. Region 1 Acoustic Bat Inventory: National Wildlife Refuges in Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington, and Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bat species were inventoried on National Wildlife Refuges in Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington, and Idaho using acoustic methods. Samples were collected between...

  8. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... on which level a serious strategy formation process can take place.  There is a danger that a common strategic spatial plan is more an expression of the lowest common denominator and the municipalities request for infrastructure investments rather than being a spatial strategy with transformative power. ...

  9. Snakebite ethnopharmacopoeia of eastern Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Felix G; Anderson, Gregory J

    2005-01-04

    Results of an ethnopharmacognostic study of snakebite treatments in eastern Nicaragua are presented. Data and specimens were collected during several years of field studies. Field work consisted of plant collecting trips and interviews of snakedoctors. The annual mortality from snakebites in eastern Nicaragua is about 25% and most bites are caused by the fer-de-lance (Bothrops asper). The vascular flora of the region is estimated at 2500 species of which 435 have medicinal application including 81 that are used in snakebite treatment. The majority of species used in snakebite cures are flowering plants, 76% dicots and 20% monocots, and 80% are obtained from the second-growth forest. About half the species are herbs. Leaves are the most frequently utilized plant part. Most herbal remedies are prepared as decoctions and are administered orally. Remedies are mostly prepared with native wild species, but some are introduced domesticates, derived from either the American or Old World Tropics. All the species used contain at least one bioactive compound, and most of these bioactives have been shown in other studies to have pharmacological effects. The use of species in snakebite treatments does not necessarily imply efficacy, but it does give a limited list of species that can be studied pharmacologically for possible bioactive effects. Studies like this one are also important because they document traditional practices and species utilized for the people of the region studied as well.

  10. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  11. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  12. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most....... In comparison,Western European retailers prefer doing business with suppliers that are capable of supplying all shops in a chain. Also the question about traceability is decisive.Retailers also prefer doing business with suppliers that are interested in a long-term trade relationship and who are from their own...

  13. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...... of a medico-legal homicide autopsy rate close to 100%. Regional differences might exist however, due to the fact that the catchment area of the department is dominated by the city of Copenhagen. Conclusions: The strength of the database includes a long running time, near complete regional coverage...

  14. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  15. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, A. [Engage Energy Canada, L.P., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs.

  16. Eastern Pacific Ocean Purse-seine Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data sets from U.S.A.-flagged purse-seine vessels fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These purse seiners...

  17. Palaemon pacijicus (Stimpson) in eastern Cape tidal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-09-25

    Sep 25, 1984 ... pools, estuaries and in near -shore waters of the eastern Cape ... growth, ~ Wt is the increase in shrimp mean mass over time .... females were plotted to show changes in population structure ..... Monthly plankton tows in.

  18. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual ... Dynamics of fresh produce marketing in small-scale irrigation schemes: challenges ... Analysis of media role in bridging the information gap for environmentally ...

  19. System Protection Schemes in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana

    The Ph.D. project investigates different aspects of voltage stability in the power system of Eastern Denmark taking into account the large amount of wind power. In the project, a simple System Protection Scheme (SPS) against voltage instability in Eastern Denmark is developed. The SPS design...... outages in the southern part of the 132-kV system introduce further stress in the power system, eventually leading to a voltage collapse. The local System Protection Scheme against voltage collapse is designed as a response-based scheme, which is dependent on local indication of reactive and active power...... for the Eastern Danish power system, such as wind farm rejection, cascading line outages and power oscillations. E.g. Nordic inter-area oscillation modes and damping were easily detected from phasor data during the outage of the 400 kV tie-line between Eastern Denmark and Sweden. It is concluded that recording...

  20. A review of Leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter K. Ngure; Albert Kimutai; Zipporah W. Ng'ang'a; Geoffrey Rukunga; Willy K. Tonui

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the Eastern Africa region. We searched PUB MED and MEDLINE with several key words-namely,"leishmaniasis";"cutaneous"," diffuse cutaneous"," mucosal", and "visceral leishmaniasis";"kala azar" and "post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis"-for recont clinical and basic science articles related to leishmaniasis in countries in the Eastern Africa region. Poverty, wars, conflicts and migration have significantly aggravated leishmaniases in Eastern Africa. Of particular concern is the increasing incidence of Leishmania-HIV co-infection in Ethiopia where 20--40% of the persons affected by visceral leishmaniasis are HIV-co-infected. Sudan has the highest prevalence rate of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) in the world, a skin complication of visceral leishmaniasis(VL) that mainly afflicts children below age ten. In view of its spread to previously non-endemic areas and an increase in imported cases, leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa should be considered a health emergency.

  1. Trace elements in coals of eastern Donbas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taranushich, F.F. [All Russian Research & Geological Prospecting Institute for Coal Deposits, Rostov Na Donu (Russian Federation)

    2003-02-01

    Peculiarities of trace element (TE) distribution in coals of the eastern Donets Basin (Donbas) are discussed. The correlation of TE distribution with specific features of the geological setting of the region can testify to the hydrothermal introduction of trace elements or their redistribution in fluid-active zones. The geochemical regionalization of eastern Donbas is based on TE distribution. Strontium-gold-base metal, tungsten, and selenium geochemical belts and a rare metal geochemical block are outlined.

  2. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates.

  3. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  4. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  5. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map...... for the right place' and potential distribution maps of the useful woody species that occur in eastern Africa. To navigate this site, please use the menu on the left. For the latest news and updates, check out our Google+ page. And if you want to contact us for questions, comments or any other reason, please...

  6. The dynamics of instability in eastern DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Jacquemot

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in eastern Congo has been the most deadly one since the second World War, and its social consequences have been disastrous. Solutions to the conflict – which has its roots in politics, in demographics and in economics – must look to the long term.

  7. Eastern's Employee Communication Crisis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Martha

    1988-01-01

    Explores communication behaviors and reactions of employees during crisis periods, using a qualitative case study of Eastern Airlines pilots. Finds that useful theories for crisis communication can be developed only after sufficient inquiry into the communication needs and behaviors of message receivers. (MS)

  8. Juniper for Streambank Stabilization in Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy R. Sheeter; Errol W. Claire

    1989-01-01

    Cut juniper trees (Juniperous osteosperma Hook.) anchored along eroded streambanks proved beneficial in stabilizing 96 percent of the erosion on eight streams evaluated in eastern Oregon over a 14-year-period. Juniper revetment was a successful substitute for costly rock structures on straight or slightly curved banks, but failed when placed on outside curves or when...

  9. Flexural Properties of Eastern Hardwood Pallet Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. McLeod; Marshall S. White; Paul A. Ifju; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the flexural properties of pallet parts are critical to the safe, yet efficient, design of wood pallets. To develop more accurate data for hardwood pallet parts, 840 stringers and 2,520 deckboards, representing 14 hardwood species, were sampled from 35 mills distributed throughout the Eastern United States. The parts were sorted by species,...

  10. Reforms in Higher Education Disappoint Eastern Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollag, Burton

    1999-01-01

    Reviews changes in higher education in Eastern Europe since the fall of communism and finds less than expected change, although enrollment has increased and there is minimal government interference. Obstacles to change include lack of quality controls, falling financial support, and emigration of scholars to other countries or business fields. (DB)

  11. Natural regeneration of eastern hemlock: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Goerlich; Ralph D. Nyland

    2000-01-01

    Successful regeneration of eastern hemlock involves a complex biophysical process that commonly spans many years. Critical factors include a reliable source of seed, a suitable seedbed, a partially shaded environment, and several years of favorable moisture. Surface scarification appears critical as a means of site preparation. Even then, young hemlocks grow slowly,...

  12. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding a...

  13. Astroparticle physics at the Eastern Colombia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey, Hernán; Núñez, Luis A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the emerging panorama of Astroparticle Physics at the Eastern Colombia region, and describe several ongoing projects, most of them related to the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project. This research work is carried out at the Grupo de Investigaciones en Relatividad y Gravitacin of Universidad Industrial de Santander.

  14. Impact Assessment and Utilization of Eastern Redcedar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Difei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fast invasion of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L. has been considered a significant problem to the environment and rural communities. Approach: This study examined the adverse ecological and economic impacts of eastern redcedar and proposed the sustainable development of value-added panel products from such under-utilized invasive species. Also what economic sectors were mostly influenced was examined. Additionally experimental panels were manufactured from low quality eastern redcedar trees. Results: Both physical and mechanical characteristics of experimental panels were found to be satisfactory and comparable to those of typical commercial panels made from other species. It appears that average modulus of elasticity value of the samples with two density levels had 9% higher than that of a typical commercially produced panels. Conclusion: The importance of this study is expansion of the use of low quality eastern redcedar in value-added composite panel manufacture which seems an alternative solution in the development of an environmentally sound and economically effective way to utilize such resource.

  15. Anemia among school children in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Tamang, Man Kumar; Shakya, Prem Raj; Lamsal, Madhab; Baral, Nirmal

    2015-06-01

    Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in developing countries like Nepal. This study was done to find the prevalence of anemia among the children aged 4-13 years in eastern Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in four districts (Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam) of eastern Nepal to find the prevalence of anemia among the school children of eastern Nepal. Children aged 4-13 years were selected randomly from different schools of above districts and 618 venous blood samples were collected. Hemoglobin level was estimated by using cyanmethemoglobin method. The mean hemoglobin level was 12.2 ± 1.82 gm/dl. About 37.9% (n = 234) children were found anemic. Anemia prevalence was 42.4% (n = 78), 31.6% (n = 60), 45.3% (n = 48) and 34.8% (n = 48) among school children of Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam district, respectively. The study finds anemia as a significant health problem among the school children of eastern Nepal.

  16. Commercial Spanish at Eastern Michigan University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voght, Geoffrey M.

    The commercial Spanish courses at Eastern Michigan University, examinations in commercial Spanish, and cooperative education exchange programs are described, and the university's new programs that combine the study of foreign language and business are briefly addressed. A six-course sequence offered on the junior, senior, and graduate levels cover…

  17. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  18. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  19. 27 CFR 9.135 - Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Virginia's Eastern Shore... Virginia's Eastern Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Virginia's Eastern Shore.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of...

  20. Fire in Eastern North American Oak Ecosystems: Filling the Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian (Morgan) Varner; Mary Arthur; Stacy Clark; Daniel C. Dey; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Fire Ecology is focused on the fire ecology of eastern USA oak (Quercus L.) forests, woodlands, and savannas. The papers were presented as part of the Fifth Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA, in 2015. The topic of fire in eastern oak ecosystems is one that has received insufficient interest from the...

  1. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  2. Decadal variability in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Rhein, Monika; Roessler, Achim; Denker, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the subpolar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the subtropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. We examine the decadal variability in the eastern North Atlantic based on Argo data from 2000-2015 and have constructed time series for four water masses (Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), Intermediate Water (IW), upper Labrador Sea Water (uLSW) and deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW)) at selected locations along the Northwest European shelf. Data from the Rockall Trough and the Iceland Basin are chosen to represent advective pathways in the subpolar gyre at two major branches of the North Atlantic Current towards the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. Temporal variability of subtropical waters transported northward along the eastern boundary is studied at Goban Spur around 48°N. The Argo data are extended in time with long-term hydrographic observations such as the Extended Ellet Line data and other climatological sources in the region. For the study of transport fluctuations time series from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) program (2012-2015) and predecessor programs have been used. These programs have monitored the subpolar gyre in the western basin and provide time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). First results show that the temperatures and salinities remained at high levels for the upper waters (SPMW and IW) until 2010 and have been decreasing since

  3. Prevalence of blood parasites in eastern versus Western house finches: are eastern birds resistant to infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K; Hood, Wendy R; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2013-09-01

    The rapid spread of the bacterial disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), throughout the introduced range of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern North America, compared to its slower spread through the native western range, has puzzled researchers and highlights the need to understand the relative differences in health state of finches from both populations. We conducted a light-microscope survey of hemoparasites in populations of finches from Arizona (within the western range) and from Alabama (within the eastern range), and compared our estimates of prevalence to published reports from house finches sampled in both ranges. Of the 33 Arizona birds examined, we recorded hematozoan infections in 16 (48.5%) individuals, compared to 1 infected Alabama bird out of 30 birds examined (3.3%). Based on independent surveys of seven western North American and five eastern North American populations of house finches the average prevalence of blood parasites in western populations is 38.8% (±17.9 SD), while the average prevalence within the eastern range is only 5.9% (±6.1 SD). The average rate of infection among all songbirds sampled in the east is 34.2% (±4.8 SD). Thus, our surveys of wild birds as well as previously published observations point to eastern house finches having a much lower prevalence of blood parasite infections than their western counterparts. Combined with the fact that eastern finches also tend to have lower rates of avian pox infections than do western birds (based on a literature review), these observations suggest that eastern birds have either strong resistance to these infections or high susceptibility and associated mortality.

  4. Problems and prospects in North Eastern Coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, A.K.; Jha, M.N.

    1989-02-01

    North eastern region, very well known as land of seven sisters, comprises of the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. Some of the minerals like oil and coal are concealed in this region in dense forests and difficult terrain. North Eastern Coalfields being directly administered by Coal India Ltd. is responsible for exploitation of coal in this region. At present all the working mines are situated in the State of Assam only. One Simsong UG project will be started this year in the State of Meghalaya and coal deposits of Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh are likely to be worked in Eighth Five Year Plan. In the remaining three States, i.e. Mizoram, Manipur and Tripura no occurrence of coal deposit has been found so far. 6 tabs.

  5. Quantifying the Anthropogenic Footprint in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunlei; Dou, Youjun

    2016-04-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one of the most focuses in urban climate study. The parameterization of the anthropogenic heat (AH) is crucial important in UHI study, but universal method to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH is lacking now. This paper uses the NOAA DMSP/OLS nighttime light data to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH. Two experiments were designed and performed to quantify the influences of the AH to land surface temperature (LST) in eastern China and 24 big cities. The annual mean heating caused by AH is up to 1 K in eastern China. This paper uses the relative LST differences rather than the absolute LST differences between the control run and contrast run of common land model (CoLM) to find the drivers. The heating effect of the anthropogenic footprint has less influence on relatively warm and wet cities.

  6. Giardiasis in pinnipeds from eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, L N; Olson, M

    1999-10-01

    Cysts of Giardia sp. were detected in feces from the rectum of 20 of 74 pinnipeds examined from the eastern coast of Canada in 1997 and 1998 using a monoclonal antibody technique. Infected pinnipeds included 15 adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), four adult grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and one juvenile harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Cysts were not detected in 15 seal pups St. Lawrence. The overall prevalence of Giardia sp. in grey and harbor seals, excluding pups, from the Gulf and St. Lawrence estuary was 23%. Feces from 11 beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and one northern bottle-nosed whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) stranded in the St. Lawrence estuary were negative for Giardia sp. cysts. The significance of Giardia sp. in marine mammals, shown here for the first time in eastern coastal Canada, is unknown.

  7. Oral healthcare in transition in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widström, E; Eaton, K A; Borutta, A; Dybizbánska, E; Broukal, Z

    2001-06-09

    Big changes have occurred in the oral healthcare delivery systems of most Eastern European countries since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 and the demise of communism in the former USSR in 1991. In the new situation it was necessary to reform the political and social systems including healthcare. Reforms were started to improve the economy and, in comparison with Western Europe, the generally lower living standards. It is difficult to obtain comprehensive data on oral healthcare in Eastern European countries but this paper reports data from nine countries and provides a 'macro' view of the current situation in these countries. Many countries seem to have adopted a Bismarckian model for the provision of oral healthcare based on a sickness insurance system.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern wild turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  9. Gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, H. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has had many implications for the gas sector, in particular on the market development and prices, on the structure of the sector and on the investment level. The institutional and financial barriers to the development of CEE`s gas markets are summarized. Technical and marketing barriers are discussed, covering system design and integrity, metering, markets and energy efficiency. Finally, World Bank role and objectives are outlined. (R.P.)

  10. Deforestation in eastern and central nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Shuji; Miyamoto, Shinji; Kariya, Yoshihiko

    1996-01-01

    Dated charcoal and humic materials in soil, both of which are evidence of forest fire and vegetation changes, as well as pollen analysis of soil indicate occurrence of past deforestation in the Nepal Himalayas. In Sirubari, central Nepal, human impact such as population growth and cultural change may have accelerated an environmental change during the 14-15th centuries. In Junbesi and Phaplu, the Solu area of eastern Nepal, temporary deforestation caused by hunting and grazing is evident of h...

  11. box modeling of the eastern mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Stone, P. H.

    2003-04-01

    Recently (~1990) a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1Sv=10^6m^3/s, three times larger then the Adriatic source. We develop a simple 3 box-model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The 3 boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian sea. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analytically analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We consider two cases for which the temperatures of the boxes are (i) fixed or (ii) variable. After setting the parameters to correspond to the Eastern Mediterranean we find that the system has two stable states, one with (i) two thermally dominant sources of deep water formation in the Adriatic and Aegean and the other with (ii) a salinity dominant source of deep water formation in the Adriatic and a thermally dominant source in the Aegean. While the Adriatic thermally dominant source is comparable to the observed flux of 0.3Sv the Aegean source has much smaller flux than the observed value. This situation is analogous to the state of the thermohaline circulation pre 1990 where the only source of deep water formation was in the Adriatic. If we decrease the atmospheric temperature of the Aegean box by 2C in accordance with recent observations, we find that the deep water formation of the Aegean increases significantly to a value comparable to the recently observed flux.

  12. Phytoremediation of Excavation in Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Zhmurova, T. M.

    2017-04-01

    The paper deals with prospects and applicability of phytoremediation technology in the conditions of Eastern Siberia as applied to gypsum stone extraction of Zalarinsky deposit in Irkutsk region. It analyses dust intensity for different technological processes of the deposit and evaluates the dust loading on the workers of the deposit. The selection of plantings that have potential to neutralize the dust loading produced by the plot “Severniy” is carried out.

  13. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  14. Modelling the shelf circulation off eastern Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Herzfeld, Mike; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    The marine waters across Tasmanian's eastern continental shelf are biologically productive and home to economically important fisheries and aquaculture industries. However, the marine climate there is poorly understood. We use a high-resolution (∼2 km in the horizontal), three-dimensional ocean model for eastern Tasmania (ETAS) to examine the simulated mean state and seasonal cycle of temperature, salinity and three-dimensional flow field, and the evaluation of daily model outputs against in situ and remote observations for the 1993-2014 period. We also use the model to examine the roles of river input and tidal forcing. The model is evaluated against remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and in-situ observations of sea level and subsurface temperature, salinity, and currents. The mean state demonstrates the influence of two well-known boundary currents (the East Australian Current, EAC, and the Zeehan Current, ZC) as well as the effects of local freshwater input from river runoff. The EAC is dominant in summer and the ZC in winter; the influence of the EAC also increases northwards and in the offshore direction. In addition, the model indicates the presence of a semi-permanent subsurface (50-100 m depth) northward flow trapped near the coast. Cool freshwater runoff from the Derwent and Huon Rivers directly impacts the temperature and salinity in their estuaries but has little influence further across the shelf. Tidal forcing impacts the mean state through tide-river interactions which flush Frederick Henry Bay and Norfolk Bay with freshwater. Tidal forcing also impacts the variability of temperature all along the coastline, most likely due to changes in the turbulent mixing near to the coast. The ETAS model output data are available as a high-resolution representation of the mean state, seasonal variations, and interannual variability of Tasmania's eastern continental shelf marine climate.

  15. ALPASS: Teleseismic Tomography of the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckl, E.; Mitterbauer, U.; Lippitsch, R.; Behm, M.; ALPASS Working Group

    2007-12-01

    The Eastern Alps were formed by the north-south directed collision of the Adriatic (African) and European plates and a subsequent tectonic escape of crustal fragments to the unconstrained margin in the east, represented by the Pannonian Basin. Recent controlled source seismic experiments (TRANSALP, CELEBRATION 2000, and ALP 2002) revealed significant internal structures of the crust and the Moho topography. However, deeper plate tectonic structures (e.g. subducting slab) are still under debate. ALPASS is a passive seismic monitoring project aiming to reveal lower lithosphere and upper mantle beneath the wider Eastern Alpine region, and to contribute to a better understanding of the geodynamic processes at work. By cooperation of Austria, Croatia, Finland, Hungary, Poland, and USA 57 temporary seismic recording stations were deployed from May 2005 until May 2006. The layout was designed to extend the efforts of earlier experiments (e.g. TRANSALP) and to support two other passive seismic experiments (BOHEMA, Carpathian Basin Project), which are overlapping in the investigation area. Additionally, data from permanent networks was collected to improve coverage of the investigation area. 144 events (50% with M > 5.6) from epicentre distances between 30° and 100° were selected for teleseismic inversion. Travel time picking of P-wave arrivals has been done by a semi-automatic correlation technique. Crustal corrections benefit from the high resolution velocity model of the crust and the new Moho map derived from CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 data. First results of teleseismic inversion will be presented and discussed with respect to crustal structures revealed by the controlled source experiments, tomographic models generated during earlier studies, and their consequences for the conception of plate tectonics in the Eastern Alps.

  16. Genus Microsporum dermatophytes in Eastern Bohemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorák, J; Otcenásek, M

    1976-01-01

    The authors presented a taxonomic survey of dermatophytes of the genus Microsporum. From the 19 species described so far, they isolated ten species in the region of Eastern Bohemia. Only the species Microsporum cookei and M. gypsem are considered to be endemic species. The remaining are regarded as imported dermatophytes which are not able to maintain their existence permanently in the conditions of the mentioned region. Data on the findings of the individual species were completed by the authors' remarks on their primary hosts and/or substrates of heterotrophy, frequency of occurrence and geographical distribution.

  17. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led...... to intensive internationalization of companies, businesses and national economies. Existing FDI books have mostly taken the perspective of attracting inward FDI flows, missing the aspect of FDI outflows from CEE countries. While foreign investors face the specific context of a region that poses new...

  18. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led...... to intensive internationalization of companies, businesses and national economies. Existing FDI books have mostly taken the perspective of attracting inward FDI flows, missing the aspect of FDI outflows from CEE countries. While foreign investors face the specific context of a region that poses new...

  19. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes major findings about nutrients in surface and groundwater in the eastern Iowa basins (see map) between 1996 and 1998. The data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Water quality is discussed in terms of local and regional issues and compared with conditions found in all 36 National NAWQA study areas assessed to date. Findings are explained in the context of selected national U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmarks, such as those for drinking water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms.

  20. Abortion and contraceptive practices in eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L

    1997-07-01

    In countries of the CCEE region (Countries of Central and Eastern Europe) the very high incidence of pregnancy termination is characteristic of family planning and the notion 'contraception instead of abortion' has not yet been achieved. The causes and consequences of this unfortunate situation will be reviewed: the reproductive health indicators in the area; the status of contraceptive use and of abortion; the impact of legislation in the different countries; and the efforts to achieve changes. The conclusions of the 'Szeged Declaration' which led to an increase in contraceptive prevalence will be discussed.

  1. Mapping Eastern Europe: Cartography and Art History

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares maps of Eastern Europe, beginning from the map of Slavic lands by Josef Pavol Šafárik of 1842, and it claims that cartographic imagery has played a significant role in the legitimisation of the region’s collective identity. It argues that the adoption the map as a tool of art history, in order to spatialise and quantify the understanding of art, cannot bypass the postmodern critique of the map. It reflects on the overlap between the approaches and methods of critical carto...

  2. Eastern hemlock found in Macon County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South; Brian Via; Henri D. Grissino-Mayer; Richard Martin; Richard Shelby; Sandie McCall

    2016-01-01

    Alabama is currently the southern limit of the range of eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere]. In 2012, several well preserved stumps were excavated from a farm located in Notasulga, Alabama (32 º 33” 6’ N; 85º 40” 22’ W). Even though they were buried in a saturated soil for approximately 1,500 years, the stumps were remarkably well preserved. The low-...

  3. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  4. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...

  5. Parabolic dunes in north-eastern Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, O; Bezerra, L J C; Herrmann, H J; Maia, L P

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present measurements of vegetation cover over parabolic dunes with different degree of activation along the north-eastern Brazilian coast. We are able to extend the local values of the vegetation cover density to the whole dune by correlating measurements with the gray-scale levels of a high resolution satellite image of the dune field. The empirical vegetation distribution is finally used to validate the results of a recent continuous model of dune motion coupling sand erosion and vegetation growth.

  6. Undrained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study, several types of static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the undrained stress-strain behaviour...... of frictional materials during monotonic loading. The tests conducted includes undrained and constant volume tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. All the tests are performed on reconstituted loose to medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Eastern Gorilla [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Eastern Gorilla Gorilla beringei Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Gorill...a_beringei_L.png Gorilla_beringei_NL.png Gorilla_beringei_S.png Gorilla_beringei_NS.png http://bios...ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+beringei&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorill...a+beringei&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+be...ringei&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+beringei&t=NS ...

  8. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  9. The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

    2009-12-01

    The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

  10. Plankton respiration in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carol; Serret, Pablo; Tilstone, Gavin; Teira, Eva; Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Rees, Andrew P.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.

    2002-05-01

    Concurrent measurements of dark community respiration (DCR), gross production (GP), size fractionated primary production ( 14C PP), nitrogen uptake, nutrients, chlorophyll a concentration, and heterotrophic and autotrophic bacterial abundance were collected from the upper 200 m of a latitudinal (32°S-48°N) transect in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean during May/June 1998. The mean mixed layer respiration rate was 2.5±2.1 mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 ( n=119) for the whole transect, 2.2±1.1 mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 ( n=32) in areas where chlorophyll a was dissolved oxygen consumption, was 0.8 ( n=11). At the time of the study, plankton community respiration exceeded GP in the picoautotroph dominated oligotrophic regions (Eastern Tropical Atlantic [15.5°S-14.2°N] and North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre [21.5-42.5°N]), which amounted to 50% of the stations sampled along the 12,100 km transect. These regions also exhibited high heterotrophic: autotrophic biomass ratios, higher turnover rates of phytoplankton than of bacteria and low f ratios. However, the carbon supply mechanisms required to sustain the rates of respiration higher than GP could not be fully quantified. Future research should aim to determine the temporal balance of respiration and GP together with substrate supply mechanisms in these ocean regions.

  11. Extensive Quaternary glaciations in eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Akçar, Naki; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During cold periods in the Quaternary, global ice volume increased and as a result valley glaciers advanced and the vice versa occurred during the warm periods. Quaternary glacier fluctuations had been also recorded in the Turkish mountains. Recently, the chronology of Late Quaternary advances in the northern and western Turkish mountains was reconstructed by surface exposure dating. However, these advances in the eastern Turkey are not dated yet. In this study, we investigated paleoglaciations in Kavuşşahap Mountains, which is located to the south of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. These mountains are one of the extensively glaciated areas in Turkey. Glacial activity is evidenced by more than 20 U-shaped valleys. For instance, one of the prominent and well-preserved glacial landscapes of Turkey is situated in the Narlıca valley system. Lateral and terminal moraines in the valley system indicate more than 10 glacial advances. To build their chronology, 39 erratic carbonaceous boulders were sampled for surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl. We also reconstructed the ice margin reconstruction of the Narlıca paleoglacier using the accumulation area ratio and area-altitude balance ratio approaches. We estimated an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 2900 m above sea level based on the maximum ice extend, which implied ca. 800 m decrease in the ELA during the Late Quaternary in comparison to the lower bound of the modern ELA estimate. The first results of the surface exposure dating will be presented.

  12. Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease Confirmed in Eastern National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease Confirmed in Eastern National Parks U.S. National Park Service and CDC advise using insect repellents on ... Planning a hiking trip in an eastern U.S. national park? Better pack tick repellent -- a new study found ...

  13. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Fanourgakis, G.S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Krol, M.C.; Brugh, Aan de J.M.J.; Kanakidou, M.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the

  14. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children of Middle Eastern Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Mai Ying Naidoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are now seen in populations where it was once uncommon. The pattern of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent in Australia has never been reported. This study aimed to investigate the burden of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent at the Sydney Children’s Hospital, Randwick (SCHR. The SCHR IBD database was used to identify patients of self-reported Middle Eastern ethnicity diagnosed between 1987 and 2011. Demographic, diagnosis, and management data was collected for all Middle Eastern children and an age and gender matched non-Middle Eastern IBD control group. Twenty-four patients of Middle Eastern descent were identified. Middle Eastern Crohn’s disease patients had higher disease activity at diagnosis, higher use of thiopurines, and less restricted colonic disease than controls. Although there were limitations with this dataset, we estimated a higher prevalence of IBD in Middle Eastern children and they had a different disease phenotype and behavior compared to the control group, with less disease restricted to the colon and likely a more active disease course.

  15. Influences of eastern hemlock mortality on nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thad E. Yorks; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Donald J. Leopold; Dudley J. Raynal; David A. Orwig

    2000-01-01

    Mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) may be caused by a variety of agents, but hemlock trees of all sizes over a large geographic area are currently threatened by an outbreak of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA: Adelges tsugae Annand) in the eastern United States. In this paper, we review what is currently...

  16. The Artist Residency Program in Eastern Oregon: Emphasizing the Rural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Doug

    During a 1979-1980 pilot project, 13 nine-week residencies by professional artists were sponsored in 10 eastern Oregon school districts with Eastern Oregon State College serving as liaison, the Northwest Area Foundation of St. Paul (Minnesota) contributing $33,500, and participating school districts adding a total of $8,000 in funding. This low…

  17. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  18. Introduction to Eastern Philosophy, Social Studies: 6414.23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judy Reeder

    Major Eastern philosophies and/or religions consisting of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism are investigated by 10th through 12th grade students in this general social studies quinmester course. Since Eastern philosophical ideas are already influencing students, this course aims to guide students in a universal search for…

  19. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  20. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  1. Magnetotelluric sounding results in eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓冰; 孔祥儒; 刘宏兵; 闫永利

    2001-01-01

    The results of Zayu-Qingshuihe MT sounding profile carried out in eastern Tibetan Plateau are presented in this paper. Using 2-D RRI method, the resistivity distribution with depth is obtained along the profile. It is featured by the resistivity zones in the horizontal direction and layers in the vertical direction. The Bangong-Nujiang suture zone and Jinshajiang suture zone are both important electrical conductivity-separating zones in the plateau, and the former is a zone with relatively low resistivity while the latter is an electrical conductivity gradient zone. The highly electrical conductive bodies in the mid and lower crust of northern Qiangtang and Bayan Har Terrain might be caused by regional melting due to shear heating during the process of subduction in tectonic evolution.

  2. Project management of DAG: Eastern Anatolia Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Onur; Yesilyaprak, Cahit; Yerli, Sinan K.; Zago, Lorenzo; Guver, Tolga; Alis, Sinan

    2016-08-01

    The four meter DAG (Eastern Anatolia Observatory in Turkish) telescope is not only the largest telescope in Turkey but also the most promising telescope in the northern hemisphere with a large potential to offer scientific observations with its cutting edge technology. DAG is designed to be an AO telescope which will allow both infrared and visible observations with its two Nasmyth platforms dedicated to next generation focal plane instruments. In this paper, status updates from DAG telescope will be presented in terms of; (i) in house optical design of DAG, (ii) tender process of telescope, (iii) tender process of enclosure, and (iv) tender process of the observatory building. Also status updates from the focal plane instruments project and possible collaboration activities will be presented.

  3. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  4. Eastern Band of Cherokee Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souther Carolina Institute of energy Studies-Robert Leitner

    2009-01-30

    The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (TEP) to develop a Tribal Strategic Energy Plan (SEP). The grant, awarded under the “First Steps” phase of the TEP, supported the development of a SEP that integrates with the Tribe’s plans for economic development, preservation of natural resources and the environment, and perpetuation of Tribal heritage and culture. The Tribe formed an Energy Committee consisting of members from various departments within the Tribal government. This committee, together with its consultant, the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies, performed the following activities: • Develop the Tribe’s energy goals and objectives • Establish the Tribe’s current energy usage • Identify available renewable energy and energy efficiency options • Assess the available options versus the goals and objectives • Create an action plan for the selected options

  5. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  6. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the charact......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...... on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between...... void ratio and permeability is established....

  7. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in Eastern Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tajeldin M Abdallah; Abdel Aziem A Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological factors of tuberculosis (TB) in eastern Sudan. Methods:The socio-demographic and clinical data was retrieved from the database at Kassala hospital during the year of 2011. The medical file of consequent patients who was discharged from the same ward in the hospital was reviewed to act as control for the TB patients. Results:A total of 670 patients were registered at Kassala hospital with clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence proven TB. Pulmonary TB accounted for 73.4%while extra-pulmonary TB was reported in 26.6%of all TB patients. The mean age (SD) was not significantly different between the cases and controls (670 in each arm). TB patients were those who had less education, and the infection more likely common among male patients. Conclusions: Intervention from outside the health field in particular awareness of associated risk factors and improvement of the educational level potentially will strengthen TB control.

  8. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...... employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long and deep production crisis...

  9. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  10. Acne neonatorum in the eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakloby Omar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne neonatorum (AN is characterized by a facial eruption of inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesions in a neonate. Hyperactivity of sebaceous glands, stimulated by neonatal androgens, is implicated in its pathogenesis. Aim: To elucidate the clinical profile of AN in eastern Saudi Arabia. Methods: All patients diagnosed with AN in King Fahd Hospital of the University in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2005 were evaluated clinically. Results: AN was diagnosed in 26 patients (male/female ratio 1:1. The lesions included mainly facial comedones (30.8%; papules and pustules (15.3% each; and combination of papules, pustules, and cysts (53.4%. Conclusion: All patients recovered spontaneously. In 50% of the cases, one of the parents reported having had acne vulgaris during adolescence. Hereditary factors seem to play a significant role in our series.

  11. Eastern Band of Cherokee Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souther Carolina Institute of energy Studies-Robert Leitner

    2009-01-30

    The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (TEP) to develop a Tribal Strategic Energy Plan (SEP). The grant, awarded under the “First Steps” phase of the TEP, supported the development of a SEP that integrates with the Tribe’s plans for economic development, preservation of natural resources and the environment, and perpetuation of Tribal heritage and culture. The Tribe formed an Energy Committee consisting of members from various departments within the Tribal government. This committee, together with its consultant, the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies, performed the following activities: • Develop the Tribe’s energy goals and objectives • Establish the Tribe’s current energy usage • Identify available renewable energy and energy efficiency options • Assess the available options versus the goals and objectives • Create an action plan for the selected options

  12. Requiem for an eastern Pacific seagrass bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    Few papers concerning seagrasses of the eastern Pacific have been published. This paper presents the first ecological data on the seagrass, Ruppia maritima, from a non-lagoonal setting in the eastern Pacific. A 5000 m2 patch formed by R. maritima, at Playa Iguanita, Bahía Culebra, Pacific coast of Costa Rica was studied. Plant density and leaf length of R. maritima were determined along two transects on different dates. Above and below ground biomass were calculated along one transect. Plant density ranged from 1590 to 8630 individuals m(-2) along the two transects, with means of 5990 +/- 1636 and 6100 +/- 1876 plants m(-2) for transect 1 and 2, respectively. Longest leaf length per plant varied between 0.5 and 23.0 cm. Leaf biomass (LB) ranged from 10 to 97 gm(-2), and root-rhizome biomass (RB) from 31 to 411 gm(-2), resulting in RB:LB ratios of 3.07 to 15.27. Total biomass at Bahía Culebra was lower than at tropical lagoons on the Pacific coast of Mexico, but higher than in the Gulf of Mexico. The below ground: above ground biomass ratio was much higher at Bahía Culebra than at other sites on the Pacific coast of Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. Another seagrass present at Bahía Culebra was Halophila baillonii, with low densities on the deepest section of the patch. At least 44 invertebrate species associated with the seagrass bed have also been identified. The patch at Playa Iguanita and other sites within Bahía Culebra, as well as their associated organisms, disappeared after a severe storm in June 1996. No seagrasses have been found in the area or in any other location on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica since then.

  13. THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP – A PREMISE FOR AN ENHANCED EU-EASTERN NEIGHBOURS COOPERATION RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mocanu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union towards the Central and Eastern Europe has brought to attention the necessity to reshape the EU institutional framework and specific policies addressing its new neighbourhood. Repeatedly stating that the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP is not a preceding phase for membership, the European Union also embraced the Polish-Swedish initiative for an Eastern Partnership (EaP. Meant at first to counterbalance the Union for Mediterranean project, the EaP has developed into a distinct project, with specific and ambitious cooperation goals, a positive and constructive agenda meant to support six countries (Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Belarus develop and harmonize with the European standards and, at the same, attempting to build and further develop an Eastern dimension of the ENP. The questions of the efficiency of the conditionality derived from the EaP and also the complementarity of this initiative with other regional projects in the area can also be important matters of concern.

  14. Hydrography of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Paul C.; Talley, Lynne D.

    2006-05-01

    Eastern tropical Pacific Ocean waters lie at the eastern end of a basin-wide equatorial current system, between two large subtropical gyres and at the terminus of two eastern boundary currents. Descriptions and interpretations of surface, pycnocline, intermediate and deep waters in the region are reviewed. Spatial and temporal patterns are discussed using (1) maps of surface temperature, salinity, and nutrients (phosphate, silicate, nitrate and nitrite), and thermocline and mixed layer parameters, and (2) meridional and zonal sections of temperature, salinity, potential density, oxygen, and nutrients. These patterns were derived from World Ocean Database observations by an ocean interpolation algorithm: loess-weighted observations were projected onto quadratic functions of spatial coordinates while simultaneously fitting annual and semiannual harmonics and the Southern Oscillation Index to account for interannual variability. Contrasts between the equatorial cold tongue and the eastern Pacific warm pool are evident in all the hydrographic parameters. Annual cycles and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) variability are of similar amplitude in the eastern tropical Pacific, however, there are important regional differences in relative variability at these time scales. Unique characteristics of the eastern tropical Pacific are discussed: the strong and shallow pycnocline, the pronounced oxygen minimum layer, and the Costa Rica Dome. This paper is part of a comprehensive review of the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific.

  15. Geomorphological development of Eastern Mongolian plain, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2016-04-01

    Several summaries and investigations of the geomorphological description and feature for Eastern Mongolian plain (EMP), the one of the largest geomorphological district, fully covering east side of Mongolia (Murzayev, 1949; Vlodavets, 1950, 1955; Marinov, Khasin, 1954; Marinov, 1966; Nikolayeva, 1971; Selivanov, 1972; Chichagov, 1974, 1976; Grigorov, 1975; Korjuyev, 1982; Syirnev, 1982, 1984) had been publishing continuously. But literature for geomorphology of EMP have been not appeared during over the past 20 years. However, we re-combine the geomorphological development of EMP, according to the results of many publications for surrounding regions of Russia and China and unpublished maps. Main morphology of EMP has the plain, containing with aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine landforms. Plain morphology defined that denudation plains to North Kherlen, South Kherlen, Baruun Urt, Uulbayan, Delgerekh and other which developed on the Paleozoic rocks, layered plain to Choibalsan, Tamsag, Ongon, Gert, Sumiin nuur and Torey- on the Late Cretaceous and Neogene sediments and accumulation plain with alluvial and lacustrine origin such as Menen, Buir nuur, Tamsagbulag, Khalzan and other. These plains of EMP related with tectonics and structure of region and inherited the development of the Mesozoic, particularly Late Mesozoic structure. Large basins of EMP are Tamsag, Choibalsan and Torey and other small basins - from 7-10 km to 25-30 km width and rather a several 10 km extend, cutting a basement. The origin of plain morphology for EMP is interpreted as two main stages of the geomorphological development model, based on geology. In first stage or Late Jurassic (?) - Lower Cretaceous period, there was developed rift basin, then, in second stage or since Late Cretaceous period, plain morphology originated from the intermountain basin that dominated by exogenic process and kept in current EMP area. Data relevant to the development history of EMP are following. 1. Rift volcanism

  16. Stream Bank Stability in Eastern Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenksen, Phillip J.; Turner, Mary J.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Simon, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Dredged and straightened channels in eastern Nebraska have experienced degradation leading to channel widening by bank failure. Degradation has progressed headward and affected the drainage systems upstream from the modified reaches. This report describes a study that was undertaken to analyze bank stability at selected sites in eastern Nebraska and develop a simplified method for estimating the stability of banks at future study sites. Bank cross sections along straight reaches of channel and geotechnical data were collected at approximately 150 sites in 26 counties of eastern Nebraska. The sites were categorized into three groups based on mapped soil permeability. With increasing permeability of the soil groups, the median cohesion values decreased and the median friction angles increased. Three analytical methods were used to determine if banks were stable (should not fail even when saturated), at risk (should not fail unless saturated), or unstable (should have already failed). The Culmann and Agricultural Research Service methods were based on the Coulomb equation and planar failure; an indirect method was developed that was based on Bishop's simplified method of slices and rotational failure. The maximum angle from horizontal at which the bank would be stable for the given soil and bank height conditions also was computed with the indirect method. Because of few soil shear-strength data, all analyses were based on the assumption of homogeneous banks, which was later shown to be atypical, at least for some banks. Using the Culmann method and assuming no soil tension cracks, 67 percent of all 908 bank sections were identified as stable, 32 percent were at risk, and 1 percent were unstable; when tension cracks were assumed, the results changed to 58 percent stable, 40 percent at risk, and 1 percent unstable. Using the Agricultural Research Service method, 67 percent of all bank sections were identified as stable and 33 percent were at risk. Using the indirect

  17. Rheumatological medicine literacy among Middle Eastern populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleishi, Hatem H; Allison, Barbara D

    2009-12-01

    It has been observed for years that many Middle Eastern patients with autoimmune rheumatic disorders, are more likely to be delayed in seeing a rheumatologist for their symptoms and that the rheumatology services are in general under-utilized by the population. To explore if patients with autoimmune rheumatic disorders were truly delayed in seeing rheumatologists and to explore the possible reasons for that delay should any delay be documented. Patients suffering from chronic autoimmune rheumatic disorders were interviewed and were asked to answer a questionnaire that assesses their initial set of actions when they had their first symptoms of disease, how much time they took to see a rheumatologist and their background knowledge about rheumatology as a specialty before and after they saw a rheumatologist. Seventy-eight patients, 57 (73%) females and 21 (27%) males were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 11 to 72 years with a mean of 38.9 +/- 13 years. Patients' explanations for their initial symptoms were 'evil eye doing', disease, exertion, cold weather and trauma in 44%, 37%, 20%, 16% and 8% respectively. Ninety-six percent of patients had to make a total of 166 consultations first at other specialties before they were finally advised or directed to see a rheumatologist. Non-rheumatologist referrals to rheumatologists happened in only 33% of the time. The duration from the onset of the disease until patients finally came to see a rheumatologist ranged from 0.5 weeks to 432 weeks with a mean of 51 +/- 88 weeks. General health literacy and knowledge of the rheumatology scope of service is extremely limited among Middle Eastern patients. Most patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases make their initial consultations at clinics other than rheumatology clinics and non-rheumatologists have been shown to consistently not refer patients with rheumatic diseases to rheumatologists. Wrong diagnosis is attributed to rheumatology symptoms by non

  18. Particle tracking in the eastern Irish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Judith; Amoudry, Karen; Phillips, Hazel; Brown, Jenny

    2017-04-01

    The unstructured grid finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the west coast of the UK, in order to examine the circulation and transport in the eastern Irish Sea. Tides, freshwater river discharge and meteorological forcing for the year 2008 were used to force the baroclinic hydrodynamic circulation. The hydrodynamics of the Irish Sea are largely governed by the semidiurnal tide, which has a tidal range reaching 10m at Liverpool is the eastern Irish Sea. Tidal currents reach 1 ms-1 over the majority of the area, which means that much of Irish Sea is vertically well-mixed throughout the year period, with a few areas affected by seasonal stratification, such as the cyclonic gyre in the deep channel off Ireland in the western Irish Sea which experiences thermal stratification in summer. In Liverpool Bay, horizontal density gradients, created through freshwater influence from estuaries along the coastline interact with the strong tidal current to produce a phenomenon known as strain-induced periodic stratification (SIPS). There are water quality concerns due to the tendency to eutrophication, as the area is often exposed to industrial pollution and excess nutrients from effluent waters and rivers. There is also concern about the fate of radioactive materials discharged from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant since 1952. In addition to the present discharges from the site, it has been estimated that it is likely that all of the americium and plutonium and around 10% of the caesium entering the Irish Sea were originally assimilated into deposits of silt and mud sediments; this material may be regarded as a considerable potential source of radionuclides. Determining suspended sediment pathways in this region is important in order to identify potential areas vulnerable to deposition of radioactive material, particularly as radionuclide uptake onto sediments takes place in the offshore 'mud patch' before returning to the coast to be deposited

  19. Interkosmos the Eastern bloc's early space program

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the Interkosmos program, which was formed in 1967, marking a fundamentally new era of cooperation by socialist countries, led by the Soviet Union, in the study and exploration of space. The chapters shed light on the space program that was at that time a prime outlet for the Soviet Union's aims at becoming a world power. Interkosmos was a highly publicized Russian space program that rapidly became a significant propaganda tool for the Soviet Union in the waning years of communism. Billed as an international “research-cosmonaut” imperative, it was also a high-profile means of displaying solidarity with the nine participating Eastern bloc countries. Those countries contributed pilots who were trained in Moscow for week-long “guest” missions on orbiting Salyut stations. They did a little subsidiary science and were permitted only the most basic mechanical maneuvers. In this enthralling new book, and following extensive international research, the authors fully explore ...

  20. Veterinary parasitology teaching in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, R B; Beveridge, I; Sangster, N C; Coleman, G

    2002-10-02

    There are tendencies in universities globally to change undergraduate teaching in veterinary parasitology. To be able to give considered advice to universities, faculties, governmental bodies and professional societies about a discipline and to establish how particular changes may impact on the quality of a course, is the requirement to record and review its current status. The present paper contributes toward this objective by providing a "snap-shot" of the veterinary parasitology courses at the Universities of Melbourne, Sydney and Queensland in eastern Australia. It includes a description of the veterinary science curriculum in each institution, and provides an outline of its veterinary parasitology course, including objectives, topics covered, course delivery, student examination procedures and course evaluation. Student contact time in veterinary parasitology during the curriculum is currently higher in Melbourne (183 h) compared with Sydney and Queensland (106-110 h). In the teaching of parasitology, Melbourne adopts a taxonomic approach (in the pre-clinical period) followed by a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach in the clinical semesters, whereas both Sydney and Queensland focus more on presenting parasites on a host species-basis followed by a problem-based approach.

  1. Sprite Climatology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Rubanenko, Lior; Ben-Ami, Yuval; Arnone, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of 436 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan and summer ones in central Europe. Other shapes such as trees, wishbones, etc. appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.5% of observations, with 83.5% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogeneous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). Our observations suggest winter East Mediterranean thunderstorms to have a vertical structure that is an intermediate type between high tropical convective systems and the lower cloud-top cells in winter thunderstorms over the Sea of Japan. The climatology shows that the Eastern Mediterranean is a major sprite producer during Northern Hemisphere winter, and thus the existing and future optical observation infrastructure in Israel offers ground-based coverage for upcoming space missions that aim to map global sprite activity.

  2. Acculturation Processes of Hmong in Eastern Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kha Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines acculturation processes among Hmong who live in Eastern Wisconsin by using the East Asian Acculturation Measure (EAAM, which was developed by Barry (2001. The results indicated that in terms of Acculturation, Hmong ranked highest in integration, then separation, assimilation, and lastly marginalization. Questions on each dimension of integration, separation, assimilation, and marginalization were analyzed and positive correlations were found between the youngest of the generations, the length of residency in the United States, and the ability to speak, read, and write in English. In contrast, the older the age of the participant when they came to the United States had a positive correlation with separation. The ability to speak, read, and write in English had a positive correlation with assimilation, and the older the age of coming to the United States had a positive correlation with marginalization. Assimilation and separation had a positive correlation with marginalization, while integration had a negative correlation with marginalization and a positive correlation with assimilation, and separation had no correlation with marginalization. Results are discussed in regards to previous Hmong acculturation studies.

  3. Tectonic architecture of central Georgia Eastern Piedmont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, H.D. Jr.; Brueggemann, M.; Pospisil, M. (Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Geography and Geology); Boland, I.; Pray, J.; Secor, D.T.; Steinke, T.; West, T. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Sacks, P. (Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Recent work suggests the following for the tectonic architecture of the central Georgia Eastern Piedmont. The Alleghenian-age, Modoc fault zone (MZ), first defined in S. Carolina, continues along strike (c. S60W) at least to the Ocmulgee R. (net length = 250 km), where it converges with the Ocmulgee (OF) and Goat Rock (GR) faults. Diverging to the S from the MZ is a sharp contact between migmatitic amphibolites and gneisses of the Sinclair Lake terrane (SLt) and lower grade metapelites and metapsammites of the Milledgeville terrane (Mt). Both are introduced by post-kinematic granites (likely Alleghanian). A previously undescribed, 10 km long ultramafite belt within SLt, the Shoulderbone zone (Sz), is concordantly foliated with respect to surrounding rocks--hence emplacement is considered as pre- or synkinematic. Numerous smaller ultramafite bodies exist within SLt, Metavolcanic rocks N of SLt and the intervening MZ are interpreted as Carolina slate belt (CSB) rocks extending farther SW than often depicted. Arc volcanism and plutonism, terrane amalgamation and subsequent Alleghanian plutonism, dextral shear zones (some with extensional components), and local tight folding contributed to the present architecture. Locally, accretionary wedge material may exist, but the authors find published views and maps describing the entire area as primarily an accretionary wedge thrust stack to be inappropriate.

  4. Anaemia among adults in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Tajeldin M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased heterogeneity in the distribution of social and biological risk factors makes the epidemiology of anaemia a real challenge. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kassala, Eastern Sudan during the period of January — March 2011 to investigate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia among adults (> 15 years old. Findings Out of 646, 234 (36.2% adults had anaemia; 68 (10.5%; 129 (20.0% and 37 (5.7% had mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, age (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.9–1, P = 0.7, rural vs. urban residency (OR = 0.9, CI = 0.7–1.3, P = 0.9, female vs. male gender (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1.1, P = 0.3, educational level ≥ secondary level vs. P = 0.8 and Hudandawa vs. non-Hudandawa ethnicity (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1, P = 0.1 were not associated with anaemia. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of anaemia in this setting, anaemia affected adults regardless to their age, sex and educational level. Therefore, anaemia is needed to be screened for routinely and supplements have to be employed in this setting.

  5. Eastern wind integration and transmission study overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D. [United States Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States). National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed the electricity system operational impacts and benefits of long distance transmission accessing multiple wind resources in New England. The aim of the eastern wind integration and transmission study (EWITS) was to determine the impact of geographical diversity on system variability, and to understand the role of wind forecasting in ensuring reliability. Mesoscale modelling was evaluated, as well as transmission and integration studies. Mesoscale modelling is conducted to identify wind sites and develop high quality wind resource data sets, as well as to develop wind power plant outputs. Scenarios for 20 and 30 per cent wind integration includes the development of local resources with lower capacity factors; and high capacity factor wind development with larger transmission components. All the scenarios required the use of offshore wind resources. The study also examined export capacity for each of the studied areas. Wind integration, reliability analyses, and hourly modelling approaches were reviewed. Future research will include sensitivity studies related to carbon pricing and stochastic modelling. tabs., figs.

  6. Index medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shorbaji Najeeb

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study provides the rationale, history and current status of the Index Medicus for the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Index is unique in combining the geographic coverage of peer-reviewed health and biomedical journals (408 titles from the 22 countries of the Region. Compiling and publishing the Index coupled with a document delivery service is an integral part of the WHO Regional Office's knowledge management and sharing programme. In this paper, bibliometric indicators are presented to demonstrate the distribution of journals, articles, languages, subjects and authors as well as availability in printed and electronic formats. Two countries in the Region (Egypt and Pakistan contribute over 50% of the articles in the Index. About 90% of the articles are published in English. Epidemiology articles represent 8% of the entire Index. 15% of the journals in the Index are also indexed in MEDLINE, while 7% are indexed in EMBASE. Future developments of the Index will include covering more journals and adding other types of health and biomedical literature, including reports, theses, books and current research. The challenges and lessons learnt are discussed.

  7. Lower Jurassic palynostratigraphy of Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryacheva, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a palynological study of the natural outcrops of the Lower and Middle Jurassic on the Kelimyar River (Outcrops 5, 6, 7, 14, and 16) and two boreholes, Middle-Nakynskaya and Ygyata-Tyungskaya 1, in Eastern Siberia. The Ukugut, Tyung, Motorchuna, Suntar, Kyrin, and Kelimyar formations were studied. Six biostrata with dinocysts were established for the Upper Sinemurian-Toarcian. The analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of dinocysts in the sections allowed the identification of the stratigraphic ranges for important genera of dinocysts, which enabled the updating of the geochronology of some biostrata. Three main stages of the evolution of dinocysts in the Early Jurassic in the Siberian Paleobasin were characterized by the appearance, diversification, and disappearance of some orders of dinocysts at certain times. Seven biostrata (beds with characteristic palynoassemblages) were established for the upper Sinemurian-Toarcian on the basis of the study of the taxonomic composition of spores and pollen of land plants and successive changes in the composition of the palynospectra.

  8. Lightning flash multiplicity in eastern Mediterranean thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Y.; Shalev, S.; Erlich, Z.; Agrachov, A.; Katz, E.; Saaroni, H.; Price, C.; Ziv, B.

    2014-02-01

    Cloud-to-ground lightning flashes usually consist of one or several strokes coming in very short temporal succession and close spatial proximity. A commonly used method for converting stroke data into flashes is using the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) thresholds of maximum temporal separation of 0.5 s and maximum lateral distance of 10 km radius between successive strokes. In the present study, we tested a location-based algorithm with several spatial and temporal ranges, and analyzed stroke data obtained by the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS) during one year (1.8.2009-31.7.2010). We computed the multiplicity, the percentage of single stroke flashes and the geographical distribution of average multiplicity values for thunderstorms in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Results show that for the NLDN thresholds, the percentage of single stroke flashes in Israel was 37% and the average multiplicity was 1.7. We reanalyzed the data with a spatial range that equals twice the ILLS location error and shorter times. For the new thresholds of maximum distance of 2.5 km and maximum allowed temporal separation of 0.2 s we find that the mean multiplicity of negative CGs is lowered to 1.4 and find a percentage of 58% of single stroke flashes. A unique severe storm from 30 October 2009 is analyzed and compared with the annual average of 2009/2010, showing that large deviations from the mean values can occur in specific events.

  9. Unsubsidised Self-Supply in Eastern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. MacCarthy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-supply is widely reported across various contexts, filling gaps left by other forms of water supply provision. This study assesses mature and unsubsidised Self-supply markets in an urban context in Madagascar. Locally manufactured drilling and pumping technologies are widely provided by the local private sector, enabling households to access shallow groundwater. The market for Pitcher Pump systems (suction pumps fitted onto hand-driven boreholes has developed over several decades, reaching a level of maturity and scale. In the eastern port city of Tamatave, 9000 of these systems are estimated to be in use and Self-supply constitutes a primary domestic water source for the majority of the city’s 280,000 inhabitants. The market is supplied by more than 50 small businesses that manufacture and install the systems at lower cost (US$35-100 than a connection to the piped water supply system. Mixed methods are used to assess the performance of the Pitcher Pump system and the characteristics of the market. Discussion includes a description of the manufacturing process and sales network that supply Pitcher Pump systems, environmental health concerns related to water quality, pump performance, and system management. In a context where urban piped water supplies are unlikely to be accessible to all anytime soon, recommendations are made for further research and potential technology developments to improve the performance of Self-supply.

  10. Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Level Pressure (1949-present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains standardized sea level pressure anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific region...

  11. 1993 Narrative Report: Eastern Massachusetts National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Eastern Massachusetts National Wildlife Refuge Complex outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report...

  12. Eastern Shore of Virginia National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Eastern Shore Of Virginia National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified...

  13. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. ... political, and social aspects as well as development issues of the countries and ... Authors of published articles will receive two copies of the particular issue and ten off-prints of their articles.

  14. strategic military colonisation: the cape eastern frontier 1806 – 1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linda

    British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern ... In brief, the history can be explained as initially a conflict ..... were breached and 400 women and children were taken into custody. .... Approach, methodology and impact”.

  15. Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership 2002 annual monitoring report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual monitoring report on the eastern migratory whooping crane population reintroduced on Necedah National Wildlife Refuge, central Wisconsin. This report is a...

  16. Animal vectors of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls; D.W. French

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.

  17. Ethnic Struggle, Coexistence, and Democratization in Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cianetti, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Struggle, Coexistence, and Democratization in Eastern Europe. By Sherrill Stroschein. Pp. 289. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2012. £60.00. Hardback. ISBN: 9781107005242. Click here to read the review

  18. Concentration in the North Eastern Nigeria's Yam Market: A Gini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration in the North Eastern Nigeria's Yam Market: A Gini Coefficient Analysis. ... yam differentiation were yam varieties and size or length and market information were ... Key word: Lorenz Curve, Gini Coefficient Analysis, Yam, Nigeria.

  19. Energy Losses through Unharnessed Biomass in South- Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The South-eastern region of Nigeria is a tropical rain ... Nigeria by The Department of Meteorological Services, World ... natural gas (LNG) used by the population and the average wood .... Adelaide University, Roseworthy Campus, Australia,.

  20. The eastern offshore : expanding and diversifying the transportation infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimocks, B. [Zeus Development, Houston, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This presentation compared the cost of transporting and producing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in eastern Canada and western Africa and noted that there is a high-market value for the reserves offshore Newfoundland and Labrador because of the high demand for gas from markets in New England and the Mid Atlantic. Compared to west Africa, the cost of producing LNG in eastern Canada is lower with less political risk, however, technical, economic and political challenges must be overcome if citizens of Newfoundland and Labrador want to sell their gas to eastern North American markets. The advantages and disadvantages of many financial schemes were described along with a discussion of bringing fuel to eastern North American markets from both Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago. The debate over pathways for the Mackenzie Delta and North Slope pipelines was briefly discussed. 6 figs.

  1. Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership 2003 annual monitoring report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual monitoring report on the eastern migratory whooping crane population reintroduced on Necedah National Wildlife Refuge, central Wisconsin. This report is a...

  2. Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership 2004 annual monitoring report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual monitoring report on the eastern migratory whooping crane population reintroduced on Necedah National Wildlife Refuge, central Wisconsin. This report is a...

  3. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D

    2006-08-15

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North America and Mexico regarding the spatial and temporal context of initial domestication of the four plant species identified as potential eastern North American domesticates: marshelder (Iva annua), chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Genetic and archaeological evidence provides strong support for the independent domestication of all four of these plant species in the eastern United States and reconfirms the region as one of the world's independent centers of domestication.

  4. Estimation of Solar Radiation in South Eastern Nigeria | Nwokocha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of Solar Radiation in South Eastern Nigeria. ... Knowledge of global solar radiation is of fundamental importance for all solar energy conversion ... the Sayigh equation for estimating the global solar radiation, analyzing data from ...

  5. Genetic Variation Among Open-Pollinated Progeny of Eastern Cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Farmer

    1970-01-01

    Improvement programs in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) are most frequently designed to produce genetically superior clones for direct commercial use. This paper describes a progeny test to assess genetic variability on which selection might be based.

  6. globally threatened biodiversity of the eastern arc mountains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subspecies, 42 varieties) of animals and plants in the Eastern Arc Mountains and. Coastal ... threatened species and increasing the total number of threatened species from 333 to 343. ...... A new servaline genet (Carnivora, Viverridae) from.

  7. Atmospheric pollution and its implications in the Eastern Transvaal highveld

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tyson, PD

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available This report is a review of available information on the dispersion climatology, the degree of atmospheric pollution and the various impacts of that pollution on man and environment in the Eastern Transvaal Highveld (ETH) and adjacent regions...

  8. Mapping Soil Erosion in a Quaternary Catchment in Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temp

    2017-04-06

    Apr 6, 2017 ... Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing ... Raster calculator in ArcMap10.2 was used to classify soil erosion features based on ..... in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa', Physics and Chemistry of the.

  9. Anaemia in pregnant women in eastern Caprivi, Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical. Student. Research. Anaemia in pregnant women in eastern Caprivi,. Namibia ... Julia Thomson, medk:aJ student. In recognition of this ..... College of General Practitioners, the Commonwealth ... Maternal nutritional status in pregnancy.

  10. Status of marine mammals in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the status or marine mammals in the eastern north Pacific Ocean. Species covered are: sea otter, northern, Guadalupe fur seals, stellar,...

  11. Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. Increased mining activities in the eastern Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-20

    Oct 20, 2009 ... Keywords: malnutrition; children under-five-years-old; mining; DRC; corporate social responsibility ... underdeveloped parts of the world, there are a multitude of factors ..... Determinants of infant growth in eastern Uganda: A.

  13. Analysis of input demand by smallholder cotton producers in eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of input demand by smallholder cotton producers in eastern Uganda. ... price volatility, weather uncertainty and transaction costs with limited use of ... from the theory of log linear or constant elasticity form of single demand equations.

  14. The Historical Origin of African Debt Crisis | Geda | Eastern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... and a rise in real world interest rate are usually mentioned as major factors. ... The conclusion that emerges from such analysis is that the African debt problem is essentially a trade problem.

  15. Profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern Uganda Highlands. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract. The lack of farmer awareness of costs and benefits associated with the use of sustainable land ...

  16. [Hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, N; Chrestian, N; Thiffault, I; Brais, B; Rouleau, G A; Bouchard, J-P

    2008-01-01

    It has been demonstrated, for many inherited diseases, that historical events have shaped the various regional gene pools of Eastern Canada. In so doing, it has given rise to the increased prevalence of some rare diseases due, to founder effects. The following neurogenetic disorders were first identified in patients from Eastern Canada: AOA-2, Arsacs, HSN-2, Arca-1, HMSN/ACC and Arsal. The population of Eastern Canada, we are convinced, will still allow the identification of new rare forms of hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies as well as contribute to the uncovering of their mutated genes. We have summarized our current knowledge of the various hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada. The study of the more common and homogenous features of these diseases has been largely completed.

  17. Integrating the Eastern Länder: How long a transition?

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    In the 1990s, the economic policy situation in Germany will be determined by how quickly eastern Germany catches up. This will determine the extent of transfers and, consequently, Germany's fiscal policy stance, which, in turn, will influence the macroeconomic policy mix and the growth potential in western Germany. Adjustment in eastern Germany is making progress. Privatization of the enterprise sector has nearly been completed. In the privatized firms, a restructuring process is under way, t...

  18. A Sea Change : Exotics In the eastern Mediterranean.

    OpenAIRE

    Galil, B.S.; Zenetos, A

    2002-01-01

    The eastern Mediterranean is susceptible to biological invasions because of its placement between the Atlantic, Pontic and Erythrean regions, busy maritime traffic, and lagoons and bays that are crowded with fish and shellfish farms. However, the greatest influx of invaders resulted from the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, which allowed entry of Indo-Pacific and Erythrean biota. Exotic macro phytes, invertebrates and fish are found in most coastal habitats in the eastern Med...

  19. Chemical composition of upper crust in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢明才; 迟清华; 顾铁新; 王春书

    1997-01-01

    In an area of 3. 3 ×106 km" within eastern China, 28 253 rock samples were collected systematically and combined into 2 718 composite samples which were analyzed by 15 reliable methods using national preliminary certified reference materials (CRMs) for data quality monitoring. The average chemical compositions of the exposed crust, the sedimentary cover and the exposed basement as well as the upper crust for 76 chemical elements in eastern China are given.

  20. Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Gefei [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

  1. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Firehiwot Mesfin; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included ran...

  2. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasts for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall is important for agriculture management and planning in arid and semi-arid regions. Australia has complex variations in rainfall patterns in time and space, arising from the combination of the geographic structure and the dual effects of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study aims to develop a forecasting model of spatiotemporal monthly rainfall totals using lagged climate indices and historical rainfall data from 1950-2011 for south-eastern and eastern Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high-quality weather stations. To reduce spatial complexity, climate regionalization was used to divide the stations in homogenous sub-regions based on similarity of rainfall patterns and intensity using principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering. Subsequently, a fuzzy ranking algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. Selected predictors by FRA were found to vary by sub-region. After these two stages of pre-processing, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and optimized separately for each sub-region and the entire area. The results indicate that climate regionalization can improve a monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast model. The location and number of sub-regions were important for ranking predictors and modeling. This further suggests that the impact of climate variables on Australian rainfall is more variable in both time and space than indicated thus far.

  3. Authigenic Uranium in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Loveley, M. R.; Ibrahim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Authigenic U concentrations have been used as an indicator of redox state in marine sediments. Soluble U(VI) in porewaters is reduced to insoluble U(IV) under suboxic conditions setting up a diffusion gradient through which U in bottom waters is supplied to reducing sediments. Researchers have used sedimentary redox enrichment of U as a tool to identify past redox changes, which may be caused by changes in organic carbon rain rates and/or bottom water oxygen levels. Differentiating between these two explanations is important, as the former is tied to the use of authigenic U as a paleoproductivity proxy. We examined sediments from 4 sediment cores retrieved from two different localities in the Panama Basin in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Two cores were retrieved from the northern Panama basin at the Cocos Ridge, (4JC at 5° 44.7'N 85° 45.5' W, 1730 m depth; 8JC at 6° 14.0'N 86° 2.6' W, 1993 m depth), and two were retrieved from the south at the Carnegie Ridge, (11JC at 0° 41.6'S 85° 20.0' W, 2452 m depth; 17JC at 0° 10.8'S 85° 52.0' W, 2846 m depth). Using 230Th systematics and seismic profiling at each of the sites, we've identified significant sediment winnowing (4JC and 11JC) and focusing (8JC and 17JC). At all sites, we believe that changes in age-model-derived sand (i.e., >63µm) mass accumulation rates (MAR) best represent changes in rain rates. Glacial rain rates are higher than those in the Holocene by a factor of 2-3 at both sites. Peak Mn levels (>1%), the brown-to-green color transition (which likely represents the oxic/post-oxic boundary), and peak U concentrations all appear in the same order with increasing depth down core. At the Carnegie sites, where MARs are greater than those at the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 4 ppm) occur during the mid- to late Holocene at depths of 10-15 cm. At the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 12 ppm) occur lower in the sediment column (25-30 cm) during the late glacial. The decrease

  4. Profile of Breast Diseases in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bajracharya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Breast problems, benign or malignant are common in occurrence worldwide. Breast problems can present themselves in a number of ways like breast pain, nipple discharge, cystic lesions and more commonly a lump. Breast diseases are under reported and cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women. This prospective study was undertaken with an aim to study the profile of various breast diseases in eastern Nepal.Materials & Methods:  This is a prospective study of women with breast diseases conducted from March 2011 to February 2012. Inclusion criteria were women irrespective of age with breast diseases with or without complaints. Exclusion criteria were women having breast abscess and mammary fistula.Results: Out of 125 breast diseases 39 cases (31% had malignancy and 86 cases (69% had BBD. The overall mean age for BBD was 25.9 years, with range of 10-60 years. The mean age for malignant breast diseases was 45.6 years, with range of 28-67 years. All of the cases had breast lump as their presenting complaints whether they came out benign or malignant. 52.8% had no significant pain associated with lump; in malignant cases 35.8% had pain associated with lump. In benign cases 68.7% had no perceptible change in lump size. On ultrasound scan, 69% of the lesions were designated benign compared to 31% malignant features. FNAC resulted in 68% lesions to be classified as of benign nature and 32% as malignant /suspicious malignancy.Conclusion: BBD constituted 69% of breast diseases, and mostly fibroadenoma and FCC/FCD and commonest malignant lesion was infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The BBD peaked at the age of 21-30 years.

  5. ARMENIA AND THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP INITIATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gomulka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On 7 May 2009 the Eastern Partnership program was launched in Prague, intended to strengthen cooperation between the EU and six former Soviet Republics, including Armenia. It was planned as a combination of the following flagship initiatives: Integrated Border Management Programme, Support for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, Regional Energy Markets and Renewable Energy Sources, Environmental Governance and Natural Disaster Management. Within the frame of the first initiative, Armenia implemented projects concerning the election process, cooperation between Armenian judicial bodies and EU courts, promotion of the European model of justice and human rights, prevention of corruption in public administration, introduction of e-administration, support of women's entrepreneurship, support of migration management services and got acquainted with best practices in customs control and tax execution. The second initiative was implemented by organization of trainings for SMEs and active promotion of foreign investments in Armenia. Within the third initiative, the Armenian government laid the basis for energy passports for buildings, revised electricity and natural gas tariffs, and prepared a plan for better use of energy sources and energy generation from renewable sources. As part of the environmental governance initiative, Armenia intensified environmental protection activities. Within the fifth initiative, it developed the Electronic Regional Atlas of areas at risk of natural disasters. In terms of system transformation, in 2009–2013, Armenia was rated by a team of international experts as next to last. It received a poor rating with regard to management and approximation of regulations to EU requirements. Nevertheless, the European Parliament extended funds to Armenia for further transformations in 2014–2020.

  6. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Naomi; Wang, Eryu; Vittor, Amy Y.; Haddow, Andrew D.; López-Vergès, Sandra; Abadía, Ivan; Castaño, Elizabeth; Sosa, Nestor; Báez, Carmen; Estripeaut, Dora; Díaz, Yamilka; Beltrán, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Cedeño, Hector G.; da Rosa, Amelia P. Travassos; Hernandez, Humberto; Martínez-Torres, Alex O.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses are pathogens that infect humans and horses in the Americas. Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010. METHODS We performed antibody assays and tests to detect viral RNA and isolate the viruses in serum samples from hospitalized patients. Additional cases were identified with enhanced surveillance. RESULTS A total of 19 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis. Among them, 7 had confirmed EEE, 3 had VEE, and 1 was infected with both viruses; 3 patients died, 1 of whom had confirmed VEE. The clinical findings for patients with EEE included brain lesions, seizures that evolved to status epilepticus, and neurologic sequelae. An additional 99 suspected or probable cases of alphavirus infection were detected during active surveillance. In total, 13 cases were confirmed as EEE, along with 11 cases of VEE and 1 case of dual infection. A total of 50 cases in horses were confirmed as EEE and 8 as VEE; mixed etiologic factors were associated with 11 cases in horses. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates from 2 cases of equine infection with the EEE virus and 1 case of human infection with the VEE virus indicated that the viruses were of enzootic lineages previously identified in Panama rather than new introductions. CONCLUSIONS Cases of EEE in humans in Latin America may be the result of ecologic changes that increased human contact with enzootic transmission cycles, genetic changes in EEE viral strains that resulted in increased human virulence, or an altered host range. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Panama.) PMID:23964935

  7. Specialization and Agglomeration Patterns in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman, Sheila A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates specialization and agglomeration trends in EU-27 NUTS2 regions over 1991-2011 by means of two versions of the relative Theil indicator that use employment data. The paper’s main focus is on Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs regions. As a legacy of central planning, in the early ‘Nineties these regions presented significantly above-average specialization and agglomeration. The paper shows that over 1991-2011 these features change very little; moreover, while disproportions fall in the other EU members, they rise in CEECs, implying growing divergence among the two groups in real terms, notwithstanding EU emphasis on real convergence. Indicators disaggregated by sectors show that for CEECs specialization/agglomeration change most in agriculture, market services and manufacturing. The paper focuses on the last two sectors. It argues that performance in the service sector is largely due to capital regions catching up on previous underdevelopment in the sector, therefore getting closer to Western regions. Non-capital regions instead lag behind, moving away from the EU sectoral average. As far as manufacturing is concerned, CEECs regions continue to specialize in the more traditional lines of production, for which also agglomeration remains extremely high. Consideration of the changes over time gives a partially different picture and shows that the higher specialization in overall manufacturing results from the development of a small but dynamic medium-high technology sub-sector that is significantly disseminated across regions, thus appearing to result from successful industrial restructuring and reconversion.

  8. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  9. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report updates a study to examine the cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies. The project was initiated in 1994 to acquire accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of the study is used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers monitored 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers worked with representatives from Husky Oil and Rigel Energy on the development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over eight years indicates that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered thus far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears suffer from high mortality, and the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The research concluded in November 2001 provides sufficient information to accurately asses the status of the grizzly bear population and habitat. The data will be analyzed and integrated in 2002 into models that reflect the variables affecting grizzly bears and a final report will be published.

  10. Magmatism and Geodynamics of Eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet; Oyan, Vural; Sharkov, Evgenii V.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Genç, Ş. Can; Ünal, Esin; Aysal, Namık; Duru, Olgun; Kavak, Orhan

    2013-04-01

    Eastern Turkey has been an active collision zone for the last 15 My between the Arabian Plate and Eurasian continent. The collision initiated after the closure of the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean by northward subduction beneath E Anatolia at ~15 Ma. The collision-related volcanism started immediately after the closure of the ocean (again at around 15 Ma) in the north of the present day Lake Van with the eruption of mostly intermediate to acid lavas displaying distinct subduction characteristics. Both continental collision and the magmatism are still active, because the Arabian plate still converges to Anatolia with a velocity of ~2.5 cm/y. The overriding Anatolian block experienced a major uplift event around 10 Ma. The region once resided below the sea level merged as a widespread plateau ~2 km above the sea level as part of a regional dome structure with ~1000 km diameter, extending from Central Anatolia in the West to Azerbaijan in the East. The first alkaline lavas derived from a relatively more enriched source erupted to the surface in the N of Lake Van coeval with the initiation of the uplift at around 10 Ma. The underthrusting Arabian platform, on the other hand, was deformed as a result of both crustal-scale east-west folds adjacent to the major thrust zone and extensional deformations perpendicular to the suture zone. Alkaline within-plate lavas with no subduction component erupted through these extension zones. This intraplate volcanism focused on the Karacadaǧ volcanic complex that covers an area of ~10,000 km2. Early Stage volcanism of Karacadaǧ was dominated by magmas derived from a shallower metasomatized (litospheric) mantle source, while magmas of the later stages were derived from deeper (asthenospheric) sources. The Karacadaǧ volcanic area of SE Anatolia was sourced by a garnet bearing, deep asthenospheric mantle which is similar to that of Afar in terms of its Pb isotopic ratios. This brings into question whether the mantle material

  11. Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (?????0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the

  12. Eastern European Science Needs Sweeping Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Sir - Two years ago your Editorial "Eastern Promise" (vol. 426, p.369, 2003) and the News Feature "Dreaming on Danube" (vol. 427, p.94-95,2004) as well as several subsequent correspondence letters (vol. 427, pp. 196 and 677, vol. 428, p.17) touched on the situation and potential growth in scientific research in the former Soviet block countries. I would like to revisit this topic. Right now the facts are sobering: while the average GNP per capita in those countries is a few times lower than the average for the rest of Europe, their average university ranking is another order of magnitude poorer (in the latest ARWU, of the first 123 European universities only 4, and that in the second half of the list only, are from the former Soviet block). That situation calls for drastic measures. Pumping extra money into the system would change little. The only real hope is in a new generation of young dynamic scientists setting the pace for academic life. That requires selection and promotion of the best of the best. Unfortunately much of the old guard, who is not up to scientific challenges of today and who attained their positions and influence under the old regime (often due to other than professional qualifications) resist any real changes. I believe that a major change for better could be achieved by implementation into law two key requirements: transparency and competitiveness. That means a transparency of every scientist achievements (particularly in terms of publications), and wide open and fair competition for academic positions. Those two conditions should be complemented by implementation of the position of academic ombudsman (to encourage/facilitate open discussions), special grant opportunities for young scientists, and transparency of the process of awarding research grants. I, as well as a number of my colleagues concerned with the future of science and higher education in Poland, discussing many important academic issues at the Independent Academic Forum (an

  13. Magma storage under Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, J.; Neave, D.; Hartley, M. E.; Edmonds, M.; Thordarson, T.; Morgan, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) of Iceland is defined by a number of volcanic systems and large basaltic eruptions occur both through central volcanoes (e.g. Grímsvötn) and on associated fissure rows (e.g. Laki, Eldgjá). We have collected a large quantity of micro-analytical data from a number of EVZ eruptions, with the aim of identifying common processes that occur in the premonitory stages of significant volcanic events. Here, we focus on the AD 1783 Laki event, the early postglacial Saksunarvatn tephra and the sub-glacially erupted Skuggafjöll tindar and for each of these eruptions we have >100 olivine-hosted or plagioclase-hosted melt inclusion analyses for major, trace and volatile elements. These large datasets are vital for understanding the history of melt evolution in the plumbing system of basaltic volcanoes. Diverse trace element compositions in melt inclusions hosted in primitive macrocrysts (i.e. Fo>84, An>84) indicate that the mantle melts supplied to the plumbing system of EVZ eruptions are highly variable in composition. Concurrent mixing and crystallisation of these melts occurs in crustal magma bodies. The levels of the deepest of these magma bodies are not well constrained by EVZ petrology, with only a handful of high-CO2 melt inclusions from Laki providing evidence for magma supply from >5 kbar. In contrast, the volatile contents of melt inclusions in evolved macrocrysts, which are close to equilibrium with the carrier liquids, indicate that final depths of inclusion entrapment are 0.5-2 kbar. The major element composition of the matrix glasses shows that the final pressure of equilibration between the melt and its macrocryst phases also occurred at 0.5-2 kbar. The relationship between these pressures and seismic/geodetic estimates of chamber depths needs to be carefully evaluated. The melt inclusion and macrocryst compositional record indicates that injection of porphyritic, gas-rich primitive melt into evolved/enriched and degassed shallow

  14. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources.

    This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant

  15. Regional Wave Climates along Eastern Boundary Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Two types of wind-generated gravity waves coexist at the ocean surface: wind sea and swell. Wind sea waves are waves under growing process. These young growing waves receive energy from the overlaying wind and are strongly coupled to the local wind field. Waves that propagate away from their generation area and no longer receive energy input from the local wind are called swell. Swell waves can travel long distances across entire ocean basins. A qualitative study of the ocean waves from a locally vs. remotely generation perspective is important, since the air sea interaction processes is strongly modulated by waves and vary accordingly to the prevalence of wind sea or swell waves in the area. A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves along eastern boundary currents (EBC; California Current, Canary Current, in the Northern Hemisphere, and Humboldt Current, Benguela Current, and Western Australia Current, in the Southern Hemisphere), based on the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis will be presented. The wind regime along EBC varies significantly from winter to summer. The high summer wind speeds along EBC generate higher locally generated wind sea waves, whereas lower winter wind speeds in these areas, along with stronger winter extratropical storms far away, lead to a predominance of swell waves there. In summer, the coast parallel winds also interact with coastal headlands, increasing the wind speed through a process called "expansion fan", which leads to an increase in the height of locally generated waves downwind of capes and points. Hence the spatial patterns of the wind sea or swell regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean along EBC, due to coastal geometry and fetch dimensions. Swell waves will be shown to be considerably more prevalent and to carry more energy in winter along EBC, while in summer locally generated wind sea waves are either more comparable to swell waves or

  16. Soil organic carbon in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, E.; Baldock, J.; Hua, Q.; Wilson, B.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the drivers of SOC dynamics and depth distribution across eastern Australia using laboratory analyses (CN, fractionation, radiocarbon) coupled with modelling and machine learning. At over 1400 sites, surface SOC storage was driven by precipitation, whereas SOC depth distribution (0-30 cm) was influenced by land-use. Based upon these findings, 100 sites were selected for profile analysis (up to 1 m) of SOC and its component fractions - particulate (POC), humus (HOC) and resistant (ROC) organic carbon. Profile SOC content was modelled using an exponential model describing surface SOC content, SOC depth distribution and residual SOC at depth and the drivers of these parameters investigated via machine learning. Corroborating previous findings, surface SOC content was highly influenced by rainfall, whereas SOC depth distribution was influenced by land-use. At depth, site properties were the most important predictors of SOC. Cropped sites had significantly lower SOC content than native and grazed sites at depth, indicating that land-use influences SOC content throughout the profile. The machine learning algorithms identified depth as the key control on the proportion of all three fractions down the profile: POC decreased whereas HOC increased with increasing depth. POC was strongly linked with total SOC but HOC and ROC were driven more by climate and soil physico-chemical properties. Human influences (land-use and management) were not important to the fractions, implying that the controls humans can exert on SOC stability may be limited. A subset of 12 soil profiles was analysed for 14C. Radiocarbon content was affected strongly by land-use, with effects most pronounced at depth. Native systems had the youngest carbon down the profile, cropped systems had the oldest SOC. All fractions reacted to land-use change down the soil profile, indicating a lack of stability when the whole profile is viewed. These results indicate that natural systems act as a

  17. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraced homes and gardens created areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens and created favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 22% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, it was found, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is

  18. Heaven on Earth. The Character of Eastern Christian Worship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Nowakowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is the general presentation and description of the eastern liturgy by emphasizing some of its characteristics different from the Latin one. The subject of the analysis was the Slavonic version of Byzantine rite which is better known in Poland and neighboring countries. The worship plays the leading role in the life of Eastern Churches. The liturgy is closely connected with teaching of the Church and it is also the source of theology. The East has never known the separation of spirituality, theology and ecclesiology from liturgy. The article presents some essential information about the Eucharist (called in the east the Divine Liturgy, the liturgy of the hours (the Divine Office, liturgical year and shows some differences in the celebration of the sacraments in comparison with the Latin practice. More important features of the eastern worship are the epiphanic, doxological, dynamic, anamnetical and eschatological ones. What strikes you about Eastern worship from the sociological point of view is its intimate union with culture and history of the lo- cal, national Church. From an external point of view the eastern liturgy is a synthesis of the arts and demonstrates a particular beauty. The liturgical action is not just a ceremony.  It   is an object of contemplation, an awesome vision, full of mystery. It is our participation in the liturgy of heaven, the implementation of the Kingdom of God on Earth. Therefore, the actual purpose of the liturgy is our communing with God.

  19. The socialization potential of the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrant KOSTANYAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses socialization in the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum, an institutionalized civil society cooperation consisting of nongovernmental organizations from the European Union and the Eastern Partnership countries: Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The article argues that uniting the literature on socialization and on Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum adds considerably to scholarly knowledge about the role of the institutionalized civil society in the world. The analysis of the activities of the Civil Society Forum shows that the conditions for socialization are largely fulfilled. We conclude that the organisation and functioning of the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum not only provides a passive framework for transmitting European values and norms, but also results in a middle degree of socialization between civil society organizations of the European Union and the Eastern Partnership countries. There is a large degree of internalization of European Union-sponsored norms and values among the participants of the Civil Society Forum: they fervently promote and defend such norms and values. The little-politicized environment in which discussions take place also allows civil society organisations to make ambitious statements, often more straightforward than political representatives (can make.

  20. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myriokefalitakis, S; Daskalakis, N; Fanourgakis, G S; Voulgarakis, A; Krol, M C; Aan de Brugh, J M J; Kanakidou, M

    2016-09-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the Western basins and the boundary layer (BL) from the free troposphere (FT). The FT of the Eastern Mediterranean is shown to be a strong receptor of polluted air masses from the Western Mediterranean, and the most important source of polluted air masses for the Eastern Mediterranean BL, with about 40% of O3 and of CO in the BL to be transported from the FT aloft. Regional anthropogenic sources are found to have relatively small impact on regional air quality in the area, contributing by about 8% and 18% to surface levels of O3 and CO, respectively. Projections using anthropogenic emissions for the year 2050 but neglecting climate change calculate a surface O3 decrease of about 11% together with a surface CO increase of roughly 10% in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  1. Upper mantle geotherm for eastern China and its geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐义刚; 林传勇; 史兰斌; J-C.C.Mercier; J.V.Ross

    1995-01-01

    The equilibrium temperature and pressure of both spinel and garnet peridotite xenolithsfrom eastern China have been estimated by using different geothermobarometers that are currentlyconsidered to be reliable.Based on these data,the upper mantle geotherm for eastern China has beenconstructed.The obtained geotherm is higher than that for old craton regions,but is similar to that for southeasternAustralia.The most prominent feature of the geotherm is that there is a slight gradient at about 60 kmdepth,and the inflection of the geotherm just passes through the transition line between spinel and garnetfacies.It is likely that the inflection represents the botmdary between the lithosphere and asthenosphere.Thestructures of the upper mantle beneath eastern China have also been discussed by combining the results ofpetrologic,rheological and dynamical studies of the upper mantle.

  2. Crustal structure of the Eastern Alps and their foreland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grad, M.; Brückl, E.; Majdanski, M.

    2009-01-01

    plate, Adriatic microplate and the recently identified Pannonian fragment. The seismic data along the presented profile originate from two large experiments: CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002. The wavefield observed in the Eastern Alps is more complex than in the Bohemian Massif. Strong first arrivals (Pg......The subject of this paper concerns the seismic modelling of the crustal structure in the transition zone from the Bohemian Massif, across the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps to the Southern Alps, mainly on the territory of Austria. The CEL10/Alp04 profile crosses the triple point of the European......) are distinct up to 60-90 km offset and are characterized by large variations in apparent velocity and amplitude. The contact between the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps represents a barrier for seismic waves. Mid-crustal reflections (Pc) are usually recorded at short distance intervals (20-50 km...

  3. SETBACKS AND ACHIEVEMENTS IN MANAGING THE EASTERN NEIGHBOURHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maria Simionov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its latest enlargements, the European Union has constantly developed various actions and initiatives in order to secure its borders and consequently to be surrounded by countries with dynamic economies and secure and stable political situations. So far, the presence of the union in its Eastern neighbourhood did not have the expected outcome. Where has the European Neighbourhood Policy failed?How is the European Union perceived by its neighbours: social partner, protector, sponsor or regional hegemonic? Is the Eastern Partnership sufficient to revive the Eastern dimension of the ENP? This paper will focus on answering these questions by connecting the theoretical framework of the neighbourhood policy with the existing empirical evidence through an interdisciplinary approach.

  4. Hui Students’ Identity Construction in Eastern China: A Postcolonial Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explored Hui students’ lived experiences in school in eastern China and the impact of their experiences on their identity construction. We used postcolonial theory as a theoretical framework and narrative inquiry as a research methodology to guide questions that we asked, data collection, data analysis, and interpretation and discussion of the findings in the study. We found that schooling for the two Hui students in eastern China is a process of reproducing mainstream Han ideology; taking away their culture, beliefs, knowledge, and identity; and imposing the mainstream Han culture and knowledge on Hui students as truth. The participants, two Hui students in an elementary school in eastern China, accepted the identity constructed by mainstream Han teachers and were confused about their Hui identity.

  5. Introduction: Postcolonial studies and postsocialism in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2009-04-01

    The introduction to this special section explores the ways in which postcolonial studies contribute a deeper understanding of postsocialist change in Central and Eastern Europe. Since the collapse of socialism, anthropological and other social science studies of Eastern Europe have highlighted deep divides between "East" and "West" and drawn attention to the ways in which socialist practices persist into the postsocialist period. We seek to move beyond discourses of the East/West divide by examining the postsocialist context through the lens of postcolonial studies. We look at four aspects of postcolonial studies and explore their relevance for understanding postsocialist Eastern Europe: orientalism, nation and identity, hybridity, and voice. These themes are particular salient from the perspective of gender and sexuality, key concepts through which both postcolonialism and postsocialism can be understood. We thus pay particular attention to the exchange of ideas between East/West, local/global, and national/international arenas.

  6. Recent divergences and size decreases of eastern gorilla populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Justin; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Bradley, Brenda J; Guschanski, Katerina; Stephens, Colleen R; Bucknell, Dan; Cirhuza, Henry; Kusamba, Chifundera; Kyungu, Jean Claude; Smith, Vince; Robbins, Martha M; Vigilant, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Compared with other African apes, eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) have been little studied genetically. We used analysis of autosomal DNA genotypes obtained from non-invasively collected faecal samples to estimate the evolutionary histories of the two extant mountain gorilla populations and the closely related eastern lowland gorillas. Our results suggest that eastern lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas split beginning some 10 000 years ago, followed 5000 years ago by the split of the two mountain gorilla populations of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and the Virungas Massif. All three populations have decreased in effective population size, with particularly substantial 10-fold decreases for the mountain gorillas. These dynamics probably reflect responses to habitat changes resulting from climate fluctuations over the past 20 000 years as well as increasing human influence in this densely populated region in the last several thousand years.

  7. Modeling and Forecasting the Volatility of Eastern European Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to seek a volatility forecasting model that can reflect sufficiently the long memory characteristic in the volatility of four Eastern European emerging stock markets, naThis study has attempted to seek a volatility forecasting model that can reflect sufficiently the long memory characteristic in the volatility of four Eastern European emerging stock markets, namely, Hungary, Poland, Russia, and Slovakia. From the results of our empirical analysis, we found that the FIGARCH model is better equipped to capture the long memory property in the volatility of these markets than the GARCH and IGARCH models. More importantly, the FIGARCH model is found to provide superior performance in one-day-ahead volatility forecasts. Thus, this study recommends researchers, portfolio managers, and traders to use the long memory FIGARCH model in analyzing and forecasting the volatility dynamics of Eastern European emerging markets.

  8. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  9. Lipid levels among African and Middle-Eastern Bedouin populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D; Weitzman, Shimon; Sharf, Amir; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies observed higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and lower triglycerides levels among people of African ancestry. The goal of this study was to characterize lipid levels in Bedouins of African vs. Middle-Eastern ethnicity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Bedouin primary care clinic in southern Israel, with 4470 listed individuals over the age of 21, of whom 402 (9%) were of African origin. A stratified random sample was included in the analysis. Associations between ethnicity, age, gender and lipid levels were assessed. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used for multivariate analysis. The study included 261 African Bedouins and 406 Middle-Eastern Bedouins. (median age: 37 years, 58.6% females). The average total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were 10 mg/dl lower among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (total cholesterol: 168.6 vs. 179.6 mg/dl, p<0.001; LDL: 99.5 vs. 109.0 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). Average triglycerides levels were 36 mg/dl lower among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (102.8 vs. 138.9 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). Average HDL levels were 3 mg/dl higher among African Bedouins as compared to Middle-Eastern Bedouins (48.3 vs. 44.6 mg/dl, respectively, p<0.001). A lower prevalence of dyslipidemia was found in African Bedouins, as compared with Middle-Eastern Bedouins.

  10. [Eponyms and epilepsy (history of Eastern civilizations)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, S M; Sokić, D V; Lević, Z M; Susić, V; Drulović, J; Stojsavljević, N; Veskov, R; Ivanus, J

    1996-01-01

    The history of eponyms for epilepsy in the lands of the Eastern globe present the portrait of the attitudes of both the laymen and skilled people towards the disease and patient, as well as to the Nature itself. As opposed to the West which during the Middle ages changed its concepts of epilepsy as the organic brain disease for the sublime 'alchemic' position, the people of the East were more prone to consider from the beginning of their civilization till the XIX century that epilepsy is the consequence of the evanescent spiritual and extracorporal forces which by themselves were out of their reach. As compared to the western civilization, the historical resources are, often as a consequence of a linguistic barriers, more scarce-as consequently is the number of eponyms, but are nevertheless picturesque. The medical science from Babylonian period presumed that epileptic manifestations are the consequence of the demonic or ill spiritual actions. There existed an attitude that at the beginning of an epileptic attack the patient was possessed by a demon (the Akkadic, i.e., Babylonian verb "sibtu" denoting epilepsy, had the meaning "to seize" or "to be obsessed"); at the end of the clonic phase the demon departed from the body. Different demons were responsible for different forms of epilepsy such as nocturnal and children epilepsy, absence epilepsy and pure convulsions, simple and complex automatisms, and gelastic epilepsy. Thus, the doctors from the period of Babylon aside from making primordial classification of epilepsies, knew about their clinical picture (prodromal symptoms and aura, Jackson's epilepsy. Todd's paralysis), postictal phenomena and intericatl emotional instability; provocative factors were also known (sleep deprivation, emotions, as well as alcohol, albeit in a negative sense-as a cure for epilepsy). There is no doubt than in the period of Babylon the clinical picture of serial fits and its progress to status epilepticus were clearly recognized and

  11. TEACHING ENGLISH IN SEVERAL CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Central and Eastern European countries find themselves at present, following a period of transition in all domains, education included. One of the greatest challenges is providing sufficient foreign language education so as to meet the growing demand especially after along period of time when foreign languages were seriously and damagingly neglected. This paper is an attempt to briefly present the way English language is taught in several Central and Eastern European Countries as well as to underline the importance of this educational process and maybe to offer some applicable solutions to teaching English in Romania

  12. Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    The region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has been undergoing crucial changes in its transition from centrally planned to market oriented economy. As a result, the business climate in the region is changing rapidly, allowing free access to foreign businesses to establish or acquire production......, content and context, the book provides a holist approach towards foreign direct investment in the transitional context of CEE. The book includes a comprehensive study of the motives of multi-national companies for investing in Central and Eastern Europe through various investment modes and the degree...

  13. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  14. National health research system mapping in 10 Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A; Khoja, T A M; Abou-Zeid, A H; Ghannem, H; IJsselmuiden, C

    2008-01-01

    Health research systems in the Eastern Mediterranean Region are not well developed to generate and use knowledge to improve health, reduce inequity and contribute to economic development. This study aimed to provide core data on National Health Research Systems (NHRS) in 10 Eastern Mediterranean countries in order to inform actions to strengthen health research system governance and management. Whilst there were examples of good practice, few countries had a formal NHRS and many basic building blocks needed for an effective system had not been put in place. Although limited in focus, the study provides useful information for countries to initiate action to strengthen their NHRS.

  15. Biotechnological studies in the Far-Eastern Region of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonik, Valentin A; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bulgakov, Victor P; Zhuravlev, Yuri N

    2007-07-01

    Achievements and problems in both the studies on natural bioactive compounds from the Far-Eastern higher plants and marine invertebrates and development of the corresponding biotechnologies concerning new drugs and food supplements, as well as pharmaceutical leads are discussed. Special emphasis is made on recent results from the Far-eastern Institutions belonging to the Russian Academy of Sciences, and their application in both medicine and the food industry, as well as on peculiarities of biological and chemical diversity in the North-Western part of Asia and adjoining seas.

  16. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  17. Genocide in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia 1943–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Naleźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ukrainian nationalists tried to de-polonize the South-Eastern Borderlands by means of mass genocide and they achieved this goal to a great extent. That, however, puts them on a par with the criminal regimes of Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler. The author of this article describes the genocide of Polish inhabitants in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia committed by the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists (Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins’kykh Natsionalistiv, OUN and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya, UPA between 1943 and 1944. These events in European history are not well-known.

  18. Intraseasonal meridional current variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ogata, T.; Sasaki, H.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Masumoto, Y.

    for the atmospheric disturbances at this time-scale over the eastern Indian Ocean, which can be considered as the forcing to the oceanic ISV, such as those indicated by Chatterji and Goswami [2004], Shinoda and Han [2005], and Fukutomi and Yasunari [2005]. An air...–2482. Fukutomi, Y., and T. Yasunari (2005), Southerly surges on the submonthly timescales over the eastern Indian Ocean during the Southern Hemisphere winter, Mon. Weather Rev., 133(6), 1637–1654. Han, W., D. Yuan, W. T. Liu, and D. J. Halkides (2007...

  19. Constitutional transitions in Central and Eastern Europe : [book reviews] / Philipp Kiiver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiver, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Sadurski, W. Rights before courts : a study of constitutional courts in postcommunist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer, 2005 ; Albi, A. EU enlargement and the constitutions of Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2005

  20. Constitutional transitions in Central and Eastern Europe : [book reviews] / Philipp Kiiver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiver, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Sadurski, W. Rights before courts : a study of constitutional courts in postcommunist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer, 2005 ; Albi, A. EU enlargement and the constitutions of Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2005

  1. Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, N.E.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vinesthroughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The

  2. Integrated pest management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, N.

    1997-01-01

    Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vines
    throughout the crop's pro

  3. Inuit Education and Schools in the Eastern Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather E.

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-twentieth century, sustained contact between Inuit and newcomers has led to profound changes in education in the Eastern Arctic, including the experience of colonization and progress toward the re-establishment of traditional education in schools. The milestone of the establishment of Nunavut Territory in 1999 was followed by the…

  4. The ecology of garlic mustard in eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. McCarthy

    2003-01-01

    Upwards of 25% of the plant species in many eastern floras have been introduced. Many of these species have become invasive. Many of the worst invasives are native to Eurasia and were brought to the U.S. either intentionally for forage, fiber production, erosion control, ornamentals, or unintentionally via crop seed contaminant, transportation, or nursery stock.

  5. Biotechnology policies and performance in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senker, J.; Enzing, C.; Reiss, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how far ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have 'caught up' in biotechnology on the basis of information about the policies and funding for biotechnology research and commercialisation from 2002-2005 and on the research and commercialisation performance of these cou

  6. Lupine consumption by cattle in the scablands of Eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scabland region of eastern Washington is dominated by annual grasses and in some areas by Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine). The purpose of these trials was to document the consumption of velvet lupine and relate the amount of lupine eaten by pregnant cows with the incidence of crooked calv...

  7. Family Policies in Eastern Europe: A Focus on Parental Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Family policy is an issue of concern for many Governments. Family policies are organized around the four main functions of the family: marriage, childrearing, financial support and family care. Eastern Europe is an area with significant socio-economic and political changes in the last decades that determined revisions of social policies. The goal…

  8. How to Face the Gap between Eastern and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In many aspects of our life,we often divide the world into two parts:the eastern one and the western one.The former usually refers to Asia and the latter includes mainly Europe,North Africa and America.We divide like this not only because of the geographical location differences,but also due to the cultural

  9. The geopolitics of politico-religious protest in Eastern Tibet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIt is clear that the recent wave of self-immolations and protests taking place in southern Amdo and northern Kham in eastern Tibet is a reflection of an extreme form of defiance in response to an increasingly repressive atmosphere. The atmosphere is epitomized by the intensification of p

  10. Participatory rural appraisal of spate irrigation systems in eastern Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.; Graaff, de J.

    2000-01-01

    In the Sheeb area in eastern Eritrea a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out in two villages, one upstream and one downstream of the ephemeral rivers Laba and Mai-ule. The objectives of the study were to obtain a better understanding of farmer-managed spate irrigation systems and to

  11. Pointing at the sun: searching for traces in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Stefan; Pohl, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    In the face of impalpable commitment and meagre political incentives, the first promising solar markets are meanwhile emerging in Eastern Europe. Although solar energy in this region has often been considered too expensive, the market forges ahead. Its profitable investment situation could soon become fertile ground for the production of solar technologies. Stage director behind the curtain: frequently the European Union. (orig.)

  12. Landforms and soils in eastern Surinam (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.W.H.

    1972-01-01

    Quaternary geogenesis in eastern Surinam was studied by field methods and sedimentary-petrographic research. The development of the river valleys was explained in terms of changes in sea level, tectonic movements and changes in climate. A preliminary stratigraphy was established.Eight soil profiles

  13. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  14. Wyoming big sagebrush associations of eastern Oregon; vegetation attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a synopsis of several vegetative characteristics for the Wyoming big sagebrush complex in eastern Oregon covering the High Desert , Snake River, and Owyhee Ecological Provinces in Harney, Lake, and Malheur Counties. The complex has been grouped into six associations defined by t...

  15. A pygmy Stegodon from the middle Pleistocene of Eastern Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1954-01-01

    The material to be described below forms part of a collection of fossil vertebrates made by Dr. J. Cosijn North of Djetis and Perning in Eastern Java (Cosijn, 1931, 1932). The Cosijn collection has not yet been fully described, some preliminary identifications were made by the late Prof. Dr. J. H. F

  16. Late Quaternary sedimentation in eastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O; Mascarenhas, A; Paropkari, A; Rao, Ch.M.

    This study presents variations in various size measures, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, clay mineralogy and major and trace elements in a core (5.40 m long, 2713 m depth) from the eastern Bay of Bengal. On a CM diagram, the sediments of the core...

  17. Interannual variability of chlrophyll concentration in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karanje, S.

    The monthly mean chlorophyll pigment concentrations and diffuse attenuation were derived for the eastern Arabian Sea [5-16oN; 70-80oE] from SeaWiFS global 9-km resolution data product for the period January 1998 to December 2007. These data were...

  18. Shallow water wave spectral characteristics along the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Dubhashi, K.K.

    The spectral characteristics of shallow water waves were studied at two locations along the eastern Arabian Sea during 2011. Wave spectra were single-peaked from June to October and predominantly double-peaked during the rest of the year. Even...

  19. Indicators of regenerative capacity for eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Steve Horsley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood forests of the eastern United States are characterized by a complex mix of species associations that make it difficult to construct useful indicators of long-term sustainability, in terms of future forest composition and stocking levels. The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study examines regeneration adequacy in the state. The study uses the Forest Service's...

  20. Competent Counseling for Middle Eastern American Clients: Implications for Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheilian, Sepideh S.; Inman, Arpana G.

    2015-01-01

    The authors used a factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to determine whether counselor trainees' group differences on measures of multicultural competence, empathy, and multicultural counseling self-efficacy (CSE) when working with Middle Eastern American (MEA) clients were moderated by trainee race. Two hundred and fifty-six…

  1. Connecting Community Security and DDR: Experiences from Eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.C.; Rouw, H.

    2010-01-01

    The report is based on 11 weeks of field research in Ituri and the Kivus between September and December 2009, and looks at the linkages between community security and DDR in the case of eastern DRC. To assess this relation , the report starts with an analysis of what security is considered to entail

  2. Adaptation of eastern whitepine provenances to planting sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice E., Jr. Demeritt; Peter W. Garrett

    1996-01-01

    Eastern white pine provenances from the extreme limits of the natural range of this species are changing from above- and below-average stability to average stability for height growth with increasing age. The regression method is useful for evaluating the stability of provenance to planting sites. The same general conclusions are reached for the performance at...

  3. Intense harvesting of eastern wolves facilitated hybridization with coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Linda Y; White, Bradley N; Row, Jeffrey R; Patterson, Brent R

    2012-01-01

    Despite ethical arguments against lethal control of wildlife populations, culling is routinely used for the management of predators, invasive or pest species, and infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate that culling of wildlife can have unforeseen impacts that can be detrimental to future conservation efforts. Specifically, we analyzed genetic data from eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) sampled in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada from 1964 to 2007. Research culls in 1964 and 1965 killed the majority of wolves within a study region of APP, accounting for approximately 36% of the park's wolf population at a time when coyotes were colonizing the region. The culls were followed by a significant decrease in an eastern wolf mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype (C1) in the Park's wolf population, as well as an increase in coyote mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. The introgression of nuclear DNA from coyotes, however, appears to have been curtailed by legislation that extended wolf protection outside park boundaries in 2001, although eastern wolf mtDNA haplotype C1 continued to decline and is now rare within the park population. We conclude that the wolf culls transformed the genetic composition of this unique eastern wolf population by facilitating coyote introgression. These results demonstrate that intense localized harvest of a seemingly abundant species can lead to unexpected hybridization events that encumber future conservation efforts. Ultimately, researchers need to contemplate not only the ethics of research methods, but also that future implications may be obscured by gaps in our current scientific understanding.

  4. Participatory rural appraisal of spate irrigation systems in eastern Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.; Graaff, de J.

    2000-01-01

    In the Sheeb area in eastern Eritrea a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out in two villages, one upstream and one downstream of the ephemeral rivers Laba and Mai-ule. The objectives of the study were to obtain a better understanding of farmer-managed spate irrigation systems and to en

  5. Geochemistry of sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A; Paropkari, A; Murty, P.S

    The bulk and partition geochemistry of Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Cu have been investigated in sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India. The results show that (1) the bulk geochemistry varies from one shelf unit to the other, (2) all...

  6. Security Assistance Rationales: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    function to defray the cost of Soviet arms development. 96 The linkage of arms sales and comercial sales is not a factor in Soviet arms transfer to Eastern...of plant, R&D institution representatives, and politica .’wer over the GOSPLAN mechanism, does have a feedback loop. _.Ae defense ministries must be

  7. Performance of selected eastern oyster lines across northeastern US estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern oyster production derived from aquaculture has expanded, but growth potential is constrained by losses to disease. Breeding programs supporting industry in the Northeast have targeted resistance to three diseases: MSX, Dermo, and ROD. Selected lines should possess some level of resistance a...

  8. Integrated pest management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, N.

    1997-01-01

    Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vines
    throughout the crop's

  9. The 'Tortonian salinity crisis' of the eastern Betics (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, Miguel; Agustí, Jorge; Raffi, I.; Taberner, C.; Zachariasse, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The late Miocene depositional history of the Lorca and Fortuna basins, both occupying an internal position in the eastern Betics of Spain, is marked by a regressive sequence from open marine marls, via diatomites and evaporites, to continental sediments. Based on facies similarities, these

  10. Woodland Birds in Three Different Forest Types in Eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Richard N. Conner

    1996-01-01

    Birds were censusedalong three routes through relatively mature forest in eastern Texas using the fixed circular plot technique. The routes sampled three forest types (based on tree species composition): (1)longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) Savannah, (2) mixed pine-hardwood forest, and (3) bottomland hardwood forest. Each route consisted of 20 plots censused twice...

  11. Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin R. Risch; John F. DeWild; David P. Krabbenhoft; Randall K. Kolka; Leiming. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall frompredominately deciduous forestswas measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry depositionwas significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (µg/m2), range 3.5-23.4 µg/m2...

  12. Family Policies in Eastern Europe: A Focus on Parental Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Family policy is an issue of concern for many Governments. Family policies are organized around the four main functions of the family: marriage, childrearing, financial support and family care. Eastern Europe is an area with significant socio-economic and political changes in the last decades that determined revisions of social policies. The goal…

  13. Conflicts of interest between eastern and western scientific systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klestova, Zinayida; Makarenko, Alexander

    2002-07-01

    The article discusses issues of interaction between the scientific systems of Eastern and Western Europe in the context of current global and local conflicts. Also, ethical issues are considered in connection with solving such problems in science, as well as examining similarities and differences of the scientific systems and their possible modelling. Some practical recommendations are included, based on the suggested academic speculations.

  14. Landforms and soils in eastern Surinam (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.W.H.

    1972-01-01


    Quaternary geogenesis in eastern Surinam was studied by field methods and sedimentary-petrographic research. The development of the river valleys was explained in terms of changes in sea level, tectonic movements and changes in climate. A preliminary stratigraphy was

  15. A transdisciplinary approach to developing an eastern broccoli industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current economic, social and scientific situations have made it attractive to establish a substantial and profitable broccoli industry in the eastern US, where several obstacles have prevented that from happening previously. Because many barriers must be overcome simultaneously, we assembled a tran...

  16. Eastern cottonwood clonal mixing study: intergenotypic competition effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster; R.J. Rousseau; W.L Nance

    1998-01-01

    Intergenotypic competition of seven clones of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) was evaluated in a replacement series experiment. A partial diallel competition design was used to choose pairs (binary sets) of clones for plot type treatments. Two separate treatments were established for each pair of clones, namely (1) 75 percent clone A: 25 percent clone B and (2)...

  17. Summer extreme precipitation in eastern China: mechanisms and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Yongjie; Singh, Vijay P.; Luo, Ming; Xie, Zhenghui

    2017-04-01

    changes and the related mechanisms are of great significance for regional management of water resources and agricultural irrigation. In this study, the impacts of western north Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) on precipitation changes in eastern China and the underling processes are investigated. The results indicate that the strength and location of WNPSH are in close relations with the changes of summer precipitation in eastern China, and their influences vary across both space and time. In particular, WNPSH exerts remarkable impacts on precipitation in June and July in Jiang-Huai region and precipitation in June in South China such as the Pearl River basin. The inter-annual variations of WNPSH exhibits significant correlations with water vapor flux in East Asia and, and the variations of the location and direction of west flank of WNPSH is well corroborated that influences of East Asia summer monsoon on precipitation in eastern China. The westward extension of WNPSH tends to move the East Asian summer monsoon west and thus increasing water vapor flux in East Asia, which greatly benefits the occurrence of Meiyu regimes in Jiang-huai region. Besides, analysis results also show that the westward extension of WNPSH drives tropical cyclones sourthwards so as to increase the occurrence of extreme precipitation in South China. This study helps to bridge the knowledge gap in the relationship between WNPSH, tropical cyclones, summer precipitation events in eastern China.

  18. Determinants of Sexual Violence among Eastern Ethiopian Secondary School Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MA Bekele, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the determinants of sexual violence among Eastern Ethiopia secondary school students. To this end, we studied risk and protective factors for both sexual violence perpetration and victimization, and the moderating role of protective factors on the

  19. Guo Dantong, Intercourse between Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    With growing interests in the studies of global history, scholars around the worldhave since the 1970s increasingly focused their attentions on the relationship between the ancient civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world. Guo Dantong has takenpart in the academic discussions on this subject in China in recent years, and publishedone of her important research results in 2011.

  20. Trachoma prevalence in rural areas of eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sharifi-Rad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence of trachoma in rural areas of eastern Iran. We collected swabs from 150 children in three areas. Results of PCR showed presence of chlamydia in four boys (5.97% and nine girls (10.84%. We suggest that in assessing the elimination of trachoma, WHO must consider border areas between countries.

  1. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N. [Pertamina Exploration and Production, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  2. Population trajectory of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Pardieck, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that burrowing owls have declined in Washington. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife is currently conducting a status review for burrowing owls which will help determine whether they should be listed as threatened or endangered in the state. To provide insights into the current status of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), we analyzed data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey using two analytical approaches to determine their current population trajectory in eastern Washington. We used a one-sample t-test to examine whether trend estimates across all BBS routes in Washington differed from zero. We also used a mixed model analysis to estimate the rate of decline in number of burrowing owls detected between 1968 and 2005. The slope in number of burrowing owls detected was negative for 12 of the 16 BBS routes in Washington that have detected burrowing owls. Numbers of breeding burrowing owls detected in eastern Washington declined at a rate of 1.5% annually. We suggest that all BBS routes that have detected burrowing owls in past years in eastern Washington be surveyed annually and additional surveys conducted to track population trends of burrowing owls at finer spatial scales in eastern Washington. In the meantime, land management and regulatory agencies should ensure that publicly managed areas with breeding burrowing owls are not degraded and should implement education and outreach programs to promote protection of privately owned areas with breeding owls.

  3. Determinants of Sexual Violence among Eastern Ethiopian Secondary School Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MA Bekele, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the determinants of sexual violence among Eastern Ethiopia secondary school students. To this end, we studied risk and protective factors for both sexual violence perpetration and victimization, and the moderating role of protective factors on the

  4. Sustainable energy successes in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Oesterfelt, P. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The publication describes more than 20 `good practices` in energy conservation in Central and Eastern Europe: successful campaigns and projects for increased energy efficiency and renewable energy. The cases are collected mainly by NGO-organisations in INFORSE (International Network for Sustainable Energy) - Europe as part of their contributions to the ECO-Forum Energy and Climate Group. (LN)

  5. An Interdisciplinary International Business Degree at Eastern Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2006, the College of Business at Eastern Michigan University (EMU) instituted a cross-disciplinary program in international business (IB). Business communication is a major component of the program. Moreover, the need for business communication in other languages contributed greatly to the cross-disciplinary nature of the program. This…

  6. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in eastern India: Some new observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs are hereditary, autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorders showing clinical and genetic heterogeneity. They are usually manifested clinically in the third to fifth decade of life although there is a wide variability in the age of onset. More than 36 different types of SCAs have been reported so far and about half of them are caused by pathological expansion of the trinucleotide, Cytosine Alanine Guanine (CAG repeat. The global prevalence of SCA is 0.3-2 per 100,000 population, SCA3 being the commonest variety worldwide, accounting for 20-50 per cent of all cases, though SCA 2 is generally considered as the commonest one in India. However, SCA6 has not been addressed adequately from India though it is common in the eastern Asian countries like, Japan, Korea and Thailand. Objective: The present study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of SCA6 in the city of Kolkata and the eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: 83 consecutive patients were recruited for the study of possible SCAs and their clinical features and genotype were investigated. Results: 6 of the 83 subjects turned out positive for SCA6, constituting therefore, 13.33% of the patient pool. Discussion: SCA6 is prevalent in the eastern part of India, though not as frequent as the other common varieties. Conclusions: Further community based studies are required in order to understand the magnitude of SCA6 in the eastern part, as well as in other regions of India.

  7. 76 FR 49760 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for authorization to abandon in place four reciprocating compressor units with a total of 4,400 horsepower and related appurtenances at Station No. 21-A of its Uniontown Compressor Station located in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. Texas Eastern states that there...

  8. Speciation of Fe in the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuroczy, C-E; Gerringa, L. J. A.; Klunder, M. B.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Timmermans, K. R.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2010-01-01

    In the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean iron (Fe) speciation was investigated in three size fractions the dissolvable from unfiltered samples the dissolved fraction (0 2 mu m) fraction were unsaturated with Fe with respect to the dissolved fraction thus these waters had a scavenging potential Crown

  9. Democratic Change in Central and Eastern Europe 1989-90

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the European Parliament’s archival documents (reports, resolutions and debates) undoubtedly demonstrates that the EP has been in the front-row when it comes to debating the events leading to democratic change in Central and Eastern European countries. Clearly voicing its concerns abo

  10. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  11. Mobility of Eastern European Citizens: Training and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Ioannis; Seremeti, Lambrini; Kalogeras, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore and present a higher education initiative towards the training and development of Eastern European citizens, who migrate to Greece, in pursuit of bettering their economic conditions and, simultaneously, become evolving social entities, adaptable to heterogeneous environments.…

  12. Rural Poverty in Three Eastern South Dakota Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlee, James L.; Riley, Marvin P.

    A sample of 120 low-income families receiving food commodities in 3 eastern South Dakota counties provided a socio-demographic overview of family characteristics; tested the Culture of Poverty approach for classifying rural, low-income families; tested the homogeneity among these families; and presented implications for policy-making and program…

  13. Socioeconomic Gradients in Eastern European Countries: Evidence from PIRLS 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Mirazchiyski, Plamen

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses educational inequalities related to socioeconomic status (SES) in 12 Eastern European countries that participated in the International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006. Economies and educational systems of these countries have undergone critical transformations since the fall of communism. The authors' analyses, using data…

  14. Fragmentation of Forest Communities in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest communities and therefore the beta diversity of forestland in the eastern United States. We combined forest inventory data with land cover data to compare 70 forest communities in terms of the amount and ownership of int...

  15. Poverty correlates and indicator-based targeting in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan; Braithwaite, Jeanine

    1998-01-01

    The authors compare poverty in three Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland) with poverty in three countries of the former Soviet Union (Estonia, Kyrgyz Republic, and Russia). They find striking differences between the post-Soviet and Eastern European experiences with poverty and targeting. Among patterns detected: a)Poverty in Eastern Europe is significantly lower than in former Soviet Union countries. b) Rural poverty is greater than urban poverty. c) In Eastern Europe th...

  16. High-Resolution Seismic Velocity and Attenuation Models of Eastern Tibet and Adjacent Regions (Post Print)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    mantle in this region. Similarly, a high velocity and high Q block in southeastern Tibet around eastern Bangong-Nujiang Suture and Eastern Himalaya ...Similarly, a high velocity and high Q block in southeastern Tibet around eastern Bangong-Nujiang Suture and Eastern Himalaya Syntaxis correlates well...underthrusting Indian plate. Azimuthal fast directions are consistent at all depths up to approximately 200 km, which suggests a vertical coherent

  17. Reliable positioning in a sparse GPS network, eastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Alinia, H.; Tiampo, K.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Canada hosts two regions that are prone to large earthquakes: western British Columbia, and the St. Lawrence River region in eastern Canada. Although eastern Ontario is not as seismically active as other areas of eastern Canada, such as the Charlevoix/Ottawa Valley seismic zone, it experiences ongoing moderate seismicity. In historic times, potentially damaging events have occurred in New York State (Attica, 1929, M=5.7; Plattsburg, 2002, M=5.0), north-central Ontario (Temiskaming, 1935, M=6.2; North Bay, 2000, M=5.0), eastern Ontario (Cornwall, 1944, M=5.8), Georgian Bay (2005, MN=4.3), and western Quebec (Val-Des-Bois,2010, M=5.0, MN=5.8). In eastern Canada, the analysis of detailed, high-precision measurements of surface deformation is a key component in our efforts to better characterize the associated seismic hazard. The data from precise, continuous GPS stations is necessary to adequately characterize surface velocities from which patterns and rates of stress accumulation on faults can be estimated (Mazzotti and Adams, 2005; Mazzotti et al., 2005). Monitoring of these displacements requires employing high accuracy GPS positioning techniques. Detailed strain measurements can determine whether the regional strain everywhere is commensurate with a large event occurring every few hundred years anywhere within this general area or whether large earthquakes are limited to specific areas (Adams and Halchuck, 2003; Mazzotti and Adams, 2005). In many parts of southeastern Ontario and western Québec, GPS stations are distributed quite sparsely, with spacings of approximately 100 km or more. The challenge is to provide accurate solutions for these sparse networks with an approach that is capable of achieving high-accuracy positioning. Here, various reduction techniques are applied to a sparse network installed with the Southern Ontario Seismic Network in eastern Ontario. Recent developments include the implementation of precise point positioning processing on acquired

  18. 40 CFR 81.148 - Eastern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.148 Eastern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastern Piedmont Intrastate...

  19. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate...

  20. 40 CFR 81.154 - Eastern Shore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.154 Eastern Shore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Shore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastern Shore Intrastate Air...

  1. Maintenance of eastern hemlock forests: Factors associated with hemlock vulnerability to hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Ann Fajvan; Petra. Bohall Wood

    2010-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.]) is the most shade-tolerant and long-lived tree species in eastern North America. The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) (HWA), is a nonnative invasive insect that feeds on eastern hemlock and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.). HWA currently is established in...

  2. The "East" Becomes the "South"? The "Autumn of the People" and the Future of Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Adam

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the fall of communism in eastern Europe. Applies Latin America models to eastern Europe. Suggests that revolutions are shaped by the systems against which they are directed. Concludes that the problems of eastern Europe are not caused by the system so much as by geography. Argues that poor capitalism may lie in the future for eastern…

  3. 75 FR 13524 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application March 15, 2010.... CP10-76-000, an application to construct and operate certain pipeline and ancillary facilities, with... supplies and supply diversification by accessing the Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern...

  4. Eastern Europe. On the centenary of the political project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the characteristics of Eastern Europe as a political pro-ject. The author considers the genesis of Eastern Europe as a political region and identifies several periods in its history. The author analyses key features of sover-eignization- desovereignization of the region and examines geopolitical projects of Intermarium. It is shown that Eastern Europe as such is an objective reality, whose history has not ended. At the same time, the author advances and proves the thesis that various ‘Baltic/Black Sea’ cooperation models aimed at isolating Russia act against the interests of all participants of the political process. A number of meth¬ods, including the historical and structural functional analyses and the system ap¬proach are used in the study. The central hypothesis is that, as a political project, Intermarium reflects an important part of the systemic features of Eastern Europe as a political region. However, it is not identical to the region in terms of its geography or political regionalism. The anti-Russian sentiment of the Intermarium project is dominant. Yet, it is not immanent in this group of concepts. Reformatting the Inter¬marium concept in line with the new Moscow-Warsaw-Berlin cooperation model can be considered a feasible political task, which requires an adequate scientific solution. Moreover, Eastern Europe has reached the point of bifurcation. The region may become another new source of instability in Europe. Intermarium projects — a traditional object of research – have to be re-evaluated in the new political and eco¬nomic conditions. This article is a step in this direction.

  5. Upper-Mantle Flow Driven Dynamic Topography in Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Eken, Tuna; Hakan Gogus, Oguz

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Anatolia is characterized by 2 km plateau uplift -in the last 10 Myrs-, high surface heat flow distribution, shallow Curie-point depth, anomalous gravity field. Seismological observations indicate relatively high Pn and Sn attenuation and significant low seismic velocity anomalies in the region. Moreover, the surface geology is associated predominantly with volcanic rocks in which melt production through mantle upwelling (following lithospheric delamination) has been suggested. It has been long known that the topographic loading in the region cannot be supported by crustal thickness (~45 km) based on the principle of Airy isostasy. Recent global geodynamic studies carried out for evaluating the post-collisional processes imply that there is an explicit dynamic uplift in Eastern Anatolia and its adjacent regions. In this study we investigate the instantaneous dynamic topography driven by 3-D upper-mantle flow in Eastern Anatolia. For this purpose we conducted numerous thermo-mechanical models using a 2-D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The available P-wave tomography data extracted along 10 profiles were used to obtain depth-dependent density anomalies in the region. We present resulting dynamic topography maps and estimated 3D mantle flow velocity vectors along these 2-D cross sections for each profile. The residual topography based on crustal thickness and observed topography was calculated and compared with other independent datasets concerning geological deformation and dynamic topography predictions. The results indicate an upper mantle driven dynamic uplift correlated with the under-compensated characteristic in Eastern Anatolia. We discuss our results combined with 3D mantle flow by considering seismic anisotropy studies in the region. Initial results indicate that high dynamic uplift and the localized low Pn velocities in concurrence with Pn anisotropy structures show nearly spatial coherence in Eastern Anatolia.

  6. Primary production in the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, J. Timothy; Mahoney, Kevin L.; Kuwahara, Victor S.; Kolber, Dorota D.; Calienes, Ruth; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2006-05-01

    The eastern tropical Pacific includes 28 million km 2 of ocean between 23.5°N and S and Central/South America and 140°W, and contains the eastern and equatorial branches of the north and South Pacific subtropical gyres plus two equatorial and two coastal countercurrents. Spatial patterns of primary production are in general determined by supply of macronutrients (nitrate, phosphate) from below the thermocline. Where the thermocline is shallow and intersects the lighted euphotic zone, biological production is enhanced. In the eastern tropical Pacific thermocline depth is controlled by three interrelated processes: a basin-scale east/west thermocline tilt, a basin-scale thermocline shoaling at the gyre margins, and local wind-driven upwelling. These processes regulate supply of nutrient-rich subsurface waters to the euphotic zone, and on their basis we have divided the eastern tropical Pacific into seven main regions. Primary production and its physical and chemical controls are described for each. Enhanced rates of macronutrient supply maintains levels of primary production in the eastern tropical Pacific above those of the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to the north and south. On the other hand lack of the micronutrient iron limits phytoplankton growth (and nitrogen fixation) over large portions of the open-ocean eastern tropical Pacific, depressing rates of primary production and resulting in the so-called high nitrate-low chlorophyll condition. Very high rates of primary production can occur in those coastal areas where both macronutrients and iron are supplied in abundance to surface waters. In these eutrophic coastal areas large phytoplankton cells dominate; conversely, in the open-ocean small cells are dominant. In a ‘shadow zone’ between the subtropical gyres with limited subsurface ventilation, enough production sinks and decays to produce anoxic and denitrified waters which spread beneath very large parts of the eastern tropical Pacific. Seasonal

  7. EASTERN SPIRITUAL TRADITIONS THROUGH THE LENS OF MODERN SCIENTIFIC WORLDVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana V. Danylova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims to analyze Eastern spiritual traditions in the context of modern scientific worldview. Methodology. The author has used hermeneutical methodology, along with integrative approach. Theoretical basis and results. Modern perception of the world is undergoing drastic changes: it shifts towards plurality, temporality, and complexity. Increasingly, people feel that their familiar world of order and stability gives way to chaotic, unpredictable world, which exists under its own rules. Old scientific theories, ideologies, and values are destroyed. This leads to awareness of imbalance, ambiguity of human existence and, thus, to the new explanation and understanding of reality. Today the universe is perceived through the lens of syncretism: it is impossible to separate human from nature, consciousness from matter, subject from object. Humanity faces such a chaotic, uncertain worldview not for the first time. Duality and attempts to overcome it permeate the entire history: from traditional archaic cultures to modern civilized societies. M. Foucault, J. Derrida, R. Barthes, U. Eco, G. Deleuze, J.-F.Lyotard urged to abandon dogmatism, monologue perception and explanation, interpretation based on binary oppositions. The world, which is necessary to reach, occurs to be Nothing, Nothingness. In this world, people are seeking for reality regardless of any rules, regulations, notions, and concepts. Here artificial constructs of the human mind, such as Material – Ideal, Determinism - Indeterminism, Finiteness - Infinity, Necessity – Randomness, are united. Trying to reconcile continuity of being with discreteness of consciousness, they appeal to Eastern mystical teachings, in particular, to Zen Buddhism. The core concept of this school is also based on the unity of all things and the idea of the singularity of the world. The main goal of Eastern mystical traditions is to achieve the state of absolute unity through meditative techniques

  8. Eastern Spiritual Traditions Through the Lens of Modern Scientific Worldview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana V. Danylova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims to analyze Eastern spiritual traditions in the context of modern scientific worldview. Methodology. The author has used hermeneutical methodology, along with integrative approach. Theoretical basis and results. Modern perception of the world is undergoing drastic changes: it shifts towards plurality, temporality, and complexity. Increasingly, people feel that their familiar world of order and stability gives way to chaotic, unpredictable world, which exists under its own rules. Old scientific theories, ideologies, and values are destroyed. This leads to awareness of imbalance, ambiguity of human existence and, thus, to the new explanation and understanding of reality. Today the universe is perceived through the lens of syncretism: it is impossible to separate human from nature, consciousness from matter, subject from object. Humanity faces such a chaotic, uncertain worldview not for the first time. Duality and attempts to overcome it permeate the entire history: from traditional archaic cultures to modern civilized societies. M. Foucault, J. Derrida, R. Barthes, U. Eco, G. Deleuze, J.-F.Lyotard urged to abandon dogmatism, monologue perception and explanation, interpretation based on binary oppositions. The world, which is necessary to reach, occurs to be Nothing, Nothingness. In this world, people are seeking for reality regardless of any rules, regulations, notions, and concepts. Here artificial constructs of the human mind, such as Material – Ideal, Determinism - Indeterminism, Finiteness - Infinity, Necessity – Randomness, are united. Trying to reconcile continuity of being with discreteness of consciousness, they appeal to Eastern mystical teachings, in particular, to Zen Buddhism. The core concept of this school is also based on the unity of all things and the idea of the singularity of the world. The main goal of Eastern mystical traditions is to achieve the state of absolute unity through meditative techniques

  9. POLITICAL OPTIONS AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS WITHIN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sandu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes in the security environment of Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus have been reshaping the strategies of the six small countries in the proximity of both the EU and Russia. Their attempts to take upon themselves their Soviet heritage and their sensitive geographical position were reflected by a mix of East-West orientations. Some of them chose to create stronger economic bonds with the EU members while others decided to anticipate Russian discontent in separatist areas they shelter and became members of the EEU. Regardless of their option, the Eastern Partnership members embarked? on a long road of political, social and economic changes, so that their stability and growth would become pillars of a stronger role on the regional and international arena in the future. The EU, in turn, has been supporting its partners to the East according to their level of commitment to reform and approximation, although the economic benefits of this relation are imperceptible.

  10. Dendroindication of drought in Rogatica region (Eastern Bosnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducić Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using the dendrochronological method in drought prediction in eastern Bosnia. As an indicator of drought, the standardized precipitation index (SPI was used. In the wider area of Rogatica (eastern Bosnia, 11 core samples from trees were taken. The best connection between the width of tree rings and drought was shown by the sample of a 67-year-old European silver fir (Abies alba from the mountain Bokšanica. Removal of the biological trend (standardization was performed by the autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA method. Calculations showed that precipitation, i.e. drought in the summer months, is crucial for radial increment of the sample. The obtained results of our research have been confirmed in examples in the region and further. [47007

  11. Reducing maternal mortality in the eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaini, R; Mahmoud, H

    2005-07-01

    Current efforts in some countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region are still insufficient to achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal on improving maternal health. Strong commitment, intensive efforts and effective national policies and strategies are now urgently required in order to translate vision into action. Such efforts and plans should target the strengthening of health systems, the expansion in the coverage of effective integrated interventions, and the recognition of the essential role of individuals, families and communities in making pregnancy safer. This article provides a background on the current situation of maternal health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, including underlying causes and contributing factors, and describes strategic directions aimed at accelerating the reduction of maternal mortality in the Region and moving closer to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

  12. Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in eastern Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Ramsay, Edward C; Patton, Sharon; New, John C

    2009-10-01

    Raccoon (Procyon lotor) carcasses (n=118) were collected from July through December 2007 throughout eastern Tennessee. Necropsies were performed, and Baylisascaris procyonis was collected from the gastrointestinal tract of infected carcasses. Prevalence rates were determined for the overall sample population, males and females, and adults and juveniles. The sample population had a B. procyonis prevalence of 12.7%. Males and females had a prevalence of 15% and 11%, respectively; prevalence in adults and juvenile was 13% and 12.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in prevalence rates between the different groups. Baylisascaris procyonis is an ascarid infection of raccoons that can infect humans and over 100 species of other animals. The presence of infection in raccoons, paired with the expansion of human populations in eastern Tennessee, is likely to lead to increased interactions between humans and raccoons and therefore an increased risk of human and domestic animal exposure to B. procyonis.

  13. Air pollution in eastern Asia an integrated perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xuemei; Brasseur, Guy

    2017-01-01

    This book, written by an international group of experts from China, Europe and the USA, presents a broad and comprehensive analysis of the chemical and meteorological processes responsible for the formation of air pollutants in eastern Asia, and in particular for the development of severe pollution episodes observed primarily during winter in the northeastern part of China. With the rapid population growth, economic development and urbanization occurring in Asia, air pollution has become a major environmental problem in this part of the world. The book is organized around six distinct parts. The first part of the volume offers a general perspective on issues related to air pollution including persistent haze events in eastern and southern Asia. The second part presents an overview of air pollution sources (i.e., anthropogenic and biomass burning sources). The third part analyzes in-situ observations of chemical species in China, while the fourth part focuses on space observations of gas-phase and aerosol spec...

  14. Mesoscale circulation along the Sakhalin Island eastern coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prants, Sergey V.; Andreev, Andrey G.; Uleysky, Michael Yu.; Budyansky, Maxim V.

    2017-02-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of mesoscale circulation along the eastern coast of the Sakhalin Island in the Okhotsk Sea is investigated using the AVISO velocity field and oceanographic data for the period from 1993 to 2016. It is found that mesoscale cyclones with the horizontal dimension of about 100 km occur there predominantly during summer, whereas anticyclones occur predominantly during fall and winter. The cyclones are generated due to a coastal upwelling forced by northward winds and the positive wind stress curl along the Sakhalin coast. The anticyclones are formed due to an inflow of low-salinity Amur River waters from the Sakhalin Gulf intensified by southward winds and the negative wind stress curl in the cold season. The mesoscale cyclones support the high biological productivity at the eastern Sakhalin shelf in July- August.

  15. Redefining Maritime Security Threats in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Arjun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This occasional paper analyzes the general security issues and trends relating to maritime trafficking of radiological and nuclear material using small vessels, minor ports, and unchecked areas of coastline existing in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region today. By the Eastern Indian Ocean Region is meant the area starting from the tip of the Indian peninsula in the west to the Straits of Malacca in the east. It lays focus on the potential sources of nuclear or radiological material that may be trafficked here. It further undertakes a study of the terrorist groups active in the region as well as the multinational or national interdiction organizations that have been created to counter maritime threats. It also seeks to discern the various technologies for detecting materials of concern available in the area. Finally, it ascertains possible methods and technologies to improve the maritime security system in the region.

  16. STRATEGIC MILITARY COLONISATION: THE CAPE EASTERN FRONTIER 1806–1872

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Oranje

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi met, and in many respects, key decisions taken on this frontier were seminal in the shaping of South Africa. This article seeks to analyse this frontier in a spatial manner, to analyse how British settlement patterns on the ground were influenced by strategy and policy. The time frame of the study reflects the truly imperial colonial era, from the second British occupation of the Cape colony in 1806 until representative self-governance of the Cape colony in 1872.

  17. Permo-Triassic Events in the Eastern Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Walter C.; Zunyi, Yang; Dickins, J. M.; Hongfu, Yin

    2003-12-01

    Permian and Triassic rocks in the eastern Tethyan region form continuous marine sequences that record the waning phases of the Paleozoic and the early stages of the Mesozoic eras. This book describes and interprets these rocks, summarizing the distribution of major fossil groups in a way that will allow detailed comparison with strata of comparable age in the western Tethys and other parts of the world. The sixteen contributions by forty authors are the culmination of the five-year long International Geological Correlation Programme Project 203. The detailed information presented here is gathered from many areas in the eastern Tethyan region - from France to Australia - and will be of use in the evaluation of the major changes in the global marine biosphere known to have taken place at the end of the Paleozoic era. The stratigraphic record for this fascinating segment of Earth history is not widespread elsewhere in the world and is most continuous in the region covered by this book.

  18. Pollybeak Deformity in Middle Eastern Rhinoplasty: Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Wael K A; Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The pollybeak deformity is one of the commonest causes of revision rhinoplasty. The Middle Eastern nose has certain criteria that predispose to the development of pollybeak deformity. The aim of this study is to detect the factors contributing to the development of pollybeak deformity in the Middle Eastern nose and methods used to prevent as well as to treat such deformity. Out of the 1,160 revision patients included in this study, 720 (62%) patients had a pollybeak deformity. The commonest contributing factors included underprojected tip with poor support in 490 (68%) patients, excessive supratip scarring in 259 (36%) patients, overresected bony dorsum in 202 (28%) patients, and high anterior septal angle in 173 (24%) patients. The methods used by the authors to treat the pollybeak deformity are described, along with the local steroid injection protocol used to guard against the recurrence of pollybeak deformity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Urban activism in Central and Eastern Europe: A theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bitušíková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study brings an overview of selected transdisciplinary theoretical approaches to the study of urban movements and activism placed within the framework of civil society and social movements, focused on the region of Central and Eastern Europe, and seen from a social anthropological perspective. It attempts to challenge older academic writings that described civil society in Central and Eastern Europe as underdeveloped and weak, and presents research that points out a specific nature of activism in the countries of the region. It builds primarily on the concepts of civil society, social movements, urban movements and urban activism as presented by scholars both from “Western” and “Central and Eastern” European countries and demonstrates that after more than two decades since the fall of communism it is still important to take different historic, political, economic, social and cultural contexts into account when comparing urban movements and activism within Europe.

  20. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  1. Mesoscale circulation along the Sakhalin Island eastern coast

    CERN Document Server

    Prants, S V; Budyansky, M V; Uleysky, M Yu

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of mesoscale circulation along the eastern coast of the Sakhalin Island in the Okhotsk Sea is investigated using AVISO velocity field and oceanographic data for the period from 1993 to 2016. It is found that mesoscale cyclones with the horizontal dimension of about 100 km occur there predominantly during summer, whereas anticyclones occur predominantly during fall and winter. The cyclones are generated due to the coastal upwelling forced by northward winds and the positive wind stress curl along the Sakhalin coast. The anticyclones are formed due to an inflow of low-salinity Amur-River waters from the Sakhalin Gulf intensified by southward winds and the negative wind stress curl in the cold season. The mesoscale cyclones support the high biological productivity at the eastern Sakhalin shelf in July - August.

  2. Cladonia metacorallifera, a lichen species new to the Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A rare lichen Cladonia metacorallifera was found in the Bieszczady Mts. and this is the first report of the species from the Eastern Carpathians. In Poland, its occurrence is probably limited to small populations scattered in high mountain situations. The data of distribution of the species in Poland, ecological characterization of the new locality and some taxonomical remarks concerning the recorded specimen, as well as a photograph of its habit are provided.

  3. Climate cycles and dissolved oxygen variability off eastern Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, M.; San Diego-McGlone, M.; Jacinto, G.; Siringan, F.; Villanoy, C.; Gordon, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    We assess the effect of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the variability of dissolved oxygen off eastern Luzon, Philippines. In this area, bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) into the Kuroshio and Mindanao Currents occurs. Hydrographic parameters and sediment cores obtained during the oceanographic cruises in 2011 and 2012, and data from the World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) were used in the study. Variability in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was observed from surface to the thermocline between the neutral (2011) and La Niña (2012) phase. Based on optimum multiparameter analysis, there was a change in the fraction of water masses in the area. Under neutral conditions, waters off eastern Luzon consist mainly of water (NPSW) from the Kuroshio recirculation gyre that contain higher DO. In contrast, during La Niña conditions the North Equatorial Current becomes stronger bringing in water (NPTW) with lower DO. Thus, variability in DO off eastern Luzon is influenced by the change in the source of the water mass arising from the shift in bifurcation latitude that is linked to ENSO. Longer-term variability in DO was examined using a 2.15m sediment core taken in the shelf off eastern Luzon. The sediment record was used to reconstruct the depositional redox environment in the last 1000 years. The elements V, Ni, Cr, Mn and Fe were normalized to Ti and used as chemical proxies to track DO variability. Results show that DO fluctuations have occurred in the past, and these changes are in agreement with DO variability driven by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  4. Phasor measurement of wind power plant operation in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2007-01-01

    Four Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) record continuously voltage and current phasors in the 400 kV and 132 kV transmission system of Eastern Denmark. The abstract evaluates the unique concept for power system monitoring using PMUs. It focuses on utilization of synchronized phasor measurements fro...... measurements from a traditional SCADA system. The case reveals the close relation between voltages, power flows and voltage phase angles over a wide area....

  5. Seismic anisotropy of upper mantle in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the polarization analysis of teleseismic SKS waveform data recorded at 65 seismic stations which respectively involved in the permanent and temporary broadband seismograph networks deployed in eastern China, the SKS fast-wave direction and the delay time between the fast and slow shear waves at each station were determined by use of SC method and the stacking analysis method, and then the image of upper mantle anisotropy in eastern China was acquired. In the study region, from south to north, the fast-wave polarization directions are basically EW in South China, gradually clockwise rotate to NWW-SEE in North China, then to NW-SE in Northeast China. The delay time falls into the interval [0.41 s, 1.52 s]. Anisotropic characteristics in eastern China indicate that the upper mantle anisotropy is possibly caused by both the collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates and the subduction from the Pacific and Philippine Sea Plates to the Eurasian Plate. The collision between two plates made the crust of western China thickening and uplifting and the material eastwards extruding, and then caused the upper mantle flow eastwards and southeastwards. The subduction of Pacific Plate and Philippine Sea Plate has resulted in the lithosphere and the asthenosphere deformation in eastern China, and made the alignment of upper mantle peridotite lattice parallel to the deformation direction. The fast-wave polarization direction is consistent with the direction of lithosphere extension and the GPS velocity direction, implying that the crust-upper mantle deformation is possibly a vertically coherent deformation.

  6. Seismic anisotropy of upper mantle in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG LiJun; WANG ChunYong; Ding ZhiFeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the polarization analysis of teleseismic SKS waveform data recorded at 65 seismic stations which respectively involved in the permanent and temporary broadband seismograph networks de-ployed in eastern China,the SKS fast-wave direction and the delay time between the fast and slow shear waves at each station were determined by use of SC method and the stacking analysis method,and then the image of upper mantle anisotropy in eastern China was acquired.In the study region,from south to north,the fast-wave polarization directions are basically EW in South China,gradually clock-wise rotate to NWW-SEE in North China,then to NW-SE in Northeast China.The delay time falls into the Interval [0.41 s,1.52 s].Anisotropic characteristics in eastern China indicate that the upper mantle anisotropy is possibly caused by both the collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates and the subduction from the Pacific and Philippine Sea Plates to the Eurasian Plate.The collision between two plates made the crust of western China thickening and uplifting and the material eastwards extruding,and then caused the upper mantle flow eastwards and southeastwards.The subduction of Pacific Plate and Philippine Sea Plate has resulted in the lithosphere and the asthenosphere deformation in eastern China,and made the alignment of upper mantle peridotite lattice parallel to the deformation direction.The fast-wave polarization direction is consistent with the direction of lithosphere extension and the GPS velocity direction,implying that the crust-upper mantle deformation is possibly a vertically co-herent deformation.

  7. Distribution and activity of diazotrophs in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Rachel A.; Subramaniam, Ajit; Jonathan P Zehr

    2009-01-01

    The gene abundance and gene expression of six diazotroph populations from the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic in June 2007 were examined using nifH gene quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q PCR) methods. Of all the diazotrophs, Trichodesmium spp. was the most abundant with the highest number of gene copies in the Gulf of Guinea. Trichodesmium also had the highest nitrogenase gene transcript abundance overall with the maximum in samples collected at the equator and in waters influenced by the...

  8. Eastern Health Board Regional Orthodontic Service: an initial audit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, P A

    1997-01-01

    This initial audit of 600 recently assessed Eastern Health Board orthodontic patients suggests that a large number of them (47 per cent) requires referral for routine restorative and preventive dental care. Closer links are needed with general dental practitioners and community dental surgeons to resolve these needs. The trend for a high referral of females and Class 11 Division 1 malocclusion type correlated well with studies in other countries.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In Central Eastern Europe (CEE) the transition to market democracy significantly influenced the corporate governance practice. The region, demonstrates much more diversity in corporate governance than expected in generally similar transition economies. This research aims to focus on identifying the similarities and differences of corporate governance in these countries based on four research hypotheses formulated around two corporate governance variables: number of codes issued and years of d...

  10. Locational Strategies of International Hotel Corporations in Eastern Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Colin; Dembinski, Paul; Vanetti, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated expansion strategies of international hotel operators in Eastern Central Europe. Due to the growing importance of services in economic development, there is an impressive body of knowledge on the process of internationalization and service industries. The last comprehensive academic study on internationalization and the hotel industry was undertaken at the beginning of the 1990’s, however, and we believed that with the major changes impacting upon the industry due to t...

  11. Historical evidence of faulting in Eastern Anatolia and Northern Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Melville

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical data show that like the North Anatolian fault zone, which was delineated by a series of earthquakes during this century from east to west, so was the conjugate Eastern Anatolian fault zone delineated from the northeast to the southwest by a succession of large earthquakes in earlier times, with a major event at its junction with the Dead Sea fault system. This event was associated with surface faulting and occurred in a region seismically quiescent for nearly two centuries.

  12. The South Eastern Europe Higher Education Area: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Lacrama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Through history, South Eastern Europe has been a difficult and highly heterogeneous area of the continent. Nevertheless, recent developments have proved that a better future is possible. An important component of this genuine healing process is establishing connections and partnerships among universities inside the region. The present paper advocates the use of modern educational technology in order to implement common scientific and educational programs in this area.

  13. UK Migration Policy and Migration from Eastern Partnership Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines UK migration policy and recent migration flows from Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries to the UK. Although inflows of migrant workers were relatively large in the mid-2000s, especially amongst Ukrainians, these have fallen following changes to UK immigration policy, especially the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme and the introduction of the Points Based System. As a result, the stock of migrants from EaP countries resident in the UK is small, especially in comparison ...

  14. Eastern European Transformation and Youth Attitudes toward Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Haußmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This cross-national examination of the motives behind adolescent approval of violence in major cities in Germany and four Eastern European transformation societies (Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, Slovenia draws on Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT, which leads us to expect higher instrumental motivation for violence among adolescents in the transforming societies. Differences in institutional structure and cultural orientations between Germany and the Eastern European societies are assessed using data from ILO and ESS. Analysis of the different motives for violence is based on data collected by the Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (KFN in Kraków, Volgograd, Ljubljana, Plzen, and Hamburg. Comparability and cross-cultural interpretability of the violence
    attitude measure is assessed by applying confirmatory factor analyses in multi-group comparisons. A lack of sufficient data meant that specific assumed linkages as implied by IAT could not be established, but the results for a specific instrumental/utilitarian motive for violence and for institutional structure and cultural orientations point to the utility of applying insights from IAT to understanding the dynamics of violence within the Eastern European context of transformation.
    We find empirical indications that specific features of the family mediate the “Eastern effect” on the instrumental/utilitarian motive. Further research is needed to discover whether economic dominance affects motives for youth violence indirectly via the socialization provided by non-economic institutions rather than directly via cultural orientations.

  15. Problems of the active tectonics of the Eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javakhishvili, Z.; Godoladze, T.; Dreger, D. S.; Mikava, D.; Tvaliashvili, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Black Sea Basin is the part of the Arabian Eurasian Collision zone and important unit for understanding the tectonic process of the region. This complex basin comprises two deep basins, separated by the mid-Black Sea Ridge. The basement of the Black Sea includes areas with oceanic and continental crust. It was formed as a "back-arc" basin over the subduction zone during the closing of the Tethys Ocean. In the past decades the Black Sea has been the subject of intense geological and geophysical studies. Several papers were published about the geological history, tectonics, basement relief and crustal and upper mantle structure of the basin. New tectonic schemes were suggested (e. g. Nikishin et al 2014, Shillington et al. 2008, Starostenko et al. 2004 etc.). Nevertheless, seismicity of the Black Sea is poorly studied due to the lack of seismic network in the coastal area. It is considered, that the eastern basin currently lies in a compressional setting associated with the uplift of the Caucasus and structural development of the Caucasus was closely related to the evolution of the Eastern Black Sea Basin. Analyses of recent sequence of earthquakes in 2012 can provide useful information to understand complex tectonic structure of the Eastern Black Sea region. Right after the earthquake of 2012/12/23, National Seismic monitoring center of Georgia deployed additional 4 stations in the coastal area of the country, close to the epicenter area, to monitor aftershock sequence. Seismic activity in the epicentral area is continuing until now. We have relocated approximately 1200 aftershocks to delineate fault scarf using data from Georgian, Turkish and Russian datacenters. Waveforms of the major events and the aftershocks were inverted for the fault plane solutions of the events. For the inversion were used green's functions, computed using new 1D velocity model of the region. Strike-slip mechanism of the major events of the earthquake sequence indicates extensional

  16. The Eastern Dimension of America’s New European Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    President Vacldv Klaus has been one of the most consistent critics of Visegrdd, at one point viewing it as a Western reconstruction of Eastern Europe that...People in Need. Former President Vaclav Havel used his global stature to campaign internationally against oppressive regimes, but the government itself...was underpinned by the moral authority of President Vaclav Havel. Havel was a strong proponent of NATO enlargement and the inclusion of all post

  17. FUNDS INVESTMENT STRATEGIES ON CAPITAL MARKETS FROM EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REGEP HORAŢIU DAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the understanding of how to establish investment strategies of investment funds depending on the area, sector of investment, and time horizon, and the management involvement in investment decisions making. There have been considered funds from Trustnet, investing in Eastern Europe. For each investment fund, the sector and also a set of indicators to measure performance and risks have been analyzed: dynamics, beta, alpha, Sharpe ratio, info ratio and R-Squared.

  18. Cancers in Eastern Libya: first results from Benghazi Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodalal, Zuhir; Azzuz, Raouf; Bendardaf, Riyad

    2014-05-28

    To study the pattern of cancer incidence and determine the incidence rates in Eastern Libya (for the first time in a decade). A hospital-based registry of cancer patients was formed using records from the primary oncology center in eastern Libya - focusing on those diagnosed in the year 2012. The most common malignancies in men were cancers of the colon (22.3%, n = 90), lung (20.3%, n = 82), prostate (16.1%, n = 65), pancreas (4.2%, n = 17) and liver (4.2%, n = 17). For women, they were found to be cancers of the breast (41.5%, n = 213), colon (16.4%, n = 84), uterus (8%, n = 41), ovary (5.5%, n = 28) and pancreas (3.1%, n = 16). Additionally age-standardized rates (ASR) were determined for Libya. The different cities and towns in eastern Libya were compared for any variation. The city of Beida in particular was found to have a remarkably high incidence of gastric cancer. The different findings were discussed and comparisons were made with past literature as well as the incidence rates for neighbouring countries. The incidence rates given for the eastern region showed differences from previously reported values (i.e., the rate of colon cancer was the highest in North Africa whereas other malignancies occurred less frequently). Potential explanations for the urban-rural difference as well as the difference in incidence rates were put forth. The significance of this study is that it establishes a baseline of cancer incidence which should be the backbone for any future national cancer plan in Libya. Proper surveillance programs need to be in place and healthcare policy should be adjusted to take into account the more prevalent and pressing cancers in society.

  19. Determinants of Sexual Violence among Eastern Ethiopian Secondary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    MA Bekele, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the determinants of sexual violence among Eastern Ethiopia secondary school students. To this end, we studied risk and protective factors for both sexual violence perpetration and victimization, and the moderating role of protective factors on the relation between risk factors and sexual violence perpetration and victimization. Accordingly, we found 70% of the young men perpetrating and 68% of the young women experiencing at least one instan...

  20. Studies of the coal facies in Eastern Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitseva, Lyudmila; Ivanova, Ariadna; Zhernova, Halina [O. Gonchar str., 55b, Kiev 01054 (Ukraine)

    2004-04-23

    This article is a short review concerning the knowledge of petrographic compositions and origins of the diverse age coals in the eastern Ukraine regions, i.e. the Carboniferous age coals of the Dnieper-Donets Basin and the same age coals of the Donets Basin one as well as the Paleogene coals of Dnieper Brown Coal Basin. It was concluded that the coal-forming conditions depend on the geotectonic situations of the above basins.

  1. New interpretation of the deep mantle structure beneath eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengfei; Liu, Shaofeng; Lin, Chengfa; Yao, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Recent study of high resolution seismic tomography presents a large mass of high velocity abnormality beneath eastern China near the phase change depth, expanding more than 1600km-wide in East-west cross-section across the North China plate. This structure high is generally believed to be the subducted slab of Pacific plate beneath the Eurasia continent, while its origin and dynamic effect on the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of eastern China remain to be controversial. We developed a subduction-driven geodynamic mantle convection model that honors a set of global plate reconstruction data since 230Ma to help understand the formation and evolution of mantle structure beneath eastern China. The assimilation of plate kinematics, continuous evolving plate margin, asymmetric subduction zone, and paleo seafloor age data enables the spatial and temporal consistency between the geologic data and the mantle convection model, and guarantees the conservation of the buoyancy flux across the lithosphere and subducted slabs. Our model achieved a first order approximation between predictions and the observed data. Interestingly, the model suggests that the slab material stagnated above discontinuity didn't form until 15Ma, much later than previous expected, and the fast abnormality in the mid-mantle further west in the tomographic image is interpreted to be the remnants of the Mesozoic Izanagi subduction. Moreover, detailed analysis suggests that the accelerated subduction of Philippine Sea plate beneath Eurasia plate along the Ryukyu Trench and Nankai Trough since 15Ma may largely contribute to extending feature above 670km discontinuity. The long distance expansion of the slab material in the East-west direction may be an illusion caused by the approximate spatial perpendicularity between the cross-section and the subduction direction of the Philippine Sea plate. Our model emphasizes the necessity of the re-examination on the geophysical observation and its tectonic and

  2. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W; Mullany, Luke C; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  3. Eastern European Political Socialization Modeling Research: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.

  4. Return migration to Eastern Kentucky and the stem family concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S E

    1987-01-01

    This research provides a conceptual framework--based on the stem family concept--with which to explore the cyclical nature of return migration to Eastern Kentucky. The work of Brown, Schwarzweller, and Mangalam shows how the stem family facilitates the outward movement of migrants during times of economic opportunity outside Appalachia, while providing a potential haven when sociocultural pulls within Appalachia exceed the economic tugs outside the region. Responses from 119 households in Laurel, Pike, and Powell counties are used to test hypotheses associated with the general model. The survey results support the continued existence of extreme stem family forces within Eastern Kentucky. Most immigrants are return migrants; return migration motives continue to be more related to sociocultural factors than they are job-related decisions. Most returnees are well below retirement age, and even the younger and more educated among these have a strong preference for remaining in Eastern Kentucky, although their historical tendency had been to move away when economic pulls are strong enough. The work of Brown, Schwarzweller, and Mangalam shows how the stem family facilitates the outward movement of migrants during times of economic opportunity outside Appalachia, while providing a potential haven when sociocultural pulls within Appalachia exceed the economic tugs outside the region. Overall, there is a need to better understand the role of awareness space in the destination selection of cyclical migrants.

  5. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadira A Al-Baghli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.

  6. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  7. Fingerprinting of Natural Product by Eastern Blotting Using Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We succeeded in developing the fingerprint of natural product by eastern blotting using monoclonal antibodies. After developing and separating them on a TLC plate, solasodine glycosides are oxidized by NaIO4 and reacted with a protein to give conjugates which are recognized with anti-solamargine monoclonal antibody (MAb. Anti-solamargine MAb having wide cross-reactivity can stain and detect all solasodine glycosides by fingerprint. Different sensitivity between solamargine and solasonine was observed. The detection limit was 1.6 ng of solasonine. The hydrolysed products of solamargine were determined by fingerprint of eastern blotting compared to their Rf values depending on the sugar number. Fingerprint by eastern blotting using anti-ginsenoside Rb1 MAb distinguished the formula containing ginseng prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine. By double-staining of ginsenosides it is possible to suggest that the staining color shows the pharmacological activity, such as the purple bands indicate ginsenosides having stimulation activity, and the blue color indicated compound like ginsenosides possessed the depression affect for the central nervous system (CNS, respectively.

  8. Fiscal Descentralization in Eastern Europe: Trends and Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander ARISTOVNIK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to provide an overview of the fiscal decentralization process in emerging market economies in Eastern Europe in the last 20 years. Using the methodology developed by Vo (2009, the article assesses the degree of fiscal decentralization in the region. Conceptually, the measurement of fiscal decentralization focuses on fiscal autonomy and on the fiscal importance of subnational governments. The empirical analysis reveals that the highest level of fiscal decentralization (centralization is found in Russia (Armenia among non-EU members and in Estonia (Slovak Republic among EU members of the Eastern European countries. In addition, the empirical results show that, in general, the degree of fiscal decentralization is higher in developed OECD countries than in most Eastern European countries (EECs. However, in contrast to our expectations, there has been an alarming downward trend of the fiscal decentralization index (FDI in most countries of the region over the last two decades. Moreover, the article also examines the effects of fiscal decentralization on growth and public sector size in EECs. The analysis provides some evidence that increases in public sector decentralization are associated with higher income levels. Finally, our results suggest that fiscal decentralization in EECs generally leads to an increase in the size of government, albeit there are some significant differences between EU and non-EU member states.

  9. Defining a pelagic typology of the eastern English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavenne, Juliette; Marchal, Paul; Vaz, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    Classifying marine habitats is a growing research field and is of increasing interest to spatial planners and managers. Most studies have predominantly focused on the seabed to determine benthic habitat types, and only limited attention has been paid to the water column. Classification projects aim at identifying candidate management units for the application of various regional or national regulations such as the European Water Framework Directive. Here, we propose a seasonal classification of the water column in the eastern English Channel, which we validated with biological data. For the three tested compartments, phytoplankton, zooplankton and pelagic fishes, the validation results were satisfactory, with recall values (i.e. percentage of observations correctly assigned in a given water type) ranging from 0.5 to 1. This validation was a crucial step to verify that the proposed typology was ecologically relevant and to use it as a biodiversity surrogate in management and conservation plans. Because management plans are generally set on an annual rather than a seasonal basis, we also produced a "multi-seasonal" typology encompassing seasonal variability, which can be used as an appropriate all year round description of the water column attributes in the eastern English Channel. The "multi-seasonal" typology reflected the relative stability of the French waters and the central part of the eastern English Channel and the strongest variability of the English coastal waters and the Dover strait.

  10. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W Davis

    Full Text Available Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations.We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale was moderate/high in 91 (13.2% households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%, and 210 households (30.6% reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes.Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  11. Geodynamic evolution of early Mesozoic sedimentary basins in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Babaahmadi, A.; Esterle, J.

    2014-12-01

    Eastern Australia is covered by a series of continental sedimentary basins deposited during the Triassic and Jurassic, but the geodynamic context of these basins is not fully understood. Using gridded aeromagnetic data, seismic reflection data, geological maps, digital elevation models, and field observations, we conducted a structural synthesis aimed at characterizing major structures and deformation style in the Triassic-Jurassic sedimentary basins of eastern Australia. Our results show evidence for four alternating episodes of rifting and contractional events during the Triassic. Two major episodes of rifting, characterized by syn-sedimentary steep normal faults and bimodal volcanism, resulted in the development of the Early-Middle Triassic Esk-Nymboida Rift System and the early Late Triassic Ipswich Basin. Faults in the Esk-Nymboida Rift System have been controlled by a pre-existing oroclinal structure. Each phase of rifting was followed by a contractional event, which produced folds, reverse faults and unconformities in the basins. Since the latest Late Triassic, thermal subsidence led to the deposition of continental sediments in the Clarence-Moreton Basin, which continued until the Early Cretaceous. We suggest that the geodynamic control on the alternating episodes of rifting and contraction during the Triassic in eastern Australia was ultimately related to plate boundary migration and switches between trench retreat and advance.

  12. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W.; Mullany, Luke C.; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K.; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. Methods and Findings We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Conclusion Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations. PMID:26308850

  13. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  14. Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Futo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The analytical and statistical services of border management organizations in Central and Eastern European countries have registered and accumulated a vast body of knowledge on the demographics and mechanisms of illegal migration over the last one-and-a-half decade. This paper attempts to tap this resource by summarising the results of a yearly survey among border guards of 17 countries. A set of quantitative indicators of illegal migration is developed, presented and interpreted, based on the answers of the border services to a series of quantitative and qualitative questions. This empirical material is used to evaluate the dynamics and pattern of illegal migration in Central and Eastern Europe on the one hand, and to examine the development of border management strategies on the other. The impacts of legal and institutional reforms are investigated in light of the temporal and spatial variations of border apprehension statistics. The interdependence of the two processes is reviewed from the point of view of national border management authorities, perhaps the most authoritative source of information on the issue. The results of the authors’ annual survey indicate that the progressive development of migration control mechanisms at national and international levels seems to have a significant impact on irregular migration flows as most indicators of illegal migration have significantly decreased after the turn of the century. At the same time, the geographical distribution of illegal migration flows in Central and Eastern European countries has become more complex over the years.

  15. Macro-scale assessment of demographic and environmental variation within genetically derived evolutionary lineages of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an imperiled conifer of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha M. Prasad; Kevin M. Potter

    2017-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) occupies a large swath of eastern North America and has historically undergone range expansion and contraction resulting in several genetically separate lineages. This conifer is currently experiencing mortality across most of its range following infestation of a non-native insect. With the goal of better...

  16. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP INITIATIVE IN AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna GOMOLKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan established political relations with the EU during the implementation of TACIS Programme projects and signed the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement with the EU in 1996. It joined the European Neighbourhood Policy in 2004 and the Eastern Partnership programme in 2009. Despite the sceptical attitude taken by Azerbaijan's government towards the Eastern Partnership initiative, the EU earmarked further funds for Azerbaijan for 2011–2014 as part of the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument. During the third Eastern Partnership summit in Vilnius in November 2013, Azerbaijan signed only an agreement concerning visa facilitations and readmission. However, it also undertook certain measures as part of the five Eastern Partnership initiatives. In the framework of the Integrated Border Management Programme, Azerbaijan implemented projects connected with improving the access of resettled people to the judicial system, creation of electronic border control systems, social protection, increasing public awareness to eliminate domestic violence, improving assimilation of asylumseekers and immigrants, and supporting occupational health organisations. Activities aimed at supporting SMEs included training for entrepreneurs, promotional conferences and loans to the SME sector. Recommendations of the initiative promoting the creation of regional electrical and renewable energy markets were implemented by Azerbaijan in the form of 33 projects as part of the INOGATE Programme. With respect to environmental management, Azerbaijandeveloped a digital regional atlas of natural disasters, and with respect to natural disaster mitigation it planned population protection measures. Azerbaijan was ranked last but one in the evaluation presented in the annual report prepared by the EU. The transformation process in this country has been slow and illusory in certain aspects. Nevertheless, the EU has continued its

  18. Identifying spatial and temporal variations in seismicity in eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Atkinson, G. M.; Fereidoni, A.; Bhattacharya, P.; Cho, N.; Kazemian, J.; Vincent, P.; Gonzalez, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Natural earthquake fault systems are highly heterogeneous in space; inhomogeneities occur because of the varying internal structures and material strengths that dissipate stress differently. However, because analysis of the actual earthquake fault system remains incomplete due to the inherent difficulty in sampling the solid Earth (Richter, 1958; Kanamori, 1981; Geller et al., 1997), much of the recent research in statistical seismology has centered on investigating the variety of spatial and temporal patterns that exist in local and regional data. In particular, in recent years a combination of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and seismicity data analysis has established the link between variations in seismicity rates and the dynamics of the underlying stress field (Dieterich, 1994; Dieterich et al., 2002; Toda et al., 2002; Rundle et al., 2002; Tiampo et al., 2002, 2006; Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005). However, this research has predominantly focused on tectonically-active regions with a relatively high rate of background seismicity. Here we present new work that quantifies seismicity rate changes in the intraplate region of eastern Canada in order to identify spatial and temporal variations in local and regional stress (Tiampo et al, 2002, 2006). Although stable eastern North America generally has much lower seismicity than plate boundary regions, there are areas of substantial seismicity and earthquake hazard. The bulk of the eastern Canadian seismicity is concentrated in both the lower Saint Lawrence seismic zone, downriver from Québec City and the Charlevoix seismic zone to the west of Québec City. Although Mazzotti and Adams (2005) estimate that seismic strain rates in most of eastern Canada are about 10-13 to 10-11/yr, exceptions to these low strain rates can be found in these regions of higher seismic activation. These seismically active zones generally are associated with large lithospheric-scale paleotectonic geologic features and this strong

  19. Precipitation and temperature changes in eastern India by multiple trend detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Panda, Sudhindra N.; Pradhan, Rudra P.; Singh, Amanpreet; Kawamura, Akira

    2016-11-01

    The present study deals with spatial and temporal trend analysis of precipitation and temperature (1970-2004) in eastern India. Long-term trend direction and magnitude of change over time (annual and seasonal) were detected and analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Sen's slope estimator, Least square linear regression, Spearman rank correlation and Sequential Mann-Kendall test. In addition to it, correlation analysis was also performed. Trend analysis of annual rainfall by different methods indicated similar annual trends in eastern India. North-eastern, south-eastern and western parts of eastern India indicated increasing trend, whereas the north-western, central and southern parts showed decreasing trend. A similar trend was observed by different methods in case of seasonal rainfall. During winter season, decreasing trend was observed in the central part, whereas similar results were obtained for pre-and post-monsoon in the western part. The trend during monsoon season was found similar to annual rainfall trend. Abrupt change in trend of rainfall with time was lacking in eastern India. Maximum temperature analysis indicated increasing trend in the western part for all the seasons (except in monsoon) and decreasing trend in the eastern part. On the contrary, increasing trend was observed in the eastern part and decreasing trend in the western half of the study area for all the seasons in case of minimum temperature. Significant changes were observed during monsoon season as compared to other seasons. A decreasing trend in mean temperature was observed in the central, southern and north western parts, whereas it was found to be increasing in the north-eastern, western and south-eastern parts. In majority of the eastern India region, any abrupt change of trend in temperatures with time was not clearly observed. Negative correlation between rainfall and maximum temperature was observed in the entire eastern India. Similar results were observed in case of minimum temperature

  20. Predictability of summer extreme precipitation days over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Bin

    2017-08-01

    Extreme precipitation events have severe impacts on human activity and natural environment, but prediction of extreme precipitation events remains a considerable challenge. The present study aims to explore the sources of predictability and to estimate the predictability of the summer extreme precipitation days (EPDs) over eastern China. Based on the region- and season-dependent variability of EPDs, all stations over eastern China are divided into two domains: South China (SC) and northern China (NC). Two domain-averaged EPDs indices during their local high EPDs seasons (May-June for SC and July-August for NC) are therefore defined. The simultaneous lower boundary anomalies associated with each EPDs index are examined, and we find: (a) the increased EPDs over SC are related to a rapid decaying El Nino and controlled by Philippine Sea anticyclone anomalies in May-June; (b) the increased EPDs over NC are accompanied by a developing La Nina and anomalous zonal sea level pressure contrast between the western North Pacific subtropical high and East Asian low in July-August. Tracking back the origins of these boundary anomalies, one or two physically meaningful predictors are detected for each regional EPDs index. The causative relationships between the predictors and the corresponding EPDs over each region are discussed using lead-lag correlation analyses. Using these selected predictors, a set of Physics-based Empirical models is derived. The 13-year (2001-2013) independent forecast shows significant temporal correlation skills of 0.60 and 0.74 for the EPDs index of SC and NC, respectively, providing an estimation of the predictability for summer EPDs over eastern China.

  1. Comparing the nature of the western and eastern Azores mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genske, Felix S.; Beier, Christoph; Stracke, Andreas; Turner, Simon P.; Pearson, Norman J.; Hauff, Folkmar; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Haase, Karsten M.

    2016-01-01

    The Azores islands in the central North-Atlantic originate from a regional melting anomaly, probably created by melting hot, unusually hydrous and geochemically enriched mantle. Here, we present Hf, Pb and Os isotopic data in geochemically well-characterised primitive lavas from the islands Flores and Corvo that are located west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), as well as submarine samples from a subsided island west of Flores and from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes drilled in the western part of the Azores platform and beyond. These are compared to existing data from the Azores islands east of the MAR. The geodynamic origin of the two islands west of the ridge axis and furthest from the inferred plume centre in the central part of the plateau is enigmatic. The new data constrain the source compositions of the Flores and Corvo lavas and show that the western and eastern Azores mantle is isotopically similar, with the exception of an enriched component found exclusively on eastern São Miguel. Trace element ratios involving high field strength elements (HFSE) are distinctly different in the western islands (e.g. twofold higher Nb/Zr) compared to any of the islands east of the MAR. A similar signature is observed in MAR basalts to the south of the Azores platform and inferred to originate from (auto-) metasomatic enrichment of the sub-ridge mantle (Gale et al., 2011, 2013). In a similar fashion, low degree melts from an enriched source component may metasomatise the ambient plume mantle underneath the western Azores islands. Melting such a modified plume mantle can explain the chemical differences between lavas from the western and eastern Azores islands without the need for additional plume components. Recent re-enrichment and intra melting column modification of the upwelling mantle can cause local to regional scale geochemical differences in mantle-derived melts.

  2. The onset of alpine pastoral systems in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Festi, Daniela; Putzer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of the Neolithic glacier mummy "Ötzi" in the nival belt of the main Alpine ridge, the onset of alpine pasture is matter of a highly controversial debate both in archaeology and in palaeo-ecology of the Eastern Alps. The implication is that his sojourn in the high-altitudes of the Alps is considered to be connected with pastoral nomadism. Regrettably any archaeological evidence for the existence of such Neolithic alpine pastoral systems is missing up to now and the assumption is based on palynological data only. However, also the palynological record is ambiguous, because pasture indicators in the alpine regions react positive on grazing as well as on fertilization induced by a higher runoff of precipitation. Thus alpine pasture indicators reflect both grazing pressure and climatic change. Anyhow, alpine pastoral systems are a common practice in Alpine animal husbandry, but from an economic point of view such a seasonal vertical transhumance is costly. There are three main reasons for its practice: i) climatic, ii) economic (mainly in connection with population pressure or mining activities), and iii) cultural ideology. In this study we tested the above mentioned reasons in an interdisciplinary study on the beginning of pastoral activities in high altitudes in the central part of the Eastern Alps. This is conducted by palynological analyses of peat deposits situated in the vicinity of the timberline (1600 - 2400 m a.s.l.) combined with archaeological surveys. The investigated sites are located in traditional Alpine transhumance regions and aligned on a transect through the central part of the Eastern Alps. The studies reveal that grazing pressure is reflected since the Bronze Age, which is corroborated by archaeological findings in the vicinity of the investigated sites.

  3. Eastern Visayas: profile of the region's volunteer outreach worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, C A

    1983-01-01

    Volunteer outreach workers in Eastern Visayas (Region 8) who tend to remain in the Philippine Population Program are able to plan for the welfare of the family, are seriously concerned about the welfare of the community, are traditional in their beliefs about family decision making, are moderately innovative, and are relatively dissatisfied with community life. The research report submitted to the regional office of the Commission on Population (Popcom) by the Regional Research Center for Population, Leyte State College, indicated that Popcom recognizes the importance of community based fieldworkers in the delivery of its services. The study was conducted in line with efforts to improve the system of recruiting volunteer workers and to develop a more effective service delivery scheme. The researchers randomly selected a representative sample of volunteer workers--265 active and 86 inactive--from the provinces of Leyte, Southern Leyte, Eastern Samar, Western Samar and Northern Samar, the subprovince of Biliran, and the cities of Tacloban, Ormoc, and Calbayog. The active volunteer worker of Eastern Visayas is female, between 36-40 years old, married, and the mother of 3-5 children. She also considers the size of her family to be "just right." The volunteer worker believes the father is the prinicipal decision maker in the family and that parents should always be consulted on matters concerning their children. The inactive volunteer worker is also female, in the same age bracket, married, and with 3-5 children, and she also does not want to have additional children. She is more innovative and more receptive to change than the active volunteer worker. She is more satisfied with community life, is modern in her beliefs as to who is the authority in the family, and believes that children also should have a part in making family decisions. Mobility in terms of residence is an important factor in the decision of the volunteer worker to remain in or drop out of the program.

  4. Environmental analysis of the eastern shale hydroretorting data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rex, R.C. Jr.; Lynch, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a preliminary environmental analysis of certain chemical aspects of Eastern shale hydroretorting utilizing the data from the twenty-one (21) bench scale unit runs conducted during the HYTORT Feasibility Study. The report contained herein primarily addresses the potential types and quantities of pollutants emanating directly from the hydroretorting of oil shale (i.e., the retort paper). The following areas are discussed in detail: nitrogen distribution; sulfur distribution; gas trace constituents; sour water constituents; and shale leachates. The results of the analysis have not identified any potential pollutants or quantities which cannot be brought to conformance with currently promulgated environmental standards using existing technology. Additional analysis of the process chemistry portion of the HYTORT data base, coupled with the process and mechanical design information, can provide a methodology for dealing with the identified environmental concerns as they pertain to a commercial facility. Section 5.0 of the report delineates the areas which should be addressed in a continuing analysis of environmental concerns. The suggested program divides naturally into three phases, of which Phase 1 has been completed: Phase 1 - Environmental Analysis of the Eastern Shale Hydroretorting Data Base; Phase 2 - Generic (non-site-specific) Environmental Analysis; and Phase 3 - Site-Specific Environmental Analysis. Phase 2 details the anticipated emissions from all areas of a commercial HYTORT facility operating on a typical Eastern shale using the results of this Phase 1 effort and the HYTORT data base. Phase 3 utilizes this information to assess the effects of plant emissions on chosen sites in the context of applicable laws and regulations. 7 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Receiver Function Analysis of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, J. H.; Powell, C. A.; Langston, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    We present receiver/transfer functions determined for a seismic network associated with an active, intraplate seismic zone. Basement studies within eastern Tennessee are sparse despite the fact that these rocks host the eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) and are associated with an extensive aeromagnetic lineament called the New York-Alabama (NY-AL) lineament. The NY-AL lineament is prominent in eastern Tennessee, with a SW-NE trend, and is characterized by a lateral change in magnetic and gravity anomalies in a NW to SE direction; high magnetic and low gravity anomalies lie west of the lineament, while low magnetic and high gravity anomalies are located east of the lineament. The NY-AL lineament is thought to be an ancient strike-slip fault that is reactivating in the present day stress field. A better understanding of the basement structure within the ETSZ will aid in the assessment of its seismic hazard potential. A network maintained by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis is located within the study area and consists of 23 short-period and three broadband seismometers. An additional station (TZTN) is maintained by IRIS and is included in our dataset. Receiver functions are computed using teleseismic earthquakes within a 30°-90° epicentral distance, at hypocentral depths greater than 30 km, and with magnitudes greater than Mw 6.0. A vertical component stack is used to obtain the best source function. A spectral waterlevel deconvolution is then used to calculate the receiver functions. Results indicate a thickening of the crust west of the NY-AL lineament and show vertical variation within the crust and upper mantle with abrupt polarity changes and strong positive and negative amplitude values. Crustal structure west of the NY-AL lineament appears to be much more complex than that east of the NY-AL lineament.

  6. Neogene biomarker record of vegetation change in eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kevin T; Polissar, Pratigya J; Jackson, Kevin E; deMenocal, Peter B

    2016-06-07

    The evolution of C4 grassland ecosystems in eastern Africa has been intensely studied because of the potential influence of vegetation on mammalian evolution, including that of our own lineage, hominins. Although a handful of sparse vegetation records exists from middle and early Miocene terrestrial fossil sites, there is no comprehensive record of vegetation through the Neogene. Here we present a vegetation record spanning the Neogene and Quaternary Periods that documents the appearance and subsequent expansion of C4 grasslands in eastern Africa. Carbon isotope ratios from terrestrial plant wax biomarkers deposited in marine sediments indicate constant C3 vegetation from ∼24 Ma to 10 Ma, when C4 grasses first appeared. From this time forward, C4 vegetation increases monotonically to present, with a coherent signal between marine core sites located in the Somali Basin and the Red Sea. The response of mammalian herbivores to the appearance of C4 grasses at 10 Ma is immediate, as evidenced from existing records of mammalian diets from isotopic analyses of tooth enamel. The expansion of C4 vegetation in eastern Africa is broadly mirrored by increasing proportions of C4-based foods in hominin diets, beginning at 3.8 Ma in Australopithecus and, slightly later, Kenyanthropus This continues into the late Pleistocene in Paranthropus, whereas Homo maintains a flexible diet. The biomarker vegetation record suggests the increase in open, C4 grassland ecosystems over the last 10 Ma may have operated as a selection pressure for traits and behaviors in Homo such as bipedalism, flexible diets, and complex social structure.

  7. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...... of host country location factors. In particular, we investigate to what extent knowledge-seeking is a relevant investment motive, which has been documented as a key determinant for OFDI from other emerging economies. We apply a discrete choice approach to model foreign location choice of firms from CEE...

  8. The impact of HIV on children's education in eastern Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pufall, E.L.; Nyamukapa, C.; Eaton, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    in the correct grade-for-age, primary school completion and having at least five "O" level passes) and being HIV-positive; having an HIV-positive parent; being a young carer; or being a maternal, paternal or double orphan, in five rounds (1998-2011) of a general population survey from eastern Zimbabwe. The fifth...... school completion, "O" level passes, or being in the correct grade-for-age in adolescents aged 16-17 years. Additionally, HIV status had no significant association with any education outcomes in children aged 6-17 surveyed in 2009-2011. In 2009-2011, being a young carer was associated with lower...

  9. American Perspectives on Eastern Front Operations in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Belorussia), on lesser operations (Novgorod-Luga, Eastern Pomerania, Donbas ), and on specific sectors in larger operations. 2 9 WriLten by academic...about the Khar’kov and Kerch operations in May 1942, about the Donbas and ~-22- Khar’kov operations of February-March 1943, and about the wanning...Lagenkarte XIUXXVIII Pz-Kps, 7.12.42 through 12.12.42. 8. Particularly in Mellenthin’s brief account of operations in the Donbas in February 1943

  10. Social suffering and marginalisation among Eastern European students in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Dahlberg, Mette Ginnerskov

    2016-01-01

    back lessons from the country which allegedly fostered the happiest people in the world. Upon arrival to Denmark, many of the students from Eastern Europe find it difficult to navigate the Danish system and to settle into society. They find it difficult to get regular jobs and are often trapped in semi-legal...... (Sayer 2005, Lamont & Mólnar 2002) of nations in Europe when explaining the positions they feel they have in relation to other university students and how East, West, Europe and the EU are invested with meaning. We find that this can make an interesting and relevant contribution to a discussion...

  11. Coal facies studies in the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511-8433 (United States); Eble, Cortland F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2004-04-23

    Coals in the eastern United States (east of the Mississippi River) have been the subject of a number of coal facies studies, going back to the 19th century. Such studies would not necessarily fall within a strict modern classification of coal facies studies, but if a study encompassed some aspects of paleobotany, palynology, petrology, geochemistry, or sedimentology, we assumed that some data and interpretations may be of use in evaluations of the facies. References are presented, as a guide for further research, with annotation in the tables.

  12. Different Connotations of "Modesty" Lying in Western and Eastern Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂艳

    2015-01-01

    as a common morality,politeness is the symbol of human civilization and a primary principle abided by people in interpersonal communication.However,the standard and the way of expression of politeness are fluctuated with different culture.This essay takes analysis on different connotations of"modesty" lying in the western culture and eastern culture deeply and explains the cause for that,for the purpose of helping people avoid pragmatic mistake in intercultural communication at the best to achieve considerable communicative effect.

  13. Extreme negative coexceedances in South Eastern European stock markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE) stock markets. We use a multinomial logistic regression to analyze how persistence, asset class and volatility effects are related with negative coexceedances in SEE markets. We find evidence in favor...... of the continuation hypothesis in SEE stock markets. However, the factors associated with the coexceedances differ between the EU member countries from SEE and EU accession countries from SEE stock markets.The EU member countries are more dependent from the signals from major EU economies, while the accession...... countries are mainly influenced by the signals from the region....

  14. Addendum to the 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This report serves as an addendum to the report 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report (Amidan, Follum, and Freeman, 2015). This addendum report investigates the following: the impact of shorter record lengths and of adding a daily regularization term to the date/time models for angle pair measurements, additional development of a method to monitor the trend in phase angle pairs, the effect of changing the length of time to determine a baseline, when calculating atypical events, and a comparison between quantitatively discovered atypical events and actual events.

  15. Personal Bankruptcy Regulations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Hetes-Gavra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from Central and Eastern Europe are in different stages of development andimplementation of personal bankruptcy legislation. Austria has regulations comparable to those inWestern Europe, while the Czech Republic and Poland have recently developed regulationsregarding the bankruptcy of individuals. The solutions identified in countries that have followed asimilar path, namely the abandonment of a centrally planned economy and transition to afunctioning market economy, which consequently led to the problem of individual bankruptcy, canalso be applied selectively in Romania in the next period.

  16. Republic of Moldova – the success story of the Eastern Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Rotaru

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The power change in Ukraine and the violent crackdown on the post electoral protestors in Belarus jeopardize the Eastern Partnership. The EU’s efforts to democratize and stabilize its eastern border could become more and more difficult if Brussels does not find quickly a solution to keep the six partners interested in its projects. This paper examines the latest challenges of the Eastern Partnership and the reasons why the Republic of Moldova could be the successful story the Eastern Partnership is seeking.

  17. Achieving Balance Through the Art of Eating: Demystifying Eastern Nutrition and Blending it with Western Nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wongvibulsin, Shannon; Lee, Suzie Seoyang; Hui, Ka-Kit

    2012-01-01

    .... The Western view to nutrition is already adopting certain attributes of the Eastern medicine philosophy as exemplified by the progression towards individualized nutrition through methods such as nutrigenetics...

  18. ‘Rethinking the geography of art history’, Jerzy Malinowski (ed., History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rampley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the conference proceedings History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. It focuses on the importance of the publication, and the fact that it highlights the almost complete ignorance of the historiography of art of central and eastern Europe, and also identifies a recurrent methodological deficit in many of the contributions, namely, their tendency to rely on a positivistic documentation of writers and texts with little analysis of their conceptual, aesthetic and ideological implications. The conference is thus an invaluable platform for further study, and also makes clear the need for more sophisticated critical interpretations.

  19. Lack of divergence in seed ecology of two Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae) species disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keliang; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-06-01

    Many congeneric species are disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America. No previous study has compared the seed biology of closely related disjunct taxa of legumes or of a diaspore-heteromorphic species. Our objective was to compare seed dormancy in two such sister species in the genus Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae). We investigated the ecology and ecophysiology of aerial and subterranean seeds of the amphicarpic species Amphicarpaea edgeworthii from China and compared the results to those published for its sister species A. bracteata from eastern North America. The seed coat of aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii is well developed, whereas the seed coat of subterranean seeds is not. Aerial seeds have combinational dormancy (physical dormancy [PY] + physiological dormancy [PD]) broken by scarification followed by cold stratification or by after-ripening and scarification; whereas subterranean seeds have PD broken by cold stratification. Aerial seeds formed a persistent soil seed bank, and subterranean seeds a transient soil seed bank. Aerial seeds of A. bracteata also have PY+PD and subterranean seeds PD. Subterranean seeds of both species are desiccation intolerant. Dormancy in neither aerial nor subterranean seeds of both species has diverged over geological time. Compared to subterranean seeds, aerial seeds of both species dispersed over longer distances. Seed dispersal ability and degree of dormancy of neither species fits the high-risk/low-risk (H-H/L-L) strategy found in many diaspore-dimorphic species. Rather, both species have an H-L/L-H strategy for these two life history traits. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  1. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonjoy Kumar-Borthakur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India.Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam and Aizawl (Mizoram. Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the dif­ferences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test.Results: The findings revealed an overall 22.69 percent occult case. The working dogs had highest prevalence (60% followed by pet (29.16% and stray dogs (17.75%.Conclusion: The highest percentage of occult heartworm infection was present in working dogs maintained under military or paramilitary forces. 

  2. REVIEW: MONASTIC AND LAY TRADITIONS IN NORTH-EASTERN TIBET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Weiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Yangdon Dhondup, Ulrich Pagel, and Geoffrey Samuel (eds. 2013. Monastic and Lay Traditions of North-Eastern Tibet. Leiden and Boston: Brill. Monastic and Lay Traditions in North-Eastern Tibet, edited by Yangdon Dhondup, Ulrich Pagel, and Geoffrey Samuel, is the product of a 2011 workshop convened at St. Michael's College, Llandaff, Cardiff. Although the conference's focus was the tantric practitioner community of the Reb kong region (Ch. Tongren, the resultant volume expands the scope of inquiry to include surrounding areas as well as monastic communities. The editors have organized the volume's nine chapters into three sections, the first on the Dge lugs pa monastic establishment, the second on Rnying ma pa and Bon tantric communities, and finally 'Ritual and Performance in Contemporary Reb kong'. While the chapters are all informative and scholarly, providing new, important empirical detail on an underresearched subject, several tend toward the descriptive. The most successful contributions, however, present their findings within larger analytical and contextual frameworks, giving their chapters explanatory weight beyond the more narrow confines of their studies.

  3. Heat Wave Changes in the Eastern Mediterranean since 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, Franz G.; Toreti, Andrea; Xoplaki, Elena; Della-Marta, Paul M.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Türkes, Murat; Luterbacher, Jürg

    2010-05-01

    Heat waves have discernible impacts on mortality and morbidity, infrastructure, agricultural resources, the retail industry, ecosystem and tourism and consequently affect human societies. A new definition of socially relevant heat waves is presented and applied to new data sets of high-quality homogenized daily maximum and minimum summer air temperature series from 246 stations in the eastern Mediterranean region (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey). Changes in heat wave number, length and intensity between 1960 and 2006 are quantified. Daily temperature homogeneity analysis suggest that many instrumental measurements in the 1960s are warm-biased, correcting for these biases regionally averaged heat wave trends are up to 8% higher. We find significant changes across the western Balkans, southwestern and western Turkey, and along the southern Black Sea coastline. Since the 1960s, the mean heat wave intensity, heat wave length and heat wave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor 7.6 ±1.3, 7.5 ±1.3 and 6.2 ±1.1, respectively. These findings suggest that the heat wave increase in this region is higher than previously reported.

  4. Connectivity controls on the late Miocene eastern Mediterranean fish fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiadi, Konstantina; Antonarakou, Assimina; Kontakiotis, George; Kafousia, Nefeli; Moissette, Pierre; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil; Karakitsios, Vasileios

    2016-06-01

    Environmental change significantly affects the production of fish resources and their dependent societies. The paleontological record offers unique insight into the effects of long-term paleoenvironmental variability on the fish species' distributions and abundances. In the present study, we investigate the late Miocene (7.5-6.5 Ma) fish assemblages of the Potamida section in western Crete (eastern Mediterranean). The determined fish taxa are examined in a paleobiogeographic context, with regard to their geographic and stratigraphic distribution from the early Miocene (~13 Ma) through today. In addition, present-day ecological data are used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions in the study area. Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy significantly improves the earlier dating of the studied sequence. The late Miocene fish fauna of Potamida includes 35 taxa (seven in open nomenclature) from 13 teleost families. The eastern Mediterranean biostratigraphic and geographic distribution of 32 taxa is significantly expanded into the Tortonian, whereas 13 species are recorded for the first time from the Messinian. Four stages are distinguished in the area's paleoenvironmental evolution. (1) The Potamida area was an open marine environment with depths exceeding 150 m between ~7.5-7.45 Ma. (2) Between 7.45-7.36 Ma, the results suggest depths between 300-400 m. (3) The depositional depth increases between 7.36-7.28 Ma to 400-550 m. (4) Later on, approximately between 6.8-6.6 Ma, the depth is again estimated around 100-150 m.

  5. Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Mona

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7% and progesterone injection (17.8% were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five, couple education (≥ secondary level were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

  6. Wave speed structure of the eastern North American margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, B.; Covellone, B. M.; Shen, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The eastern North American margin (ENAM) is the result of nearly a billion years of continental collision and rifting. To the west of this margin lies thick continental lithosphere of the North American craton, and to the east is oceanic lithosphere in the Atlantic. The substantial changes in lithosphere thickness at this boundary are thought to drive asthenosphere upwelling along the edge of the continent. Through iterative, full-waveform, ambient noise tomography, we observe a heterogeneous low wave speed margin along the continent in the upper mantle. Multiple low wave speed features imaged within the margin are consistent with asthenospeheric upwelling due to edge-driven convection. Also within the margin are high wave speed anomalies that maybe the remnants of eclogitic delamination of the Appalachian crustal root, which contribute to convection at the margin. Edge driven, small-scale convection keeps the margin weak and thus controls the large scale plate tectonic patterns and the crustal deformation. The imaged mantle wave speed anomalies, interpreted as edge-driven convection, correlate with and may increase the likelihood of damaging earthquakes in the eastern portion of North America.

  7. The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiryol Tolga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP. Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

  8. Human rickettsioses in the Batna area, eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrani, Khamsa; Tebbal, Soraya; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2012-12-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of rickettsioses in febrile exanthemas in eastern Algeria, we conducted a prospective serological analysis of all patients presenting with this clinical picture at the Infectious Diseases Department in the Batna Hospital from January 2000 to September 2006. One hundred and eight adult patients were included in the study, 46% of whom younger than 25 years, and 72.5% were admitted from May to September. Patients were tested for antibodies to Rickettsia conorii conorii, R. conorii israelensis, R. aeschlimannii, R. felis, R. sibirica mongolitimonae, R. africae, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii using microimmunofluorescence and Western blot as confirmation procedure. Both methods confirmed the diagnosis of Mediterranean spotted fever in 5 patients (4.6%), flea spotted fever in 2 patients (1.9%), and R. aeschlimannii infection in 2 patients (1.9%). In addition, 4 patients were diagnosed as having murine typhus (3.7%) and one with epidemic typhus (0.9%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of R. felis infection and R. aeschlimannii infection in Algeria. In conclusion, at least 5 different kinds of rickettsiosis coexist in eastern Algeria and, being responsible for 13% of cases of febrile exanthemas, should be considered among major causes of this clinical picture in this area. In addition, we emphasize the high incidence of typhus group rickettioses, including epidemic typhus, in this area.

  9. Investigation of upper crustal structure beneath eastern Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Cummnins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Masturyono

    2016-05-01

    The complexity of geology structure in eastern Java causes this region has many potential resources as much as the disasters. Therefore, the East Java province represents an interesting area to be explored, especially regarding its upper crustal structure. To investigate this structure, we employ the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method. We have used seismic waveform data from 25 Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 26 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. Inter-station cross-correlation produces more than 800 Rayleigh wave components, which depict the structure beneath eastern Java. Based on the checkerboard resolution test, we found that the optimal grid size is 0.25ox0.25o. Our inversion results for the periods of 1 to 10 s indicate a good agreement with geological and Bouguer anomaly maps. Rembang high depression, most of the southern mountains zone, the northern part of Rembang zone and the central part of the Madura Island, the area of high gravity anomaly and areas dominated with igneous rocks are associated with high velocity zones. On the other hand, Kendeng zone and most of the basin in the Rembang zone are associated with low velocity zones.

  10. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Likens, G. E.; Utz, R.; Pace, M.; Grese, M.; Yepsen, M.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km2. We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These 3 variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  11. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

    2013-09-17

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  12. Properties of Strandboard Panels Manufactured from Eastern Redcedar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Hiziroglu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated physical and mechanical properties of experimental strandboard panels with random flake alignment manufactured from eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L. logs. Panels were made at two density levels of 0.65 g/cm3 and 0.78 g/cm3 using phenol formaldehyde adhesive applied at a rate of 8%. Mechanical properties including modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, and internal bond strength of the panels in addition to their thickness swelling characteristics were evaluated. As expected, mechanical properties of the samples improved with increasing panel density. Thickness swelling of the samples for 2- and 24-h water soaking test ranged from 6.32% to 18.41%. Both physical and mechanical properties of the panels showed acceptable results, comparable to those found in past studies using other species to manufacture similar types of product. Based on initial findings of this study it appears that eastern redcedar, which is an under-utilized invasive resource, has potential as a raw material for structural panel manufacture.

  13. Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gregori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif is established through the use of geological and geophysical analysis. The positive gravity anomalies located near the Atlantic coast are due to 535 and 540 Ma old rocks belonging to the Pampean Orogeny (Precambrian–middle Cambrian, which are widely recognized in central and northern Argentina. The Famatinian Cycle (Ordovician–Devonian is represented by a Silurian–Devonian marine basin equivalent to those of eastern-central Argentina and South Africa, and which was deformed at the end of the Devonian by an ∼E–W to WNW–ESE compressional event, part of the Famatinian Orogeny. Containing strong gravity gradients, the NW–SE belt is coincident with fault zones which were originated during the Gondwanide Orogeny. This event also produced NW–SE overthrusting of the Silurian–Devonian sequences and strike-slip faults that displaced blocks in the same direction. This deformation event belongs to the Gondwanide Orogeny that includes movements related to a counterclockwise rotation of blocks in northern Patagonia. The strong negative anomalies located in the western part of the area stem from the presence of rocks of the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto basin interbedded in the Marifil Complex. These volcaniclastic sequences show mild deformation of accommodation zones in a pre-Jurassic paleorelief.

  14. Tide at the eastern section of the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Jesús Garcia; Vargas, Juan Miguel; Plaza, Francisco; Sarhan, Tarek; Candela, Julio; Bascheck, Burkard

    2000-06-01

    From October 1995 to April 1996, three mooring lines were deployed at the eastern entrance of the Strait of Gibraltar. The spatial coverage of the mooring array allows for a good description of the tides. They exhibit a dominant semidiurnal nature and a noticeable baroclinic structure that matches the one of the mean exchange. Tidal currents in the upper layer are irregular and usually too weak to reverse the mean upper layer flow that keeps on flowing east. Lower layer flow reverses with semidiurnal periodicity because of the smallness of the mean flow and the appreciable amplitude of the regular semidiurnal oscillation of tidal currents in this layer. Tidal transports can be satisfactorily compared with previous estimates of Bryden et al. [1994] if we allow for strong internal divergences associated with the internal tide. No significant eddy flux of water transport (tidal rectification) is observed at the eastern section, contrary to the almost 50% of the total layer transport found by Bryden et al. [1994] in Camarinal Sill section. Time-dependent hydraulic theory provides a good scenario for interpreting these two independent sets of observations despite the fact that the composite Froude number does not reach the critical values predicted in the hydraulic models most of the time.

  15. Eastern Region Renewable Energy Planning Study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    For planning authorities to address renewable energy through development plan policies and in the development control process, it is important to have clear and reliable information on the resource potential within their area. A number of studies have been undertaken in England and Wales to assess the potential for the development and utilisation of renewable energy resources. The studies have addressed the practicalities of how and why a certain resource might be suitable for exploitation in a particular county or region, in conjunction with consideration of the specific planning and environmental issues which may arise. The Eastern Region Renewable Energy Planning Study (ERREPS) is one of the last of these studies to be commissioned and, together with a concurrent study of the Lancashire and Yorkshire area, will substantially complete study coverage of England and Wales. The study area comprises the counties of Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Suffolk. It generally coincides with the area covered by Eastern Electricity. The area covers the majority of the land north of the River Thames to The Wash. (author)

  16. Sediment oxygen demand in eastern Kansas streams, 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; King, Lindsey R.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2016-08-29

    Dissolved oxygen concentrations in streams are affected by physical, chemical, and biological factors in the water column and streambed, and are an important factor for the survival of aquatic organisms. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) rates in Kansas streams are not well understood. During 2014 and 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, measured SOD at eight stream sites in eastern Kansas to quantify SOD rates and variability with respect to season, land use, and bottom-sediment characteristics. Sediment oxygen demand rates (SODT) ranged from 0.01 to 3.15 grams per square meter per day at the ambient temperature of the measurements. The summer mean SOD rate was 3.0-times larger than the late fall mean rate, likely because of increased biological activity at warm water temperatures. Given the substantial amount of variability in SOD rates possible within sites, heterogeneity of substrate type is an important consideration when designing SOD studies and interpreting the results. Sediment oxygen demand in eastern Kansas streams was correlated with land use and streambed-sediment characteristics, though the strength of relations varied seasonally. The small number of study sites precluded a more detailed analysis. The effect of basin land use and streambed sediment characteristics on SOD is currently (2016) not well understood, and there may be many contributing factors including basin influences on water quality that affect biogeochemical cycles and the biological communities supported by the stream.

  17. A new present-day velocity field for eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpersdorf, A.; Tavakoli, F.; Hatzfeld, D.; Jadidi, A.; Vergnolle, M.; Djamour, Y.; Nankali, H. R.; Sedighi, M.; Bellier, O.; Shabanian, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2004, extensive GPS campaigns and the upcoming Iranian permanent GPS network are monitoring the present-day deformation in eastern Iran. We present a new GPS velocity field that extends from Central Iran to the Turkmen shield and the Hellmand block on the Eurasian plate. It permits to monitor the right lateral shear across the aseismic Lut block between Central Iran and the Hellmand block, and the resulting shortening across the Kopeh Dagh mountain belt limiting NE Iran towards Turkmenistan. The present-day deformation pattern is used to verify existing tectonic models. Individual instantaneous fault slip rates are compared to short term and long term geological estimates. We find that GPS slip rates are generally coherent with short term geologic determinations (from dating of geomorphologic offsets over some 10-100 ka). Some differences with respect to long term estimates (from total geologic fault offsets and onset ages of several Ma) indicate non-constant slip rates over different time scales or that the onset of the present-day deformation presumed to 3-7 Ma in eastern Iran has to be revised.

  18. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfin, Firehiwot; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included randomly selected primary school students. Hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Hemocue haemoglobinometer. A child was identified as anemic if the hemoglobin concentration was children (5-11 yrs) and anemia was 27.1% (95% CI: 24.98, 29.14): 13.8% had mild, 10.8% moderate, and 2.3% severe anemia. Children with in the age group of 5-9 years (APR, 1.083; 95% CI, 1.044-1.124) were at higher risk for anemia. Paternal education (Illiterate, 1.109; 1.044-1.178) was positively associated with anemia. Children who had irregular legume consumption (APR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.022-1.118) were at higher risk for anemia. About a quarter of school children suffer from anemia and their educational potential is likely to be affected especially for those with moderate and severe anemia. Child age, irregular legume consumption, and low paternal schooling were associated with anemia. Intervention programmes aimed to reduce anemia among school children are crucial to ensure proper growth and development of children.

  19. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  20. Teleseismic Tomography in the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, T.; Arroucau, P.; Vlahovic, G.; Powell, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone (ETSZ) is the second most active seismic region in the eastern United States and is located in the southern Appalachian fold-and-thrust belt. The earthquakes mostly occur between 5 and 25 km depth, below the decollement surface, and tend to align along the New York Alabama magnetic lineament, a linear feature attributed to a strike-slip fault affecting the Precambrian basement but having no signature in surface geology. Recent results from local tomography also show some relationship between the body-wave velocity field and earthquake distribution down to about 20 km depth. In this work, we investigate the deep 3D P-wave velocity structure of the lithosphere in the ETSZ by means of teleseismic tomography We use seismograms recorded in the last 10 years at a local array of 30 short-period stations operated by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) in Memphis, TN. Events with magnitude greater than 5.5 and epicentral distance greater than 2500 km were selected. Relative P-wave arrival time residuals were obtained from an adaptive stacking procedure and were subsequently used in a tomographic inversion to map the 3D P-wave velocity variations beneath the array.

  1. Numerical modelling of methyl iodide in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stemmler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methyl iodide (CH3I is a volatile organic halogen compound that contributes significantly to the transport of iodine from the ocean to the atmosphere, where it plays an important role in tropospheric chemistry. CH3I is naturally produced and occurs in the global ocean. The processes involved in the formation of CH3I, however, are not fully understood. In fact, there is an ongoing debate whether production by phytoplankton or photochemical degradation of organic matter is the main source term. Here, both the biological and photochemical production mechanisms are considered in a biogeochemical module that is coupled to a one-dimensional water column model for the eastern tropical Atlantic. The model is able to reproduce observed subsurface maxima of CH3I concentrations. But, the dominating source process cannot be clearly identified as subsurface maxima can occur due to both direct biological and photochemical production. However, good agreement between the observed and simulated difference between surface and subsurface methyl iodide concentrations is achieved only when direct biological production is taken into account. Production rates for the biological CH3I source that were derived from published laboratory studies are shown to be inappropriate for explaining CH3I concentrations in the eastern tropical Atlantic.

  2. Hydrothermal conditions of South Eastern Siberia under the ongoing warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropay, N. N.; Maksyutova, E. V.; Riazanova, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    A great increase in air temperature has been observed since 1976. Siberia is a region with most severe ongoing climate change. To monitor the extreme weather events is important. To evaluate moisture conditions we used the D.A. Ped index (Si). Monthly air temperature and precipitation data from 19 weather stations of South Eastern Siberia (50-60° N 90-120° E) were used for the index calculation during the vegetation period. During 1976-2010 the number of droughts in the study region was more than the number of excessive moisture periods. The maximal statistically significant trend (0.4-0.6 per 10 years) in Eastern Siberia was observed in May. The characteristics of the winter-spring period preceding the vegetation season were analyzed. Significant positive trends exist in the study area for the May temperature (0.5-0.9 °C per 10 years) and the May sum of positive temperatures (14-28 °C per 10 years). There are tendencies to increase the number of days with temperatures above zero in March (1-3 days per 10 years) and the sum of positive temperatures in April (5-16 °C per 10 years). The stable transition of air temperature over 0 °C shifts into early dates by 1-7 days every 10 years.

  3. Abundance of walruses in Eastern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus are exploited for subsistence purposes in West Greenland. However, current information about the abundance of walruses subject to harvest in eastern Baffin Bay subject to harvest has been unavailable despite being critical for maintaining sustainable catch levels. Three visual aerial surveys were conducted in 2006 (21 March to 19 April 2006, 2008 (3 to 12 April and 2012 (24 March to 14 April to estimate the number of walruses on the wintering grounds in eastern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. Data on the fraction of walruses that were submerged below a 2m detection threshold during the surveys were obtained from 24 walruses instrumented with satellite-linked-time-depth-recorders in northern Baffin Bay in May-June 2010-2012. An availability correction factor was estimated at 36.5% (cv=0.08 after filtering of data for an observed drift of the pressure transducer of more than 2.5 m. The surveys resulted in walrus abundance estimates that were corrected for walruses submerged below a detection threshold and for walruses that were missed by the observers. The estimates of abundance were 1,105 (cv=0.31, 95% CI 610-2,002 in 2006, 1,137 (0.48, 468-2,758 in 2008 and 1,408 (0.22, 922-2,150 in 2012.

  4. Environmental applications of ion chromatography in Eastern and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund

    2010-08-01

    Environmental analytics is one of the most important applications of ion chromatography. It includes determination of ions in water and wastewater as well as in gaseous and solid ones. Nowadays, ion chromatography has almost completely displaced the classical methods of ion determination in these areas. In spite of the fact that the ion chromatography has been officially present in the scientific world for 36 years, its role and popularity is highly diversified in various countries and regions of the world. In highly industrialized countries, it has been a reference method of water and wastewater analysis for years. In other parts of the world, it is not used and appreciated sufficiently despite its undeniable advantages. The following paper is a short overview of the most highly cited scientific and research institutions that conduct research in terms of environmental applications of ion chromatography in Eastern and Central Europe. Furthermore, the paper presents a list of a number of scientific papers referring to the discussed area, published in the years 1996-2009 in some of the most highly cited international scientific journals, and concerning publications of scientists from Eastern and Central Europe seen against the background of Europe and the world.

  5. Hot spots of perforated forest in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riitters, Kurt H; Coulston, John W

    2005-04-01

    National assessments of forest fragmentation satisfy international biodiversity conventions, but they do not identify specific places where ecological impacts are likely. In this article, we identify geographic concentrations (hot spots) of forest located near holes in otherwise intact forest canopies (perforated forest) in the eastern United States, and we describe the proximate causes in terms of the non-forest land-cover types contained in those hot spots. Perforated forest, defined as a 0.09-ha unit of forest that is located at the center of a 7.29-ha neighborhood containing 60-99% forest with relatively low connectivity, was mapped over the eastern United States by using land-cover maps with roads superimposed. Statistically significant (P forest) were then located by using a spatial scan statistic. Hot spots were widely distributed and covered 20.4% of the total area of the 10 ecological provinces examined, but 50.1% of the total hot-spot area was concentrated in only two provinces. In the central part of the study area, more than 90% of the forest edge in hot spots was attributed to anthropogenic land-cover types, whereas in the northern and southern parts it was more often associated with semi-natural land cover such as herbaceous wetlands.

  6. The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean is reviewed following five years of monitoring (1999-2003. The mean number of nests recorded during the annual nesting season (June-October was 53 (± 24.9 SD; range: 13-43. In accordance with earlier reports, the nesting of hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata and green (Chelonia mydas turtles was confirmed on several beaches around the island. Only non-nesting emergences were documented for loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta and there was no evidence of nesting by leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea; however, it is possible that additional survey effort would reveal low density nesting by these species. Officially reported turtle capture data for 1993-2003 suggest that a mean of 0.9 turtle per year (±1.2 SD; range: 0-4 were landed island-wide, with all harvest having occurred during the annual open season (1 October to 31 May. Informed observers believe that the harvest is significantly under-reported and that fishermen avoid declaring their catch by butchering turtles at sea (both during and outside the open season. Of concern is the fact that breeding adults are potentially included in the harvest, and that the open season partially coincides with the breeding season. The present study has shown that although Montserrat is not a major nesting site for sea turtles, it remains important on a regional basis for the Eastern Caribbean.

  7. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAGU OLIMPIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the aim to highlight the impact of innovation on sustainable development in Eastern and Central European countries. In this wiew, a sinthetic measure of sustainability in these countries is calculated, taking into account ten statistical indicators (related to socio-economic development, sustainable consumption and production, social inclusion, demographic changes, public health, primary energy consumption, share of renewable energy in final consumption energy, sustainable transport, official development assistance granted to these countries from EUROSTAT database. A comparative analysis of the level of sustainability during 2005-2014 in Eastern and Central Europe is followed by an analysis of the impact of innovation (measured by eco-innovation index on sustainable development, using panel data techniques. The findings show that eco-innovation had a positive impact on sustainability in these countries in the examined period.This result could be used as a rationale for policy makers from these countries in designing measures for eco-innovation stimulation, aiming in this way to move forward for achieving the planned national targets within the European Union Sustainable Development Strategy (EU-SDS.

  8. The HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHovitz, Jack; Uuskula, Anneli; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia represent one of the few regions globally where there is a continued increase in the incidence of HIV infection. For example, in Eastern Europe the rate of diagnosed cases of HIV infection per 100 000 population has increased from 11.7 in 2004 to 22.5 in 2011. Initially propelled by injection drug use, heterosexual transmission has now become a major driver of new infections in the region. Nonetheless substance use remains an important factor, with its control limited by challenges in scaling up harm reduction efforts. While most countries have implemented opioid substitution therapy programs, their scale remains very limited. Similarly, coverage of needles syringe programs across the region is variable. Complicating the control of HIV has been the emergence of non-injection drugs and inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy. In addition, structural barriers and stigma toward HIV infected people may contribute to the high proportion of late presentations for HIV care. Finally in the wake of the HIV epidemic, high rates of hepatitis C infection and tuberculosis have been noted.

  9. EASTERN MYSTICISM AND TIMOTHY LEARY: HUMAN BEYOND THE CONVENTIONAL REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Danylova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The complex multifaceted essence of human as a biological, psychological, social being has attracted the attention of researchers and has caused hot debates during centuries. Still now, human being, her/his nature requires a broader understanding in the context of the synthesis of long-standing philosophical, psychological, religious traditions and contemporary sciences. Purpose. This paper aims to explore the phenomenon of human being through the lens of the Eastern philosophy and T. Leary’s transpersonal perspective. Methodology. Exploratory research design was used for conducting this study. The author has used philosophical hermeneutics, secondary data collected from reports, journals, and periodicals along with own transpersonal experience. Theoretical basis and results. The essence of Eastern worldview is an awareness of unity and coherence of all things and phenomena. All things are the interdependent and interrelated parts of the One Whole: they are the different manifestations of the same unconditional reality. This is Tao for Taoists, Dharmakaya for Buddhists, Brahman for Hindus. These non-dualistic traditions emphasize: we have to transcend our dual thinking in order to perceive true nature of our inner self and to achieve the state of the absolute unity with everything that exists. “Subject – object” duality is illusory. Being disintegrated from the Oneness, a human is dissociated into different parts. The goal of a new interpretation of a human is to reintegrate these poles and transcend them. Merely theoretical approach to the problem of reintegration is insufficient. Reintegration requires a vivid experience of the “liberation” – the experience of enlightenment. This is a transpersonal experience that overcomes our common perception and goes beyond the usual “body-mind” frame. This experience was breathtakingly described by T. Leary. Experimenting with psilocybin and LSD, T. Leary was astonished

  10. PILOT Lidar data for Eastern Vermont FY2014 USGS Contract: G10PC00026 Task Order Number: G14PD00971 VT_Eastern_2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Please note this is a Pilot Delivery. Geographic Extent: Eastern Vermont Area of Interest, covering approximately 2,533 square miles. Dataset Description: The...

  11. Comparison of Lamiaceae medicinal uses in eastern Morocco and eastern Andalusia and in Ibn al-Baytar's Compendium of Simple Medicaments (13th century CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gharbaoui, Asmae; Benítez, Guillermo; González-Tejero, M Reyes; Molero-Mesa, Joaquín; Merzouki, Abderrahmane

    2017-04-18

    Transmission of traditional knowledge over time and across culturally and historically related territories is an important topic in ethnopharmacology. Here, we contribute to this knowledge by analysing data on medicinal uses in two neighbouring areas of the Western Mediterranean in relation to a historical text that has been scarcely mentioned in historical studies despite its interest. This paper discusses the sharing of popular knowledge on the medicinal uses of plants between eastern Morocco and eastern Andalusia (Spain), focusing on one of the most useful plant families in the Mediterranean area: Lamiaceae. Moreover, we used the classical work of Ibn al-Baytar (13th century CE) The Compendium of Simple Medicaments and Foods as a basis to contrast the possible link of this information, analysing the influence of this historical text on current popular tradition of medicinal plant use in both territories. For data collection, we performed ethnobotanical field research in the eastern part of Morocco, recording current medicinal uses for the Lamiaceae. In addition, we systematically reviewed the ethnobotanical literature from eastern Andalusia, developing a database. We investigated the possible historical link of the shared uses and included in this database the information from Ibn al-Baytar's Compendium. To compare the similarity and diversity of the data, we used Jaccard's similarity index. Our field work provided ethnobotanical information for 14 Lamiaceae species with 95 medicinal uses, serving to treat 13 different pathological groups. Of the total uses recorded in Morocco, 30.5% were shared by eastern Andalusia and found in Ibn al-Baytar's work. There was a higher similarity when comparing current uses of the geographically close territories of eastern Morocco and eastern Andalucía (64%) than for eastern Morocco and this historical text (43%). On the other hand, coincidences between current uses in eastern Andalusia and the ones related in the Compendium

  12. Prevalence and Bacterial Isolates of Mastitis in Dairy Farms in Selected Districts of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeryehun, Tesfaheywet; Abera, Gerema

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to estimate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating cows, to assess the associated risk factors, and to isolate the major bacterial pathogens in dairy farms in selected district of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. The study was carried out in 384 dairy cows based on data collection, farm visit, animal examination, California mastitis test (CMT), and isolation bacterial pathogens using standard techniques. In the present study the overall mastitis at cow level was 247 (64.3%). The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quarter level prevalence for clinical and subclinical mastitis were 12.5% and 51.8% at cow level and 10.7% and 46.4% at quarter level, respectively. Clinically, 101 (6.6%) quarters which belong to 75 (19.5%) animals were found to be with blind teat. In the present study prevalence of mastitis was significantly associated with parity and age (p mastitis particularly the subclinical mastitis was major problem of dairy cows in the area and hence warrants serious attention.

  13. Brains, language and the argumentative mind in Western and Eastern societies. The fertile differences between Western-Eastern argumentative traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú, Jordi

    2017-09-12

    The philosophical differences between Western and Eastern philosophy not only derive from general cultural ideas about reality, but as Nisbet writes (2003), are also methodological, ontological, and cognitively driven. Thus, we can see that strategies of thought and theory-generation are constrained and enabled by conceptual levels, and that the existence of differences and within these levels may be pragmatically combined in fruitful ways. At this point, I remark that there is not a single way to connect biology and culture, but at least we need to admit that brains allow the existence of minds and that these create languages, which also organize the world symbolically following a long set of (sometimes interconnected) heuristics. Throughout the paper we will see how fundamental, geographically located cultural perspectives have affected reasoning strategies and discourses, determining the main Western and Eastern Traditions. At the same time, we can conclude that different traditional perspectives allow more diversity for knowledge acquisition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Water column biogeochemistry of oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical North Atlantic and eastern tropical South Pacific oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, Carolin R.; Bange, Hermann W.; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Callbeck, Cameron M.; Engel, Anja; Hauss, Helena; Kanzow, Torsten; Kiko, Rainer; Lavik, Gaute; Loginova, Alexandra; Melzner, Frank; Meyer, Judith; Neulinger, Sven C.; Pahlow, Markus; Riebesell, Ulf; Schunck, Harald; Thomsen, Sören; Wagner, Hannes

    2016-06-01

    Recent modeling results suggest that oceanic oxygen levels will decrease significantly over the next decades to centuries in response to climate change and altered ocean circulation. Hence, the future ocean may experience major shifts in nutrient cycling triggered by the expansion and intensification of tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are connected to the most productive upwelling systems in the ocean. There are numerous feedbacks among oxygen concentrations, nutrient cycling and biological productivity; however, existing knowledge is insufficient to understand physical, chemical and biological interactions in order to adequately assess past and potential future changes. In the following, we summarize one decade of research performed in the framework of the Collaborative Research Center 754 (SFB754) focusing on climate-biogeochemistry interactions in tropical OMZs. We investigated the influence of low environmental oxygen conditions on biogeochemical cycles, organic matter formation and remineralization, greenhouse gas production and the ecology in OMZ regions of the eastern tropical South Pacific compared to the weaker OMZ of the eastern tropical North Atlantic. Based on our findings, a coupling of primary production and organic matter export via the nitrogen cycle is proposed, which may, however, be impacted by several additional factors, e.g., micronutrients, particles acting as microniches, vertical and horizontal transport of organic material and the role of zooplankton and viruses therein.

  15. Eastern Airlines' Volunteer Program. Progress Report. March 15, 1972 - May 25, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    During the second semester of the 1971-72 school year, a pilot effort was initiated to use Eastern Airlines personnel as volunteer teachers. With the assistance of Eastern Airlines Officials and the Dade County Public Schools Division of Instruction, six community schools in the Northeast, North Central and South Central districts were opened to…

  16. 75 FR 68756 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a depleted stock under the Marine Mammal... assessment report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following...

  17. A real-time PCR assay for early detection of eastern filbert blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern filbert blight (EFB) is a devastating disease of European hazelnut, Corylus avellana, which causes economic losses in Oregon where 99% of the U.S. crop is produced. The causal fungus, Anisogramma anomala, is native to eastern North America, where it is found associated with the American haz...

  18. Watermarks within the Middle Eastern Manuscript Collection of the Baillieu Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewincamp, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The University of Melbourne's Middle Eastern Manuscript collection housed at the Baillieu Library was acquired by Professor John Bowman in the 1950s as part of a teaching collection to promote greater learning of Middle Eastern culture and civilisation (Pryde 2007, 3). The collection is a rare example within Australia and represents many different…

  19. Customer loyalty & face concerns : Differences between Eastern (Chinese) and Western (Dutch) consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Sha

    2015-01-01

    Consider some of the issues confronting a typical marketing manager of a multinational company (MNC): Should our customer retention and customer acquisition strategies differ between Western and Eastern cultures? How should we adjust the elements of the marketing mix to appeal to Eastern and Western

  20. A new species of Uvariopsis (Annonaceae), endemic to the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, Th.L.P.; Luke, W.R.Q.

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania enclose high levels of plant and animal diversity with many yet to be described species. Here we describe a new species of the pan-tropical plant family Annonaceae named Uvariopsis lovettiana. It closely resembles another Eastern Arc endemic species, U. bisexual

  1. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  2. The Ecology of Language in Classrooms at a University in Eastern Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Oleg B.; Goodman, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Using an ecology of language framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which English as a medium of instruction (EMI) at a private university in eastern Ukraine allows for the use of Ukrainian, the state language, or Russian, the predominantly spoken language, in large cities in eastern Ukraine. Uses of English and Russian…

  3. Elaphomyces appalachiensis and E. verruculosus sp. nov. (Ascomycota Eurotiales, Elaphomycetaceae) from eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Castellano; Gonzalo Guevara Guerrero; Jesus Garcia Jimenez; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    We describe Elaphomyces verruculosus as new species from eastern North America, ranging from Quebec, Canada south along the eastern USA and along the Gulf Coast to northeastern México. E. verruculosus is similar in overall morphology to E. granulatus of Europe. In addition we re-describe E....

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF COPPER AND ZINC ACCUMULATED BY EASTERN OYSTER AMEBOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William S. Submitted. Antimicrobial Activity of Copper and Zinc Accumulated by Eastern Oyster Amebocytes. J. Shellfish Res. 54 p. (ERL,GB 1196). The distribution of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica near terrestrial watersheds has led to a general impression t...

  5. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase

    2005-01-01

    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  6. The cattle sector in Central and Eastern Europe : developments and opportunities in a time of transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.J.; Kuipers, A.; Keane, M.G.; Dimitriadou, A.

    2009-01-01

    Countries in Eastern-Europe are in a lengthy period of rapid changes. Ten Central and Eastern European countries entered the European Union in 2004 and two more entered in 2007. Surrounding countries to the east are in a similar process of change following the disintegration of the former Soviet Uni

  7. Attachment in cultural context : Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differe

  8. Climatic forcing of asymmetric orogenic evolution in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, A.; Parra, M.; Strecker, M.R.; Sobel, R.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Torres, V.; Vallejo Jaramillo, J.

    2008-01-01

    New apatite fission-track data, paleoelevation estimates from paleobotany, and recently acquired geological data from the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia document the onset of increased exhumation rates in the northeastern Andes at ca. 3 Ma. The Eastern Cordillera forms an efficient orographic barrie

  9. 76 FR 28972 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Tariff Rate on file with the Commission. Eastern Shore will recover its project costs entirely from Chesapeake, with no subsidy from Eastern Shore's other firm service customers. The total estimate cost of the... Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, for the construction, ownership, and...

  10. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.

  11. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Hassan; O.F. Osman; F.M.A. El-Raba'a; H.D.F.H. Schallig; D.E.A. Elnaiem

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a re

  12. Control and management of eastern baccharis in a recently established bottomland hardwood plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton Gann; Lynne Thompson; Jamie L. Schuler

    2012-01-01

    Eastern baccharis (Baccharis halimifolia L.) is a frequent invader in bottomland hardwood plantations established in southeastern Arkansas. This dioecious shrub can affect the survival and growth of newly planted stems. This study evaluated the utility of various herbicides and mechanical control treatments to manage eastern baccharis in an...

  13. Attachment in cultural context : Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic

  14. Genetic structure of the invasive tree Ailanthus altissima in eastern United States cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston R. Aldrich; Joseph S. Briguglio; Shyam N. Kapadia; Minesh U. Morker; Ankit Rawal; Preeti Kalra; Cynthia D. Huebner; Gary K. Greer

    2010-01-01

    Ailanthus altissima is an invasive tree from Asia. It now occurs in most US states, and although primarily an urban weed, it has become a problem in forested areas especially in the eastern states. Little is known about its genetic structure. We explore its naturalized gene pool from 28 populations, mostly of the eastern US where infestations are...

  15. Customer loyalty & face concerns : Differences between Eastern (Chinese) and Western (Dutch) consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Sha

    2015-01-01

    Consider some of the issues confronting a typical marketing manager of a multinational company (MNC): Should our customer retention and customer acquisition strategies differ between Western and Eastern cultures? How should we adjust the elements of the marketing mix to appeal to Eastern and Western

  16. 77 FR 65543 - Energy Corporation of America; Eastern American Energy Corporation; First ECA Midstream LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Corporation of America; Eastern American Energy Corporation; First ECA Midstream LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 16, 2012, Energy Corporation of America and Eastern American Energy Corporation (collectively, ECA), and First ECA Midstream LLC...

  17. The Conceptual Framework of the Eastern Approach in Physical Education: Ancient Wisdom for Modern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Nancy; Lu, Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    The Eastern approach has been identified as an alternative approach in Western physical education. The why and how to integrate the Eastern approach in physical education has been addressed in the literature, while the what deserves scholarly attention. The objective of this paper is to present four core concepts and key elements that construct…

  18. 76 FR 13976 - Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Forest Service Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls, ID AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the authorities in... Self-Determination Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-393) the Caribou-Targhee National Forests' Eastern Idaho...

  19. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  20. Why Is It So Difficult? Misconceptions about Eastern European Education in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Ana Maria

    1992-01-01

    Examines misconceptions in both Western and Eastern countries about educational systems in postcommunist Eastern Europe. Discusses issues of slow pace of educational reform, change through formal power structures, centralization versus decentralization, role of tradition, macro- and micro-level problems, Western assistance, and the relationship…

  1. Highlights and conclusions from the Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET) conference 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nsour, M; Kaiser, R; Abd Elkreem, E; Walke, H; Kandeel, A; Bloland, R

    2012-02-01

    As a follow up of a short communication that the Eastern Mediterranean Health journal published in December 2011, this article reports on highlights and conclusions from scientific abstracts, methodology workshops and plenary sessions that were presented as part of the Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET) conference held from 6 to 9 December 2011 in Sharm Al Sheikh, Egypt.

  2. The circulation of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, William S.

    2006-05-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, an extensive field study and interpretive effort was made by researchers, primarily at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, to sample and understand the physical oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific. That work was inspired by the valuable fisheries of the region, the recent discovery of the equatorial undercurrent, and the growing realization of the importance of the El Niño phenomenon. Here we review what was learned in that effort, and integrate those findings with work published since then as well as additional diagnoses based on modern data sets. Unlike the central Pacific, where the winds are nearly zonal and the ocean properties and circulation are nearly independent of longitude, the eastern tropical Pacific is distinguished by wind forcing that is strongly influenced by the topography of the American continent. Its circulation is characterized by short zonal scales, permanent eddies and significant off-equatorial upwelling. Notably, the Costa Rica Dome and a thermocline bowl to its northwest are due to winds blowing through gaps in the Central American cordillera, which imprint their signatures on the ocean through linear Sverdrup dynamics. Strong annual modulation of the gap winds and the meridional oscillation of the Intertropical Convergence Zone generates a Rossby wave, superimposed on the direct forcing, that results in a southwestward-propagating annual thermocline signal accounting for major features of observed thermocline depth variations, including that of the Costa Rica Dome, the Tehuantepec bowl, and the ridge-trough system of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). Interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and altimetric sea surface height signals suggests that the strengthening of the NECC observed in the central Pacific during El Niño events continues all the way to the coast, warming SST (by zonal advection) in a wider meridional band than the equatorially trapped thermocline

  3. Low Frequency Variability and the Eastern Mediterranean Teleconnection Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.

    2007-12-01

    The long time series analysis of the atmospheric circulation has revealed large scale correlations between the flow at remote locations. These fluctuations belong in the low frequency range of timescale and referred to as teleconnections patterns. They are located in particular places and appear as preferred modes of low-frequency natural variability of the atmospheric circulation with fixed oscillating nodes and antinodes, called poles. These teleconnection patterns describe standing waves oscillating with time scales of a month or longer. It has been recognized that the large scale eddies and their feedback onto the mean flow, the propagation of Rossby waves in the midlatitudes and the stratosphere-troposphere interaction play an important role in understanding low frequency general circulation and variability. In previous studies, the Eastern Mediterranean Teleconnection pattern (EMP) was found with its two poles located in North-eastern Europe and Eastern Mediterranean, and it was predominantly identified at the upper troposphere during winter. An index was defined, based on the exact position of the two poles of the pattern, to represent the strength of the teleconnection pattern and to discriminate its positive and negative phase. The objective of this study is to investigate the large scale dynamics related to the development of EMP. For this purpose, datasets of daily geopotential height, temperature and horizontal wind components at several isobaric levels are employed, as obtained from the NCEP/NCAR and from the ECMWF centres, for the calculation of transient eddy kinetic energy, E-vectors, Rossby wave source and potential vorticity. It was found that the role of the eddy driven mid-latitude jet is important. It is likely that the subtropical jet is passive and that the transient eddies remove much more momentum in the negative phase, when the storm- track comes charging into Europe. Rossby wave propagation seems to determine the differing wave

  4. Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Michelsen, O.

    2003-12-01

    This paper provides a review of recent high-resolution and conventional seismic investigations in the eastern Danish North Sea and destribes their implications for the development of the eastern North Sea Basin. The results tomprise detailed timestructure maps of four major unconformities in the eastern Danish North Sea: the Top Chalk surface (mid-Paleogene), near top Oligocene, the mid-Miocene unconformity, and base Quatemary. The maps show that the eastem Danish North Sea has been affected by fauldng and salt diapirism throughout the Cenozoic. Carbonate mounds, erosional valleys and pockmark- or karstlike struttures were identitied at the top of the Upper Cretaceous-Danian Chalk Group. Strike-parallel erosional features and depositional geometries observed at near top Oligocene and at the mid-Miocene unconformity indicate that these major sequence boundarics tan be attributed to large-scale lateral changes in sediment supply directions. Increases in sediment flux to the southeastern North Sea at the Eocene/Oligocene transition and in the post-Middle Miocene appear to correlate with similar events world wide and with long term {delta} {sup 18} O increases, indicating forting by global factors, i.e. eustasy and climate. Stratal geometries observed on the seismic data indicate that the socalled `Neogene uplift' of the Bastern Danish North Sea may have been hundreds of metres less than previously suggested. lt is argued that late Cenozoic uplift of the basin margin and of mountain peaks in southern Norway may have been caused entirely by isostatic uplift of the trust in response to accelerated late Cenozoic denudation and dissection of topography created in the Paleogene. The late Cenozoic periods of accelerated denudation and incision rates were most likely driven by climatic deterioration and long term eustatic lowering rather than active late Cenozoic tectonics, the cause of which is conjectural. A series of shallow thrust struttures and an associated system

  5. Liquefaction hazard potential in north eastern united arab emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Homoud, A.

    2003-04-01

    The United Arab Emirates is adjacent to the Iranian plateau characterized by very high density of active and recent faults. The Iranian plateau is one of the seismically active areas of the world and frequently suffers destructive and catastrophic earthquakes that cause heavy loss of human life and widespread damage. Therefore seismic risk in the North Eastern UAE (Sharjah and Dubai) is due to the neighboring very active Iranian seismotectonic province. As almost all foundation soils in the UAE are cohesionless material, which is clearly identified as recent fill deposits in major industrial and residential areas, and given the rapid on-shore infrastructure developments in the North Eastern UAE, and due to the lack of geo-hazards maps, it is considered vital to develop liquefaction hazard maps for these areas. The earthquake risk was brought to the attention of the public and the government upon the recent March 11, 2002 earthquake of magnitude 5.1 on Richter Scale that struck the northern emirates and caused slight damages. Initial seismic hazard assessment studies showed that Design Horizontal Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) in Sharjah and Dubai with 90% probabilities of non-exceedence in 50 years is around 200 cm/sec^2. This study is concerned with the development of liquefaction hazard maps in North Eastern Emirates UAE Cities of Sharjah and Dubai. Liquefaction hazard potential for various soil deposits in these cities is evaluated for different Peak Ground Acceleation Values. Data from thorough geotechnical studies were evaluated. This include boreholes drilling (with SPT tests) and shear strength for representative sand samples taken from several boreholes and at different depths. Liquefaction hazard potential is evaluated at representative sites in the city of Dubai and Sharjah using the state of the art liquefaction potential evaluation methods (e.g. Seed's cyclic stress ratio approach). Results indicate clearly that the coastal areas have a high potential

  6. Dust-wind interactions can intensify aerosol pollution over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Russell, Lynn M.; Lou, Sijia; Liao, Hong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Singh, Balwinder; Ghan, Steven J.

    2017-05-01

    Eastern China has experienced severe and persistent winter haze episodes in recent years due to intensification of aerosol pollution. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, the winter aerosol pollution over eastern China is associated with unusual meteorological conditions, including weaker wind speeds. Here we show, based on model simulations, that during years with decreased wind speed, large decreases in dust emissions (29%) moderate the wintertime land-sea surface air temperature difference and further decrease winds by -0.06 (+/-0.05) m s-1 averaged over eastern China. The dust-induced lower winds enhance stagnation of air and account for about 13% of increasing aerosol concentrations over eastern China. Although recent increases in anthropogenic emissions are the main factor causing haze over eastern China, we conclude that natural emissions also exert a significant influence on the increases in wintertime aerosol concentrations, with important implications that need to be taken into account by air quality studies.

  7. Dust-wind interactions can intensify aerosol pollution over eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Russell, Lynn M; Lou, Sijia; Liao, Hong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Singh, Balwinder; Ghan, Steven J

    2017-05-11

    Eastern China has experienced severe and persistent winter haze episodes in recent years due to intensification of aerosol pollution. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, the winter aerosol pollution over eastern China is associated with unusual meteorological conditions, including weaker wind speeds. Here we show, based on model simulations, that during years with decreased wind speed, large decreases in dust emissions (29%) moderate the wintertime land-sea surface air temperature difference and further decrease winds by -0.06 (±0.05) m s(-1) averaged over eastern China. The dust-induced lower winds enhance stagnation of air and account for about 13% of increasing aerosol concentrations over eastern China. Although recent increases in anthropogenic emissions are the main factor causing haze over eastern China, we conclude that natural emissions also exert a significant influence on the increases in wintertime aerosol concentrations, with important implications that need to be taken into account by air quality studies.

  8. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Washington and River Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Canada in October and November,...

  9. 2007 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Washington and River Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Canada in October and November,...

  10. 2007 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Washington and River Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Canada in October and November,...

  11. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian...... fragment (PA), was interpreted and a triple junction was inferred. The goal of this study has been to relate these deep crustal structures to active tectonics. We used elastic plate modeling to reconsider the Moho fragmentation. We interpret subduction of EU below AD and PA from north to south...... and underthusting of AD mantle below PA from southwest to northeast. The Moho fragmentation correlates well with major upper crustal structures and is supported by gravity, seismic, and geodetic data. An analysis of crustal thickening suggests that active convergence is associated with continued thrusting...

  12. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  13. Climate, Waterborne Disease, and Public Health in Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrell, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    As global temperatures rise, waterborne diseases have expanded their ranges northward. Exposure to new diseases is especially threatening to isolated communities, whose remote locations and lack of health resources and infrastructure leave them particularly vulnerable. For this project, a time series analysis of existing data will be used to assess temporal and spatial associations between long-term, seasonal and short-term weather variability, and waterborne infectious diseases in several Siberian communities. Building on these associations, we will generate estimates of future changes in infectious disease patterns based upon existing forecasts of climate change and likely increases in extreme weather events in eastern Russia. Finally, we will contemplate the public health implications of these findings and offer appropriate policy recommendations. One of our policy aims will be to identify easily measured water quality indicators that may serve as useful proxies for environmental health in rural, especially indigenous, communities.

  14. Fluorescence characteristics of water soluble organic carbon in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence excitation and average molecular weight of 46 water soluble organic matter (WSOC) samples extracted from 20 soil types in eastern China were determined. It was found all samples shared similar spectroscopy. A good linear relationship existed between total organic carbon and excitation in the range of 350 to 450 nm though the content of organic carbon and pH of the samples vary in a wide range. No significant correlation between relative excitation intensity and average molecular weight of WSOC and FA was found, but the partial correlation became significant with pH as the controlling factor for WSOC samples. The relative excitation intensity showed a general trend of increasing from south to north in the study area. The pH value might play an important role in regulating the fluorescent spatial variation of WSOC.

  15. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...... of host country location factors. In particular, we investigate to what extent knowledge-seeking is a relevant investment motive, which has been documented as a key determinant for OFDI from other emerging economies. We apply a discrete choice approach to model foreign location choice of firms from CEE...... countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15...

  16. The EU Eastern enlargement: Policy choices of the Spanish government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Piedrafita Tremosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eastern enlargement is a process in which the very identity of the European Union is under construction, with its constitutive principles and values being challenged. Policy choices of the member governments participating in this process can not exclusively being explained by rational choice assumptions, but a sociological approach to the issue also becomes necessary. Through the analysis of the Spanish government's policy on enlargement, this paper aims to show how policy preferences might not only respond to a cost-benefit calculus and how policy contents might develop endogenously during the process of policy formation in the EU. In this process there is room for member states to pursue their goals and search a collective decision that better accommodates their self-interest. However, deliberation also matters, and governments have to justify their actions in terms considered legitimate by all according to the constitutive principles and values of the EU polity.

  17. Intercultural Conflicts:The Analysis of Eastern and Western perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宁

    2009-01-01

    The need for intercultural communication is as old as humankind. Though it has a long history, today's intercultural communication is far more numerous and of greater importance than in any previous time in the past. Due to the colliding of different cultures, the intercultural differences appear naturally, and then the appearance of various intercultural conflicts is inevitable. This thesis aims to study the intercultural conflicts through the detailed analysis of eastern and western perspectives from four aspects. Being familiar with these intercultural conflicts, we can understand the origin of intercultural conflicts. Then the thesis provides some suggestions to manage these conflicts effectively. Finally after the well-solution of intercultural conflicts, the intercultural communication will be more smooth and harmonious.

  18. Expression of emotion in Eastern and Western music mirrors vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Daniel Liu; Sundararajan, Janani; Han, Shui'er; Purves, Dale

    2012-01-01

    In Western music, the major mode is typically used to convey excited, happy, bright or martial emotions, whereas the minor mode typically conveys subdued, sad or dark emotions. Recent studies indicate that the differences between these modes parallel differences between the prosodic and spectral characteristics of voiced speech sounds uttered in corresponding emotional states. Here we ask whether tonality and emotion are similarly linked in an Eastern musical tradition. The results show that the tonal relationships used to express positive/excited and negative/subdued emotions in classical South Indian music are much the same as those used in Western music. Moreover, tonal variations in the prosody of English and Tamil speech uttered in different emotional states are parallel to the tonal trends in music. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the association between musical tonality and emotion is based on universal vocal characteristics of different affective states.

  19. Expression of emotion in Eastern and Western music mirrors vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liu Bowling

    Full Text Available In Western music, the major mode is typically used to convey excited, happy, bright or martial emotions, whereas the minor mode typically conveys subdued, sad or dark emotions. Recent studies indicate that the differences between these modes parallel differences between the prosodic and spectral characteristics of voiced speech sounds uttered in corresponding emotional states. Here we ask whether tonality and emotion are similarly linked in an Eastern musical tradition. The results show that the tonal relationships used to express positive/excited and negative/subdued emotions in classical South Indian music are much the same as those used in Western music. Moreover, tonal variations in the prosody of English and Tamil speech uttered in different emotional states are parallel to the tonal trends in music. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the association between musical tonality and emotion is based on universal vocal characteristics of different affective states.

  20. Natal foraging philopatry in eastern Pacific hawksbill turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaos, Alexander R; Lewison, Rebecca L; Jensen, Michael P; Liles, Michael J; Henriquez, Ana; Chavarria, Sofia; Pacheco, Carlos Mario; Valle, Melissa; Melero, David; Gadea, Velkiss; Altamirano, Eduardo; Torres, Perla; Vallejo, Felipe; Miranda, Cristina; LeMarie, Carolina; Lucero, Jesus; Oceguera, Karen; Chácon, Didiher; Fonseca, Luis; Abrego, Marino; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Flores, Eric E; Llamas, Israel; Donadi, Rodrigo; Peña, Bernardo; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Ruales, Daniela Alarcòn; Chaves, Jaime A; Otterstrom, Sarah; Zavala, Alan; Hart, Catherine E; Brittain, Rachel; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Mangel, Jeffrey; Yañez, Ingrid L; Dutton, Peter H

    2017-08-01

    The complex processes involved with animal migration have long been a subject of biological interest, and broad-scale movement patterns of many marine turtle populations still remain unresolved. While it is widely accepted that once marine turtles reach sexual maturity they home to natal areas for nesting or reproduction, the role of philopatry to natal areas during other life stages has received less scrutiny, despite widespread evidence across the taxa. Here we report on genetic research that indicates that juvenile hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in the eastern Pacific Ocean use foraging grounds in the region of their natal beaches, a pattern we term natal foraging philopatry. Our findings confirm that traditional views of natal homing solely for reproduction are incomplete and that many marine turtle species exhibit philopatry to natal areas to forage. Our results have important implications for life-history research and conservation of marine turtles and may extend to other wide-ranging marine vertebrates that demonstrate natal philopatry.

  1. Whooping crane titers to eastern equine encephalitis vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Kolski, E.; Hatfield, J.S.; Docherty, D.E.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    In 1984 an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus killed 7 of 39 (18%) whooping cranes in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, USA. Since that time whooping cranes have been vaccinated with a human EEE vaccine. This vaccine was unavailable for several years, necessitating use of an equine vaccine in the cranes. This study compared the antibody titers measured for three years using the human vaccine with those measured for two years using the equine form. Whooping cranes developed similarly elevated titers in one year using the human vaccine and both years using the equine vaccine. However, in two years where the human vaccine was used, the whooping cranes developed significantly lower titers compared to other years.

  2. Groundwater quality assessment in parts of Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, A. E.

    1993-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical analyses were carried out on groundwater samples collected from 20 producing wells in different parts of the Eastern Niger Delta. Results show that the concentrations of the major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and anions (Cl-, SO{4/2-}, HCO{3/-}) are below the World Health Organization (WHO) standards set for domestic purposes. The occurrence of slightly saline water in certain areas is attributed to local hydrogeological processes occurring in the area. On the basis of the analytical results, two hydrogeochemical facies are delineated. These are calcium-magnesium-chloride-sulfate-bicarbonate (Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4-HCO3) and calcium-sodium-chloride-sulfatebicarbonate (Ca-Na-Cl-SO4-HCO3) to the west and east of the study area, respectively.

  3. Trail Trees: Living Artifacts (Vivifacts of Eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Kawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Living trees historically modified by human populations, oftentimes referred to as “culturally modified trees” (CMTs, are found throughout the North American landscape. In eastern North America specifically, indigenous populations bent thousands of trees to mark trails, and some of these still exist in the region today. In this article, we present a synthesis of current knowledge on trail trees, including their speculated functions, formation, and selection. We also examine the theoretical implications of these living artifacts (or vivifacts and how they may open new avenues for investigation by archaeologists, environmental historians, and ethnobiologists. To conclude, we make a call for expanded public recognition and documentation of trail trees, discussing the need for their incorporation into forest and park management plans.

  4. Segmentation of the Levant continental margin, eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Avraham, Z.; Schattner, U.; Lazar, M.; Hall, J. K.; Ben-Gai, Y.; Neev, D.; Reshef, M.

    2006-10-01

    The Levant continental margin is divided into two major segments by the Carmel structure, which extends from the Dead Sea fault into the eastern Mediterranean. New seismic reflection data over the unexplored northern segment are used for completing the structural framework of the Levant area, together with existing data south of it. Inclusive depth structural maps of the area were produced for the base Pliocene and base Messinian evaporites. Previous studies indicate that differences between the two segments are well expressed in the deep crustal structure. The present study, which focuses mainly on the shallow section, shows that these differences are maintained throughout the accumulation of young sedimentary units, and even in the bathymetry. This preservation of segmentation, both in the shallow and in the deep structure, insinuates that the two segments were formed through different continental breakup processes, which continue to dictate the style of sediment accumulation.

  5. Tracks for Eastern/Western European Future Launch Vehicles Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Bertschi, Markus

    2002-01-01

    exclusively upon Western European elements indigenously produced. Yet some private initiatives took place successfully in the second half of the nineties (Eurockot and Starsem) bringing together companies from Western and Eastern Europe. Evolution of these JV's are already envisioned. But these ventures relied mostly on already existing vehicles. broadening the bases in order to enlarge the reachable world market appears attractive, even if structural difficulties are complicating the process. had recently started to analyze, with KSRC counterparts how mixing Russian and Western European based elements would provide potential competitive edges. and RKA in the frame of the new ESA's Future Launch Preparatory Programme (FLPP). main technical which have been considered as the most promising (reusable LOx/Hydrocarbon engine, experimental reentry vehicles or demonstrators and reusable launch vehicle first stage or booster. international approach. 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  6. Advocacy Networks and Romani Politics in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vermeersch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of the activity of international solidarity and human rights organizations on the political involvement of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe. It will conclude that the increase of an international advocacy network focussing on the plight of the Roma has offered new opportunities to domestic Romani organizations for pressuring governments to change state behaviour or to introduce new policy. In some cases, governments have even appointed Romani personalities from well-known advocacy organizations to advisory positions. However, the influence of a growing advocacy network has not been able yet to create a better democratically elected representation of the Roma in the central arenas of political decision-making on domestic level. Moreover, within domestic Romani movements there is growing discussion about the legitimacy and accountability of Romani advisors.

  7. Tennessee Valley and Eastern Kentucky Wind Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katie Stokes

    2012-05-03

    In December 2009, the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy (SACE), through a partnership with the Appalachian Regional Commission, EKPC, Kentucky's Department for Energy Development and Independence, SACE, Tennessee's Department of Environment and Conservation, and TVA, and through a contract with the Department of Energy, established the Tennessee Valley and Eastern Kentucky Wind Working Group (TVEKWWG). TVEKWWG consists of a strong network of people and organizations. Working together, they provide information to various organizations and stakeholders regarding the responsible development of wind power in the state. Members include representatives from utility interests, state and federal agencies, economic development organizations, non-government organizations, local decision makers, educational institutions, and wind industry representatives. The working group is facilitated by the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy. TVEKWWG supports the Department of Energy by helping educate and inform key stakeholders about wind energy in the state of Tennessee.

  8. The lynx in the Italian South-Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Molinari

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1986 to May 1995 I collected records of signs of lynx presence in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. A series of regularly checked trail transects, explorative excursions, and the collection of second-hand observations led to a total of 150 records. They confirm lynx presence and allow an assessment of the situation. The first lynx are believed to have immigrated to the northern part of the study area from Austria. An increase and the distribution in the signs of presence show a south-westerly expansion. The trend in the Julian Alps and Pre-Alps is also increasing. Some interpretations of the status of this new population are made. The study area is in the far south-eastern Alps. This area is important as a corridor between the Alps and the Balkans, where a reintroduced lynx population exists which would be able to support the Alpine lynx population through dispersing lynx.

  9. Low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D. S.; Löscher, C. R.; Krahmann, G.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a climate relevant trace gas, and its production in the ocean generally increases under suboxic conditions. The Atlantic Ocean is well ventilated, and unlike the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, dissolved oxygen and N2O concentrations...... in the Atlantic OMZ are relatively high and low, respectively. This study, however, demonstrates that recently discovered low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) can produce N2O concentrations much higher (up to 115 nmol L-1) than those previously reported for the Atlantic Ocean, and which...... are within the range of the highest concentrations found in the open-ocean OMZs of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. N2O isotope and isotopomer signatures, as well as molecular genetic results, also point towards a major shift in the N2O cycling pathway in the core of the low oxygen eddy discussed here, and we...

  10. Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Neculita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement has become a fundamental priority of the European Union after the 90’s. Up to now seven rounds have been held for enlarging the Community which initially was made up of six Member States (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Among all EU enlargements, the eastward enlargement from 2004 was the biggest challenge, both due to the number of new Member States which joined - the number of EU inhabitants increasing to approximately from 380 to 485 million, but also due to the difference of Gross Domestic Product between the old and new EU members. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration and absorption of European funds into the newest that joined the European Union. The paper proposes an analysis of integration and specialization in Eastern Europe by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions.

  11. Eastern Seaboard Electric Grid Fragility Maps Supporting Persistent Availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Kimberly A [ORNL; Weigand, Gilbert G [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Persistently available power transmission can be disrupted by weather causing power outages with economic and social consequences. This research investigated the effects on the national power grid from a specific weather event, Hurricane Irene, that caused approximately 5.7 million customer power outages along the Eastern Seaboard in August of 2011. The objective was to describe the geographic differences in the grid s vulnerability to these events. Individual factors, such as wind speed or precipitation, were correlated with the number of outages to determine the greatest mechanism of power failure in hopes of strengthening the future power grid. The resulting fragility maps not only depicted 18 counties that were less robust than the design-standard robustness model and three counties that were more robust, but also drew new damage contours with correlated wind speeds and county features.

  12. FDI and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe H. Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the major trends in scholarship about the role of FDI and exports on economic growth, the effect of tax policies on FDI, the formation of the economic catch up of the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE region and the determinants of FDI inflows in CEE nations. I am specifically interested in how previous research investigated the influence of FDI on host country economic growth, the inward FDI stock as a percentage of GDP, the features and restrictions of fiscal schemes in CEE economies and the institutional soundness displayed in policies towards FDI. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to research on FDI as a mechanism in the transition to the market, the dissimilarities in the FDI-assisted development methods among the CEE nations, the impact of FDI inflows for productivity convergence in CEE and the current slowing of growth in emerging Europe.

  13. Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. (Odonata, Platycnemididae, Disparoneurinae) from eastern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-10-06

    Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. is described from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, 4.2 km SE of Dak Dam village, 12°23'10-18'' N 107°19'22-30'' E, 877-878 m asl, 14. VI. 2014, RMNH). The species has a blue pattern, and the male is characterised by medium-broad blue stripes on synthorax and blue colour at the end of the abdomen confined to a tiny spot on S9, dorsum of S10 and cerci. A female of P. doisuthepensis Hoess, 2007 is described. Based on original descriptions, the following synonymy is proposed: Prodasineura fujianensis Xu, 2006 = Prodasineura huai Zhou et Zhou, 2007, syn. n.

  14. Flotation studies on low grade graphite ore from eastern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasumathi N.; Vijaya Kumar T.V.; Ratchambigai S.; Subba Rao S.; Bhaskar Raju G

    2015-01-01

    A low grade graphite ore from eastern India was beneficiated by flotation to improve its quality. The ore was composed of 87.80%ash and 8.59%fixed carbon. Primary coarse wet grinding (d80:186 lm) followed by rougher flotation in Denver flotation cell using diesel as collector and pine oil as frother yielded a rougher concentrate. Regrinding (d80:144 lm) of this rougher concentrate was opted for further libera-tion of graphite. It was followed by cleaning in laboratory flotation column. This combined process of relatively coarse primary grinding followed by regrinding and cleaning in flotation column resulted in final concentrate of 7.44% yield with 89.65% fixed carbon and 6.00% ash. This approach of two-stage grinding to recover the flake graphite at the coarsest possible grind can help to minimize grinding energy costs. A conceptual flow sheet which is cost effective was developed based on this methodology.

  15. INTRODUCTION. TRANSITION INTO RETIREMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Krzyżowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue of “Contributions to Humanities” presents various aspects of transitions to retirement in Europe, particularly in post-communist countries. The process of retirementis analysed from various points of view; to name afew: the political perspective and the challengesfaced by current public pension systems in ageing societies, the macro perspectivewhich analyses the structural reasons for (early retirement, and the micro perspective ofindividuals and their ways of experiencing and dealing with exit from the labour market.Therefore, for this issue we sought out an array of papers that extensively discuss the problemof retirement, and inevitably the problem of aging, in Eastern and Central Europe. Obviously,this publication examines only afraction of this broad problem and is by no means exhaustive,thus we hope that it will serve to stimulatethe further discussion.

  16. Phasor Measurement Units in the Eastern Danish power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Jørgensen, Preben;

    2006-01-01

    Technology. After power system events data can be extracted and analyzed offline. The purpose of the project is to do research within various utilizations of PMU data. On 8 January 2005 a severe storm passed Denmark, and wind speeds were so high, that wind turbines disconnected from the transmission grid......In the Eastern Danish transmission system four Phasor Measurement Units (PMU’s) are installed at 400 kV and 132 kV voltage level. The PMU’s continuously record voltage and current phasors each 20 ms. Data are stored locally on the PMU’s and are also transferred to a database at Centre for Electric...... because of their self protection. Nysted offshore wind farm was among the wind power units that disconnected from the grid, and PMU data from that event are analyzed. The case illustrates the close relation between voltages, power flows and voltage phase angles over a wide area. The voltage phase angle...

  17. Beyond Ethnic Politics in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wolff

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In his article 'Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East', Will Kymlicka argues, among others that a key condition for the success of legal and political reforms in the area of minority rights is a fundamental change in public attitudes towards and acceptance of the legitimacy and normality of nationalist mobilization by substate national groups. Following a brief overview of the complexity of ethnic relations in Central and Eastern Europe and the intricacy of minority-state relations, the author of this article contends that, contrary to Kymlicka, the region might even be better off if political spaces were constructed around other than ethnic identities. In line with Kymlicka, it is nevertheless conceded that there may be a need in several cases for lengthy transition periods in which ethnic identities are given institutional space ans security to play an important role in everyday politics.

  18. Concepts of Culture in Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hecker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the seventh issue of META, this editorial discusses prevalent concepts of culture in Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies. Different conceptualizations of culture that explicitly or implicitly contain qualitative differentiations between cultures are revisited and discussed. Bearing considerable weight in the respective disciplines, the Islam-andthe-West paradigm, the delineation of diverging cultures along ethnic lines, the equation of culture with art or religion, and the culture-as-civilization paradigm are being scrutinized. Serving as an example for the confusion and lack of clarity regarding the concept of "culture", the book The Culture of Ambiguity by the German scholar of Islamic Studies Thomas Bauer is analyzed regarding its use of the term.

  19. Catalog of strong motion stations in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, R. W.

    1990-04-01

    The catalog contains information on all strong motion stations operating in Eastern North America known to the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). The location, coordinates, installation dates, type of instrument, operator, structure type and size, and site geology are listed for each station. The format of the catalog is patterned after the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 81-664, 'Western Hemisphere Strong-Motion Accelerograph Station List-1980' but the entries have been updated as of January 1990. There are 237 stations listed in the catalog which include 414 recording instruments. One third of these stations are intended to record free-field ground motion while the rest are associated with large engineered structures. The relationship of station location to seismicity is shown in a series of figures and a method is described to predict peak acceleration levels from an earthquake where the magnitude and distance to station are known.

  20. Phasor Measurement Units in the Eastern Danish power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Jørgensen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    In the Eastern Danish transmission system four Phasor Measurement Units (PMU’s) are installed at 400 kV and 132 kV voltage level. The PMU’s continuously record voltage and current phasors each 20 ms. Data are stored locally on the PMU’s and are also transferred to a database at Centre for Electric...... because of their self protection. Nysted offshore wind farm was among the wind power units that disconnected from the grid, and PMU data from that event are analyzed. The case illustrates the close relation between voltages, power flows and voltage phase angles over a wide area. The voltage phase angle...... measurements complements the traditional voltage and power flow measurements....

  1. The Transmission of Foreign Shocks to South Eastern European Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrevski, Goran; Bogoev, Jane; Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    and non-policy shocks (the output gap, the money market rate and the inflation rate in the euro-zone) on monetary and fiscal policies and economic activity in the analysed countries. The main motivation behind our empirical investigation is the fact that all of these economies are small open economies......This paper investigates the transmission of foreign shocks to economic activity and macroeconomic policies in the South Eastern European (SEE) economies with fixed exchange rate regimes: Croatia, Macedonia and Bulgaria. Specifically, we provide empirical evidence on the influence of the EMU policy...... and relatively strong influence on SEE economies and these external shocks are transmitted relativity quickly. Moreover, the results also suggest that the effects of exogenous shocks are more persistent if the domestic economy is more integrated with the EU. An additional finding is that shocks in the foreign...

  2. Invasive alien woody plants of the eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 69.9% (151/216 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 101 species of which the most prominent (in order of prominence in roadside and veld habitats were:  Opuntia ficus-indica, Acacia meamsii and A. cyclops. The most prominent species (in order of prominence in streambank habitats were:  A. meamsii, Populus x  canescens, Salix babylonica and  S. fragilis (fide R.D. Meikle.The greatest intensity of invasion was recorded in the wetter eastern parts and particularly in the vicinity of Port Elizabeth. Uitenhage, East London, Grahamstown, Hogsback and Stutterheim. There was relatively little invasion in the central and western dry interior except along watercourses.

  3. Voicing women in Eastern Europe-an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Judit; Borgos, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This special issue maps out real and symbolic spaces of women who are attracted to women in Eastern Europe, and highlights some of the challenges they face. One of the main themes emerging from the articles is that constructing spaces for women outside the heterosexual mainstream can be a useful political strategy in societies where non-conventional sexual interests, attractions, and gender expression have discriminative consequences. All of the eight articles in this special issue represent different voices, while demonstrating that there are many similar tendencies concerning the main goals and difficulties of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and lesbian movements of the region, in terms of legal and social developments related to the most heated issues of same-sex marriage and parenting on the one hand, and the violent attacks against pride marches and political backlash on the other.

  4. The Transmission of Foreign Shocks to South Eastern European Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrevski, Goran; Bogoev, Jane; Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    and non-policy shocks (the output gap, the money market rate and the inflation rate in the euro-zone) on monetary and fiscal policies and economic activity in the analysed countries. The main motivation behind our empirical investigation is the fact that all of these economies are small open economies......This paper investigates the transmission of foreign shocks to economic activity and macroeconomic policies in the South Eastern European (SEE) economies with fixed exchange rate regimes: Croatia, Macedonia and Bulgaria. Specifically, we provide empirical evidence on the influence of the EMU policy...... and relatively strong influence on SEE economies and these external shocks are transmitted relativity quickly. Moreover, the results also suggest that the effects of exogenous shocks are more persistent if the domestic economy is more integrated with the EU. An additional finding is that shocks in the foreign...

  5. Land reform and land fragmentation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    It has often been stated that land fragmentation and farm structures characterized by small agricultural holdings and farms divided in a large number of parcels have been the side-effect of land reform in Central and Eastern Europe. This article reports the findings of a study of land reform in 25...... countries in the region from 1989 and onwards and provides an overview of applied land reform approaches. With a basis in theory on land fragmentation, the linkage between land reform approaches and land fragmentation is explored. It is discussed in which situations land fragmentation is a barrier...... for the development of the agricultural and rural sector. The main finding is that land fragmentation is often hampering agricultural and rural development when both land ownership and land use is highly fragmented....

  6. Post-Communist Health Transitions in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE have gone through immense political and socioeconomic restructuring after the collapse of communism around 1990. Such transition has affected the lives of populations in these countries in many significant respects. A key aspect of life and wellbeing in any society is that of population health. This paper traces the transitions in population health—life expectancies and mortality rates for both males and females—in seven of the CEE countries during the two decades after the fall of communism. We estimate a series of panel data models to identify some of the common factors that would explain health transitions in these countries, while allowing for country-specific variability. Our findings indicate that the health transitions are strongly country specific. Moreover, income per capita and trade openness are statistically significant common contributors to health transitions.

  7. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)); Bonner, W.P. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  8. The airborne pollen calendar for Lublin, central-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska-Weryszko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An aerobiological study was conducted to investigate the quantity and quality of pollen in the atmosphere of Lublin in central-eastern Poland. Pollen monitoring was carried out in the period 2001–2012 using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The atmospheric pollen season in Lublin lasted, on average, from the end of January to the beginning of October. The mean air temperature during the study period was found to be higher by 1.1 °C than the mean temperature in the period 1951–2000. 56 types of pollen of plants belonging to 41 families were identified. 28 types represented woody plants and 28 represented herbaceous plants. The study distinguished 5 plant taxa the pollen of which was present most abundantly in the air of Lublin, which altogether accounted for 73.4%:[i] [b]Betula[/b], Urtica, Pinus, [b]Poaceae[/b], and [/i][b][i]Alnus[/i][/b]. The mean annual pollen index was 68 706; the largest amount of pollen was recorded in April and accounted for 33.3% of the annual pollen index. The pollen calendar included 28 allergenic plant taxa. The pollen of woody plants had the highest percentage in the pollen spectrum, on average 58.4%. The parameters of the pollen calendar for Lublin were compared with the calendar for central-eastern Europe with regard to the start of the pollen season of particular taxa. The pollen calendar for Lublin was demonstrated to show greater similarity to the calendar for Münster (Germany than to the calendar for Bratislava (Slovakia.

  9. Airborne expendable bathythermograph surveys of the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, C.; Kerling, J.; Athey, G.; Schmitz, J.; Clifford, M.

    1994-05-01

    Two extensive airborne expendable bathythermograph (AXBT) surveys of the eastern Mediterranean were conducted during December 1991 and July 1992 from a Naval Oceanographic Office RP-3 aircraft. Larger areas were sampled over shorter periods of time than is possible with conventional surveys carried out by ships. The circulation of the eastern Mediterranean consists of a collection of subgyres and fronts which show surprising seasonal and interannual variability. These surveys help to describe further this variability which is only partially understood. In particular, the surveys provide additional evidence that a relatively strong anticyclone located adjacent to the southeast corner of Crete during the late summer and through fall is a consequence of strong north winds from the Aegean, the Etesians, being blocked by Crete. Also notable in both surveys was the absence of "a" strong Mersa-Matruh gyre, an anticyclone or anticyclonic subgyre off the Egyptian coast generally considered to be permanent. In contrast to published earlier observations, the Mersa Matruh gyre system was more a collection of weaker anticyclones rather than a single, sometimes double centered, strong feature. In both surveys we saw a string of anticyclones off the African coast between about 24° and 32°E. In general, these eddies did not exhibit a significant surface thermal structure, but were most evident in the 200 m to 300 m-depth depictions. It may be that the formation of a strong southeast Crete anticyclone inhibits the formation of a large, relatively strong Mersa-Matruh subgyre by interacting with the mid-Mediterranean jet. If so, then both the southeast Crete anticyclone and the Mersa-Matruh anticyclone could both be recurrent but tend to occur at different times.

  10. Aqueous Alteration at a Delta in Eastern Libya Montes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Tirsch, Daniela; Tornabene, Livio L.; Seelos, Frank P.; Erkeling, Gino; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Libya Montes hosts ancient Noachian basalt altered by hydrothermal action from the Isidis impact, olivine- and pyroxene-bearing lavas from the Syrtis volcanic outflows, multiple craters that have excavated these geologic units, and numerous Hesperian-Amazonian-aged fluvial features that carved channels across the surface and may have transported material downward towards Isidis. Mineralogical analyses of a delta region in Eastern Libya Montes using recently available MTR3 CRISM images have revealed the presence of carbonate in additional to Al-, Fe-, and Mg-bearing phyllosilicates. We are investigating the origins of these aqueous components through stratigraphical and morphological analyses. We hypothesize that the carbonate and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates are alteration products of the ancient basalt and that the Al-smectite formed as a result of the delta and more recent lacustrine or fluvial processes. The Al-smectite spectral features are most consistent with beidellite, which forms at elevated temperatures compared to montmorillonite. We seek to determine if the beidellite likely formed in warm delta waters or if it may have formed via burial diagenesis and was then excavated by the delta. Newly developed CRISM parameters are being utilized for analysis of the MTR3 versions of CRISM images FRT0000B0CB and FRT0001E2F2 in the fan and delta region of eastern Libya Montes. The MTR3 images feature joined short-wavelength and long-wavelength images and improved spectral signals through new atmospheric separation and noise removal techniques. This enables better detection of spectral signatures from small outcrops of aqueous components. We have placed these new CRISM mineral maps over HRSC stereo images to evaluate the stratigraphy of the aqueous components in relation to the ancient basalt and Syrtis lavas as in previous analyses of the central Libya Montes region. Coordinated CRISM-HiRISE views are expected to provide insights into the morphologies of the aqueous units

  11. Drought identification in the eastern Baltic region using NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, Egidijus; Stonevicius, Edvinas; Kilpys, Justinas; Maciulyte, Viktorija; Valiukas, Donatas

    2017-07-01

    Droughts are phenomena that affect large areas. Remote sensing data covering large territories can be used to assess the impact and extent of droughts. Drought effect on vegetation was determined using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) in the eastern Baltic Sea region located between 53-60° N and 20-30° E. The effect of precipitation deficit on vegetation in arable land and broadleaved and coniferous forest was analysed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) calculated for 1- to 9-month timescales. Vegetation has strong seasonality in the analysed area. The beginning and the end of the vegetation season depends on the distance from the Baltic Sea, which affects temperature and precipitation patterns. The vegetation season in the southeastern part of the region is 5-6 weeks longer than in the northwestern part. The early spring air temperature, snowmelt water storage in the soil and precipitation have the largest influence on the NDVI values in the first half of the active growing season. Precipitation deficit in the first part of the vegetation season only has a significant impact on the vegetation on arable land. The vegetation in the forests is less sensitive to the moisture deficit. Correlation between VCI and the same month SPI1 is usually negative in the study area. It means that wetter conditions lead to lower VCI values, while the correlation is usually positive between the VCI and the SPI of the previous month. With a longer SPI scale the correlation gradually shifts towards the positive coefficients. The positive correlation between 3- and 6-month SPI and VCI was observed on the arable land and in both types of forests in the second half of vegetation season. The precipitation deficit is only one of the vegetation condition drivers and NDVI cannot be used universally to identify droughts, but it may be applied to better assess the effect of droughts on vegetation in the eastern Baltic Sea

  12. Visualization of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruchalla, Kenny; Novacheck, Joshua; Bloom, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    The Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS), explores the operational impacts of the wide spread adoption of wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) resources in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and Quebec Interconnection (collectively, EI). In order to understand some of the economic and reliability challenges of managing hundreds of gigawatts of wind and PV generation, we developed state of the art tools, data, and models for simulating power system operations using hourly unit commitment and 5-minute economic dispatch over an entire year. Using NREL's high-performance computing capabilities and new methodologies to model operations, we found that the EI, as simulated with evolutionary change in 2026, could balance the variability and uncertainty of wind and PV at a 5-minute level under a variety of conditions. A large-scale display and a combination of multiple coordinated views and small multiples were used to visually analyze the four large highly multivariate scenarios with high spatial and temporal resolutions. state of the art tools, data, and models for simulating power system operations using hourly unit commitment and 5-minute economic dispatch over an entire year. Using NRELs high-performance computing capabilities and new methodologies to model operations, we found that the EI, as simulated with evolutionary change in 2026, could balance the variability and uncertainty of wind and PV at a 5-minute level under a variety of conditions. A large-scale display and a combination of multiple coordinated views and small multiples were used to visually analyze the four large highly multivariate scenarios with high spatial and temporal resolutions.

  13. C.N.S. tumors in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A W

    1992-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, there were no attempts previously to describe a population based frequency or incidence, particularly so the age adjusted incidence of various CNS tumors. This paper presents the primary CNS tumors from a population based tumor registry over two years period, from January 1987 till December 1988. There was a total of 85 cases representing 5.4% of the total captured cases (1,568 cases of malignant tumors at all sites). The population of the Eastern Province is estimated to be 1.37 million, the Saudis forming 80% of the total population. Out of the 85 cases captured over two years, there were 64 cases diagnosed in indigenous Saudi population forming 75%. The remaining occurred in non-Saudi residents. The male/female ratio in Saudis was 1:1.1 with a slight predominance of the female, while the reverse is true in the non-Saudis (2:1). The total captured cases per annum is 43, making the incidence of primary CNS neoplasms in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia 3.1/100,000 of all the population and 2.9/100,000 in Saudi nationals. Comparing this incidence to the international figure, it was clear that it is far less than the incidence reported from North America and Europe, particularly in the Caucasian population, but similar to incidences reported in the Chinese, black Americans, Romanians and Yugoslavians, but certainly less than the Ashkenazi or Safari Jews, and slightly higher than the incidence reported in Japan and Southeast Asia. Malignant brain tumors of various types dominated the primary CNS neoplasms reported over these two years forming 69% of the cases and 52% of the primary brain tumors.

  14. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdel Aziem A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3 and 3.4 (1.8 respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812 and 26.2% (213/812 were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13% and 130 (16% respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education P=0.00, husband education P = 0.00 and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00 were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

  15. Ocean atmosphere thermal decoupling in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sudheer; Ravichandran, M.; Kumar, B. Praveen; Jampana, Raju V.; Han, Weiqing

    2017-07-01

    Eastern equatorial Indian ocean (EEIO) is one of the most climatically sensitive regions in the global ocean, which plays a vital role in modulating Indian ocean dipole (IOD) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO). Here we present evidences for a paradoxical and perpetual lower co-variability between sea-surface temperature (SST) and air-temperature (Tair) indicating instantaneous thermal decoupling in the same region, where signals of the strongly coupled variability of SST anomalies and zonal winds associated with IOD originate at inter-annual time scale. The correlation minimum between anomalies of Tair and SST occurs in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean warm pool region (≈70°E-100°E, 5°S-5°N), associated with lower wind speeds and lower sensible heat fluxes. At sub-monthly and Madden-Julian oscillation time scales, correlation of both variables becomes very low. In above frequencies, precipitation positively contributes to the low correlation by dropping Tair considerably while leaving SST without any substantial instant impact. Precipitation is led by positive build up of SST and post-facto drop in it. The strong semi-annual response of SST to mixed layer variability and equatorial waves, with the absence of the same in the Tair, contributes further to the weak correlation at the sub-annual scale. The limited correlation found in the EEIO is mainly related to the annual warming of the region and ENSO which is hard to segregate from the impacts of IOD.

  16. The eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bei; Xu, Wenliang

    2017-08-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) extends from the northern Eurasian continent in the west via Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and northeast part of China to the Russia Far East in the east. It is characterized by complex trench-arc-basin subduction system, exotic terrane (microcontinents) accretion, massive generation of juvenile crust during the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic (e.g., Jahn et al., 2000, 2004; Sengör et al., 1993). A lot of papers about formation and evolution of the CAOB have been published and new field observations and geochemical data for key areas of the CAOB challenge to previous assessments. Several areas previously defined as juvenile are now shown to have mixed crustal compositions. For example, Kröner et al. (2014, in press) estimated that the distribution of various crustal provinces is truly juvenile crustal material ca. 20%, mixed crust ca. 30%, old crust ca. 50%,respectively, in the CAOB, similar to those in other accretionary orogens through Earth history. A two-stage model for the evolution of the CAOB has been suggested based on recent data from the Eastern Tianshan and Beishan (Gao et al., 2011; Su et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2017), which suggests the process of the formation and evolution of the CAOB includes closure of the Paleo Asian ocean (PAO), formation of orogenic belt before the late Paleozoic and crustal extension and magmatism resulted from plume upon the young orogenic belt after the late Paleozoic. This new model changes previous concept that the CAOB developed through the Paleozoic and is supported by recent researches on the eastern CAOB.

  17. Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khouzaie Thamer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital′s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008. Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17. The most common presentations were cough (48%, dyspnea (21%, joint pain (18%, splenomegaly (12%, hepatomegaly (9%, and lymphadenopathy (5%. The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in 14 (46.7%. The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29 except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%, and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.

  18. North Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water simulation and future projection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ruibin; LIU Qinyu; XU Lixiao; LU Yiqun

    2015-01-01

    The present climate simulation and future projection of the Eastern Subtropical Mode Water (ESTMW) in the North Pacific are investigated based on the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (GFDL-ESM2M). Spatial patterns of the mixed layer depth (MLD) in the eastern subtropical North Pacific and the ESTMW are well simulated using this model. Compared with historical simulation, the ESTMW is produced at lighter isopycnal surfaces and its total volume is decreased in the RCP8.5 runs, because the subduction rate of the ESTMW decreases by 0.82×10−6 m/s during February–March. In addition, it is found that the lateral induction decreasing is approximately four times more than the Ekman pumping, and thus it plays a dominant role in the decreased subduction rate associated with global warming. Moreover, the MLD during February–March is banded shoaling in response to global warming, extending northeastward from the east of the Hawaii Islands (20°N, 155°W) to the west coast of North America (30°N, 125°W), with a max-imum shoaling of 50 m, and then leads to the lateral induction reduction. Meanwhile, the increased north-eastward surface warm current to the east of Hawaii helps strengthen of the local upper ocean stratification and induces the banded shoaling MLD under warmer climate. This new finding indicates that the ocean surface currents play an important role in the response of the MLD and the ESTMW to global warming.

  19. An Investigation of the Hydroclimate Variability of Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. A.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    The flow of the Victoria Nile, and the productivity of the dams along it, is determined by the level of Lake Victoria, which is primarily dictated by the rainfall and temperature variability over the Lake Victoria Basin. Notwithstanding the indisputable decline of water resources over the lake basin during the Long Rains of March - May, there is a strong indication based on IPCC climate projections that this trend, which has persisted for several decades, will reverse in the next few decades. This phenomenon has come to be known as the Eastern-Central African climate change paradox and could have profound implications on sustainable development for the next few decades in Lake Victoria Basin. The purpose of this study is to investigate the climate variability associated with the East African Climate Change Paradox for the recent decades. This research analyzes observations to understand the sources of variability and potential physical mechanisms related to the decline in precipitation over Eastern Africa. We then investigate the hydrological factors involved in the decline of Lake Victoria levels in the context of the decline in rainfall. While East Africa has been experiencing persistent decline of the Long Rains for multiple decades, this same decline is not seen in annual rainfall. The remaining seasons show an increase in rainfall which is compensating for the decline of the Long Rains. It is possible that the Long Rains season is shifting in such a way that the season starts earlier, in February, and ending sooner. The corresponding annual Lake Victoria levels modeled using observed rainfall do not decline in the recent decades, except when the Long Rains seasonal variability is considered without variability from other seasons. This shift could impact hydroelectric power planning on a monthly or seasonal time scale, and could potentially have a large impact on agriculture, since it would shift the growing season in the region.

  20. Poland and Its Eastern Neighbours: A Postcolonial Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ładykowski Paweł

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents problematic issues resulting from the Polish presence on the historical eastern border of the II Rzeczpospolita (Republic of Poland, or, as it is called in the Polish national discourse, “Kresy”. The notion of Kresy, to a certain extent, corresponds to the notion of ‘borderland’. However, the latter is neutral and used mostly in scientific discourse, whereas the former alludes to Polish national awareness in literature and much of the historical writings and presents itself as the lost centre of “Polishness”. This way, contemporary Polish historical memory makes substantial claims towards this space, both in a geographical and historical sense, while hardly tolerating the presence of indigenous, non-Polish populations inhabiting the area- Lithuanians, Belarusians, and Ukrainians. In order to revise these issues in the article, I have adopted a postcolonial studies perspective. Looking at Poland through the lens of postcolonial studies reveals that it holds a unique position due to its double status. Historically speaking, Poland occupied both the position of the colonizer and of the colonized. However, popular Polish imagination tends to see Poland only in its role of the oppressed victims of its powerful ibjesial neighbours. The dominant role of Poland and its version of colonial policy adopted towards its contemporary eastern neighbours is obscured or simply denied both in popular and scientific discourse. The analysis of the role of the “myth of Kresy”, proposed here, hopes to contribute to the understanding of the implications of the Polish contemporary “orientalism”.

  1. Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. S. Van Mooy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. Specifically, the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L−1 h−1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43− incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43− uptake were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

  2. Brooks Range and eastern Alps: a tectonic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helwig, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    A comparison of the tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range (BR) and the Eastern Alps (EA) reveals a remarkable parallelism. Both of these Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts are underlain by sialic crust formed in an earlier Paleozoic orogenic cycle. The old basement is revealed in major tectonic windows: the Tauern Fenster (EA) and the Doonerak Window-Schwatka Mountains (BR) - which are unconformably overlapped by transgressive, neritic marine clastic to carbonate successions - the Permo-Triassic through Hochstegenkalk sequence (EA), and the Kekiktuk-Kayak-Lisburne sequence (BR). These successions are passive-margin sequences that pass southward, in palinspastically restored cross sections, to synchronous deep-water facies deposited on ophiolitic basement - Bunderschiefer on Triassic-Jurassic ophiolites (EA) and Kuna facies or Etivluk sequence on upper Paleozoic ophiolites (BR). Onset of subduction-collision is marked by olistostromal facies - Cretaceous wildflysch (EA) and Jura-Cretaceous Okpikruak Formation (BR) - and the development of major flysch-molasse successions in the foreland basins of the collisional fold and thrust belts. Important major contrasts between these two mountain ranges reside in their colliding blocks and their post-orogenic histories. Alpine orogenesis was driven by continent-continent collision, closing out a young, narrow ocean, whereas Brooks Range deformation appears to have originated by arc-continent collision, closing out an older, broad (.)ocean. Younger Cenozoic deformation is extensional and strike-slip in the Eastern Alps, producing disjunctive basins, but Cenozoic deformation in the Brooks Range is diverse and includes compression in the east and extension in the far west.

  3. The iris family (Iridaceae in the flora of eastern Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Averyanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Iris family in the countries of eastern part of Indochina Peninsula, such as Cambodia, Laos and Viet­nam includes lone native genus – Iris L. with two aboriginal species – I. japonica Thunb. and I. tectorum Maxim. Iris japonica is often cultivated as an outdoor ornamental plant in mountainous regions in the northern Vietnam, where it occasionally naturalizes. Herbarium specimens of I. japonica, collected in central Laos near Nape town, probably represent southernmost locality of the Iris genus in Eurasia. Iris tectorum was discovered in native, primary plant communities of karstic highly eroded limestone in Cao Bang province (Bao Lac district of the northern Vietnam. This species is recorded as new for the flora of the Indochina Peninsula. The report of I. collettii Hook. f. on the territory of peninsular flora does not yet confirmed by herbaria and remains doubtful. Data on taxonomy, authentic specimens, distribution, habitats, phenology, conservation status and biology are provided for all Iris species. The identification key for Iris species is compiled, as well as dotted distribution maps on the territory of countries of eastern Indochina. Other representatives of the family from such genera as Belamcanda Adans. (B. chinensis (L. Redouté, Crocosmia Planch. (C. × crocosmiiflora (G. Nicholson N. E. Br., Eleutherine Herb. (E. bulbosa (Mill. Urb., Freesia Klatt (F. refracta (Jacq. Klatt., Gladiolus L. (numerous horticultural forms и Trimezia Salisb. ex Herb. (T. martinicensis (Jacq. Herb. reported from Indochina are introduced cultivated ornamental plants capable to occasional naturaliza­tion as an adventive element of the Indochinese flora.

  4. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  5. Training on Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones for Latin American students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, L. M.; Raga, G. B.

    2009-05-01

    Tropical cyclones are one of the most impressive atmospheric phenomena and their development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins has potential to affect several Latin-American and Caribbean countries, where human resources are limited. As part of an international research project, we are offering short courses based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from various countries in Latin America. Key aspects are tropical cyclone formation and evolution, with particular emphasis on their development off the west coast of Mexico. Our approach includes lectures on tropical cyclone climatology and formation, dynamic and thermodynamic models, air-sea interaction and oceanic response, ocean waves and coastal impacts as well as variability and climate-related predictions. In particular, we use a best-track dataset issued by the United States National Hurricane Center and satellite observations to analyze convective patterns for the period 1970-2006. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are analyzed in more detail; this includes systems that developed during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 seasons. Additionally, we have organized a human-dimensions symposium to discuss socio-economic issues that are associated with the landfall of tropical cyclones. This includes coastal zone impact and flooding, the link between cyclones and water resources, the flow of weather and climate information from scientists to policy- makers, the role of emergency managers and decision makers, impact over health issues and the viewpoint of the insurance industry.

  6. Ocean atmosphere thermal decoupling in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sudheer; Ravichandran, M.; Kumar, B. Praveen; Jampana, Raju V.; Han, Weiqing

    2016-09-01

    Eastern equatorial Indian ocean (EEIO) is one of the most climatically sensitive regions in the global ocean, which plays a vital role in modulating Indian ocean dipole (IOD) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO). Here we present evidences for a paradoxical and perpetual lower co-variability between sea-surface temperature (SST) and air-temperature (Tair) indicating instantaneous thermal decoupling in the same region, where signals of the strongly coupled variability of SST anomalies and zonal winds associated with IOD originate at inter-annual time scale. The correlation minimum between anomalies of Tair and SST occurs in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean warm pool region (≈70°E-100°E, 5°S-5°N), associated with lower wind speeds and lower sensible heat fluxes. At sub-monthly and Madden-Julian oscillation time scales, correlation of both variables becomes very low. In above frequencies, precipitation positively contributes to the low correlation by dropping Tair considerably while leaving SST without any substantial instant impact. Precipitation is led by positive build up of SST and post-facto drop in it. The strong semi-annual response of SST to mixed layer variability and equatorial waves, with the absence of the same in the Tair, contributes further to the weak correlation at the sub-annual scale. The limited correlation found in the EEIO is mainly related to the annual warming of the region and ENSO which is hard to segregate from the impacts of IOD.

  7. Sarmatian Burials Near the Astanino Village in the Eastern Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropotov Viktor Valeryevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains the materials of two Sarmatian burials that had been studied in 1966-1967 years by the Kerch expedition of Institute of Archeology of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the chief of expedition – A.M. Leskov in the Astanino village in the Eastern Crimea. These burials had been made on small depth in embankments of barrows of the bronze epoch, therefore it is not possible to track contours of funeral constructions. The dead were laid on their backs, heads turned to the North and the North-West. The utensils buried in the same tombs included two ceramic gray-clay pelikes, two gray-clay bowls, a red-gloss vessel, a red-clay pottery, a set of glass and cornelian beads, and the Egyptian faience beads. These things allow to exactly date the investigated complexes within the second half of the 1st century BC – the beginnings of the 1st century AD. The main distinctive characteristics of Early-Sarmatian burials of Northern Pontic region consist in the use of already existing barrows for burial places, orientations of the dead in the Northern sector, the insignificant depth of burials. Therefore published monuments should be also referred to them. A small number of such complexes with their distribution on the quite big territory between the Don and Dnepr rivers testify to the low density of the nomadic population at that time. The antique sources of the end of the 2nd – 1st centuries BC mention the presence of Roxolani in the given region. The described complexes supplement our poor knowledge of Sarmatian antiquities of the Eastern Crimea and specify the direct contacts of nomads of Northern Pontic region to the antique centers, in immediate proximity from which they had been located.

  8. Two hundred years of local avian extinctions in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Nárgila G; Lees, Alexander C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Barlow, Jos; Dantas, Sidnei M; Ferreira, Joice; Lima, Maria de Fátima C; Gardner, Toby A

    2014-10-01

    Local, regional, and global extinctions caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation have been widely reported for the tropics. The patterns and drivers of this loss of species are now increasingly well known in Amazonia, but there remains a significant gap in understanding of long-term trends in species persistence and extinction in anthropogenic landscapes. Such a historical perspective is critical for understanding the status and trends of extant biodiversity as well as for identifying priorities to halt further losses. Using extensive historical data sets of specimen records and results of contemporary surveys, we searched for evidence of local extinctions of a terra firma rainforest avifauna over 200 years in a 2500 km(2) eastern Amazonian region around the Brazilian city of Belém. This region has the longest history of ornithological fieldwork in the entire Amazon basin and lies in the highly threatened Belém Centre of Endemism. We also compared our historically inferred extinction events with extensive data on species occurrences in a sample of catchments in a nearby municipality (Paragominas) that encompass a gradient of past forest loss. We found evidence for the possible extinction of 47 species (14% of the regional species pool) that were unreported from 1980 to 2013 (80% last recorded between 1900 and 1980). Seventeen species appear on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and many of these are large-bodied. The species lost from the region immediately around Belém are similar to those which are currently restricted to well-forested catchments in Paragominas. Although we anticipate the future rediscovery or recolonization of some species inferred to be extinct by our calculations, we also expect that there are likely to be additional local extinctions, not reported here, given the ongoing loss and degradation of remaining areas of native vegetation across eastern Amazonia.

  9. Review of past and present geotectonic concepts of eastern indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katili, John A.

    equatorial Indo-Pacific region, for example, has recently been compared to the terrane map of the North American Cordillera. The position of eastern Indonesia within the plate-tectonic framework is the key to resolving contradictory views on the tectonics of the Banda Sea. For example, did the Indonesian orogeny take place at the Gondwana margin or the Asian margin, are Timor and Seram a tectonic melange and thus part of the Tertiary Indonesian island arcs, or are these two islands a part of the passive Australian margin? Oceanic magnetic stripes from the Sulu, Celebes and Banda Seas all trend NE-SW. These new data suggest that the Sulu, Celebes and probably the Banda Sea represent areas of trapped Indian Ocean crust. Deep sea drilling in the Banda Sea can resolve much controversy. The Banda Sea occupies a critical position in the complex convergent zone between Australia, Southeast Asia and the Philippine Sea Plate. The determination of the stratigraphy and basement ages of the Banda Sea will constrain evolutionary models which have been proposed. Another unsolved question of key importance in our understanding of the evolution of Sulawesi and the Moluccas is the function and timing of events of the Birdhead 'bacon slicer', or the tectonic shaving in Irian Jaya. Once this mechanism is understood, the development and timing of the various structural features of Sulawesi, Halmahera and the Banda Arc will be classified. Opinions still differ regarding the 'birthplace' of the micro-continents in the Banda Sea. Some regard them as a result of Jurassic rifting of Gondwana in northwestern Australia while others consider them displaced westward from northern Irian Jaya along the Sorong transform fault. Several authors suggested that the eastern parts of Sulawesi, Buru and Seram represent micro-continents which originated from Irian Jaya, while others considered East Sulawesi and north Sulawesi remnants of ophiolite belts or fragments of island arcs that originate from the Pacific

  10. Theological Higher Education in Cuba. Part 4: The Historical Roots and Milestones of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary was founded in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on October 10, 1949, by the Eastern Baptist Convention. The seminary exists to provide training for pastors in the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in…

  11. Determinants of Banks’ Performance: the Case of ROE Of G-SIBs in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Iwanicz-Drozdowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the paper is to analyse the determinants of the level of ROE (return on equity for two groups of banks, interrelated by capital links, and their banking sectors.Methodology: For the case study, we chose companies that, in 2011–2013, were designated by the Financial Stability Board as global systemically important banks (G-SIBs and their subsidiaries operating in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (CESEE as well as their banking sectors. We sought to identify differences in the performance drivers, taking into account bank-specific and country- (or sector- specific factors.Findings: We found no significant differences in the level of ROE among the analysed groups; however, we identified a different set of determinants and their impact on ROE.

  12. The Eastern Partnership as an expression of the European Neighbourhood Policy: reinforcing the European normative power with the Eastern partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgiana MARTÍNEZGARNELO Y CALVO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the normative power of the European Union, with an emphasis on the European Neighbourhood Policy, specifically on the Eastern Partnership. It takes into consideration that the leadership of this policy is the Commission, but it is affected by the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty. Relevant changes have focused on Georgia and Moldova, highlighting the thematic platforms which have become fundamentals of approach to the acquis communautaire of the European Union. It also emphasizes some advances in sense, as the Parliamentary Assemblies Programmes focuses on energy and even beyond it, on free trade areas. It is also known that the Budget is not supported by every Member State of the EU, however agreements continue between the EU and the EP.

  13. Geological evidence of tsunamis and earthquakes at the Eastern Hellenic Arc: correlation with historical seismicity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    Gerassimos Papadopoulos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary stratigraphy determined by trenching in Dalaman, south-western Turkey, revealed three sand layers at a distance of approximately 240 m from the shoreline and at elevations of +0.30, +0.55 and +0.90 cm. Storm surge action does not explain the features of these deposits that show instead typical characteristics of tsunami deposition. The sand layers correlate with historical tsunamis generated by large earthquakes which ruptured the eastern Hellenic Arc and Trench in 1303, 1481 and 1741. Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of a wood sample from layer II indicated deposition in AD 1473±46, which fits the 1481 event. From an estimated average alluvium deposition rate of approximately 0.13 cm/year, layers I and III were dated at 1322 and 1724, which may represent the large 1303 and 1741 tsunamis. The geological record of the 1303 key event is very poor; therefore, sand layer I perhaps represents an important geological signature of the 1303 tsunami. However, the strong tsunami reported to have been generated by the 1609 earthquake is missing from Dalaman stratigraphy: this underlines the sensitivity of tsunami geological signatures to various local factors. The 1303 earthquake ruptured the trench between the islands of Crete and Rhodes. For the earthquakes of 1481, 1609 and 1741 we suggested that they were very likely generated in the Rhodes Abyssal Plain where sea depths of up to approximately 4200 m, together with the thrust component of seismotectonics, favor tsunami generation. Sand dykes directed upwards from layer I to layer II indicated that the 1481 earthquake triggered liquefaction of sand layer I. The results substantially widen our knowledge about the historical earthquake and tsunami activity in the eastern Mediterranean basin.

  14. EASTERN EUROPE, A REGION OF INSECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION'S VICINITY

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    Bogdan – Lucian Cumpanasu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During Cold War, the region of Eastern Europe was formed by European states that were behind the Iron Curtain.Once the communism has fallen and former Warsaw's Pact members have joined EU in 2004 and 2007 along with the Baltic republics, a New Eastern Europe comprising Ukraine, Republic of Moldova and the Caucasian Republics emerged at the border of EU. The north, west and south maritime frontiers of European Union are opposite with Eastern territorial one that are more difficult to control and defend against asymmetrical threats as: organized crime, drugs traffic, arms proliferation and illegal immigration. this paper aims to demonstrate that EU's policies initiated in the framework of Eastern Partnership (EaP that wanted to bring peace in the Eastern neighborhood did not succeed to fulfill the desired goals. One explanation is that EU did not take in consideration the Russian dream of redesigning its sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. Another one is that the cultural, political and social differences between EU and its EaP partners led to the failure of the project. Thus, European Union's actions toward Eastern vicinity led to a clash between two civilizations: East and West as well as to a geopolitical competition between Russian Federation and EU over their shared neighborhood.

  15. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  16. Synchronized Phasor Measurements of a Power System Event in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana; Jørgensen, Preben

    2003-01-01

    . The outage of the 400-kV tie-line weakened the Eastern Danish power system and excited power oscillations in the interconnected power systems. During this event prototype Phasor Measurements Units (PMU) gave the opportunity of realtime monitoring of positive sequence voltage and current phasors using......Two sets of synchronized phasor measurements 200 km apart have been performed during a planned outage of a double 400-kV tie-line between Eastern Denmark and Southern Sweden. The interconnection between Southern Sweden and Eastern Denmark comprises of a double 400-kV line and a double 132-kV line...

  17. Synchronized Phasor Measurements of a Power System Event in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana; Jørgensen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    . The outage of the 400-kV tie-line weakened the Eastern Danish power system and excited power oscillations in the interconnected power systems. During this event prototype Phasor Measurements Units (PMU) gave the opportunity of realtime monitoring of positive sequence voltage and current phasors using......Two sets of synchronized phasor measurements 200 km apart have been performed during a planned outage of a double 400-kV tie-line between Eastern Denmark and Southern Sweden. The interconnection between Eastern Denmark and Southern Sweden comprises of a double 400-kV line and a double 132-kV line...

  18. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  19. Tertiary stress field evolution in Sistan (Eastern Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jentzer; Marc, Fournier; Philippe, Agard; Jafar, Omrani

    2016-04-01

    The Sistan orogenic belt in eastern Iran, near the boundary with Afghanistan, results from the closure of a branch of the Neo-Thethys: the Sistan Ocean. It was divided by Tirrul et al. (1983) in five main units: the Lut (1) and Afghan (2) continental blocks where basement is exposed; the Neh (3) and Ratuk (4) complexes which display ophiolitic rocks weakly and highly (HP-BT) metamorphosed, respectively, and the Sefidabeh basin lying over these complexes and interpreted as a fore-arc basin. Sistan is bordered by the Makran and Zagros (formed by the closure of the Neo-Tethys) to the south and by the Kopet Dagh (formed by the closure of Paleo-Tethys) to the North. The aim of this study is to fill the gap between preliminary studies about the overall structure of the Sistan Suture Zone and recent investigations of active tectonics in the region (e.g., Walker et al., 2004 and 2006 a and b). Questions herein addressed are: (1) how are stresses transfered throughout Iran from the Zagros to the Sistan belts? (2) Did the Zagros, Makran and Sistan belts evolve independently through time, or were they mechanically coupled? In order to answer these questions, we have determined paleostress evolution in the Sistan, using a direct inversion method for 42 microtectonic sites in almost all lithologies of the Neh complex and the Sefidabeh basin. We find three successive directions of compression: (1) 87°N for the oldest deformation stage dated of the Late Miocene, (2) 59°N for the intermediate stage probably dated of the Early Pliocene, and (3) 26°N for the youngest stage dated of the Plio-Quaternary. A counterclockwise rotation of about 60° of the main stress (σ1) in less than 10 Ma is therefore documented in Sistan. These same three stages of deformation were also documented by several microtectonic studies in Iran, especially in Makran and Zagros. The direction of the youngest compression is very homogeneous indicating that the mountain belts and continental blocks of Iran

  20. Quantifying retro-foreland evolution in the Eastern Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grool, Arjan R.; Ford, Mary; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2015-04-01

    The northern Pyrenees form the retro-foreland of the Pyrenean orogen. Modelling studies show that retro-forelands have several contrasting characteristics compared to pro-forelands: They tend to show a constant tectonic subsidence during the growth phase of an orogen, and no tectonic subsidence during the steady-state phase. Retro-forelands are also not displaced into the core of the orogen once the steady state phase is achieved. This means they tend to preserve the subsidence history from the growth phase of the orogen, but little or no history from the steady state phase. The northeastern Pyrenees (Carcassonne high) are a good location to test these characteristics against real-world data, because syn-orogenic sediments are preserved and the lack of postrift thermal subsidence and Triassic salt reduce complicating factors. In order to test the model, quantification of the following parameters is needed: Timing, amount and distribution of deformation, subsidence and sedimentation. We use subsurface, field, map and literature data to construct 2 balanced and restored cross sections through the eastern north Pyrenean foreland, stretching from the Montagne Noire in the north, to the Axial Zone in the south. We will link this to published thermochronology data to further constrain the evolution of the retro-foreland and investigate the link with the Axial Zone towards the south. We will quantify subsidence, deformation and sedimentation and link them to exhumation phases in the North Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) and the Axial Zone. The north Pyrenean retro-foreland is divided into two parts: the external foreland basin (Aquitaine basin) to the north and the North Pyrenean Zone to the south, separated by the North Pyrenean Frontal Thrust (NPFT). South of the NPZ lies the Axial Zone, separated from the retro-foreland by the North Pyrenean Fault which is believed to be the suture between Iberia and Europe. The NPFT was the breakaway fault on the European continent during the

  1. The controversial path of Atlantic Water in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappa, Achille Carlo

    2014-04-01

    The Atlantic Water (AW) path suggested by two decades of thermal satellite data observations in the Eastern Mediterranean is similar to the path followed by the AW in the Western Mediterranean but is in contrast with the scheme proposed after the Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM) experiment during the 1990s. Evidence of the AW path along the Libyo-Egyptian coast (Libyo-Egyptian Current; LEC) and around anti-cyclonic eddies of variable size and position (Libyo-Egyptian Eddies; LEEs) is reported in XBT transects, high resolution models and drifter trajectories. In the POEM scheme, the AW was carried eastwards by the Mid-Mediterranean Jet (MMJ) flowing in the middle of the Levantine basin. The MMJ is still noted in recent drifter trajectory analyses, and seasonal surveys and glider missions report that the AW is transferred towards the Levantine basin by the MMJ in subsurface layers. The issue is investigated in this study by considering whether the determination of the AW path and the resolution of the surface circulation are, unlike in the Western Mediterranean, two distinct problems. Historical hydrographic datasets and numerical experiments illustrated in this study demonstrate that satellite observations in the Eastern Mediterranean reveal the path of the surface water of Atlantic origin, which is modified by heating and evaporation into the saltier and warmer Levantine Surface Water (LSW), but do not reveal the path of the submerged AW that maintains the distinctive character of fresh AW in the Levantine basin. Differences between the surface and the submerged circulation in the Mersa-Matruh area explain the reason for the discrepancy. In summer the AW departs from the Sicily Channel at the sea surface and crosses the Ionian Sea in a surface layer 30 m deep. At the entrance to the Levantine basin, part of the AW re-circulates westwards in two separate branches, one directed to the Southern Ionian and the other towards the Central Ionian

  2. Topographic evolution of a continental indenter: The eastern Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Prasicek, Günther; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The topographic evolution of the eastern Southern Alps (ESA) is controlled by the Late Oligocene - Early Miocene indentation of the Adriatic microplate into an overthickened orogenic wedge emplaced on top of the European plate. Rivers follow topographic gradients that evolve during continental collision and in turn incise into bedrock counteracting the formation of topography. In principle, erosional surface processes tend to establish a topographic steady state so that an interpretation of topographic metrics in terms of the latest tectonic history should be straightforward. However, a series of complications impede deciphering the topographic record of the ESA. The Pleistocene glaciations locally excavated alpine valleys and perturbed fluvial drainages. The Late Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea and the uplift of the northern Molasse Basin led to significant base level changes in the far field of the ESA and the Eastern Alps (EA), respectively. Among this multitude of mechanisms, the processes that dominate the current topographic evolution of the ESA and the ESA-EA drainage divide have not been identified and a number of questions regarding the interaction of crustal deformation, erosion and climate in shaping the present-day topography remain. We demonstrate the expected topographic effects of each mechanism in a 1-dimensional model and compare them with observed channel metrics. Modern uplift rates are largely consistent with long-term exhumation in the ESA and with variations in the normalized steepness index (ksn) indicating a stable uplift and erosion pattern since Miocene times. We find that ksn increases with uplift rate and declines from the indenter tip in the northwest to the foreland basin in the southeast. The number and magnitude of knickpoints and the distortion in longitudinal channel profiles similarly decrease towards the east. Most knickpoints probably evolved during Pleistocene glaciation cycles, but may represent the incrementally

  3. Automation of Eastern Kentucky University Observatory and Preliminary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, M.; Kilgore, E. E.; Williams, W. W.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) Eastern Kentucky University is a regional comprehensive institution located in Richmond, Kentucky. Its service area includes much of the eastern part of Kentucky, commonly referred to as Appalachia. As such, Eastern has truly been a "school of opportunities" for the region. We offer three astronomy courses and one of them, AST 135, has an outdoor lab component, in which the students observe the moon and the brightest planets using 6-inch SCT. To expand our offerings by adding advanced classes in observational astronomy, and with support from the University and a small grant from the AAS (Small Research Grants), we constructed a small observatory for that purpose. We have a 14-inch telescope (C14 from Celestron), with a research grade mount (Paramount ME), housed permanently in a two-room facility. The telescope room has a retractable roof and the control room is insulated against the elements. The telescope is conveniently located near campus, in a location away from city lights and vehicular traffic, with access via a secure gate. The observatory is on a concrete pad poured directly onto the ground, to minimize vibrations. The instrument package consists of a SBIG STL-6303E CCD camera with filter wheel and full complement of photographic, narrow-band, and photometric filters (Ha and UBVRI). Courtesy of the AAS grant, we also have a temperature-compensated focuser (TCF-S3i), off-axis guider, and SBIG AO-L adaptive optics accessory. Our first step has been the measurement of our CCD transformation parameters, to assess the capabilities of our telescope-camera combination. We imaged a standard photometric field from Landolt (1992) (R.A. 09h 21m 32s, Dec. +02° 47' 00" (J2000, Plate 38 of Landolt). Data were obtained with a time integration of 90 seconds, binned 2 x 2 (~1 arcsec/pixel) at air mass X = 1.31. We determined the CCD transformation parameter as described by the AAVSO document "Computing and Using CCD transformation coefficients" (Cohen 2003

  4. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  5. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: RECENT TRENDS ACROSS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihut Ioana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available What is economic growth? Although the answer to this question may seems of real simplicity, developing an accurate definition of this concept may constitute a real challenge both from a theoretical but also empirical point of view. This constant debate upon the concept of economic growth as well as indentifying the optimum set of instruments for quantifying it, constituted the starting point of the current article. The concept of economic growth is used nowadays complementary to terms like economic development, economic welfare or economic progress with reference to this complex process that implies macro-scale structures. Moreover indentifying the main factors that generate a significant impact upon the dynamics of the economic growth process, constitute a useful approach taking into consideration the high degree of heterogeneity that characterize the architecture of the economies around the world. If we develop this analysis across the European Union member states this debate became even more challenging due to the high degree of diversity that characterize these economies. Moreover, the Central and Eastern European countries and especially the ones that joined EU in 2004 and 2007 embody a set of particularities that make them extremely different from the rest of the European Union member states, features related to the historical background, economic policies and common efforts to intensify the convergence process with the more developed EU members. This paper studies the impact of two main factors upon the economic growth process namely an endogenous-exogenous factor like the degree of openness and an endogenous factor like the human capital using a complex dynamic panel method. The arguments that were in favour of choosing this two factors are on one hand the multitude of theoretical studies that argued the importance of them in modelling the economic growth process and on the other hand the small number of studies that use panel methods in

  6. Plasmodium infection and its risk factors in eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of disease burden in Uganda, although surprisingly few contemporary, age-stratified data exist on malaria epidemiology in the country. This report presents results from a total population survey of malaria infection and intervention coverage in a rural area of eastern Uganda, with a specific focus on how risk factors differ between demographic groups in this population. Methods In 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four contiguous villages in Mulanda, sub-county in Tororo district, eastern Uganda, to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of Plasmodium species infection. All permanent residents were invited to participate, with blood smears collected from 1,844 individuals aged between six months and 88 years (representing 78% of the population. Demographic, household and socio-economic characteristics were combined with environmental data using a Geographical Information System. Hierarchical models were used to explore patterns of malaria infection and identify individual, household and environmental risk factors. Results Overall, 709 individuals were infected with Plasmodium, with prevalence highest among 5-9 year olds (63.5%. Thin films from a random sample of 20% of parasite positive participants showed that 94.0% of infections were Plasmodium falciparum and 6.0% were P. malariae; no other species or mixed infections were seen. In total, 68% of households owned at least one mosquito although only 27% of school-aged children reported sleeping under a net the previous night. In multivariate analysis, infection risk was highest amongst children aged 5-9 years and remained high in older children. Risk of infection was lower for those that reported sleeping under a bed net the previous night and living more than 750 m from a rice-growing area. After accounting for clustering within compounds, there was no evidence for an association between infection prevalence and socio

  7. Atmospheric deposition to forests in the eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; DeWild, John F.; Gay, David A.; Zhang, Leiming; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition to forests is important because half of the land cover in the eastern USA is forest. Mercury was measured in autumn litterfall and weekly precipitation samples at a total of 27 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) monitoring sites in deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests in 16 states in the eastern USA during 2007–2014. These simultaneous, uniform, repeated, annual measurements of forest Hg include the broadest area and longest time frame to date. The autumn litterfall-Hg concentrations and litterfall mass at the study sites each year were combined with annual precipitation-Hg data. Rates of litterfall-Hg deposition were higher than or equal to precipitation-Hg deposition rates in 70% of the annual data, which indicates a substantial contribution from litterfall to total atmospheric-Hg deposition. Annual litterfall-Hg deposition in this study had a median of 11.7 μg per square meter per year (μg/m2/yr) and ranged from 2.2 to 23.4 μg/m2/yr. It closely matched modeled dry-Hg deposition, based on land cover at selected NADP Hg-monitoring sites. Mean annual atmospheric-Hg deposition at forest study sites exhibited a spatial pattern partly explained by statistical differences among five forest-cover types and related to the mapped density of Hg emissions. Forest canopies apparently recorded changes in atmospheric-Hg concentrations over time because litterfall-Hg concentrations decreased year to year and litterfall-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in 2007–2009 than in 2012–2014. These findings reinforce reported decreases in Hg emissions and atmospheric elemental-Hg concentrations during this same time period. Methylmercury (MeHg) was detected in all litterfall samples at all sites, compared with MeHg detections in less than half the precipitation samples at selected sites during the study. These results indicate MeHg in litterfall is a pathway into the terrestrial food web where it can

  8. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cn#259;pun#351;an Rn#259;zvan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that empirical data coming from financial markets, like stock market indices, commodities, interest rates, traded volumes and foreign exchange rates have a multifractal structure. Multifractals were introduced in the field of economics to surpass the shortcomings of classical models like the fractional Brownian motion or GARCH processes. In this paper we investigate the multifractal behavior of Central and Eastern European foreign exchange rates, namely the Czech koruna, Croatian kuna, Hungarian forint, Polish zlot, Romanian leu and Russian rouble with respect to euro from January 13, 2000 to February 29, 2012. The dynamics of exchange rates is of interest for investors and traders, monetary and fiscal authorities, economic agents or policy makers. The exchange rate movements affect the international balance of payments, trade flows, and allocation of the resources in national and international economy. The empirical results from the multifractal detrending fluctuation analysis algorithm show that the six exchange rate series analysed display significant multifractality. Moreover, generating shuffled and surrogate time series, we analyze the sources of multifractality, long-range correlations and heavy-tailed distributions, and we find that this multifractal behavior can be mainly attributed to the latter. Finally, we propose a foreign exchange market inefficiency ranking by considering the multifractality degree as a measure of inefficiency. The regulators, through policy instruments, aim to improve the informational inefficiency of the markets, to reduce the associated risks and to ensure economic stabilization. Evaluation of the degree of information efficiency of foreign exchange markets, for Central and Eastern Europe countries, is important to assess to what extent these countries are prepared for the transition towards fully monetary integration. The weak form efficiency implies that the past exchange rates cannot help to

  9. Monitoring Thermal Activity of Eastern Anatolian Volcanoes Using MODIS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diker, Caner; Ulusoy, Inan

    2014-05-01

    MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument is used for imaging atmosphere, land and ocean with 36 bands. Both AQUA and TERRA platforms acquire 2 images daily (daytime and nighttime). Low temperature anomalies on volcanoes comprise important clues. Low temperature anomalies on Holocene volcanoes of Eastern Anatolia were investigated for these clues using MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) images. A total of 16800 daily LST images dated between 2001 and 2012 have been processed using a code written in IDL (Interactive Data Language). Factors like shadow, ice/snow and clouds that are affecting the reflectance data are masked. The mask is derived from MODIS reflectance data state image. Various LST images are calculated: Two nested region of interest (ROI) windows (square/rectangular) have been selected on the images. First is the bigger window, which covers the whole area of the volcano (Total volcano area). Second one is a smaller window which circumference the summit (crater and/or caldera) of the volcano (Summit cone) where thermal output is generally higher when compared to the flanks. Two data sets have been calculated using the ROI's for each volcano. The first set contains daytime and nighttime raw data without any correction. The second set contains topographically corrected images; daytime images are corrected using Cosine and Minnaert methods and nighttime images are corrected using three step normalization method. Calculated surface temperatures (Tmax, Tmin, Tmean) are plotted annually. On Nemrut Volcano as an example, maximum and minimum temperatures are between 26.31oC and -44.87oC on nighttime data for twelve years period. Temperature difference between total volcano area ROI and summit cone ROI are calculated (ΔT). High ΔT indicates that there is an increase of temperature at the summit cone when compared to the total volcano area. STA/LTA (Short Term Average/Long Term Average) filter was applied to maximum temperature and

  10. Population dynamics of mallards breeding in eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Bruce D.; Coluccy, John M.; Dugger, Katie M.; Fox, Trevor T.; Kraege, Donald K.; Petrie, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in regional population trends for mallards breeding in the western United States indicates that additional research into factors that influence demographics could contribute to management and understanding the population demographics of mallards across North America. We estimated breeding incidence and adult female, nest, and brood survival in eastern Washington in 2006 and 2007 by monitoring female mallards with radio telemetry and tested how those parameters were influenced by study year (2006 vs. 2007), landscape type (agricultural vs. natural), and age (second year [SY] vs. after second year [ASY]). We also investigated the effects of female body condition and capture date on breeding incidence, and nest initiation date and hatch date on nest and brood survival, respectively. We included population parameters in a stage-based demographic model and conducted a perturbation analysis to identify which vital rates were most influential on population growth rate (λ). Adult female survival was best modeled with a constant weekly survival rate (0.994, SE = 0.003). Breeding incidence differed between years and was higher for birds in better body condition. Nest survival was higher for ASY females (0.276, SE = 0.118) than SY females (0.066, SE = 0.052), and higher on publicly managed lands (0.383, SE = 0.212) than agricultural (0.114, SE = 0.058) landscapes. Brood survival was best modeled with a constant rate for the 7-week monitoring period (0.50, SE = 0.155). The single variable having the greatest influence on λ was non-breeding season survival, but the combination of parameters from the breeding grounds explained a greater percent of the variance in λ. Mallard population growth rate was most sensitive to changes in non-breeding survival, nest success, brood survival, and breeding incidence. Future management decisions should focus on activities that improve these vital rates if managers want to increase the production of

  11. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a &apos

  12. Herpes simplex virus infections among rural residents in eastern China

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    Chen Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV has two types: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both infect epithelial cells and establish latent infections in neurons causing an infection that persists for life. Information on age- and gender-specific seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 is valuable for understanding HSV transmission dynamics and designing population-based prevention and intervention programs for HSV. However, such information is not available for China. Methods Cryopreserved serum samples of all subjects aged 5 to 60 years from two randomly selected rural villages in Zhejiang province in Eastern China who had participated in the China national seroepidemiological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection conducted in 2006 were tested. Seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections were determined by type-specific IgG antibody tests using an ELISA technique. Their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for the sampling fraction were calculated according to the Clopper-Pearson method. Results A total of 2,141 residents participated in the survey, with a response rate of 82.3%. HSV-1 seroprevalence was 92.0% overall, 89.1% for males and 94.2% for females. HSV-1 seroprevalence was 61.6% among children aged 5-9 years, 90.3% among 25-29 years, and nearly 100% among those aged > = 40 years. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 13.2% overall, 10.5% for males and 15.3% for females. No children aged 5-14 years were HSV-2 positive, and HSV-2 seroprevalence was 7.1% among 15-19 years and peaked at 24.3% among those aged 45-49 years. Neither HSV-1 nor HSV-2 infections were significantly different by gender. About 11.8% of study subjects were co-infected with both types of HSV. Among 549 participating couples, 8.6% were HSV-1 serodiscordant and 11.8% were HSV-2 serodiscordant. No one tested positive for HIV. The overall prevalence of HBsAg was 16.2%, 16.9% for males and 15.4% for females. Conclusions HSV-1 was highly prevalent among all rural residents aged between 5-60 years in

  13. Dust and Air Quality Forecasting in the Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, A. M.; Reyes, A.; Farrell, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Significant amounts of dust travel across the northern tropical Atlantic to the Caribbean every year from the Sahara region. These dust concentrations in the Caribbean often exceed United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less (PM 2.5) which could have serious implications for human health in the region. Air pollution has become a major issue in the Caribbean because of urban development, increased vehicle emissions and growing industrialisation. However, the majority of territories in the Caribbean do not have routine air quality monitoring programmes and several do not have or enforce air quality standards for PM2.5 and PM10. As a result, the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) has taken the initiative to provide dust and air quality forecasts for the Eastern Caribbean using the advanced WRF-Chem modeling system. The applications of the WRF-Chem modelling system at CIMH that are currently being focused on are the coupled weather prediction/dispersion model to simulate the release and transport of constituents, especially Saharan dust transport and concentration; and as a coupled weather/dispersion/air quality model with full interaction of chemical species with prediction of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). This will include future applications in the prediction of ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation as well as examining dust radiative forcing and effects on atmospheric precipitation and dynamics. The simulations are currently initialised at 00Z for a seven day forecast and run at 36 km resolution with a planned second domain (at 12 km) for air quality forecasts. Preliminary results from this study will be presented and compared to other dust forecast models currently used in other regions. This work also complements in situ measurements at Ragged Point, Barbados (oldest dust record since 1965), Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Puerto Rico. The goal of this study

  14. Interpreting inverse magnetic fabric in dikes from Eastern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Urbani, Stefano; Porreca, Massimiliano; Acocella, Valerio; Kissel, Catherine; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Since the 70's magnetic fabric analysis has been used to infer magma emplacement in dikes. However, the interpretation of magmatic flow orientation in dikes is often complicated by the occurrence of anomalous (i.e. inverse) magnetic fabric. This latter may either reflect the presence of single-domain (SD) grains or result from peculiar orientation mechanisms of magnetic minerals in magmas of different viscosities. Tertiary dike swarms of extinct volcanic systems in Eastern Iceland represent the ideal case study to clarify the origin of anomalous magnetic fabric. Here we present the results of a multidisciplinary study on dikes belonging to the Alftafjordur volcanic system (Eastern Iceland), including a: (1) structural field study in order to identify kinematic and thermal indicators of dikes; (2) anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analysis, to investigate the magnetic fabric and reconstruct the flow direction of 25 dikes; (3) first order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams and thermomagnetic properties of selected dikes to define the magnetic mineralogy; (4) petrofabric and image analyses at different microscopic scales to investigate the origin of the magnetic fabric and compare the AMS results with mineral texture. Our results show that half of the dikes show a well defined inverse magnetic fabrics (k max orthogonal to the dike margins) and anomalous high anisotropy degrees. Only 7 dikes have a normal magnetic fabric and other 6 dikes have an intermediate magnetic fabric. No clear prevalence of SD grains, which could explain the inverse magnetic fabric, was observed. On the contrary, petrofabric and thermomagnetic analysis reveal the presence of low Ti-content coarse magnetite and high Ti-content elongated magnetite grains as the main contributors to most of the observed magnetic fabrics. In particular, the orientation of the elongated high Ti-content magnetite grains, though usually scattered, is partly comparable with that of the maximum and

  15. Migraine pain location in adult patients from eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sparse literature documenting the location of pain at the onset of migraine attacks and during established headaches is available. Objectives: A prospective study (2003-05 on 800 adult migraine patients (International Classifications of Headache Disorders (ICHD, 2:1.1, 1.2.1 and 1.6.1 was conducted to document (a sites of onset of pain and (b location of pain during established attacks (in> 50% occasions through semistructured interviews. Results: Demography: N = 800; M:F = 144:656 (1:4.56; age, 16-42 years (mean, 26 years; duration of migraine, 1-18 years (mean, 6.8 years. 87% of the subjects were ethnic Bengalis from the eastern Indian state of West Bengal, Calcutta being the capital city. Migraine types (on the basis of> 50% headache spells: N = 800; 1.1:668 (83.5%; 1.2.1:18 (2.25%; 1.6.1:114 (14.25%. Location of pain at onset: Unilateral onset was present in 41.38% of the patients; of these, 53.17% had eye pain; 8.16%, frontal pain and 38.67%, temporal pain. In 32.25% of the patients, bilateral/central location of pain, mostly bitemporal or at vertex was noted. Cervico-occipital pain onset was noted in 26.43% patients (predominantly occipital, 14.68%; predominantly cervical, 11.75%. Location of established headaches: In 47.4% of the patients, with unilateral ocular or temporal onset, pain remained at the same site. Pain became hemicranial in 32.9%. In most patients, unilateral frontal onset pain (55.5% became bilateral or holocranial. Most bilateral ocular (69.4% and temporal onset (69.7% pains remained at the same location. However, most bifrontal (55.6% and vertex onset (56.9% pains subsequently became holocranial. Most occipital pains at onset became holocranial (45.3%, but cervical pains subsequently became either hemicranial (38.3% or holocranial (36.2%. Conclusions: This study documents location of pain at the onset and during established headaches in migraine patients largely from a specific ethnic group. Migraine with

  16. Radioactivity in three species of eastern Mediterranean jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamish, S; Al-Masri, M S; Durgham, H

    2015-11-01

    Activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U were determined in umbrella and oral arms of three widely distributed jellyfish species; namely Rhopilema nomadica Galil, 1990, Aurelia aurita Linne, 1758 and Aequorea forskalea Péron & Lesueur, 1810 collected from February 2011 to January 2012 in four sampling locations along the Syrian coast (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The results have shown significant variations in radionuclides activity concentrations amongst the species. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U in the umbrella of R. nomadica species were higher than the average activity concentrations in the umbrella of A. aurita species by about 3.2, 1.4, 1.8, 3.2 and 3.2 folds, and A. forskalea species by about 45.5, 15.4, 19, 7.4 and 7.6 folds, respectively. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U in oral arms of R. nomadica species were higher than the average activity concentrations in oral arms of A. aurita species by about 3.8, 1.7, 1.9, 2.8 and 2.9 folds, respectively. (137)Cs activity concentrations were below the detection limit in all measured samples. In addition, activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U were also determined in 44 surface seawater samples and the activity concentrations ranged between 10.6 and 11.9 Bq l(-1) for (40)K, 1.1 and 1.4 mBq l(-1) for (210)Po, 0.5 and 0.7 mBq l(-1) for (210)Pb, 40.8 and 44.5 mBq l(-1) for (234)U, and 36.9 and 38.4 mBq l(-1) for (238)U, while (137)Cs activity concentrations were below the detection limit in all measured samples. Moreover, the umbrella and oral arms readily accumulated (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U above ambient seawater levels in the sequence of (210)Po > (210)Pb > (4) K > (234)U and (238)U. Concentration ratio (CR) values were relatively high for (210)Po and (210)Pb and reached 10(3) and 10(2), respectively for the jellyfish R

  17. Imaging density and seismic velocities in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Nienke; Gokhberg, Alexey; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean domain is a geologically complicated region, a result of its complex tectonic and geodynamic evolution. Our understanding of it draws from surface geology, modeling and imaging of the subsurface. Here, we present the first results of seismic waveform inversion of the Eastern Mediterranean region. While computationally much more expensive than more traditional ray-based imaging methods, the advantage of waveform tomography lies in its ability to incorporate in a consistent manner all the information in seismograms - not just the arrivals of certain, specified phases. As a result, body and multimode surface waves, source effects, frequency-dependence, wavefront healing, anisotropy and attenuation are naturally and coherently incorporated. This not only allows us to image P- and S-wave velocity jointly for the crust and mantle, but also makes it possible to put additional constraints on density that ray tomography cannot provide. This is of special interest because heterogeneities in density drive geodynamics, and the combined knowledge of all parameters would help to distinguish between thermal and compositional effects in the subsurface, where no direct measurements can be made. Our tomography makes use of a multi-scale approach, initially using only the very lowest frequency signals of periods of around 100-150 seconds which corresponds to structures of 200 km size in the crust. Slowly, higher-frequency data is added as the model is updated and more of the data is explained by it. Our ultimate aim is to go down to periods of 10 seconds, which corresponds to structures of about 15 km size in the crust to 25 km in the mantle. Only those parts of the seismograms are used in which data and synthetics are similar enough to allow for meaningful comparison. As iterations progress and synthetics become more similar to the data, more parts of the seismogram can be included. Resolution of the final model is assessed using a resolution analysis strategy

  18. Submarine landslides along the eastern Mediterranean Israeli continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuven, Einav; Katz, Oded; Aharonov, Einat

    2013-04-01

    Numerous shallow submarine slope failures (scars and deposits) are observed in recent high resolution bathymetric grids of the continental slope off the Israeli eastern Mediterranean coast. The nature of these slope failures is currently not comprehensively understood as well as the question of whether the eastern Mediterranean continental slope is continuously or episodically unstable. We report here first steps towards understanding the present state of this submarine landslide system, which include mapping and analyzing the geology of the landslides and the hosting slopes. The continental slope extends from water depths of about 150 to more than 1000 meters with a slope of less than 5 degrees in general. Bathymetric grids with pixel resolution of 15 m till water depth of 700 m and 50 m till water depth of 1700 m were used. Analyzing the bathymetry revealed three main submarine surface features: (a) numerous shallow landslides, within the upper sequence of the post-Messenian sediments. Landslide widths range between hundreds to thousand of meters at the scar, with scar heights up to hundred meters. The toes of the landslides are not always mapable and lay up to a few kilometers down slope from the scar. Slope angles within the scars are 5 to more than15 degrees. At least two types of landslides were detected: presumably young slides with sharp scars, and presumably old slides with secondary slides and secondary drainage systems developed within the scar area; (b) a few kilometers long, north striking step-like lineaments. Step heights are up to 100 meters and the slopes are up to 20 degrees. The offset between parallel steps is less than a kilometer to a few kilometers. The steps are interpreted as surface expressions of growth faults rooted at the Messinian evaporates up to 1.5 kilometers below surface; (c) a few north striking channels were also detected with steep walls of more than 15 degrees, up to two kilometers width and a few kilometers length. The nature

  19. Eastern, Central and Western Hungary – variations of Neolithisation models

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    Eszter Bánffy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recent times, the Carpathian Basin was regarded as a uniform zone of neolithization. In the last few years it has become clear that at least three different types of transitions can be distinguished in the Eastern Plain (Alföld region: one in the Jászság area with authentic Mesolithic sites, one in the northern, one in the northeastern fringes of the Körös distribution area, and a further one in the southern part of the Danube–Tisza Interfluve where the impact of the formative Vinča culture must also be reckoned with. All regions differ from each other, concerning the contacts with Mesolithic population and the phases of neolithisation. Regarding Transdanubia, the picture becomes even more complex. The transition to the Neolithic obviously differed in each region: in the Drava valley where the Starčevo presence was very intensive, in the marshland around Lake Balaton, in the Rába valley lying close to the Alpine foreland, in the northern Transdanubian Danube valley and in the Little Hungarian Plain. Rejecting the simplifying model the assumption of a mosaic-like series of variations in the neolithisation process is offered. The process of Neolithisation is thus is far from being unified in the various regions. This short study tries to seek different models of neolithisation behind the differences.

  20. Constraints of camel pastoralists in Gedarif state, eastern Sudan

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    Y. M. Abdalatif,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This field study was conducted between Oct 2005 and Aug 2008 in Gedarif state, eastern Sudan. The objective was to provide knowledge on constraints faced by camel herders, and to identify the solutions as an essential step towards the development of camel herding in this state. A set of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from camel herders. The results showed that, nomadic tribes in the study area (58.8% represented by Lahaween and Rofaah tribes and their dwelling type is tents made from (Hair & wool. Semi nomadic tribes (30.9% represented by Kenana and Rashaida tribes and their dwelling type is cottage made from branches of trees and sorghum stalk and the sedentary tribe (10.3% represented by Shokria tribes and their dwelling type are buildings made from either mud or bricks with cement. There was a high percent of family members who are illiterate. It was clear that the level of provision of most services needed by the herders and owners is relatively very low. The camel owners annually need to sell 5 to 6 camels to feed 100 camels on sorghum stalks in the dry season. The serious livelihood constraints were education, electricity, water supply and veterinary services. More care from the government and non government organizations is recommended.