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Sample records for eastern taurides turkey

  1. BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF MALATYA OLIGO-MIOCENE SUCCESSION (EASTERN TAURIDS, EASTERN TURKEY

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    Fatma GEDİK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Oligo-Miocene aged Muratlı and Petekkaya formations which crop out over wide regions around Akçadağ town, west of Malatya pro- vince in Eastern Taurids were revealed in this study. Systematical sampling was carried out in measured stratigraphical sections in four locations in order to perform stratigraphical and paleontological investigations. Benthic foraminifera taken from 182 hard rock samples were defined and three biozones were determined as; SBZ 21-22, belonging to Oligocene (Rupe- lian - Early Chattian, SBZ 23 (Late Chattian and SBZ 25 belonging to Lower Miocene in shallow marine deposits in the region. It was stated that the assemblage of planktic forami- nifer and nannoplankton which stratigraphically detected within Chattian - Burdigalian units in the succession most probably indicated Aquitanian age. Besides; Oligo-Miocene transition in the region was approved with this study based on biostratigraphical locations of benthic foraminiferal taxa.

  2. AN APPROACH TO PROVENANCE, TECTONIC AND REDOX CONDITIONS OF JURASSIC-CRETACEOUS AKKUYU FORMATION, CENTRAL TAURIDS, TURKEY

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    Ali SARI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available - Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Akkuyu formation was deposited in a marine carbonate platform in Central Tarurids. The organic material of the unit is composed of Type III kerogen which is woody material transported from the land. Late Jurassic- Early Cretaceous is an important period which great anoxic events in deep sea bottom occurred due to the primary organic productivity in global sea surface. Use of several trace elements values (Ni, V, U, Cr, Co, Th revealed that Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Akkuyu formation shows oxic, disoxic and anoxic paleoredox conditions. In this period the primary productivity was considerably high. Examination of specimen derived from Akkuyu formation revealed that there exists a very good positive relationship between the major oxides of Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, and K2O. These combinations of major oxides indicate a detrital origin of source rock. Chemical weathering evaluations of Central Taurids in the Jurassic-Cretaceous period indicated moderate and strong weathering of source rock. K2O/Na2O versus SiO2; SiO2/Al2O3 versus K2O/Na2O; Al2O3/ SiO2 versus Fe2O3 + MgO ve TiO2 versus Fe2O3 + MgO diagrams indicated that Akkuyu formation was deposited along active and/or passive continental margin and derived from basalt and basalt+granite mixed rocks.

  3. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

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    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  4. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Lower-``middle'' Oligocene units in the northern part of the Western Taurides (İncesu area, Isparta, Turkey)

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    Akkiraz, Mehmet Serkan; Akgün, Funda; Örçen, Sefer

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental significance of the Lower-"middle" Oligocene sediments based on the fauna from the Delikarkası Formation and the microflora from the İncesu Formation of the İncesu area (northern part of the western Taurides, Isparta province, Turkey). In the area, the Oligocene sediments show a regressive succession, which begins with the limestones of the Delikarkası Formation indicating marine conditions followed by conglomerates, sandstones and coaly mudstones of alluvial and fluvial (shallow marine-continental) origin. A well preserved foraminiferal assemblage including Nummulitesintermedius, Nummulitesvascus and Halkyardiamaxima proves an Early Oligocene age for the Delikarkası Formation. Due to palynological markers such as Boehlensipollishohli, Slowakipollishippophaëoides, Dicolpopolliskockelii, Magnolipollisneogenicus ssp. minor, Plicapollispseudoexcelsus, Caryapollenitessimplex and Intratriporopollenitesinstructus the İncesu Formation, which concordantly rests on the Delikarkası Formation, may be assigned to the Early-"middle" Oligocene. From the palynomorph assemblage, three zones have been recognised according to abundance of species. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of C.simplex and Momipitespunctatus and rarely presence of tricolpate and tricolporate pollen. Zone 2 consists mainly of Inaperturopollenitesdubius, Leiotriletesmaxoides ssp. maximus, Verrucatosporitesfavus,Verrucatosporitesalienus and infrequently marine dinoflagellate cysts. Zone 3 is characterized by a high percentage of ferns such as Echinatisporis? chattensis and Polypodiaceoisporitessaxonicus. The presence of marine dinoflagellate cysts like Apectodinium sp. and Cleistosphaeridium sp., back-mangrove elements such as Acrostichumaureum and lepidocaryoid palms (e.g. Longapertitesdiscordis, Longapertitespunctatus and Longapertitespsilatus) in the sediments of the İncesu Formation imply coastal or near-coastal conditions

  5. The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

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    Demiryol Tolga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP. Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

  6. The frequency of consanguineous marriage in eastern Turkey.

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    Akbayram, S; Sari, N; Akgün, C; Doğan, M; Tuncer, O; Caksen, H; Oner, A F

    2009-01-01

    The frequency of consanguineous marriage in Eastern Turkey: The rate of consanguineous marriage (CM) varies depended on different factors such as race, characteristics of population, and religion and moral features in different countries. Gene frequency and genetic structure are changed by CMs. The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of CM and its effects on miscarriage, stillbirth, congenital malformation and ratio of newborn death. This study was performed in Van region, Eastern Turkey, between September 2005 and April 2006. A total of 650 families from 24 districts chosen in accordance with the number of inhabitants were included in this study. First cousin marriages were accepted as a first degree CMs, sesquialter and second cousin marriages as second degree and marriages between distant relatives were accepted as a third degree CM. Monthly income of the families was classified in accordance with minimum wage determined by government. Of all families, 224 (34.4%) had CM, and 168 (75%) had first-degree consanguinity. A lower CM rate was found in mothers who graduated from secondary school or upgrading (p relationship was found between CM and fathers' education level. While a low CM rate was found in families who had two or less children (p < 0.01), high rate was observed in families who had five or more children. In addition, a high rate of miscarriage, stillbirth and mental-motor retardation was found in families with CM (p < 0.05). The rate of child mortality between the aged 0-2 years was found to be higher in families with CM (p < 0.01). The higher CM rate was observed in families who married due to pressure or insistence of their families than married voluntarily (p < 0.05). Our study showed that CM rate was very high, 34.4%, in our region Eastern Turkey.

  7. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

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    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey.

  8. Spectra and physical properties of Taurid meteoroids

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    Matlovič, Pavol; Tóth, Juraj; Rudawska, Regina; Kornoš, Leonard

    2017-09-01

    Taurids are an extensive stream of particles produced by comet 2P/Encke, which can be observed mainly in October and November as a series of meteor showers rich in bright fireballs. Several near-Earth asteroids have also been linked with the meteoroid complex, and recently the orbits of two carbonaceous meteorites were proposed to be related to the stream, raising interesting questions about the origin of the complex and the composition of 2P/Encke. Our aim is to investigate the nature and diversity of Taurid meteoroids by studying their spectral, orbital, and physical properties determined from video meteor observations. Here we analyze 33 Taurid meteor spectra captured during the predicted outburst in November 2015 by stations in Slovakia and Chile, including 14 multi-station observations for which the orbital elements, material strength parameters, dynamic pressures, and mineralogical densities were determined. It was found that while orbits of the 2015 Taurids show similarities with several associated asteroids, the obtained spectral and physical characteristics point towards cometary origin with highly heterogeneous content. Observed spectra exhibited large dispersion of iron content and significant Na intensity in all cases. The determined material strengths are typically cometary in the KB classification, while PE criterion is on average close to values characteristic for carbonaceous bodies. The studied meteoroids were found to break up under low dynamic pressures of 0.02-0.10 MPa, and were characterized by low mineralogical densities of 1.3-2.5 g cm-3. The widest spectral classification of Taurid meteors to date is presented.

  9. Male Participation in Contraception in an Eastern Province of Turkey

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    Nevin Hotun Sahin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. Results: The most commonly used contraceptives were condom (36.8% and withdrawal (27.3% methods in single men. Married men reported relying more on female methods and they were more satisfied with the method they used. The idea of shared responsibility in family planning was more appreciated by single men. The role of family as a source of knowledge about family planning was low in both groups. Married men were more against vasectomy and condom while single men had more negative attitudes towards using hormone pills for men if produced in the future.Conclusion: Comprehensive projects are needed to improve male participation in family planning, especially in male dominant cultures. This must be seen as a golden key in the reproductive health programs.

  10. Environmental contamination in the K eban Mining District, Eastern Turkey

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    Bolucek, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present research is focused on the contribution of base-metal mining to heavy metal contamination of the environment. Mining wastes and unworked ore-mineral concentrations present in the Keban region (eastern Turkey) are the main sources of environmental contamination in the area via leaching of the potentially toxic elements. Total-element concentrations of several different sampling media, such as sediment, waters and plants were measured. Analyses of metal and metalloid concentrations of sediment samples indicate high As, F, Mo and Zn contents, which decrease exponentially with distance from the mine and mineralized zones, mainly due to dilution by water and barren material. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ta in the water samples are higher than the average natural background values for these heavy metals. The most significant components of water samples under study are (>1 mg/1) Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn and S and (1 mg/1) Ba, Fe and Mo; these samples are also enriched in some toxic elements such as As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Sb. Red algae have a higher capacity for absorption of Cr, Cu, Mn,Ni, Pb and S, whereas green algae are enriched in Co, Hg, La, Se and V. However, the highest heavy-metal and toxic element contents are found in moss collected at the mine adit. (author)

  11. Seropositivity of agents causing abortion in local goat breeds in Eastern and South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey

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    BABÜR, Cahit; Tan, Tolga; ATASEVEN, Lale; ATASEVEN, Veysel Soydal; OĞUZOĞLU, Tuba Çiğdem

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiological information has not been available on the seroprevalenceof agents causing abortion and genital tract infection in indigenousgoats of Eastern and South-eastern regions of Turkey, yet. In these regions,the goats have importance for local economy and their production of meat,milk and mohair. There are also differences of the husbandry and climateconditions between two regions. The objective of this study was to describethe seroprevalence and distribution of antibodies to agen...

  12. Miocene tectonic history of the Central Tauride intramontane basins, and the paleogeographic evolution of the Central Anatolian Plateau

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    Koç, Ayten; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kuiper, Klaudia F.

    2017-11-01

    Marine Lower-Upper Miocene deposits uplifted to > 2 km elevation in the Tauride mountains of southern Turkey are taken as evidence for the rise of a nascent plateau. The dynamic causes of this uplift are debated, but generally thought to be a regional dynamic topographic effect of slab motions or slab break-off. Immediately adjacent to the high Tauride mountains lie the Central Tauride Intramontane Basins, which consist of Miocene and younger fluvio-lacustrine basins, at much lower elevations than the highly uplifted marine Miocene rocks. These basins include the previously analyzed Altınapa and Yalvaç basins, as well as the until now undescribed Ilgın Basin. In this paper, we aim to constrain the paleogeography of the Central Tauride Intramontane Basins and determine the role of the tectonics driving the formation of the high Miocene topography in southern Turkey. Therefore, we provide new data on the stratigraphy, sedimentology and structure of the continental Ilgın Basin. We provide an 40Ar/39Ar age of 11.61 ± 0.05 Ma for pumice deposits in the stratigraphy. We provide paleostress inversion analysis based on growth faults showing that the basin formed during multi-directional extension, with NE-SW to E-W dominating over subordinate Nsbnd S extension. We conclude that major, still-active normal faults like the Akşehir Fault also controlled Miocene Ilgın basin formation, with proximal facies close to the basin margins grading upwards and basinwards into lacustrine deposits representing the local depocenter. The Ilgın Basin was a local depocenter, but it may have connected with the adjacent Altınapa Basin during high lake levels in late Serravallian time. The Ilgın Basin and the other continental basins provide key constraints on the paleogeography and tectonic history of the region. These continental basins were likely close to the paleo-coastline during the Late Miocene after which there must have been major differential uplift of the Taurides. We

  13. Earthquake Swarm in Armutlu Peninsula, Eastern Marmara Region, Turkey

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    Yavuz, Evrim; Çaka, Deniz; Tunç, Berna; Serkan Irmak, T.; Woith, Heiko; Cesca, Simone; Lühr, Birger-Gottfried; Barış, Şerif

    2015-04-01

    The most active fault system of Turkey is North Anatolian Fault Zone and caused two large earthquakes in 1999. These two earthquakes affected the eastern Marmara region destructively. Unbroken part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone crosses north of Armutlu Peninsula on east-west direction. This branch has been also located quite close to Istanbul known as a megacity with its high population, economic and social aspects. A new cluster of microseismic activity occurred in the direct vicinity southeastern of the Yalova Termal area. Activity started on August 2, 2014 with a series of micro events, and then on August 3, 2014 a local magnitude is 4.1 event occurred, more than 1000 in the followed until August 31, 2014. Thus we call this tentatively a swarm-like activity. Therefore, investigation of the micro-earthquake activity of the Armutlu Peninsula has become important to understand the relationship between the occurrence of micro-earthquakes and the tectonic structure of the region. For these reasons, Armutlu Network (ARNET), installed end of 2005 and equipped with currently 27 active seismic stations operating by Kocaeli University Earth and Space Sciences Research Center (ESSRC) and Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), is a very dense network tool able to record even micro-earthquakes in this region. In the 30 days period of August 02 to 31, 2014 Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) announced 120 local earthquakes ranging magnitudes between 0.7 and 4.1, but ARNET provided more than 1000 earthquakes for analyzes at the same time period. In this study, earthquakes of the swarm area and vicinity regions determined by ARNET were investigated. The focal mechanism of the August 03, 2014 22:22:42 (GMT) earthquake with local magnitude (Ml) 4.0 is obtained by the moment tensor solution. According to the solution, it discriminates a normal faulting with dextral component. The obtained focal mechanism solution is

  14. What can blueschists tell about the Deep? High Pressure in the Anatolide - Taurid Belt

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    Oberhaensli, R.

    2011-12-01

    since they occur south of the Taurid Platform. Thus the Bitlis Complex represents a terrane detached from the Arabian Platform that subsequently collided with the Taurus Platform during closure of the Neo-Tethys. In SW Anatolia, south of the Taurus Platform, the Alanya Zone documents a Late Cretaceous HP evolution with blueschists and eclogites. Together with the Bitlis Complex the two Late Cretaceous HP-LT regions represent a suture south of the Taurid Platform but still north of the Hatay - Güleyman - Zagros ophiolites separating the Arabian Platform from the Anatolide-Taurid realm. The dissection of the Anatolide-Taurid realm into several paleo-subduction zones of Late Cretaceous age impacts on the lithospheric structure and has consequences for the Tertiary plateau formation in Central and Eastern Anatolia. Geophysical data and observations from the East Anatolian Plateau can be explained with petrologic modelling when hydration of the lithospheric lids above subduction zones is considered.

  15. The Impactof the Kurdish Question on Turkey's Relations with its Middle Eastern neighbors

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    Asil, Muhammet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Tezin basılısı İstanbul Şehir Üniversitesi Kütüphanesi'ndedir. This dissertation analyzes the “Kurdish Question” from an International Relations perspective. Focusing on the impact of the Kurdish question on Turkey’s relations in the last decade with its Middle Eastern neighbors, i.e. Iran, Syria, and Iraq, and with the European Union; this study shows how Turkey-Middle East and Turkey-EU relations are shaped differently. In the search for reasons for this difference, Realist and Liberal I...

  16. Mother-child memory conversations and self-construal in Eastern Turkey, Western Turkey and the USA.

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    Sahin-Acar, Basak; Leichtman, Michelle D

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven mothers and their four-year-old children from Eastern Turkey (N = 32 pairs), Western Turkey (N = 30 pairs) and the USA (N = 25 pairs) participated in a study of mother-child memory talk as a reflection of mothers' self construal, in view of differences in the function of memory talk across cultures. Mother-child pairs were audio-recorded while talking about shared past and anticipated future events. Mothers completed the Balanced Integration-Differentiation questionnaire measure of self-construal and were scored as high or low on individuation and relatedness orientations. Mothers' memory and future talk showed similar patterns of cultural differences: American mothers provided the most voluminous, descriptive and elaborative talk, while Eastern Turkish mothers showed the highest level of repetitiveness, and Western Turkish mothers' talk fell in between. Children's memory talk was similar across cultures. In all cultures, mothers who scored high on both individuation and relatedness (balanced self-construal subtype) engaged in more voluminous and contexted memory talk, and individuation was associated with more elaborative talk about future events. Results are discussed in light of literature on cultural differences in self-construal and memory function.

  17. First-order similarities and differences between Alps, Dinarides, Hellenides and Anatolides-Taurides

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    Schmid, Stefan M.; Bernoulli, Daniel; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Matenco, Liviu; Schefer, Senecio; Oberhänsli, Roland; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Ustaszewski, Kamil

    2013-04-01

    We correlated tectonic units across several circum-Mediterranean orogen strands between the Alps, Carpathians, the Balkan Peninsula, the Aegean and Western Turkey. Our compilation allows discussing fundamental along-strike similarities and differences. One first-order difference is that Dinarides-Hellenides, Anatolides and Taurides represent orogens of opposite subduction polarity and age with respect to the Alps and Carpathians. The internal Dinarides are linked to the Alps and Western Carpathians along the Mid-Hungarian fault zone, a suspected former trench-trench transform fault; its lithospheric root was obliterated during Neogene back-arc extension that formed the Pannonian Basin. Dinarides and Hellenides alike consist of far-travelled nappes detached from the Adriatic continental margin along décollement horizons in Paleozoic or younger stratigraphic levels during Cretaceous and Cenozoic orogeny. The more internal nappes (i.e. Jadar-Kopaonik, Drina-Ivanjica, East Bosnian-Durmitor and their Pelagonian and Almopias equivalents in the Hellenides) are composite nappes whereby the allochthonous Adriatic margin sequences passively carry ophiolites (Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit) obducted during the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous. These obducted ophiolitic units, as well as ophiolites obducted onto Europe-derived units presently found in the East Carpathians (Eastern Vardar Ophiolitic Unit obducted onto the Dacia continental block), root in one single Neotethys ocean that started closing with the initiation of obduction in the latest Jurassic; final suturing occurred during Cretaceous times, terminating with the formation of the Sava-Izmir-Ankara suture in the latest Cretaceous. Ophiolitic "massifs" found outside the Sava-Izmir-Ankara suture zone do not mark oceanic sutures, nor do the Drina-Ivanjica and Pelagonian "massifs" represent independent continental fragments (terranes). The same logic applies to Western Turkey with the difference that the ophiolites

  18. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

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    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn’t detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ORIENTAL SPRUCE (PICEA ORIENTALIS ECOSYSTEMS IN EASTERN BLACKSEA REGION OF TURKEY

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    Aydın Tüfekçioğlu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has been getting more attention from scientific community recently. Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey will get significant influences from the climate change according to regional climate model (RegCM3. Oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L. is an important tree species of Turkey and it only grows in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. With the increase in global warming, spruce forests started to have serious bark beetle problems. More than 200 000 trees died in the region recently due to bark beetle attack. We used existing literature related to oriental spruce and future climate of the region and field observations done in the different times to assess current status of the spruce stands. Future climate of the region has been predicted using RegCM3 regional climate model. Climate change could significantly influence distribution, diversity, structure and stability of the oriental spruce ecosystems. According to RegCM3 regional climate model, the temperatures will increase 2-4 °C in the region in the next century. Future climate scenarios predict 200-300 mm increases in precipitation in the eastern part of the region while the western part won't have any increase in precipitation in the next century. Temperature increases in the western part of the region can cause more stress on spruce trees and would probably increase bark beetle attacks. Also, fire could become an important threat in the western part of the region. It is possible to observe 400-800 m upward shift in the spruce belt in the western part. Treeline of spruce stands would probably move upward both in western and eastern part of the North-eastern Blacksea Region.

  20. Distribution of Thyroid Cancer in the Eastern Part of Turkey 27 Years After the Chernobyl Accident.

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    Sahin, Serap Baydur; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Gucer, Hasan; Pergel, Ahmet; Bedir, Recep; Aydin, Ibrahim; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Sahin, Osman Zikrullah

    2013-12-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused widespread effects across Europe and huge areas where radiocontaminated. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on thyroid cancer have been investigated in most European countries. According to the data of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, the eastern part of the Black Sea region was the most radiocontaminated area in Turkey at the time of Chernobyl accident. We therefore aimed to examine the data of thyroid cancers at our center, Rize city which is located in the eastern Black Sea region. This retrospective study included the patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer at our center between January 2008 and May 2012. Pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy materials were reviewed. We evaluated patients' age, gender, size of the primary tumor (all sizes, Chernobyl accident.

  1. Tomographic Imaging of the Seismic Structure Beneath the East Anatolian Plateau, Eastern Turkey

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    Gökalp, Hüseyin

    2012-10-01

    The high level of seismic activity in eastern Turkey is thought to be mainly associated with the continuing collision of the Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates. The determination of a detailed three-dimensional (3D) structure is crucial for a better understanding of this on-going collision or subduction process; therefore, a body wave tomographic inversion technique was performed on the region. The tomographic inversion used high quality arrival times from earthquakes occurring in the region from 1999 to 2001 recorded by a temporary 29 station broadband IRIS-PASSCAL array operated by research groups from the Universities of Boğaziçi (Turkey) and Cornell (USA). The data was inverted and consisted of 3,114 P- and 2,298 S-wave arrival times from 252 local events with magnitudes ( M D) ranging from 2.5 to 4.8. The stability and resolution of the results were qualitatively assessed by two synthetic tests: a spike test and checkerboard resolution test and it was found that the models were well resolved for most parts of the imaged domain. The tomographic inversion results reveal significant lateral heterogeneities in the study area to a depth of ~20 km. The P- and S-wave velocity models are consistent with each other and provide evidence for marked heterogeneities in the upper crustal structure beneath eastern Turkey. One of the most important features in the acquired tomographic images is the high velocity anomalies, which are generally parallel to the main tectonic units in the region, existing at shallow depths. This may relate to the existence of ophiolitic units at shallow depths. The other feature is that low velocities are widely dispersed through the 3D structure beneath the region at deeper crustal depths. This feature can be an indicator of the mantle upwelling or support the hypothesis that the Anatolian Plateau is underlain by a partially molten uppermost mantle.

  2. Restructuring of Turkey's electricity market and the share of hydropower energy: The case of the Eastern Black Sea Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzlu, Ergun; Koemuercue, Murat ihsan; Akpinar, Adem

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the historical development of Turkey's electricity power sector, the efforts for introducing competition in the power industry in Turkey, and the concerns regarding restructuring in Turkey. The contribution of the hydropower energy potential in Turkey to the reconstruction of the electricity structure in Turkey is also investigated. Then, among the 25 hydrological basins in Turkey, the Eastern Black Sea Basin located in the northeast of Turkey, which has great advantages from the view point of small hydropower potential or hydropower potential without storage, is chosen as the case study to carry out some investigations concerning its potential and to analyze the contribution of the private sector (the corporate body) in regard to the development of hydro potential in this basin within the scope of the 4628 Electricity Market Law. With this law, concerning the restructuring of the electricity market, private sector investments in this segment have increased. In total, 1524 hydroelectric power projects with 22 360 MW installed capacity has been implemented until January 22nd, 2009 and this figure is continuously rising. (author)

  3. Insights into cancer surveillance in Central and Eastern Europe, Israel and Turkey.

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    Vrdoljak, E; Torday, L; Sella, A; Leyman, S; Bavbek, S; Kharkevich, G; Mardiak, J; Szczylik, C; Znaor, A; Wilking, N

    2015-01-01

    The current cancer landscape within transitional economies in central and Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean area is not particularly optimistic. Current perceptions are often based on extrapolations from other countries and regions; and hence the authors collaborated with the South Eastern Europe Oncology Group (SEEROG) to collect information on cancer registration in Central and Eastern Europe, Israel and Turkey. Healthcare authorities and specialist oncology centres in 21 countries in the region were contacted for information on cancer registries in their countries. Based on this information, the authors believe that the recording and reporting of data on cancer in the region is at an acceptable level. The authors discuss and compare institution- and population-based registries, and present opinions on elements of an 'ideal registry' based on the survey replies and comparisons with other registries. A comparison with the sources used for GLOBOCAN 2008 illustrates the need for consistent data to be communicated, published and utilised throughout the region and the oncology community. The authors conclude by considering the potential value of collaboration between health authorities across the region, as well as between the clinical and epidemiological communities, to ensure that cancer data are consistently collected, verified and made public. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Abused nurses take no legal steps: a domestic violence study carried out in eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selek, Salih; Vural, Mehmet; Cakmak, Ilknur

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to evaluate domestic violence among nurses in eastern Turkey. Ninety six (96) female nurses with an intimate partner were enrolled. Modified form of Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire was used. Twenty two (22.7%) of the participants reported domestic violence. None of them took legal steps. Most frequent domestic violence type was economic abuse (46%). Nurses, whose mothers were exposed to domestic violence, had significantly higher abuse rates. The abused group had also significantly higher smoking and miscarriage rates. Nurses need to be well informed for taking legal steps in case of domestic violence. Family history, smoking status and abortion rates may be further research focus for risk factors of domestic violence. Legal interventions should be optimized in order to encourage the victims to take legal steps.

  5. Seroepidemiology of varicella-zoster virus infection in a cosmopolitan city (Erzurum) in the eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Handan; Altinkaynak, Sevin; Ertekin, Vildan; Kiliçaslan, Buket; Giiraksin, Asuman

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine VZV seroprevalence under age 30 and to identify the relationship of VZV seroprevalence and several sociodemographic characteristics of the study subjects. The results were presented in order to design a strategy for vaccination against varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It was planned to include a total of 568 subjects. The sampling method of 30 clusters recommended for field studies was used for selecting subjects of a predetermined number in the rural and urban areas in eastern Turkey. ELISA method was used to examine the blood samples for VZV seropositivity. Age, gender, place of living, educational level, family size and socioeconomic status was investigated in the study subjects. Positive VZV seroprevalence was detected in 78% of 559 subjects. Seroprevalence increased with age. Seroprevalence was 16.67% at the age of 1 year, subsequently increased to 57.58% at the age of 4 years, 70% at the age of 7 years, 92.31% at the age of 10 years and then remained 86.78-96.36% in subjects over the age of 10 years. No association was found between sociodemographic variables studied and prevalence levels of antibodies except for educational level in the 0-14 year group. These results suggest that the majority of VZV infections occur during the early childhood; the best option to reduce the circulation of wild type VZV in the population would be the immunization of young children. VZV vaccine should be introduced into the routine childhood vaccination programme in Turkey.

  6. An evaluation of knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyak, Emine; Dayapoglu, Nuray

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the knowledge and attitudes regarding epilepsy among individuals in eastern Turkey. This descriptive study involved 530 healthy individuals who came to the Research and Application Hospital of Ataturk University in Erzurum, Turkey. A questionnaire and the epilepsy knowledge and attitude scale were administered to collect data. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman's correlation tests were used to analyze the data. The participants' epilepsy knowledge mean score was 6.34 (SD=3.71), and their attitude mean score was 50.22 (SD=11.17). There was a positive (r=0.404) correlation between the knowledge and the attitude scores (pattitude scores (pattitude scores were higher for the participants who were high school and university graduates, had expenses equal to income, and lived in nuclear families and in the city center (pattitude scores (pattitude mean scores were also found for those who knew patients with epilepsy, had witnessed epileptic seizures, obtained information from healthcare personnel, and did not believe that epilepsy was associated with religion (pattitudes toward it. Higher knowledge positively affected attitude, and younger individuals had greater knowledge and, thus, more positive attitudes. Women, civil servants, and housewives had higher knowledge, whereas singles and students had better attitudes. The participants who had high educational levels and expenses equal to income and lived in nuclear families and the city center had more knowledge and displayed more positive attitudes. Greater knowledge and more positive attitudes were also found among the participants who knew patients with epilepsy, had witnessed epileptic seizures, obtained the information from healthcare personnel, and did not believe that epilepsy was associated with religion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Seroprevalence of tularemia in risk groups of humans and animals in Van, eastern Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Yasemin; Özkaçmaz, Ayşe; Parlak, Mehmet; Başbuğan, Yıldıray; Kılıç, Selçuk; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia has become a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Turkey recently. The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of tularemia in humans and their animals living in rural risky areas of our region and to investigate the risk factors. Between January and July 2012, people living in rural areas of Van province (located at eastern part of Turkey) and their domestic animals were included in the study. The sample size was determined by using cluster sampling method like in an event with known prevalence and planned as a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Proportional random sampling method was used to determine which individuals will be included in the study. Presence of tularemia antibodies in the sera of a total 495 voluntary persons (343 female, 152 male; age range: 18-79 years, mean age: 40.61) and their 171 animals (40 cattle, 124 sheep and 7 goats) were screened by microagglutination test using safranin O-stained F.tularensis antigen (Public Health Agency of Turkey). For the evaluation of cross-reactivity between Brucella spp., tularemia positive serum samples were also tested with brucella microagglutination test. Among human and animal samples, 11.9% (59/495) and 44% (76/171) yielded positive results with the titers of ≥ 1:20 in F.tularensis microagglutination test, respectively. However, 69.5% (41/59) of human sera and 78.9% (60/76) of animal sera demonstrated equal or higher titers in the brucella test, so those sera were considered as cross-reactive. After exclusion of these sera, the seroprevalence for F.tularensis were calculated as 3.6% (18/495) for humans and 9.4% (16/171) for animals. Among the 16 animals with positive results, 12 were sheep, three were cattle and one was goat. The difference between seropositivity rates among the domestic animal species was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). In addition, no statistically significant differences were found between risk factors including insect bite, tick bite, contact with

  8. Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Ömer; Kankal, Murat; Üçüncü, Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders.

  9. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  10. Natural and artificial radioactivity measurements in Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, N.; Cevik, U.; Celik, A.; Koz, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, naturally occurring radionuclides of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in soil samples collected from the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. It was found that the activity concentrations ranged from 12 to 120 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 13 to 121 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 204 to 1295 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Besides naturally occurring radionuclides, 137 Cs activity concentration was measured in soil, lichen and moss samples and it was found that 137 Cs activity concentration ranged from 27 to 775 Bq kg -1 with for soil, from 29 to 879 Bq kg -1 for lichen and from 67 to 1396 Bq kg -1 for moss samples. Annual effective doses due to the naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs were estimated. Ecological half-lives of 137 Cs in lichen and moss species were estimated. The decrease of the activity concentrations in the present measurements (2007) relative to those in 1993 indicated ecological half-lives between 1.36 and 2.96 years for lichen and between 1.35 and 2.85 years for moss species

  11. Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two well-recognized standard grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, together with eight historical autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were genetically characterized by using 12 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers in order to evaluate their genetic diversity and relatedness. All of the used SSR primers produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms, which were subsequently utilized to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the grapevine cultivars. Allele richness was implied by the identification of 69 alleles in 8 autochthonous cultivars with a mean value of 5.75 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity were found to be 0.749 and 0.739, respectively. Taking into account the generated alleles, the highest number was recorded in VVC2C3 and VVS2 loci (nine and eight alleles per locus, respectively, whereas the lowest number was recorded in VrZAG83 (three alleles per locus. Two main clusters were produced by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of the SSR data. Only Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars were included in the first cluster. The second cluster involved the rest of the autochthonous cultivars. The results obtained during the study illustrated clearly that SSR markers have verified to be an effective tool for fingerprinting grapevine cultivars and carrying out grapevine biodiversity studies. The obtained data are also meaningful references for grapevine domestication.

  12. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  13. Preliminary investigation on the deformation rates of the Nazimiye Fault (Eastern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sançar, Taylan

    2016-04-01

    fault-bounded mountain fronts. In addition to that I also extracted hypsometric curves, hypsometric integrals and stream length gradient index to understand the relationship between characteristics of the drainage basins and tectonic activity. As preliminary results, I conclude that the southern segment of the NF is tectonically quiescent, whereas the deformation is mainly accommodated on the northern branch. References Emre, Ö., Duman, T.Y., Kondo, H., Olgun, Ş., Özalp, S., Elmacı, H., 2012. 1:250.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Diri Fay Haritası Serisi, Erzincan (NJ37-3) Paftası, Seri No:44, Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüǧü, Ankara-Türkiye. Kara, K., Sançar, T., Zabci, C., 2013. Morphologic and Morphotectonic Characteristics of the Nazimiye Fault Zone, Eastern Turkey. EGU2013-8105, EGU General Assembly Vienna, Austria. Şengör, A.M.C., 1979. The North Anatolian transform fault; its age, offset and tectonic significance. Journal of the Geological Society of London 136, Part 3, 269-282.

  14. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  15. Arc magmatism as a window to plate kinematics and subduction polarity: Example from the eastern Pontides belt, NE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Eyuboglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Pontides orogenic belt in the Black Sea region of Turkey offers a critical window to plate kinematics and subduction polarity during the closure of the Paleotethys. Here we provide a brief synthesis on recent information from this belt. We infer a southward subduction for the origin of the Eastern Pontides orogenic belt and its associated late Mesozoic–Cenozoic magmatism based on clear spatial and temporal variations in Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic arc magmatism, together with the existence of a prominent south-dipping reverse fault system along the entire southern coast of the Black Sea. Our model is at variance with some recent proposals favoring a northward subduction polarity, and illustrates the importance of arc magmatism in evaluating the geodynamic milieu associated with convergent margin processes.

  16. Natural radioactivity-based radiological hazards in soils of the islands. A case study from Eastern Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Berna [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Marine Engineering; Yildiz, Nergiz [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Seremet, Mehmet [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Maritime Transportation and Management Engineering

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive work was carried out to investigate natural radionuclides of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in 73 soil samples collected from islands of Adir, Carpanak and Akdamar on the Van Lake (Turkey) located at Eastern Turkey. Radioactivity concentrations of these radionuclides were measured by using a gamma spectrometer with NaI(Tl) detector to be from 4.11 to 77.1 Bq/kg, from 6.0 to 70.0 Bq/kg and from 133.05 to 749.77 Bq/kg with the mean values of 33.33 Bq/kg, 36.68 Bq/kg and 478.19 Bq/kg, respectively. In addition, the absorbed gamma dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose equivalent (AED) were found to be 57.5 nGy/h and 70.5 μSv/year, respectively. We have shown that our results might be related to the geological formation type. The results were compared with some published ones in Turkey and the World, which were found within acceptable limits.

  17. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyduran, Sadiye Peral; Akin, Meleksen; Ercisli, Sezai; Eyduran, Ecevit; Maghradze, David

    2015-01-13

    The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse and valuable sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, Vitamin C values and demonstrated important antioxidant capacity for human health benefits. Further preservation and use of this gene pool will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  18. Cenozoic Structural and Stratigraphic Evolution of the Ulukışla and Sivas Basins (Central and Eastern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Derya; Darin, Michael H.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Umhoefer, Paul J.

    2017-04-01

    Because subduction is a destructive process, the surface record of subduction-dominated systems is naturally incomplete. Sedimentary basins may hold the most complete record of processes related to subduction, accretion, collision, and ocean closure, and thus provide key information for understanding the kinematic evolution of orogens. In central and eastern Anatolia, the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene stratigraphic record of the Ulukışla and Sivas basins supports the hypothesis that these once formed a contiguous basin. Importantly, their age and geographic positions relative to their very similar basement units and ahead of the Arabian indenter provide a critical record of pre-, syn- and post-collisional processes in the Anatolian Orogen. The Ulukışla-Sivas basin was dissected and translated along the major left-lateral Ecemiş fault zone. Since then, the basins on either side of the fault evolved independently, with considerably more plate convergence accommodated to the east in the Sivas region (eastern Anatolia) than in the Ulukışla region (central Anatolia). This led to the deformation of marine sediments and underlying ophiolites and structural growth of the Sivas Fold-and-Thrust Belt (SSFTB) since latest Eocene time, which played a major role in marine basin isolation and disconnection, along with a regionally important transition to continental conditions with evaporite deposition starting in the early Oligocene. We use geologic mapping, fault kinematic analysis, paleomagnetism, apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to characterize the architecture, deformation style, and structural evolution of the region. In the Ulukışla basin, dominantly E-W trending normal faults became folded or inverted due to N-S contraction since the Lutetian (middle Eocene). This was accompanied by significant counter-clockwise rotations, and post-Lutetian burial of the Niǧde Massif along the transpressional Ecemiş fault zone. Since Miocene

  19. Evidence for ˜80-75 Ma subduction jump during Anatolide-Tauride-Armenian block accretion and ˜48 Ma Arabia-Eurasia collision in Lesser Caucasus-East Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Yann; Perincek, Dogan; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Sosson, Marc; Barrier, Eric; Avagyan, Ara

    2012-05-01

    Orogens formed by a combination of subduction and accretion are featured by a short-lived collisional history. They preserve crustal geometries acquired prior to the collisional event. These geometries comprise obducted oceanic crust sequences that may propagate somewhat far away from the suture zone, preserved accretionary prism and subduction channel at the interplate boundary. The cessation of deformation is ascribed to rapid jump of the subduction zone at the passive margin rim of the opposite side of the accreted block. Geological investigation and 40Ar/39Ar dating on the main tectonic boundaries of the Anatolide-Tauride-Armenian (ATA) block in Eastern Turkey, Armenia and Georgia provide temporal constraints of subduction and accretion on both sides of this small continental block, and final collisional history of Eurasian and Arabian plates. On the northern side, 40Ar/39Ar ages give insights for the subduction and collage from the Middle to Upper Cretaceous (95-80 Ma). To the south, younger magmatic and metamorphic ages exhibit subduction of Neotethys and accretion of the Bitlis-Pütürge block during the Upper Cretaceous (74-71 Ma). These data are interpreted as a subduction jump from the northern to the southern boundary of the ATA continental block at 80-75 Ma. Similar back-arc type geochemistry of obducted ophiolites in the two subduction-accretion domains point to a similar intra-oceanic evolution prior to accretion, featured by slab steepening and roll-back as for the current Mediterranean domain. Final closure of Neotethys and initiation of collision with Arabian Plate occurred in the Middle-Upper Eocene as featured by the development of a Himalayan-type thrust sheet exhuming amphibolite facies rocks in its hanging-wall at c. 48 Ma.

  20. Management paradox of groupers (Epinephelinae) fishing in the Gökova Bay (Eastern Mediterranean), Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, V.; Erdem, M.; Goncluogu, H.; Guclusoy, H.; Tosunoglu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The present study attempts to find out the paradox in management of grouper fishing in southern Aegean Sea, Turkey. The study also proposes some suggestions for a more rational and more effective management of this species. Material of the study is composed of records of fishing cooperatives in the

  1. Turkey Bridging Eastern and Western Civilizations and Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duruhan, Kemal

    2007-01-01

    History has always witnessed the confrontation and differentiation of the East and the West and sometimes that of North and South, as in the rare examples of Africa, America, and Korea. Sometimes, this struggle occurred between classes or religions, and sometimes it occurred between nations. In this article, the author discusses how Turkey has…

  2. The Amino Acid Composition of Blue Swimming Crab (Portunus Segnis, Forskal, 1775 from The North Eastern Mediterranean Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Artar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to detect the content of amino acid in female and male specimens of blue swimming crab (Portunus segnis obtained from (including 12 male crab and also 12 female crab North Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Turkey. The protein was identified as 17.63% and 18.13% for female and male crab respevtively. Totally 9 essential amino acids were recorded in the present study. Lysine and leucine constituted the highest essential amino acid (EAA concentrations in P. segnis. This species was found to be in good score in terms of the level of EAA and the EAA/Non-EAA ratios when compared with other economical crab species.

  3. Trace metal concentrations in marine organisms from the Eastern Aegean, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuksezgin, F.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring of mercury, cadmium and lead levels in striped mullet (Mullus barbatus) was conducted in the Eastern Aegean over 3 year period and in some other species during 1996 in the framework of a National Marine Measurement Program and MED-POL II Project for the Aegean Sea. Of all the research on the concentrations of trace metals in the Aegean environment only a little has been carried out in that part of the Eastern Aegean

  4. DNA Barcoding of Birds at a Migratory Hotspot in Eastern Turkey Highlights Continental Phylogeographic Relationships.

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    Raşit Bilgin

    Full Text Available The combination of habitat loss, climate change, direct persecution, introduced species and other components of the global environmental crisis has resulted in a rapid loss of biodiversity, including species, population and genetic diversity. Birds, which inhabit a wide spectrum of different habitat types, are particularly sensitive to and indicative of environmental changes. The Caucasus endemic bird area, part of which covers northeastern Turkey, is one of the world's key regions harboring a unique bird community threatened with habitat loss. More than 75% of all bird species native to Turkey have been recorded in this region, in particular along the Kars-Iğdır migratory corridor, stopover, wintering and breeding sites along the Aras River, whose wetlands harbor at least 264 bird species. In this study, DNA barcoding technique was used for evaluating the genetic diversity of land bird species of Aras River Bird Paradise at the confluence of Aras River and Iğdır Plains key biodiversity areas. Seventy three COI sequences from 33 common species and 26 different genera were newly generated and used along with 301 sequences that were retrieved from the Barcoding of Life Database (BOLD. Using the sequences obtained in this study, we made global phylogeographic comparisons to define four categories of species, based on barcoding suitability, intraspecific divergence and taxonomy. Our findings indicate that the landbird community of northeastern Turkey has a genetical signature mostly typical of northern Palearctic bird communities while harboring some unique variations. The study also provides a good example of how DNA barcoding can build upon its primary mission of species identification and use available data to integrate genetic variation investigated at the local scale into a global framework. However, the rich bird community of the Aras River wetlands is highly threatened with the imminent construction of the Tuzluca Dam by the government.

  5. Assessment of metal element concentrations in mussel (M. Galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)], E-mail: berrenazli@yahoo.com; Damla, N.; Kobya, A.I. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, V.N. [Giresun University, Department of Chemistry, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Duran, C. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Dalgic, G. [Rize University, Faculty of Fisheries, 53100 Rize (Turkey); Bozaci, R. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-30

    The main goal of this work is to determine the effects of pollution of copper, lead and zinc mines on the Eastern Black Sea. Metal and heavy metal concentrations in the Eastern Black Sea mussels were measured using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). The analytical results showed that the tissue of mussel in Eastern Black Sea contains K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Sr elements, and the shell of mussel contains Ca, Cu, Sr, and Ba elements. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, the mussels were analyzed with FAAS for Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb elements. An ANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. The results showed although that the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn for the tissue of the mussels were markedly above the permissible levels of the Turkish regulations, Zn concentration is in the limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

  6. Vertebrate host specificity and experimental vectors of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from the eastern wild turkey in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B M; Barnes, H J; Rowley, W A

    1983-07-01

    Vertebrate host specificity, experimental laboratory vectors, and a description of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris Vieillot) in Iowa are presented. Plasmodium kempi is infective for domestic turkeys, bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), chukars (Alectoris graeca), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), peacocks (Pavo cristatus), and canaries (Serinus canaria), produces a transient infection in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and domestic geese (Anser anser), but will not infect ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), pigeons (Columba livia), Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix), leghorn white chickens (Gallus gallus), or starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Oocysts and (or) sporozoites were recovered from 68% (84/124) and 98% (60/61) of the Culex pipiens pipiens and C. tarsalis examined, respectively. Oocysts developed faster and sporozoites invaded the salivary glands sooner in C. tarsalis (6 days) than in C. p. pipiens (7 days). Culex tarsalis transmitted P. kempi more effectively than C. p. pipiens, although both species were capable of transmitting the parasite by natural feeding. Oocysts developed and sporozoites also were produced in C. restuans, but its ability to transmit the parasite was not determined. Aedes aegypti (Rockefeller strain) and A. triseriatus were refractive to P. kempi. Plasmodium kempi produces trophozoites with large refractile globules and fine cytoplasmic extensions, mature schizonts in the form of a condensed fan containing four to eight nuclei (usually 5), and elongate gametocytes with irregular borders. All stages are confined almost exclusively to mature erythrocytes, with no effect on host cell size or position of host cell nucleus. Plasmodium kempi is most similar morphologically to P. (Novyella) hexamerium and P. (Novyella) vaughani. It differs from P. hexamerium in having large refractile globules in trophozoites and immature schizonts, an inability to infect starlings, an absence of

  7. Young Turk social engineering : mass violence and the nation state in eastern Turkey, 1913-1950

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Üngör, U.U.

    2009-01-01

    For ages, the eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire had been a multi-ethnic region, where Armenians, Kurds, Syriacs, Turks and Arabs lived together in the same villages and cities. The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and rise of the nation state would violently alter this situation, as

  8. 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex NEOs and the Maribo and Sutter’s Mill meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Michelsen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Aims. 2P/Encke is a short period comet that was discovered in 1786 and has been extensively observed and studied for more than 200 years. The Taurid meteoroid stream has long been linked with 2P/Encke owing to a good match of their orbital elements, even though the comet’s activity is not strong......, 2012, respectively. Their pre-atmospheric orbits place them in the middle of the Taurid meteoroid stream, which raises the intriguing possibility that comet 2P/Encke could be the parent body of CM chondrites. Methods. To investigate whether a relationship between comet 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex...

  9. Hydration kinetics of some durum and bread wheat varieties grown in south-eastern region of turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirm, A.

    2017-01-01

    Hydration kinetics of wheat varieties grown in South-Eastern Region of Turkey, covering a temperature range from 25 to 50 degree C was examined. Peleg's model together with Arrhenius relationship were successfully used to evaluate water uptake of some Durum (Local names; Zenit and BurgosBurgos) and Bread (Local names; Dariyel and Karatopak) wheat varieties during soaking at a temperature range of 25-50 degree C. Model was found to be suitable for describing the soaking behaviour of wheat kernels with a coefficient of determination (R2) and Root mean square error (RMSE) greater than 0.9805, and less than 0.051, respectively. The Peleg rate and capacity constants, K1 and K2, were affected by temperature and wheat varieties. Activation energy values of Zenit, BurgosBurgos, Dariyel and Karatopak wheats were found as 39.94, 38.03, 36.25 and 29.54 kJ mol-1, respectively. Zenit wheat was the least hydrated while Karatopak was the most hydrated one due to kernel size and protein content. General equations to describe the water uptake of wheat varieties as a function of soaking time, temperature and initial moisture content were developed. These derived equations can be used for wheat operations such as tempering, mixing, knedding etc. (author)

  10. Lithospheric flexural strength and effective elastic thicknesses of the Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) and surrounding region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Bülent; Gomez-Ortiz, David; Petit, Carole

    2017-12-01

    The Lithospheric structure of Eastern Anatolia and the surrounding region, including the northern part of the Arabian platform is investigated via the analysis and modeling of Bouguer anomalies from the Earth Gravitational Model EGM08. The effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (EET) that corresponds to the mechanical cores of the crust and lithospheric mantle is determined from the spectral coherence between Bouguer anomalies and surface elevation data. Its average value is 18.7 km. From the logarithmic amplitude spectra of Bouguer anomalies, average depths of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, Conrad and basement in the study area are constrained at 84 km, 39 km, 16 km and 7 km, respectively. The geometries of the LAB and Moho are then estimated using the Parker-Oldenburg inversion algorithm. We also present a lithospheric strength map obtained from the spatial variations of EET determined by Yield Stress Envelopes (YSE). The EET varies in the range of 12-23 km, which is in good agreement with the average value obtained from spectral analysis. Low EET values are interpreted as resulting from thermal and flexural lithospheric weakening. According to the lithospheric strength of the Eastern Anatolian region, the rheology model consists of a strong but brittle upper crust, a weak and ductile lower crust, and a weak lower part of the lithosphere. On the other hand, lithosphere strength corresponds to weak and ductile lower crust, a strong upper crust and a strong uppermost lithospheric mantle for the northern part of the Arabian platform.

  11. Analysing workplace violence towards health care staff in public hospitals using alternative ordered response models: the case of north-eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ali Kemal; Oktay, Erkan; Çebi, Kübranur

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this article is to determine key factors that may have a significant effect on the verbal abuse, emotional abuse and physical assault of health care workers in north-eastern Turkey. A self-administered survey was completed by 450 health care workers in three well-established hospitals in Erzurum, Turkey. Because of the discrete and ordered nature of the dependent variable of the survey, the data were analysed using four distinctive ordered response models. Results revealed that several key variables were found to be a significant determinant of workplace violence, such as the type of health institution, occupational position, weekly working hours, weekly shift hours, number of daily patient contacts, age group of the respondents, experience in the health sector, training against workplace violence and current policies of the hospitals and the Turkish Ministry of Health.

  12. Geochemical, petrological and geochronological observations on the metamorphic rocks of the Tauride belt ophiolites (S. Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Omer Faruk

    2002-01-01

    La chaîne du Taurus (sud de la Turquie) comprend une succession de massifs ophiolitiques. Chacun d'eux possède une semelle métamorphique. Les principales roches constituant ces semelles sont des amphibolites qui se caractérisent, grâce à la géochimie des éléments en traces et des Terres Rares, en basaltes d'îles océaniques, en tholéites d'arcs ou en basaltes de rides. Ces roches sont regroupées par des filons doléritiques et gabbroïques tardifs. L'étude géothermobarométrique montre que ces am...

  13. Is GDF5 gene promoter polymorphism +104T/C associated with osteoarthritis in the Eastern of Turkey population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tülüce, Y; Yildirim, I H; Özkol, H; Edi Z, L; Delen, V

    2017-08-30

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. Genetic factors have been shown to play important roles in the etiology of OA. The gene growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) has been implicated in skeletal development and joint morphogenesis in human and mice. A functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) +104T/C in the 5'-UTR of GDF5 (rs143383) was reported to be associated with osteoarthritis susceptibility in Han Chinese and Japanese populations. Our objective was to assess whether this SNP was also associated with OA in the Eastern Turkey population.A total of 172 cases including 95 patients with idiopathic OA and 77 control cases were recruited into the study. DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes of all cases by using salting out method. The +104T/C polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. In terms of genotype comparison there wasn't any correlation between patient and control groups. Frequency of C allele was found to be higher in-patient group than control group and statistical analysis showed a poor correlation in allele frequencies of the +104T/C SNP of GDF5 gene between cases and controls (p<0.05). Significant correlation between GDF5 and OA has been reported in Asian population, especially T alleles were found in higher frequencies and related to OA.  Our study did not confirm this association and also in term of T allele. Interestingly, we found higher frequency of C allele in patient group than control group and our results are compatible with the study carried out in Greek population.

  14. The rheological structure of the lithosphere in the Eastern Marmara region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Bülent; Sönmez, Tuba

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work is to propose the geometries of the crustal-lithospheric mantle boundary (Moho) and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and the 1D thermal structure of the lithosphere, in order to establish a rheological model of the Eastern Marmara region. The average depths of Moho and LAB are respectively 35 km and 51 km from radially averaged amplitude spectra of EGM08 Bouguer anomalies. The geometries of Moho and LAB interfaces are estimated from the Parker-Oldenburg gravity inversion algorithm. Our results show the Moho depth varies from 31 km at the northern part of North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) to 39 km below the mountain belt in the southern part of the NAFZ. The depth to the LAB beneath the same parts of the region ranges from 45 km to 55 km. Having lithospheric strength and thermal boundary layer structure, we analyzed the conditions of development of lithosphere thinning. A two-dimensional strength profile has been estimated for rheology model of the study area. Thus we suggest that the rheological structure consists of a strong upper crust, a weak lower crust, and a partly molten upper lithospheric mantle.

  15. The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features

  16. Radar observations of Taurid complex meteor showers in 2003: activity and mass distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecina, Petr; Pecinová, Drahomíra; Porubčan, V.; Toth, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 95, 1-4 (2005), s. 681-688 ISSN 0167-9295. [Meteoroids 2004. London, Ontario, 16.08.2004-20.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : Taurid complex * meteor showers * activity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2005

  17. Prevalence of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, F; Karakas, T; Cakir, M; Aksoy, A; Baki, A; Gedik, Y

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of adverse reactions to food in childhood in Turkey is not known. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of IgE-mediated food allergies (FAs) in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study recruited 3500 of the randomly selected 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren from the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey during 2006. Following a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents and the child, consenting children were invited for skin prick tests (SPTs) and oral food challenges. Children with suspected IgE-mediated FA were skin prick tested with a predefined panel of food allergens (milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat, peanut, fish, and hazelnut), aeroallergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat, dog, Alternaria, grass pollen mix, weed pollen mix, and tree pollen mix), and food allergens reported in the questionnaire. All children with a positive SPT to any food were invited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). The prevalence of IgE-mediated FA was established using DBPCFCs. The response rate to the questionnaire was 78.2% (2739/3500). The estimated prevalence of parental-reported IgE-mediated FA was 5.7% (156/2739) [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.83-6.57%]. The rate of sensitization to the food allergens was 33.1% (48/145) in the parental-reported group. The confirmed prevalence of IgE-mediated FA by means of DBPCFC in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren living in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey was 0.80% (22/2739) (95% CI, 0.47-1.13%). The most common allergenic foods were beef (31.8%), cow's milk (18.1%), cocoa (18.1%), hen's egg (13.6%), and kiwi (13.6%). The rate of reported IgE-mediated FA was significantly higher than clinically confirmed FA by means of DBPCFC (odds ratio, 7.46; 95% CI, 4.67-12.01; Pfoods was different and somewhat unique to the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey when compared with western countries.

  18. The final pulse of the Early Cenozoic adakitic activity in the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey): An integrated study on the nature of transition from adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism in a slab window setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Dudas, Francis O.; Santosh, M.; Eroğlu-Gümrük, Tuğba; Akbulut, Kübra; Yi, Keewook; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2018-05-01

    The Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, one of the best examples of a fossil continental arc in the Alpine-Himalayan system, is characterized by adakitic magmatism during the Early Cenozoic. Popular models correlate the adakitic magmatism to syn- or post-collisional processes occurring after the collision between the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt and the Tauride Platform at the end of Late Mesozoic and/or beginning of the Cenozoic. We present new geological, petrological and chronological data from andesites and felsic tuffs exposed in the Bayburt area, in the southern part of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, and discuss the nature of the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic activities in a continental arc. Major, trace and rare earth element concentrations of both andesites and felsic tuffs clearly suggest that they are related to arc magmatism in a continental arc with adakitic composition. The isotopic compositions are permissive of mixing between a component similar to depleted mantle and a second component that is either mafic lower crust or subducted oceanic crust. 39Ar/40Ar hornblende and U/Pb zircon dating indicate that this adakitic magmatism in the Bayburt area ended by about 47 Ma, and transformed into non-adakitic, granitoid arc magmatism in the area immediately north of Bayburt in the Lutetian (∼46 Ma). Based on our new results in conjunction with available data, we propose that the beginning of northward rollback of a south-directed subducting slab, and simultaneous opening of a slab window related to ridge subduction, triggered both adakitic magmatism for approximately a 10 Myr period between 57.6 and 47 Ma and arc-parallel extension that caused the opening of the Early Cenozoic sedimentary basins. We also suggest that the shallow marine environment, in which Nummulite-bearing sandy limestones accumulated in the Early Cenozoic, was transformed into a saline-lake environment during the pyroclastic activity that produced the studied felsic tuffs

  19. The Global Crisis of the Late 2000s and Currency Substitution: A Study of Three Eastern European Economies Russia, Turkey and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akalin Gurkan I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades, most of Eastern European countries moved towards open economies, including Baltic Countries, Ukraine and Russia. Some of these countries adopted the euro such as the case of Montenegro in 2002, Slovakia in 2009, Estonia in 2011, and finally Latvia in 2014. Adoption of the new currency helped these countries further integrate into a larger market, the Eurozone, and stabilize their economies against heavily fluctuating exchange rates. The governments of Ukraine and Russia, on the other hand, did not show interest to join the Eurozone and followed more independent currency policies along with the limited economic liberalization during the period of the 90s and the early 2000s. Similarly, Turkey, not a former Eastern Bloc country, but located geographically very close to these two countries did not peg its currency to the euro or the US dollar. All of these three economies in Eastern Europe had multiple deep financial crises, inflation, devaluations, and weak governments in the last two decades of the 90s and the 2000s (Lissovolik, 2003. For instance, Turkish lira depreciated from 13 TL/$ in 1973 to 1.5 million TL/$ in 2004 (Bahmani-Oskooee, 1996. As a result, of these negative experiences, local people of these countries developed a tendency to keep at least a portion of their savings in a foreign currency (Civcir, 2003. In the case of Turkey, the ratio of reserves held in the foreign currency over the local currency, which is a de facto measure of US dollarization, showed a steady rise during the period from 1983 to 1993, remained steady high around 50% until 2001 and decreased afterwards (Metin-Özcan, 2009. In short, these countries are examples of highly US dollarized countries (Havrylyshyn & Beddies, 2003; Kaplan, 2008.

  20. Relative contributions of crust and mantle to generation of Campanian high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids in a subduction setting, with special reference to the Harsit Pluton, Eastern Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsli, O.; Dokuz, A.; Uysal, I.; Aydin, F.; Chen, B.; Kandemir, R.; Wijbrans, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    We present elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for the magmatic suite (~79 Ma) of the Harşit pluton, from the Eastern Pontides (NE Turkey), with the aim of determining its magma source and geodynamic evolution. The pluton comprises granite, granodiorite, tonalite and minor diorite (SiO

  1. The nature of transition from adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism in a slab window setting: A synthesis from the eastern Pontides, NE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Eyuboglu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Pontides orogenic belt provides a window into continental arc magmatism in the Alpine–Himalayan belt. The late Mesozoic–Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of this belt remains controversial. Here we focus on the nature of the transition from the adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism in the Kale area of Gumushane region in NE Turkey where this transition is best preserved. The adakitic lithologies comprise porphyries and hyaloclastites. The porphyries are represented by biotite-rich andesites, hornblende-rich andesite and dacite. The hayaloclastites represent the final stage of adakitic activity and they were generated by eruption/intrusion of adakitic andesitic magma into soft carbonate mud. The non-adakitic lithologies include basaltic-andesitic volcanic and associated pyroclastic rocks. Both rock groups are cutting by basaltic dikes representing the final stage of the Cenozoic magmatism in the study area. We report zircon U-Pb ages of 48.71 ± 0.74 Ma for the adakitic rocks, and 44.68 ± 0.84 Ma for the non-adakitic type, suggesting that there is no significant time gap during the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism. We evaluate the origin, magma processes and tectonic setting of the magmatism in the southern part of the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. Our results have important bearing on the late Mesozoic–Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region.

  2. Evaluation of Süleymanköy (Diyarbakir, Eastern Turkey) and Seferihisar (Izmir, Western Turkey) Self Potential Anomalies with Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaftan, Ilknur; Sindirgi, Petek

    2013-04-01

    Self-potential (SP) is one of the oldest geophysical methods that provides important information about near-surface structures. Several methods have been developed to interpret SP data using simple geometries. This study investigated inverse solution of a buried, polarized sphere-shaped self-potential (SP ) anomaly via Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks ( MLPNN ). The polarization angle ( α ) and depth to the centre of sphere ( h )were estimated. The MLPNN is applied to synthetic and field SP data. In order to see the capability of the method in detecting the number of sources, MLPNN was applied to different spherical models at different depths and locations.. Additionally, the performance of MLPNN was tested by adding random noise to the same synthetic test data. The sphere model successfully obtained similar parameters under different S/N ratios. Then, MLPNN method was applied to two field examples. The first one is the cross section taken from the SP anomaly map of the Ergani-Süleymanköy (Turkey) copper mine. MLPNN was also applied to SP data from Seferihisar Izmir (Western Turkey) geothermal field. The MLPNN results showed good agreement with the original synthetic data set. The effect of The technique gave satisfactory results following the addition of 5% and 10% Gaussian noise levels. The MLPNN results were compared to other SP interpretation techniques, such as Normalized Full Gradient (NFG), inverse solution and nomogram methods. All of the techniques showed strong similarity. Consequently, the synthetic and field applications of this study show that MLPNN provides reliable evaluation of the self potential data modelled by the sphere model.

  3. The Effects of Terror and Violence on Entrepreneurs in the Eastern and South-eastern Regions of Turkey: A Field Research

    OpenAIRE

    EMHAN, Abdurrahim

    2011-01-01

    This study primarily aims to investigate the effects of terror and violence incidents on the entrepreneurs drawing primarily on the concept of terrorism including the targeted segments and objectives of terrorism. Then, the study expands on the impact of terrorism on the economy and firms. The empirical investigation section contains a field study on Diyarbakir, one of the leading providences of the Turkey in terms of its exposure to terrorism and violence for long periods of time. A survey i...

  4. Use of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Second Edition, criteria in the diagnosis of primary headache in schoolchildren: epidemiology study from eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Recep; Alp, Selen Ilhan; Palanci, Yilmaz; Sur, Haydar; Boru, Ulku Turk; Ozge, Aynur; Yapici, Zuhal

    2010-07-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of primary headache among schoolchildren in the city of Agri, located in eastern Turkey, where geographical, climatic and socio-economic conditions differ greatly from those of other regions of Turkey. A cross-sectional school-based (ages ranging from 11 to 18) study was conducted from January to April 2006. Diagnosis was based on the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. This population was evaluated by a two-stage clustered sampling procedure. In the first phase, 1385 children were asked whether they had had a headache within the past year. For the second-step interview, 540 children (38.9%) with a complaint of headache were selected. Five children who had complained of headaches in the first interview did not agree to participate in the second stage. Of the remaining 535, 473 were identified as having primary headache and 62 as having secondary headache. Overall, one-year prevalence of headache subtypes was 14.3% for migraine, 3.5% for probable migraine, 8.6% for pure tension-type headache, 4.6% for migraine plus tension-type headache, and 3.0% for probable migraine plus tension-type headache. The prevalence of migraine was higher in our study than in previous studies.

  5. Biological parameters and feeding behaviour of invasive whelk Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Saglam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine length-weight relationships, growth type and feeding behavior of the benthic predator Rapa whelk at the coast of Camburnu, south-eastern Black Sea. Methods: Rapa whelk was monthly collected by dredge sampling on the south-eastern Black Sea at 20 m depth. The relationships between morphometric parameters of Rapa whelk were described by linear and exponential models. The allometric growth of each variable relative to shell length (SL was calculated from the function Y=aSLb or logY=loga+blogSL. The functional regression b values were tested by t-test at the 0.05 significance level if it was significantly different from isometric growth. The total time spent on feeding either on mussel tissue or live mussels was recorded for each individual under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results: The length-weight relationships showed positive allometric growth and no inter-sex variability. Body size in the male population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the female. All characters in males and females showed a trend towards allometry rather than isometry. While the total time spent feeding increased with increasing prey size the total time that Rapana venosa spent feeding decreased with increasing Rapa whelk size. The total average feeding time needed by Rapa whelks was 160 min. But they took 310 min on live mussels in 27-28 °C in the laboratory conditions. Conclusions: Length and weight relationships, growth type, total time spent feeding of this species were explained in details for this region. It would be useful to sustainable management in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey. The results about the feeding behaviour of this species will contribute to the understanding of the role of this species within the ecosystem.

  6. Regional intensity-duration-frequency analysis in the Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey, by using L-moments and regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiaei, Farhad; Kankal, Murat; Anilan, Tugce; Yuksek, Omer

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of rainfall frequency is an important step in hydrology and water resources engineering. However, a lack of measuring stations, short duration of statistical periods, and unreliable outliers are among the most important problems when designing hydrology projects. In this study, regional rainfall analysis based on L-moments was used to overcome these problems in the Eastern Black Sea Basin (EBSB) of Turkey. The L-moments technique was applied at all stages of the regional analysis, including determining homogeneous regions, in addition to fitting and estimating parameters from appropriate distribution functions in each homogeneous region. We studied annual maximum rainfall height values of various durations (5 min to 24 h) from seven rain gauge stations located in the EBSB in Turkey, which have gauging periods of 39 to 70 years. Homogeneity of the region was evaluated by using L-moments. The goodness-of-fit criterion for each distribution was defined as the ZDIST statistics, depending on various distributions, including generalized logistic (GLO), generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized normal (GNO), Pearson type 3 (PE3), and generalized Pareto (GPA). GLO and GEV determined the best distributions for short (5 to 30 min) and long (1 to 24 h) period data, respectively. Based on the distribution functions, the governing equations were extracted for calculation of intensities of 2, 5, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years return periods (T). Subsequently, the T values for different rainfall intensities were estimated using data quantifying maximum amount of rainfall at different times. Using these T values, duration, altitude, latitude, and longitude values were used as independent variables in a regression model of the data. The determination coefficient ( R 2) value indicated that the model yields suitable results for the regional relationship of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF), which is necessary for the design of hydraulic structures in small and

  7. Discovery of Miocene adakitic dacite from the Eastern Pontides Belt (NE Turkey) and a revised geodynamic model for the late Cenozoic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Santosh, M.; Yi, Keewook; Bektaş, Osman; Kwon, Sanghoon

    2012-08-01

    The Cenozoic magmatic record within the ca. 500 km long eastern Pontides orogen, located within the Alpine metallogenic belt, is critical to evaluate the tectonic history and geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region. In this paper we report for the first time late Miocene adakitic rocks from the southeastern part of the eastern Pontides belt and present results from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology. The Tavdagi dacite that we investigate in this study is exposed as round or ellipsoidal shaped bodies, sills, and dikes in the southeastern part of the belt. Zircons in the dacite show euhedral crystal morphology with oscillatory zoning and high Th/U values (up to 1.69) typical of magmatic origin. Zircon LA-ICPMS analysis yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 7.86 ± 0.15 Ma. SHRIMP analyses of zircons with typical magmatic zoning from another sample yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 8.79 ± 0.19 Ma. Both ages are identical and constrain the timing of dacitic magmatism as late Miocene. The Miocene Tavdagi dacite shows adakitic affinity with high SiO2 (68.95-71.41 wt.%), Al2O3 (14.88-16.02 wt.%), Na2O (3.27-4.12 wt.%), Sr (331.4-462.1 ppm), Sr/Y (85-103.7), LaN/YbN (34.3-50.9) and low Y (3.2-5 ppm) values. Their initial 143Nd/144Nd (0.512723-0.512736) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70484-0.70494) ratios are, respectively, lower and higher than those of normal oceanic crust. The geological, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the adakitic magmatism was generated by partial melting of the mafic lower crust in the southeastern part of the eastern Pontide belt during the late Miocene. Based on the results presented in this study and a synthesis of the geological and tectonic information on the region, we propose that the entire northern edge of the eastern Pontides-Lesser Caucasus-Elbruz magmatic arc was an active continental margin during the Cenozoic. We identify a migration of the Cenozoic magmatism towards

  8. Radar meteors range distribution and some parameters of meteoroids: application to zeta Perseids and beta Taurids showers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Drahomíra; Pecina, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 95, 1-4 (2005), s. 689-696 ISSN 0167-9295. [Meteoroids 2004. London, Ontario, 16.08.2004-20.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : Taurid complex * meteor shower s * physical parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2005

  9. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizil, Suleyman; Turk, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants were determined from ripe fruits. The free fatty acid content was determined in the fruit oil, and the main fatty acids of sumac and terebinth were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They included oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a ratio of 37.7% and 34.8%, 27.4% and 17.3%, 21.1% and 21.7% and, 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The fruits of both plants were rich in oil, fatty acids and minerals, suggesting that they are valuable for using in food. The data may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information.

  10. Analysis of soft-sediment deformation structures in Neogene fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Çaybağı Formation, Eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç Taşgin, Calibe; Türkmen, İbrahim

    2009-06-01

    During the Neogene, both strike-slip and extensional regimes coexisted in eastern Turkey and, a number of fault-bounded basins associated with the East Anatolian Fault System developed. The Çaybağı Formation (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene) deposited in one of these basins consists of fluvio-lacustrine deposits. Numerous soft-sediment deformation structures are encountered in this formation, particularly in conglomerates, medium- to coarse-grained tuffaceous sandstones and claystones: folded structures (slumps, convolute laminations, and simple recumbent folds), water-escape structures (intruded sands, internal cusps, interpenetrative cusps and sand volcanoes), and load structures (load casts, pseudonodules, flame structures, and pillow structures). These structures are produced by liquefaction and/or fluidization of the unconsolidated sediments during a seismic shock. Consequently, the existence of seismically-induced deformation structures in the Çaybağı Formation and the association with a Neogene intraformational unconformity, growth faults, and reverse faults in the Çaybağı basin attest to the tectonic activity in this area during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene. The East Anatolian Fault System, in particular the Uluova fault zone, is the most probable seismogenic source. Earthquakes with a magnitude of over 5 in the Richter scale can be postulated.

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes About Emergency Contraception Among Married Women in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey

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    Yeşim Bayoğlu Tekin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Emergency contraception (EC is an effective contraceptive method that can be used after having unprotected intercourse to prevent the implantation of the unintended pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge level of reproductive aged women about EC pills and its relation to the contraceptive attitudes and personal characteristics. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional prospective study conducted in a university hospital in Turkey. A questionnaire was given to married women ages 18 to 49 years old. The frequency distribution of dependent (knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs and independent (age, gravidity, parity, income and education level, contraceptive methods variables was calculated. RESULTS: Of the 187 women, who completed the survey, 40.8% were aware of EC pills, 35.1% correctly answered regarding the timing of use, and 26.6% reported using EC pills. Negative beliefs about the morning after pill were commonly about adverse effects and lack of experience (62.6% and 45.9%, respectively. The other common reasons for not using EC were described as religious reasons (20.8% and responsibilities (40.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness and knowledge of EC was low among the women interviewed. The major barriers to use of EC are lack of information and misconceptions about EC. To increase their awareness and dispel negative attitudes, Turkish women need intensive information about EC.

  12. Structural Evolution of central part of the Tuzgolu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, M.; Cemen, I.; Çaptuğ, A.; Demirci, M.; Engin, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Tuzgolu Basin in Central Anatolia, Turkey, covers low-relief areas located between the Pontide Mountains to the North and Tauride Mountains to the South. The basin started to form as a rift basin during the Late Maastrichtian. The main Tuzgolu-Aksaray fault zone on the eastern margin of the basin and the northwest trending Yeniceoba and Cihanbeyli fault zones on the western margin of the basin were probably developed during that time. The basin has also experienced westward extension in response to westward escape of the Anatolian plate since Late Miocene. Several geologic studies have been conducted in the Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) Basin and surrounding areas to determine structural and tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin. However, there are still many questions regarding the structural evolution of the basin. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the structural evolution of the central Tuzgolu Basin based on the structural interpretation of available 2-D seismic reflection profiles, well log analysis and construction of structural cross sections. The cross-sections will be based on depth converted seismic lines to determine structural geometry of the faults and folds. A preliminary Petrel project has been prepared using available seismic profiles. Our preliminary structural interpretations suggest that a well-developed rollover anticline was developed with respect to the westward extension in Central Anatolia. The rollover anticline is faulted in its crest area by both down-to-the west and down-to-the east normal faults. The geometry of the main boundary fault at depth still remains in question. We anticipate that this question will be resolved based on depth converted structural cross-sections and their restoration.

  13. Sulfate reduction controlled by organic matter availability in deep sediment cores from the saline, alkaline Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

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    Clemens eGlombitza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP deep lake drilling project PaleoVan, we investigated sulfate reduction (SR in deep sediment cores of the saline, alkaline (salinity 21.4 ‰, alkalinity 155 m mEq-1, pH 9.81 Lake Van, Turkey. The cores were retrieved in the Northern Basin (NB and at Ahlat Ridge (AR and reached a maximum depth of 220 m. Additionally, 65-75 cm long gravity cores were taken at both sites. Sulfate reduction rates (SRR were low (≤ 22 nmol cm-3 d-1 compared to lakes with higher salinity and alkalinity, indicating that salinity and alkalinity are not limiting SR in Lake Van. Both sites differ significantly in rates and depth distribution of SR. In NB, SRR are up to 10 times higher than at AR. Sulfate reduction (SR could be detected down to 19 meters below lake floor (mblf at NB and down to 13 mblf at AR. Although SRR were lower at AR than at NB, organic matter (OM concentrations were higher. In contrast, dissolved OM in the pore water at AR contained more macromolecular OM and less low molecular weight OM. We thus suggest, that OM content alone cannot be used to infer microbial activity at Lake Van but that quality of OM has an important impact as well. These differences suggest that biogeochemical processes in lacustrine sediments are reacting very sensitively to small variations in geological, physical or chemical parameters over relatively short distances. 

  14. From Eastern Europe to Western China; The Growing Role of Turkey in the World and it’s Implications for Western Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Growing trade with the Arab world, and the increased presence of Arab investment in Turkey, introduced a slightly more acceptable "Islamic orienta...to market economies with very limited economic in- centives for Turkey. Turkey has only limited abilities to invest and even less money available for...Russia. From the Russian side, too, the bugaboo of "Pan-Turkism," so long touted by a Soviet Union fearful of resurgent internal nationalisms, has now be

  15. Geology of the Menderes Massif and the Lycian Nappes South of Denizli, Western Taurides

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    Aral İ. OKAY

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Mount Honaz region in the Western Taurides is made up of superimposed several tectonic units. In the west, monotonous green metashales called the Honaz shale occur at the base of the tectonic stack. Honaz shale is tectonically overlain by weakly metamorphosed, massif white limestone, thinly bedded cherty limestone and shale which covers the Mendercs massif. Menderes massif is in turn tectonically overlain by the Sandak complex of the Lycian nappes made up of Mesozoic dolomites and limestones and ophiolite mainly of harzburgite lies oven the Sandak complex. All these tectonic units form an eastward overturned major anticline called the Honaz anticline; a pelagic sedimentary sequence of Late Cretaceous—Middle/Late Eocene age, called the Göbecik Tepe complex, occurs tectonically beneath the overturned limb of the Honaz anticline. The Göbecik Tepe complex constitutes the relative autochthonous in the region of the Mount Honaz. Different tectonic units in the Mount Honaz region show effects of Late Cretaceous, Middle Eocene and Late Eocene/Oligocene tectonics. Obduction of the ophiolite over the Sandak complex probably occurred during the Late Cretaceous, while the age of thrusting of the Sandak complex over the Menderes massif is probably Middle Eocene. Emplacement of these tectonic units over the Göbecik Tepe complex and the formation of the Honaz anticline is of Late Eocene/Oligocene age.

  16. Cordierite-bearing strongly peraluminous Cebre Rhyolite from the eastern Sakarya Zone, NE Turkey: Constraints on the Variscan Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Külekçi, Elif; Aydınçakır, Emre; Kandemir, Raif; Cihat Alçiçek, M.; Pecha, Mark E.; Sünnetçi, Kadir

    2017-05-01

    The Cebre Rhyolite with an outcropping area up to 12 km2 is one of the rare extrusions in the Variscan basement of the Sakarya Zone. The unit consists of high-K calc alkaline rhyolites (SiO2 = 74-82 wt.%). Abundant phenocrysts of quartz and K-feldspar are accompanied by subordinate cordierite phenocrysts, rare muscovite microphenocrysts and biotite microcrysts set in a fine-grained groundmass. Three types of rock fragments (xenoliths) have been recognized; (i) porphyritic, (ii) equigranular hypabyssal and (iii) hypocrystalline fragments. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Cebre Rhyolite was extruded at 332.8 ± 4.38 Ma, which post-dates the Variscan low temperature metamorphism and pre-dates the emplacement of I-type granitic intrusions (325-303 Ma).The samples are strongly peraluminous with A/CNK values ranging from 1.48 to 2.95 and A/NK from 1.49 to 2.99. They have very high K2O (3.72-7.42 wt.%) and Al2O3 (10.77-14.11 wt.%) contents, but very low CaO (0.02-0.21 wt.%), Na2O (0.05-0.78 wt.%) and MgO (0.3-0.21 wt.%) contents. The samples show geochemical affinity with the upper continental crust, e.g., enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; K, Rb, U, Th, Pb), depletion of high field strength elements (HFSEs; Nb, Ta, Ti), Sr, P and Eu, but ԐNd(t) values (- 3.06 to - 8.75) and isotope ratios of Sr(t)(87Sr/86Sr = 0.70499-0.70915) and Pb(t) (206Pb/204Pb = 16.41-17.570, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.54-15.59, 208Pb/204Pb = 36.20-37.22) are similar to those of the lower crust. Geochemical and isotope data indicate that the Cebre Rhyolite was generated by melting of metapelitic rocks with some addition of intermediate metaigneous derived magma. As a geodynamic model, we propose that the Variscan Orogeny in Turkey was occurred by collision of Gondwana with an arc/terrane separated from the southern margin of Laurussia. This collision was followed shortly after by splitting of oceanic lithosphere into two pieces and sinking down into asthenosphere. Rapid upwelling of

  17. Status of pandemic influenza vaccination and factors affecting it in pregnant women in Kahramanmaras, an eastern Mediterranean city of Turkey.

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    Ali Ozer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are a target group for receipt of influenza vaccine because there appears to be an elevated mortality and morbidity rate associated with influenza virus infection in pregnant women. The goal of this study is to determine the factors affecting the decisions of pregnant women in Turkey to be vaccinated or not for 2009 H1N1 influenza. METHODOLOGY: We enrolled 314 of 522 (60.2% pregnant women who attended to the antenatal clinics of the Medical Faculty of Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam University's Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics between December 23, 2009, and February 1, 2010. We developed a 48-question survey which was completed in a face-to-face interview at the clinic with each pregnant woman. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 314 pregnant women, 27.4% were in the first trimester, 33.8% were in the second trimester, and 38.8% were in the third trimester. Twenty-eight pregnant women (8.9% got vaccinated. Of all the women interviewed, 68.5% stated that they were comfortable with their decisions about the vaccine, 7.3% stated they were not comfortable, and 24.2% stated that they were hesitant about their decisions. The probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was 3.46 times higher among working women than housewives, 1.85 times higher among women who have a child than those who do not, and 1.29 times higher among women with a high-school education or higher than those with only a secondary-school education and below. Correct knowledge about the minimal risks associated with receipt of influenza vaccine were associated with a significant increase in the probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of pregnant women in the study group who received the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was very low (8.9% and two-thirds of them stated that they were comfortable with their decisions concerning the vaccine. Our results may have implications for public health measures to increase the currently low

  18. Structural patterns of the Lake Erçek Basin, eastern Anatolia (Turkey): evidence from single-channel seismic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Mustafa; Tur, Hüseyin

    2017-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of the single-channel high-resolution shallow seismic reflection data from Lake Erçek, eastern Anatolia, to provide key information on the deformational elements, on the fault patterns and on the overall tectonic structure of the Lake Erçek Basin. High-resolution seismic data reveal major structural and deformational features, including N-S trending normal faults and W-E trending reverse faults bounding the Lake Erçek Basin, basement highs and folded structures along the marginal sections of the lake. The N-S trending normal faults asymmetrically control the steep western margin and the gentle eastern deltaic section, while the W-E trending reverse faults appear at the northern and southern margins. The N-S trending normal faults, half-graben structure, and the gradual thickening of sediments in the Erçek Basin toward the fault scarps strongly suggest an extensional tectonic regime resulting from an N-S compression. The Erçek Basin is an extension-controlled depocenter; it is a relatively undeformed and flat-lying deep Basin, forming a typical example of the half-graben structure. The N-S trending normal faults appear to be currently active and control the lake center and the E-delta section, resulting in subsidence in the lake floor. In the N- and S-margins of the lake, there is evidence of folding, faulting and accompanying block uplifting, suggesting a significant N-S compressional regime that results in the reverse faulting and basement highs along the marginal sections. The folding and faulting caused strong uplift of the basement blocks in the N- and S- margins, subsequently exposing the shelf and slope areas. The exposed areas are evident in the erosional unconformity of the surface of the basement highs and thinned sediments. The tilted basement strata and subsequent erosion over the basement block highs suggest prominent structural inversion, probably long before the formation of the lake. New high-resolution seismic

  19. A molecular survey of bovine Theileria parasites among apparently healthy cattle and with a note on the distribution of ticks in eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Munir; Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir

    2006-06-15

    A survey of Theileria parasites in cattle in eastern Turkey was carried out using specific polymerase chain reaction. A total of 252 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy cattle between June and July 2004. Of 252 blood samples examined, 41 (16%) were positive for piroplasms by microscopy, whereas 114 (45%) were positive for the presence of at least one species of Theileria by PCR. The percentages of positive animals for Theileria annulata and benign Theileria species (Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis) were 39% (99/252) and 7% (18/252), respectively. By allele-specific PCR examination of 18 field isolates which were positive for benign Theileria parasites, 8 samples were only amplified by B-type specific primers and 10 samples were amplified by both of the B and C-type specific primers, indicating a mixed infection with B and C-type of the parasite. None of the field isolates was amplified by I-type specific primers. Three samples were co-infected with T. annulata and benign Theileria parasites. Two of them which were infected with B-type parasite were also infected with T. annulata, the other sample which was infected both of B and C-type parasites was also infected with T. annulata. A total of 724 ixodid ticks were collected from the cattle. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the dominant species with 32% (230/724) in the region. H. a. excavatum, Boophylus annulatus and Rhipicephalus bursa represented 25% (183/724), 19% (140/724) and 15% (112/724) of the total number of ticks, respectively. R. sanguineus was the minor species and represented 8% (59/724) of the tick population.

  20. Micro-chemical and micro-structural investigation of archaeological bronze weapons from the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldi, F.; Çilingirǒglu, A.; Angelini, E.; Riccucci, C.; De Caro, T.; Batmaz, A.; Mezzi, A.; Caschera, D.; Cortese, B.

    2013-12-01

    Bronze weapons (VII cen BC) found during the archaeological excavation of the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, eastern Anatolia, Turkey) are investigated in order to determine their chemical composition and metallurgical features as well as to identify the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of the corrosion products grown during long-term burial. Small fragments were sampled from the artefacts and analysed by means of the combined use of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the bronze artefacts have been manufactured by using alloys with a controlled and refined chemical composition demonstrating the high level metallurgical competence and skill of the Urartian craftsmen and artists. Furthermore, the micro-structural and metallurgical investigations evidence the presence of equiaxed grains in the matrix, indicating that the artefact were produced by repeated cycles of mechanical shaping and thermal annealing treatments to restore the alloy ductility. From the degradation point of view, the results show the structures and the chemical composition of the stratified corrosion layers (i.e. the patina) where the copper or tin depletion phenomenon is commonly observed with the surface enrichment of some elements coming from the burial soil, mainly Cl, which is related to the high concentration of chlorides in the Ayanis soil. The results reveal also that another source of degradation is the inter-granular corrosion phenomenon likely increased by the metallurgical features of the alloys caused by the high temperature manufacturing process that induces crystallisation and segregation phenomena along the grain boundaries.

  1. InSAR velocity field across the North Anatolian Fault (eastern Turkey): Implications for the loading and release of interseismic strain accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    Cakir, Ziyadin

    2014-10-01

    We use the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) technique with the European Space Agency\\'s Envisat and ERS SAR data acquired on three neighboring descending tracks (T350, T078, and T307) to map the interseismic strain accumulation along a ~225 km long, NW-SE trending section of the North Anatolian Fault that ruptured during the 1939, 1942, and 1943 earthquakes in eastern Turkey. We derive a line-of-sight velocity map of the region with a high spatial resolution and accuracy which, together with the maps of earthquake surface ruptures, shed light on the style of continental deformation and the relationships between the loading and release of interseismic strain along segmented continental strike-slip faults. In contrast with the geometric complexities at the ground surface that appear to control rupture propagation of the 1939 event, modeling of the high-resolution PS-InSAR velocity field reveals a fairly linear and narrow throughgoing shear zone with an overall 20 ± 3 mm/yr slip rate above an unexpectedly shallow 7 ± 2 km locking depth. Such a shallow locking depth may result from the postseismic effects following recent earthquakes or from a simplified model that assumes a uniform degree of locking with depth on the fault. A narrow throughgoing shear zone supports the thick lithosphere model in which continental strike-slip faults are thought to extend as discrete shear zones through the entire crust. Fault segmentation previously reported from coseismic surface ruptures is thus likely inherited from heterogeneities in the upper crust that either preexist and/or develop during coseismic rupture propagation. The geometrical complexities that apparently persist for long periods may guide the dynamic rupture propagation surviving thousands of earthquake cycles.

  2. Distribution and genetic chemotyping of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum populations in wheat fields in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey

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    Fatih Mehmet Tok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum are among the major causal agents of Fusarium head blight, which reduces both crop yield and grain quality in wheat worldwide. The present study was conducted with 57 isolates collected from 23 different locations across four provinces in the 2011/2012 growing season. Out of the 57 Fusarium isolates, 32 isolates were identified as F. graminearum and 25 isolates were identified as F. culmorum. Both pathogens are of particular importance, since they produce several mycotoxins. Among these, deoxynivalenol (DON and nivalenol (NIV are well known for their toxicity towards human and animal health. Genetic chemotyping of F. graminearum and F. culmorum species indicated that both DON and NIV chemotypes were present in the surveyed area. Of the 32 F. graminearum isolates, the primer sets Tri13DON and Tri13NIV identified 87.5% as DON chemotypes and 12.5% as NIV chemotypes. Similarly, the 25 F. culmorum isolates displayed 88% DON and 12% NIV chemotypes. In addition, DON acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON and 15-AcDON, were identified by polymerase chain reaction based methods. It was determined that 15-AcDON sub-chemotype was dominant in F. graminearum populations, whereas 3-AcDON was dominant in F. culmorum populations. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of F. graminearum and F. culmorum isolates and the distribution of 3-AcDON and 15-AcDON chemotypes in both Fusarium species in wheat fields of eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  3. Retrodeforming the Sivas Basin (Turkey): Structural style of the central Anatolian basins and their integration in the geodynamic framework of Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2017-04-01

    Anatolia is the result of the amalgamation of Gondwandian microcontinents against Eurasia active margin. These were originally separated by several Neotethyan oceanic domains consumed by north-dipping subductions. Prior to the continental collision, regional convergence resulted in an obduction event, from north to south in Campanian time, which led to the emplacement of ophiolite nappes and ophiolitic mélanges onto the Tauride passive margin. Several sedimentary basins subsequently developed above the former sutures zones recorded the long-lasting geological evolution of the Anatolian domain from Late Cretaceous to Present The Sivas Basin is all together the richest, the most studied and also most complex of the group of Tertiary basins. The Sivas Basin formed above the northern leading edge of the Tauride platform, the Kırşehir micro-continent, the edge of the Pontide arc and the related sutures. Its complex structure is that of a fold-and-thrust belt with syn-orogenic salt tectonics. After the obduction, the Sivas basin recorded a relative quiet tectonic phase from Maastrichtian to Paleocene with basinal pelagic sedimentation and carbonate platform emplacement on its southern edge. Then shortening resumed in the Early Eocene with the development of north-verging thrusts. It is recorded by a coarse clastic input, with conglomeratic deltas fans grading up to basinal turbidites until the Late Eocene. Then the basin is progressively isolated and becomes an isolated foreland in which a thick evaporite formation deposited. Oligocene to Miocene continental clastics deposition was then mainly controlled by halokinesis: minibasin, salt ridges and salt sheets development. A first canopy is attributed to the second pulse of contraction from Late-Oligocene to Middle Miocene. This second stage end with the formation of back-thrust within the Sivas Basin and southward as a passive roof above a pre-salt triangle zone. This study relies both on extensive fieldwork (4 Ph

  4. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Decision to Enter Agricultural Cooperatives Using Random Utility Model in the South Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey

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    Bahri Karlı

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expected to join the agricultural cooperatives than the wealthier farmers are. Small farmers may wish to benefit cash at hand, input subsidies, and services provided by the agricultural cooperatives since the risks associated with intensive high-returning crops are high. Some important factors playing pole role in abstention of farmers towards agricultural cooperatives are gross income and some social status variables. In addition, conservative or orthodox farmers are less likely to join agricultural cooperatives than moderate farmers are. We also found that the direct government farm credit programs mainly should be objected to providing farmers to better access to capital markets and creating the opportunity to use with allocation of capital inputs via using modern technology.

  5. The genesis of the slab window-related Arzular low-sulfidation epithermal gold mineralization (eastern Pontides, NE Turkey

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    Enver Akaryalı

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arzular mineralization is one of the best examples of epithermal gold deposits in the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. The mineralization is hosted by the subduction-related basaltic andesites and is mainly controlled by E–W and NE–SW trending fracture zones. The main ore minerals are galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite and gold. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions are between 130 and 295 °C for quartz and between 90 and 133 °C for sphalerite. Sulphur isotope values obtained from pyrite, galena and sphalerite vary between −1.2‰ and 3‰, indicating that sulphur belongs to magmatic origin and was derived from the Lutetian non-adakitic granitic intrusions in the region. Oxygen isotope values are between 15.0‰ and 16.7‰, and hydrogen isotope values are between −87‰ and −91‰. The sulphur isotope thermometer yielded temperatures in the range of 244–291 °C for the ore formation. Our results support the hypothesis that the Arzular mineralization is a low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit associated with non-adakitic subduction-related granitic magmas that were generated by slab window-related processes in a south-dipping subduction zone during the Lutetian.

  6. An artificial neural network application to produce debris source areas of Barla, Besparmak, and Kapi Mountains (NW Taurids, Turkey

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    M. C. Tunusluoglu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Various statistical, mathematical and artificial intelligence techniques have been used in the areas of engineering geology, rock engineering and geomorphology for many years. However, among the techniques, artificial neural networks are relatively new approach used in engineering geology in particular. The attractiveness of ANN for the engineering geological problems comes from the information processing characteristics of the system, such as non-linearity, high parallelism, robustness, fault and failure tolerance, learning, ability to handle imprecise and fuzzy information, and their capability to generalize. For this reason, the purposes of the present study are to perform an application of ANN to a engineering geology problem having a very large database and to introduce a new approach to accelerate convergence. For these purposes, an ANN architecture having 5 neurons in one hidden layer was constructed. During the training stages, total 40 000 training cycles were performed and the minimum RMSE values were obtained at approximately 10 000th cycle. At this cycle, the obtained minimum RMSE value is 0.22 for the second training set, while that of value is calculated as 0.064 again for the second test set. Using the trained ANN model at 10 000th cycle for the second random sampling, the debris source area susceptibility map was produced and adjusted. Finally, a potential debris source susceptibility map for the study area was produced. When considering the field observations and existing inventory map, the produced map has a high prediction capacity and it can be used when assessing debris flow hazard mitigation efforts.

  7. Turkey: Thwarted Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    military in the democratic process. 14. Heper, State Tradition, 45. 15. Andrew Mango , "The State of Turkey," Middle Eastern Studies, 13 (1977), 265...introducing free-market economics, privatization, export -promotion, a fully convertible currency, and a development philosophy of "build, operate, transfer Ŗ...to Ozal for the major export market it represented, s and he shared with the Turkish elite the symbolic importance of joining the premier politico

  8. The tempo of Holocene climatic change in the eastern Mediterranean region : new high-resolution crater-lake sediment data from central Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, JM; Leng, MJ; Kuzucuoglu, C; Fontugne, M; Bertaux, J; Bottema, S; Black, S; Hunt, E; Karabiyikoglu, M; Woldring, H.

    2001-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-proxy analysis of cores taken in a crater-lake sequence from Eski Acigol in central Turkey which cover the period from pre-c. 16000 cal. yr BP to the present. The sediments comprise an upper unit of generally non-laminated, banded to massive silts and peats

  9. September 1975 Lice, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  10. An overview of the ecological half-life of the 137Cs radioisotope and a determination of radioactivity levels in sediment samples after Chernobyl in the Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Cevik, Ugur

    2018-01-01

    A study which determined the activity concentration of 137Cs in sediments contaminated by effluents from the Chernobyl accident which had collected along the coast of the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey was carried out in 1993. Marine sediment samples were collected in 2015 from the same fifteen sampling points, and the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were determined for the sediment samples. The activity concentrations ranged from 10.94-25.95, 12.14-33.05, 265.74-459.89 and 2.08-37.45 Bq kg- 1 for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs respectively. The results showed that there was a steep decline in 137Cs within the sediment at most of the sampling sites from the Eastern Black Sea region during the 22-year period, except for two sites at which the measured levels were much higher. This may be the result of the combined effects of radioactive contaminant entry into this area from rivers, environmental changes and nuclear testing between 1993 and 2015. Furthermore, the ecological half-life (EHL) of the 137Cs radionuclide was estimated for the sediment samples, and radiological hazard parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. It was shown that these sediments do not present any significant health risk for humans in this area.

  11. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  12. TWO SPECIES OF PROFUSULINELLA (P. ALJUTOVICA AND P. OVATA, EARLY MOSCOVIAN (PENNSYLVANIAN FUSULINES FROM SOUTHERN TURKEY AND SUBDIVISION OF PRIMITIVE GROUPS OF THE FAMILY FUSULINIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUMIO KOBAYASHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Early Moscovian (Pennsylvanian fusulines, Profusulinella aljutovica and Profusulinella ovata, from the Hadim area, southern Turkey are described systematically. They are contained in the bedded limestone (algal fusuline grainstone of the Yaricak Formation of the Aladag Unit in the Tauride Block. Morphologic analysis of these and similar species suggests: (1 Aljutovella should be synonymous with Profusulinella; (2 Ovatella, Depratina, Staffellaeformes, Aljutovella (Elongatella, Tikhonovichiella, Skelnevatella, and Priscoidella proposed in 1980’s and 1990’s are also synonymous with Profusulinella; and (3 the families Profusulinellidae and Aljutovellidae are not necessary and Profusulinella is included in the subfamily Fusulinellinae placed under the family Fusulinidae. 

  13. Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team

  14. Adolescent immunization rates and the effect of socio-demographic factors on immunization in a cosmopolitan city (ERZURUM) in the eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Handan; Altinkaynak, Sevin; Arikan, Duygu; Ozyazicioğlu, Nurcan

    2006-04-01

    Pediatric vaccinations have decreased the incidence and mortality from infectious diseases in children, but adolescents continue to be adversely affected by vaccine preventable disease. The present study was performed to determine the status of adolescents immunization and to investigate the effect of several socio-demographic factors on immunization. Using the cluster-sampling method, 817 adolescents were selected in 24 high schools (15,000 students) in central district of Erzurum (Turkey). Adolescents were categorized as completely vaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, unvaccinated or vaccination status unknown. Of the 817 adolescents, 6.9% were completely vaccinated, 24.4% were incompletely vaccinated and 64.1% were unvaccinated. The vaccination status of 4.6% of adolescents was unknown. A significantly correlation was seen between the number of siblings, the level of mother and father education, the level of parent's socio-economics status, health insurance and immunization status. Our findings indicated a small percentage of adolescents receive all of the recommended vaccine. In immunization programs in Turkey, priority should be given to increase adolescent immunization rate with a middle school and/or adolescents, vaccination.

  15. Discovery of Latest Cretaceous OIB-type alkaline gabbros in the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, NE Turkey: Evidence for tectonic emplacement of seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Dudas, Francis O.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Liu, Ze; Yılmaz-Değerli, Sedanur

    2018-06-01

    The Meso-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, a mountain chain extending parallel to the southeastern margin of the Black Sea, has been controversial for the last forty years. Here we present data for a newly discovered alkaline gabbro body and its surrounding basaltic rocks in the northern part of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt. We also provide a comprehensive assessment of the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region. The gabbroic body is bounded by reverse faults along its northern and southern borders and is surrounded by vesicular, pillow-fragment breccias and pillow basalts. Mineral compositions suggest that crystallization of the gabbros began at about 1170 °C, and the lowest preserved crystallization T is near 1000 °C. Estimated pressure at the beginning of crystallization is 5.7-7.4 kb. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of kaersutite and plagioclase and Usbnd Pb dating of titanite indicated that the Hayrat gabbro crystallized at 67 Ma (Late Maastrichtian). Whole rock major-trace-rare earth element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data indicate that the gabbros and basalts have different origins. The gabbros are alkaline and exhibit the geochemical features of OIB, whereas the basalts are tholeiitic and reveal depletions of HFSE that are similar to those of arc rocks. The gabbros are strongly fractionated, and derive from an enriched, lithospheric mantle source, with partial melting occurring in a garnet-stable environment. The basalts are less fractionated, and probably derive from a shallower source in which spinel peridotite was the predominant lithology. Considering all new and old geological, geochemical, geochronological and geophysical data from the Black Sea Basin and the Eastern Pontides-Lesser Caucasus-Alborz Orogenic Belt, we suggest that the alkaline Hayrat gabbro formed in an oceanic intraplate setting, and was accreted to the forearc region of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt during

  16. Applying Satellite Data Sources in the Documentation and Landscape Modelling for Graeco-Roman Fortified Sites in the TŪR Abdin Area, Eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, K.; Silver, M.; Törmä, M.; Okkonen, J.; Okkonen, T.

    2017-08-01

    In 2015-2016 the Finnish-Swedish Archaeological Project in Mesopotamia (FSAPM) initiated a pilot study of an unexplored area in the Tūr Abdin region in Northern Mesopotamia (present-day Mardin Province in southeastern Turkey). FSAPM is reliant on satellite image data sources for prospecting, identifying, recording, and mapping largely unknown archaeological sites as well as studying their landscapes in the region. The purpose is to record and document sites in this endangered area for saving its cultural heritage. The sites in question consist of fortified architectural remains in an ancient border zone between the Graeco-Roman/Byzantine world and Parthia/Persia. The location of the archaeological sites in the terrain and the visible archaeological remains, as well as their dimensions and sizes were determined from the ortorectified satellite images, which also provided coordinates. In addition, field documentation was carried out in situ with photographs and notes. The applicability of various satellite data sources for the archaeological documentation of the project was evaluated. Satellite photographs from three 1968 CORONA missions, i.e. the declassified US government satellite photograph archives were acquired. Furthermore, satellite images included a recent GeoEye-1 Satellite Sensor Image from 2010 with a resolution of 0.5 m. Its applicability for prospecting archaeological sites, studying the terrain and producing landscape models in 3D was confirmed. The GeoEye-1 revealed the ruins of a fortified town and a fortress for their documentation and study. Landscape models for the area of these sites were constructed fusing GeoEye-1 with EU-DEM (European Digital Elevation Model data using SRTM and ASTER GDEM data) in order to understand their locations in the terrain.

  17. APPLYING SATELLITE DATA SOURCES IN THE DOCUMENTATION AND LANDSCAPE MODELLING FOR GRAECO-ROMAN/BYZANTINE FORTIFIED SITES IN THE TŪR ABDIN AREA, EASTERN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Silver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2015-2016 the Finnish-Swedish Archaeological Project in Mesopotamia (FSAPM initiated a pilot study of an unexplored area in the Tūr Abdin region in Northern Mesopotamia (present-day Mardin Province in southeastern Turkey. FSAPM is reliant on satellite image data sources for prospecting, identifying, recording, and mapping largely unknown archaeological sites as well as studying their landscapes in the region. The purpose is to record and document sites in this endangered area for saving its cultural heritage. The sites in question consist of fortified architectural remains in an ancient border zone between the Graeco-Roman/Byzantine world and Parthia/Persia. The location of the archaeological sites in the terrain and the visible archaeological remains, as well as their dimensions and sizes were determined from the ortorectified satellite images, which also provided coordinates. In addition, field documentation was carried out in situ with photographs and notes. The applicability of various satellite data sources for the archaeological documentation of the project was evaluated. Satellite photographs from three 1968 CORONA missions, i.e. the declassified US government satellite photograph archives were acquired. Furthermore, satellite images included a recent GeoEye-1 Satellite Sensor Image from 2010 with a resolution of 0.5 m. Its applicability for prospecting archaeological sites, studying the terrain and producing landscape models in 3D was confirmed. The GeoEye-1 revealed the ruins of a fortified town and a fortress for their documentation and study. Landscape models for the area of these sites were constructed fusing GeoEye-1 with EU-DEM (European Digital Elevation Model data using SRTM and ASTER GDEM data in order to understand their locations in the terrain.

  18. New active faults on Eurasian-Arabian collision zone: Tectonic activity of Özyurt and Gülsünler faults (Eastern Anatolian Plateau, Van-Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicle, S.; Üner, S.

    2017-11-01

    The Eastern Anatolian Plateau emerges from the continental collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates where intense seismicity related to the ongoing convergence characterizes the southern part of the plateau. Active deformation in this zone is shared by mainly thrust and strike-slip faults. The Özyurt thrust fault and the Gülsünler sinistral strike-slip fault are newly determined fault zones, located to the north of Van city centre. Different types of faults such as thrust, normal and strike-slip faults are observed on the quarry wall excavated in Quaternary lacustrine deposits at the intersection zone of these two faults. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data has revealed coeval activities of transtensional and compressional structures for the Lake Van Basin. Seismological and geomorphological characteristics of these faults demonstrate the capability of devastating earthquakes for the area.

  19. New active faults on Eurasian-Arabian collision zone: Tectonic activity of Özyurt and Gülsünler faults (Eastern Anatolian Plateau, Van-Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicle, S.; Üner, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Anatolian Plateau emerges from the continental collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates where intense seismicity related to the ongoing convergence characterizes the southern part of the plateau. Active deformation in this zone is shared by mainly thrust and strike-slip faults. The Özyurt thrust fault and the Gülsünler sinistral strike-slip fault are newly determined fault zones, located to the north of Van city centre. Different types of faults such as thrust, normal and strike-slip faults are observed on the quarry wall excavated in Quaternary lacustrine deposits at the intersection zone of these two faults. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data has revealed coeval activities of transtensional and compressional structures for the Lake Van Basin. Seismological and geomorphological characteristics of these faults demonstrate the capability of devastating earthquakes for the area.

  20. Petrographic And Geochemical Relationships And Environmentally Significant Trace Element Contents Of Miocene Coals in The Çayirli (Erzincan) Area, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin Erik, Nazan

    2014-05-01

    This study has done related to the petrographic, coal-quality and the environmental influences of the Çayırlı coal field in the Eastern Anatolia. The region is one of the best examples of a continental collision zone in the world and located in a North-south converging collision zone between the Eurasian and the Arabian Plates. The geological units on the North of the basin are the peridotites and on the South, the Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous limestone. Tertiary sedimentary units also occupy a significant part of the geological features. Lower Miocene sediments include recifal limestone, marls, green clay and coal seams. The Çayırlı mining area in Eastern Anatolia region, contains these Miocene aged coals. These coals is characterized by high vitrinite and inertinite and low liptinite contents. The coals are Bituminous coal rank, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.53 to 0.58%. Chemically, the coal in this study is characterised by low moisture, ash yield and sulfur content. The Çayırlı coal consist mainly of SiO2 and CaO, with secondary Fe2O3, Al2O3, and minor proportions of TiO2, P2O5 and other oxides. Several trace elements of environmental concern namely As, U and Be in Çayırlı coal are above the world averages, while Ni and Pb concentrations are less than the world average. However, As, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, U and V contents of this coal are below Turkish averages. It can clearly observed that the concentration of the elements is highest in the high ash coal levels. Among the potentially hazardous trace elements, Be, Co, Ni, Se and U may be of little or no health and environmental concerns, wheras As, Pb, Sb, and Th require further examination for their potential health and environmental concerns. These properties may be related to evaluation of the coal forming environment from more reducing contitions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for investigated coals. On the basis of analytical data, there is no possibility that

  1. Preliminary Interpretations of Multi-Channel Seismic Reflection and Magnetic Data on North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the Eastern Marmara Region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözde Okut Toksoy, Nigar; Kurt, Hülya; İşseven, Turgay

    2017-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is 1600 km long, right lateral strike-slip fault nearly E-W elongated between Karlıova in the east and Saros Gulf in the west. NAF splays into two major strands near the west of Bolu city as Northern and Southern strands. Northern strand passes Sapanca Lake and extends towards west and reaches Marmara Sea through the Gulf of Izmit. The area has high seismicity; 1999 Kocaeli (Mw=7.4) and 1999 Düzce (Mw=7.2) earthquakes caused approximately 150 km long surface rupture between the Gulf of Izmit and Bolu. The rupture has four distinct fault segments as Gölcük, Sapanca, Sakarya, and Karadere from west to east. In this study multi-channel seismic and magnetic data are collected for the first time on the Sapanca Segment to investigate the surficial and deeper geometry of the NAF. Previously, the NAF in the eastern Marmara region is investigated using by paleo-seismological data from trenches on the surface rupture of fault or the geomorphological data (Lettis et al., 2000; Dikbaş and Akyüz, 2010) which have shallower depth targets. Crustal structure and seismic velocities for Central Anatolia and eastern Marmara regions are obtained from deeper targeted refraction data (Gürbüz et al., 1992). However, their velocity models do not have the spatial resolution to determine details of the fault zone structure. Multi-channel seismic and magnetic data in this study were acquired on two N-S directed profiles crossing NAF perpendicularly near Kartepe on the western part of the Sapanca Lake in October 2016. The receiver interval is 5 m, shot interval is 5-10 m, and the total length of the profiles are approximately 1400 m. Buffalo Gun is used as a seismic source for deeper penetration. Conventional seismic reflection processing steps are applied to the data. These are geometry definition, editing, filtering, static correction, velocity analysis and deconvolution, stacking and migration. Echos seismic software package in Geophysical Department

  2. Ar-Ar dating and petrogenesis of the Early Miocene Taşkapı-Mecitli (Erciş-Van) granitoid, Eastern Anatolia Collisional Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural

    2018-06-01

    The Early Miocene Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid that is located in the northern section of the Eastern Anatolia Collision Zone has typical I-type, metaluminous and calk-alkaline characteristics. It also contains mafic microgranular / magmatic enclaves (MMEs). New Ar-Ar dating results show that the age of the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid is ∼23 Ma and it crystallised in the Early Miocene, in contrast to its previously known Cretaceous age. Identical crystallisation ages (∼23 Ma), similar mineral assemblages and geochemical compositions, and indistinguishable isotopic compositions of MMEs and host rocks imply that the MMEs are most consistent with a cumulate origin formed at earlier stages of the same magmatic system that produced the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid. MELTS modelling suggests that magma of the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid was the result of fractionation under a crustal pressure of 4 kbar, with a H2O content of 1.5%. EC-AFC model calculation reveals that the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid includes from 0.5% to 2% crustal assimilation rates. These rates indicate that crustal contamination can be negligible when compared to fractional crystallisation in the evolution of the magma beneath the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid. The partial melting model calculations and MORB-normalised trace element concentrations of the least evolved samples of the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid are consistent with those of mafic melts obtained from partial melting of interacting mantle- lower crust with a melting degree of 18%. The age (23 Ma) of the post- or syn-collisional Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid suggests that the collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates could be before/around ∼23 Ma (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene).

  3. Triassic arc-derived detritus in the Triassic Karakaya accretionary complex was not derived from either the S Eurasian margin (Istanbul terrane) or the N Gondwana margin (Taurides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Zulauf, Gernold

    2014-05-01

    We present new U-Pb zircon source age data for Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane (S Eurasian margin) and also for Triassic sandstones of the Taurides (N Gondwana margin). The main aim is to detect and quantify the contribution of Triassic magmatism as detritus to either of these crustal blocks. This follows the recent discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Triassic sandstones of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex (Ustaömer et al. 2013; this meeting). Carboniferous (Variscan) zircon grains also form a significant detrital population, plus several more minor populations. Six sandstone samples were studied, two from the İstanbul Terrane (Bakırlıkıran Formation of the Kocaeli Triassic Basin) and four from the Tauride Autochthon (latest Triassic Üzümdere Formation and Mid-Triassic Kasımlar Formations; Beyşehir region). Detrital zircon grains were dated by the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb method at Goethe University, Frankfurt. Our results do not reveal Triassic detritus in the Üzümdere Formation. The U-Pb age of the analysed zircon grains ranges from 267 Ma to 3.2 Ga. A small fraction of Palaeozoic zircons are Permian (267 to 296 Ma), whereas the remainder are Early Palaeozoic. Ordovician grains (4%) form two age clusters, one at ca. 450 Ma and the other at ca. 474 Ma. Cambrian-aged grains dominate the zircon population, while the second largest population is Ediacaran (576 to 642 Ma). Smaller populations occur at 909-997 Ma, 827-839 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.6 Ga. The sandstones of the Kasımlar Formation have similar zircon age cluster to those of the somewhat younger Üzümdere Formation, ranging from 239 Ma to 2.9 Ga. A few grains gave Anisian ages. Cambrian zircon grains are less pronounced than in the Kasımlar Formation compared to the Üzümdere Formation. The detrital zircon record of Tauride sandstones, therefore, not indicates significant contribution

  4. Thalassemia mutations in Gaziantep, Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... Table 3. Frequency of β-thalassemia mutations in the Eastern Mediterranean. Mutation. This study Turkey Cyprus Greece Syria Palestine Bulgaria Azerbaijan Iran Iraq. IVS 1.110 (G>A). 29.1. 39.3. 79.7. 42.1. 24.1. 17.6. 24.2. 20.2. 4.8 1.9. IVS 2.1 (G>A). 12.3. 4.7. -. 3.3. 4.2. 2.9. -. -. 33.9 18.3. IVS 1.1 (G>A).

  5. Biodiversity of Van Reeds, Eastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdemir Adızel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to determine the vertebrate fauna and flora species diversity of Van Reeds. For this purpose, studies were conducted between 2014 and 2017 and 1 fish, 3 frog, 6 reptilian, 185 bird, and 5 mammal species, 200 fauna species and 79 flora species in total, were determined in the study area. Van Reeds is an important breeding, feeding, and wintering feature especially for birds. Reeds, which has various biodiversity, is exposed to intense pressure and destruction. The main threats in the study area are construction, filling, hunting, drainage, and pollution.

  6. Turkey: A Geostrategic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fanale, Rosalie A

    2001-01-01

    ...] America"s primary national security interest in Turkey is regional stability. U.S. strategy aims for Turkey to be a strong regional player, able to act in support of U.S. interests in a troubled region.

  7. The Effects of Violence and Internal Displacement on Rural-Agrarian Change in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Abdulkerim

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses two interrelated issues that have assumed major political significance in the handling of the Kurdish question in Turkey. The first is the impact of violence and resulting internal displacement in Eastern and Southeastern Turkey on rural-agrarian change. The second concerns the implications of the structural change and social…

  8. The role of hydropower in meeting Turkey's electric energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksek, Omer; Komurcu, Murat Ihsan; Yuksel, Ibrahim; Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2006-01-01

    The inherent technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power, make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. These countries, such as Turkey, have a great and ever-intensifying need for power and water supplies and they also have the greatest remaining hydro potential. From the viewpoint of energy sources such as petroleum and natural gas, Turkey is not a rich country; but it has an abundant hydropower potential to be used for generation of electricity and must increase hydropower production in the near future. This paper deals with policies to meet the increasing electricity demand for Turkey. Hydropower and especially small hydropower are emphasized as Turkey's renewable energy sources. The results of two case studies, whose results were not taken into consideration in calculating Turkey's hydro electric potential, are presented. Turkey's small hydro power potential is found to be an important energy source, especially in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The results of a study in which Turkey's long-term demand has been predicted are also presented. According to the results of this paper, Turkey's hydro electric potential can meet 33-46% of its electric energy demand in 2020 and this potential may easily and economically be developed

  9. Dianthus vanensis (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    İLÇİM, Ahmet; BEHÇET, Lütfi; MÜKEMRE, Muzaffer

    2013-01-01

    Dianthus vanensis Behçet & İlçim is described as a new species. It is confined to Çatak District (Van) in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The diagnostic characters and taxonomic comments on the species are given. Notes are also presented on its ecology. A distribution map of new and related species is also provided.

  10. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    described the failed coup as a “ gift from God” that would allow the military to be “cleansed.” 27 The United States, various European leaders, and...six F-35s. “Turkey – Procurement ,” IHS Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment - Eastern Mediterranean, December 8, 2015. For more information on recent

  11. Natural gas transits and market power. The case of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, Florian; Schulte, Simon

    2017-08-15

    Turkey is a key country in order to realize the Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) due to its geographical location. However, as the main transit country within the SGC, Turkey could potentially exert market power with gas transits. Whether Turkey exerts market power or not, is crucial for an economic assessment of the SGC. Hence, the article investigates this issue quantitatively using a global partial equilibrium gas market model. An oligopolistic and a competitive supply structure in Europe in 2030 are considered in the model. If the European gas market in 2030 is characterized by an oligopolistic supply, Turkey is able to exert market power resulting in higher prices compared to competitive transits, in particular in South Eastern Europe. In a competitive market structure, however, the importance of the SGC and thus the potential of Turkish transit market power is limited.

  12. Natural gas transits and market power. The case of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, Florian; Schulte, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is a key country in order to realize the Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) due to its geographical location. However, as the main transit country within the SGC, Turkey could potentially exert market power with gas transits. Whether Turkey exerts market power or not, is crucial for an economic assessment of the SGC. Hence, the article investigates this issue quantitatively using a global partial equilibrium gas market model. An oligopolistic and a competitive supply structure in Europe in 2030 are considered in the model. If the European gas market in 2030 is characterized by an oligopolistic supply, Turkey is able to exert market power resulting in higher prices compared to competitive transits, in particular in South Eastern Europe. In a competitive market structure, however, the importance of the SGC and thus the potential of Turkish transit market power is limited.

  13. Emotional Problems and Victimisation among Youth with National and International Migration Experience Living in Austria and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Dogan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Young people with international migration experiences constitute an increasing proportion of the population in many European countries. In Austria, a substantial proportion of these international migrants come from Turkey. In Turkey, many adolescents are national migrants, having moved from the eastern part to the western part of the country. This…

  14. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  15. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  16. Energy Diplomacy of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Ozdemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current issues of energy diplomacy of Turkey. The authors describe the main positive and negative results of Turkey's foreign energy policy in terms of the implementation of major energy projects. Geopolitical processes in the world, the conflict of interests of various countries in the political arena are important factors that affect the crude oil and natural gas pipeline projects. Particular attention is paid to the problems and prospects of cooperation between the Turkish Republic and the Russian Federation in the fuel and energy complex. The authors describe the interaction betweeen Russia and Turkey in the energy sector, including geo-economic interests of the countries in the Russian-Turkish gas dialogue. Turkey made efforts to position as an alternative gas supply route, taking advantage of concern about increasing Europe's dependence on Russian exports. Last years Turkey has set itself the important task - to turn from transit country into a regional gas hub. Ukrainian crisis increased the geostrategic importance of the Black Sea region to Russia, as well as strengthened the ambition of the Turkish side. The authors also highlight the prospects of the natural gas pipeline project from Russia via the Black Sea to Turkey and to the Turkish-Greek border, which named "Turkish stream". This project was frozen in terms of military and political processes at the end of 2015 in Syria.

  17. First case of Trichodectes pinguis (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Trichodectidae) on a Bear (Ursus arctos) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bilal; Orunç Kılınç, Özlem

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to provide morphological characters of Trichodectes pinguis Burmeister, 1838 that was found on a European brown bear (Ursus arctos Linnaeus) that was found injured in the Van province, eastern Turkey. Three lice specimens were collected from the bear, and they were identified as T. pinguis. The morphological characteristics of this species were provided in this study. T. pinguis was reported for the first time in Turkey.

  18. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  19. Middle Eastern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  20. Geochemistry of travertine deposits in the Eastern Anatolia District: an example of the Karakoçan-Yoğunağaç (Elazığ) and Mazgirt-Dedebağ (Tunceli) travertines, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KALENDER, LEYLA; OKAN, ÖZLEM ÖZTEKİN; İNCEÖZ, MURAT; ÇETİNDAĞ, BAHATTİN; YILDIRIM, VESİLE

    2015-01-01

    The Karakoçan-Yoğunağaç (Elazığ) and Mazgirt-Dedebağ (Tunceli) travertines, which are related to thermal springs, are situated on the right-lateral strike-slip Karakoçan Fault Zone (KFZ) and left-lateral strike-slip Pamuklu Fault Zone (PFZ) in eastern Anatolia. The surface area of the travertines varies from m2 to km2. Morphologically, the travertines are classified as ridge, banded, and terrace types due to deposition in different ways, in the releasing/restraining bends of the KFZ and PFZ a...

  1. Energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. 73 percent of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 percent of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions and Europe. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; with quite abundant coal reserves. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Oil has the biggest share (39 percent) in total primary energy consumption, while natural gas has a share of 21 percent and increasing due to the recent diversification efforts of energy resources. Turkey has about 1percent of the total world hydroelectric potential and a considerable potential for electricity generation from wind. As of early 2004, Turkey had electric power generating capacity of around 32,000 megawatts (MW), and was building 13,000 MW more. Since adoption of Electricity Market Law in February 2001, there were significant changes towards liberalisation of power generation market and distribution in the country. Privatization of generation assets is envisaged to start in 2006. The Electricity Market Law set the stage for new supporting laws and regulations as well as new organization of the market: the Energy Market Regulation Agency (EMRA), that oversees the power, natural gas markets, oil markets and liquefied petroleum gases market, including setting tariffs, issuing licenses, and assuring competition; the Energy Market Regulatory Board, which runs the EMRA; the Energy Market Licensing Regulation and the Electricity Market Tariffs Regulation; 4-phase approach towards electric energy market

  2. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  3. Reconciling the geological history of western Turkey with plate circuits and mantle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, N.; van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Spakman, W.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    We place the geological history since Cretaceous times in western Turkey in a context of convergence, subduction, collision and slab break-off. To this end, we compare the west Anatolian geological history with amounts of Africa-Europe convergence calculated from the Atlantic plate circuit, and the seismic tomography images of the west Anatolian mantle structure. Western Turkish geology reflects the convergence between the Sakarya continent (here treated as Eurasia) in the north and Africa in the south, with the Anatolide-Tauride Block (ATB) between two strands of the Neotethyan ocean. Convergence between the Sakarya and the ATB started at least ~95-90Myr ago, marked by ages of metamorphic soles of ophiolites that form the highest structural unit below Sakarya. These are underlain by high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Tavsanli and Afyon zones, and the Ören Unit, which in turn are underlain by the Menderes Massif derived from the ATB. Underthrusting of the ATB below Sakarya was since ~50Ma, associated with high-temperature metamorphism and widespread granitic magmatism. Thrusting in the Menderes Massif continued until 35 Ma, after which there is no record of accretion in western Turkey. Plate circuits show that since 90 Ma, ~1400 km of Africa-Europe convergence occurred, of which ~700 km since 50 Ma and ~450 km since 35Ma. Seismic tomography shows that the African slab under western Turkey is decoupled from the African Plate. This detached slab is a single, coherent body, representing the lithosphere consumed since 90 Ma. There was no subduction re-initiation after slab break-off. ATB collision with Europe therefore did not immediately lead to slab break-off but instead to delamination of subducting lithospheric mantle from accreting ATB crust, while staying attached to the African Plate. This led to asthenospheric inflow below the ATB crust, high-temperature metamorphism and felsic magmatism. Slab break-off in western Turkey probably occurred

  4. Hepatic lipidosis in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, P; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two flocks of 14,000 twenty-week-old turkey hens each experienced increased mortality due to hepatic lipidosis. Some hens showed signs of dyspnea and cyanosis before death. Necropsy revealed dark muscles and enlarged livers with pale areas and numerous hemorrhages. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were also found on the abdominal fat and epicardium. Lung congestion and edema were prominent. In the heart and blood vessels, the blood was uncoagulated. Mortality was elevated for 12 days and resulted in the death of 0.7% of the turkey hens in one flock and 1.7% in the other. Vitamin E administered in water at a dose of 25 IU per hen appeared to reduce mortality. The nutritional and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis in turkeys are discussed.

  5. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Monson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq. Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24 and wild turkey (n = 15 produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance.

  6. Terrorism Effects on Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-05

    Byzantium following Fatih Mehmet’s conquest of Istanbul in 1453, brought a new era of religious, political, social, econmic and cultural prosperity to the...radical decisions in order to force the liberal- econmic system towards a free market. Generally speaking, Turkey was a traditionally agricultural country

  7. Financial Sector Assessment : Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment of Turkey's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) through missions in April, August-September 2006 and March, 2007. This report provides a summary of the main findings of the assessment and the policy priorities identified. The main objective of the FSAP is to assist the...

  8. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  9. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  10. 2002 Turkey Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Report includes developments and variations in energy sector of Turkey in 2002. In addition This report also includes activities and statistics in all the energy sector of our country in 2002. Energy Report hadn't been published in last two years due to some technique reasons

  11. Left Dislocation in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic dialects | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic (NENA) dialects, which are the focus of this paper, were spoken across a wide area encompassing northern Iraq, north-west Iran, south-eastern Turkey, Armenia and Georgia. In these spoken dialects a distinction should be made between two major types of Left Dislocation (LD) structures.

  12. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2005-01-01

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m 2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R 2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  13. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  14. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  15. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  16. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  17. Examination of Students' Digital Gaming Habits at Secondary School Level in Elazig Province of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikail, Tel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the opinions of the secondary school students on digital games were examined. The research is a screening model research and has a descriptive feature. It was carried out with 521 secondary school students in Elazig (a province in eastern part of Turkey) [MSS1] in 2013. Almost all of the participants use computer. More than half of…

  18. Privatization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrom, Sven B.

    1990-01-01

    State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...

  19. Nursing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  20. Marriage Premium in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Murat A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature in three ways. Our first contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey. Our results suggest that married men earn 27 percent more than single men and married women earn 4 percent less than single women. Our second contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey’s regions. For men, the wage difference is the smallest, 0.43, in Istanbul. The difference is highest in Akdeniz region. For women, the wage difference is smallest, -0....

  1. Turkey and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yardim, G.

    1992-01-01

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 56 millions and approximately $ 2604 per capita income. Geographically she is located among the energy rich countries whereas almost half of her energy requirement is met by imports. Turkey is relatively well endowed with hydro-power and lignite resources, some limited amount of oil, gas and coal resources exist and there is significant geothermal potential in the country. Environmental issues are increasingly important consideration in energy policy decisions in the world. Energy production, transportation and use are contributing to environmental degradation to a certain extent. Protection of the environment and public health from pollution arising from energy production and consumption activities is one of the principles of Turkish national energy policy. In conjunction with this policy the 'Environment Law' was promulgated in 1983 and 'The Regulation on Protection of the Air Quality' in order to control all kinds of emissions in the form of soot, smoke, fines and particulate and to prevent the adverse impacts of the air pollution, was issued in October 1986. Policy of diversification of energy sources and the environmental issues which were explained above brought the natural gas usage into the energy scene in Turkey. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Analyzing Turkey's data from TIMSS 2007 to investigate regional disparities in eighth grade science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erberber, Ebru

    Turkey is expected to be a full member of the European Union (EU) by 2013. In the course of its integration into the EU, Turkey has been simultaneously facing access, quality, and equity issues in education. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made on increasing the access. However, improving the country's low level of education quality and achieving equity in quality education across the regions continue to be a monumental challenge in Turkey. Most recently, results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 indicated that Turkey's educational achievement at the eighth grade, the end of compulsory primary education in Turkey, was far below that of other countries in the EU. Considering Turkey's long standing socioeconomic disparities between the western and eastern parts of the country, the challenges of improving overall education quality are coupled with the challenges of achieving equity in learning outcomes for students across the regions. This dissertation used data from TIMSS 2007 to document the extent of Turkey's regional differences in science achievement at the eighth grade and to investigate factors associated with these differences. Findings from a series of analyses using hierarchical linear models suggested that attempts to increase Turkish students' achievement and close the achievement gaps between regions should target the students in the undeveloped regions, particularly in Southeastern Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia. Designing interventions to improve competency in Turkish and to compensate for the shortcomings of insufficient parental education, limited home educational resources, poor school climate for academic achievement, and inadequate instructional equipment and facilities might be expected to close the regional achievement gaps as well as raise the overall achievement level in Turkey.

  3. TURKEY AT THE INTERSECTION OF ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has made in the last 4 decades a remarkable growth in economy. The energy industry is represented mainly by the coal industry (especially lignite and coal, located in northwest Anatolia. The electricity is produced in the hydro and thermal power plants. Turkey has the world's 17th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961 and the G-20 major economies (1999. Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. While many economies have been unable to recover from the recent global financial recession, the Turkish economy expanded by 9.2% in 2010, and 8.5 percent in 2011, thus standing out as the fastest growing economy in Europe, and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Hence, Turkey has been meeting the “60 percent EU Maastricht criteria” for public debt stock since 2004. Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance. As of 2012, the main trading partners of Turkey are Germany, Russia and Iran. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU – origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey is also a source of foreign direct invest-ment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. 32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million. The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen İnşaat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ŞişeCam Group and Vestel Group. The exports reached $115.3 billion in

  4. Paleomagnetic constraints on the timing and distribution of Cenozoic rotations in Central and Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Derya; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Özkaptan, Murat; Creton, Iverna; Koymans, Mathijs R.; Cascella, Antonio; Langereis, Cornelis G.

    2018-03-01

    To quantitatively reconstruct the kinematic evolution of Central and Eastern Anatolia within the framework of Neotethyan subduction accommodating Africa-Eurasia convergence, we paleomagnetically assess the timing and amount of vertical axis rotations across the Ulukışla and Sivas regions. We show paleomagnetic results from ˜ 30 localities identifying a coherent rotation of a SE Anatolian rotating block comprised of the southern Kırşehir Block, the Ulukışla Basin, the Central and Eastern Taurides, and the southern part of the Sivas Basin. Using our new and published results, we compute an apparent polar wander path (APWP) for this block since the Late Cretaceous, showing that it experienced a ˜ 30-35° counterclockwise vertical axis rotation since the Oligocene time relative to Eurasia. Sediments in the northern Sivas region show clockwise rotations. We use the rotation patterns together with known fault zones to argue that the counterclockwise-rotating domain of south-central Anatolia was bounded by the Savcılı Thrust Zone and Deliler-Tecer Fault Zone in the north and by the African-Arabian trench in the south, the western boundary of which is poorly constrained and requires future study. Our new paleomagnetic constraints provide a key ingredient for future kinematic restorations of the Anatolian tectonic collage.

  5. Paleomagnetic constraints on the timing and distribution of Cenozoic rotations in Central and Eastern Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gürer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To quantitatively reconstruct the kinematic evolution of Central and Eastern Anatolia within the framework of Neotethyan subduction accommodating Africa–Eurasia convergence, we paleomagnetically assess the timing and amount of vertical axis rotations across the Ulukışla and Sivas regions. We show paleomagnetic results from ∼ 30 localities identifying a coherent rotation of a SE Anatolian rotating block comprised of the southern Kırşehir Block, the Ulukışla Basin, the Central and Eastern Taurides, and the southern part of the Sivas Basin. Using our new and published results, we compute an apparent polar wander path (APWP for this block since the Late Cretaceous, showing that it experienced a ∼ 30–35° counterclockwise vertical axis rotation since the Oligocene time relative to Eurasia. Sediments in the northern Sivas region show clockwise rotations. We use the rotation patterns together with known fault zones to argue that the counterclockwise-rotating domain of south-central Anatolia was bounded by the Savcılı Thrust Zone and Deliler–Tecer Fault Zone in the north and by the African–Arabian trench in the south, the western boundary of which is poorly constrained and requires future study. Our new paleomagnetic constraints provide a key ingredient for future kinematic restorations of the Anatolian tectonic collage.

  6. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    The world's most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsive to price increases caused by an increase in either pre-tax prices or taxes. Therefore, fuel market in Turkey is open to opportunistic behavior by firms (through excessive profits) and the government (through excessive taxes). Besides, the paper focuses on the impact of high motor fuel prices on road transport associated activities, including the pattern of passenger transportation, motorization rate, fuel use, total kilometers traveled and CO 2 emissions from road transportation. The impact of motor fuel prices on income distribution in Turkey and Turkish public opinion about high motor fuel prices are also among the subjects investigated in the course of the study. - Highlights: • The key issues (e.g. taxes) related to motor fuel prices in Turkey are explored. • Their impact on transport activities and income distribution is also investigated. • An econometric analysis is performed to estimate motor fuel demand in Turkey. • Motor fuel demand in Turkey is found to be quite inelastic. • Turkish fuel market is open to opportunistic behavior by firms and the government

  7. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  8. Electricity restructuring in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezkyvrak, Oezlem

    2005-01-01

    Turkey implemented the electricity sector reform by which the Electricity Market Law no. 4628 passed in February 2001. Recently, all segments of the Turkish electricity sector are dominated by a vertically integrated, public-owned monopoly - Tuerkiye Elektrik Kurumu - the Turkish electricity institution. The Turkish electricity reform involves vertical deintegration of generation, transmission and distribution, introduction of competition into generation and retail sale, establishment of an independent regulatory authority and privatization of public generation and distribution entities. This article provides an overview of the Turkish electricity sector reform and defines some problems that may affect the reform success

  9. Nuclear Medicine in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durak, H.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical specialty that uses radionuclides for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and it is one of the most important peaceful applications of nuclear sciences. Nuclear Medicine has a short history both in Turkey and in the world. The first use of I-131 for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis in Turkey was in 1958 at the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. In 1962, Radiobiological Institute in Ankara University Medical School was established equipped with well-type counters, radiometers, scalers, external counters and a rectilinear scanner. In 1965, multi-probe external detection systems, color dot scanners and in 1967, anger scintillation camera had arrived. In 1962, wet lab procedures and organ scanning, in 1965 color dot scanning, dynamic studies (blood flow - renograms) and in 1967 analogue scintillation camera and dynamic camera studies have started. In 1974, nuclear medicine was established as independent medical specialty. Nuclear medicine departments have started to get established in 1978. In 1974, The Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine (TSNM) was established with 10 members. The first president of TSNM was Prof. Dr. Yavuz Renda. Now, in the year 2000, TSNM has 349 members. Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine is a member of European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) and WFNMB Asia-Oceania. Since 1974, TSNM has organized 13 national Nuclear Medicine congresses, 4 international Nuclear Oncology congresses and 13 nuclear medicine symposiums. In 1-5 October 2000, 'The VII th Asia and Oceania Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology' was held in Istanbul, Turkey. Since 1992, Turkish Journal of Nuclear Medicine is published quarterly and it is the official publication of TSNM. There are a total of 112 Nuclear Medicine centers in Turkey. There are 146 gamma cameras. (52 Siemens, 35 GE, 16 Elscint, 14 Toshiba, 10 Sopha, 12 MIE, 8 Philips, 9 Others) Two cyclotrons are

  10. Internet censorship in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger, Last.fm, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  11. Neoosmanism: Turkey between yesterday and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galijašević Dževad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geostrategic integrity of the Balkans and the Danube region and the strategic ambitions of powerful countries that were inherited from previous centuries define the start points of European streams in XX century. German 'drang nach osten', Russian spread to south and an ambition of primate in struggle for the Turkish heredity, Turkish strivings to bring its Empire out of death with reforms, and remain right-sided to Sava-Danube river basin, preserving it as its natural border, and the strivings of Balkan peoples for liberation, shaped geopolitical, strategic and state-legal traits of the phenomenon called 'Eastern question'. The conquests form south east towards north and northwest and vice versa pointed that geostrategic traits of Balkans were not separation and geographic in-connectivity, but connection and permeation, which open strategic ways to domination over the Eurasian knot and warm seas of Mediterranean and Middle East. The fact that Balkans aren't the only connection between Europe and Asia does not lessen their geostrategic and geopolitical importance. On the contrary. This question, that was an eastern one for powerful countries, and one of a life importance for the people of southeast Europe, goes back into deep past. It was formed and a geostrategic position of a whole area that it related to by conflicted interest of people, religions and whole civilizations that faced each others there. However, if looking for a more narrow historical sense of the term Eastern question, we will find it in a collision of Europe and Islamic world, which was brought by Turkish penetration into Europe. During the rise of the Ottoman Empire, it was a matter of survival of European countries that were struck by Ottoman conquest, and after the decline of the Ottoman power it turned into a struggle for Turkish heredity. Today, the Struggle form Ottoman heredity strongly includes Turkey as well. Turkish engagement in a struggle for its own historical

  12. Levels of mobbing perception among nurses in Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik Akyil, R; Tan, M; Saritaş, S; Altuntaş, S

    2012-09-01

    This is a descriptive and comparative study of levels of mobbing perception among nurses, causes and perpetrators of mobbing, reactions to and factors affecting mobbing. Data for the study were collected from a sample of 180 Turkish nurses between July 2007 and January 2008 using a three-part questionnaire. Nurses were frequently subjected to mobbing. Younger nurses, nurses with less institutional and professional experience, nurses with lower levels of education, and nurses working in internal medicine clinics and night shifts reported higher levels of mobbing. Nurses reported their managers as the most frequent perpetrators of mobbing, and bad working conditions as the most important cause of mobbing. Many participants reported that they had come to accept mobbing incidents and did not lodge any complaints prior to the study. However, they claimed that they will not tolerate mobbing any longer, and will lodge verbal and written complaints. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  14. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Bilir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  15. FINANCIAL CRISES AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERT URAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last three decades, in developed and developing counties the liberalization and openness efforts have been witnessed. However, financial liberalization attempts (both internal and external without having macroeconomic stability lead to financial crises in many developing countries. Macroeconomic instabilities create fragile financial markets paving the way for future economic crises. The Turkish Economy, completed the liberalization process with foreign trade liberalization in 1980 and by removing controls on capital accounts in 1989. However, since 1990’s economy got into ‘growth-instability-crisis’ vicious circle, because of the fluctuations in the financial structure. By employing a factor analysis (principal components analysis, this work, aims to obtain the factors that effect crises in Turkey.

  16. Paleomagnetism and the Alpine tectonics of Eurasia IV : Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene pole positions from northeastern Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voo, R. van der

    In April 1965 and May 1966 several groups of samples were collected by the author in northern and eastern Turkey in view of a study of their magnetic properties. The characteristic magnetizations of four groups of Eocene and Cretaceous volcanic rocks and sediments had the following directions of

  17. A NEW LATE YPRESIAN SPECIES OF ASTERIGERINA AND THE FIRST RECORDS OF ORNATOROTALIA AND GRANOROTALIA FROM THE THANETIAN AND UPPER YPRESIAN OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERCÜMENT SİREL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new larger benthic foraminifer, Asterigerina cayrazensis n. sp., is described from the upper Ypresian (middle-upper Cuisian of the Çayraz section, N of Haymana, S Ankara, central Turkey, from which also the rotaliine species Ornatorotalia spinosa, O. granum and Granorotalia sublobata are first recorded. In addition, Ornatorotalia sp. is recorded from the Thanetian limestone of the Harabekayış section, W Elazığ, eastern Turkey.

  18. The second record of the Seychelles dragonet Synchiropus sechellensis in the Northeastern Mediterranean coasts of the Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Ergüden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two female and one male specimens of the Seychelles dragonet, Synchiropus sechellensis were caught by a commercial trawl at a depths of about 55-65 m on 04 November 2017 from the Aydıncık coast, Turkey. The present paper reports the second record of S. sechellensis in the southeastern coast of Turkey. Morphometric and meristic characters of the the specimens are given with some remarks about the geographical distribution of the species in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The present study, S. sechellensis was recorded from a new locality for the coasts of Turkey. The present observation indicates an established population of the species in the southern coast of Turkey.

  19. Palaeomagnetism and magnetic properties of the Cappadocian ignimbrite succession, central Turkey and Neogene tectonics of the Anatolian collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, J. D. A.; Gürsoy, H.; Tatar, O.

    2002-10-01

    The Cappadocian ignimbrite succession of central-southern Anatolia comprises at least nine major and two minor calc-alkaline rhyolitic sheets emplaced at 1-2-Ma intervals between 11.2 and 1.1 Ma. It records the last phase of Neotethyan subduction during final emplacement of the Tauride orogen in southern Turkey. This study reports magnetostratigraphy and describes associated rock magnetic properties. Remanence resides in Ti-poor titanomagnetites. Haematisation is locally produced by post-emplacement oxidation but does not contribute significantly to the palaeomagnetic signature although secondary processes within the ignimbrite sheets have produced composite isothermal remanent magnetisation spectra and variable intensities of magnetisation. Weak anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility describes tensors with maximum axes close to bedding and minimum axes perpendicular to this plane. Directions of kmax with weak imbrication mostly suggest flow away from centres of eruption located by gravity and remote sensing. Older ignimbrites (Upper and Lower Göreme, Akdag-Zelve) from the Çardak Centre are all of normal polarity. Later ignimbrites, partly erupted from the Derinkuyu Centre, comprise the Sarımaden (R), Cemilköy (R), Tahar (R), Kızılkaya (R), Incesu (N) and Valibaba-Sofular (R) ignimbrites. The overall (reversed) group mean is D/ I=174/-51° ( N=10 units, R=9.84, α95=6.6°, k=55) and all magnetisation directions from the Upper Göreme (9.0 Ma) onwards are rotated anticlockwise with respect to Eurasian and African palaeofields. This sense of rotation characterises most of central Anatolia and averages 9±5° in this sector. The rotation rate from 8 to 1 Ma BP was ˜1.25°/Ma but it appears to have accelerated during the latter part of the Quaternary to about an order higher than rates determined from GPS. Rotation has resulted from extrusion of fault blocks during tectonic escape of the Anatolian collage to the southwest and followed crustal thickening as the

  20. The law enforcement agencies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aygun, A.

    2001-01-01

    Union. Turkey serves as a bridge between nuclear substances provider countries and illegal demander countries of these materials due to its geographic position. For the purpose of preventing the traffic of illegal nuclear substances, 10 radiation dose-rate meters have started to be used in the customs of Turkey after 1996. Devices such as search kits, fiberscopes, radiation dose-rate meter, drug test kit, gas data, were distributed and are being used in province organizations of the General Directorate of Customs Enforcement, and are also available for the purpose of fighting against smuggling of narcotic nuclear substances, guns, commercial goods. If the southern and eastern neighboring countries of Turkey and some European countries producing the chemicals used in production of narcotics assist Turkey in this effort, the fighting would reach desirable levels. There are 72 radioactive material smuggling events in our country since 1993 but only 10 events have been determined that substances are radioactive material and others have determined that substances are poison of mercury. Snake poison was seized in 1997 in the 962 glass tube units at the Gurbulak border gate, which is known for its use in getting chemical gas for war. (author)

  1. Nursing doctoral education in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Meryem

    2004-10-01

    Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education.

  2. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  3. PARASITIC MITES IN BACKYARD TURKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To describe the parasitic mites in backyard turkeys, was did this work. The mites were obtain by hand for 30 backyard turkeys in Oaxaca’s Coast region, Mexico; the mites were mount in adhesive paper and wash with the 200X lent in a computer optical microscopy, the parasites size were determinate in the pictures obtained by the microscopy software, the images were sized using a specialist software for it, which relate the number of pixels in the picture with the size of the observation field. Were indentified the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Megninia ginglymura and Ornithonyssus sylviarum, the last two described for first time in backyard turkeys in Mexico. Â

  4. A new species of Leuctra from Turkey, and notes on Anatolian Rhabdiopteryx (Plecoptera: Leuctridae & Taeniopterygidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murányi, Dávid; Vinçon, Gilles

    2017-03-15

    In the recent annotated catalogue of the Turkish Plecoptera, the fauna of Anatolia are considered remarkably rich with 32 micro-endemic species currently recorded (Darilmaz et al. 2016). The major hot spot is the Pontus, the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Nearly half of these micro-endemic stonefly species are only known from this region. The eastern subregion of the Pontus has a direct connection with the Caucasian stonefly fauna. This subregion even has an endemic species group of Leuctra Stephens, 1836, presently including four known species (Vinçon & Sivec 2001).

  5. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  6. The Influence of Migration Crisis in Europe on EU-Turkey Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel P. Timofeyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of the migration crisis in the EU on the European Union's relations with Turkey. It is shown that for a number of reasons, including a result of EU actions taken from 2011 to 2015, EU has experienced an influx of migrants on a number of routes from the Western to the Eastern Mediterranean. The largest of them fell on Turkey, which has tried to use this factor to exert pressure on the EU in order to obtain economic and political preferences. The author examines the development of the EU migration policy in the context of the crisis, its trying to bring Turkey to cooperate and difficult negotiations, which took place at the summits of the EU-Turkey at the end of 2015. There have been disagreements among the EU countries, and the time factor, which Turkey took advantage of, advancing conditions for the closure of borders to Europe for migrants. Facing the influx of migrants the EU had to agree with a number of conditions, though not with all. The author shows that the agreement reached by the country in March 2016 is not universal, and a number of issues important to the resolution of the crisis, are waiting to be decided upon. However, according to the author, the development of the current crisis can lead both to the reform of the migration and border policy within the EU, and to restarting relations with Turkey. Though guessing on possibilities on Turkey's entry to the EU in the near future is still premature.

  7. Labour migration from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, S

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with Turkish labor migration to Western Europe. Earlier and recent patterns of labor migration, characteristics of migrants by occupation, area of destination, and by geographical origins are discussed. Economic and demographic consequences of labor migration are also analyzed. It is estimated that Turkey's population will reach 73 million at the year 2000 with the present growth rate of 2.48% annually. Considering the efforts made to slow down the present high fertility rates and assuming that the decrease in labor force participation during 1970-1980 continues, the author concludes that the labor supply will increase with a growth rate of 2% annually for the next 13-15 years. Thus, the labor supply will reach 26.6 million people in the year 2000 from the 1980 level of 17.8 million. Assuming also that the income/employment elasticity of .25 which was observed throughout the period of 1960-1980 will not change until 2000, the annual growth rate of employment may be estimated as 1.5%. Thus, the number of people employed will reach 20 million in the year 1990 and 23.2 million in the year 2000. 8.8 million people will join the labor market as new entrants between 1980 and 2000. Only 6 million people out of 8.8 million will be employed. Thus, in the year 2000, it is estimated that 2.8 million new unemployed people will be added to the already open unemployment figure 1980 census data give the number of unemployed as .6 million people. Adding the 2.8 million new unemployed to this figure totals 3.4 million unemployed in 2000. The State Planning Organization's estimate of labor surplus for 1980 was 2.5 million people. When 2.8 million unemployed people are added to this figure, the labor surplus for the year 2000 reaches 5.3 million people.

  8. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.; Ozyoruk, B.

    2007-01-01

    We are at the beginning of a new millennium. At this stage, we are observing economic and social liberalization efforts and regional alliance projects throughout the world. In this very same process, we are also experiencing a more holistic concept called globalization, which covers rapid and simultaneous dissemination and integration of capital, labor, information and technology, world-wide. This globalization opened a new era where national market economies and local companies went into competition in the international arena. In this era, it became a necessity for the non-liberal economies to catch up with the developments in the international markets and be open to economic and political changes. These developments have brought along many radical economic and social changes throughout the world. Policies adopted in Turkey, with respect to the energy reform process, display a general tendency towards putting in place a legal framework that will support the implementation of good governance principles, and providing conformity with the relevant legislative infrastructure of both OECD and EU countries. Turkey has only limited reserves of oil and natural gas, but substantial reserves of coal, particularly lignite. Energy demand has grown at 4-5 % per annum over the past three decades and will continue to grow rapidly, which will require enormous investments in 2000 and 2020, with the most significant increase being that of natural gas. Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. 73 % of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 % of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions

  9. Turkey and European Security Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Korean War, when Turkey sent troops in support of the United Nations defense of South Korea. As a Muslim country, Turkey’s cooperation with the United...history of Turkish cinema : “Valley of the Wolves Iraq.” The United States military deemed the film and its viewers potentially dangerous enough that

  10. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  11. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  12. The Future of Secular Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    into the global trade market of “ franchises and brand-name import- export.”6 Through his power, Ozal sought to redefine Turkey along capitalist...entertainment along with access to theaters, bars and cafes . These fears were never realized. The Refah mayors have left well enough alone. They have

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  14. Biotechnology in Turkey: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamar, Tunçer H

    2009-07-01

    The term biotechnology first appeared in the programs of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) in 1982. The State Planning Organization (SPO) in 1988 defined biotechnology and the scientific fields. Moreover, it put forward an institutional framework and suggested priority areas for research and development. Turkey has been researching and investing in biotechnology for almost four decades. This review covers the development of science and technology policy with its history, consensus and consequences, bio-industries in Turkey, and research activities in biotechnology at Turkish Universities. Details are provided by the research groups in response to a common request for information on their activities and major publications in the field. The information provided has been grouped under thematic topics within the broad theme of biotechnology, and summarized within these topics. Although many aspects of biotechnological research are being pursued in Turkey, it appears that the most common research activities of the field are in fermentation processes, environmental biotechnology, and biomedical engineering.

  15. Human Metapneumovirus in Turkey Poults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Thachil, Anil J.; Shaw, Daniel P.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to reexamine the hypothesis that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) will not infect turkeys. Six groups of 2-week-old turkeys (20 per group) were inoculated oculonasally with 1 of the following: noninfected cell suspension; hMPV genotype A1, A2, B1, or B2; or avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C. Poults inoculated with hMPV showed nasal discharge days 4–9 postexposure. Specific viral RNA and antigen were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemical evaluation, respectively, in nasal turbinates of birds exposed to hMPV. Nasal turbinates of hMPV-infected turkeys showed inflammatory changes and mucus accumulation. Each of the 4 hMPV genotypes caused a transient infection in turkeys as evidenced by clinical signs, detection of hMPV in turbinates, and histopathologic examination. Detailed investigation of cross-species pathogenicity of hMPV and aMPV and its importance for human and animal health is needed. PMID:17235379

  16. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  17. Turkey's status in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykol, F.; Oezkan, R.; Atila, B.; Hanguel, G.; Aksu, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Turkey is a country with dynamic economic development and rapid population growth and nuclear energy is an integral part of these dynamics. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) is in charge of regulation and control of all activities related to nuclear field, including safety inspections and licensing. The TAEA is also responsible for the sensitive task of improving public awareness of nuclear technology which includes the use of nuclear power. Turkey's experience with nuclear power dates back to the 1960's, as the first nuclear research reactor started to operate in Istanbul in 1962. There were various plans for the introduction of nuclear power to the country. However the plans for the construction of the first nuclear power in the country were postponed for an indefinite period in 2000. In the wake of this decision TAEA initiated the activities to establish a nuclear policy in the country which includes creating the technical know-how and establishing new generation nuclear power plants in Turkey. The Authority is also responsible for the safe use of nuclear energy in medicine, agriculture, animal health, industry, food irradiation and in all kinds of research activities. The authority has carried or is currently continuing 12 National Technical Cooperation, 30 Research Contract, 21 Regional Europe ongoing IAEA projects and 31 State Planning Organization projects. There were 7571 radiological, 208 radiotherapy, 3792 industrial and 214 instruments licensed and registered by the Radiation Health and Safety Department of the Authority. We are in the opinion that developing a nuclear technology substructure in both Turkey and Turkish Countries will be of great benefit for the Euro-Asia region. We must emphasize that Turkey is the partner of all nonproliferation treaties and has no intention of using nuclear power for non peaceful purposes whatsoever

  18. [Recent demographic trends in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, C

    1993-01-01

    Coverage of Turkey's vital registration system remains incomplete, and it cannot yet be used to measure annual population changes. Data and demographic indices based on the 1990 census and the 1989 National Demographic Survey are the most recent available. Turkey's population in 1990 was 56 million. The proportion urban increased to 59% from 49.2% in 1980. Nearly 35% of the population was under 15 years old, and the median age was 21.6 for males and 22.3 for females. The average age at first marriage in 1989 was 24.8 for men and 21.8 for women. Mortality has been in continuous decline. The crude death rate dropped from 16.4/1000 in 1960-65 to slightly under 8 in 1989. Life expectancy at birth was 63.3 for men and 66 for women. The infant mortality rate declined from 166 in 1965-70 to 85 in 1989. Rural or urban residence and maternal educational level were the most significant determinants of infant mortality differentials. Turkey's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1960 to 4.3 in 1978 and 3.4 in 1988-89. The crude birth rate declined from around 40/1000 in 1968 to under 28/1000 in 1989. Fertility began to decline in the last third of the nineteenth century in Istanbul and other large cities of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul's total fertility rate was a relatively low 3.9 even before World War I. Turkey adopted a policy to slow demographic growth in the mid 1960s, and family planning activities were supported by nongovernmental organizations. The direct impact of these policies on demographic behavior appears to have been somewhat limited, and the use of traditional methods of birth limitation remains widespread. Abortion was legalized in 1983 and is available at public hospitals. The proportion of married women aged 15-49 who use contraception increased from 38% in 1973 to 63% in 1988. Regional differentials in demographic indices are significant in Turkey, with the Anatolian East and Southeast lagging behind other regions in fertility and mortality decline

  19. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  20. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning.

  1. Endangered Lilium Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Demir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, which is among the major gene centers of the world and has a special place in plant genetic diversity. However, many plant genetic resources, including geophytes, are under genetic erosion because of the environmental and other problems and therefore face with the danger of extinction. Lilium ciliatum is endemic to North East Anatolia. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources Red List Category of this species is Endangered (EN. Lilium ciliatum naturally grown in Zigana pass, Bayburt, Trabzon, Bulancak, Giresun and Gümüşhane is endangered and major threats of L. ciliatum are road construction and human disturbance related to ecotourism and recreation. It was reported that Lilium carniolicum naturally grown in Turkey is endangered although it isn’t in the IUCN Red List. Distribution areas of L. carniolicum are Trabzon, Rize, Artvin and it is also endemic to North East Anatolia. These species have high potential for use as ornamental plants with their colorful big flowers. In addition, the bulbs of these species are also used in the cosmetic industry and medicine. These are the main properties that increase the importance of L. ciliatum and L. carniolicum species. Therefore it is very important to protect the habitats of these species, ensure the continuity of their generations. The disappearance of these endemic species from our country means to disappear from the world. This review has been given in order to give some information about the endangered Lilium species of Turkey and conservation actions on these species in Turkey flora and take attention to the issue.

  2. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  3. Petrology and geochemistry of the high-Cr podiform chromitites of the Köycegiz ophiolite, southwest Turkey: implications for the multi-stage evolution of the oceanic upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fahui; Yang, Jingsui; Dilek, Yildirim; Wang, ChunLian; Hao, Xiaolin; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lian, Dongyang

    2018-03-01

    Ophiolites exposed across the western Tauride belt in Turkey represent tectonically emplaced fragments of oceanic lithosphere obducted onto the continental margin following the closure of the Neotethys Ocean during the Late Cretaceous. The ultramafic massif of Köycegiz, which is located in the ophiolitic belt of southwestern Turkey, is a major source of metallurgical chromitite ore. The massif comprises a base of tectonized harzburgite with minor dunite overlain by a magmatic sequence of wehrlite, pyroxenite, troctolite and gabbro. Only sparse refractory chromitites occur within the harzburgites; in contrast, the upper and middle sections of the peridotite sequence contain abundant metallurgical chromitites. The peridotites record abundant evidence of mantle metasomatism on various scales, as the Fo values of olivine in harzburgite are 90.1-95.4, whereas those in dunite are 90.1-91.8. The compositions of the melts passing through the peridotites changed gradually from arc tholeiite to boninite due to melt-rock reactions, thus producing more Cr-rich chromitites in the upper part of the body. Most of the chromitites have high Cr numbers (77-78), although systematic changes in the compositions of the olivine and chromian spinel occur from the harzburgites to the dunite envelopes to the chromitites, reflecting melt-rock reactions. The calculated ΔlogfO2 (FMQ) values range from - 2.77 to + 1.03 in the chromitites, - 2.73 to -0.01 in the harzburgites, and - 1.65 to + 0.45 in the dunites. All of the available evidence suggests that the Köycegiz ophiolite formed in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) mantle wedge. These models indicate that the harzburgites represent the products of first-stage melting and low degrees of melt-rock interaction that occurred in a mid-ocean ridge (MOR) environment. In contrast, the chromitites and dunites represent the products of second-stage melting and related refertilization, which occurred in an SSZ environment.

  4. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  5. Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Altunok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Van cat originates from eastern Turkey. One of the characteristic features of Van cats is the colour of their eyes, which can be both eyes blue, both eyes amber or one eye blue and the other amber. Serum essential trace, macro and industrial element concentrations of Van cats (n = 47 according to sex, age, hair length and eye colour differences were investigated. Serum aluminium, arsenic, boron, barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, sulphur, strontium, vanadium and zinc were measured with ICP-OES plasma optical atomic emission spectrometer. In result, serum aluminium, barium, copper, manganese and strontium levels in male cats were found higher (p p p p > 0.05 found in the age and hair length groups. Our results indicate that several of the blood serum elements of Van cats may be related to their eye colours and sex differences.

  6. SOME ASPECTS OF THE INTEGRATION OF SYRIAN REFUGEES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bariscil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, Turkey -once a quite uniform country- is home for one of the largest refugees population on Earth. The massive influx of asylum-seekers did not only transform Turkey in terms of ethnic and religious diversity but featured a major challenge and national security issue. After six years of experience as a host country, the Middle Eastern nation is still in the learning phase of a much longer process of amalgamation of ethnic Turks, Kurds and other minorities with Turkish passport and Syrian refugees. In our current paper using a set of diverse sources (analysis, survey, description and fresh news and both quantitative and qualitative approaches, we would like to present a concise governmental policy designed to accommodate better those who are still considered to be special guests of the Turkish nation. This plan has five main steps to be analyzed. Namely, we have to deal with the questions of providing security, material goods, proper education and Turkish language instruction and an opportunity to work and do business. Finally, we would like to underline the fact that the success of this process largely depends on the quality of education of both refugees and Turks in order to better know and accept each other.

  7. Of the importance of a leaf: the ethnobotany of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yunus; Nedelcheva, Anely; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Drăgulescu, Constantin; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Maglajlić, Aida; Ferrier, Jonathan; Papp, Nora; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Pieroni, Andrea

    2015-04-03

    Sarma - cooked leaves rolled around a filling made from rice and/or minced meat, possibly vegetables and seasoning plants - represents one of the most widespread feasting dishes of the Middle Eastern and South-Eastern European cuisines. Although cabbage and grape vine sarma is well-known worldwide, the use of alternative plant leaves remains largely unexplored. The aim of this research was to document all of the botanical taxa whose leaves are used for preparing sarma in the folk cuisines of Turkey and the Balkans. Field studies were conducted during broader ethnobotanical surveys, as well as during ad-hoc investigations between the years 2011 and 2014 that included diverse rural communities in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Primary ethnobotanical and folkloric literatures in each country were also considered. Eighty-seven botanical taxa, mainly wild, belonging to 50 genera and 27 families, were found to represent the bio-cultural heritage of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans. The greatest plant biodiversity in sarma was found in Turkey and, to less extent, in Bulgaria and Romania. The most commonly used leaves for preparing sarma were those of cabbage (both fresh and lacto-fermented), grape vine, beet, dock, sorrel, horseradish, lime tree, bean, and spinach. In a few cases, the leaves of endemic species (Centaurea haradjianii, Rumex gracilescens, and R. olympicus in Turkey) were recorded. Other uncommon sarma preparations were based on lightly toxic taxa, such as potato leaves in NE Albania, leaves of Arum, Convolvulus, and Smilax species in Turkey, of Phytolacca americana in Macedonia, and of Tussilago farfara in diverse countries. Moreover, the use of leaves of the introduced species Reynoutria japonica in Romania, Colocasia esculenta in Turkey, and Phytolacca americana in Macedonia shows the dynamic nature of folk cuisines. The rich ethnobotanical diversity of sarma confirms the urgent need to

  8. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Cevik, U; Damla, N; Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using γ-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K and a fission product 137 Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg -1 for 40 K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l -1 , respectively. The concentrations of gross α and β radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross α and β activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l -1 and 1.0 Bq l -1 gross α and β radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m -3 and the average value was 56 Bq m -3 . The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country.

  9. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  10. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  11. Higher Education Policies and Overeducation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Nader

    2017-01-01

    In the past two decades Turkey has experienced a rapid increase in higher education student enrollment. This sharp increase in access to higher education has satisfied a strong social demand for university education but it has led to a growing surplus of university graduates who cannot find adequate jobs. As a result Turkey has entered an…

  12. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  13. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  14. The present status of safeguards in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazer, A.; Yuecel, A.

    2001-01-01

    Republic of Turkey signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in Vienna, Austria on January 28, 1969 and the Treaty was ratified by Turkish Parliament on March 29, 1979. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Republic of Turkey signed the Safeguards Agreement on June 30, 1981. Turkey accepted the international safeguards administered by IAEA and at the same time its subsidiary arrangements and Facility attachments were enforced for all nuclear facilities as an Non-Nuclear-Weapon State party to NPT. Regulation on Nuclear Materials Accounting and Control, which was prepared in accordance with Agreement Between the Government of Turkey and IAEA for the application of Safeguard in Connection with the Treaty on NPT, has been put into force since it was published in Official Gazette on September 10, 1997. This study presents the essential futures of national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials in Turkey

  15. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  16. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S

    2009-02-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  17. Sustainability Organic Agriculture and Livestock Production with Respect to European Union in Eastern Anatolia and East Black Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecihi Aksakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of farm households in Turkey and especially the Eastern Anatolia are still based on low-input semi subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Despite a slow decline in recent years, agriculture and livestock production remains a major employer in Turkey and it is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, GDP. Whist Turkey is one of the EU candidate countries, is self sufficient in food production and Turkish agriculture is poorly structured inefficient, with farming in the Eastern Anatolia being mainly subsistence farming. Yet, these traditional rural structures combined with poor access to low level of education and low level of off-farm unemployment problem makes the situation more complicated and unsustainable. The best way to promote sustainability, better and higher production of Eastern Anatolian and rural Turkey is to invest in the local people, villages through improved, continuing and effective agricultural and livestock programs in particular. Investment in human capital especially in the rural areas leads to more employment opportunities through entrepreneurship and innovation in organic agriculture and livestock production. A holistic approach to developing and improving supply chains could unlock the potential for sophisticated, state-of-the-art organic agriculture and livestock producers and businesses in the region to become EU and global players. Eastern Anatolian livestock producers and the farmers have the ambitions to take part in future progress because the region is naturally organic not by design but default. It is for sure that present potential of the region has not been fully determined and utilized. EU has greatly benefited from previous enlargements economically, politically and socially. When European Union (EU and Turkish Government relations considered and accession of Turkey to EU would be the logical consequence of the previous accessions. The screening on chapter 11

  18. Global energy perspective of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, H. Mete

    2006-01-01

    Global energy demand is growing rapidly at an average rate of 4% per year in parallel with the economy while EU-25 has only 0,8% during the last decade. Total primary energy supply is 87 818 000 toe of which 72% was imported; in comparison the average dependency rate is 49,5% in the EU. Such excessive dependency creates harmful effects on the national economy. Oil and natural gas imports bill was 19,5 billion US $ in 2005. Primary energy demand growth rate is twice as much of the production rate in the period 1980 2004. Fossil fuels accounts for 86% of Turkeys global energy supply in 2004. Population growth rate is one of the major parameters affecting the energy balance. Energy and electricity consumptions per capita are still one third of the EUs average.. Turkeys coal reserves needs to be utilized at higher rate and hydropower, wind power and geothermal energy potentials should be developed in order to decrease the imported energy dependence, soon. Due to the buy or pay bilateral agreements with suppliers, storage capabilities should be realized for excessive natural gas supply. Turkeys average growth rate of electricity production is 8,1% while installed capacity has 8,5% for the last 25 years. The present total installed capacity is 39 020 MW in which renewables has a share of 34%. Total electricity production was 162 TWh in 2005 of which 75,4% was supplied by thermal power plants. Share of natural gas is 44% of the annual electricity production. Considering the present power plants and the ones under construction, electricity supply and demand will be in balance till the year of 2010 (with high demand scenario) or 2015 (with low demand scenario). Nuclear power is being considered for electricity supply security after 2015. But, the general approach for supply security is first to develop the domestic coal reserves, renewable energy resources.

  19. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  20. Cyber Security Analysis of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Senturk, Hakan; Çil, Zaim; Sağıroğlu, Şeref

    2016-01-01

    Considering the criticality of the cyber security threat in the 21st century, it is presumed that the nations are busy with series of activities in order to protect their security in the cyber space domain. In this paper, in light of the recent developments in the cyber security field, Turkey’s cyber security analysis is performed using a macro analysis model. We researched for the measures taken in Turkey with respect to those in the other countries, reviewed the posture, the activities and ...

  1. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  2. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistanfor operational purposes that is frequently debated in national and international circles has been evaluated by stating the advantages and disadvantages of such decision. Turkey’s quiet approach between 2001 and 2004 towards Afghanistan, which have been energizing since 2005 and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu’s visit to Afghanistan on June 2009 have been dealt as well. By considering Davutoglu’s policies, aiming to introduce Turkey as a global actor and as the term President of the UNSC (the UN Security Council, it seems that Turkey is preparing to play a more active role in Afghanistan.

  3. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  4. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaz, A.; Kucukomeroglu, B.; Damla, N.; Cevik, U.

    2011-01-01

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and 137 Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h -1 and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 μSv y -1 . In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 μSv y -1 from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: → →The study highlights activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil. → The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. → The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. → Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. → The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  5. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  6. Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, crop residues and fruit tree residues are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. Selection of a particular biomass for energy requirements is influenced by its availability, source and transportation cost, competing uses and prevalent fossil fuel prices. Utilization of biomass is a very attractive energy resource, particularly for developing countries since biomass uses local feedstocks and labor. Like many developing countries, Turkey relies on biomass to provide much of its energy requirement. More efficient use of biomass in producing energy, both electrical and thermal, may allow Turkey to reduce petroleum imports, thus affecting its balance of payments dramatically. Turkey has always been one of the major agricultural countries in the world. The importance of agriculture is increasing due to biomass energy being one of the major resources in Turkey. Biomass waste materials can be used in Turkey to provide centralized, medium- and large-scale production of process heat for electricity production. Turkey's first biomass power project is under development in Adana province, at an installed capacity of 45 MW. Two others, at a total capacity of 30 MW, are at the feasibility study stage in Mersin and Tarsus provinces. Electricity production from biomass has been found to be a promising method in the nearest future in Turkey

  7. Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Erhan, I.C.

    2002-01-01

    Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other

  8. Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rossi; Daniel Leigh

    2002-01-01

    In light of the strong correlation between exchange rate movements and domestic prices in Turkey, it is important to assess the impact of the exchange rate on domestic prices, in particular as Turkey moves to an inflation targeting regime. This paper uses a recursive vector autoregression model to investigate the impact of exchange rate movements on prices in Turkey. We find that (i) the impact of the exchange rate on prices is over after about a year, but is mostly felt in the first four mon...

  9. November 1999 Duzce, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 7.2 quake occurred at 6.57 pm local time (16:57 GMT). Duzce lies on the eastern fringe of the region hit by the August 17, 1999 quake. The death toll...

  10. Gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  11. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The mountains influence on Turkey Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensoy, Serhat

    2004-01-01

    Since the Black sea mountains at the north of the country and the Taurus mountains in the south lay parallel to the seashore and rise very sharply rain clouds can not penetrate to the internal part of the country. Rain clouds drops most of their water on the slopes opposite the sea. As rain clouds pass over the mountains and reach Central Anatolia they have no significant capability of rain. For this reason, the Central Anatolia does not have very much precipitation. The difference between the rates of precipitation on the inner and outer slopes seems to be effective on the expansion of plants. For example, there is a subtropical climate prevailing on the Black sea shore between Sinop and Batum where precipitation is more than 1000-2000 mm yearly. Going from Sinop to the mouth of the Sakarya River the rate of precipitation goes down to 800-1250 mm in a year. Running from the Sakarya River to the western area covering Thrace the climate seems to be continental, and in the area dominant plant cover is of the Mediterranean type. Since the succession of the mountains in Western Anatolia lay perpendicular to the seashore, rain clouds penetrate towards the inner regions for about 400 km. The continental climate with long, dry and summer affects this area. In the Eastern region of Anatolia, since the elevation of the mountains exceeds 2500-3000 m, valleys are disorderly scattered and located at high elevations, and the northern Black sea mountains and Caucasian mountains hold the rain clouds, the area is effected by the continental climate with long and very cold winters. Consequently precipitation at the lgdir River goes down to 300 mm while it is 500-800 mm in most of areas and 1000-1500 mm in some regions towards northern Mu and Bingol provinces. As mentioned above, high mountains, which hold rain clouds, surround the Central Anatolia, which has caused drought in this region. In the central Anatolia covering Afyon, Eski hir, Ankara, Qankiri, Qorum, Amasya, Kayseri

  13. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  14. Geothermal Field Investigations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, N.; Özer, N.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is a type of energy that are found in the accessible depth of the crust, in the reservoirs by way of the permeable rocks, specially in heated fluid. Geothermal system is made of 3 main components; heat source, reservoir, and fluid bearing heat. Geothermal system mechanism is comprise of fluid transmission. Convection current (heat transmission) is caused by heating and causes the fluid in the system to expand. Heated fluid with low density show tendency to rise in system. Geothermal system occurs with variable geophysics and geochemical properties. Geophysical methods can determine structural properties of shallow and deep reservoirs with temperature, mineralization, gas amount, fluid movement, faulting, and sudden change in lithostratigraphic strata. This study revealed possible reservoir structures and showed examples of geophysics and gas measuring results in Turkey which is wealthy in regard to Geothermal sources.

  15. Wage Inequality and Wage Mobility in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Dalgıç, Başak; Güven, Aytekin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates wage inequality and wage mobility in Turkey using the Surveys on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). This is the first paper that explores wage mobility for Turkey. It differs from the existing literature by providing analyses of wage inequality and wage mobility over various socioeconomic groups such as gender, age, education and sector of economic activity. We first present an overview of the evolution of wages and wage inequality over the period 2005-2011. Next, w...

  16. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  17. U.S.-Turkey Strategic Dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict

    2012-01-01

    FY 2012-2013. Project Leads: Clement, Victoria and Gingeras, Ryan The primary objectives of this effort are twofold: to better understand and identify solutions to the current and potential challenges to U.S. national security interests in the Middle East, and to enhance understanding of and cooperation with Turkey through a Track II dialogue. The dialogue will provide policymakers with accessible intelligence, informed by on the ground discussions with relevant stakeholders in Turkey. NA

  18. GERMANY & TURKEY – A PARTNERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  19. Past nuclear power project experiences of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutukcuoglu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, developments in the world for utilization of nuclear energy and, in parallel to these developments, works undertaken in Turkey are summarized. Besides this, future prospects in the field of nuclear energy in the world and in Turkey, and our opinion about the action to be taken in our county, in the light of past experiences of nuclear power projects that could not be succeeded, are presented

  20. GLOBAL SOURCING: A THEORETICAL STUDY ON TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac GOKMEN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Global sourcing is to source from the global market for goods and services across national boundaries in order to take advantage of the global efficiencies in the delivery of a product or service. Such efficiencies are consists of low cost skilled labor, low cost raw materials and other economic factors like tax breaks and deductions as well as low trade tariffs. When we assess the case regarding to Turkey, global sourcing is an effective device for some firms. The domestic firms in Turkey at various industries are inclined to global source finished or intermediate goods from the world markets, finish the production process in Turkey and export. Eventually, on the one hand the export volume of Turkey increases, but on the other hand the import of a considerable volume of finished or intermediate goods bring about a negative trade balance and loss of jobs in Turkey. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the concept of global sourcing transactions on Turkey resting on comprehensive publications.

  1. Oil and gas market developments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Turkey's strategic location makes it a natural 'energy bridge' between major oil and gas producing areas in the Middle East and Caspian Sea regions on one hand and consumer markets in Europe on the other. Oil consumption has increased in recent years in Turkey, and this trend is expected to continue, with growth of 2-3% annually in coming years. The annual oil consumption of the country is around 31.3 million tons, while 83% of total consumption is supplied from imports and only 17% is supplied from indigenous production. Oil provides around 43% of Turkey's total energy requirements, but its share is declining (as the share of natural gas rises). On the other hand, due to diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas was newly introduced into the Turkish economy in 1987 and has been growing rapidly. Turkey's natural gas reserves seem limited and current gas production in the country meets 2.8% of domestic consumption requirements. The annual natural gas consumption of Turkey is around 14.7 billion m 3 and is assumed to increase by 12% per annum. Turkish natural gas use is projected to increase dramatically in coming years, with the prime consumers expected to be industry and power plants. Turkey has chosen natural gas as the preferred fuel for the massive amount of new power plant capacity to be added in coming years. (Author)

  2. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  3. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  4. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Muejgan; Egrican, Niluefer

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  5. Thorium research and development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güngör, Görkem

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has a great potential regarding thorium resources. Thorium exploration activities have been done in the past mainly by state organizations for determining the thorium resources in Turkey. Thorium occurs as complex mineral together with barite, fluorite and rare earth elements (REE). The increase in global demand for REE creates the opportunity for REE production which will also produce thorium as a by-product. The development of nuclear energy program in Turkey provides the stimulus for research and development activities in nuclear technologies. The final declaration of the workshop emphasizes the importance of thorium reserves in Turkey and the necessity for thorium exploration and development activities in order to determine the feasibility of thorium mining and fuel cycle in Turkey. These activities should be conducted together with the development of technologies for separation of these complex minerals and purification of thorium, REE and other minerals to be utilized as commercial products. There are advanced academic research studies on thorium fuel cycle which should be supported by the industry in order to commercialize the results of these studies. Turkey should be integrated to international R and D activities on ADS which is expected to commercialize on medium term. The legislative framework should be developed in order to provide the industrial baseline for nuclear technologies independent from nuclear regulatory activities

  6. A new subgenus of the weevil genus Otiorhynchus Germar, 1822 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae for a new species from Mediterranean Turkey associated with the carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua L. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genrik E. Davidian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species Otiorhynchus ceratoniae Davidian, Gültekin & Korotyaev sp. nov. is described from eastern Mediterranean Turkey. A new monotypic subgenus Arnoldinus Davidian, Gültekin & Korotyaev subgen. nov. is erected for this species. The new species was found only under Ceratonia siliqua L. trees with lower leaves damaged by adults.

  7. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Kallio, H.

    2013-01-01

    from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial...... turkey farms were characterized for the presence of cpa, cpb, iA, etx, cpb2, and cpe and netB genes. A total of 93 C. perfringens isolates, including 55 from birds with necrotic gut lesions and 38 from healthy birds from 13 different farms, were analyzed with PFGE. All contract turkey farmers (n = 48......) of a turkey company that produces 99% of domestic turkey meat in Finland were interviewed about background information, management at the farm, and stress factors related to NE outbreaks. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis with SmaI restriction enzyme resulted in 30 PFGE patterns among the 92 C...

  8. Heat Wave Changes in the Eastern Mediterranean since 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, Franz G.; Toreti, Andrea; Xoplaki, Elena; Della-Marta, Paul M.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Türkes, Murat; Luterbacher, Jürg

    2010-05-01

    Heat waves have discernible impacts on mortality and morbidity, infrastructure, agricultural resources, the retail industry, ecosystem and tourism and consequently affect human societies. A new definition of socially relevant heat waves is presented and applied to new data sets of high-quality homogenized daily maximum and minimum summer air temperature series from 246 stations in the eastern Mediterranean region (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey). Changes in heat wave number, length and intensity between 1960 and 2006 are quantified. Daily temperature homogeneity analysis suggest that many instrumental measurements in the 1960s are warm-biased, correcting for these biases regionally averaged heat wave trends are up to 8% higher. We find significant changes across the western Balkans, southwestern and western Turkey, and along the southern Black Sea coastline. Since the 1960s, the mean heat wave intensity, heat wave length and heat wave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor 7.6 ±1.3, 7.5 ±1.3 and 6.2 ±1.1, respectively. These findings suggest that the heat wave increase in this region is higher than previously reported.

  9. Grouping of Cities In Terms Of Primary Health Indicators in Turkey: An Application of Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan TEKİN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that to determine the differences between cities that locate in Turkey is important in the context of primary health care indicators. The subject of this study is the classification of cities in Turkey in terms of health indicators. The cluster analysis method which is the one of the data mining and multivariate statistical methods is used for classification method. The main objective of the study is to examine the point of results of movement transformation in health in terms of basic health indicators on the basis of cities.. In this context, 81 cities, in Turkey are grouped with sixteen health indicators which is assumed to demonstrate the effectiveness of health care services, by the years of 2013. And also compared with the health and socio-economic development ranking in the previous studies. Providences are gathered in 21, 13, 11, 7 and 5 clusters. 11’s, 7’s and 5’s clusters are determined as the most significant clusters. As a result of the study the development gap between eastern and western provinces emerges in terms of the health variables.

  10. Application of Multivariate Statistical Analysis to Biomarkers in Se-Turkey Crude Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürgey, K.; Canbolat, S.

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-four crude oil samples were collected from the 24 oil fields distributed in different districts of SE-Turkey. API and Sulphur content (%), Stable Carbon Isotope, Gas Chromatography (GC), and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) data were used to construct a geochemical data matrix. The aim of this study is to examine the genetic grouping or correlations in the crude oil samples, hence the number of source rocks present in the SE-Turkey. To achieve these aims, two of the multivariate statistical analysis techniques (Principle Component Analysis [PCA] and Cluster Analysis were applied to data matrix of 24 samples and 8 source specific biomarker variables/parameters. The results showed that there are 3 genetically different oil groups: Batman-Nusaybin Oils, Adıyaman-Kozluk Oils and Diyarbakir Oils, in addition to a one mixed group. These groupings imply that at least, three different source rocks are present in South-Eastern (SE) Turkey. Grouping of the crude oil samples appears to be consistent with the geographic locations of the oils fields, subsurface stratigraphy as well as geology of the area.

  11. APPLICATION OF MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS TO BIOMARKERS IN SE-TURKEY CRUDE OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gürgey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four crude oil samples were collected from the 24 oil fields distributed in different districts of SE-Turkey. API and Sulphur content (%, Stable Carbon Isotope, Gas Chromatography (GC, and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS data were used to construct a geochemical data matrix. The aim of this study is to examine the genetic grouping or correlations in the crude oil samples, hence the number of source rocks present in the SE-Turkey. To achieve these aims, two of the multivariate statistical analysis techniques (Principle Component Analysis [PCA] and Cluster Analysis were applied to data matrix of 24 samples and 8 source specific biomarker variables/parameters. The results showed that there are 3 genetically different oil groups: Batman-Nusaybin Oils, Adıyaman-Kozluk Oils and Diyarbakir Oils, in addition to a one mixed group. These groupings imply that at least, three different source rocks are present in South-Eastern (SE Turkey. Grouping of the crude oil samples appears to be consistent with the geographic locations of the oils fields, subsurface stratigraphy as well as geology of the area.

  12. 3D modelling of the Carnian Crisis in a new FWF Project (P22109-B17) - Ammonite mass mortality (200 000 000 !!! specimens) as proxy for the Carnian Crisis (Taurus, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Susanne; Lukeneder, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    The Upper Triassic in general, and the Carnian stage in detail was devastated by one of the most severe ecological crisis of the Mesozoic Era, the Carnian Crisis (= Carnian Pluvial Event), when the carbonate platforms demised and with them most of the reef-builders disappeared. The Orthoceltites assemblage (ammonoids, cephalopods) was formed in the Carnian Crisis, now located at the boundary from Kartoz and Kasimlar Formation (Anatolia, Turkey), can act as proxy for the environmental activities and biotic crisis in the Carnian time. It has to be noted that the ultimate cause of this drastic Mesozoic crisis is still under comprehensive discussion. The main investigation topics of the project are the palaeoecologic, palaeobiogeographic, litho-, cyclo- and magnetostratigraphic development of the Upper Triassic (Carnian) ammonoid mass-occurrence at the Asagiyaylabel section in Anatolia (Turkey), formed during the Carnian Crisis. This area is a key section within the Taurids and has a connecting and intermediate position. Situated on the western end of the Cimmerian System at that time it shows connection to both, the Neo-Tethys and the Palaeo-Tethys Oceans. New insights into the taxonomy and the palaeoecology of the investigated ammonoids and associated macro- and microfossils are expected. The abundant ammonoid Orthoceltites, at least 200 000 000 !!! specimens, is assumed to be a new species. Further topics of investigation are the original position and environmental conditions of the sedimentation area at the Asagiyaylabel section, located in the Taurids. The formation of the ammonoid beds is either autochthonous or allochthonous (transported). Expected 3D modelling results will be essential to reach geodynamic, palaeooceanographic and palaeobiological conclusions. This further leads to the question of the original water depths during the formation of ammonoid mass occurrences. As a multitasking project, one aim is to underline a crucial fact in working within

  13. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  14. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2008 as well radon activity concentrations measured in dwellings, and absorbed gamma dose rates in air obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and gross alpha/beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples are to be found as 26.0±0.9 Bq kg - 1, 31.6±1.2 Bq kg - 1 and438.5tively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs is to be found as 10.5±1.0 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor caused from the external exposure from natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose are evaluated as 49.4 nGy h - 1 and 0.06 mSv y - 1, repectively. The activitity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples are lowere than the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide is not observed. The mean value of the activity concentration of 4 0K measured in food samples in seven categories is found as 129.8±11.3 Bq kg - 1. While the values of the activity concentration of 1 37Cs are below the MDA except mushroom and hazelnut. The mean activity concentration of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples is 0.61 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure due to radiation

  15. Age and tectonomagmatic setting of the Eocene Çöpler-Kabataş magmatic complex and porphyry-epithermal Au deposit, East Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    İmer, Ali; Richards, Jeremy P.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2013-06-01

    The Çöpler epithermal Au deposit and related subeconomic porphyry Cu-Au deposit is hosted by the middle Eocene Çöpler-Kabataş magmatic complex in central eastern Anatolia. The intrusive rocks of the complex were emplaced into Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic metamorphosed sedimentary basement rocks near the northeastern margin of the Tauride-Anatolide Block. Igneous biotite from two samples of the magmatic complex yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 43.75 ± 0.26 Ma and 44.19 ± 0.23, whereas igneous hornblende from a third sample yielded a plateau age of 44.13 ± 0.38. These ages closely overlap with 40Ar/39Ar ages of hydrothermal sericite (44.44 ± 0.28 Ma) and biotite (43.84 ± 0.26 Ma), and Re-Os ages from two molybdenite samples (44.6 ± 0.2 and 43.9 ± 0.2 Ma) suggesting a short-lived (history at Çöpler. No suitable minerals were found that could be used to date the epithermal system, but it is inferred to be close in age to the precursor porphyry system. The Çöpler-Kabataş intrusive rocks show I-type calc-alkaline affinities. Their normalized trace element patterns show enrichments in large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements and relative depletions in middle and heavy rare earth elements, resembling magmas generated in convergent margins. However, given its distance from the coeval Eocene Maden-Helete volcanic arc, the complex is interpreted to be formed in a back-arc setting, in response to Paleocene slab roll-back and upper-plate extension. The tectonomagmatic environment of porphyry-epithermal mineralization at Çöpler is comparable to some other isolated back-arc porphyry systems such as Bajo de la Alumbrera (Argentina) or Bingham Canyon (USA).

  16. Turkey-U.S. Defense Cooperation: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    to cultivate stability or to be unduly provocative to neighboring countries. • Arms sales and industrial cooperation: Turkey continues to seek... mushroomed and Kurdish secessionist sentiment within Turkey caused concerns in the 1990s following the establishment of an autonomous Kurdish zone...a member of NATO), and has counted on previously close Turkey-Israel military relations to cultivate U.S.-Turkey-Israel military cooperation

  17. Migration Crisis and New Opportunities for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Miheev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the relationship of the European Union and Turkey. Against the backdrop of the immigration crisis, that has gripped almost all countries in Europe, the EU states were forced to appeal to the Turkish Government for assistance. Europe requested to withhold part of the f refugees on the territory of Turkey. The EU promised financial support. The Government of RecepTayyip Erdogan linked problems with the issue of refugees entering the country in the EU. The author analyzes the possibility of positive promotion of the negotiation process on Turkey's EU membership. Focuses on the settlement of the Cyprus problem, as one of the three major political obstacles to Turkey in Europe. We are seeing a situation in which EU political circles are willing to exert pressure on the Cyprus conflict and to push for the signing of a formal treaty on the settlement of problem. Some progress in the negotiation process between the communities of Cyprus EU starts to participate in the negotiations on Cyprus, together with the United Nations. Creates good conditions for the settlement of the conflict. Such a way of resolving the long-standing territorial-community conflict creates much more new problems on the island. Obstacles to the integration of Turkey into the EU will become even more.

  18. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Engin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.

  19. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on...

  20. UNDERSTANDING THE NEET IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bilgen Susanli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, drawing on data from the Household Labor Force Surveys over the period 2004-2013, it examines the determinants of the NEET (Not in Employment, Education or Training status for the Turkish youth. This is particularly important for Turkey as it has the highest NEET rate among the OECD countries. Second, it describes the movement of the youth across four states: education, employment, unemployment and inactivity. Probit results indicate that gender and educational attainment are key factors for explaining the NEET status. Findings also show that a greater number of household members that are in employment is associated with a lower likelihood of NEET. Transition analyses reveal that the state of inactivity remains highly persistent despite the substantial fall over the sample period. In addition, the rise in the persistence of education between 2007 and 2009 underlines the choice of the youth to stay in education in response to the fall in labor market prospects.

  1. Turkey Point tritium. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, H.G.; Dorsey, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972-73 the Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) began operation of two nuclear reactors at Turkey Point on lower Biscayne Bay. One radioactive by-product resulting from the operation of the nuclear reactors, tritium, provides a unique opportunity to study transport and exchange processes on a local scale. Since the isotope in the form of water is not removed from the liquid effluent, it is discharged to the cooling canal system. By studying its residence time in the canal and the pathways by which it leaves the canals, knowledge of evaporative process, groundwater movement, and bay exchange with the ocean can be obtained. Preliminary results obtained from measurement of tritium levels, both in the canal system and in the surrounding environment are discussed. Waters in lower Biscayne Bay and Card and Barnes Sounds receive only a small portion of the total tritium produced by the nuclear plant. The dominating tritium loss most likely is through evaporation from the canals. The capability of measuring extremely low HTO levels allows the determination of the evaporation rate experimentally by measuring the tritium levels of air after having passed over the canals

  2. THE END OF IMF - TURKEY RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUNGUN DENIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: IMF has been created to make international cooperation on financial matters stronger and for solving the problems of balance of payment. However, the IMF formed policies in order to solve problems of balance of payment till the 1980s, expanded its effectiveness much more by controlling the structural adjustment programs after the 1980s, and undertook the role as an international lender of last resort on crises caused by globalization trends. In developing nations, foreign and domestic deficit occurred due to infrastructural causes that have created economic instabilities portrayed through inflation and unemployment. Especially foreign debt problems sourced by the foreign trade deficit transformed into an economic crisis for these countries. Many countries affected by such economic crisis applied to IMF and its Stabilization Program with the aim of providing economic stability in the hopes of recovering. The important thing here to point out is that the economic programs used by countries during their economic crisis are supported by the IMF in reality. In this situation Mexico and Argentina can be given as a good example. IMF has undertaken the same mission in Turkey with seven stabilization programs put in practice and nineteen Stand-By Arrangements between them. But IMF has failed many times in Turkey just like in many developing countries. This is because IMF did not take into consideration economic and social structure of countries in stabilization programs put in practice. Today, Turkey has reached to an important point from the way of its relationship with IMF; more clearly, Turkey is determined to achieve its future without IMF. Turkey-IMF relationship in the framework of stand-by agreements in the past half century of our economic and political history has come to an ending point. After a period of 51 years of intense relations, Turkey decided to determine its calculations of credit limit by the way of advantages and

  3. THE GENDER WAGE GAP IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2016-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages.Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. Weconcentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Althoughwomen earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entirewage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distribution. Moresurpris...

  4. Potential Prospects of Turkey in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgulu, Mehmet Emre

    2010-01-01

    As the global crisis surrounds us, Turkey, as a country with huge prospects, needs to establish new political and commercial links with the rest of the world in order to lessen the effects of the global crisis. This can be a way to take the load off Turkey’s shoulders. These links can be found in the continent Africa. As the host of world’s several fastest growing economies, the continent offers new opportunities for Turkey. These opportunities can be utilized as either in the form of Foreign...

  5. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar

    2012-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  7. Chernobyl radioactivity on the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goekmen, I.G.; Akgoez, M.; Goekmen, A.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident, Eastern Black Sea coast was one of the heavily contaminated regions of Turkey. Clouds loaded with radioactive isotopes arrived the region on May 1986 and emptied their contents with the heavy rains that are frequently seen in the region. In order to asses the current level of contamination, several different samples, moss, lichen, litter, surface soil and soil cores were collected on August 1994. Samples were brought to the laboratory and their moisture, pH and organic matter contents were determined. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were collected with a HpGe detector. 137 Cs was the major isotope observed. Activity of most litter samples were below 1000 Bq/kg, while most of the moss samples had activities below 5000 Bq/kg, there were a few with higher 137 Cs activities. Surface soil samples generally had activities less than 2000 Bq/kg and depth profiles of cesium activities in the soil cores showed regional variations. (orig.)

  8. Epidemiological analysis of poisoning cases in Van, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, I.; Karadas, S.; Gonullu, H.; Dulger, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the etiological and demographical characteristics of acute adult poisoning cases in eastern Turkey. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Department of Yuzuncu Yil University, School of Medicine, and comprised data related to the period between 2007 and 2009. The data obtained included age, gender, referrals, manner of poisoning, manner of application, the department which followed up on the patients, duration of hospital stay. All data was noted on proforma. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total cases visiting the Emergency Department, 1207 (1.1%) related to poisoning. Of them, 880 (72.9%) had attempted suicide; 858 (71.1%) were female; 349 (29%) were male. The average age of the females was 25.4+-8.5 years, and that of the males 28.3+-14.3 years. Single-medicine was noted in poisoning 544 (45.1%) patients. Other poisoning types were multidrugs 373 (30.9%); rat poisoning, insecticide and pesticides, 145 (12%); corrosives 38 (3.1%); and weed, mushroomang; food 47 (3.8%). Oral poisoning was noted in 1141 (94.5%) cases. A total of 1019 (84.4%) patients received treatment and were followed up in the Emergency Department. Six (0.6%) patients died. Conclusion: There is a need to generate more awareness about the hazards of domestic cleaning products and to keep it away at some distinct place to minimised chances of confusion. (author)

  9. Obesity prevalence in Gaziantep, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcirpici Birgul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is associated with reduced quality of life, development of serious chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, increased medical care costs, and premature death. Environmental effects, especially feeding habits may cause hyperinsulinemia and obesity. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to reduce the proportion of adults who are obese to 15%. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1647 persons in a sample representing Gaziantep, Turkey. Over the selected 329 houses, 310 houses were reached (94.2% and data about 1315 related persons was collected. The body mass index (BMI shows the relationship between the weight and the height of people, calculated by the ratio of mass by kg over the square value of height measure. In statistical analyses chi-square, student′s t -test and logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The mean BMI increased with time for both sex, whereas decreased for 60+ age group. The fastest increase for both sex was seen while transition from 18 year to 19-29 age groups occurred. Another increase in women was in 30-39 age group; BMI=25.08±4.39 in 19-29 ages whilst BMI=29.02±5.79 in 30-39 ages. The increases in both sex in other age groups were not as much as in this group. Conclusion: Obesity is not only a problem in the Gaziantep but is also a major health concern in Europe and other regions of the world. As an accepted method against obesity, life-style changes should be put into use from childhood supported in school and family life.

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides, gross alpha/beta activities and air gamma dose rates in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2007 are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural ( 238 U, 232 Th, 2 26Ra, 4 :0K and 7 Be) and artificial ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, 238-239+240 Pu, 2 41Am) radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. Results show that 137 Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident in 1986 exist in some of samples even in low levels. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in the studied surface soil samples were found as 32.1 Bq kg -1 , 35.0 Bq kg -1 , 29.0 Bq kg -1 and 446.7 Bq kg -1 , respectively, while the mean activity concentrations of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 18.4 Bq kg -1 . While the activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the analyzed food samples are lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA), 134 Cs and 7 Be radionuclides are not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides are 0.24 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. (Includes 4 tables and 7 figures)

  11. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP...... essentially replicated the main weaknesses of the European Neighbourhood Policy, by offering too little incentive and support to the partners, rendering both conditionality and soft power ineffective as tools for milieu shaping. In promoting the EaP as a policy of soft power, the EU has once again forgotten...

  12. Regional Diffusion of Divorce in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, K.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    While demographic change has been well documented for many Western countries, much less is known about demographic transitions in other countries, including Turkey. Demographic change in European societies can be characterized by, amongst others, increased prevalence of divorce. Although it is often

  13. Energy policy and climate change in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2003-01-01

    The problem of massive emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the burning of fossil fuels and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO 2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO 2 emissions worldwide. In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country; with more than half of the energy requirement being supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture contents. Because of increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of the renewable energy sources

  14. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  15. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  16. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  17. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G

    1999-10-01

    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs.

  18. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  19. Review of Turkey's renewable energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, M. Arif

    2008-01-01

    The use of renewable energy has a long history. Biomass, for instance, has been used for heating and cooking, while wind has been used in the irrigation of fields and to drive windmills for centuries. Although Turkey has many energy resources, all of these with the exception of coal and hydropower, cannot meet the total energy demand. Turkey has been importing resources to meet this deficit. These resources have become increasingly expensive and also have undesirably high emissions ratings. Turkey has an extensive shoreline and mountains and is rich in renewable energy potential. The share of renewables on total electricity generation is 29.63% while that of natural gas is 45% for the year 2006. The projection prepared for the period between 2006 and 2020 aims an annual growth of 8% for the total electricity generation. According to this projection, it is expected that renewables will have a share about 23.68% with a decrease of 5.95% while natural gas will have a share about 33.38% for 2020. This paper presents the present state of world renewable energy sources and then looks in detail at the potential resources available in Turkey. Energy politics are also considered. (author)

  20. Military Intervention, Kemalism, and Politics in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    to inadequate or misdirected actions by the military during their tenure following the interventions. Despite the checkered history of democratic... ikeas .). AtaturK: Founder or a Modern State. London: C. Hurst.19. Hianeo. Anarew. "Turkey’s Ten Year Itch" in Tne wor!6 Today, 4oi 45 N’o. F. eb 1969

  1. Teacher Perspective on Internet Censorship in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktay, Sayim

    2018-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase both in the number of users and the number of websites providing data since the invention of Internet; it has become the richest and most used source of information. However, several countries, including Turkey, resort to censorship owing to the fact that anybody can publish on the Internet with sometimes…

  2. Consanguineous Marriage and Marital Adjustment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiloglu, Hurol

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…

  3. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    a higher level of attention being paid to the importance of Africa in the public statements of ... policy is based on equal partnership and includes investing in, bringing new .... country can be measured by its economic, cultural and diplomatic activism in ..... business circles also have a strong interest in Turkey's integration into.

  4. On a collection of Opisthobranchia from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, C.

    1961-01-01

    This paper deals with the Opisthobranchia collected by the Netherlands Biological Expedition to Turkey 1959. The collection is deposited in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden. The material was chiefly collected in three areas, viz. the Bay of Antalya and the Bay of Mersin (formerly

  5. Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, Turkey, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscu, Ferit; Orkun, Omer; Ulu, Aslihan; Kurtaran, Behice; Komur, Suheyla; Inal, A Seza; Erdogan, Damla; Tasova, Yesim; Aksu, Hasan S Z

    2017-07-01

    In 2016, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was diagnosed for a man in Turkey. He had been bitten by a Hyalomma marginatum tick, from which PCR detected rickettsial DNA. Sequence analysis of the DNA identified R. sibirica mongolitimonae. Immunofluorescence assay of patient serum indicated R. conorii, which cross-reacts. PCR is recommended for rickettsiosis diagnoses.

  6. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  7. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing

  8. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  9. Turkey Psoriasis Treatment Guide-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Akyol

    2016-08-01

    used for biologic therapy for treatment of psoriasis. In this guideline severity of psoriasis has been determined, treatment phases and treatment goals have been identified and consensus recommendations have been proposed about appropiate treatment modalities in the light of recent guidelines, meta-analytic studies and experiences in Turkey. This guideline, published in 2012, have been updated in 2016 by adding new information.

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2009 and absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 34,7 ± 1,7 Bq kg - 1, 35,4 ± 0,8 Bq kg - 1 and 450,0 ± 17,9 Bq kg - 1, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 11,6 ± 0,5 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 54,6 nGy h - 1 and 0,07 mSv y - 1, respectively. The activity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 0,28 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 4 0K, l 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 193,0 μSv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring programme in 2009 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any significant

  11. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  12. Mediterranean energy perspectives - Turkey. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This in-depth study provides insight into Turkey's energy profile from the early 1960's to the present and an outlook to 2030. MEP-Turkey presents detailed analysis and data on the supply and demand balance for the major components of the energy sector with particular emphasis on sectoral analysis. It is based on OME's proprietary Mediterranean Energy Econometric Model for Turkey developed for this publication. The outlook to 2030 presents two possible pathways for energy demand based on different assumptions. The conservative scenario considers past trends, policies in force and on-going projects, but takes a cautious approach regarding the implementation and timing of policy measures and planned projects. The proactive scenario assumes effective achievements to lessen dependence on imported fuels by giving emphasis to production of domestic resources, stronger efficiency programmes and a more diversified energy supply mix including more renewable energy. To achieve ambitious energy efficiency levels and implement as much renewable energy sources as foreseen in the Proactive Scenario will require unwavering political will, strong policies and measures, as well as sizeable investments, especially by the private sector. Both scenarios, built from the same assumption for population, economic growth, and international fossil-fuel prices, are based on the premise that energy demand will be met. Turkey's future, stimulated by a booming economy and population, an export-oriented industry and a blossoming domestic market, looks bright. The energy needed to fuel this growth will depend greatly on the paths chosen. In this context, the country finds itself at a historical crossroads in its development, as the energy policy choices it makes today will shape Turkey's energy future and its ability to attract the considerable investments required in the energy industry

  13. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.

  14. Prevention of hemoglobinopathies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çürük

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic disorders in Turkey. The incidence of beta thalassemia and sickle cell trait (HbAS is 2.0% and 0.3% respectively. In addition to HbS, 51 abnormal hemoglobins and 42 different beta thalassemia mutations have been detected by DNA analysis. In Turkey, beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia cause major health problems. For thirty years, screening programs for carriers, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis have sought to prevent hemoglobinopathies. In 1983, the first prenatal diagnosis center was established for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia at Hacettepe University, Ankara. After many populationscreening studies, a law was passed in 1993 by the Turkish Parliament for the eradication of hemoglobinopathies. Forty-one premarital screening centers were set up by the Ministry of Health in the 33 provinces where most of the transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients live. The mothers at risk for hemoglobinopathies were given genetic counseling and directed to prenatal diagnosis centers. Since 1990, four prenatal diagnosis centers have been established at university hospitals in Adana, Antalya, Istanbul and Izmir. A total of 5255 prenatal diagnoses have been made for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia in 5 centers; 1338 fetuses have been diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygotes for hemoglobinopathies. Prenatal diagnosis was performed on families who had decided to terminate the pregnancy if it were to be found that the fetus was affected. 血红蛋白病是土耳其最为常见的遗传性疾病。乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性状(HbAS)的发病率分别为2.0%和0.3%。除HbS外,已通过NDA分析检测出51种异常血红蛋白和42种乙型地中海贫血突变基因。在土耳其,乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性贫血会导致严重的健康问题。30年来,一直在为病原携带者提供筛选项目,以及遗传咨询和产前诊断服务,

  15. Seismotectonics of Western Turkey: A Synthesis of Source Parameters and Rupture Histories of Recent Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymaz, T.; Tan, O.; Yolsal, S.

    2004-12-01

    The Aegean region, including western Turkey and Greece, is indeed one of the most seismically active and rapidly deforming continental domains in the Earth. The wide range of deformational processes occurring in this region means that the eastern Mediterranean provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the complex kinematics of continental collision, including strike-slip faulting and crustal extension, as well as associated seismicity and volcanism. The tectonic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region is dominated by effects of subduction along the Hellenic (Aegean) arc and of continental collision in eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus. Northward subduction of the African plate beneath western Anatolia and the Aegean region is causing crustal extension in the overlying Aegean province. The interplay between dynamic effects of the relative motions of adjoining plates thus controls large-scale crustal deformation and the associated earthquake activity in Turkey. The Aegean region has been subject to extension since Miocene time, and this extension has left a pronounced expression in the present-day topography. It is further widely accepted that the rapid extension observed in western Turkey is mainly accommodated by large active normal faults that control the geomorphology which is dominated by a series of E-W trending normal-fault-bounded horst and graben structures; the N-S extension inferred from these structures is consistent with regional earthquake focal mechanisms. The E-W trending Menderes graben, the NE-SW trending Burdur, Acigol and Baklan, and NW-SE trending Dinar and Sultandag-Aksehir basins all bounded by large faults form a system of half-graben whose orientation is evident in both the topography and the tilting of Neogene sediments adjacent to them. We have studied source mechanisms and rupture histories of ˜20 earthquakes using body-waveform modelling, and have compared the shapes and amplitudes of teleseismic long-period P

  16. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to make it a crossroads of multiple

  17. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  18. Quality of slaughter material ? BIG 6 heavy turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Kryza; Marian Pietrzak; Ewa Gornowicz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a randomized assessment of slaughter material in the form of intensively farmed turkeys obtained by large poultry slaughter and meat processing plants. The assessment involved determining the slaughter value and physical characteristics of the meat. Samples (23 male and 12 female turkeys) were collected from the processing line of a large commercial poultry processing facility, and hybrid turkeys of a BIG 6 heavy breeding line came from different producers....

  19. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy in Turkey: Public Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Emrah

    2018-01-01

    Turkey intends tobuild three nuclear power stations in the Akkuyu, Sinopand Igneada regions to meet its increasing energy demands. This policy,however, is still a highly controversial topic in Turkey as nuclear energy hasboth advantages and disadvantages. The related literature on this topic isdivided into two groups; supporters claim that nuclear energy may decreaseTurkey's energy dependency on other countries, as it already importsapproximately 70% of its total energy demand. In contra...

  20. Eastern Europe's market role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, trade in nuclear fuel between market economy countries and those with planned economies was limited. The exception to this was in the enrichment market across Western Europe during the 1970s. Most of the nuclear generating plants in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe are light water reactors needing enriched uranium. Under the fuel supply agreements with Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has provided all of the regions' enrichment services, and therefore it has developed the only enrichment facilities. Techsnabexport (TENEX), the USSR foreign trade organization for the nuclear fuel cycle, first appeared in the early 1970s. It was as an alternative supplier to the US government, which had a monopoly in the West regarding enrichment. In 1986 the USSR entered and soon dominated the spot market for enrichment. Political changes in Eastern Europe at the end of 1989 and throughout 1990 opened the nuclear fuel market even wider. In 1990 the USSR began allowing exports of concentrates, as well as enriched product, and a free flow of trade to the Western market is now developing for both enrichment and uranium. (author)

  1. Isolation of a highly pathogenic influenza virus from turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, M S; Allan, G M; McCracken, R M; McParland, P J

    1985-01-01

    An influenza virus was isolated from turkeys with an acute disease causing 30% mortality. The virus was subtyped as H5 N8. The nomenclature A/turkey/Ireland/83 (H5 N8) is proposed for this isolate. The virus had an ICPI of 1.80 to 1.85 for 1-day-old chicks and an IVPI of 2.74 for 6-week-old chickens. Following oronasal inoculation of juvenile and adult turkeys, chickens and ducks with the isolate, 100% mortality occurred in turkeys and chickens. No clinical signs were observed in inoculated ducks, but all developed serum antibody titres against the virus.

  2. Turkey's response to threats of weapons of mass destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Guray.

    2001-01-01

    Unlike most of its NATO allies, Turkey did not emerge from the Cold War with enhanced security. The acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missiles by its neighbors in the Middle Eastâ Iran, Iraq and Syriaâ creates a serious security concern for Turkey. This thesis analyzes the numerous threats posed to Turkey by its neighborsα nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs and their ballistic missiles. It evaluates Turkeyαs defense options to counter these thre...

  3. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  4. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Zehra [Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Durak, Hatice [Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear energy in Turkey. Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The global demand for electricity is rapidly increasing. There is growing uncertainty in regard to the supply and prices of oil and natural gas. These considerations have opened new prospects for the development of nuclear energy on a global state. Despite the negative impact of the Fukushima Daichi accident, still some countries are considering or have expressed interest in developing nuclear power programmes. As the country using nuclear technology is primarily responsible for safety and as operational safety cannot be out sourced, building of sound safety expertise and strong safety culture is an essential precondition for the country introducing nuclear technology. Turkey's energy policy is naturally focused on the security, sustainability and competitiveness of energy supply. It is designed to sustain targeted economic and social growth in the long run. Turkey remains resolutely committed to the goal of ensuring safe, secure and peaceful utilization of nuclear energy

  6. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis; Durak, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  7. A Case of Familial Polydactyly From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billur Sezgin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polydactyly is among the most frequently encountered congenital anomalies of the extremities. Although it is usually presented in an isolated and sporadic manner, familial cases can also be rarely encountered. Such familial polydactyly cases usually follow an autosomal dominant inheritance with variable genetic penetration and are usually bilateral and symmetric. A case of rare familial polydactyly from Turkey is presented. Four siblings, two girls and two boys, presented with bilateral, symmetric preaxial polydactyly affecting both hands and feet. These siblings also had four other unaffected siblings along with an affected father and grandmother (the father’s mother. Although the cases portrayed duplication at different levels, the general definition of familial polydactyly with bilateral, symmetric inheritance is observed in these cases. Other rare familial polydactyly cases have been reported in the literature as well, and this case serves as a typical example of this rare entity from Turkey.

  8. Contamination of fodder and radioactivity in turkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.; Olszewska, K.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactivity was determined in mixed fodder (IB, IC, IE) and in turkeys which were given that feeding stuff. In animals (25 males and 25 females) fed with the above mixed fodder for 16-24 weeks radioactivity was assessed in internal organs and in their tissues. It was found that radioactivity ranged from 322.2 Bq/kg to 190.6 Bq/kg. In males the highest contamination was found in the spleen (average 0.108 Bq/g), in skeletal muscles (0.082 Bq/g), and in the liver (0.080 Bq/g), and the lowest in the skin (0.046 Bq per 1 g). The findings indicate that radioactivity of carcasses and internal organs in turkeys fed with contamined fodder was much lower than that in fodder. 6 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  9. Electricity generation: a case study in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale electricity generation provides versatile energy of the highest quality. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are the primary sources of this energy. However, these fossil energy sources are limited and using fossil energy sources has the undesirable effect of releasing emissions that burden the environment and alter the climate. Therefore, governments and companies all over the world should find new and renewable energy sources. On the other hand, over the past two decades, power station construction programs in the developing countries accounted for nearly 30% of total public investment. In a large number of these countries, shortages of electricity have become a critical constraint to economic growth. In Turkey, from 1980 to 1995, the amount for electricity generated increased about fourfold from 23,275 Gwh to 86,247 Gwh, and annual growth rates were in the double digits. This is a good development, but not enough for Turkey. (author)

  10. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  11. Determinants of Industrial Production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA OZTURK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of emphasizing the importance of industrial production for the sustainable growth and development of Turkey has been a topic of discussion in political and academia circles. The growth in industrial production (output depends on the investment in manufacturing sectors and the demand for the products. Along with internal demand, Turkey tries to support its manufacturing base with export (incentives. Manufacturing items occupy the greatest share of products in export sales. The development of manufacturing capabilities of the country is clearly based on the demand from inside and out. The effect of Turkey’s export on its industrial production throughout 2000’s has been analyzed. For this purpose we developed a VAR model where industrial production index was the dependent variable and export, investment, and interest rate were independent variables. All independent variables were found to be significantly explaining industrial production.

  12. Employment services in Great Britain and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKANLI, Özlem

    2001-01-01

    This artiele criticaUy compares the institutions and procedures for the employment services of Great Britain (GB) and Turkey. The similarities and differences of two employment organisations, the Department for Education and Employment in GB and the Turkish Employment Organisation, are examined. Data is collected in field study from these organisations, based in London and Ankara, through interviews and observation techniques. Field study in London is financed by the World Bank. After briefly...

  13. Healthcare information technology infrastructures in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogac, A; Yuksel, M; Ertürkmen, G L; Kabak, Y; Namli, T; Yıldız, M H; Ay, Y; Ceyhan, B; Hülür, U; Oztürk, H; Atbakan, E

    2014-05-22

    The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for "Health-Net"), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients' Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. With the introduction of the "Health Transformation Program" in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality.

  14. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  15. Pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirjis, F F; Noll, S L; Halvorson, D A; Nagaraja, K V; Shaw, D P

    2002-05-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) is the cause of a respiratory disease of turkeys characterized by coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, and swelling of the infraorbital sinuses. Sixty turkey poults were reared in isolation conditions. At 3 weeks of age, serum samples were collected and determined to be free of antibodies against APV, avian influenza, hemorrhagic enteritis, Newcastle disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and Bordetella avium. When the poults were 4 weeks old, they were inoculated with cell culture-propagated APV (APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97) via the conjunctival spaces and nostrils. After inoculation, four poults were euthanatized every 2 days for 14 days, and blood, swabs, and tissues were collected. Clinical signs consisting of nasal discharge, swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, and frothy ocular discharge were evident by 2 days postinoculation (PI) and persisted until day 12 PI. Mild inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses was present between days 2 and 10 PI. Mild inflammatory changes were seen in tracheas of poults euthanatized between days 4 and 10 PI. Antibody to APV was detected by day 7 PI. The virus was detected in tissue preparations and swabs of nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and immunohistochemical staining methods between days 2 and 10 PI. Virus was detected in tracheal tissue and swabs between days 2 and 6 PI using the same methods. In this experiment, turkey poults inoculated with tissue culture-propagated APV developed clinical signs similar to those seen in field cases associated with infection with this virus.

  16. ANALYSIS OF WAGE INEQUALITY IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Acun, Serdar

    2018-01-01

    Discussion of the notion of wages has consistently taken place in economicliterature. The way in which wages come to exist and are defined, and what theequilibrium point is have been the center of this discussion. The significant share of wages in total income hasraised its importance further. According to Turkey income and livingconditions data for 2015, wages and salaries held the proportion with 52.5 % oftotal income. As a consequence of that, the effect of wage inequality on incomeinequal...

  17. Turkey and Copyleft Music Production : Reflectionson Bandista

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabov, Ilkin

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on copyleft music production in Turkey through a case study on Bandista, amusic collective with strong oppositional stance formed in 2006 in Istanbul. Describing itsmusical performances as "situationist experiment of rage and rapture" Bandista becameimmensely popular in the Turkish political music scenery after releasing its debut album De tefabula narratur in 2009 under the copyleft scheme. The article tries to look at the copyleft withthe notion of 'music as performance...

  18. Chronic toxicity of fumonisins in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, D; Bailly, J-D; Skiba, F; Métayer, J-P; Grosjean, F; Guerre, P

    2007-09-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins that are found worldwide. They are mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides during its development on corn. The main toxic effects of these molecules have been well characterized in poultry in the case of acute exposure, but the subclinical and economic effects of chronic exposure are less known. Whereas the latest European recommendations suggest that maximal levels of fumonisins in corn could reach 60 mg/kg and the maximal contamination of poultry feeds could reach 20 mg/kg, no study is available at this level in turkeys. The aim of the present work was thus to characterize the effects of exposure to fumonisins (concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2/kg of feed) on feed consumption and growth in turkeys over a period of 9 wk. Main biochemical parameters of the liver and alteration of sphingolipid metabolism were investigated in plasma, liver, and kidney. The main results showed no effect on feed consumption and growth in exposed turkeys. Moreover, no effect was observed on the weight of tissues and markers of liver injury. By contrast, a disruption of sphingolipid metabolism was clear at a level of exposure of 10 and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2 mg/kg of feed. Both hepatic and kidney concentrations of sphinganine increased gradually throughout the exposure period. These results reveal that disruption of sphingolipid metabolism is an early and sensitive biomarker of fumonisins exposure in turkeys; the consequences on these alterations remain to be established.

  19. Wage Inequality in Turkey: 2002-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bakis, Ozan; Polat, Sezgin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of wage inequality over the last decade in Turkey using household labor force survey between 2002 and 2010. During the period between 2002 and 2004, the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers stayed almost constant while their relative wages have decreased in the benefit of less educated workers. However, in the second period between 2004 and 2010 the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers had risen while t...

  20. COMPARING MODERNIZATION IN IRAN AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoum Parhizkari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines and comparesthe questions whether there are anydifferences between Iran and Turkey inmodernization and if this is the casewhether this is gender equality, family values, or secularity that causes suchdifferences. Data from the Iranian andthe Turkish part of the World ValuesSurvey (WVS forth wave are used forthe empirical analysis. Conceptual andmethodological effects influence the structural equation model.

  1. Issues of Teaching Tuvan Language in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita B. Kungaa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuvan language is taught and studied both in the Republic of Tuva and beyond its borders. Alongside with other Turkic languages, it is taught at a number of universities in Turkey – and like all languages belonging to the same group, it is taught to Turkish students not as a foreign, but as a cognate tongue. Speaking from her own experience as lecturer in Tuvan language and literature at the University of Ankara (1997-2003, the author shares her opinions on the issues language instructors frequently face when teaching Tuvan to Turkish students. Since all Turkic languages are understood to stem back to a single ancestor – Proto-Turkic language, the absolute majority of Turkologists see them as dialects of this ancestor tongue. Correspondingly, in their learning experience Turkish students distinguish between foreign languages and those cognate to their mother tongue. Overall, about 20 Turkish universities offer courses in various Turkic languages. At the moment, quite a lot of specialists in Tuvan – both researchers and educators – work in Turkey. However, there is a marked lack of student motivation to study Tuvan. Students see little incentives of professional career growth except becoming an academic linguist. Another notable issue is the absence of textbooks, study manuals, or Tuvan-Turkish and Turkish-Tuvan phrasebooks which could facilitate achieving the required level of command of Tuvan by Turkish students. This problem as yet remains unsolved. For Turkish students, learning Tuvan opens the prospect of becoming a Turkologist. For the Republic of Tuva, the presence of such specialists would help popularize Tuvan culture and enhance collaboration between Tuva and Turkey in the areas of science, culture and economy. This will also help develop the relations between Turkey and Russian Federation.

  2. REMITTANCES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin KARAMELIKLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Savings are one of the important determinants beyond the theories of economic growth. Therefore remittances and foreign direct investment inflows have importance for the countries having insufficient savings. This study examines the relationship between economic growth, remittances, foreign direct investment inflows and gross domestic savings in Turkey during the period 1974-2013 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach. We found that remittances, foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings had positive impact on economic growth.

  3. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  4. Microbiological, chemical and physical quality of drinking water for commercial turkeys: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, G; Piccirillo, A; Giacomelli, M; Comin, D; Gallina, A; Capello, K; Buniolo, F; Montesissa, C; Bonfanti, L

    2018-04-17

    Drinking water for poultry is not subject to particular microbiological, chemical and physical requirements, thereby representing a potential transmission route for pathogenic microorganisms and contaminants and/or becoming unsuitable for water-administered medications. This study assessed the microbiological, chemical and physical drinking water quality of 28 turkey farms in North-Eastern Italy: 14 supplied with tap water (TW) and 14 with well water (WW). Water salinity, hardness, pH, ammonia, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, chromium, copper and iron levels were also assessed. Moreover, total bacterial count at 22°C, presence and enumeration of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli, presence of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were quantified. A water sample was collected in winter and in summer at 3 sampling sites: the water source (A), the beginning (B) and the end (C) of the nipple line (168 samples in total). Chemical and physical quality of both TW and WW sources was mostly within the limits of TW for humans. However, high levels of hardness and iron were evidenced in both sources. In WW vs. TW, sulphate and salinity levels were significantly higher, whilst pH and nitrate levels were significantly lower. At site A, microbiological quality of WW and TW was mostly within the limit of TW for humans. However, both sources had a significantly lower microbiological quality at sites B and C. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Kentucky was isolated only twice from WW. Campylobacter spp. were rarely isolated (3.6% of farms); however, Campylobacter spp. farm-level prevalence by real-time PCR was up to 43% for both water sources. Winter posed at higher risk than summer for Campylobacter spp. presence in water, whereas no significant associations were found with water source, site, recirculation system, and turkey age. Low salinity and high hardness were significant risk factors for C. coli and C. jejuni presence, respectively. These results show the need of

  5. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  6. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 → 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R 2 value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R 2 =0.9998). The MAPE and R 2 for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely

  7. COMPETITIVENESS OF DEFENSE INDUSTRY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakki BILGEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has created some opportunities for the organisations in the defense industry to generate a suitable business and to ensure its sustainability. The domestic coverage ratio of defense system need in 2010 is aimed as 50%. To achieve this target depends on the defense industry competitiveness. In this study, the development plans, strategies and foreign trade are examined. Its contribution which has an important place in the research and development investment, is not at the level expected in Turkey’s economy. Turkey occupies 47th position in World Competitiveness Scoreboard, and 61st position in Global Competitiveness Index in 2009. The index factors are investigated to understand the competitiveness according to the Porter’s diamond model, applied in Turkey for the first time. As a result, the competitiveness analysis of Turkish defense industry is carried out and its global place and competitive advantage are exposed. Therefore, a framework is made to introduce a guide for decision-making by using a widely-accepted model, and to contribute to the plans and strategies

  8. Sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Yusuf; Celik, Sevilay Senol

    2007-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and sources of sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey, its consequences, and factors affecting harassment experiences. Descriptive survey. Participants (N=622) were selected from nurses working in eight Ministry of Health hospitals in Turkey. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Harassment Questionnaire, consisting of the sociodemographic characteristics of participants, types of sexual harassment, sources, feelings, ramifications, and ways to cope with sexual harassment behaviors. Frequency and percentage distributions, chi-square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed 37.1% of participants had been harassed sexually. Physicians were identified as the primary instigators of sexual harassment. The most common reactions against harassers were anger and fear; frequently reported negative effects of sexual harassment were disturbed mental health function, decline in job performance, and headache. "Did nothing" was the coping method used most commonly by the nurses. About 80% of sexually harassed nurses did not report the incident of sexual harassment to hospital administration. The lower working status and power of nurses in the workplace, poor working conditions in healthcare settings, and insufficient administrative mechanisms, including the present law and regulations against sexual harassers, were identified as important factors in the work environment in Turkey.

  9. Determinants of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake Among Women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözmen, Kaan; Unal, Belgin; Sakarya, Sibel; Dinc, Gonul; Yardim, Nazan; Keskinkilic, Bekir; Ergör, Gül

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on breast and cervical cancer screening among women 30 years and older in Turkey. We used data from the National Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Survey conducted by the Ministry of Health in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of sociodemographic factors, lifestyle variables, and cancer screening. Overall, 22.0% of women ever had a Pap smear test for cervical cancer screening and 19.0% ever had a mammography for breast cancer screening(n = 6846). Individuals with a university degree, social security, doing moderate physical activity, and consuming 5 portions of fruit or vegetable/day were more likely to receive Pap smear test and mammography. Residing in the eastern region and living in rural area was associated with lower likelihood of receiving both types of screening. © 2016 APJPH.

  10. Indoor and outdoor Radon concentration measurements in Sivas, Turkey, in comparison with geological setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihci, Metin [Iller Bankasi, Etud Plan ve Yol Dairesi, Opera, 06053 Ankara (Turkey); Buyuksarac, Aydin [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 17020, Canakkale (Turkey); Aydemir, Attila, E-mail: aydemir@tpao.gov.t [Turkiye Petrolleri A.O. Mustafa, Kemal Mah. 2. Cad. No: 86, 06100 Sogutozu, Ankara (Turkey); Celebi, Nilgun [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre (CNAEM), Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Indoor and soil gas Radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentration measurements were accomplished in two stages in Sivas, a central eastern city in Turkey. In the first stage, CR-39 passive nuclear track detectors supplied by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) were placed in the selected houses throughout Sivas centrum in two seasons; summer and winter. Before the setup of detectors, a detailed questionnaire form was distributed to the inhabitants of selected houses to investigate construction parameters and properties of the houses, and living conditions of inhabitants. Detectors were collected back two months later and analysed at TAEA laboratories to obtain indoor {sup 222}Rn gas concentration values. In the second stage, soil gas {sup 222}Rn measurements were performed using an alphameter near the selected houses for the indoor measurements. Although {sup 222}Rn concentrations in Sivas were quite low in relation with the allowable limits, they are higher than the average of Turkey. Indoor and soil gas {sup 222}Rn concentration distribution maps were prepared seperately and these maps were applied onto the surface geological map. In this way, both surveys were correlated with the each other and they were interpreted in comparison with the answers of questionnaire and the geological setting of the Sivas centrum and the vicinity.

  11. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants of Iğdır Province (East Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernaz Altundağ Çakır

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iğdır Province is situated in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. Wild edible plants and their utilization methods have not been previously documented there. This study was conducted during an ethnobotanical survey of Iğdır Province from 2007 to 2012, in the period from May to October, when plants were in their flowering and fruiting periods. There were 210 interviews carried out in 78 villages. This study provides information about 154 wild plant taxa belonging to 27 families that have been used as foodstuffs, spices, or hot drinks. Seventeen wild edible plants were recorded for the first time during this study. Eight endemic species were reported as used for their edibility, and new local names for plants were also recorded. The cultural importance index was calculated for each taxon. The most culturally important species are Mentha longifolia, Falcaria vulgaris, Polygonum aviculare, Rosa canina, Crataegus azarolus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Malus sylvestris. This study presents the richest heritage in terms of the diversity of wild edible plants ever recorded in Turkey.

  12. Evaluation of cutaneous anthrax cases during an outbreak in the east region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kural Ünüvar, Esra; Akgün Karapınar, Deniz Bahar; Dizen Namdar, Nazlı

    2016-11-17

    Anthrax is a zoonotic infection caused by Bacillus anthracis. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate cutaneous anthrax cases that occurred during an outbreak in eastern Turkey (Hakkari-Yüksekova), where people mostly earn their living from animal husbandry. Forty-six cutaneous anthrax patients that were admitted to the hospital during a very short duration of 3 months (June-August 2011) were evaluated. Out of 46 patients, 27 (52%) were women and 19 (48%) were men. The mean age was 37 ± 13 years. The distribution of occupations was 1 butcher, 1 cook, 5 farmers, 27 housewives, 11 shepherds, and 1 teacher. Multiple lesions were seen in 7 patients (15%) and the rest of the patients had only 1 lesion. We observed significant clinical differences among the cases and noted which particular symptoms were associated with the various skin lesions. We treated our patients with intramuscular procaine penicillin or oral ciprofloxacin/doxycycline. Anthrax is an important health problem that can cause lethal outbreaks. Therefore, one should think about anthrax when faced with a patient with history of animal contact that has a painless ulcer with edema and/or vesicles, especially in endemic countries like Turkey.

  13. Determination of Selenium and Nickel in Asphaltite from Milli (Sirnak) Deposit in SE Anatolia of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Isil; Fidan, Celal; Kavak, Orhan; Erek, Figen; Aydin, Firat

    2017-12-01

    Asphaltite is one of the naturally occurring black, solid bitumen’s, which are soluble at heating in carbon disulphide band fuse. Asphaltite is also a solidified hydro carbon compound derived from petroleum [1]. According to the World Energy Council, Turkish National Committee (1998), the total reserve of the asphaltic substances that are found in south eastern Turkey is about 82 million tons, with Silopi and Sirnak reserves to get her comprising the major part of the Asphaltite deposits. Selenium and Nickel are very important elements both environmental and health. Selenium plays an important role in the formation of the enzyme antioxidant effect in the cell. The need for Selenium increases in situations such as pregnancy, menopause, grow than development, air pollution. Nickel is used for preventing iron-poor blood, increasing iron absorption, and treating weak bones. In this study, asphaltites were taken from Milli vein from Sirnak deposit in SE Anatolia of Turkey. A total of 6.500.000 tons of Asphaltite reserves have been identified as asphaltites in Milli (Sirnak). The sample preparation method was developed in Asphaltite by spectroanalytical techniques, wet acid digestion. MW-AD followed by ICP-OES were used for the determination of Selenium and Nickel in Asphaltite. Proximate analysis of Asphaltite fly ash samples was made. It also, Selenium and Nickel element analysis in Asphaltite were made.

  14. The Detection of a Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9 Infection in a Turkey Breeder Flock in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott M; Banks, Jill; Ceeraz, Vanessa; Seekings, Amanda; Howard, Wendy A; Puranik, Anita; Collins, Susan; Manvell, Ruth; Irvine, Richard M; Brown, Ian H

    2016-05-01

    In April 2013, an H9N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus was isolated in a turkey breeder farm in Eastern England comprising 4966 birds. Point-of-lay turkey breeding birds had been moved from a rearing site and within 5 days had shown rapid onset of clinical signs of dullness, coughing, and anorexia. Three houses were involved, two contained a total of 4727 turkey hens, and the third housed 239 male turkeys. Around 50% of the hens were affected, whereas the male turkeys demonstrated milder clinical signs. Bird morbidity rose from 10% to 90%, with an increase in mortality in both houses of turkey hens to 17 dead birds in one house and 27 birds in the second house by day 6. The birds were treated with an antibiotic but were not responsive. Postmortem investigation revealed air sacculitis but no infraorbital sinus swellings or sinusitis. Standard samples were collected, and influenza A was detected. H9 virus infection was confirmed in all three houses by detection and subtyping of hemagglutinating agents in embryonated specific-pathogen-free fowls' eggs, which were shown to be viruses of H9N2 subtype using neuraminidase inhibition tests and a suite of real-time reverse transcription PCR assays. LPAI virus pathotype was suggested by cleavage site sequencing, and an intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.00 confirmed that the virus was of low pathogenicity. Therefore, no official disease control measures were required, and despite the high morbidity, birds recovered and were kept in production. Neuraminidase sequence analysis revealed a deletion of 78 nucleotides in the stalk region, suggesting an adaptation of the virus to poultry. Hemagglutinin gene sequences of two of the isolates clustered with a group of H9 viruses containing other contemporary European H9 strains in the Y439/Korean-like group. The closest matches to the two isolates were A/turkey/Netherlands/11015452/11 (H9N2; 97.9-98% nucleotide identity) and A/mallard/Finland/Li13384/10 (H9N2; 97

  15. GIS based spatial pattern analysis: Children with Hepatitis A in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Ahmet Ozgur; David, Ruusa Magano; Ulugtekin, Necla; Goksel, Cigdem; Seker, Dursun Zafer; Sözen, Seval

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to provide an insight into the geographic distribution of Hepatitis A incidence considering their temporal distribution, spatial patterns, hot spots and clusters identification in three different age-group (0-4, 5-9 and 10-14) in Turkey. Province based tabular data, including monthly numbers of Hepatitis A cases in children, and the populations from 2001 to 2011 were used as the basic input of the study. Time series maps were created using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to introduce the temporal changes in the morbidity rates of Hepatitis A. The spatial variation of Hepatitis A was measured using Moran's I at the global level and the local indicators of spatial associations (LISAs) Moran's I and Getis-Ord G i *(d) in order to identify influential locations through clusters and hot spots detection of Hepatitis A cases. The morbidity rates in children under the age of 5 were found significantly lower than the other age-groups, whereas the age-group 5-9 revealed the highest morbidity rates in the study area. The morbidity of Hepatitis A was detected very high for the years 2001, and 2005-2007. The identification of the highly vulnerable provinces was conducted using local Moran's I and local Getis-Ord G i *(d). The majority of clusters and hot spots were detected to be agglomerated in the Eastern Mediterranean and South-Eastern Anatolian Regions and Ceyhan, Asi and Southeast part of Firat-Dicle river basins in Turkey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Meteorological analysis of flash floods in Artvin (NE Turkey on 24 August 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Baltaci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On 24 August 2015 intense rainfall episodes generated flash floods and landslides on the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey. As a consequence of the heavy rainstorm activity over Artvin and its surroundings (NE Turkey, 11 people died and economic losses totaled a million dollars. Over the 6 h of the event (from 05:00 to 11:00 UTC, total accumulated rainfall amounts of 136, 64, and 109 mm were measured in the Hopa, Arhavi, and Borçka settlements of Artvin city, respectively. This study comprehensively investigates the meteorological characteristics of those flash floods. In terms of synoptic mechanisms, the cutoff surface low from the summer Asian monsoon settled over the eastern Black Sea. After two days of quasistationary conditions of this cyclone, sea surface temperatures (SSTs reached 27.5 °C (1.5 °C higher than normal and low-level moisture convergence developed. In addition, transfer of moisture by warm northerly flows from the Black Sea and relatively cool southerly flows from the land coasts of the Artvin district exacerbated the unstable conditions and thus played a significant role in the development of deep convective cells. Severe rainstorms as well as the slope instability of the region triggered landslides and worsened flood damages in the Artvin area. This study supports conventional weather analysis, satellite images, and forecast model output to alert forecasters to the potential for heavy rainfall.

  17. Preliminary Hazard Assessment for Tectonic Tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, B.; Bayazitoglu, O.; Sharghi vand, N.; Kanoglu, U.

    2017-12-01

    There are many critical industrial facilities such as energy production units and energy transmission lines along the southeast coast of Turkey. This region is also active on tourism, and agriculture and aquaculture production. There are active faults in the region, i.e. the Cyprus Fault, which extends along the Mediterranean basin in the east-west direction and connects to the Hellenic Arc. Both the Cyprus Fault and the Hellenic Arc are seismologically active and are capable of generating earthquakes with tsunamigenic potential. Even a small tsunami in the region could cause confusion as shown by the recent 21 July 2017 earthquake of Mw 6.6, which occurred in the Aegean Sea, between Bodrum, Turkey and Kos Island, Greece since region is not prepared for such an event. Moreover, the Mediterranean Sea is one of the most vulnerable regions against sea level rise due to global warming, according to the 5th Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. For these reasons, a marine hazard such as a tsunami can cause much worse damage than expected in the region (Kanoglu et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 373, 2015). Hence, tsunami hazard assessment is required for the region. In this study, we first characterize earthquakes which have potential to generate a tsunami in the Eastern Mediterranean. Such study is a prerequisite for regional tsunami mitigation studies. For fast and timely predictions, tsunami warning systems usually employ databases that store pre-computed tsunami propagation resulting from hypothetical earthquakes with pre-defined parameters. These pre-defined sources are called tsunami unit sources and they are linearly superposed to mimic a real event, since wave propagation is linear offshore. After investigating historical earthquakes along the Cyprus Fault and the Hellenic Arc, we identified tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean and proposed tsunami unit sources for the region. We used the tsunami numerical model MOST (Titov et al

  18. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  19. THE ECONOMIC SITUATION IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: A POSSIBLE THREAT TO THE SECURITY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea PIRNUTA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The entire world has had to face the draconian effects of the economic recession recently. One of the regions marked by severe economic damages has been South Eastern Europe. The present article aims at analyzing the current economic situation in this particular region by trying to identify the strong and weak points, as well as possible ways to solve these specific issues. This paper lays emphasis upon states, such as: Turkey, Greece and Romania, but also on certain facts about the other states belonging to the previously mentioned region.

  20. 500.000 years of environmental history in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN drilling project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio; Baumgarten, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were...... drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black...

  1. Is tuberculosis crossing borders at the Eastern boundary of the European Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Marieke J.; Hollo, Vahur; Noori, Teymur

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Eastern border of the European Union (EU) consists of 10 countries after the expansion of the EU in 2004 and 2007. These 10 countries border to the East to countries with high tuberculosis (TB) notification rates. We analyzed the notification data of Europe to quantify the impact of cross-border TB at the Eastern border of the EU. Methods: We used TB surveillance data of 2010 submitted by 53 European Region countries to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin of the case (national/foreign). We calculated the contribution of foreign to overall TB notification. Results: In the 10 EU countries located at the EU Eastern border, 618 notified TB cases (1.7% of all notified TB cases) were of foreign origin. Of those 618 TB cases, 173 (28.0%) were from countries bordering the EU to the East. More specifically, 90 (52.0%) were from Russia, 33 (19.1%) from Belarus, 33 (19.1%) from Ukraine, 13 (7.5%) from Moldova and 4 (2.3%) from Turkey. Conclusions: Currently, migrants contribute little to TB notifications in the 10 EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU, but changes in migration patterns may result in an increasing contribution. Therefore, EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU should strive to provide prompt diagnostic services and adequate treatment of migrants. PMID:23813718

  2. Addressing wild turkey population declines using structured decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.; Schiavone, Michael V.; Swift, Bryan L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Siemer, William F.; Decker, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case study from New York, USA, of the use of structured decision making (SDM) to identify fall turkey harvest regulations that best meet stakeholder objectives, in light of recent apparent declines in abundance of wild turkeys in the northeastern United States. We used the SDM framework to incorporate the multiple objectives associated with turkey hunting, stakeholder desires, and region-specific ecological and environmental factors that could influence fall harvest. We identified a set of 4 fall harvest regulations, composed of different season lengths and bag limits, and evaluated their relative achievement of the objectives. We used a stochastic turkey population model, statistical modeling, and expert elicitation to evaluate the consequences of each harvest regulation on each of the objectives. We conducted a statewide mail survey of fall turkey hunters in New York to gather the necessary information to evaluate tradeoffs among multiple objectives associated with hunter satisfaction. The optimal fall harvest regulation was a 2-week season and allowed for the harvest of 1 bird/hunter. This regulation was the most conservative of those evaluated, reflecting the concerns about recent declines in turkey abundance among agency wildlife biologists and the hunting public. Depending on the region of the state, the 2-week, 1-bird regulation was predicted to result in 7–32% more turkeys on the landscape after 5 years. The SDM process provided a transparent framework for setting fall turkey harvest regulations and reduced potential stakeholder conflict by explicitly taking the multiple objectives of different stakeholder groups into account.

  3. A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Turkey is an energy importing country; more than two-thirds of her energy requirement is supplied by imports. In this context, geothermal energy appears to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Since geothermal energy will be used more and more in the future, its current potential, usage, and assessment in Turkey is the focus of the present study. The paper not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the geothermal energy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  4. Susceptibility of Duck and Turkey to servere hypercapnic hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large groups of poultry, including ducks and turkeys, are killed for disease control purposes with CO2. In this study, we examined the physiological reaction of White Pekin ducks and turkeys to increasing CO2 concentrations. Additionally, we examined the suitability of killing both species with

  5. The “Soft Power” policy of Turkey towards Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Mgerovna Aleksanyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available South Caucasus throughout history was at the epicenter of clashes of different religions, civilizations, nations and states. At present moment the interests of both regional (Turkey, Iran and global actors (the United States, NATO, the EU, Russia and others. intersect in the region. Global transformations, changing power relations in international relations have their direct influence on the political processes taking place in the region. These processes are also linked with the activities of Turkey, which aspire to regional leadership. It is Georgia, which serves as a corridor between Turkey and states of Central Asia and the South Caucasus. Turkey spreads its influence in Georgia in almost all areas using economic, military and political tools, as well as the Russian-Georgian deteriorated relations. To achieve its goals, Turkey is actively pursuing a strategy of "soft power", which further strengthens its influence in the country. Public diplomacy is a part of soft power, which also ensures the formation of a positive and attractive image of Turkey in Georgia. This article investigates the contemporary policy of "soft power" of Turkey towards Georgia. It analyses the basic tools, institutions and the direction of this policy, actively implemented by the Republic of Turkey. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Gulen Movement in Georgia. The author makes general conclusions regarding the effectiveness of this policy.

  6. Stress-induced immunosupression and gangrenous dermatitis in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory has been researching the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 16 years and we have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have traditionally be...

  7. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  8. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of rice milling waste as a substitute on maize on the performance, nutrient utilization and the economics implication on finisher turkeys. Five turkey finisher diets were formulated by substituting maize with rice milling waste at 0%, 25%, 50%, ...

  9. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  10. Growth performance of three commercial strains of turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 16 weeks of age correlation values for body parts against body weight were mostly negative across the treatment groups. It was evident from the results of this study that any of the turkey strains can be reared for meat without emphasis on plumage except at the discretion of the farmer. Keywords: Turkeys, Strains, Growth ...

  11. (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichinae) from south-central Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Key words: Amara, Pterostichinae, Carabidae, Turkey. INTRODUCTION. This publication is the second part of a taxonomic and geographical treatment of the Pterostichinae of south- central Turkey, with a focus on sites in the province of. Kahramanmaraş and some of the geographically adjacent provinces.

  12. Image acts and visual communities: everyday nationalism in contemporary Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuryel, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the dissertation entitled "Image Acts and Visual Communities: Contemporary Nationalism in Turkey", I investigate the image politics of nationalist practices in everyday life by focusing on contemporary Turkey and tracking the way images of the nation travel through a variety of fields. I depart

  13. An Examination of Articles Published on Preschool Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine articles published in Turkey on Preschool Education both in terms of subject and method. Sample of the study based on document analysis in qualitative method consists of seven Turkey-based journals indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) and 10 journals indexed in Turkish Academic Network and Information Center…

  14. Sustainable tourism development: the case study of Antalya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif Gurkan Kaya; Richard Smardon

    2001-01-01

    This paper discuss ideas about how tourism can be made base for sustainable tourism development in Antalya, Turkey. The introduction is a general overview of sustainable tourism development in coastal areas. The paper also addresses the role of NGOs in the course of development. Information is given about coastal tourism facilities in Turkey. Finally, sustainable...

  15. The Status and Future of Aerospace Engineering Education in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Francis J.

    There is no aerospace industry in Turkey, and the level of operational activity is low even though the potential for the exploitation of aviation is high. The government of Turkey hopes to establish an aircraft factory in conjunction with a foreign contractor and is aware of the need for aerospace engineering education. This paper describes the…

  16. Genetic control and variation in turkey: molecular insights in selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.

    2012-01-01


    The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is largely used as a meat type bird as egg production of this species is very low. Turkey is the second largest contributor to the world’s poultry meat production after chicken. Understanding the etiology and

  17. Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

  18. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Harman, Mehmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Bart, Aldert; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Çavuş, İbrahim; Polat, Erdal; Gündüz, Cumhur; van Gool, Tom; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for

  19. Energy in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The present energy market in Central and Eastern Europe differs strongly from the energy situation in open market economies. Compared to the European Communities, the energy market in Central and eastern Europe is characterized by its high energy intensity, high quantity of imported oil and gas from a one country (the ex-Soviet Union), the dominant role of solid fossil fuels in some countries, and environmental pollution. Expected future developments are the reduction of the energy intensity and the total energy consumption, the reduction of the industrial energy consumption, the reduction of the solid fossil fuels as well as the geographic distribution of energy import. The restructuring of the energy industry has been started by introducing a market orientated policy including privatisation and the promotion of the free play of price-making forces, accompanied by relatively small-scale investments. Recent data indicate a decrease of energy consumption due to the economic decline and the shut-down of companies in the heavy industries. (A.S.) 4 figs. 5 tabs

  20. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  1. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M

    1986-01-01

    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...... (turkey migrates in the alpha and chicken migrates in the beta region). The mol. wt of both chicken and turkey beta 2-m was 14,500 estimated by SDS-PAGE whereas calculations based on the amino acid compositions gave mol. wts of 11,000. EM280 was 15.9 for chicken beta 2-m and 16.4 for turkey beta 2-m......, and is incompatible with a previously published sequence also thought to be from turkey beta 2-m. Reasons for our opinion that the molecules isolated and sequenced in this paper are the correct ones are given. Udgivelsesdato: 1986-Dec...

  2. Clinical and Haematological Manifestations of Typhoid Fever in Children in Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayram, S; Parlak, M; Dogan, M; Karasin, G; Akbayram, H T; Karaman, K

    2016-01-12

    Typhoid fever can involve various organs, leading to a wide range of presentations: from uncomplicated to complicated typhoid fever. The haematological changes are common in typhoid fever and include anaemia, leucopaenia, thrombocytopaenia and bleeding diathesis. This study was undertaken in order to determine the clinical and haematological presentation of typhoid fever in children. In this study, records of children and adolescents with typhoid fever aged under or equal to 16 years, admitted to Yuzuncu Yil University Hospital between 2010 and 2014, were analysed retrospectively. The cases (56%) were admitted to our hospital in July and October. Major symptoms of patients were abdominal pain (24%), arthralgia (21%) and fever (11%). In our study, decreased mean platelet volume (31%), eosinopaenia 20%), abnormal platelet count (19%), anaemia (16%), leucocytosis (16%) and eosinophilia (12%) were the most common haematological findings in the children. Typhoid fever is predominant in children at school age with a slight male predominance. Decreased mean platelet volume and abdominal pain might be useful as early diagnostic clues.

  3. Determination of Nursing Diagnoses in Children of Agricultural Laborer Families in South Eastern Regions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hulya; Müller-Staub, Maria; Erdemir, Firdevs

    2018-01-01

    Identifying functional health patterns and nursing diagnoses of migrant agricultural laborer families. Interpretative-qualitative study based on interviews with 162 mothers of 0- to 2-year-old children in two Turkish provinces. Health perception-health management: growth and development, risk for being delayed; health maintenance, ineffective; health behavior, risk-prone; risk for contamination; risk for sudden infant death syndrome; and risk for injury. Nutritional-metabolic: Risk for infection; and breastfeeding, interrupted. Self-perception: risk for chronic low self-esteem, disturbed self-esteem; and powerlessness. Role-relationship: impaired parenting; and dysfunctional family process. Coping-stress tolerance: coping, disabled family; violence, risk for other-directed. Cognitive-perceptive: knowledge deficit CONCLUSIONS: Nursing diagnoses of this population were reported for the first time. Addressing agricultural laborer families' diagnoses will positively affect maternal-child health. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  4. Evolution of and Factors Controlling Eocene Sedimentation in the Darende-Balaban Basin, Malatya (Eastern Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜL, KEMAL GÜRBÜZ & MURAT

    2005-01-01

    Collision of the Arabian and Anatolian plates affected evolution of basins located along the southern flank of the Anatolian Plate. The Darende-Balaban foreland basin is one such basin – a basin filled with Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sediments, accumulated unconformably and transgressively above ophiolitic and carbonate basement rocks. This basin is locally surrounded, to the north and south, by Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous structural highs created by tectonic elements during the collision...

  5. Evolution of and Factors Controlling Eocene Sedimentation in the Darende-Balaban Basin, Malatya (Eastern Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜL, KEMAL GÜRBÜZ & GÜL, MURAT

    2014-01-01

    Collision of the Arabian and Anatolian plates affected evolution of basins located along the southern flank of the Anatolian Plate. The Darende-Balaban foreland basin is one such basin – a basin filled with Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sediments, accumulated unconformably and transgressively above ophiolitic and carbonate basement rocks. This basin is locally surrounded, to the north and south, by Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous structural highs created by tectonic elements during the collision...

  6. Prevalence of Obesity in Elementary Schools in Mardin, South-Eastern of Turkey: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Bindak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research determines the frequency of obesity among primary school-aged children and evaluates the relationship between obesity and family and environmental factors.Material and Methods: Three thousand four hundred sixty students, aged 6-15 years in three primary schools in Mardin city center were taken into the study. Information about eating habits and family-environmental factors were obtained by questionnaire. For each student we calculated the body mass index (BMI and the ≥97 percentile was defined as obese, and between 85-97th percentile as overweight. These values were calculated with the SPSS statistical program. Chi-square and t-tests were used for analysis. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 48.2% of the students were female. In the assessment of body mass index (BMI the overweight rate for children was 15.78%, the obese rate was 10.57%. The prevalence of obesity according to gender was 9.05% for girls and 11.97% for boys (p<0.01. The mean BMI of the girls in the age group 13-15 is higher than in males of the same age. Those in the higher socio-economic group had a higher prevalence of obesity (p<0.01. Paternal obesity affected child obesity (p<0.01. Children who eat irregular meals (p=0.05, watch more than 2 hours per day TV (p=0.03, were breastfed for less than 6 months (p<0.05 and the mothers’ obesity (p<0.05 were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of obesity.Conclusion: Obesity is increasing throughout the world as a health problem. Being obese in childhood and having obese parent(s are two of the risk factors of being obese in adulthood. Persistence of obesity into adulthood is the most serious aspect of the problem. The therapeutic success rate in obesity is unfortunately not high. Therefore, a preventive strategy involving early identification of those at risk by incorporating body mass assessments to routine childhood growth assessment appears to be the most prudent strategy.

  7. Foot and mouth disease in turkey and middle eastern countries: Epizootiological situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Slavoljub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic outbreaks of epizooties of foot-and-mouth disease in countries of the Middle East and Africa pose a serious health threat to European states, in particular countries of the Mediterranean region and the Balkan peninsula. There are multiple reasons for the frequent appearance of this disease in Africa and the territory of the Middle East, and they are all a consequence of the insufficient development of the states in these geographic regions. More precisely, epizooties of foot-and-mouth disease are difficult to control in these regions due to the limited possibilities for activities by veterinary services, insufficiently developed diagnostic capacities for speedy and precise laboratory diagnostics, the lack of more advanced knowledge among the village populations, and the traditional manner of breeding ruminants. As a result of intensive traffic in goods, services and people, the cultural and tourist links between the Middle East and European countries, there is a constant and real danger of a swift and uncontrolled spreading of foot-and-mouth disease to the territory of Europe. This is why it is a priority of epizootiological services of the majority of European countries constantly to monitor the epizootiological situation in the Middle East and in Africa.

  8. Comparative Study of Three Achillea Essential Oils from Eastern Part of Turkey and their Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents found in Achillea oil were as follows: A. filipendulina Lam.: 43.8% santolina alcohol, 14.5% 1,8-cineole and 12.5% cis-chrysanthenyl acet...

  9. Domestic Violence during Pregnancy in an Eastern City of Turkey: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Hulya; Adana, Filiz; Ergin, Filiz; Gey, Neriman; Bicer, Nejla; Kiransal, Nilufer

    2012-01-01

    Violence is an increasing and important community health problem that can be seen in any area of human life. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women and its relation with social status of women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of domestic violence during pregnancy, factors affecting…

  10. Comparative Study of Three Achillea Essential Oils from Eastern Part of Turkey and their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Demirci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.The main constituents found in Achillea oil were as follows: A. filipendulina Lam.: 43.8% santolina alcohol, 14.5% 1,8-cineole and 12.5% cis-chrysanthenyl acetate; A. magnifica Hiemerl ex Hub.-Mor.: 27.5% linalool, 5.8% spathulenol, 5.5% terpinen-4-ol, 4.7% α-terpineol and 4.7% β-eudesmol; A. tenuifolia Lam.: 12.4% artemisia ketone, 9.9% p-cymene, 7.1% camphor, 5.9% terpinen-4-ol, 4.7% caryophyllene oxide and 4.5% α-pinene. Furthermore, the Achillea essential oils were evaluated for antimalarial and antimicrobial activities. A. magnifica and A. filipendulina oils showed strong antimalarial activity against both chloroquine sensitive D6 (IC 50= 1.2 and 0.68 m g/mL and chloroquine resistant W2 (IC 50= 1.1 and 0.9 m g/mL strains of Plasmodium falciparum without any cytotoxicity to mammalian cells up to IC 50=47.6 m g/mL against Vero cells. whereas A. tenuifolia oil showed no antimalarial activity up to a concentration of 20 mg/mL. All three Achillea oils showed no antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria up to a concentration of 200 m g/mL. A. tenuifolia and A. magnifica oils demonstrated mild antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (IC 50= 45, 20 and 15 m g/mL, respectively.

  11. Domestic violence during pregnancy in an eastern city of Turkey: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Hülya; Adana, Filiz; Ergin, Filiz; Gey, Neriman; Biçer, Nejla; Kiransal, Nilüfer

    2012-05-01

    Violence is an increasing and important community health problem that can be seen in any area of human life. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women and its relation with social status of women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of domestic violence during pregnancy, factors affecting it, women's thoughts about violence, and relation between social status of women and domestic violence. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 253 pregnant women, using cluster and simple random sampling methods. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis methods were used to analyze the data. Women who indicated that they have been exposed to violence at some point of their lives were 24.1% and who indicated that violence continued while they were pregnant were 11.1%. Physical violence was the most common type of violence reported (18.2%). It was found that women who had primary school or lower level of education and who made unwanted marriage suffered from more violence during pregnancy. It can be said that violence against pregnant women is still a social problem. In societies where gender roles are dominant, decision makers have to take necessary steps such as supporting education of girls to improve social status of women, increasing awareness among women in regard to personal rights and legal regulations which will contribute to the solution of the issue.

  12. Cut throat injuries and honor killings: review of 15 cases in eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Bora; Celbis, Osman; Kaya, Atılhan

    2013-05-01

    Throat cuts could be of homicidal, suicidal or accidental origin. In the cases of death from cut throat, suicide can be distinguished from homicide based on the type and location of the wound and crime scene investigation. The purpose of the current study is to attract attention to the instructive findings for origin determination in deaths by cut throat according to the number and characteristics of the wounds and crime scene investigation. We have reviewed the files of autopsies performed between the years of 2000 and 2010, and compared with previously published case reports; all results were summarized in the current study. The results showed that 60% of cases were male, 40% were female, with 27.9 years of average age. The mean number of wounds was calculated to be 34.3 per case for honor homicides, 7.4 per case for other homicides, and 2.0 per case for suicides. Numbers of wounds were approximately 5 times higher in the honor homicides compared to other homicides. If the number of wounds were excessive, possibility of honor killings should be taken into account. When the killer was a parent not in psychosis, hesitation cuts were detected. Additional lesions were present in 46.7% of the cases, and they were assessed as homicide. Presence of vertebral notch and spinal cord cuts, which require a substantial amount of force and pressure via sharp tools, indicates homicide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of article is bilateral economical and foreign trade relations between Turkey, which has started to apply outward-oriented economic policies since globalization and Moldova, which has done market transition after breaking up with the Soviet Union. Within this frame, the subject of article has been searched in depth as follows: general overview of Turkey’s economic relations, overall picture of Moldovan-Turkish relations, short exposition of Moldovan economy and bilateral economic and foreign trade relations of Moldova and Turkey. The topic of article is a current issue. Because Moldova, which is closed to Turkey in terms of geography, culture and history always has been an attractive country politico-economically for Turkey since its independence. Bilateral economic relations starting with shuttle trade have formalized and further developed and Turkey became as one of top ten biggest economic and trade partner of Moldova. On this basis, the aim of study is to elucidate foreign trade of Turkey with Moldova and to compare performances of Turkey by years and by other countries, which have remarkable domination in Moldovan market. Within this scope, bilateral trade volume of Moldova and Turkey has increased year by year considering the past decade, which makes Turkey as the 7th largest import and 8th export partner of Moldova. Turkey aims to be one of the first three biggest economic partner of Moldova after entry into force of Free Trade Agreement (FTA, which was signed by both countries in 2014 to increase foreign trade volume up to 1 billion US dollars.

  14. High prevalence of turkey parvovirus in turkey flocks from Hungary experiencing enteric disease syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palade, Elena Alina; Demeter, Zoltán; Hornyák, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Kisary, János; Rusvai, Miklós

    2011-09-01

    Samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ED) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. Turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (TAst-2) in 26.53%. The investigations directly demonstrated the high prevalence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in 23 flocks (46.9%) experiencing signs of ED, making this pathogen the second most identified after astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis on a 527 base pair-long region from the NS1 gene revealed two main clusters, a chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and a TuPV group, but also the presence of a divergent branch of tentatively named "TuPV-like ChPV" strains. The 23 Hungarian TuPV strains were separately positioned in two groups from the American origin sequences in the TuPV cluster. An Avail-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has also been developed for the quick differentiation of TuPV, ChPV, and divergent TuPV-like ChPV strains. As most detected enteric viruses have been directly demonstrated in healthy turkey flocks as well, the epidemiology of this disease complex remains unclear, suggesting that a certain combination of pathogens, environmental factors, or both are necessary for the development of clinical signs.

  15. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  16. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  18. Health and Roma People in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Elif Ekmekçi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The research and published literatüre on Roma health in Turkey is much more limited than in other European countries. Among these, there are hardly any published literature focusing on the health status, health indicators and health behaviors. Aims: The aim of this research is to describe the perceptions of health-related concepts and access and the use of health services and social determinants of the health of Roma people in Turkey. Study Design: Descriptive qualitative survey. Methods: The participants were chosen by random sampling. The semi-structured interview topic guide was developed from sources such as advice from the Romani community leaders, published evidence and personal experience from previous work with Roma communities. Non-directive open ended questions allowed the exploration of their health status, how they conceptualize health and disease, their level of awareness on the impact of social determinants of health, on their health status and the access and use of health services. The data analysis was based on grounded theory. Analysis proceeded in four steps: 1. Reading and examining the transcripts separately using open coding, 2. Extracting the key words and codes from the transcripts and sorting them into categories, 3. Rereading the transcripts by using selective coding, and 4. Examining the categories derived from the open coding systematically and determining the concepts summarizing the material. Results: The survey results are compatible with the existing literature on Roma health and reveal that 1 there is a tight link between the lack of social determinants of health and the poor health status of Roma people 2 socioeconomic factors and cultural norms of the ethnic minority are suspicious factors 3 comparative and systematic research is needed to illuminate the actual health gaps and causal factors for them. Conclusion: The research proves that the need for comparative and systematic research in Turkey to

  19. Femicide in Turkey between 2000 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Sadik; Ersoy, Gokhan

    2017-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important problem that threatens women’s health, very few studies focus on the victim—perpetrator relationship or examine this relationship across Turkey. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of femicide cases in Turkey and to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, and criminological characteristics of femicide victims and offenders. This study analysed 162 femicide cases that occurred in 12 cities in Turkey from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. Eighty women were killed by their partners (classified as intimate partner femicide, IPF), and 81 women were killed by one of their relatives, friends, or strangers (classified as non-intimate partner femicide, non-IPF). According to our results, the typical IPF victim is of child-bearing age, does not have a paid job, is married or divorced, is killed in a domestic setting due to injuries to the thorax or abdomen produced by an edged/pointed weapon or firearm, and is possibly a victim of overkill. The typical IPF perpetrator is close to his victim’s age, has a paid job, has no mental disability, owns a gun, and has threatened his partner or ex-partner previously because of jealousy/infidelity/honour or separation. The typical non-IPF victim is very similar to the IPF victim; however, her marital status can be single, married or divorced, and she is commonly killed by a relative. The surveillance and screening of femicide and IPV is an important step when analysing and attempting to prevent femicide. Second, the training and sensitization of health professionals are important. Moreover, health staff should be encouraged to participate in advocacy interventions. Third, gun ownership must be brought under control. PMID:28832596

  20. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  1. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. ECONOMICS OF DAIRY FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Bor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  3. Basic design in architectural education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaklı Elif Süyük

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creative activity is one of the most significant parts of architectural education. In the architectural curriculum organisation ‘design studio’ is the unique and preeminent subject. Freshman students encounter ‘design’ first in basic design course, before they know what designing incorporates. The Basic Design is the starting point of initiating creativity in architecture education. It helps each student to understand architecture as a creative and innovative practice in the first year of education. This study analyzes the characteristics of basic design course, the topics of the course contents and its significance in the architectural curriculum in Turkey as well.

  4. ETHNIC TOURISM: AN EXAMPLE FROM ISTANBUL, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic Tourism: An Example from Istanbul, Turkey. Globalization has not only produced a trend towards economic integration and cultural homogenization but has also encouraged the preservation of local diversity and of multiculturalism. Whereas in the past ethnic or religious minorities were seen as a threat to the territorial unity of the country, today, increasingly countries are promoting ethnicities to attract tourists. Ethnic tourism is an alternative form of tourism that relies on attracting tourists to see sites connected to the cultural and historical heritage of ethnic minorities. This study explores the potential for ethnic tourism development in Istanbul, a city with a multicultural past and great heritage attractions.

  5. The electrical power sector in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gengyilmaz, Nese; Savruk, Nurettin

    1998-01-01

    In Turkey, highest priority is given to domestic resources, whenever economical. Imports are considered in case it is feasible. Diversification of resources is also taken into account. Efficient utilization of the resources and energy conservation are ensured ant supported. Measures for environmental and public health protection are taken into consideration during power generation and planing. In energy investments, foreign capital and domestic private sector are promoted along with the public sector. A rational structure in energy pricing is applied without any subsidies. Feasible interconnections and higher electric power exchanges with neighbouring countries are supported

  6. Evaluation of Honour Killings in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Celbis, Osman; Ozdemir, Bora; Oruc, Mucahit; Dogan, Mustafa; Egri, Mucahit

    2013-01-01

    Honour killings are still pervasive in many societies.  The aim of this study is to reveal the characteristics of the victims of honour killings and honour killers in Malatya province between 2000 and 2004, and to review the concept of honour killings in Turkey.  Data are collected from the records of Malatya Higher Criminal Court.  The results are discussed in the light of the data obtained from Turkish Republic Ministry of Justice.  There were 36 honour killings in Malatya between 2000 and ...

  7. Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey : Status Update 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, N.; Necmioglu, O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Kalafat, D.; Yilmazer, M.; Comoglu, M.; Sanli, U.; Gurbuz, C.; Erdik, M.

    2012-04-01

    This is an update to EGU2011-3094 informing on the progress of the establishment of a National Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey (NTWC-TR) under the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission - Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (IOC-ICG/NEAMTWS) initiative. NTWC-TR is integrated into the 24/7 operational National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) of KOERI comprising 129 BB and 61 strong motion sensors. Based on an agreement with the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (DEMP), data from 10 BB stations located in the Aegean and Mediterranean Coast is now transmitted in real time to KOERI. Real-time data transmission from 6 primary and 10 auxiliary stations from the International Monitoring System will be in place in the very near future based on an agreement concluded with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2011. In an agreement with a major Turkish GSM company, KOERI is enlarging its strong-motion network to promote real-time seismology and to extend Earthquake Early Warning system countrywide. 25 accelerometers (included in the number given above) have been purchased and installed at Base Transceiver Station Sites in coastal regions within the scope of this initiative. Data from 3 tide gauge stations operated by General Command of Mapping (GCM) is being transmitted to KOERI via satellite connection and the aim is to integrate all tide-gauge stations operated by GCM into NTWC-TR. A collaborative agreement has been signed with the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) and MOD1 Tsunami Scenario Database and TAT (Tsunami Analysis Tool) are received by KOERI and user training was provided. The database and the tool are linked to SeisComp3 and currently operational. In addition KOERI is continuing the work towards providing contributions to JRC in order to develop an improved database

  8. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  9. A survey of rate of victimization and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, S E; Acik, Y; Ayar, A

    2008-01-01

    Violence of any type is a serious issue in the lives of many children from all racial, cultural and economic backgrounds, and is a topic of enormous societal concern in any society. The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of exposure to violence as victims, and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in eastern Turkey. All the basic education schools in Elazig, a typical eastern Anatolian city, were included. A total of 3725 fifth and sixth graders were asked to answer survey questions about the rate of physical violence exposure in their everyday lives and whether they thought the violence was an 'acceptable' behaviour. The mean age of participants was 12.8 years with 46.8% boys and 53.2% girls, and their socio-economic status ranged from low-income to upper middle class. Seventy-four per cent of school-aged children reported exposure to at least one case of physical violence in their lives, and 43.4% reported experiencing physical violence within previous 12 months. Higher rates of exposure to physical violence were reported by boys than girls (P = 0.0001). Of the victims, 33.8% regarded physical violence as an acceptable or inevitable way of solution or responding to life events. Results from the self-report of the receiving end of violent behaviours indicate that physical violent victimization is at an alarmingly high rate among children of eastern Turkey, and a significant per cent of these victims approves violence as a way of solution.

  10. Renewable energy market conditions and barriers in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalan, Cicek Bezir; Murat, Oeztuerk; Nuri, Oezek

    2009-01-01

    Decentralized wind, hydropower, biogas and biomass, geothermal, solar thermal and solar electricity energy systems are the most commonly found renewable energy technologies promoted for rural energy supply within sustainable developments programs. They are, therefore, seen to have a central place in the practice of sustainable development and in allowing less development countries to bypass the environmentally damaging fossil fuel intensive paths made by industrialized countries. On the political front, many less development countries are critical of pressure on them to adopt environmental energy technologies. Turkey is situated the meeting point of three continents (Asia, Europe and Africa) and stands as a bridge between Asia and Europe. The country is located in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. As Turkey's economy has expanded in recent years, the consumption of primary energy has increased. Presently in order to increase the energy production from domestic energy resources, decrease the use of fossil fuels as well as reduce of green house gas emissions different renewable energy sources are used for energy production in Turkey. The share of energy production from renewable energy sources has increased during the last 10 years. Turkey must import most of the energy to meet her needs. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energies. The lack of knowledge about renewable energy technologies by most policy-makers, potential consumers, and energy firm managers has played against renewable energy developments. The paper presents renewable energy used in Turkey and Europe Union and evaluation of the market conditions and barriers of renewable energy use in Turkey. (author)

  11. Turkey's natural gas necessity, consumption and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is an important candidate to be the 'energy corridor' in the transmission of the abundant oil and natural gas resources of the Middle East and Middle Asia countries to the Western market. Furthermore, Turkey is planning to increase its oil and gas pipeline infrastructure to accommodate its increased energy consumption. Naturally, Turkish natural gas usage is projected to increase remarkably in coming years, with the prime consumers, expected to be industry and power plants. Energy demand of Turkey is growing by 8% annually, one of the highest rates in the world. In addition, natural gas consumption is the fastest growing primary energy source in Turkey. Gas sales started at 0.5 bcm (billion cubic meters), in 1987 and reached approximately 22 bcm in 2003. This article deals with energy policies and natural gas consumption of Turkey. Besides modernization of present lines and realization of capacity increase, new lines will also be needed. In this context, Turkey, due to its geographical location is, in an important position to vary European supply. Therefore, Turkey's role as a transitory area gains importance

  12. Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2001-01-01

    When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the financial world is still dominated by conventional banks, based on western economic principles, the number of Islamic banks is on the rise. Islamic banks have originated from colonial India as a response of the Muslims to the British who attempted to westernize their society. Other similar financial operations based on Islamic Law (Shari’a were established in Pakistan, Malaysia and Egypt to facilitate access of rural poor to interest-free loans. However, being unprofitable, these operations did not survive for very long. Islamic banks, unlike conventional banks, are not based on interest and conduct their business in accordance with a wide array of ethical and moral issues. The modern phase of Islamic banking started in the 1970s when the Islamic Development Bank was founded in Saudi Arabia. Soon after, a number of commercial banks were established in the neighboring countries. From this core, over the last four decades, Islamic finance and banking has spread across the entire Muslim world and beyond to become a global phenomenon. This study examines the development of Islamic banking in Turkey in the wider context of global expansion. Turkey is an interesting case study because, although its population is nearly 100% Muslim, it is a secular state built on the model of Western European countries. However, lately, the moderate Islamic party in power since 2002 has shown some signs of openness towards a parallel banking system based on Islamic principles.

  14. Cystic echinococcosis in Central Alaninate, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazar, Suleyman; Yaman, Ozan; Sahin, Izzet; Cetinkaya, F.

    2006-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by infection with a larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus is a serious public health problem in Turkey. Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease; dogs and livestock are important hosts in transmission. The aim of this study is to evaluate the rate of CE in Kayseri Rural Area, Central Anatolia, Turkey. At the present study, we planned to evaluate the rate of CE in Kayseri rural area in Central Anatolia between 2000 and 2002. We investigated 2,242 subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA), and we examined the seropositivity by using Western blotting (WB). The seropositivity rate was 2.7% by ELISA and IFA. We retested seropositive serum samples and 200 seronegative sera by WB. Seropositive serum samples were studied using abdominal ultrasound and chest x-ray to confirmed the presence of hydatid cyst and we found 10 (0.5%) different localized cysts. The results of our study indicate that Kayseri rural area has a high endemicity of human CE. (author)

  15. Internal contamination with leech in a turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Leech enters to mouth and nose through water. Nose and nasopharynx mucosa are the most preferred places for leech attachment with epistaxis and respiratory distress symptoms. But the leeches may rarely stick deeper to trachea or esophagus which could cause hematemesis, hemoptysis and severe respiratory distress. Leech infestation can cause gastrointestinal, respiratory and genital bleeding in rare cases. Various animals such as ruminants, single-toed and carnivores, are easily infected with leeches. In May 2014, a 2-year-old turkey infected with leeches through the contaminated drinking water was referred to a veterinarian with respiratory distress symptoms, anxiety, bleeding from the mouth in Maze-Abdali Village located at 17 km from Dehloran City of Ilam Province in the west of Iran. After physical observations, a moving dark green particle was seen. Limnatis nilotica were detected after separation from the oral cavity of turkey. Respiratory distress and oral cavity bleeding should be regarded in the areas where spring and flooded water were infested with leeches. Untreated and contaminated waters consumption should be prohibited.

  16. Is there a Housing Bubble in Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Yener

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There was a notable housing price inflation in aggregate/local levels in Turkey during the last few years. Although the country’s economic fundamentals remain strong, the probability of a housing bubble is a heated debate among market participants. This timely investigation brings greater clarity to whether the Turkish housing market is in a bubble. The study uses a multi-strand approach to dissect the bubble over the period of Jan. 2010 - Dec. 2014. First, monthly/annual price-to-income and monthly price-to-rent ratios are examined for the national Turkish as well as regional Istanbul, Izmir and Ankara housing markets. Second, an extended CASE and SHILLER (2003 model is applied assessing the interdependence between housing prices and a series of explanatory variables. Lastly, the Right Tail Augmented Dickey-Fuller (Rtadf test is performed to support the overall analysis. This study finds that neither affordability ratios nor regression estimates support the existence of the bubble in Turkey.

  17. Solar drying in sludge management in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Salihoglu, Nezih; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Guray [Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Two main wastewater treatment plants in Bursa city in Turkey will start to operate and produce at least 27,000 tons of dry solids per year by the end of 2006. The purpose of this study was to investigate an economical solution to the sludge management problem that Bursa city would encounter. The general trend in Turkey is mechanical dewatering to obtain a dry solid (DS) content of 20%, and liming the mechanically dewatered sludge to reach the legal land filling requirement, 35% DS content. This study recommends limited liming and solar drying as an alternative to only-liming the mechanically dewatered sludge. Open and covered solar sludge drying plants were constructed in pilot scale for experimental purposes. Dry solids and climatic conditions were constantly measured. Faecal coliform reduction was also monitored. The specially designed covered solar drying plant proved to be more efficient than the open plant in terms of drying and faecal coliform reduction. It was found that, if the limited liming and solar drying method was applied after mechanical dewatering instead of only-liming method, the total amount of the sludge to be disposed would be reduced by approximately 40%. This would lead to a reduction in the transportation, handling, and land filling costs. The covered drying system would amortize itself in 4 years. (author)

  18. Food loss and waste management in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Ucaroglu, Selnur; Banar, Mufide

    2018-01-01

    Food waste can be an environmental and economic problem if not managed properly but it can meet various demands of a country if it is considered as a resource. The purpose of this report is to review the existing state of the field in Turkey and identify the potential of food waste as a resource. Food loss and waste (FLW) was examined throughout the food supply chain (FSC) and quantified using the FAO model. Edible FLW was estimated to be approximately 26milliontons/year. The amount of biodegradable waste was estimated based on waste statistics and research conducted on household food waste in Turkey. The total amount of biodegradable waste was found to be approximately 20milliontons/year, where more than 8.6milliontons/year of this waste is FLW from distribution and consumption in the FSC. Options for the end-of-life management of biodegradable wastes are also discussed in this review article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent practices on wastewater reuse in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, A; Ekdal, A; Germirli Babuna, F; Orhon, D

    2005-01-01

    Reuse of wastewater for irrigational purposes in agriculture has been a widely applied practice all around the world compared to such applications in industries. In most of the developing countries, high costs of wastewater treatment stimulate the direct reuse of raw or partly treated effluent in irrigation despite the socio-cultural objections in some countries regarding religious rituals towards consuming wastewater. In Turkey, reuse applications in agriculture have been in use by indirect application by means of withdrawing water from the downstream end of treatment plants. Such practices affected the deterioration of surface water resources due to the lack of water quality monitoring and control. However, more conscious and planned reuse activities in agriculture have recently started by the operation of urban wastewater treatment plants. Turkey does not face any severe water scarcity problems for the time being, but as the water resources show the signs of water quality deterioration it seems to be one of the priority issues in the near future. The industrial reuse activities are only at the research stage especially in industries consuming high amounts of water. In-plant control implementation is the preferred effort of minimizing water consumption in such industries. The current reuse activities are outlined in the article forming an example from a developing country.

  20. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

    2008-12-09

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.

  1. Turkey's EU Quest and Political Cleavages under AKP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the extent to which the rise of political Islam (Note 1) in Turkey has triggered an intense and polarized debate about the principle eligibility of Turkey to be a full European Union (EU) member state. The Justice and Development Party’s (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi......) The overall political targets of political Islam in Turkey seems less compatible with the traditional Turkish EU quest than formerly (2) The Turkish political Islamic turnaround is contributing to a climate of increasing scepticism in Europe, and presents significant obstacles to EU accession. As a result...

  2. Hybrid War and Its Strategic Implications to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bingöl, Oktay

    2017-01-01

    Discussions on the hybrid threats and hybrid wars have begun to gain interest among the securitycommunities around the world since 2000s, and exponentially increased after Russian-Ukraine conflict in 2014. The political and military conflict between Russia and Turkey sinceNovember 2015 has carried the discussion to Turkey. Now it is believed that Turkey is infact in a multi-front hybrid war with some of its neighbors but not just Russia. In this articleit is aimed to fully explore hybrid war ...

  3. Saving and Social Security Wealth: A Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yigit Aydede

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt in the literature to investigate the effects of public social security on aggregate consumption in a time-series setting for a developing country, Turkey that has one of the most generous social security systems in the OECD region. In order to quantify the social security variable, the paper uses the social security wealth (SSW) series calculated for the first time for Turkey and shows that SSW is the largest part of the household wealth in Turkey and therefore...

  4. Climate Data Homogenization and its Impact on Heatwave Changes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, F. G.; Toreti, A.; Xoplaki, E.; Della-Marta, P. M.; Zerefos, C. S.; Turkes, M.; Luterbacher, J.

    2010-12-01

    Heatwaves have discernible impacts on mortality and morbidity, infrastructure, agricultural resources, the retail industry, ecosystem and tourism and consequently affect human societies. A new definition of socially relevant heatwaves is presented and applied to new data sets of high-quality homogenized daily maximum and minimum summer air temperature series from 246 stations in the eastern Mediterranean region (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey). Changes in heatwave number, length and intensity between 1960 and 2006 are quantified before and after data homogenization. Daily temperature homogeneity analyses suggest that many instrumental measurements in the 1960s are warm-biased, correcting for these biases regionally averaged heatwave trends are up to 8% higher. We find significant changes across the western Balkans, southwestern and western Turkey, and along the southern Black Sea coastline. Since the 1960s, the mean heatwave intensity, heatwave length and heatwave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor of 7.6 ± 1.3, 7.5 ± 1.3 and 6.2 ± 1.1, respectively. These findings suggest that the heatwave increase in this region is higher than previously reported.

  5. Turkey's energy efficiency assessment: White Certificates Systems and their applicability in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzgun, B.; Komurgoz, G.

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the importance of energy efficiency and the sustainable use of energy resources due to their significant benefits for reducing a country's dependence on foreign energy resources and increasing awareness on environmental problems. Turkey aims to reduce its energy intensity by 20% up to 2023, and in order to accomplish this target, the country plans to use energy more effectively in various industries and develop financial mechanisms for energy efficiency. Although much effort has been made to improve energy efficiency, additional policies such as marked-based incentives are still necessary. This article deals with one of the many market-based energy efficiency policies, called Tradable White Certificates (WhC) or Energy Efficiency Obligations. The current situation of the energy field in Turkey and energy consumption by industries is presented first in this paper, followed by potentials for energy efficiency in each industry and energy efficiency policies. Furthermore, the theory and applicability of a WhC System is introduced and discussed in terms of market conditions, choice of obligated participants and market mechanisms and barriers for the Turkish electricity and natural gas market to benefit from the residential and industrial energy savings potential. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency is the most effective way to reduce foreign energy dependency. • Turkey aims reducing at least 20% of energy intensity in the year 2023. • Energy consumption of industry is 35% of total energy consumption in Turkey. • Marked based policy elements create new opportunities in environmental markets. • WhC System can be implemented in PMUM under the control of regulatory authority

  6. Microstructures of the Kirsehir Complex, Central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISIK, V.; Caglayan, A.; Uysal, T.; Bolhar, R.

    2011-12-01

    Turkey is positioned on the boundary between the Eurasian and African/Arabian plates, providing an ideal natural laboratory for learning passive and active earth processes such as deformation, metamorphism, earthquakes and volcanism. Central Turkey historically has played an important role in evolution of the Alpine orogeny. The Kirsehir Complex is one of three Mesozoic-Early Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic mid-crustal basement units exposed in central Turkey. The most common lithology of the metamorphites are the banded gneisses, which are intercalated with layers of schists, amphibolites and quartzite, and marbles representing the structurally the highest metamorphites of the study area. The metamorphites are characterized by multiple folding episodes and overprinting faults (thrust, normal and strike-slip). These metamorphites reached peak metamorphic conditions of upper amphibolite facies, as indicated by local presence of clinopyroxene, sillimanite, hornblende, andalusite and garnet. Later, retrograde greenschist facies conditions were attained characterized by the alteration of feldspar and mafic minerals to muscovite and chlorite/actinolite, respectively. The microstructures of selected minerals can be used to bracket the metamorphic grade during which microstructure formed. Quartz displays undulose extinction, deformation bands, subgrains and deformation lamellae, and recrystallisation. The presence of lobate grain boundaries of quartz indicates that GBM recrystallisation occurred. Undulose extinction and recrystallisation are common in micas. Recrystallisation, core-mantle structures in feldspar, myrmekites in K-feldspars within the gneisses suggest that deformation occurred within the amphibolite facies. Garnet occurs as slightly elliptical porphroclats. Sillimanite is present as fibrolite growing near biotite and microboudinaged. Andalusite porphyroblast/porphroclats are elongate and microboudinaged. Kinematic indicators (asymmetric mantled grains, S

  7. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  8. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  9. Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrane, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemen, I; Catlos, E J; Gogus, O; Diniz, E; Hancer, M

    2008-01-01

    The Western Anatolia Extended Terrane in Turkey is located on the eastern side of the Aegean Extended Terrane and contains one of the largest metamorphic core complexes in the world, the Menderes massif. It has experienced a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene during the formation of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Based our field work and monazite ages, we suggest that the north-directed postcollisional Cenozoic extension in the region is the product of three consecutive stages, triggered by three different mechanisms. The first stage was initiated about 30 Ma ago, in the Oligocene by the Orogenic Collapse the thermally weakened continental crust along the north-dipping Southwest Anatolian shear zone. The shear zone was formed as an extensional simple-shear zone with listric geometry at depth and exhibits predominantly normal-slip along its southwestern end. But, it becomes a high-angle oblique-slip shear zone along its northeastern termination. Evidence for the presence of the shear zone includes (1) the dominant top to the north-northeast shear sense indicators throughout the Menderes massif, such as stretching lineations trending N10E to N30E; and (2) a series of Oligocene extensional basins located adjacent to the shear zone that contain only carbonate and ophiolitic rock fragments, but no high grade metamorphic rock fragments. During this stage, erosion and extensional unroofing brought high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Central Menderes massif to the surface by the early Miocene. The second stage of the extension was triggered by subduction roll-back and associated back-arc extension in the early Miocene and produced the north-dipping Alasehir and the south-dipping Bueyuek Menderes detachments of the central Menderes massif and the north-dipping Simav detachment of the northern Menderes massif. The detachments control the Miocene sedimentation in the Alasehir, Bueyuek Menderes, and Simav grabens, containing high

  10. Tandheelkunde in Turkije en Marokko [Dentistry in Turkey and Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurs, A.H.B.; Verrips, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Some information is given on the number of dentists in Turkey and Morocco and the dental condition of the inhabitants. This information concerns prevention, caries, periodontic diseases as well as other dental diseases and diseases of the mouth.

  11. New records of truffle fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Turkoglu; Michael Angelo. Castellano

    2013-01-01

    We report the first records of 5 truffle taxa in Turkey: Gymnomyces xanthosporus (Hawker) A.H.Sm., Hymenogaster griseus Vittad., Hymenogaster olivaceous Vittad., Hymenogaster thwaitesii Berk. & Broome, and Hymenogaster vulgaris Tul. & C.Tul. We also report a new...

  12. Economic relations between turkey and Africa: challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic relations between turkey and Africa: challenges and prospects. ... The incumbent Turkish government now attaches great importance to developing ... It also seeks to analyse recent Turkish initiatives in Africa's energy sector.

  13. Pros and Cons: Compulsory 12 year education reform in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By CEYLAN

    2016-05-28

    Öztürk, 2005). ... compulsory, and education following primary school (middle school, high school and university) was ...... initially very popular in the mass media in 2012, ... in Turkey: opinions and concerns of elementary.

  14. Cultural Tourism Tours and Main Routes Towards Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysi GÜNAL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the tourism has become a important industry. Certainly, the most important international actors af this industry are tour operators. The tour operators which realize about 75 percent of the total tourism activity to Turkey have taken a very important mission from the point of Turkey tourism. The, Germany, Netherlands, England and USA tour operators, which have made the important part of the tours to our country, have also an important position in organizating cultural tour. When the cultural tours, which have been planned to Turkey by this countries, have been studied it is seen that these tours have containied more mass tourism areas or near areas of these region. It can be said that Turkey’s not marketing its tourism correctly has be effective in this subject. With this research, it has been studied how the cultural attractions in Turkey have been perceived, consumed and marketed by abroad tour operators.

  15. The number and distribution of computerised tomography scanners in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semin, S.; Amato, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the number and distribution of CT scanners in Turkey. Our results show 173 CT scanners in Turkey in 1994, which equals 2.9 scanners per million people. All of the scanners are located in 45 cities, where 81 % of the population resides. The other 31 cities in Turkey have no scanners. Of the 173 scanners, 103 (59.6 %) are owned by the private sector and the other 70 are owned by the public sector. Of Turkey's CT scanners, 49.2 % are located in private health centres, 21.9 % in university hospitals, 16.7 % in Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals, 10.4 % in private hospitals and 1.8 % in social security hospitals. (orig.)

  16. Sustainable energy, environmental and agricultural policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly and heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions have grown along with its energy-consumption. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources.

  17. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Turkey: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with a growing elderly population in the world and in our country, elder abuse and neglect has been a major problem. The purpose of this study is to identify and systematically review the studies investigating elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. Evaluation of the studies on elder abuse and neglect in Turkey showed that the elderly are often abused by family members and they are often exposed to emotional, physical, economic and psychological abuse. All of the studies reviewed in this paper were descriptive cross-sectional studies investigating elder abuse and neglect. The studies reviewed presented significant results revealing the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed that research on this issue in Turkey is insufficient and there is a need for studies conducted with larger samples covering an entire city. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 149-156

  18. Turkey's Role in NATO-European Union Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arkali, Saltuk B

    2008-01-01

    ...) as its instrument for security and defense matters. The years 1995-1999 were especially fruitful, because Turkey was an associate member of the WEU and participated fully in relevant EU decision making...

  19. The Pragmatic Entente: Turkey's Growing Relations With Israel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Randy

    2000-01-01

    .... The post-Cold War era has allowed individual states more freedom of maneuver in implementing foreign policy initiatives and one of the most ambitious states in this regard has been the Republic of Turkey...

  20. NOVUS ORTUS: THE AWAKENING OF LAZ LANGUAGE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan KAVAKLI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Laz (South Caucasian language, which is spoken primarily on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea in Turkey, is being threatened by language endangerment. Having no official status, Laz language is considered to be an ethnic minority language in Turkey. All Laz people residing in Turkey are bilingual with the official language in the country, Turkish, and use Laz most frequently in intrafamilial conversations. In this article, Laz language is removed from the dusty pages of Turkish history as a response to the threat of language attrition in the world. Accordingly, language endangerment is viewed in terms of a sociolinguistic phenomenon within the boundaries of both language-internal and -external factors. Laz language revitalization acts have also been scrutinized. Having a dekko at the history of modern Turkey will enlighten whether those revitalization acts and/or movements can offer a novus ortus (new birth for the current situation of Laz language.

  1. In Search for a Pronatalist Population Policy for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf YÜKSEL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has witnessed high fertility rates and low mortality rates until 2000s. Young population structure, need for infrastructure for growing population and reproductive health issues were always on the agenda of policy makers throughout the history of Turkey. After the decline in total fertility rate below replacement level, vibrant discussions and search for a new policy framework began to be visible in the recent years. After the establishment of new Republic in Turkey in 1923 pronatalist policies were active until the beginning 1960s. After the First Development Plan in 1962, policy shift was towards an antinatalist direction until 2000. After a short period between 2000 and 2012 which can not be put any category in terms of fertility policy government clearly declared its position favouring pronatalist policies and mobilised bureaucracy for developing new policy options. This paper summarizes the fertility policies and demographic transition of Turkey and evaluates possible policy options

  2. Turkey and the Muslim Brotherhood: Crossing Roads in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Gurpinar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Turkey and the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood (SMB have gained momentum in the light of post-Arab revolt developments. This study aims to present the historical background of the relationship between SMB and AKP and effects of this relationship on foreign policy. For the analytical discussion on the relationship between AKP and SMB integration to ‘particular’ recent foreign policies of Turkey, first of all, it will be examined how the SMB is perceived in Turkey in social and political arenas. Thus, the socio-political dimensions of the process in which the SMB came to the fore and began to be known in Turkey will be explored along with its position in foreign policy during the Justice and Development Party (JDP government and the Syrian crisis.

  3. Zooplankton abundance in the River Kars, Northeast Turkey: Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Turkey: Impact of environmental variables. H. Özbay1* and ... in the river. Key words: River Kars, zooplankton, running water, environmental factors. ..... tergestina (Branchiopoda: Onychopoda) in Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Braz.

  4. Predisposing factors in childhood masturbation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, F

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this prospective, referral-based study was to assess demographical and developmental features associated with childhood masturbation in Turkey. A total of 61 children with childhood masturbation who were referred for the first time to the Department of Child Psychiatry were examined from demographical, psychosocial and medical aspects and compared with two control groups consisting of 61 age and gender matched children who were brought to the paediatric outpatient clinics and 43 children and adolescents who were the biological siblings of the study group. In children with masturbation, sleep difficulties were more frequent (P masturbation was often associated with a genito-urinary disorder or a stressful life event like weaning, the birth of a sibling, or separation from the parents. This is the first controlled study investigating the clinical and the developmental features of childhood masturbation. These findings may help identify children who could be at risk for this condition.

  5. Nursing satisfaction and job enrichment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Havva; Bahcecik, Nefise; Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    Survey research was conducted with the aim of better understanding nurses' perceptions of organizational factors which relate to their job satisfaction and motivation in Turkey. Nurses (N = 290) who were employed at a training and research hospital, part of the Turkish Republic Ministry of Health, were included. The questionnaire used was developed for this study based on Hackman and Oldman's job enrichment theory. The results showed that only one third of the nurse leaders and one in five of the staff nurses reported being satisfied with their job. The participants saw the five core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldman's work design model: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback as important for nurses. Nursing was described by the participants as hard and challenging, but they also found it meaningful and said that it gave them the opportunity to use their skills and abilities.

  6. Hydrogen is not an utopia for Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celiktas, Melih Soner [EBILTEM, Ege University Science and Technology Research Center, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Kocar, Gunnur (Solar Energy Institute of Ege University, Izmir Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this study was to explore how the future of technological developments in hydrogen will be shaped in Turkey by using a two-round Delphi method undertaken to determine and measure the expectations of the sector representatives through online surveys where a total of 60 experts responded from 18 different locations. The article discusses not only the expert sights on hydrogen technologies but also all bibliometrical approaches. The results showed that the hydrogen economy will enhance innovations as well as economic prosperities with the support of appropriate policies. Formulating such policies requires a timely and detailed understanding of the latest R and D trends and developments in science and technology policy in all developed countries, and the comprehensive analysis of these developments to enable accurate predictions of future science and technology trends. Therefore, we hope that this study can shed a light on the future use of hydrogen technologies, especially for policy makers. (author)

  7. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Erem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem affecting an important proportion of the Turkish population. The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased among adult Turkish population over the past 20 years. In 1990, 18.8% of the adult population was obese (28.5% among women and 9% among men, and the prevalence increased to 36% in 2010 (44% among women and 27% among men. From the data, we found that the prevalence of obesity in Turkey has increased steadily from 1990 to 2010 in both genders. Adult obesity-associated risk factors are age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption, high household income, low education level and physical activity, occupation, marital status and a family of selected medical conditions (e.g. obesity, diabetes and hypertension. To control obesity, necessary precautions should urgently be taken. The precautions include serious public health education encouraging a well-balanced diet and increasing physical activity.

  8. STATUS OF PUMPKIN SEED PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Gulsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed contains very valuable nutrients and may have some beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to overview status of pumpkin seed production in Turkey. The production has sharply risen from 11.500 tons in 2015 to 42.181 tons in 2016. The area has also indicated sharp increase from 172.580 da to 628.441 tons in the same period. The first section provides introduction of topics, and later nutrition value of pumpkin seed, taxonomy, production, bottlenecks and breeding efforts are summarized. They have several advantages such as their short vegetation time that just fits the Central Anatolia conditions where vegetation time available is too short for many other crop plants, net profit per de compared to the other crop plants, extended storability, etc.

  9. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  10. Team Leadership: Leadership Role Achievement in Supervision Teams in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sabanci; Izzet Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the views of team leaders and team members of supervision teams about the extent that team leaders achieve their team leadership roles in Turkey. This research was conducted as a survey. The population of the study consisted of approximately 2650 supervisors (inspectors) working in 81 provinces distributed to seven geographical regions in Turkey. The sample consisted of 563 supervisors which were selected out by random sampling. The data were gathered b...

  11. Misalignment under different exchange rate regimes: the case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Dağdeviren, Sengül; Ogus Binatli, Ayla; Sohrabji, Niloufer

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines misalignment of the Turkish lira between 1998 to 2008. Misalignment, specifically overvaluation has been linked to fixed exchange rate regimes. By studying the case of Turkey during this period which covers both a fixed and floating exchange rate regime, we contribute to the literature on the relation between misalignment and exchange rate regimes. We first estimate the equilibrium real exchange rate for Turkey, then compute misalignment and finally test for structural brea...

  12. Dynamic Analysis of Money Demand Function: Case of Turkey*

    OpenAIRE

    doğru, bülent

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic determinants of money demand function and the long-run and short-run relationships between money demand, income and nominal interest rates are examined in Turkey for the time period 1980-2012. In particular we estimate a dynamic specification of a log money demand function based on Keynesian liquidity preference theory to ascertain the relevant elasticity of money demand. The empirical results of the study show that in Turkey inflation, exchange rate and money deman...

  13. Financial Condition Analysis In Municipalities: A Case Of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKUL, Fatma; ALKAN, Betül Şeyma

    2017-01-01

    This study included the analysis of prepared comprehensive financial statements with the transitionto accrual-based accounting system from cash-based accounting system in the public institutionsin 2006. In Turkey, there is no specific method developed to the goals of public institutions. GASB 1Reporting Model, which is a model developed in the USA, and is not yet used in Turkey, has been appliedby taking financial statements data of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The study was carrie...

  14. The European Union, the ESDP, and the question of Turkey /

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential contribution in terms of crude capabilities that Turkey could bring to the European Union’s ESDP security framework. The history of the European Union’s security aspirations and the security policy preferences of the major actors in European security will also be examined as a way of framing the question of Turkey's potential role within the emerging European security and defense framework. The second chapter will look at how European security has evolved fro...

  15. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-01-01

    Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online...

  16. Turkey - Corporate Bond Market Development : Priorities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The study is in response to a request by the Capital Markets Board of Turkey to assist them in developing the corporate bond market in line with best practices globally. The objective of this study is to carry out an assessment of the status of the corporate bond market in Turkey. The study identifies key impediments and solutions to sustainable development, and it presents a roadmap to ad...

  17. Energy policies of IEA countries: Turkey 1997 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Turkey, including recommendations on future policy developments. The report highlights the rapid increase in Turkey`s energy consumption and the large investments needed to meet the demand growth. Turkey has sought to attract private inward investment in the energy sector, in particular in electricity, through build-own-operate and build-operate-transfer schemes and transfers of operating rights. Turkey needs to set up a stable legal framework to continue this policy. It needs to push forward with market reforms, as well as to create a level playing field for competition, with energy prices reflecting the true costs of various fuels. Natural gas consumption is also expected to continue to increase. The new regulatory framework should be designed to encourage more rapid increase in the use of gas and more corresponding investments. Turkey is situated near the Caspian Sea, where natural gas and oil production are expected to increase substantially. The report describes projects for oil and natural gas pipelines. 33 figs., 31 tabs., 4 apps.

  18. Detection of antibodies against Turkey astrovirus in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Kayali, Ghazi; Burnham, Andrew; Oshansky, Christine M; Thomas, Paul G; Gray, Gregory C; Beck, Melinda A; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Astroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis in mammals and birds worldwide. Although historically thought to be species-specific, increasing evidence suggests that astroviruses may cross species barriers. In this report, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to screen sera from three distinct human cohorts involved in influenza studies in Memphis, TN or Chapel Hill, NC, and Midwestern poultry abattoir workers for antibodies to turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2). Surprisingly, 26% of one cohort's population was TAstV-2 positive as compared to 0 and 8.9% in the other cohorts. This cohort was composed of people with exposure to turkeys in the Midwestern United States including abattoir workers, turkey growers, and non-occupationally exposed participants. The odds of testing positive for antibodies against turkey astrovirus among abattoir workers were approximately 3 times higher than the other groups. These studies suggest that people with contact to turkeys can develop serological responses to turkey astrovirus. Further work is needed to determine if these exposures result in virus replication and/or clinical disease.

  19. Detection of antibodies against Turkey astrovirus in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Meliopoulos

    Full Text Available Astroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis in mammals and birds worldwide. Although historically thought to be species-specific, increasing evidence suggests that astroviruses may cross species barriers. In this report, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to screen sera from three distinct human cohorts involved in influenza studies in Memphis, TN or Chapel Hill, NC, and Midwestern poultry abattoir workers for antibodies to turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2. Surprisingly, 26% of one cohort's population was TAstV-2 positive as compared to 0 and 8.9% in the other cohorts. This cohort was composed of people with exposure to turkeys in the Midwestern United States including abattoir workers, turkey growers, and non-occupationally exposed participants. The odds of testing positive for antibodies against turkey astrovirus among abattoir workers were approximately 3 times higher than the other groups. These studies suggest that people with contact to turkeys can develop serological responses to turkey astrovirus. Further work is needed to determine if these exposures result in virus replication and/or clinical disease.

  20. Food and nutrition policies: what's being done in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekcan, Gülden

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the development of the National Plan of Action for Food and Nutrition (NPAFN) for Turkey. Access to a safe and healthy variety of food, a fundamental human right, was stressed by the International Conference on Nutrition and by the World Food Summit. In the International Conference on Nutrition in December 1992, one major commitment was the preparation of NPAFN. The NPAFN for Turkey was designed according to this commitment. Turkey. To this end, under the coordination of the State Planning Organization, a Working Committee Report for National Food and Nutrition Strategy of Turkey was prepared and published, with the participation of different sectors. The goal of the prepared National Food and Nutrition Strategy for Turkey is to protect and promote health through and healthy nutrition and reduce the burden of diseases, while contributing to socio-economic development and a sustainable food security. In Turkey the NPAFN was developed and implementation has initiated. Nearly for all the actions, related projects are being developed.

  1. Energy production, consumption, policies and recent developments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toklu, E.; Gueney, M.S.; Isik, M.; Comakli, O.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2010-01-01

    Many factors to be appropriately addressed in moving towards energy sustainability in Turkey are examined. These include harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability. The latter factor includes community involvement and social acceptability, economic affordability and equity, lifestyles, land use and aesthetics. On the other hand, Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the potential and utilization of the energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  2. Energy production, consumption, policies and recent developments in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toklu, E.; Gueney, M.S.; Isik, M.; Comakli, O.; Kaygusuz, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bayburt University, 69000 Bayburt (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Many factors to be appropriately addressed in moving towards energy sustainability in Turkey are examined. These include harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability. The latter factor includes community involvement and social acceptability, economic affordability and equity, lifestyles, land use and aesthetics. On the other hand, Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the potential and utilization of the energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  3. Between Allies and Rivals: Turkey, Nuclear Weapons, and BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibaroglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Turkey's attitudes vis-a-vis nuclear weapons and Ballistic Missile Defense in the light of recent developments in the Iranian nuclear program and NATO's evolving concept of extended deterrence. On the one hand, the long-standing forward deployment of US tactical nuclear weapons in Turkey and the country's role in the US Phased Adaptive Approach BMD architecture are still considered to be key elements of national security. On the other, security guarantees offered to Turkey by NATO and the US appear less and less credible in the face of rising regional threats. As this paper shows, there is a growing gap between official policy and public perceptions inside Turkey vis-a-vis the US, Iran, and nuclear weapons, as well as a growing Turkish aspiration to autonomy in its security and defense policy. While one should not expect Turkey to develop nuclear weapons anytime soon, an unchecked Iranian regional power could bring Ankara to hedge its bets in the long term. Turkey's controversial recent decision to buy a Chinese system for its national air and missile defense rather than European or US equipment should be seen in the light of this search for autonomy. (author)

  4. Reevaluation of Turkey's hydropower potential and electric energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueksek, Omer

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with Turkey's hydropower potential and its long-term electric energy demand predictions. In the paper, at first, Turkey's energy sources are briefly reviewed. Then, hydropower potential is analyzed and it has been concluded that Turkey's annual economically feasible hydropower potential is about 188 TWh, nearly 47% greater than the previous estimation figures of 128 TWh. A review on previous prediction models for Turkey's long-term electric energy demand is presented. In order to predict the future demand, new increment ratio scenarios, which depend on both observed data and future predictions of population, energy consumption per capita and total energy consumption, are developed. The results of 11 prediction models are compared and analyzed. It is concluded that Turkey's annual electric energy demand predictions in 2010, 2015 and 2020 vary between 222 and 242 (average 233) TWh; 302 and 356 (average 334) TWh; and 440 and 514 (average 476) TWh, respectively. A discussion on the role of hydropower in meeting long-term demand is also included in the paper and it has been predicted that hydropower can meet 25-35% of Turkey's electric energy demand in 2020

  5. Detection and subtyping avian metapneumovirus from turkeys in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayahi, Mansour; Momtaz, Hassan; Jafari, Ramezan Ali; Zamani, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes diseases like rhinotracheitis in turkeys, swollen head syndrome in chickens and avian rhinotracheitis in other birds. Causing respiratory problems, aMPV adversely affects production and inflicts immense economic losses and mortalities, especially in turkey flocks. In recent years, several serological and molecular studies have been conducted on this virus, especially in poultry in Asia and Iran. The purpose of the present study was detecting and subtyping aMPV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from non-vaccinated, commercial turkey flocks in Iran for the first time. Sixty three meat-type unvaccinated turkey flocks from several provinces of Iran were sampled in major turkey abattoirs. Samples were tested by RT-PCR for detecting and subtyping aMPV. The results showed that 26 samples from three flocks (4.10%) were positive for viral RNA and all of the viruses were found to be subtype B of aMPV. As a result, vaccination especially against subtype B of aMPV should be considered in turkey flocks in Iran to control aMPV infections.

  6. Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of 496 children with brucellosis in Van, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Mehmet; Akbayram, Sinan; Doğan, Murat; Tuncer, Oğuz; Bayram, Yasemin; Ceylan, Nesrin; Özlük, Suat; Akbayram, Hatice Tuba; Öner, Abdurrahman

    2015-08-01

    Brucellosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide and remains an important human disease especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of childhood brucellosis in Van province of Eastern Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the largest series of childhood brucellosis reported in the literature. In this retrospective study, 496 children with brucellosis were assessed for the clinical manifestations and laboratory findings from July 2009 through December 2013. The diagnosis of brucellosis was based on clinical findings and a standard tube agglutination test (titer ≥ 1:160). Data were analyzed using Minitab version 16. The study included 496 children (boys, 60.5%) with a mean age of 10.0 ± 3.95 years (range, 1-16 years). The most frequent clinical symptoms were arthralgia (46.2%), fever (32.1%), and abdominal pain (17.1%) and the most common clinical signs were peripheral arthritis (10.1%), splenomegaly (2.2%) and hepatomegaly (1.8%). The most contagious seasons were summer and autumn (63.3%). Elevated lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were reported in 63.1%, 58.7%, and 55.2% of the patients, respectively. Anemia (20.4%), thrombocytopenia (15.5%), and leukopenia (12.1%) were the most common hematologic findings. Brucellosis remains a serious public health problem in Turkey. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of childhood brucellosis have been described in order to assist clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring the disease. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Aerosol sources and their contribution to the chemical composition of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during summertime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sciare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on the temporal variability of compounds important in controlling aerosol chemical composition was performed during a one-month experiment conducted during summer 2000 at a background site on Crete, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Contribution of different aerosol sources in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin could be investigated at this location since the site is influenced by a wide range of air masses originating mainly in Europe and Africa. Chemical apportionment was performed for various air mass origins and showed a strong impact of anthropogenic emissions in the Turkey and Central Europe sectors, with black carbon (BC and non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO4 concentrations higher than observed in the Eastern and Western Europe sectors. High levels of non-sea-salt calcium (nss-Ca were associated with air masses from Africa but also from Central Turkey. Evidence was found that BC calculation based on light absorbance during dust events was biased. This quality-controlled high temporal resolution dataset allowed to investigate in detail the source-receptor relationships responsible for the levels of BC, nss-SO4 and sulfur dioxide (SO2, observed in Crete. Among the results obtained from this model, the major contribution of Turkey and Central Europe was confirmed in terms of anthropogenic emissions. Comparisons with remote optical properties obtained from Satellite observations (SEAWIFS north of Crete indicates that our ground based aerosol characterization was suitable for describing aerosol properties in the atmospheric column for most of the time during the campaign.

  8. Subduction and vertical coastal motions in the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Andy; Jackson, James; Copley, Alex; McKenzie, Dan; Nissen, Ed

    2017-10-01

    Convergence in the eastern Mediterranean of oceanic Nubia with Anatolia and the Aegean is complex and poorly understood. Large volumes of sediment obscure the shallow structure of the subduction zone, and since much of the convergence is accommodated aseismically, there are limited earthquake data to constrain its kinematics. We present new source models for recent earthquakes, combining these with field observations, published GPS velocities and reflection-seismic data to investigate faulting in three areas: the Florence Rise, SW Turkey and the Pliny and Strabo Trenches. The depths and locations of earthquakes reveal the geometry of the subducting Nubian plate NE of the Florence Rise, a bathymetric high that is probably formed by deformation of sediment at the surface projection of the Anatolia-Nubia subduction interface. In SW Turkey, the presence of a strike-slip shear zone has often been inferred despite an absence of strike-slip earthquakes. We show that the GPS-derived strain-rate field is consistent with extension on the orthogonal systems of normal faults observed in the region and that strike-slip faulting is not required to explain observed GPS velocities. Further SW, the Pliny and Strabo Trenches are also often interpreted as strike-slip shear zones, but almost all nearby earthquakes have either reverse-faulting or normal-faulting focal mechanisms. Oblique convergence across the trenches may be accommodated either by a partitioned system of strike-slip and reverse faults or by oblique slip on the Aegean-Nubia subduction interface. The observed late-Quaternary vertical motions of coastlines close to the subduction zone are influenced by the interplay between: (1) thickening of the material overriding the subduction interface associated with convergence, which promotes coastal uplift; and (2) subsidence due to extension and associated crustal thinning. Long-wavelength gravity data suggest that some of the observed topographic contrasts in the eastern

  9. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in villages of Çatak (Van-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mükemre, Muzaffer; Behçet, Lütfi; Çakılcıoğlu, Uğur

    2015-05-26

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in the villages of Çatak in the Eastern Anatolia Region. Recording such data calls for urgency. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are carried out by means of FIC method in Eastern (Van) part of Turkey. This study aims to identify the wild plants collected for medicinal purposes by locals of Çatak which is located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, and to identify the uses and local names of these wild plants. A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2010-2012). During this period, 78 plants taxa were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. The plant taxa were collected within the scope of the study; and herbarium materials were prepared. In addition, the relative significance value of the taxa was determined, and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. We have found out in the literature review of the plants included in our study that 78 plant taxa are already used for medicinal purposes while 19 plants are not available among the records in the literature. The most common families are Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae. We include in our study and report for the first time the medicinal uses of Alchemilla buseriana Rothm., Astragalus longifolius Lam., Cephalaria microcephala Boiss., Euphorbia grisophylla M.S. Khan, Fritillaria crassifolia Boiss. & Huet. subsp. kurdica (Boiss. & Noe) Rix, Fritillaria pinardii Boiss., Malabaila lasiocarpa Boiss., Nepeta betonicifolia C.A. Mey., Onobrychis altissima Grossh., Onobrychis carduchorum C.C. Townsend, Papaver bracteatum Lindl., Phlomis tuberosa L., Psephellus karduchorum (Boiss.) Wagenitz, Scutellaria orientalis L. subsp. pichleri

  10. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  11. Abundance and sources of atmospheric halocarbons in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Fabian; Henne, Stephan; Hill, Matthias; Vollmer, Martin K.; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; O'Doherty, Simon; Maione, Michela; Emmenegger, Lukas; Peter, Thomas; Reimann, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    domain, which covers the Eastern Mediterranean as well as central and western Europe. Greek bottom-up HFC emissions reported to the UNFCCC were higher than our top-down estimates, whereas for Turkey our estimates agreed with UNFCCC-reported values for HFC-125 and HFC-143a, but were much and slightly smaller for HFC-134a and HFC-152a, respectively. Sensitivity estimates suggest an improvement of the a posteriori emission estimates, i.e., a reduction of the uncertainties by 40-80 % in the entire inversion domain, compared to an inversion using only the existing central European AGAGE observations.

  12. Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT of strains from Turkey and Cyprus reveals a novel monophyletic L. donovani sensu lato group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Gouzelou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New foci of human CL caused by strains of the Leishmania donovani (L. donovani complex have been recently described in Cyprus and the Çukurova region in Turkey (L. infantum situated 150 km north of Cyprus. Cypriot strains were typed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE using the Montpellier (MON system as L. donovani zymodeme MON-37. However, multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT has shown that this zymodeme is paraphyletic; composed of distantly related genetic subgroups of different geographical origin. Consequently the origin of the Cypriot strains remained enigmatic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Cypriot strains were compared with a set of Turkish isolates obtained from a CL patient and sand fly vectors in south-east Turkey (Çukurova region; CUK strains and from a VL patient in the south-west (Kuşadasi; EP59 strain. These Turkish strains were initially analyzed using the K26-PCR assay that discriminates MON-1 strains by their amplicon size. In line with previous DNA-based data, the strains were inferred to the L. donovani complex and characterized as non MON-1. For these strains MLEE typing revealed two novel zymodemes; L. donovani MON-309 (CUK strains and MON-308 (EP59. A population genetic analysis of the Turkish isolates was performed using 14 hyper-variable microsatellite loci. The genotypic profiles of 68 previously analyzed L. donovani complex strains from major endemic regions were included for comparison. Population structures were inferred by combination of bayesian model-based and distance-based approaches. MLMT placed the Turkish and Cypriot strains in a subclade of a newly discovered, genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group, suggesting that the Cypriot strains may originate from Turkey. CONCLUSION: The discovery of a genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group in the south-eastern Mediterranean stresses the importance of species genetic characterization towards better understanding

  13. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52% during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  14. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  15. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  16. Evaluation of radioactivity levels of coal, slag and fly ash samples used in Giresun province of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A.; Chevik, U.; Damla, N.; Yeshilbag, Y.O.

    2010-01-01

    In present work natural radionuclides activities (236Ra, 232Th and 40K) of the different types of coal, slag and fly ash samples used in Giresun province (Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey) were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. These samples were collected as homogeneously and separately around Giresun province. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radionuclides in coal, slag and fly ash samples were found as 107, 67 and 440 Bg.Kg - 1 for coal; 59, 25 and 268 Bg.kg - 1 for slag and 136, 60 and 417 Bg.kg - 1 for fly ash samples, respectively. To estimate health effect due to the aforementioned radionuclides, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses have been calculated. These values were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values

  17. Energy policies of IEA countries: Turkey 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Turkey including recommendations by the IEA on future policy developments. Recently, Turkey has taken steps to implement energy market reforms which have resulted in clear and significant benefits. Now, continued action is needed to see the process through to a successful conclusion. It is necessary to restructure the state-owned enterprises to operate in a competitive market, to create independent electricity and gas operators and to remove cross-subsidies from electricity and gas prices. Turkey has been very active in international co-operation in the energy sector. Some important oil and gas pipeline projects are underway or almost completed. This will improve the security of supply in Turkey and maintain its role as an important 'energy corridor' between East and West, while avoiding overuse of the Turkish Straits. Synchronisation of Turkey's electricity networks with the European UCTE grid is planned for 2006. Furthermore, the country already has transposed most EU energy laws and standards into national legislation. Turkey's general approach to energy policy has been highly supply-oriented. However, recent efforts have begun to focus more on energy efficiency and conservation. Nevertheless, stronger energy efficiency policies are needed, particularly in the transport sector. Turkey ratified the Framework Convention on Climate Change in February 2004 and is developing its climate change strategy. The government should strive to monitor the cost-effectiveness of its policies, consider defining an emissions target and ensure coordination among the various government bodies. Despite past progress, work remains to be done to achieve further reductions in air pollution. 28 figs., 23 tabs., 3 annexes

  18. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  19. Insurance in Turkey and main problems of the sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaattin Firat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by handling private insurance sector in Turkey and the problems of the sector as a whole, the last stage that the insurance business in Turkey has reached has been evaluated. Basically, because of the fact that the most of the people had fatalistic understanding, religious leaders approached the concept of insurance negatively and adequate information hadn’t been gotten about insurance, the settlement of the idea of insurance in Turkey came true after 150 years later, at the end of 19. Century compared with Europe. As a result of changing conditions, Turkey is in 63rd in accordance with the insurance density on the world countries’ rank, and is in 39th rank in accordance with the primary production. In spite of this, when we examine the studies according to per person criteria, it is seen that the premium rate per person in Turkey is fortieth level among developed countries. The top reason of the fact that insurance business in Turkey hasn’t risen to the requested level is that there is still fatalistic society understanding; and also, the fact that insurance understanding hasn’t been settled, and hitching and late payment on damage payments of insurance firms, and not having an effective promotion and marketing understanding are seen as the primary reasons. Despite of these negative factors, in Turkey being an developing country, the insurance sector has a potential to show at least a threefold improvement from todays’ position in a short time in case of precautions to be taken by state and applying these precautions by seriousness.

  20. Development potential of wind energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Akova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L’énergie en Turquie est aujourd’hui fournie par l’énergie fossile. De plus, la Turquie est dépendante de l’extérieur en matière d’énergie pour son économie et les secteurs divers qui en ont besoin. En Turquie, parallèlement aux informations ci-dessus, 83% de l’électricité de l’an 2008 provient des sources d’énergie fossile. Les perspectives d'avenir prévoient que la demande d’énergie de la Turquie augmentera et l’effet naturel de cette croissance sera l’augmentation du taux de dépendance énergétique à l'égard des autres pays. Les travaux effectués démontrent que, parmi les sources d’énergies renouvelables de la Turquie, le pouvoir hydraulique et le potentiel d’énergie éolienne sont les plus importants et que chacune de ces deux sources ont des potentiels techniques pour la production de l’électricité. La multiplication des centrales éoliennes au cours de ces dernières années est à relier à des facteurs comme la préparation de l’Atlas d’Energie Eolienne Turc, la disposition des lois afin d’aider les entrepreneurs du secteur privé et l’augmentation des prix du pétrole. Les centrales éoliennes fonctionneront dans la région de Marmara, la région d’Egée et dans la partie de méditerranée orientale de la Turquie où se manifestent plus souvent les vents violents. Il est probable que quelques autres centrales seront construites dans d'autres régions que celles citées précédemment.Covering its energy requirement from fossil energy sources for the most part, Turkey relies on outside sources to procure energy required for its economy and different sectors. Similarly, Turkey had produced 83 pct of the overall electricity in 2008 out of fossil energy sources. Future projectors indicate that the energy requirement of our country would augment and foreign-dependency in energy would thus increase accordingly.  The on-going studies state that especially hydraulic power and wind

  1. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Science Policy Research Unit)

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this article is that of illustrating the experience of the use of nuclear power in Eastern Europe in order to estimate the degree of adequacy or inadequacy of COMECON's nuclear technology. The author examines four areas of interest concerning: the feasibility of new orders for nuclear plants in Eastern Europe; the pros and cons of completing half-built nuclear power plants; current policy towards existing nuclear power plants; and a review of the available evidence on the operating performance of plants in Eastern Europe. The common belief that the nuclear power experience had by old COMECON countries is uniformly bad does not seem to be fully supported by the limited evidence available. In the author's opinion, the prospects for a successful nuclear power industry in these countries depends on a series on interdependent factors among which, human skills hold a prominent position.

  2. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... in the area.   The municipalities acknowledge the articulation of the city region and the initiated planning process.  However, the municipalities might see the arena as means to lobby for infrastructure investments in Eastern Jutland, as it is doubtful whether the municipalities will feel encouraged to enter...... a process, which is aiming at increasing the national regulation within their territory.    The result might very well be that the discussion about future infrastructure investments is not linked to discussions about future urban development in Eastern Jutland.  These aspects raises serious questions about...

  3. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  4. [Tularemia is spreading from north to south side of Turkey: a small outbreak in Kahramanmaras, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, İlkay; Kiliç, Selçuk

    2014-07-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. Sporadic tularemia cases have been increasingly reported particularly from provinces located at northwest and central regions of Turkey especially during last two decades, as well as waterborne outbreaks reported from almost all regions. Transmission most often occurs through consumption of contaminated water and food, thus, oropharyngeal form is the most common clinical presentation in our country. The aim of this study was to present a small outbreak experience in Afsin, country of Kahramanmaras province located at southern part of Turkey. A total of 10 patients (5 male, 5 female; age range 2-68 years; mean age 25 years) who were admitted to Afsin State Hospital with the complaints of swollen neck between 21 October 2013-22 January 2014, were evaluated considering their clinical findings and treatment outcomes. Following the diagnosis of the first tularemia case coming from Nadir village, a field investigation was performed. All villagers were informed about the disease and water samples from the possible sources of outbreak were collected by provincial health authorities. Lymph node aspirate and serum samples were sent for culture and serologic investigation and the environmental water samples were sent for molecular analysis to the National Tularemia Reference Laboratory at Public Health Institution of Turkey. Six out of 10 patients' sera were found positive in terms of F.tularensis antibodies between the titers of 1/320-1/1280 by microagglutination test (MAT) and diagnosis of oropharyngeal tularemia was based on the clinical and serological findings. One of the patients also presented with oculoglandular form accompanying oropharyngeal form. Cultures from aspirate samples that could be obtained from only two patients yielded negative results. Three out of six patients' lymph nodes were drained surgically and one was drained by ultrasound-guided needle. In one case lymph node suppuration occured

  5. A Re-Run in Turkey: A Coup in the Near Future?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foust, Shawn J

    2007-01-01

    ... of coup activity in the near future, as has been seen in Turkey's history. Turkey has a proven status of importance to the United States by virtue of its strategic location, democratic pursuits, cultural status, and economic potential...

  6. Defense Expenditure and Economic Growth: Empirical Study on Case of Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tekeoglu, Ertugrul

    2008-01-01

    .... Since Turkey has one of the largest defense budgets within the Middle East and also NATO, this question has important implications for Turkey's future economic well-being and political stability...

  7. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  8. Bringing EU-Turkey trade and investment relations up to date?

    OpenAIRE

    Dawar, Kamala; Sübidey, Togan

    2016-01-01

    The case is made that the EU-Turkey CU of 1995 covering industrial goods should be modernised and modified to take into account the various and growing criticisms of the original CU. Furthermore, economic integration between the EU and Turkey should be strengthened by signing a complementary deep integration regional trade agreement (RTA) between the EU and Turkey, covering agriculture, SPS measures, services, government procurement, investment, and dispute settlement. For Turkey, the objecti...

  9. Discrete choice modeling of season choice for Minnesota turkey hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Merchant, Steven S.

    2018-01-01

    Recreational turkey hunting exemplifies the interdisciplinary nature of modern wildlife management. Turkey populations in Minnesota have reached social or biological carrying capacities in many areas, and changes to turkey hunting regulations have been proposed by stakeholders and wildlife managers. This study employed discrete stated choice modeling to enhance understanding of turkey hunter preferences about regulatory alternatives. We distributed mail surveys to 2,500 resident turkey hunters. Results suggest that, compared to season structure and lotteries, additional permits and level of potential interference from other hunters most influenced hunter preferences for regulatory alternatives. Low hunter interference was preferred to moderate or high interference. A second permit issued only to unsuccessful hunters was preferred to no second permit or permits for all hunters. Results suggest that utility is not strictly defined by harvest or an individual's material gain but can involve preference for other outcomes that on the surface do not materially benefit an individual. Discrete stated choice modeling offers wildlife managers an effective way to assess constituent preferences related to new regulations before implementing them. 

  10. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot water treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200-l concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey in 1990. The PRESTO-II (prediction of radiation effects from shallow trench operations) computer code has been applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this code takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides, and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  11. Distribution of Wild and Cultivated Grapes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H UZUN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of main gene centers in the world for grapes. It is believed that cultivated grapes have their origins in Turkey and the surrounding countries. Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris is the only wild grape species in this region. That is why Turkey has a very large amount of wild grapevine populations and grape cultivars which offer to grapevine breeders a valuable gene pool. Wild grapevines have significant characters for inducing the resistence to biotic and abiotic stress factors, such as resistance to lime, drought, pests and diseases. Turkey has over 1.600 local grape cultivars, among which the majority of them are conserved at the national grape collection vineyard in Tekirda?. They are mostly used as table grapes, dried grapes or for local consumptions. Wild grapes are distributed all over the country territory, mainly in the river basins and forests. Wild grape collection vineyards were established at some universities in Turkey. These grapevines will be screened for the resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors.

  12. Some forest trees for honeydew honey production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ünal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Honey is an important source of nutrients and energy and an effective remedy against various human diseases. Honeydew honey is produced from honeydew of phloem-feeders that honeybees gather. In this study, we focused on honeydew producers and diversity of host tree species which are involved in honeydew production in Turkey. A total of 24 honeydew producers by host tree species are identified in Turkey. Of these, 13 coniferous trees and 11 deciduous trees. The main honeydew producer in Turkey is a scale insect, Marchalina hellenica Gennadius (Hemiptera: Margarodidae living mainly on pines (Turkish red pine, Aleppo pine, and rarely on stone pine, Anatolian black pine and Scots pine. Honeydew producer insects can be treated as serious pests of conifer and broadleaf trees. The aphids and the scale insects such as Ceroplastes floridensis, Cinara cedri, C. laportei, Eulachnus rileyi, Icerya purchase, Kermes vermilio, Lichtensia viburni and Saissetia oleae are known as pests in several European, Asian and African countries. Despite their potential harm to their host plants, insect species producing honeydew play an important role in honey production in Turkey. Turkish honey production is exported to EU countries and, furthermore beekeeping is an important part of agricultural sector in Turkey.

  13. Health Manpower Planning and Employment Policies for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kilic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Health manpower planning in health care should be done strategically while considering the following factors: health care needs and demands for community, health care organizations' objectives, goals and resources, goal of a high quality health workforce of sufficient size which has been appropriately distributed, their full employment realized within the appropriate time frame. A good health manpower planning consists of eight components: quantity (size, quality (skill, distribution, timing, employment, necessity, goals and resources. According to the calculations in this article, it must be 1515 people per general practitioner (GP and 1333 people per midwife. There must be 44.755 GP and 50.866 midwife for primary level in Turkey. However there are 51.530 GP and 41.513 midwife in Turkey in 2002. In this situation there is no more need for GP but there is a big need for 10.000 midwife as totally and actually 30.000 midwife for working at health centres for Turkey. As a result, this article discusses the shortcomings of Health Ministry's employment policies in Turkey. It is suggested that in the short run concepts such as physician unemployment, under-employment and flexible work hours will become frequently discussed in Turkey health care public discourse. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 501-514

  14. Health Manpower Planning and Employment Policies for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kilic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Health manpower planning in health care should be done strategically while considering the following factors: health care needs and demands for community, health care organizations' objectives, goals and resources, goal of a high quality health workforce of sufficient size which has been appropriately distributed, their full employment realized within the appropriate time frame. A good health manpower planning consists of eight components: quantity (size, quality (skill, distribution, timing, employment, necessity, goals and resources. According to the calculations in this article, it must be 1515 people per general practitioner (GP and 1333 people per midwife. There must be 44.755 GP and 50.866 midwife for primary level in Turkey. However there are 51.530 GP and 41.513 midwife in Turkey in 2002. In this situation there is no more need for GP but there is a big need for 10.000 midwife as totally and actually 30.000 midwife for working at health centres for Turkey. As a result, this article discusses the shortcomings of Health Ministry's employment policies in Turkey. It is suggested that in the short run concepts such as physician unemployment, under-employment and flexible work hours will become frequently discussed in Turkey health care public discourse. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 501-514

  15. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Ata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  16. Spatiotemporal changes of land use patterns in high mountain areas of Northeast Turkey: a case study in Maçka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Gokhan; Bayramoglu, Mahmut M; Toksoy, Devlet

    2015-08-01

    High mountain forests (HMFs) have an important significance in forest ecosystems, but the benefits from such ecosystems have been compromised in recent years. In Turkey, HMFs constitute significant portions of Turkish forests because they cover 4% of Turkey; 15% of all Turkish forest areas are HMFs. The Eastern Black Sea region has a particular importance for HMFs due to its biological diversity and the rich presence of endemic species. This study analyzes the changes in spatial and temporal patterns of forest cover in HMF from 1973 to 2008 in the town of Maçka, which is located at the center of the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. The spatial and temporal change patterns of land use are quantified by interpreting spatial data. Remote sensing (RS), geographical information system (GIS), and a spatial pattern analysis program for categorical maps (FRAGSTATS) have been used for data collection, analysis, and presentation. The results showed that the HMF areas had biphasic growth from 1973 to 2008. Despite a net increase of 200.6 ha in forested areas between 1984 and 2008, there was an overall decrease from 1973 to 2008. The annual percentage of forestation for the forest areas within the study period was 0.04% in Maçka. The amount of aggregated forest area fragments rose from 388 in 1973 to 711 in 2008. The increase in the HMF of Maçka can be explained to some extent by the change in the demographic structure of Maçka and its plateaus, which contributed to changes in the daily life of the population of Maçka and its villages, such as changes in annual incomes, their lifestyles, decrease in transhumance and stockbreeding, decrease in the time of dwelling on the plateaus, and changes in the traditional architectural style.

  17. 78 FR 60831 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-819] Steel Concrete Reinforcing... concrete reinforcing bar (``rebar'') from the Republic of Turkey (``Turkey''), filed in proper form on... of Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from the Republic of Turkey, dated September 4, 2013. \\2...

  18. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ..., the Republic of the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, the Republic of Turkey, Ukraine, and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-817] Certain Oil Country Tubular... provided to producers and exporters of certain oil tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey...

  19. Turkey's Progress toward Meeting Refugee Education Needs the Example of Syrian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltekin, Nurettin

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Historically, Turkey is an immigrant country. It has experienced various migration waves from Asia, Awrupa and Africa. Recently, Turkey has confronted a huge wave of migration. Turkey tries to meet many needs besides the educational needs of refugees, but there is not enough study on refugees in the field of educational sciences…

  20. Teaching Human Rights in Turkey: Commentaries on a Single Lesson from Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Alper; Schur, Joan Brodsky; Gürsoy, Kudret

    2014-01-01

    This group of commentaries on teaching human rights in Turkey includes: (1) Reflection on Turkish Human Rights Lesson from Turkey (Alper Kesten)--A lesson on human rights in Turkey is analyzed for its representativity and methodology within the Turkish teaching culture from the viewpoint of a Turkish researcher; (2) Commentary on a Turkish Lesson…

  1. Heat stress and diet utilization in male turkeys : the role of dietary energy and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: turkeys, heat stress, energy, amino acids.

    The commercial turkey industry has changed during the last two or three decades from one that marketed predominantly fresh whole dressed turkeys to one that now markets a large variety of mostly further processed

  2. 77 FR 69792 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-806] Certain Pasta From Turkey... review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Turkey for the period January 1, 2010... subject merchandise during the period of review. See Certain Pasta From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

  3. Progressive Education in Turkey: Reports of John Dewey and His Successors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    John Dewey, the well-known figure in progressive education, visited Turkey in 1924. Through his visit, Turkey was introduced to progressive education. Although his visit was short, the reports he prepared influenced the shape of the Turkish education system. After Dewey's visit, many foreign educators were invited to Turkey, particularly through…

  4. Selected Research in Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching in Turkey: 2010-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinli, Julie; Ortaçtepe, Deniz

    2018-01-01

    In this state-of-the-art review, we aim to build on Alptekin & Tatar's (2011) article covering research conducted in Turkey between 2005 and 2009, and survey published research in 31 Turkey-based journals between 2010 and 2016. As the second review paper on Turkey's English language teaching (ELT) agenda, our goal is twofold: first, to…

  5. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most...

  6. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Empirical evidence for gender differences in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CELIK Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer attitude surveys classified as leading economic indicators aim at extracting information from respondents regarding their perceptions of economic outlook. A typical consumer confidence index includes questions designed to measure the changes in the past-current and current-future pairs of economic outlook perceptions of the participants as well as a question that examines the consumer’s view on the current stage of economic activity. These surveys use equal amount of male and female participants. This paper checks the existence of perceptional difference of genders using CNBC-e consumer confidence index for Turkey. First, we calculate monthly consumer confidence indices for men and women for January 2003 – March 2011. Then, employing this data set, we use the recently developed frequency domain analysis of Breitung and Candelon (2006 and wavelet comovement analysis of Rua (2010 to assess whether these indices follow similar patterns before and after the recent global crisis in time and frequency domain. Our results show that women consistently diverge from men and seem to be on the pessimistic side-due probably to lower levels of wealth in terms of expectation formation. Moreover, this difference is increasing when purchasing durable goods is considered.

  8. An evaluation of inflation expectations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Soybilgen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of inflation play a critical role in the process of price setting in the market. Central banks closely follow developments in inflation expectations to implement a successful monetary policy. The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (CBRT conducts a survey of experts and decision makers in the financial and real sectors to reveal market expectations and predictions of current and future inflation. The survey is conducted every month. This paper examines the accuracy of these survey predictions using forecast evaluation techniques. We focus on both point and sign accuracy of the predictions. Although point predictions from CBRT surveys are compared with those of autoregressive models, sign predictions are evaluated on their value to a user. We also test the predictions for bias. Unlike the empirical evidence from other economies, our results show that autoregressive models outperform most of inflation expectations in forecasting inflation. This indicates that inflation expectations have poor point forecast accuracies. However, we show that sign predictions for all inflation expectations have value to a user.

  9. Estimating light-vehicle sales in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Demiroğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the surprising rapid growth of new light-vehicle sales in Turkey in 2015. Domestic sales grew 25%, dramatically surpassing the industry estimates of around 8%. Our approach is to inform the sales trend estimate with the information obtained from the light-vehicle stock (the number of cars and light trucks officially registered in the country, and the scrappage data. More specifically, we improve the sales trend estimate by estimating the trend of its stock. Using household data, we show that an important reason for the rapid sales growth is that an increasing share of household budgets is spent on automobile purchases. The elasticity of light-vehicle sales to cyclical changes in aggregate demand is high and robust; its estimates are around 6 with a standard deviation of about 0.5. The price elasticity of light-vehicle sales is estimated to be about 0.8, but the estimates are imprecise and not robust. We estimate the trend level of light-vehicle sales to be roughly 7 percent of the existing stock. A remarkable out-of-sample forecast performance is obtained for horizons up to nearly a decade by a regression equation using only a cyclical gap measure, the time trend and obvious policy dummies. Various specifications suggest that the strong 2015 growth of light-vehicle sales was predictable in late 2014.

  10. Prospects of Cooperation between Russia and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Aghayev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russian – Turkish relations go deep into the past. From the Cold War and the relations between the Soviet Union and the United States certainly there has not been a more complicated relationship in international relations. Both countries have different strategic positions, a different dominant religion, a different past, but their relationship largely depends on the future of Eurasia. This paper will deal with relations between the two countries since the establishment of the first diplomatic contacts in the 15th century, through the relationship during the time of Peter the Great, and will mention the periods of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Cold War era. Special attention will be focused on the current relations between the two countries, especially after the conflict in 2015, when Turkey shot down a Russian plane over Syria. Special attention will be focused on energy policy and the potential for building a nuclear power plant in Mersin, and the continuation of Turkish stream. The paper will deal with economics and trade exchange, which have almost disappeared following the 2015 incident, security cooperation and Turkey’s plans to buy the defense system S-400 from Russia, as well as relations between the two countries towards NATO. The paper will end with the projection of the prospects for the economic relations between the two countries.

  11. Art of Wrought Copper in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran KAYABAŞI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the handicraft, art of being a coppersmith has been occurred intensively in the past. The fast developing socio - economic structure diminished the value and the place of the copper vessels. Heavy and beautiful vessels made by beating left their places to thin, light aluminum, pl astic, glass and steel vessels made by machinery. The demand for copper is diminished. Therefore being a coppersmith has become less and less important every day. However, in the last few years, copper vessels becoming a touristic souvenir became a source of hope for the traditional coppersmith art to live on. Copperworking is applied in our country in some regions and there are people who live off it. Souvenirs, daily used vessels, and requirements of the rural areas are produced in centers such as İstanb ul, Ankara, Tokat, Çorum, Erzincan, Diyarbakır, Kahramanmaraş, Gaziantep, Bursa, Kastamonu, Çankırı, Giresun and Trabzon. The situation of being a coppersmith in Turkey is explained, examples are given from souvenir copper items produced in Ankara, and sug gestions are made to keep this craft alive.

  12. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik

    2009-04-01

    Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.

  13. Mobbing Exposure of Anaesthesiology Residents in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykut, Gülnihal; Efe, Esra Mercanoğlu; Bayraktar, Selcan; Şentürk, Sinem; Başeğmez, İrem; Özkumit, Özlem; Kabak, Elmas; Yavaşçaoğlu, Belgin; Bilgin, Hülya

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, psychological problems that are caused by working conditions, like burn out syndrome, are more commonly observed. In our study, we aimed to evaluate mobbing exposure, factors causing mobbing and precautions for mobbing in residency students who are educated in anaesthesiology and reanimation clinics in Turkey. After obtaining consent from the ethics committee, we sent our questionnaires to the secretariats of the departments by postal mail. Completed questionnaires were collected in our department's secretariat blindly and randomly mixed. One hundred and one participants were returned the questionnaires. Data was statistically analysed in SPSS 21.0 software programme. During residency programme, sated to have experienced mobbing one or more time. Interestingly, 5.9% participants complained of physical mobbing. Mobbing exposure was more common in females. The most serious new onset psychosomatic symptoms stated during residency were committing suicide (2%), addiction (16%), severe depression (18%), panic attack (8%), more accidents (7%) and tendency of violence (15%). In mobbing group there was statistically significant dissatisfaction rate. In professions where mobbing is common, incidences of psychiatric diseases and suicide attempts are high are increased. Who are under risk for experiencing mobbing should be noticed carefully to ensure good judgement and problems should be inspected objectively in a detailed manner. Anesthesiology societies and other medical professional societies should establish mobbing committees. Thus, mobbing problems can be resolved and healthy career oppurtunities can be presented to residents.

  14. ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM LANDFILL GAS IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2018-05-08

    Landfill gas (LFG)-to-energy plants in Turkey were investigated, and the LFG-to-energy plant of a metropolitan municipal landfill was monitored for 3 years. Installed capacities and actual gas engine working hours were determined. An equation was developed to estimate the power capacity for LFG-to-energy plants for a given amount of landfilled waste. Monitoring the actual gas generation rates enabled determination of LFG generation factors for Turkish municipal waste. A significant relationship (R = 0.524, p kitchen waste generation behaviors influenced by the ambient temperature. However, no significant correlation was found between the ambient temperature and the generated LFG. A temperature buffering capacity was inferred to exist within the landfill, which enables the anaerobic reactions to continue functioning even during cold seasons. The average LFG and energy generation rates were 45 m 3 LFG/ton waste landfilled and 0.08 MWh/ton waste landfilled, respectively. The mean specific LFG consumption for electricity generation was 529 ± 28 m 3 /MWh.

  15. Palaeomagnetism of the Cappadocian Volcanic Succession, Central Turkey: Major ignimbrite emplacement during two short (Miocene) episodes and Neogene tectonics of the Anatolian collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, J. D. A.; Koçbulut, F.; Gürsoy, H.; Tatar, O.; Viereck, L.; Lepetit, P.; Roberts, A. P.; Akpınar, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The Central Anatolian Volcanic Province in Cappadocia includes 13 high volume calc-alkaline ignimbrite sheets emplaced by plinian eruptions within a succession (the Ürgüp Formation) after ~ 10 Ma recording the last phase of Neotethyan subduction and accompanying emplacement of the Tauride orogen in southern Turkey. To evaluate magnetostratigraphy in the context of recent revisions of the chronostratigraphy we have extended palaeomagnetic investigation to 32 new sites yielding significant ChRM directions. Integrated rock magnetic and palaeomagnetic investigations identify magnetic remanence residing predominantly in Ti-poor titanomagnetites although secondary processes within the ignimbrite sheets, notably post-emplacement oxidation, have locally produced hematisation expressed by composite IRM spectra and variable reduction in intensity of magnetisation. The ignimbrite sheets possess weak anisotropies of magnetic susceptibility (AMS, mostly < 5%) describing tensors with axial distributions close to bedding and minimum axes predominantly perpendicular to this plane; collectively directions show weak imbrication correlating with palaeoflow during emplacement predominantly towards the north and east away from the Erdas Dağ, an inferred topographic palaeohigh at the southern margin of the basin. The precise control provided by magnetostratigraphy and radiometric age dating now shows that the bulk of Cappadocian ignimbrite magmatism was concentrated into two short episodes. An older Cardak Centre (Kavak Group and Zelve ignimbrites) produced in excess of 200 km3 of pyroclastic deposits during polarity chron C4r.1n between 9.31 and 9.43 Ma. Subsequent activity from the Acıgöl Centre further to the south west (Cemilköy, Gelveri, Gördeles, and Kızılkaya) produced in excess of 620 km3 of pyroclastic deposits during polarity chrons between 5.3 and 7.1 Ma. The younger İncesu ignimbrite was sourced in the Sultansazlığı pull-apart basin to the east during the Gauss

  16. Geological evidence of tsunamis and earthquakes at the Eastern Hellenic Arc: correlation with historical seismicity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos Papadopoulos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary stratigraphy determined by trenching in Dalaman, south-western Turkey, revealed three sand layers at a distance of approximately 240 m from the shoreline and at elevations of +0.30, +0.55 and +0.90 cm. Storm surge action does not explain the features of these deposits that show instead typical characteristics of tsunami deposition. The sand layers correlate with historical tsunamis generated by large earthquakes which ruptured the eastern Hellenic Arc and Trench in 1303, 1481 and 1741. Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of a wood sample from layer II indicated deposition in AD 1473±46, which fits the 1481 event. From an estimated average alluvium deposition rate of approximately 0.13 cm/year, layers I and III were dated at 1322 and 1724, which may represent the large 1303 and 1741 tsunamis. The geological record of the 1303 key event is very poor; therefore, sand layer I perhaps represents an important geological signature of the 1303 tsunami. However, the strong tsunami reported to have been generated by the 1609 earthquake is missing from Dalaman stratigraphy: this underlines the sensitivity of tsunami geological signatures to various local factors. The 1303 earthquake ruptured the trench between the islands of Crete and Rhodes. For the earthquakes of 1481, 1609 and 1741 we suggested that they were very likely generated in the Rhodes Abyssal Plain where sea depths of up to approximately 4200 m, together with the thrust component of seismotectonics, favor tsunami generation. Sand dykes directed upwards from layer I to layer II indicated that the 1481 earthquake triggered liquefaction of sand layer I. The results substantially widen our knowledge about the historical earthquake and tsunami activity in the eastern Mediterranean basin.

  17. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  18. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  19. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  20. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  1. The HBsAg Prevalence Among Blood Donors From Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanejad, Mehran; Izadi, Neda; Najafi, Farid; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-03-01

    The world health organization (WHO) recommends that all blood donations should be screened for evidence of infections, such as hepatitis B. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood donors at the eastern Mediterranean region office (EMRO) of the WHO and middle eastern countries. A meta-analysis was carried out based on the results of an electronic literature search of PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles published from January 1, 2000, to August 31, 2015. In accordance with a significant homogeneity test and a large value of I2, the random effects model was used to aggregate data from the studies and produce the pooled estimates using the "Metan" command. We included 66 eligible studies. The pooled prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors of both EMRO and middle eastern (E and M) countries was 2.03% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79 - 2.26). In addition, the prevalence rates in the EMRO countries was 1.99% (95% CI: 1.84 - 2.14) and 1.62% in the Middle Eastern countries (95% CI: 1.36 - 1.88). The prevalence among blood donors with more than one study was 1.58% in Egypt, 0.58% in Iran, 0.67% in Iraq, 2.84% in Pakistan, 3.02% in Saudi Arabia, 1.68% in Turkey, and 5.05% in Yemen. Based on the WHO classification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, the prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors from E and M countries reached an intermediate level. However, there were low prevalence levels in some E and M countries.

  2. Syrian Refugees, Health and Migration Legislation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the crucial effects of Turkish health and migration laws on Syrian refugees' access to public health services and social determinants of health. Key aspects of current Turkish laws affect the health of both refugees and Turkish citizens in many ways. The huge influx of refugees is increasing communicable disease risks, overcrowding hospitals, and more generally straining financial and health resources. Turkey's United Nations membership and its candidacy for European Union (EU) have led to increased alignment of Turkey's refugee and migration policies with international law. Major differences remain, however, and Turkey's remaining noncompliance with international refugee laws is a major force driving Syrian refugee's flight to EU countries, as refugees desperately seek the right to better health and social services.

  3. Beyond convergence: Poland and Turkey en route to high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Raiser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the policy reform experiences of Poland and Turkey en route to high income. For both countries, globalization has presented unprecedented opportunities to catch up, unleased by integration into European and global markets and the establishment of macroeconomic discipline. These opportunities were reinforced by the creation of economic institutions to strengthen competition and support private entrepreneurship, catalyzed by the convergence process with the European Union. Both Poland and Turkey have shown resilience following the 2008 global crisis, but continued success will require renewed structural reform measures. Dealing with the challenging of aging while at the same time finding a way to sustain productivity growth through greater domestic innovation is shaping Poland’s policy agenda. Turkey's structural and demographic potential as well as its strategic location between the markets of Europe and Asia offers attractive value proposition to investors, which could be further enhanced with improvements in business regulations and economic governance.

  4. The regulatory control of radiation sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Birol, E.

    2001-01-01

    In Turkey, the national competent authority for regulating activities involving radioactive sources is the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, which implements the responsibility for the safety and security of radiation sources through its Radiation Health and Safety Department. The report describes the organization of the regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety in Turkey and, after a brief explanation of the current legal framework for such purpose, it refers to how the management of radiation sources is carried out and to the new provisions regarding radiation sources, including inspections of licensees and training on source safety. Finally, the report provides information on the Ikitelli radiological accident in Turkey and the current public concern about radiation sources after it happened. (author)

  5. Avian chlamydiosis in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šatrović E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiosis is a contagious disease of birds, mammals, reptiles and humans. So far it was demonstrated in 469 species of birds and among them, turkeys are the most susceptible domestic poultry species. The disease appears in epizootic form in intensive turkey farming. Since commercial poultry rearing is under-developed in Bosnia and Herzegovina, our investigation was based on extensively reared turkeys. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 26 birds and infection was proven by common chlamydial LPS antigen detection tests (IDEIA and CW. We have used rRT-PCR technique targeting chlamydial ompA gene region in order to prove Chlamydia species. Five birds, (19.2% were found positive as judged by IDEIA and CW tests. Among them one was positive Cp. psittaci speciesspecific rRT-PCR, ompA gene.

  6. Views on Turkey's impending ESCO market: Is it promising?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okay, Esin; Okay, Nesrin; Konukman, Alp Er S.; Akman, Ugur

    2008-01-01

    Turkey's Energy Efficiency Law (EEL) came into force in May 2007. The EEL will transform energy policies implemented in the government and private sectors. The law and upcoming regulations will offer opportunities for the impending Energy Service Company (ESCO) market in Turkey. In this work, we briefly review the ESCO literature and its financing mechanisms in the world, and present our views with regard to the funding and related risks that are likely to be associated with the forthcoming Turkish ESCO market. These views are backed up with Turkish credit and banking market performance and the lessons learned from implementation of some EU-related projects involving the banking sector and small-and-medium-sized firms. We conclude that in order to create a promising competitive ESCO market, Turkey's policy must be to sustain its average 5% growth rate achieved lately for the coming decade, finish the structural reforms which will invite necessary capital inflows to ensure an economic stability and financing

  7. mobile nuclear energy power plants for Turkey and III. world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezden, H.

    2001-01-01

    It is estimated that if there is no alternative energy source, there will be increase in building nuclear energy power plants. This source of energy and know how along with technology must be put into the possession of Turkey. Since almost all of Turkey is 1 st degree earthquake region and in view of the regional political instability, the requirement of ample amount of water for prolonged times, the density of settlement, environmental problems, high cost of building nuclear energy power plants it becomes necessary to think about their application techniques. In this study, mobile nuclear energy power plants having a wide area of use in conditions prevailing in Turkey , their draft drawings for making them by using metal/steel are shown. The positive-negative aspects of the topic is presented for discussions

  8. Social and legal dimensions discussion of conscientious refusal in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz ANBARLI BOZATAY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the discussion of conscientious objection, the refusal of military service due to individual’s moral values or religious beliefs, is new in Turkey, the subject has become the focus of intense interest. The discussion of conscientious objection in Turkey has come the to the fore with the heated debates between the glorification of the dynamics of Turkish social structure towards military service and the critique of militarism and conscientious objection’s legal dimensions, as well. Since the reduction of discussions in this context in Turkey to the legal dimension is the ignorance of social reality constituting basis to the legal dimension, the subject is examined with reference to the social and historical outlook on this issue and the study is built on dimensions.

  9. A Pelagic Paleocene Seouence in the Biga Peninsula Northwest Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burak YIKILMAZ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of pelagic limestone, calciturbidite, debris flow, greywacke, basalt and limestone blocks. up to several hundred metres across, occur west of the town of Biga in northwest Turkey. The pelagic limestones in this sequence, named as the Ballıkaya formation, comprise pelagic foraminifera of Palaeocene age. Neritic limestone of Mid-Eocene age lies unconformably over the Ballıkaya formation. The age and the sedimentary environment of the Ballıkaya formation indicate the presence of a tectonically active deep-sea environment in northwest Turkey during the Palaeocene, and constrain the main Alpide deformation in northwest Turkey to the Late Palaeocene - Early Eocene interval.

  10. The emergence of think tanks and mediator intellectuals in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Fındıklı, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Tezin basılısı İstanbul Şehir Üniversitesi Kütüphanesi'ndedir. This study examines the rise and development of think tanks in Turkey over the past five decades from a field-analytical perspective. In spite of the rapid growth and increasing effects of think tanks, few case studies have been conducted on the historical and current influences of these institutions in Turkey. Based on fourteen in-depth interviews with staff members of various think tanks, first hand observations, secondary re...

  11. Open Access in Turkey and Comparison with Other Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Karasözen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of open access journals and institutional repositories, as a product of open access movement has grown rapidly in recent years. Open access research articles remove the barriers in accessing scientific research results and accelerate the communication among the scientist worldwide. In many countries the number of institutional archives and open access journal are increasing. In this article, the recent developments in open access journals, institutional repositories and open courseware in Turkey are summarized and compared with some countries. A sample mandatory institutional repository policy document is given with some suggestion for establishing open access in Turkey.

  12. The gender wage GAP ın Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2017-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages. Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. We concentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Although women earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entire wage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distr...

  13. Geothermal district heating in Turkey: The Gonen case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktay, Zuhal; Aslan, Asiye

    2007-01-01

    The status of geothermal district heating in Turkey and its future prospects are reviewed. A description is given of the Gonen project in Balikesir province, the first system to begin citywide operation in the country. The geology and geothermal resources of the area, the history of the project's development, the problems encountered, its economic aspects and environmental contributions are all discussed. The results of this and other such systems installed in Turkey have confirmed that, in this country, heating an entire city based on geothermal energy is a significantly cleaner, cheaper option than using fossil fuels or other renewable energy resources. (author)

  14. A case of biliary Fascioliasis by Fasciola gigantica in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Vedat; Senturk, Senem; Mete, Omer; Cicek, Mutallib; Ebik, Berat; Kaya, Beşir

    2011-03-01

    A case of Fasciola gigantica-induced biliary obstruction and cholestasis is reported in Turkey. The patient was a 37- year-old woman, and suffered from icterus, ascites, and pain in her right upper abdominal region. A total of 7 living adult flukes were recovered during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A single dose of triclabendazole was administered to treat possible remaining worms. She was living in a village of southeast of Anatolia region and had sheeps and cows. She had the history of eating lettuce, mallow, dill, and parsley without washing. This is the first case of fascioliasis which was treated via endoscopic biliary extraction during ERCP in Turkey.

  15. A Model of Exchange-Rate-Based Stabilization for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Aytac

    2008-01-01

    The literature on the exchange-rate-based stabilization has focused almost exclusively in Latin America. Many other countries however, such as Egypt, Lebanon and Turkey; have undertaken this sort of programs in the last 10-15 years. I depart from the existing literature by developing a model specifically for the 2000-2001 heterodox exchange-rate-based stabilization program in Turkey: When the government lowers the rate of crawl, the rate of domestic credit creation is set equal to the lower r...

  16. Political Globalization and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Doğan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of political globalization on foreign direct investment inflows to Turkey. Existence of foreign missions in a country, membership in international organizations, participation in U.N. Security Council Missions, and International Treaties are all seen as indicators political globalization. Using different econometric techniques, this study aims to find out whether any empirical relationship between political globalization and FDI exists. The analysis in this article covers the period in Turkey between 1970-2012. The results of cointegration analysis provide no an evidence of a long-run or short run any relationship political globalization and FDI.

  17. The large earthquake on 29 June 1170 (Syria, Lebanon, and central southern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Bernardini, Filippo; Comastri, Alberto; Boschi, Enzo

    2004-07-01

    On 29 June 1170 a large earthquake hit a vast area in the Near Eastern Mediterranean, comprising the present-day territories of western Syria, central southern Turkey, and Lebanon. Although this was one of the strongest seismic events ever to hit Syria, so far no in-depth or specific studies have been available. Furthermore, the seismological literature (from 1979 until 2000) only elaborated a partial summary of it, mainly based solely on Arabic sources. The major effects area was very partial, making the derived seismic parameters unreliable. This earthquake is in actual fact one of the most highly documented events of the medieval Mediterranean. This is due to both the particular historical period in which it had occurred (between the second and the third Crusades) and the presence of the Latin states in the territory of Syria. Some 50 historical sources, written in eight different languages, have been analyzed: Latin (major contributions), Arabic, Syriac, Armenian, Greek, Hebrew, Vulgar French, and Italian. A critical analysis of this extraordinary body of historical information has allowed us to obtain data on the effects of the earthquake at 29 locations, 16 of which were unknown in the previous scientific literature. As regards the seismic dynamics, this study has set itself the question of whether there was just one or more than one strong earthquake. In the former case, the parameters (Me 7.7 ± 0.22, epicenter, and fault length 126.2 km) were calculated. Some hypotheses are outlined concerning the seismogenic zones involved.

  18. Cluster regression model and level fluctuation features of Van Lake, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Şen

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake water levels change under the influences of natural and/or anthropogenic environmental conditions. Among these influences are the climate change, greenhouse effects and ozone layer depletions which are reflected in the hydrological cycle features over the lake drainage basins. Lake levels are among the most significant hydrological variables that are influenced by different atmospheric and environmental conditions. Consequently, lake level time series in many parts of the world include nonstationarity components such as shifts in the mean value, apparent or hidden periodicities. On the other hand, many lake level modeling techniques have a stationarity assumption. The main purpose of this work is to develop a cluster regression model for dealing with nonstationarity especially in the form of shifting means. The basis of this model is the combination of transition probability and classical regression technique. Both parts of the model are applied to monthly level fluctuations of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. It is observed that the cluster regression procedure does preserve the statistical properties and the transitional probabilities that are indistinguishable from the original data.Key words. Hydrology (hydrologic budget; stochastic processes · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (ocean-atmosphere interactions

  19. Cluster regression model and level fluctuation features of Van Lake, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Şen

    Full Text Available Lake water levels change under the influences of natural and/or anthropogenic environmental conditions. Among these influences are the climate change, greenhouse effects and ozone layer depletions which are reflected in the hydrological cycle features over the lake drainage basins. Lake levels are among the most significant hydrological variables that are influenced by different atmospheric and environmental conditions. Consequently, lake level time series in many parts of the world include nonstationarity components such as shifts in the mean value, apparent or hidden periodicities. On the other hand, many lake level modeling techniques have a stationarity assumption. The main purpose of this work is to develop a cluster regression model for dealing with nonstationarity especially in the form of shifting means. The basis of this model is the combination of transition probability and classical regression technique. Both parts of the model are applied to monthly level fluctuations of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. It is observed that the cluster regression procedure does preserve the statistical properties and the transitional probabilities that are indistinguishable from the original data.

    Key words. Hydrology (hydrologic budget; stochastic processes · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (ocean-atmosphere interactions

  20. Radioactivity measurements and risk assessments of spa waters in some areas in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Selcen Uzun; Kucukomeroglu, Belgin; Damla, Nevzat; Taskin, Halim; Celik, Necati; Cevik, Uğur; Ersoy, Hakan

    2017-03-01

    The current study presents the results of the activity of radionuclides in spa waters, and evaluates their radiological influences on the population consuming these waters in the Central and Eastern Black Sea regions of Turkey. Since these waters are used for therapy and consumption purposes unconsciously, their radiological impact on the people was computed by taking into consideration the annual intake through ingestion of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 137 Cs and 222 Rn. The mean activities were estimated to be 11.35 for gross alpha, 6.23 for gross beta, 2.96 for 226 Ra, 0.42 for 232 Th, 0.069 for 137 Cs, 0.19 for 40 K, and 267 Bq L -1 for 222 Rn, respectively. The estimated effective doses from spa water were found to be 49.77 µSv a -1 ( 226 Ra), 5.95 µSv a -1 ( 232 Th), 0.07 µSv a -1 ( 137 Cs), 0.83 µSv a -1 ( 40 K) and 56.03 µSv a -1 ( 222 Rn). These values were evaluated and compared with related verified values from literature. Also, physico-chemical characterizations of spa water samples considered in the current study were investigated. This study would be useful for consumers and official authorities for the assessment of radiation exposure risk due to usage of the considered spa waters.