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Sample records for eastern south pacific

  1. Feeding grounds of the eastern South Pacific humpback whale population include the South Orkney Islands

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    Luciano Dalla Rosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on two photo-identified humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae that were sighted in different years in the proximity of the South Orkney Islands, at the boundary between the Scotia and Weddell seas (60°54.5'S—46°40.4'W and 60°42.6'S—45°33'W. One of the whales had been previously sighted off Ecuador, a breeding ground for the eastern South Pacific population. The other whale was subsequently resighted in Bransfield Strait, off the western Antarctic Peninsula, a well-documented feeding ground for the same population. These matches give support to a hypothesis that the area south of the South Orkney Islands is occupied by whales from the eastern South Pacific breeding stock. Consequently, we propose 40°W as a new longitudinal boundary between the feeding grounds associated with the eastern South Pacific and western South Atlantic breeding stocks.

  2. Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean

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    B. A. S. Van Mooy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. Specifically, the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L−1 h−1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43− incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43− uptake were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

  3. Feeding grounds of the eastern South Pacific humpback whale population include the South Orkney Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Félix, Fernando; Stevick, Peter T.; Secchi,Eduardo R; Allen, Judith M; Chater, Kim; Martin, Anthony R.; Basso, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on two photo-identified humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) that were sighted in different years in the proximity of the South Orkney Islands, at the boundary between the Scotia and Weddell seas (60o54.5’S – 46o40.4’W and 60o42.6’S – 45o33’W). One of the whales had been previously sighted off Ecuador, a breeding ground for the eastern South Pacific population. The other whale was subsequently resighted in Bransfield Strait, off the western Antarctic Peninsula, a well-d...

  4. Silicon stable isotope distribution traces Southern Ocean export of Si to the eastern South Pacific thermocline

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    de Souza, G. F.; Reynolds, B. C.; Johnson, G. C.; Bullister, J. L.; Bourdon, B.

    2012-11-01

    The cycling and transport of dissolved silicon (Si) in the ocean may be traced by its stable isotope composition, δ30Si. We present a dataset of δ30Si values along 103° W in the eastern South Pacific Ocean, ranging from the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean (62° S) to the equatorial Pacific (12° S). At high southern latitudes, the uptake and associated isotope fractionation of Si by diatoms results in highly elevated δ30Si values (up to +3.2‰) in the summer mixed layer. High δ30Si values (+2‰) are also preserved in the high-latitude fossil winter mixed layer, documenting the efficient export of diatom opal beyond the maximum depth of winter convection. This elevated winter mixed layer δ30Si signature is introduced into the ocean interior by the subduction of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), whose northward spreading results in a strong isopycnal control on lower-thermocline and intermediate δ30Si values in the well-ventilated eastern South Pacific. Values of δ30Si are strongly conserved along SAMW and AAIW density levels as far north as 26° S, documenting the importance of the export of preformed Si from the surface Southern Ocean to lower latitudes. In contrast, in the equatorial Pacific, depressed δ30Si values in the mesopelagic ocean are observed, most likely documenting the combined influence of a North Pacific Si source as well as the accumulation of remineralized Si within the eastern equatorial Pacific shadow zone. At depth, δ30Si values in the South Pacific remain indistinguishable from deep Southern Ocean values of +1.25‰, even within Si-rich and oxygen-poor deep waters returning from the North Pacific. This homogeneity implies that the dissolution of opal plays a negligible role in altering the δ30Si value of deep waters as they traverse the deep Pacific Ocean.

  5. A dissolved cobalt plume in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical South Pacific

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    Hawco, Nicholas J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Resing, Joseph A.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Saito, Mak A.

    2016-10-01

    Cobalt is a nutrient to phytoplankton, but knowledge about its biogeochemical cycling is limited, especially in the Pacific Ocean. Here, we report sections of dissolved cobalt and labile dissolved cobalt from the US GEOTRACES GP16 transect in the South Pacific. The cobalt distribution is closely tied to the extent and intensity of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific with highest concentrations measured at the oxycline near the Peru margin. Below 200 m, remineralization and circulation produce an inverse relationship between cobalt and dissolved oxygen that extends throughout the basin. Within the oxygen minimum zone, elevated concentrations of labile cobalt are generated by input from coastal sources and reduced scavenging at low O2. As these high cobalt waters are upwelled and advected offshore, phytoplankton export returns cobalt to low-oxygen water masses underneath. West of the Peru upwelling region, dissolved cobalt is less than 10 pM in the euphotic zone and strongly bound by organic ligands. Because the cobalt nutricline within the South Pacific gyre is deeper than in oligotrophic regions in the North and South Atlantic, cobalt involved in sustaining phytoplankton productivity in the gyre is heavily recycled and ultimately arrives from lateral transport of upwelled waters from the eastern margin. In contrast to large coastal inputs, atmospheric deposition and hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise appear to be minor sources of cobalt. Overall, these results demonstrate that oxygen biogeochemistry exerts a strong influence on cobalt cycling.

  6. Silicon stable isotope distribution traces Southern Ocean export of Si to the eastern South Pacific thermocline

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    G. F. de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cycling and transport of dissolved silicon (Si in the ocean may be traced by its stable isotope composition, δ30Si. We present a dataset of δ30Si values along 103° W in the eastern South Pacific Ocean, ranging from the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean (62° S to the equatorial Pacific (12° S. At high southern latitudes, the uptake and associated isotope fractionation of Si by diatoms results in highly elevated δ30Si values (up to +3.2 ‰ in the summer mixed layer. The efficient export of diatom opal to depths inaccessible to annual winter convection is reflected by high δ30Si values (+2 ‰ preserved in high-latitude winter mixed layers. These elevated δ30Si values are introduced into the ocean interior by the subduction of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW, whose northward spreading results in a strong isopycnal control on lower-thermocline and intermediate δ30Si values in the well-ventilated eastern South Pacific. Values of δ30Si are strongly conserved along SAMW and AAIW density levels as far north as 26° S, documenting the importance of the export of preformed Si from the surface Southern Ocean to lower latitudes. In contrast, in the equatorial Pacific, depressed δ30Si values in the mesopelagic ocean are observed, most likely documenting the combined influence of a North Pacific Si source as well as the accumulation of remineralized Si within the eastern equatorial Pacific shadow zone. At depth, δ30Si values in the South Pacific remain indistinguishable from deep Southern Ocean values of +1.25 ‰, even within Si-rich and oxygen-poor deep waters returning from the North Pacific. This homogeneity implies that the dissolution of opal plays a negligible role in altering the δ30Si value of deep waters as they traverse the deep Pacific Ocean.

  7. Oxygen distribution and aerobic respiration in the north and south eastern tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiano, Laura; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Dalsgaard, Tage

    2014-01-01

    Highly sensitive STOX O-2 sensors were used for determination of in situ O-2 distribution in the eastern tropical north and south Pacific oxygen minimum zones (ETN/SP OMZs), as well as for laboratory determination of O-2 uptake rates of water masses at various depths within these OMZs. Oxygen...... was generally below the detection limit (few nmol L-1) in the core of both OMZs, suggesting the presence of vast volumes of functionally anoxic waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Oxygen was often not detectable in the deep secondary chlorophyll maximum found at some locations, but other secondary maxima...... efficiently at extremely low oxygen concentrations with apparent half-saturation concentrations (K-m values) ranging from about 10 to about 200 nmol L-1. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  8. Connection between the Eastern Subtropical Mode Water in the South Pacific Ocean and the ENSO cycle

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    Li, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Water subducted in the subtropics is intimately linked to the circulation in the Tropics through the interior mass communication and/or the western boundary, and could potentially affect climate variability on interannual and decadal time scales (Gu and Philander, 1997). The interior mass communication rate between the subtropical and equatorial ocean can be quantified in different ways. For example, Huang and Wang (2001) proposed a method of using the Sverdrup function to quantify the communication rate. Their method is used here to compute the meridional transport function below the Ekman layer in order to investigate the direct communication from the eastern STMW to the equatorial Pacific, and study the connection between the eastern STMW and the ENSO cycle. The western subtropical mode water, however, is less likely to directly participate in the subtropical-tropical exchange because they are mainly formed and confined to the recirculation region of the western subtropical gyre (Ladd and Thompson, 2000). The variability of the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) formation in the South Pacific Ocean from 1980 to 2004 is investigated in this study, using a high-resolution numerical model and a 3D Lagrangian trajectory model. Variations of subduction rate in the mode waters are closely linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. The eastern STMW could potentially affect the ENSO cycle through the interior communication window that was identified from the virtual streamfunction. Its location and width closely related to the ENSO cycle. The deep westward penetration of the western edge of the window at the equatorial Pacific is evident during the 1998 La Niña event.; Zonal location of the interior communication window for eastern STMW, when the subducted water parcels reach the equatorial Pacific at 10oS. Solid gray (black) line represents the western (eastern) edge of the window.

  9. Diversity of culturable filamentous Ascomycetes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean off Chile.

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    Vera, Jeanett; Gutiérrez, Marcelo H; Palfner, Götz; Pantoja, Silvio

    2017-08-01

    Our study reports the diversity of culturable mycoplankton in the eastern South Pacific Ocean off Chile to contribute with novel knowledge on taxonomy of filamentous fungi isolated from distinct physicochemical and biological marine environments. We characterized spatial distribution of isolates, evaluated their viability and assessed the influence of organic substrate availability on fungal development. Thirty-nine Operational Taxonomic Units were identified from 99 fungal strains isolated from coastal and oceanic waters by using Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery. All Operational Taxonomic Units belonged to phylum Ascomycota and orders Eurotiales, Dothideales, Sordariales and Hypocreales, mainly Penicillium sp. (82%); 11 sequences did not match existing species in GenBank, suggesting occurrence of novel fungal taxa. Our results suggest that fungal communities in the South Pacific Ocean off Chile appear to thrive in a wide range of environmental conditions in the ocean and that substrate availability may be a factor influencing fungal viability in the ocean.

  10. Model Simulation of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zone during the Holocene

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    Schneider, Birgit; Segschneider, Joachim; Xu, Xu; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib

    2016-04-01

    The intensification/expansion of the tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), as observed during the last decades, is usually assigned to anthropogenic climate change. However, natural variability may also affect OMZ variations. To assess the amplitude of natural (millennial-scale) variability in the oxygen minimum zone in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP), a global coupled climate-ocean biogeochemical model has been applied to the mid-Holocene (approx. 6 kyrs BP). We find that during the mid-Holocene, the ETSP OMZ may have been better ventilated than today, which is entirely due to ocean circulation effects in the model. The enhanced ventilation is overriding the effect of increased biological production which in large parts of the equatorial Pacific, is driving oxygen towards lower values. The model result is in qualitative agreement with proxy data.

  11. Circulation, eddies, oxygen and nutrient changes in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean

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    R. Czeschel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A large, subsurface oxygen deficiency zone is located in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean (ETSP. The large-scale circulation in the eastern equatorial Pacific and off Peru in November/December 2012 shows the influence of the equatorial current system, the eastern boundary currents, and the northern reaches of the subtropical gyre. In November 2012 the Equatorial Undercurrent is centered at 250 m depth, deeper than in earlier observations. In December 2012 the equatorial water is transported southeastward near the shelf in the Peru-Chile Undercurrent with a mean transport of 1.6 Sv. In the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ the flow is overlaid with strong eddy activity on the poleward side of the OMZ. Floats with parking depth at 400 m show fast westward flow in the mid-depth equatorial channel and sluggish flow in the OMZ. Floats with oxygen sensors clearly show the passage of eddies with oxygen anomalies. The long-term float observations in the upper ocean lead to a net community production estimate at about 18° S of up to 16.7 mmol C m−3 yr1 extrapolated to an annual rate and 7.7 mmol C m−3 yr−1 for the time period below the mixed layer. Oxygen differences between repeated ship sections are influenced by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, by the phase of El Niño, by seasonal changes, and by eddies and hence have to be interpreted with care. At and south of the equator the decrease in oxygen in the upper ocean since 1976 is related to an increase in nitrate, phosphate, and in part in silicate.

  12. Water column biogeochemistry of oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical North Atlantic and eastern tropical South Pacific oceans

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    Löscher, Carolin R.; Bange, Hermann W.; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Callbeck, Cameron M.; Engel, Anja; Hauss, Helena; Kanzow, Torsten; Kiko, Rainer; Lavik, Gaute; Loginova, Alexandra; Melzner, Frank; Meyer, Judith; Neulinger, Sven C.; Pahlow, Markus; Riebesell, Ulf; Schunck, Harald; Thomsen, Sören; Wagner, Hannes

    2016-06-01

    Recent modeling results suggest that oceanic oxygen levels will decrease significantly over the next decades to centuries in response to climate change and altered ocean circulation. Hence, the future ocean may experience major shifts in nutrient cycling triggered by the expansion and intensification of tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are connected to the most productive upwelling systems in the ocean. There are numerous feedbacks among oxygen concentrations, nutrient cycling and biological productivity; however, existing knowledge is insufficient to understand physical, chemical and biological interactions in order to adequately assess past and potential future changes. In the following, we summarize one decade of research performed in the framework of the Collaborative Research Center 754 (SFB754) focusing on climate-biogeochemistry interactions in tropical OMZs. We investigated the influence of low environmental oxygen conditions on biogeochemical cycles, organic matter formation and remineralization, greenhouse gas production and the ecology in OMZ regions of the eastern tropical South Pacific compared to the weaker OMZ of the eastern tropical North Atlantic. Based on our findings, a coupling of primary production and organic matter export via the nitrogen cycle is proposed, which may, however, be impacted by several additional factors, e.g., micronutrients, particles acting as microniches, vertical and horizontal transport of organic material and the role of zooplankton and viruses therein.

  13. Biogeochemical characteristics of a long-lived anticyclonic eddy in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

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    M. Cornejo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eastern boundary upwelling systems are characterized by high productivity that often leads to subsurface hypoxia on the shelf. Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of circulation in these regions, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from shelves to the open ocean. In austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, a subsurface layer (200–400 m in which the concentration of oxygen was very low (−1 of O2 was observed in the eastern South Pacific, ~ 900 km offshore (30° S, 81° W. Satellite altimetry combined with CTD observations associated the local oxygen anomaly with an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a diameter of about 150 km. The eddy contained Equatorial Subsurface Water (ESSW that at this latitude is normally restricted near the coast. Undersaturation (44 % of nitrous oxide (N2O and nitrite accumulation (> 0.5 μM gave evidence for denitrification in this water mass. Based on satellite altimetry, we tracked the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W. We estimate that the eddy formed in April 2010. Field studies conducted on the Chilean shelf in June 2010 provided approximate information on initial O2 and N2O concentrations of "source water" in the region at the time of eddy formation. Concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ of the offshore eddy were lower than its surroundings or "source water" on the shelf, suggesting that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L−1 d−1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L−1 d−1. Our results show that mesoscale eddies in the ESP not only transport physical properties of the ESSW from the coast to the ocean interior, but also export and transform biogeochemical properties, creating suboxic environments in the

  14. Blue whale population structure along the eastern South Pacific Ocean: evidence of more than one population.

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    Torres-Florez, J P; Hucke-Gaete, R; LeDuc, R; Lang, A; Taylor, B; Pimper, L E; Bedriñana-Romano, L; Rosenbaum, H C; Figueroa, C C

    2014-12-01

    Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were among the most intensively exploited species of whales in the world. As a consequence of this intense exploitation, blue whale sightings off the coast of Chile were uncommon by the end of the 20th century. In 2004, a feeding and nursing ground was reported in southern Chile (SCh). With the aim to investigate the genetic identity and relationship of these Chilean blue whales to those in other Southern Hemisphere areas, 60 biopsy samples were collected from blue whales in SCh between 2003 and 2009. These samples were genotyped at seven microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region was sequenced, allowing us to identify 52 individuals. To investigate the genetic identity of this suspected remnant population, we compared these 52 individuals to blue whales from Antarctica (ANT, n = 96), Northern Chile (NCh, n = 19) and the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP, n = 31). No significant differentiation in haplotype frequencies (mtDNA) or among genotypes (nDNA) was found between SCh, NCh and ETP, while significant differences were found between those three areas and Antarctica for both the mitochondrial and microsatellite analyses. Our results suggest at least two breeding population units or subspecies exist, which is also supported by other lines of evidence such as morphometrics and acoustics. The lack of differences detected between SCh/NCh/ETP areas supports the hypothesis that eastern South Pacific blue whales are using the ETP area as a possible breeding area. Considering the small population sizes previously reported for the SCh area, additional conservation measures and monitoring of this population should be developed and prioritized.

  15. Dissolved iron distribution in the tropical and sub tropical South Eastern Pacific

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    S. Blain

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved iron (DFe distributions (<0.2 μm were determined in the upper water column (0–400 m of the south eastern tropical and subtropical Pacific, in October–November 2004. Data were collected along a transect extending from the Marquesas Islands to the Chilean coast with most of the stations located in the south Pacific gyre. The concentrations of DFe presented large variability with highest values observed at both extremities of the transect. In the Chilean upwelling, DFe concentrations ranged between 1.2–3.9 nM. These high values result from inputs from the continental margin and are likely maintained by anoxic conditions in the water corresponding to the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ. In subsurface waters near the Marquesas, that were also associated with the extension of the OMZ, DFe concentrations varied between 0.15–0.41 nM. Vertical transport of this water by mesoscale activity eastward of the archipelago may explain the dissymmetric east-west distribution of chlorophyll-a evidenced by satellite images. Using the new tracer Fe*=DFe−rFe:P (PO43− we show that DFe was in deficit compared to PO43− resulting from the remineralisation of organic matter. This suggests that the Marquesas islands and the surrounding plateau are not a significant source of DFe. In the gyre, DFe concentrations in the upper 350 m water column were around 0.1 nM and the ferricline was located well below the nitracline. These low concentrations reflect the low input of DFe from the atmosphere, from the ventilation of the upper thermocline with water containing low DFe, and from the low biological activity within this ultra oligotrophic gyre.

  16. Geocemical provinces of magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean

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    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Belyatsky, Boris; Teterin, Dmitry

    2010-05-01

    Comparison of geochemical signatures of island magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean and tholeiites of the Bransfield and Powell rift zones revealed the similar character of the enrichment which reflects the melting of a close mantle source. But alkaline magmatism of the islands in the west of Antarctic and Marie Byrd Land differs from the enriched basalts of the northern province (Bransfield, Powell, BTJ) by showing more radiogenic Sr values and non-radiogenic Nd. The tectonic development of the South Ocean is characterized by its formation under stationary conditions of Antarctic continent. As a result of this, for the volcanic islands distributed at the western part of the Antarctic we observe no long mountain ridges typical for their development under conditions of the moving plate. Intraplate magmatism evolution was coincided with the extinction of the old subduction zones, formation of the new rift zones and separation of South America from Antarctic [Udintsev, Schenke, 2007; Teterin, 2008]. Such complicated geodynamics caused the possibility of formation of rupture cracks reaching the underlying metasomatizated mantle and decompression melting with further island formation. In Oligocene due to migration of asthenospheric flow from the west to east in the result of destruction of previously united continental blocks there was formed the Scotia Sea, South Sandwich island arc as well as Drake Passage. This caused the mechanical weakening of South Atlantic lithosphere and the starting at the end of Oligocene - beginning Miocene of the new plate border formation - American-Antarctic ridge, which propagated in the eastern direction till the Bouvet triple junction [Dubinin et al., 1999]. The close geochemical signatures of mantle source for islands basalts including the Bouvet Island and the enriched tholeiites of the western extremity of the SW Indian Ridge proves the development of a specific geochemical province enveloping the southeastern

  17. Limited-are a modelling of stratocumulus over South-Eastern Pacific

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    M. Andrejczuk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to limited-area modeling of atmospheric processes over the subtropical south-eastern Pacific, with the emphasis on the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. The simulations cover a domain from the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx field project conducted in the subtropical south-eastern Pacific in October and November 2008. We focus on a day where the UK's BAe-146 research aircraft encountered Pockets of Open Cells (POCs at the very western edge of its flight track, rather than on the entire campaign as investigated in previous limited-area modeling studies. Model results are compared to aircraft observations with the main conclusion that the simulated stratocumulus-topped boundary layer is significantly too shallow. This appears to be a combination of an already too shallow boundary layer in the dataset used to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions, and the inability of the WRF model to increase the boundary-layer height. Several sensitivity simulations, applying different subgrid-scale parameterizations available in the model, a larger computational domain and longer simulations, as well as a different dataset providing initial and lateral boundary conditions were all tried to improve the simulation. These changes appeared to have a rather small effect on the results. The model does simulate the formation of mesoscale cloud-free regions that one might consider similar to Pockets of Open Cells observed in nature. However, formation of these regions does not seem to be related to drizzle-induced transition from open- to closed-cell circulations as simulated by LES models. Instead, the cloud-free regions appear to result from mesoscale variations of the lower-tropspheric vertical velocity. Areas of negative vertical velocity with minima (a few cm s−1 near the

  18. Nitrous oxide production in the eastern tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone

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    Ji, Qixing; Altabet, Mark; Arevalo-Martinez, Damian; Bange, Hermann; Ma, Xiao; Marandino, Christa; Sun, Mingshuang; Grundle, Damian

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important climate active trace gas that contributes to both atmospheric warming and ozone destruction, and the ocean is an important source of N2O to the atmosphere. Dissolved oxygen concentrations play an important role in regulating N2O production in the ocean, such that under low oxygen conditions major shifts in the predominant production pathways (i.e. nitrification vs. denitrification) can occur and the magnitude of production may increase substantially. To this end, major oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are responsible for a disproportionately high amount of marine N2O production. During the October 2015 ASTRA-OMZ cruise to the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP), one of the three major oceanic OMZs, we measured a suite of N2O parameters which included N2O concentrations, N2O production, and natural abundance N2O isotope (i.e. del 15N and del 18O) and isotopomer (i.e. 15N site-preference) signatures. Based on the results from these measurements, our presentation will demonstrate how N2O production and the different production pathways change along the oxygen concentration gradients from the oxygenated surface waters through the oxygen minimum layer. Our data could better constrain the importance of the ETSP-OMZ as source of marine N2O. Results from this work will provide insights into how N2O cycling responds to ocean deoxygenation as a result of climate change.

  19. Gradients in Strong and Weak Organic Copper-Binding Ligands in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific

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    Ruacho, A.; Bundy, R.; Barbeau, K.; Parker, C.; Roshan, S.; Wu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic copper-binding ligands were examined on the U.S. GEOTRACES zonal transect in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific from Peru to Tahiti. All samples were measured using competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV), and a subset were analyzed using multiple competition strengths of the added ligand salicylaldoxime (1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 μM). Titration data was processed using newly available multiple analytical window data processing techniques, which unify the multiple window dataset as a whole. Multiple competition strengths of the added ligand enabled the detection of an additional weaker class of copper-binding ligand, compared to the two stronger ligand classes which have been measured previously in the open ocean. The strongest ligand class (L1) ranged in concentration from 1-10 nmol L-1 and had a conditional stability constant (logK) ranging from approximately 15.0-16.0. The weaker ligand classes (L2, and L3) were present in much higher concentrations even in surface waters, with concentrations ranging from 5-50 nmol L-1 and conditional stability constants ranging from 8.6-12.5. The elevated ligand concentrations, both in surface and deep waters, lead to extremely low concentrations of Cu2+ throughout the transect, possibly influencing important biogeochemical processes such as inducible iron acquisition by diatoms, and ammonium oxidation in the oxygen minimum zone.

  20. Copper Speciation Results From The U.S. GEOTRACES Eastern Tropical South Pacific Cruise

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    Ruacho, A.; Bundy, R.; Barbeau, K.; Parker, C.; Bruland, K. W.; Roshan, S.; Wu, J.

    2016-02-01

    Dissolved organic copper-binding ligands were examined on the U.S. GEOTRACES zonal transect in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific from Peru to Tahiti. All samples were measured using competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV), the bulk in duplicate titrations at a single analytical window (5 µM) using the added ligand salicylaldoxime (SA). A subset of samples were also analyzed using multiple competition strengths (1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 µM added SA), along with equilibration tests at each analytical window. Titration data was processed using newly available software for single and multiple analytical window data. Equilibration tests conducted at the various analytical windows showed no significant differences in ligand concentration and binding strength between overnight vs. 15-30 minute equilibration times. Samples analyzed at a single window reveal excess strong ligands in the coastal region over the oxygen minimum zone with a conditional stability constant (logK) around 14. Multiple competition strengths of the added ligand enabled the detection of up to three classes of copper-binding ligands, with conditional stability constants ranging from 8.6-16.0, and high concentrations of weaker ligands throughout the water column. The presence of strong copper-binding ligands across the transect led to low free copper concentrations, which can be limiting to some phytoplankton. Analysis is ongoing and this presentation will summarize the status of this unique data set.

  1. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

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    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  2. Revisiting nitrification in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific: A focus on controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuefeng; Fuchsman, Clara A.; Jayakumar, Amal; Warner, Mark J.; Devol, Allan H.; Ward, Bess B.

    2016-03-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) to nitrite (NO2-) and to nitrate (NO3-), is a component of the nitrogen (N) cycle internal to the fixed N pool. In oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are hotspots for oceanic fixed N loss, nitrification plays a key role because it directly supplies substrates for denitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox), and may compete for substrates with these same processes. However, the control of oxygen and substrate concentrations on nitrification are not well understood. We performed onboard incubations with 15N-labeled substrates to measure rates of NH4+ and NO2- oxidation in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP). The spatial and depth distributions of NH4+ and NO2- oxidation rates were primarily controlled by NH4+ and NO2- availability, oxygen concentration, and light. In the euphotic zone, nitrification was partially photoinhibited. In the anoxic layer, NH4+ oxidation was negligible or below detection, but high rates of NO2- oxidation were observed. NH4+ oxidation displayed extremely high affinity for both NH4+ and oxygen. The positive linear correlations between NH4+ oxidation rates and in situ NH4+ concentrations and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene abundances in the upper oxycline indicate that the natural assemblage of ammonia oxidizers responds to in situNH4+ concentrations or supply by adjusting their population size, which determines the NH4+ oxidation potential. The depth distribution of archaeal and bacterial amoA gene abundances and N2O concentration, along with independently reported simultaneous direct N2O production rate measurements, suggests that AOA were predominantly responsible for NH4+ oxidation, which was a major source of N2O production at oxygen concentrations > 5 µM.

  3. Contribution of picoplankton to the total particulate organic carbon (POC concentration in the eastern South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Grob

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picophytoeukaryotes and bacterioplankton abundances and contributions to the total particulate organic carbon concentration (POC, derived from the total particle beam attenuation coefficient (cp, were determined across the eastern South Pacific between the Marquesas Islands and the coast of Chile. All flow cytometrically derived abundances decreased towards the hyper-oligotrophic centre of the gyre and were highest at the coast, except for Prochlorococcus, which is not detected under eutrophic conditions. Temperature and nutrient availability appeared important in modulating picophytoplankton abundance, according to the prevailing trophic conditions. Although the non-vegetal particles tended to dominate the cp signal everywhere along the transect (50 to 83%, this dominance seemed to weaken from oligo- to eutrophic conditions, the contributions by vegetal and non-vegetal particles being about equal under mature upwelling conditions. Spatial variability in the vegetal compartment was more important than the non-vegetal one in shaping the water column particulate attenuation coefficient. Spatial variability in picophytoplankton biomass could be traced by changes in both Tchla and cp. Finally, picophytoeukaryotes contributed with ~38% on average to the total integrated phytoplankton carbon biomass or vegetal attenuation signal along the transect, as determined by direct size measurements on cells sorted by flow cytometry and optical theory. The role of picophytoeukaryotes in carbon and energy flow would therefore be very important, even under hyper-oligotrophic conditions.

  4. Multiple metabolisms constrain the anaerobic nitrite budget in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbin, Andrew R.; Peters, Brian D.; Mordy, Calvin W.; Widner, Brittany; Casciotti, Karen L.; Ward, Bess B.

    2017-02-01

    The Eastern Tropical South Pacific is one of the three major oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) in the global ocean and is responsible for approximately one third of marine water column nitrogen loss. It is the best studied of the ODZs and, like the others, features a broad nitrite maximum across the low oxygen layer. How the microbial processes that produce and consume nitrite in anoxic waters interact to sustain this feature is unknown. Here we used 15N-tracer experiments to disentangle five of the biologically mediated processes that control the nitrite pool, including a high-resolution profile of nitrogen loss rates. Nitrate reduction to nitrite likely depended on organic matter fluxes, but the organic matter did not drive detectable rates of denitrification to N2. However, multiple lines of evidence show that denitrification is important in shaping the biogeochemistry of this ODZ. Significant rates of anaerobic nitrite oxidation at the ODZ boundaries were also measured. Iodate was a potential oxidant that could support part of this nitrite consumption pathway. We additionally observed N2 production from labeled cyanate and postulate that anammox bacteria have the ability to harness cyanate as another form of reduced nitrogen rather than relying solely on ammonification of complex organic matter. The balance of the five anaerobic rates measured—anammox, denitrification, nitrate reduction, nitrite oxidation, and dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonium—is sufficient to reproduce broadly the observed nitrite and nitrate profiles in a simple one-dimensional model but requires an additional source of reduced nitrogen to the deeper ODZ to avoid ammonium overconsumption.

  5. N2 fixation in eddies of the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscher, Carolin R.; Bourbonnais, Annie; Dekaezemacker, Julien; Charoenpong, Chawalit N.; Altabet, Mark A.; Bange, Hermann W.; Czeschel, Rena; Hoffmann, Chris; Schmitz, Ruth

    2016-05-01

    Mesoscale eddies play a major role in controlling ocean biogeochemistry. By impacting nutrient availability and water column ventilation, they are of critical importance for oceanic primary production. In the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean off Peru, where a large and persistent oxygen-deficient zone is present, mesoscale processes have been reported to occur frequently. However, investigations into their biological activity are mostly based on model simulations, and direct measurements of carbon and dinitrogen (N2) fixation are scarce.We examined an open-ocean cyclonic eddy and two anticyclonic mode water eddies: a coastal one and an open-ocean one in the waters off Peru along a section at 16° S in austral summer 2012. Molecular data and bioassay incubations point towards a difference between the active diazotrophic communities present in the cyclonic eddy and the anticyclonic mode water eddies.In the cyclonic eddy, highest rates of N2 fixation were measured in surface waters but no N2 fixation signal was detected at intermediate water depths. In contrast, both anticyclonic mode water eddies showed pronounced maxima in N2 fixation below the euphotic zone as evidenced by rate measurements and geochemical data. N2 fixation and carbon (C) fixation were higher in the young coastal mode water eddy compared to the older offshore mode water eddy. A co-occurrence between N2 fixation and biogenic N2, an indicator for N loss, indicated a link between N loss and N2 fixation in the mode water eddies, which was not observed for the cyclonic eddy. The comparison of two consecutive surveys of the coastal mode water eddy in November 2012 and December 2012 also revealed a reduction in N2 and C fixation at intermediate depths along with a reduction in chlorophyll by half, mirroring an aging effect in this eddy. Our data indicate an important role for anticyclonic mode water eddies in stimulating N2 fixation and thus supplying N offshore.

  6. Migratory preferences of humpback whales between feeding and breeding grounds in the eastern South Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acevedo, Jorge; Aguayo-lobo, Anelio; Allen, Judith; Botero-acosta, Natalia; Capella, Juan; Castro, Cristina; Rosa, Luciano Dalla; Denkinger, Judith; Félix, Fernando; Flórez-gonzález, Lilian; Garita, Frank; Guzmán, Héctor M.; Haase, Ben; Kaufman, Gregory; Llano, Martha; Olavarría, Carlos; Pacheco, Aldo S.; Plana, Jordi; Rasmussen, Kristin; Scheidat, Meike; Secchi, Eduardo R.; Silva, Sebastian; Stevick, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    Latitudinal preferences within the breeding range have been suggested for Breeding Stock G humpback whales that summer in different feeding areas of the eastern South Pacific. To address this hypothesis, humpback whales photo-identified from the Antarctic Peninsula and the Fueguian Archipelago

  7. Biogeochemical characteristics of a long-lived anticyclonic eddy in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo D'Ottone, Marcela; Bravo, Luis; Ramos, Marcel; Pizarro, Oscar; Karstensen, Johannes; Gallegos, Mauricio; Correa-Ramirez, Marco; Silva, Nelson; Farias, Laura; Karp-Boss, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of the circulation in the eastern South Pacific (ESP) Ocean, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from the productive shelves to the open ocean. Some of these eddies exhibit subsurface hypoxic or suboxic conditions and may serve as important hotspots for nitrogen loss, but little is known about oxygen consumption rates and nitrogen transformation processes associated with these eddies. In the austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a suboxic (Water (ESSW) that at this latitude is normally restricted to an area near the coast. Measurements of nitrogen species within the eddy revealed undersaturation (below 44 %) of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrite accumulation (> 0.5 µM), suggesting that active denitrification occurred in this water mass. Using satellite altimetry, we were able to track the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W). Field studies conducted in Chilean shelf waters close to the time of eddy formation provided estimates of initial O2 and N2O concentrations of the ESSW source water in the eddy. By the time of its offshore sighting, concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eddy were lower than concentrations in surrounding water and "source water" on the shelf, indicating that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L-1 d-1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L-1 d-1. These results show that mesoscale eddies affect open-ocean biogeochemistry in the ESP not only by transporting physical and chemical properties from the coast to the ocean interior but also during advection, local biological consumption of oxygen within an eddy further generates conditions favorable to

  8. Ocean Colour Radiometry across the Southern Atlantic and South-Eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudorff, N. D.; Kampel, M.; Frouin, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    An oceanographic cruise across the Southern Atlantic and South-eastern Pacific was undertaken from February 20th to March 14th, 2011, on board the R/V Melville (MV1102). The research vessel crossed highly dynamic regions with important roles on regional and global biogeochemical cycles, such as: the Benguela Upwelling System, the Subtropical Convergence Zone, the Patagonian Shelf, the Magellan Strait, and the Chilean Eastern Boundary Upwelling Zone. The Southern Ocean has been focus of many ocean colour studies due to the high spatio-temporal variability of bio-optical constituents and its biogeochemical importance. Nevertheless, the high latitudes and rough seas of the Southern Ocean are a great challenge for the estimation of these properties from in situ and satellite sensors. The present work shows the first results of the MV1102 cruise with the aim to access the magnitude and possible sources of errors for the estimation of in situ above water remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Simultaneous measurements were taken at 18 stations with two hyperspectral radiometers: the Fieldspec HandHeld ASD Inc. (350-1100nm) for above water measurements, and the HyperOCR II Satlantic Inc. (380-800 nm) for in-water profiles. Above water measurements were performed with a sensor viewing geometry of 45o zenith and 137o azimuth solar angles, and the downwelling solar irradiance (ED) was estimated using a white Spectralon plaque. The Rrs was estimated with an average of 10 casts per station, and different sky reflectance factors were used to adjust to environmental conditions. Two methods were used to retrieve the Rrs: M01, without the residual sky correction (RSC); and M02, with the RSC, subtracting the Rrs at 870 nm, as a white spectral offset. The M02 was applied for all stations except in the Magellan Strait (coastal waters). For the profiler, the above water Rrs was estimated using two methods: MP01, with the ED measured from the profiler; and MP02, with ED measured from the

  9. Iron-binding Ligands in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific: Results from U.S. GEOTRACES Cruise GP16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, K. N.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Sherrell, R. M.; Sohst, B. M.; Sedwick, P.; John, S.

    2016-02-01

    High-resolution depth profiles, consisting of 25-49 samples each, were collected as part of the U.S. GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (GEOTRACES cruise GP16). The organic complexation of dissolved iron in these samples, including the concentrations and conditional stability constants of iron-binding ligands, was measured by competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry using the added competitive ligand salicylaldoxime. In addition to the conventional depth profile samples for dissolved (<0.2 µm) iron-binding ligands, samples were collected for size-fractionated ligand analyses using cross flow filtration. These samples were obtained from in and around the mid-depth near-field to distal hydrothermal plume emanating from the East Pacific Rise, and allowed for iron-binding ligand analyses in the dissolved (<0.45 µm), colloidal (10 kDa to 0.45 µm) and soluble (<10 kDa) size fractions. Results from this work will be presented in the context of the few previous studies of iron-binding ligands in the South Pacific, and compared with results from the North U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic Transect (GEOTRACES cruise GA03).

  10. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  11. Fe, Zn, and Cd stable isotopes from the eastern tropical South Pacific from GEOTRACES cruise GP16 - Methods and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgoe, J. M.; Townsend, E.; John, S.

    2014-12-01

    A new method has been developed for the rapid analysis of metal concentrations and stable isotope ratios using a prepFAST automated sample processing robot. Although concentrations and isotopes are processed separately, similar methods are used for both. Initially all seawater is acidified to pH 2. Then Nobias resin with EDTA/IDA functional groups is added to either 10mL of sample for concentrations or ~1L samples for isotopes. Fe binds to the resin at low pH, and the pH is subsequently raised to allow Zn and Cd to bind. For concentration analyses, all subsequent chemistry is automated on the prepFAST including removal of seawater, rinsing of resin, and elution of resin into acid. For isotope samples these extraction techniques are performed manually, but the subsequent purification of Fe, Zn, and Cd by anion exchange chromatography is automated using the prepFAST. With these new methods, samples from the US GEOTRACES cruise GP16, in the eastern tropical South Pacific, are being analyzed. High concentrations of dissolved Fe are observed near the continental shelf and near submarine hydrothermal vents. Interestingly, isotope data show that dissolved Fe near the continental shelf generally has a δ56Fe close to 0 ‰. This δ56 Fe signature is suggestive of a non-reductive dissolution source for Fe, as Fe(II) released by reductive dissolution is typically closer to -2 ‰. Preliminary data show nutrient-type profiles for Zn and Cd, with Zn matching Si and Cd having a similar distribution to P. An increase in dissolved Zn near hydrothermal vents suggests a possible hydrothermal zinc source to the deep ocean. Continuing analysis of isotope data will reveal more about the source and biogeochemical cycling of these three chemically and biologically important trace metals throughout the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.

  12. Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stramski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We have examined several approaches for estimating the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon, POC, from optical measurements of remote-sensing reflectance, Rrs, using field data collected in tropical and subtropical waters of the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans. These approaches include a direct empirical relationship between POC and the blue-to-green band ratio of reflectance, RrsB/Rrs(555, and two-step algorithms that consist of relationships linking reflectance to an inherent optical property IOP (beam attenuation or backscattering coefficient and POC to the IOP. We considered two-step empirical algorithms that exclusively include pairs of empirical relationships and two-step hybrid algorithms that consist of semianalytical models and empirical relationships. The surface POC in our data set ranges from about 10 mg m-3 within the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre to 270 mg m-3 in the Chilean upwelling area, and data on phytoplankton pigments, suspended particulate matter, and the backscattering ratio suggest a considerable variation in the composition of particulate assemblages in the investigated waters. The POC algorithm based on the direct relationship between POC and RrsB/Rrs(555 promises reasonably good performance in the vast areas of the open ocean covering different provinces from hyperoligotrophic and oligotrophic waters within subtropical gyres to eutrophic coastal upwelling regimes characteristic of eastern ocean boundaries. The best error statistics were found for power function fits to the data of POC vs. Rrs(443/Rrs(555 and POC vs. Rrs(490/Rrs(555. For our data set that includes over 50 data pairs, these relationships are characterized by the mean normalized bias of about 2% and the normalized root mean

  13. Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stramski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We have examined several approaches for estimating the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon, POC, from optical measurements of spectral remote-sensing reflectance, Rrs(λ, using field data collected in tropical and subtropical waters of the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans. These approaches include a direct empirical relationship between POC and the blue-to-green band ratio of reflectance, RrsB/Rrs(555, and two-step algorithms that consist of relationships linking reflectance to an inherent optical property IOP (beam attenuation or backscattering coefficient and POC to the IOP. We considered two-step empirical algorithms that exclusively include pairs of empirical relationships and two-step hybrid algorithms that consist of semianalytical models and empirical relationships. The surface POC in our data set ranges from about 10 mg m−3 within the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre to 270 mg m−3 in the Chilean upwelling area, and ancillary data suggest a considerable variation in the characteristics of particulate assemblages in the investigated waters. The POC algorithm based on the direct relationship between POC and RrsB/Rrs(555 promises reasonably good performance in the vast areas of the open ocean covering different provinces from hyperoligotrophic and oligotrophic waters within subtropical gyres to eutrophic coastal upwelling regimes characteristic of eastern ocean boundaries. The best error statistics were found for power function fits to the data of POC vs. Rrs(443/Rrs(555 and POC vs. Rrs(490/Rrs(555. For our data set that includes over 50 data pairs, these relationships are characterized by the mean normalized bias of about 2% and the normalized root mean square error of about 20%. We

  14. Nitrous oxide distribution and its origin in the central and eastern South Pacific Subtropical Gyre

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    J. Charpentier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The biogeochemical mechanism of bacterial N2O production in the ocean has been the subject of many discussions in recent years. New isotopomeric tools can help further knowledge on N2O sources in natural environments. This research shows and compares hydrographic, nitrous oxide concentration, and N2O isotopic and isotopomeric data from three stations across the South Pacific Ocean, from the center of the subtropical oligotrophic gyre (~26° S; 114° W to the upwelling zone along the central Chilean coast (~34° S. Althought AOU/N2O and NO3 trends support the idea that most of N2O source (mainly from intermediate water (200–1000 m come from nitrification, N2O isotopomeric composition (intramolecular distribution of 15N isotopes in N2O reveals an abrupt change in the mechanism of nitrous oxide production, always observed through lower SP (site preference of 15N, at a high – stability layer, where particles could act as microsites and N2O would be produced by nitrifier denitrification (reduction of nitrite to nitrous oxide mediated by primary nitrifiers. There, nitrifier denitrification can account for 40% and 50% (center and east border of the gyre, respectively of the nitrous oxide produced in this specific layer. This process could be associated with the deceleration of sinking organic particles in highly stable layers of the water column. In constrast, coastal upwelling system is characterized by oxygen deficient condition and some N deficit in a eutrophic system. Here, nitrous oxide accumulates up to 480% saturation, and isotopic and isotopomer signal show highly complex nitrous oxide production processes, which presumably reflect both the effect of nitrification and denitrification at low oxygen levels on N2O production, but non N2O consumption by denitrification was observed.

  15. Nitrous oxide distribution and its origin in the central and eastern South Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Charpentier

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of microbial nitrous oxide (N2O production in the ocean have been the subject of many discussions in recent years. New isotopomeric tools can further refine our knowledge of N2O sources in natural environments. This study compares hydrographic, N2O concentration, and N2O isotopic and isotopomeric data from three stations along a coast-perpendicular transect in the South Pacific Ocean, extending from the center (Sts. GYR and EGY of the subtropical oligotrophic gyre (~26° S; 114° W to the upwelling zone (St. UPX off the central Chilean coast (~34° S. Although AOU/N2O and NO3 trends support the idea that most of the N2O (mainly from intermediate water (200–600 m comes from nitrification, N2O isotopomeric composition (intramolecular distribution of 15N isotopes expressed as SP (site preference of 15N shows low values (10 to 12permil that could be attributed to the production through of microbial nitrifier denitrification (reduction of nitrite to N2O mediated by ammonium oxidizers. The coincidence of this SP signal with high – stability layer, where sinking organic particles can accumulate, suggests that N2O could be produced by nitrifier denitrification inside particles. It is postulated that deceleration of particles in the pycnocline can modify the advection - diffusion balance inside particles, allowing the accumulation of nitrite and O2 depletion suitable for nitrifier denitrication. As lateral advection seems to be relatively insignificant in the gyre, in situ nitrifier denitrification could account for 40–50% of the N2O produced in this layer. In contrast, coastal upwelling system is characterized by O2 deficient condition and some N deficit in a eutrophic system. Here, N2O accumulates up to 480% saturation, and isotopic and

  16. Physical, Chemical, and Biological CTD and Bottle data from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in Eastern Tropical South Pacific Ocean near Peru/Chile from 2013-06-24 to 2013-07-22 (NCEI Accession 0128141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains data from R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer cruise NBP 1305 to the eastern tropical south pacific oxygen deficient zone. The objective of the cruise was...

  17. Striations and preferred eddy tracks triggered by topographic steering of the background flow in the eastern South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmadani, Ali; Concha, Emilio; Donoso, David; Chaigneau, Alexis; Colas, François; Maximenko, Nikolai; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, persistent quasi-zonal jets or striations have been ubiquitously detected in the world ocean using satellite and in situ data as well as numerical models. This study aims at determining the role of mesoscale eddies in the generation and persistence of striations off Chile in the eastern South Pacific. A 50 year climatological integration of an eddy-resolving numerical ocean model is used to assess the long-term persistence of striations. Automated eddy tracking algorithms are applied to the model outputs and altimetry data. Results reveal that striations coincide with both polarized eddy tracks and the offshore formation of new eddies in the subtropical front and coastal transition zone, without any significant decay over time that discards random eddies as a primary driver of the striations. Localized patches of vortex stretching and relative vorticity advection, alternating meridionally near the eastern edge of the subtropical front, are associated with topographic steering of the background flow in the presence of steep topography, and with baroclinically and barotropically unstable meridional flow. These sinks and sources of vorticity are suggested to generate the banded structure further west, consistently with a β-plume mechanism. On the other hand, zonal/meridional eddy advection of relative vorticity and the associated Reynolds stress covariance are consistent with eddy deformation over rough topography and participate to sustain the striations in the far field. Shear instability of mean striations is proposed to feedback onto the eddy field, acting to maintain the subtropical front eddy streets and thus the striations.

  18. Records of Dusky Dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Gray, 1828) in the eastern South Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waerebeek, van Koen

    1992-01-01

    Fourty-seven authenticated locality records of the dusky dolphin along the west coast of South America are presented, based on original data, museum specimens and the literature. Confirmed distribution limits are Chimbote (09°05’S) in north—central Peru and Isla Treble (55°07’S 71°02’W), Magallanes,

  19. Ultrafine sea spray aerosol over the south eastern Pacific: open-ocean contributions to marine boundary layer CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Blot

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of natural aerosol emissions over the ocean are needed to estimate the anthropogenic impact on the environment. In this study, we measured Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA concentrations with diameters larger than 0.040 μm produced by open-ocean breaking waves over the SEP (South Eastern Pacific. Robust statistics were established through repeated airborne flights over 1000 km along 20° S from the coastline of Chile to 85° W during VOCALS-Rex (VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land-Study Regional Experiment. Non-volatile SSA number concentrations were inferred using a thermally resolved technique constrained for clean conditions with Ångström exponent below 0.5, Black Carbon (BC mass concentration at values lower than 15 ng m−3 and Organic aerosols (Org concentration less than 0.02 μg m−3. We found that number concentrations of SSA active as CCN for a supersaturation of 0.25% varied between 17 cm−3 and 36 cm−3 but these did not increase with the increasing mean wind speed typically observed further offshore along 20° S. Concurrent increases in mean offshore precipitation rate in excess of about 1 mm d−1 indicate scavenging of SSA by precipitation exceeds increases in production at wind speeds above about 8 m s−1. This demonstrates the critical role of precipitation as a major sink of SSA over the remote ocean. Finally, we found that under clean conditions and for estimated stratus supersaturations between 0.20% and 0.43%, SSA represented about 20% of the total ambient CCN along 20° S.

  20. Large multicellular filamentous bacteria under the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern South Pacific: a forgotten biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Victor Ariel; Espinoza, Carola

    2007-09-01

    In the soft reduced sediments of the continental shelf, below the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eastern South Pacific (ESP), peculiar microbial communities have been disclosed which include a variety of large prokaryotes, protists and small metazoans. Dominant among the prokaryotes are large multi-cellular filamentous bacteria which, according to their size range, are roughly divided into megabacteria and macrobacteria. The former group is made up of a few species of Gamma Proteobacteria of the genera Thioploca and Beggiatoa and the second group includes a diversity of phenotypes. Protists include ciliates, flagellates, and foraminifers and the metazoans are mostly nematodes and small polychaetes. A significant similarity has been found in the exploitation of the area/volume relationship among these large bacteria and their fossil analog forms as described from pre-Cambrian rocks. For the same reason, the latter have mostly been referred to as algae or cyanobacteria in the literature. The presence of these seemingly ancient bacteria in the sediments of the oxygen minimum zones of the ESP, one of the most productive but also ecologically most inefficient marine ecosystems of the world, suggests that such setting must have prevailed throughout the geological history of the planet allowing for their survival and further that it might be considered an analog of Proterozoic ocean conditions. These non-cyanobacterial communities offer an alternative hypothesis to students of the evolution of life on Earth and may be of special interest to astrobiologists looking for life or traces of life in terrestrial or extraterrestrial environments since these do not necessarily imply a photosynthesis-based metabolism.

  1. Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Huot

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The particulate scattering, bp, and backscattering, bbp, coefficients are determined by the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the scattering of light within the water column. For the remote observation of ocean color, bbp along with the total absorption coefficient govern the amount and spectral qualities of light leaving the sea surface. However, for the construction and validation of ocean color models measurements of bbp are still lacking, especially at low chlorophyll a concentrations ([Chl]. Here, we examine the relationships between spectral bbp and bp vs. [Chl] along an 8000 km transect crossing the Case 1 waters of the eastern South Pacific Gyre. In these waters, over the entire range of [Chl] encountered (~0.02–2 mg m−3, both bbp and bp can be related to [Chl] by power functions (i.e. bp or bbp=α[Chl]β Regression analyses are carried out to provide the parameters α and β for several wavelengths throughout the visible for both bbp and bp. When applied to the data, these functions retrieve the same fraction of variability in bbp and bp (determination coefficients between 0.82 and 0.88. The bbp coefficient fall within the bounds of previous measurements at intermediate and high [Chl] recently published. Its dependence on [Chl] below ~0.1 mg m−3 is described for the first time with in situ data. At these low and decreasing [Chl] a continuous trend with data at higher [Chl] is observed, i.e. a decrease in bbp. The backscattering ratio (i.e. bbp/bp with values

  2. Atmospheric salt deposition in a tropical mountain rain forest at the eastern Andean slopes of South Ecuador – Pacific or Atlantic origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Makowski Giannoni

    2015-10-01

    its importance for herbivory, litter decomposition and thus, carbon cycling. Salt deposition should generally decline with distance from its marine sources. For tropical South America, a negative east-west salt availability gradient is assumed in the Amazon as a consequence of the barrier effect of the Andes for Pacific air masses. However, this generalized pattern may not hold for the tropical mountain rain forest in the Andes of southern Ecuador. To analyze salt availability, we investigate the deposition of Na+ and Cl- which are good proxies of sea spray aerosol. Because of the complexity of the terrain and related cloud and rain formation processes, salt deposition was analyzed from both, rain and occult precipitation (OP water along an altitudinal gradient over a period from 2004 to 2009. To assess the influence of Atlantic and Pacific air masses on the locally observed deposition of sodium and chloride, sea-salt aerosol concentration data from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC reanalysis dataset and back-trajectory statistical methods were combined. Our results based on deposition time series and 2192 generated trajectories show a clear difference in the temporal variation of sodium and chloride concentration due to height and exposure to winds. The sea-salt transport was highly seasonal where higher locations revealed a stronger seasonality. Although the influence of the easterlies were predominant regarding atmospheric circulation, the statistical analysis of trajectories and hybrid receptor models revealed a stronger impact of the Pacific sea-salt sources on the deposition at the study area. The highest concentration in rain and cloud water was found between September and February originating from both, the equatorial Pacific and Atlantic. However, the Pacific sources contributed with up to 25 % to the observed total concentration of Na+ and Cl- at the receptor site although the frequency of occurrence of the respective trajectories

  3. Alkenone-based temperature patterns along the eastern South Pacific Coastal Ocean: the effect of upwelling and advection on the sedimentary alkenone unsaturation-index (U37K'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Garcés-Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that the sedimentary record of alkenone unsaturation-index (U37K' in the eastern South Pacific displays a wide range of temperatures, in response to sea surface temperature (SST, as well as nutrient concentrations. The U37K' inshore-offshore trend shows low-correlation with SSTs at many transitional sites (50–200 km offshore, and in one oligotrophic coastal site (~20° S. In contrast, in open-ocean sites SSTs play the expected dominant role. The latitudinal trend shows that nitrate, phosphate and/or temperature affect distinctively the U37K', suggesting progressive high-impacts in areas with permanent nutrient-stress conditions (~20° S, which is consistent with previous experiments. In contrast, this impact is slightly and not observable in transitional and open-ocean areas, respectively, where the coupling between offshore propagation of mesoscale eddies and upwelling filaments supply additional chlorophyll/nutrient. This study is a first field approximation to the impacts of thermal/non-thermal factors over the unsaturation-index in eastern Boundary Current systems, which would help in future temperature reconstructions.

  4. Eastern Pacific Ocean Purse-seine Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data sets from U.S.A.-flagged purse-seine vessels fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These purse seiners...

  5. Box-modeling of the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and benthic remineralization on the nitrogen cycle of the eastern tropical South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Su

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Both atmospheric deposition and benthic remineralization influence the marine nitrogen cycle, and hence ultimately also marine primary production. The biological and biogeochemical relations of the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP to nitrogen deposition, benthic denitrification and phosphate regeneration are analysed in a prognostic box model of the oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in the ETSP. In the model, atmospheric nitrogen deposition based on estimates for the years 2000–2009 is offset by half by reduced N2 fixation, with the other half transported out of the model domain. Both model- and data-based benthic denitrification are found to trigger nitrogen fixation, partly compensating for the NO3− loss. Since phosphate is the ultimate limiting nutrient in the model, enhanced sedimentary phosphate regeneration under suboxic conditions stimulates primary production and subsequent export production and NO3− loss in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. A sensitivity analysis of the local response to both atmospheric deposition and benthic remineralization indicates dominant stabilizing feedbacks in the ETSP, which tend to keep a balanced nitrogen inventory, i.e., nitrogen input by atmospheric deposition is counteracted by decreasing nitrogen fixation; NO3− loss via benthic denitrification is partly compensated by increased nitrogen fixation; enhanced nitrogen fixation stimulated by phosphate regeneration is partly removed by the stronger water-column denitrification. Even though the water column in our model domain acts as a NO3− source, the ETSP including benthic denitrification might become a NO3− sink.

  6. The effect of nutrient supply ratios on organic matter dynamics, phytoplankton community composition and diazotrophy in the eastern tropical South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J.; Lavik, G.; Riebesell, U.

    2015-12-01

    Upwelling of nutrient loaded water masses with low inorganic nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratios is thought to favor non-Redfield primary production by phytoplankton species adapted to exponential growth. Additionally, an excess of P (P*) in OMZ-influenced waters is also supposed to provide a niche for nitrogen fixing organisms. In order to assess the influence of low inorganic nutrient ratios on the stoichiometry and composition of primary producers, biogeochemical measurements were carried out in the eastern tropical South Pacific during R/V Meteor cruise M93. A succession of different functional types of phytoplankton was observed along onshore - offshore transects with diatoms dominating the productive upwelling region, while haptophytes, cryptophytes and crysophytes prevailed in the more oligotrophic open ocean. Simultaneously, particulate organic nitrogen to phosphorus ratios increased with increasing distance from shore. The stoichiometry of organic matter, however, always exceeded ratios of 16:1, although nutrient supply ratios were below Redfield proportions in the whole sampling area. A considerable amount of P* was detected in the surface ocean layer above the shelf, which decreased as water masses were advected beyond the shelf slope. Phytoplankton pigment analyses with HPLC revealed the existence of diazotrophic marker pigments in the study area, hinting towards a local replenishment of the N-deficit via nitrogen fixation.

  7. Primary production in the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, J. Timothy; Mahoney, Kevin L.; Kuwahara, Victor S.; Kolber, Dorota D.; Calienes, Ruth; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2006-05-01

    The eastern tropical Pacific includes 28 million km 2 of ocean between 23.5°N and S and Central/South America and 140°W, and contains the eastern and equatorial branches of the north and South Pacific subtropical gyres plus two equatorial and two coastal countercurrents. Spatial patterns of primary production are in general determined by supply of macronutrients (nitrate, phosphate) from below the thermocline. Where the thermocline is shallow and intersects the lighted euphotic zone, biological production is enhanced. In the eastern tropical Pacific thermocline depth is controlled by three interrelated processes: a basin-scale east/west thermocline tilt, a basin-scale thermocline shoaling at the gyre margins, and local wind-driven upwelling. These processes regulate supply of nutrient-rich subsurface waters to the euphotic zone, and on their basis we have divided the eastern tropical Pacific into seven main regions. Primary production and its physical and chemical controls are described for each. Enhanced rates of macronutrient supply maintains levels of primary production in the eastern tropical Pacific above those of the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to the north and south. On the other hand lack of the micronutrient iron limits phytoplankton growth (and nitrogen fixation) over large portions of the open-ocean eastern tropical Pacific, depressing rates of primary production and resulting in the so-called high nitrate-low chlorophyll condition. Very high rates of primary production can occur in those coastal areas where both macronutrients and iron are supplied in abundance to surface waters. In these eutrophic coastal areas large phytoplankton cells dominate; conversely, in the open-ocean small cells are dominant. In a ‘shadow zone’ between the subtropical gyres with limited subsurface ventilation, enough production sinks and decays to produce anoxic and denitrified waters which spread beneath very large parts of the eastern tropical Pacific. Seasonal

  8. Atmospheric salt deposition in a tropical mountain rainforest at the eastern Andean slopes of south Ecuador - Pacific or Atlantic origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski Giannoni, Sandro; Trachte, Katja; Rollenbeck, Ruetger; Lehnert, Lukas; Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Joerg

    2016-08-01

    Sea salt (NaCl) has recently been proven to be of the utmost importance for ecosystem functioning in Amazon lowland forests because of its impact on herbivory, litter decomposition and, thus, carbon cycling. Sea salt deposition should generally decline as distance from its marine source increases. For the Amazon, a negative east-west gradient of sea salt availability is assumed as a consequence of the barrier effect of the Andes Mountains for Pacific air masses. However, this generalized pattern may not hold for the tropical mountain rainforest in the Andes of southern Ecuador. To analyse sea salt availability, we investigated the deposition of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-), which are good proxies of sea spray aerosol. Because of the complexity of the terrain and related cloud and rain formation processes, sea salt deposition was analysed from both, rain and occult precipitation (OP) along an altitudinal gradient over a period between 2004 and 2009. To assess the influence of easterly and westerly air masses on the deposition of sodium and chloride over southern Ecuador, sea salt aerosol concentration data from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) reanalysis data set and back-trajectory statistical methods were combined. Our results, based on deposition time series, show a clear difference in the temporal variation of sodium and chloride concentration and Na+ / Cl- ratio in relation to height and exposure to winds. At higher elevations, sodium and chloride present a higher seasonality and the Na+ / Cl- ratio is closer to that of sea salt. Medium- to long-range sea salt transport exhibited a similar seasonality, which shows the link between our measurements at high elevations and the sea salt synoptic transport. Although the influence of the easterlies was predominant regarding the atmospheric circulation, the statistical analysis of trajectories and hybrid receptor models revealed a stronger impact of the north equatorial Atlantic, Caribbean

  9. Vertical modeling of the nitrogen cycle in the eastern tropical South Pacific oxygen deficient zone using high-resolution concentration and isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brian D.; Babbin, Andrew R.; Lettmann, Karsten A.; Mordy, Calvin W.; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Ward, Bess B.; Casciotti, Karen L.

    2016-11-01

    Marine oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) have long been identified as sites of fixed nitrogen (N) loss. However, the mechanisms and rates of N loss have been debated, and traditional methods for measuring these rates are labor-intensive and may miss hot spots in spatially and temporally variable environments. Here we estimate rates of heterotrophic nitrate reduction, heterotrophic nitrite reduction (denitrification), nitrite oxidation, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) at a coastal site in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) ODZ based on high-resolution concentration and natural abundance stable isotope measurements of nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-). These measurements were used to estimate process rates using a two-step inverse modeling approach. The modeled rates were sensitive to assumed isotope effects for NO3- reduction and NO2- oxidation. Nevertheless, we addressed two questions surrounding the fates of NO2- in the ODZ: (1) Is NO2- being primarily reduced to N2 or oxidized to NO3- in the ODZ? and (2) what are the contributions of anammox and denitrification to NO2- removal? Depth-integrated rates from the model suggest that 72-88% of the NO2- produced in the ODZ was oxidized back to NO3-, while 12-28% of NO2- was reduced to N2. Furthermore, our model suggested that 36-74% of NO2- loss was due to anammox, with the remainder due to denitrification. These model results generally agreed with previously measured rates, though with a large range of uncertainty, and they provide a long-term integrated view that compliments incubation experiments to obtain a broader picture of N cycling in ODZs.

  10. Box-modelling of the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and benthic remineralisation on the nitrogen cycle of the eastern tropical South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bei; Pahlow, Markus; Oschlies, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Both atmospheric deposition and benthic remineralisation influence the marine nitrogen cycle, and hence ultimately also marine primary production. The biological and biogeochemical relations in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) among nitrogen deposition, benthic denitrification and phosphorus regeneration are analysed in a prognostic box model of the oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in the ETSP. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition ( ≈ 1.5 Tg N yr-1 for the years 2000-2009) is offset by half in the model by reduced N2 fixation, with the other half transported out of the model domain. Model- and data-based benthic denitrification in our model domain are responsible for losses of 0.19 and 1.0 Tg Tg N yr-1, respectively, and both trigger nitrogen fixation, partly compensating for the NO3- loss. Model- and data-based estimates of enhanced phosphate release via sedimentary phosphorus regeneration under suboxic conditions are 0.062 and 0.11 Tg N yr-1, respectively. Since phosphate is the ultimate limiting nutrient in the model, even very small additional phosphate inputs stimulate primary production and subsequent export production and NO3- loss in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). A sensitivity analysis of the local response to both atmospheric deposition and benthic remineralisation indicates dominant stabilising feedbacks in the ETSP, which tend to keep a balanced nitrogen inventory; i.e. nitrogen input by atmospheric deposition is counteracted by decreasing nitrogen fixation; NO3- loss via benthic denitrification is partly compensated for by increased nitrogen fixation; enhanced nitrogen fixation stimulated by phosphate regeneration is partly counteracted by stronger water-column denitrification. Even though the water column in our model domain acts as a NO3- source, the ETSP including benthic denitrification might be a NO3- sink.

  11. Dengue virus type 3, South Pacific Islands, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Roche, Claudine; Musso, Didier; Mallet, Henri-Pierre; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Dofai, Alfred; Nogareda, Francisco; Nilles, Eric J; Aaskov, John

    2014-06-01

    After an 18-year absence, dengue virus serotype 3 reemerged in the South Pacific Islands in 2013. Outbreaks in western (Solomon Islands) and eastern (French Polynesia) regions were caused by different genotypes. This finding suggested that immunity against dengue virus serotype, rather than virus genotype, was the principal determinant of reemergence.

  12. Requiem for an eastern Pacific seagrass bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    Few papers concerning seagrasses of the eastern Pacific have been published. This paper presents the first ecological data on the seagrass, Ruppia maritima, from a non-lagoonal setting in the eastern Pacific. A 5000 m2 patch formed by R. maritima, at Playa Iguanita, Bahía Culebra, Pacific coast of Costa Rica was studied. Plant density and leaf length of R. maritima were determined along two transects on different dates. Above and below ground biomass were calculated along one transect. Plant density ranged from 1590 to 8630 individuals m(-2) along the two transects, with means of 5990 +/- 1636 and 6100 +/- 1876 plants m(-2) for transect 1 and 2, respectively. Longest leaf length per plant varied between 0.5 and 23.0 cm. Leaf biomass (LB) ranged from 10 to 97 gm(-2), and root-rhizome biomass (RB) from 31 to 411 gm(-2), resulting in RB:LB ratios of 3.07 to 15.27. Total biomass at Bahía Culebra was lower than at tropical lagoons on the Pacific coast of Mexico, but higher than in the Gulf of Mexico. The below ground: above ground biomass ratio was much higher at Bahía Culebra than at other sites on the Pacific coast of Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. Another seagrass present at Bahía Culebra was Halophila baillonii, with low densities on the deepest section of the patch. At least 44 invertebrate species associated with the seagrass bed have also been identified. The patch at Playa Iguanita and other sites within Bahía Culebra, as well as their associated organisms, disappeared after a severe storm in June 1996. No seagrasses have been found in the area or in any other location on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica since then.

  13. Authigenic Uranium in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Loveley, M. R.; Ibrahim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Authigenic U concentrations have been used as an indicator of redox state in marine sediments. Soluble U(VI) in porewaters is reduced to insoluble U(IV) under suboxic conditions setting up a diffusion gradient through which U in bottom waters is supplied to reducing sediments. Researchers have used sedimentary redox enrichment of U as a tool to identify past redox changes, which may be caused by changes in organic carbon rain rates and/or bottom water oxygen levels. Differentiating between these two explanations is important, as the former is tied to the use of authigenic U as a paleoproductivity proxy. We examined sediments from 4 sediment cores retrieved from two different localities in the Panama Basin in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Two cores were retrieved from the northern Panama basin at the Cocos Ridge, (4JC at 5° 44.7'N 85° 45.5' W, 1730 m depth; 8JC at 6° 14.0'N 86° 2.6' W, 1993 m depth), and two were retrieved from the south at the Carnegie Ridge, (11JC at 0° 41.6'S 85° 20.0' W, 2452 m depth; 17JC at 0° 10.8'S 85° 52.0' W, 2846 m depth). Using 230Th systematics and seismic profiling at each of the sites, we've identified significant sediment winnowing (4JC and 11JC) and focusing (8JC and 17JC). At all sites, we believe that changes in age-model-derived sand (i.e., >63µm) mass accumulation rates (MAR) best represent changes in rain rates. Glacial rain rates are higher than those in the Holocene by a factor of 2-3 at both sites. Peak Mn levels (>1%), the brown-to-green color transition (which likely represents the oxic/post-oxic boundary), and peak U concentrations all appear in the same order with increasing depth down core. At the Carnegie sites, where MARs are greater than those at the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 4 ppm) occur during the mid- to late Holocene at depths of 10-15 cm. At the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 12 ppm) occur lower in the sediment column (25-30 cm) during the late glacial. The decrease

  14. Biogeographic congruence in the south Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seberg, Ole

    1991-01-01

    Zealand, Tasmania and Australia) are congruent. The area cladograms are derived from Nothofagus (Fagacae), Embothriinae (Protaceae), Oreobolus (Cyperaceae), Cyttaria (Helotiales) and Eriococcidae (Homoptera). The resulting general area cladogram showing southern South America as the sister-area to New...... Zealand, south-eastern Australia and Tasmania, and Tasmania plus south-eastern Australia as sister-areas to New Zealand are compared with different geological hypotheses for the area. The biological area cladogram is shown to be congruent with widely different geological hypotheses....

  15. The circulation of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, William S.

    2006-05-01

    anomalies, and pumping equatorial water poleward along the coast. The South Equatorial Current originates as a combination of equatorial upwelling, mixing and advection from the NECC, and Peru coastal upwelling, but its sources and their variability remain unresolved. Similarly, while much of the Equatorial Undercurrent flows southeast into the Peru Undercurrent and supplies the coastal upwelling, a quantitative assessment is lacking. We are still unable to put together the eastern interconnections among the long zonal currents of the central Pacific.

  16. Plutonium and {sup 137}Cs in surface water of the South Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K.; Komura, K. [Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052 (Japan); Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University, Wake, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224 (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052 (Japan); Fukasawa, M. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 2-15, Natsushima, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan); Kim, C.S. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daeduk-Danji Daejeon 305-336 (Korea); Povinec, P.P. [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-842 48, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC98000 (Monaco)

    2007-08-01

    The present plutonium and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in South Pacific Ocean surface waters were determined. The water samples were collected in the South Pacific mid-latitude region (32.5 S) during the BEAGLE expedition conducted in 2003-04 by JAMSTEC. {sup 239,240}Pu concentrations in surface seawater of the South Pacific were in the range of 0.5 to 4.1 mBq m{sup -3}, whereas {sup 137}Cs concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 Bq m{sup -3}. The observed {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the South Pacific were almost of the same level as those in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The surface {sup 239,240}Pu in the South Pacific subtropical gyre showed larger spatial variations than {sup 137}Cs, as it may be affected by physical and biogeochemical processes. The {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios, which reflect biogeochemical processes in seawater, were generally smaller than that observed in global fallout, except for the most eastern station. The {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios in the South Pacific tend to be higher than that in the North Pacific. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters such as salinity and nutrients were examined. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the western South Pacific (the Tasman Sea) and the eastern South Pacific were negatively correlated with the phosphate concentration, whereas there is no correlation between the {sup 137}Cs and nutrients concentrations in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The mutual relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of transport processes of anthropogenic radionuclides and their fate in the South Pacific. (author)

  17. Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Level Pressure (1949-present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains standardized sea level pressure anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific region...

  18. Status of marine mammals in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the status or marine mammals in the eastern north Pacific Ocean. Species covered are: sea otter, northern, Guadalupe fur seals, stellar,...

  19. Hydrography of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Paul C.; Talley, Lynne D.

    2006-05-01

    Eastern tropical Pacific Ocean waters lie at the eastern end of a basin-wide equatorial current system, between two large subtropical gyres and at the terminus of two eastern boundary currents. Descriptions and interpretations of surface, pycnocline, intermediate and deep waters in the region are reviewed. Spatial and temporal patterns are discussed using (1) maps of surface temperature, salinity, and nutrients (phosphate, silicate, nitrate and nitrite), and thermocline and mixed layer parameters, and (2) meridional and zonal sections of temperature, salinity, potential density, oxygen, and nutrients. These patterns were derived from World Ocean Database observations by an ocean interpolation algorithm: loess-weighted observations were projected onto quadratic functions of spatial coordinates while simultaneously fitting annual and semiannual harmonics and the Southern Oscillation Index to account for interannual variability. Contrasts between the equatorial cold tongue and the eastern Pacific warm pool are evident in all the hydrographic parameters. Annual cycles and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) variability are of similar amplitude in the eastern tropical Pacific, however, there are important regional differences in relative variability at these time scales. Unique characteristics of the eastern tropical Pacific are discussed: the strong and shallow pycnocline, the pronounced oxygen minimum layer, and the Costa Rica Dome. This paper is part of a comprehensive review of the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific.

  20. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  1. Physical and biogeochemical forcing of oxygen and nitrate changes during El Niño/El Viejo and La Niña/La Vieja upper-ocean phases in the tropical eastern South Pacific along 86° W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Llanillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Temporal changes in the water mass distribution and biogeochemical signals in the tropical eastern South Pacific are investigated with the help of an extended optimum multi-parameter (OMP analysis, a technique for inverse modeling of mixing and biogeochemical processes through a multidimensional least-square fit. Two ship occupations of a meridional section along 85°50' W from 14° S to 1° N are analysed during relatively warm (El Niño/El Viejo, March 1993 and cold (La Niña/La Vieja, February 2009 upper-ocean phases. The largest El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO impact was found in the water properties and water mass distribution in the upper 200 m north of 10° S. ENSO promotes the vertical motion of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ associated with the hypoxic equatorial subsurface water (ESSW. During a cold phase the core of the ESSW is found at shallower layers, replacing shallow (top 200 m subtropical surface water (STW. The heave of isopycnals due to ENSO partially explains the intrusion of oxygen-rich and nutrient-poor antarctic intermediate water (AAIW into the depth range of 150–500 m. The other cause of the AAIW increase at shallower depths is that this water mass flowed along shallower isopycnals in 2009. The shift in the vertical location of AAIW reaching the OMZ induces changes in the amount of oxygen advected and respired inside the OMZ: the larger the oxygen supply, the greater the respiration and the lower the nitrate loss through denitrification. Variations in the intensity of the zonal currents in the equatorial current system, which ventilates the OMZ from the west, are used to explain the patchy latitudinal changes of seawater properties observed along the repeated section. Significant changes reach down to 800 m, suggesting that decadal variability (Pacific decadal oscillation is also a potential driver in the observed variability.

  2. Overlap of eastern and western mangroves in the South-western Pacific: hybridization of all three Rhizophora (Rhizophoraceae) combinations in New Caledonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duke, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    A recent survey of mangroves in New Caledonia located 7 taxa of the genus Rhizophora – with 6 coexisting in one estuary. This is arguably the greatest concentration of co-occurring Rhizophora taxa anywhere. Two are well-known mangrove species of the Indo West Pacific, R. stylosa and R. apiculata,

  3. A Probabilistic Model of Illegal Drug Trafficking Operations in the Eastern Pacific and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Illicit drug - trafficking is a major concern of the United States and is a primary pillar of President Barack Obama’s Strategy to Combat Transnational...Organized Crime. In the eastern Pacific and Caribbean Sea, drug - trafficking organizations operate a variety of vessels to transit drugs from South...interdicts illegal drug - trafficking in this region. In this thesis, we develop a probability model based on intelligence inputs to generate a spatial

  4. First record in the Tropical Eastern Pacific of the exotic species Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta, Serpulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Bastida Zavala

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exotic Indo-West-Pacific species, Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta, Serpulidae is recorded for the first time in the Tropical Eastern Pacific from two sites in La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, a coastal lagoon in the Pacific south of Mexico. The means of dispersal of this serpulid species still remains unclear, as the nearest port (Puerto Chiapas is 70 km to the south, and there are no port installations or shrimp cultures in the lagoon. The record of this serpulid species, apparently widely distributed in this coastal lagoon, has implications regarding possible effects on the brackish-water ecosystem, since the invasion event very well may have occurred several years ago. It is recommended that an exhaustive study be carried out in the coastal lagoons of Chiapas to evaluate the real distribution and the effects of this invasive species on the ecosystem. A complete description, including photographs and drawings, is provided.

  5. First record in the Tropical Eastern Pacific of the exotic species Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta, Serpulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida-Zavala, Rolando; García-Madrigal, Socorro

    2012-01-01

    The exotic Indo-West-Pacific species, Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) is recorded for the first time in the Tropical Eastern Pacific from two sites in La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, a coastal lagoon in the Pacific south of Mexico. The means of dispersal of this serpulid species still remains unclear, as the nearest port (Puerto Chiapas) is 70 km to the south, and there are no port installations or shrimp cultures in the lagoon. The record of this serpulid species, apparently widely distributed in this coastal lagoon, has implications regarding possible effects on the brackish-water ecosystem, since the invasion event very well may have occurred several years ago. It is recommended that an exhaustive study be carried out in the coastal lagoons of Chiapas to evaluate the real distribution and the effects of this invasive species on the ecosystem. A complete description, including photographs and drawings, is provided.

  6. First record in the Tropical Eastern Pacific of the exotic species Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta, Serpulidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida-Zavala, Rolando; García-Madrigal, Socorro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The exotic Indo-West-Pacific species, Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) is recorded for the first time in the Tropical Eastern Pacific from two sites in La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, a coastal lagoon in the Pacific south of Mexico. The means of dispersal of this serpulid species still remains unclear, as the nearest port (Puerto Chiapas) is 70 km to the south, and there are no port installations or shrimp cultures in the lagoon. The record of this serpulid species, apparently widely distributed in this coastal lagoon, has implications regarding possible effects on the brackish-water ecosystem, since the invasion event very well may have occurred several years ago. It is recommended that an exhaustive study be carried out in the coastal lagoons of Chiapas to evaluate the real distribution and the effects of this invasive species on the ecosystem. A complete description, including photographs and drawings, is provided. PMID:23226707

  7. Integrating South Pacific carbon cycling and climate history from Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene: an upper slope transect from eastern New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, B. S.; Dickens, G. R.; Hollis, C. J.; Crampton, J. S.; Strong, C.; Zachos, J. C.; Hines, B. R.; Philips, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene was characterized by prominent variations in global carbon cycling, which operated on both long (>10e6) and short (CIEs) occur through this interval, although it is not clear if they are hyperthermals. In addition, strata from the late Early Eocene has lower carbonate contents than were measured in beds that span the numerous yet distinct clay-rich Early Eocene hyperthermals, an indication that the flux of carbonate to the seafloor decreased, either because of lower surface water carbonate production or because of extreme shoaling of the lysocline. Overall, these records are broadly correlative to preliminary records from other Clarence Valley sections and can be correlated to the paleotemperature record from Canterbury Basin to the south.

  8. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    , Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. Location: 15.4 degree south latitude, 167.9 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 36.8 by 27.8 kilometers (22.9 by 17.3 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  9. 75 FR 68756 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a depleted stock under the Marine Mammal... assessment report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following...

  10. Radiostrontium monitoring of bivalves from the Pacific coast of eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, Zin'ichi; Inuzuka, Yoko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kurishima, Katsuaki; Kihou, Nobuharu; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-09-01

    In early April 2011, radiostrontium was accidentally released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. We developed a simple procedure to analyze radiostrontium levels in marine mussels (Septifer virgatus) and seawater using crown ether (Sr Resin; Eichrom). Then, we used our method to describe the spatial and temporal distribution of radiostrontium in mussels and seawater on the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013 and for 2015. Activity of (90)Sr in mussels and seawater decreased with distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and between 2011 and 2013 tended to be higher in areas south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant than to the north of it. Activity in mussels and seawater also tended to decrease from 2011 to 2013 and by 2015 had reached levels experienced prior to the Fukushima accident. Our results suggest that radiostrontium discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was dispersed by coastal currents in a southerly direction along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013, following which its activity decreased to background levels by 2015.

  11. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  12. Eastern tropical North Pacific coral radiocarbon reveals North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, Patrick A.; Sanchez, Sara C.; Ferguson, Julie; Carriquiry, Jose D.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Villaescusa, J. A.; Southon, John R.

    2017-03-01

    Fluctuations in oceanic circulation and upwelling associated with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) are the largest source of salinity and nutrient concentration variability across the Pacific basin. Recent observations suggest NPGO-like variability is intensifying, but longer, "pre-instrumental" records are required to improve our understanding of NPGO amplitude and phase change. Here, using measurements of coral skeletal chemistry from San Benedicto Island in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP), we assess this region's suitability for reconstructing NPGO behavior. We find that coral geochemical proxy measurements of ETNP salinity and dissolved inorganic carbon radiocarbon (Δ14C) content reflect NPGO-driven gyre circulation and regional coastal upwelling. These results provide the basis for reconstructing NPGO-related ocean conditions hundreds of years prior to the modern observational record.

  13. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  14. Range extension and morphological characterization of rhodolith-forming species (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from shallow water in the Mexican South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-García, Edith Concepción; Rosas-Alquicira, Edgar Francisco

    2014-12-01

    Living rhodolith beds are widely distributed along the Eastern Pacific ocean. Despite their widespread distribution, little is known about the rhodolith-forming species from shallow water in the Mexican South Pacific. Many taxonomic and morphological studies about rhodoliths have been carried out in the Gulf of California, where the forming species belong to the Hapalidiaceae and Corallinaceae families. This paper is the first report on the occurrence of the rhodolith-forming Hapalidiaceae species Lithothamnion muelleri and Phymatolithon repandum at three sites in the Mexican South Pacific. The branch density, maximum length and sphericity were measured for each determined species. Rhodoliths were distributed between 4 and 6 m depth, but differences in the branch density between species and sites were not found. Finally, the present record of L. muelleri fills the gap in the species distribution along the Eastern Pacific ocean, while the record of P. repandum is the first of the species in the region.

  15. Eastern Pacific cooling and Atlantic overturning circulation during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienast, Markus; Kienast, Stephanie S; Calvert, Stephen E; Eglinton, Timothy I; Mollenhauer, Gesine; François, Roger; Mix, Alan C

    2006-10-19

    Surface ocean conditions in the equatorial Pacific Ocean could hold the clue to whether millennial-scale global climate change during glacial times was initiated through tropical ocean-atmosphere feedbacks or by changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. North Atlantic cold periods during Heinrich events and millennial-scale cold events (stadials) have been linked with climatic changes in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and South America, as well as the Indian and East Asian monsoon systems, but not with tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures. Here we present a high-resolution record of sea surface temperatures in the eastern tropical Pacific derived from alkenone unsaturation measurements. Our data show a temperature drop of approximately 1 degrees C, synchronous (within dating uncertainties) with the shutdown of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich event 1, and a smaller temperature drop of approximately 0.5 degrees C synchronous with the smaller reduction in the overturning circulation during the Younger Dryas event. Both cold events coincide with maxima in surface ocean productivity as inferred from 230Th-normalized carbon burial fluxes, suggesting increased upwelling at the time. From the concurrence of equatorial Pacific cooling with the two North Atlantic cold periods during deglaciation, we conclude that these millennial-scale climate changes were probably driven by a reorganization of the oceans' thermohaline circulation, although possibly amplified by tropical ocean-atmosphere interaction as suggested before.

  16. Gridded bathymetry of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved...

  17. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasts for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall is important for agriculture management and planning in arid and semi-arid regions. Australia has complex variations in rainfall patterns in time and space, arising from the combination of the geographic structure and the dual effects of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study aims to develop a forecasting model of spatiotemporal monthly rainfall totals using lagged climate indices and historical rainfall data from 1950-2011 for south-eastern and eastern Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high-quality weather stations. To reduce spatial complexity, climate regionalization was used to divide the stations in homogenous sub-regions based on similarity of rainfall patterns and intensity using principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering. Subsequently, a fuzzy ranking algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. Selected predictors by FRA were found to vary by sub-region. After these two stages of pre-processing, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and optimized separately for each sub-region and the entire area. The results indicate that climate regionalization can improve a monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast model. The location and number of sub-regions were important for ranking predictors and modeling. This further suggests that the impact of climate variables on Australian rainfall is more variable in both time and space than indicated thus far.

  18. Interannual variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone and implications for tropical cyclone genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Emmanuel M. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); UPMC, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Lengaigne, Matthieu [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India); Menkes, Christophe E. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); Jourdain, Nicolas C. [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); Marchesiello, Patrick [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); CNES/CNRS/UPS/IRD, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale (LEGOS), Toulouse (France); Madec, Gurvan [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    )-related Pacific equatorial warming are shown to impact differently on the SPCZ position, suggesting that for regional scales, such as the South Pacific, the SPCZ classification is more appropriate than a simple ENSO index to characterize TC interannual variability. These findings suggest that forecasting the strength of El Nino through SST variations in the eastern Pacific may not be sufficient to accurately predict cyclogenesis in the South Pacific, especially east of the dateline. (orig.)

  19. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  20. Natal foraging philopatry in eastern Pacific hawksbill turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaos, Alexander R; Lewison, Rebecca L; Jensen, Michael P; Liles, Michael J; Henriquez, Ana; Chavarria, Sofia; Pacheco, Carlos Mario; Valle, Melissa; Melero, David; Gadea, Velkiss; Altamirano, Eduardo; Torres, Perla; Vallejo, Felipe; Miranda, Cristina; LeMarie, Carolina; Lucero, Jesus; Oceguera, Karen; Chácon, Didiher; Fonseca, Luis; Abrego, Marino; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Flores, Eric E; Llamas, Israel; Donadi, Rodrigo; Peña, Bernardo; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Ruales, Daniela Alarcòn; Chaves, Jaime A; Otterstrom, Sarah; Zavala, Alan; Hart, Catherine E; Brittain, Rachel; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Mangel, Jeffrey; Yañez, Ingrid L; Dutton, Peter H

    2017-08-01

    The complex processes involved with animal migration have long been a subject of biological interest, and broad-scale movement patterns of many marine turtle populations still remain unresolved. While it is widely accepted that once marine turtles reach sexual maturity they home to natal areas for nesting or reproduction, the role of philopatry to natal areas during other life stages has received less scrutiny, despite widespread evidence across the taxa. Here we report on genetic research that indicates that juvenile hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in the eastern Pacific Ocean use foraging grounds in the region of their natal beaches, a pattern we term natal foraging philopatry. Our findings confirm that traditional views of natal homing solely for reproduction are incomplete and that many marine turtle species exhibit philopatry to natal areas to forage. Our results have important implications for life-history research and conservation of marine turtles and may extend to other wide-ranging marine vertebrates that demonstrate natal philopatry.

  1. North Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water simulation and future projection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ruibin; LIU Qinyu; XU Lixiao; LU Yiqun

    2015-01-01

    The present climate simulation and future projection of the Eastern Subtropical Mode Water (ESTMW) in the North Pacific are investigated based on the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (GFDL-ESM2M). Spatial patterns of the mixed layer depth (MLD) in the eastern subtropical North Pacific and the ESTMW are well simulated using this model. Compared with historical simulation, the ESTMW is produced at lighter isopycnal surfaces and its total volume is decreased in the RCP8.5 runs, because the subduction rate of the ESTMW decreases by 0.82×10−6 m/s during February–March. In addition, it is found that the lateral induction decreasing is approximately four times more than the Ekman pumping, and thus it plays a dominant role in the decreased subduction rate associated with global warming. Moreover, the MLD during February–March is banded shoaling in response to global warming, extending northeastward from the east of the Hawaii Islands (20°N, 155°W) to the west coast of North America (30°N, 125°W), with a max-imum shoaling of 50 m, and then leads to the lateral induction reduction. Meanwhile, the increased north-eastward surface warm current to the east of Hawaii helps strengthen of the local upper ocean stratification and induces the banded shoaling MLD under warmer climate. This new finding indicates that the ocean surface currents play an important role in the response of the MLD and the ESTMW to global warming.

  2. Training on Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones for Latin American students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, L. M.; Raga, G. B.

    2009-05-01

    Tropical cyclones are one of the most impressive atmospheric phenomena and their development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins has potential to affect several Latin-American and Caribbean countries, where human resources are limited. As part of an international research project, we are offering short courses based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from various countries in Latin America. Key aspects are tropical cyclone formation and evolution, with particular emphasis on their development off the west coast of Mexico. Our approach includes lectures on tropical cyclone climatology and formation, dynamic and thermodynamic models, air-sea interaction and oceanic response, ocean waves and coastal impacts as well as variability and climate-related predictions. In particular, we use a best-track dataset issued by the United States National Hurricane Center and satellite observations to analyze convective patterns for the period 1970-2006. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are analyzed in more detail; this includes systems that developed during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 seasons. Additionally, we have organized a human-dimensions symposium to discuss socio-economic issues that are associated with the landfall of tropical cyclones. This includes coastal zone impact and flooding, the link between cyclones and water resources, the flow of weather and climate information from scientists to policy- makers, the role of emergency managers and decision makers, impact over health issues and the viewpoint of the insurance industry.

  3. Mechanisms for the cooling of the central eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Allan, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The sea surface temperature variation over the Central Eastern Pacific (CEP) controls the global mean surface temperature variation (Kosaka and Xie, 2013). The regional cooling over CEP is directly linked to the surface warming slowdown in last twenty years. It is important to understand the mechanisms of the CEP cooling in the warming climate in order to have a robust prediction of the future climate change. Previous studies showed the CEP cooling is related to the pronounced strengthening in Pacific trade winds over the past two decades, which is sufficient to account for the cooling of the CEP and a substantial slowdown in surface warming through increased subsurface ocean heat uptake in the Pacific shallow overturning cells and equatorial upwelling in the CEP (England et al., 2014). By analysing the cloud data, Zhou et al. (2016) showed the increase of the lower cloud cover (LCC) over the CEP area contributed to the cooling, resulting in positive local feedback and negative global feedback. Using the data from observations, ERA-Interim reanalysis and atmospheric climate simulations, our study shows that the increasing Latent Heat (LH) also plays an important role in the CEP cooling (Liu et al., 2015). After the sensitivity test using the bulk formula, it showed that both wind and total column water vapour content contribute to the cooling trends of the SST in CEP. The observed trends of the wind and LH in CEP also confirmed this. England et al. (2014) Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus, Nat. Clim. Change, 4, 222-227, doi:10.1038/nclimate2106. Kosaka, Y., and S. P. Xie (2013), Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling, Nature, 501, 403-407, doi:10.1038/nature12534. Liu et al. (2015) Combining satellite observations and reanalysis energy transports to estimate global net surface energy fluxes 1985-2012. J. Geophys. Res. , Atmospheres. ISSN 2169-8996 doi: 10.1002/2015JD

  4. Clipperton Atoll (eastern Pacific): oceanography, geomorphology, reef-building coral ecology and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. W.; Veron, J. E. N.; Wellington, G. M.

    1996-06-01

    Coral reef geomorphology and community composition were investigated in the tropical northeastern Pacific during April 1994. Three areas were surveyed in the Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico), and an intensive study was conducted on Clipperton Atoll (1,300 km SW of Acapulco), including macro-scale surface circulation, sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, geomorphology, coral community structure, zonation, and biogeography. Satellite-tracked drifter buoys from 1979 1993 demonstrated complex patterns of surface circulation with dominantly easterly flow (North Equatorial Counter Current, NECC), but also westerly currents (South Equatorial Current, SEC) that could transport propagules to Clipperton from both central and eastern Pacific regions. The northernmost latitude reached by the NECC is not influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, but easterly flow velocity evidently is accelerated at such times. Maximum NECC flow rates indicate that the eastern Pacific barrier can be bridged in 60 to 120 days. SST anomalies at Clipperton occur during ENSO events and were greater at Clipperton in 1987 than during 1982 1983. Shallow (15 18 m)and deep (50 58 m) terraces are present around most of Clipperton, probably representing Modern and late Pleistocene sea level stands. Although Clipperton is a well developed atoll with high coral cover, the reef-building fauna is depauperate, consisting of only 7 species of scleractinian corals belonging to the genera Pocillopora, Porites, Pavona and Leptoseris, and 1 species of hydrocoral in the genus Millepora. The identities of the one Pocilpopora species and one of the two Porites species are still unknown. Two of the remaining scleractinians ( Pavona minuta, Leptoseris scabra) and the hydrocoral ( Millepora exaesa), all formerly known from central and western Pacific localities, represent new eastern Pacific records. Scleractinian corals predominate (10 100% cover) over insular shelf depths of 8 to 60m, and crustose

  5. Energy Losses through Unharnessed Biomass in South- Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The South-eastern region of Nigeria is a tropical rain ... Nigeria by The Department of Meteorological Services, World ... natural gas (LNG) used by the population and the average wood .... Adelaide University, Roseworthy Campus, Australia,.

  6. Estimation of Solar Radiation in South Eastern Nigeria | Nwokocha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of Solar Radiation in South Eastern Nigeria. ... Knowledge of global solar radiation is of fundamental importance for all solar energy conversion ... the Sayigh equation for estimating the global solar radiation, analyzing data from ...

  7. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  8. Simulating Tropical Instability Waves in the Equatorial Eastern Pacific with a Coupled General Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xianyan; Masahide KIMOTO

    2009-01-01

    Satellite observations of SSTs have revealed the existence of unstable waves in the equatorial eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans. These waves have a 20-40-day periodicity with westward phase speeds of 0.4-0.6 m s-1 and wavelengths of 1000-2000 km during boreal summer and fall.They are generally called tropical instability waves (TIWs).This study investigates TIWs simulated by a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM).The horizontal resolution of the model is 120 km in the atmosphere,and 30 km longitude by 20 km latitude in the ocean.Model simulations show good agreement with the observed main features associated with TIWs.The results of energetics analysis reveal that barotropic energy conversion is responsible for providing the main energy source for TIWs by extracting energy from the meridional shear of the climatological-mean equatorial currents in the mixed layer.This deeper and northward-extended wave activity appears to gain its energy through baroclinic conversion via buoyancy work,which further contributes to the asymmetric distribution of TIWs.It is estimated that the strong cooling effect induced by equatorial upwelling is partially (~30%-40%)offset by the equatorward heat flux due to TIWs in the eastern tropical Pacific during the seasons when TIWs are active.The atmospheric mixed layer just above the sea surface responds to the waves with enhanced or reduced vertical mixing.Furthermore,the changes in turbulent mixing feed back to sea surface evaporation,favoring the westward propagation of TIWs.The atmosphere to the south of the Equator also responds to TIWs in a similar way,although TIWs are much weaker south of the Equator.

  9. Historical Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Tracks, 1949-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Historical Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Tracks file contains the six-hourly (0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 UTC) center locations and intensities for all...

  10. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  11. ON THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SUMMER RAINFALL IN CHINA AND THE ATMOSPHERIC HEAT SOURCES OVER THE EASTERN TIBETAN PLATEAU AND THE WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简茂球; 罗会邦; 乔云亭

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between the summer rainfall in China and the atmospheric heat sources over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific warm pool were analyzed comparatively, using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis daily data. The strong (weak) heat source in summer over the eastern Tibetan Plateau will lead to abundant (scarce) summer rainfall in the Yangtze River basin, and scarce/abundant summer rainfall in the eastern part of Southern China. While the strong (weak) heat source in summer over the western Pacific warm pool will lead to another pattern of abundant (scarce) summer rainfall in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River and scarce (abundant) summer rainfall in Southern China and in the region of northern Jiangsu to southern Shandong. Comparatively, the heat source over the eastern Tibetan Plateau affects a larger area of summer rainfall than the heat source over the western Pacific. In both cases of the heat source anomalies over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and over the western Pacific, there exist EAP-like teleconnection patterns in East Asia. The summer rainfall in China is influenced directly by the abnormal vertical motion, which is related closely to the abnormal heat sources in the atmosphere. The ridge line of the western Pacific High locates far south (north) in summer in the case of strong (weak) heat sources over the two areas mentioned above.

  12. Dissolved Neodymium Isotopes and Concentrations in the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, C.; Pahnke, K.

    2013-12-01

    The isotopic composition of dissolved Neodymium (expressed as ɛNd) in seawater is becoming increasingly established as a tracer for present and past water mass structure and flow paths. The South Pacific represents the largest sector of the Southern Ocean and harbors major areas of bottom and intermediate water mass formation and is therefore a key area for understanding present and past deep ocean circulation. While more dissolved Nd data are becoming available from different ocean basins, the South Pacific is still understudied with respect to the distribution of Nd isotopes and concentrations. In this study we have analyzed dissolved Nd isotopes and concentrations from 11 water column profiles across the South Pacific between 46°S and 69°S that sample all water masses. Our data show that the bottom water in the vicinity of the Ross Sea (Ross Sea Bottom water, RSBW) is represented by an ɛNd value of ~ -7, while the overlying Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) carries a signature of ɛNd = -8 to -9. The characteristic Nd isotopic signal of RSBW can be tracked along its flow path into the southeast Pacific where it progressively looses its signal through interaction with ambient CDW. The easternmost stations, closer to South America, exhibit an excursion towards radiogenic ɛNd at ≤2000 m water depth. This change towards more positive ɛNd coincides with low oxygen and high phosphate concentrations representing Pacific Deep Water (PDW) and possibly indicates water mass mixing of CDW with more radiogenic PDW. While the Nd isotopic composition shows apparent variations between stations and different water masses, the concentration profiles show a rather uniform and gradual increase with depth, a pattern typical for open ocean settings. Spatial and vertical contrasts in Nd isotopic values throughout the South Pacific indicate that Nd isotopes can be used as a water mass tracer in this region. It is reasonable to infer that local lithology in the Ross Sea influenced

  13. THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARC-Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. 'Bathurst ... forecast a possibility of major shortage in basic energy foods in South ..... adaptation to cooler weather, and would enable.

  14. Hydrography and Jack Mackerel stock in the South Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Corten, A.A.H.M.; Gerlotto, F.; Brunel, T.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study on Hydrography and Jack Mackerel stock (Trachurus murphyi) in the South Pacific is currently one year underway. The main achievement consisted of collecting detailed datasets on Chilean, Peruvian and European fisheries activities and information on the hydrographical / biochemical and envi

  15. Communicable disease in the South Pacific Islands, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshman, J H

    1976-11-13

    An outline is given of the pattern of communicable disease in the South Pacific, as far as it is known. Surveillance and research are imcomplete and the World Health Organization is assisting in carrying these out. Reporting and laboratory diagnosis of communicable disease are inadequate and sometimes inaccurate. This is being improved. Medical checks for intending migrants from the South Pacific are, in a number of cases, inadequately performed in the country of origin and this situation should be altered. The risks to surrounding developed countries from migrants, temporary workers and returning travellers are not tremendous but they cannot be neglected and vigilance has to be maintained. Tuberculosis importation does present risks, as does that of typhoid. Malaria importation carries risks for Northern Australia. Leprosy poses little real risk to Australia or New Zealand and neither does filariasis. Cholera would have to be watched for closely should there ever be a South Pacific outbreak, but the developed countries around the South Pacific which are cholera-non-receptive can control occasional cases. Other than malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid and possibly dengue, problems are thus mainly in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals.

  16. The ecology of xenophyophores (Protista) on eastern Pacific seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Thomas, Cynthia L.

    1988-12-01

    Large, agglutinating protozoans of the class Xenophyophorea are the dominant epifaunal organisms on soft and hard substrates of many bathyal seamounts in the eastern Pacific Ocean off Mexico. Observations made with the submersible Alvin and remotely towed camera sleds on 17 seamounts at 31°, 20°, 13° and 10°N revealed more than ten distinct xenophyophore test morphologies. Most of these appear to represent previously undescribed species. Reticulate forms are numerically dominant at 20°, 13° and 10°N. Xenophyophore abundances increase with decreasing latitude, being rare at 30°N, present at densities of 0.1-1.0 m -2 at 20° and 13°N and often exceeding 1.0 m -2 at 10°N, occasionally reaching 10-18 m -2. Highest concentrations are observed on caldera floors near the base of steep caldera walls, at depths between 1700 and 2500 m. Most individuals select sand-size pelagic foraminiferan tests (63-500 μm) and exclude pebble, silt and clay-size particles for test construction. Xenophyophore on seamounts modify the structure of metazoan communities and may play a role in maintenance of infaunal diversity. Twenty-seven xenophyophore tests were found to provide habitat for 16 major macrofaunal taxa (152 individuals) and three meiofaunal taxa (333 individuals). The presence of xenophyophores also enhances the abundance of isopods, tanaids, ophiuroids, nematodes and harpacticoid copepods dwelling in sediments surrounding the tests. Mobile megafauna are attracted to sediment beneath and adjacent to xenophyophores. We suggest that xenophyophores, which are abundant on many topographic features in deep water (e.g. guyots, trenches, canyons and continental slopes), are a functionally important component of deep-sea benthic communities and require further autecological and synecological investigation.

  17. The Pacific Way: Sustainability in Higher Education in the South Pacific Island Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Koshy, Kanayathu Chacko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to create an area profile of significant activity and possibility in higher education for sustainable development (ESD) in the island nations of the South Pacific Ocean. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive research paper on philosophy, policy, and practice according to a methodology of…

  18. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  19. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY).

  20. A map-based South Pacific rainfall climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrey, A.; Diamond, H.; Renwick, J.; Salinger, J.; Gergis, J.; Dalu, G.

    2008-12-01

    The lives of more than four million people that reside in the South Pacific are greatly affected by rainfall variability. This region is subjected to large rainfall anomalies on seasonal timescales due to tropical cyclone occurrences, ENSO activity, and the AAO. Regional climate anomalies are also dictated by the IPO on multi- decadal scales that alter the motions of large-scale circulation features like the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Strong climate change impacts are anticipated for this region, so gauging the severity of rainfall variations that can occur are paramount for implementing appropriate climate change adaptation measures. Lack of historical rainfall records and documentation of other climate data hinders our current understanding of South Pacific climate variability. Climate data rescue activities are currently aimed at recovering, archiving, and digitising this information to rectify this issue. This research aims to examine the rainfall database administered by the Island Climate Update (ICU) project, which is contributed to by all Pacific Island national meteorological services (NMS), Meteo-France (New Caledonia and French Polynesia), NIWA (New Zealand), NOAA (USA), the IRI (USA), and the Bureau of Meteorology (Australia). Monthly rainfall totals for all stations in the ICU database were assessed, and allowed construction of master rainfall chronologies for all or portions of the major South Pacific Island nations. Climatic norms were then calculated over common time periods, and monthly-resolved rainfall anomaly maps for the South Pacific covering 1951-2008 were undertaken. Immediate benefits of this exercise have pointed out holes in the rainfall network that can be specifically targeted for data rescue in the near future, which can be achieved by providing financial assistance to Pacific Island NMSs. In addition, there is ample scope to extend the rainfall anomaly map time series into the early 1900s using a spatially degraded data

  1. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  2. Increase in water column denitrification during the deglaciation controlled by oxygen demand in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martinez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we present organic export production and isotopic nitrogen results over the last 30 000 years from one core localized off Costa Rica (ODP Site 1242 on the leading edge of the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Marine export production reveals glacial-interglacial variations with low organic matter (total organic carbon and total nitrogen contents during warm intervals, twice more during cold episodes and double peaked maximum during the deglaciation, between ~15.5–18.5 and 11–13 ka BP. When this new export production record is compared with four nearby cores localized within the Eastern Pacific along the Equatorial divergence, a good agreement between all the cores is observed, with the major feature being a maximum of export during the early deglaciation. As for export production, water-column denitrification represented by sedimentary δ15N records along the Eastern tropical North and South Pacific between 15° N and 36° S is coherent as well over the last deglaciation period. The whole isotopic nitrogen profiles indicate that denitrification increased abruptly at 19 ka BP to a maximum during the early deglaciation, confirming a typical Antarctic timing. It is proposed that the increase in export production and then in subsurface oxygen demand lead to an intensification of water-column denitrification within the oxygen minimum zones in the easternmost Pacific at the time of the last deglaciation. The triggering mechanism would have been primarily linked to an increase in preformed nutrients contents feeding the Equatorial Undercurrent driven by the resumption of overturning in the Southern Ocean and the return of nutrients from the deep ocean to the sea-surface. An increase in equatorial wind-driven upwelling of sub-surface nutrient-rich waters could have played the role of an amplifier.

  3. Impacts of decaying eastern and central Pacific El Niños on tropical cyclone activities over the western North Pacific in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxing; Xie, Ruihuang; Wang, Faming; Huang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the influences of the decaying eastern Pacific El Niño (EP-El Niño) and central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño) on tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the western North Pacific (WNP) during July, August, and September (JAS). During this period, TC geneses and tracks are reduced in the central and eastern WNP. However, TC tracks reaching the Philippines increase, and more TC geneses appear west of 145°E during EP-El Niño. During CP-El Niño, tracks reaching the South China Sea (SCS) and southeast coast of China increase, and positive anomalies of TC genesis are found in the southern part of the central WNP and southern SCS. It is possible that the different variations of the anomalous anticyclone over east of the Philippines in the WNP induced by El Niños are instrumental to the different TC variations in the two types of decaying El Niños during JAS. Compared with EP-El Niño, strengthening and northward expansion of the anomalous anticyclone during CP-El Niño cause a westward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high in summer, which is responsible for more westward TC tracks over the SCS and southeast coast of China. This northward expansion can cause the center of suppressed TC geneses in the central WNP to migrate further north during CP-El Niño. A decreased magnitude of vertical shear dominates the southern part of the central WNP and southern SCS, which enhances TC formation in these regions during CP-El Niño.

  4. Antarctic-type blue whale calls recorded at low latitudes in the Indian and eastern Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Kathleen M.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Tolstoy, Maya; Chapp, Emily; Mellinger, David K.; Moore, Sue E.

    2004-10-01

    Blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus, were once abundant around the Antarctic during the austral summer, but intensive whaling during the first half of the 20th century reduced their numbers by over 99%. Although interannual variability of blue whale occurrence on the Antarctic feeding grounds was documented by whalers, little was known about where the whales spent the winter months. Antarctic blue whales produce calls that are distinct from those produced by blue whales elsewhere in the world. To investigate potential winter migratory destinations of Antarctic blue whales, we examined acoustic data for these signals from two low-latitude locales: the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. Antarctic-type blue whale calls were detected on hydrophones in both regions during the austral autumn and winter (May-September), with peak detections in July. Calls occurred over relatively brief periods in both oceans, suggesting that there may be only a few animals migrating so far north and/or producing calls. Antarctic blue whales appear to use both the Indian and eastern Pacific Oceans concurrently, indicating that there is not a single migratory destination. Acoustic data from the South Atlantic and from mid-latitudes in the Indian or Pacific Oceans are needed for a more global understanding of migratory patterns and destinations of Antarctic blue whales.

  5. Rural Poverty in Three Eastern South Dakota Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlee, James L.; Riley, Marvin P.

    A sample of 120 low-income families receiving food commodities in 3 eastern South Dakota counties provided a socio-demographic overview of family characteristics; tested the Culture of Poverty approach for classifying rural, low-income families; tested the homogeneity among these families; and presented implications for policy-making and program…

  6. EFFECTS OF PACIFIC SSTA ON SUMMER PRECIPITATION OVER EASTERN CHINA, PART Ⅱ: NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zheng-shou; SUN Zhao-bo; NI Dong-hong; ZENG Gang

    2007-01-01

    Based on an observational analysis, seven numerical experiments are designed to study the impacts of Pacific SSTA on summer precipitation over eastem China and relevant physical mechanism by NCAR CCM3. The numerical simulation results show that preceding winter SSTA in the Kuroshio region leads to summer precipitation anomaly over the Yangtze River valleys by modifying atmospheric general circulation over eastern Asia and middle-high latitude. West Pacific subtropical high is notably affected by preceding spring SSTA over the middle and east of Equator Pacific; SSTA of the central region of middle latitude in the corresponding period causes the summer rainfall anomaly over eastern China so as to trigger the atmospheric Eurasia-Pacific teleconnection pattern.

  7. Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature influences on failed consecutive rainy seasons over eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall over eastern Africa (10°S–10°N; 35°E–50°E) is bimodal, with seasonal maxima during the "long rains" of March–April–May (MAM) and the "short rains" of October–November–December (OND). Below average precipitation during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa can have devastating long-term impacts on water availability and agriculture. Here, we examine the forcing of drought during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa by Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The forcing of eastern Africa precipitation and circulation by SSTs is tested using ten ensemble simulations of a global weather forecast model forced by 1950–2010 observed global SSTs. Since the 1980s, Indo-Pacific SSTs have forced more frequent droughts spanning consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa. The increased frequency of dry conditions is linked to warming SSTs over the Indo-west Pacific and to a lesser degree to Pacific Decadal Variability. During MAM, long-term warming of tropical west Pacific SSTs from 1950–2010 has forced statistically significant precipitation reductions over eastern Africa. The warming west Pacific SSTs have forced changes in the regional lower tropospheric circulation by weakening the Somali Jet, which has reduced moisture and rainfall over the Horn of Africa. During OND, reductions in precipitation over recent decades are oftentimes overshadowed by strong year-to-year precipitation variability forced by the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation.

  8. Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature influences on failed consecutive rainy seasons over eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Rainfall over eastern Africa (10°S-10°N; 35°E-50°E) is bimodal, with seasonal maxima during the "long rains" of March-April-May (MAM) and the "short rains" of October-November-December (OND). Below average precipitation during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa can have devastating long-term impacts on water availability and agriculture. Here, we examine the forcing of drought during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa by Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The forcing of eastern Africa precipitation and circulation by SSTs is tested using ten ensemble simulations of a global weather forecast model forced by 1950-2010 observed global SSTs. Since the 1980s, Indo-Pacific SSTs have forced more frequent droughts spanning consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa. The increased frequency of dry conditions is linked to warming SSTs over the Indo-west Pacific and to a lesser degree to Pacific Decadal Variability. During MAM, long-term warming of tropical west Pacific SSTs from 1950-2010 has forced statistically significant precipitation reductions over eastern Africa. The warming west Pacific SSTs have forced changes in the regional lower tropospheric circulation by weakening the Somali Jet, which has reduced moisture and rainfall over the Horn of Africa. During OND, reductions in precipitation over recent decades are oftentimes overshadowed by strong year-to-year precipitation variability forced by the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

  9. Understanding the South Pacific Convergence Zone and Its Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Scott

    2011-02-01

    International Workshop on the South Pacific Convergence Zone; Apia, Samoa, 24-26 August 2010 ; During the Southern Hemisphere summer the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) in the southwestern Pacific Ocean produces the largest rainfall band in the world. The SPCZ tends to move northeast during southern winter and El Niño and move southwest during southern summer and La Niña. These changes in position have a profound influence on climate (e.g., rainfall, winds, and tropical cyclone frequencies) and life in most of the nations in the southwestern Pacific. Despite the importance of the SPCZ to the region and its prominence in the general circulation of the Southern Hemisphere, the SPCZ has been studied relatively little compared with convergence zones in the Northern Hemisphere. An international workshop on the SPCZ was held in Samoa and brought together 30 experts from Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, France, India, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Vanuatu.

  10. Iron-rich basal sediments from the eastern equatorial pacific: Leg 16, deep sea drilling project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronan, D.S.; Van Andel, T. H.; Ross, Heath G.; Dinkelman, M.G.; Bennett, R.H.; Bukry, D.; Charleston, S.; Kaneps, A.; Rodolfo, K.S.; Yeats, R.S.

    1972-01-01

    Iron-rich sediments chemically similar to those forming at present on the crest of the East Pacific Rise have been found just above basement at widely separated drill sites in the eastern equatorial Pacific, including three sites of Leg 16 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. These sediments were probably formed when the basement was at the crest of this rise and have moved to their present location as a result of sea-floor spreading.

  11. Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, F-F; Boucharel, J; Lin, I-I

    2014-12-04

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) creates strong variations in sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific, leading to major climatic and societal impacts. In particular, ENSO influences the yearly variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activities in both the Pacific and Atlantic basins through atmospheric dynamical factors such as vertical wind shear and stability. Until recently, however, the direct ocean thermal control of ENSO on TCs has not been taken into consideration because of an apparent mismatch in both timing and location: ENSO peaks in winter and its surface warming occurs mostly along the Equator, a region without TC activity. Here we show that El Niño--the warm phase of an ENSO cycle--effectively discharges heat into the eastern North Pacific basin two to three seasons after its wintertime peak, leading to intensified TCs. This basin is characterized by abundant TC activity and is the second most active TC region in the world. As a result of the time involved in ocean transport, El Niño's equatorial subsurface 'heat reservoir', built up in boreal winter, appears in the eastern North Pacific several months later during peak TC season (boreal summer and autumn). By means of this delayed ocean transport mechanism, ENSO provides an additional heat supply favourable for the formation of strong hurricanes. This thermal control on intense TC variability has significant implications for seasonal predictions and long-term projections of TC activity over the eastern North Pacific.

  12. Elevated Glyoxal Concentrations over the Eastern Equatorial Pacific: A Direct Biogenic Source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, Y.; Lerot, C.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric glyoxal (CHOCHO) was observed over the eastern equatorial Pacific by satellite and ship measurements. We investigated the source contributions through inverse modeling using GOME-2 observations (2007-2012) and the GEOS-Chem model. The observed high glyoxal to HCHO column ratio over the region indicates the potential presence of a direct source of glyoxal rather than secondary production. A bimodal seasonal cycle of glyoxal concentrations was found, providing further evidence for a biogenic origin of glyoxal emission. The estimate of the primary glyoxal emission over the eastern equatorial Pacific is 20-40Tg/yr, which is comparable to the previous estimate of the global continential glyoxal emission.

  13. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... on the petition (75 FR 68756). That Federal Register notice began NMFS' 15-day public comment period... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... petition to designate the Eastern North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as...

  14. Dynamic mechanism of interannual zonal displacements of the eastern edge of the western Pacific warm pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐庆华; 张启龙; 侯一筠

    2010-01-01

    The eastern edge of the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) in the upper layer (shallower than 50m) exhibits significant zonal displacements on interannual scale. Employing an intermediate ocean model, the dynamic mechanism for the interannual zonal displacement of the WPWP eastern edge in the upper layer is investigated by diagnosing the dynamic impacts of zonal current anomalies induced by wind, waves (Kelvin and Rossby waves), and their boundary reflections. The interannual zonal displacements of the WPWP e...

  15. Critically endangered western gray whales migrate to the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Bruce R; Ilyashenko, Valentin Yu; Bradford, Amanda L; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Tsidulko, Grigory A; Rozhnov, Vyacheslav V; Irvine, Ladd M

    2015-04-01

    Western North Pacific gray whales (WGWs), once considered extinct, are critically endangered with unknown migratory routes and reproductive areas. We attached satellite-monitored tags to seven WGWs on their primary feeding ground off Sakhalin Island, Russia, three of which subsequently migrated to regions occupied by non-endangered eastern gray whales (EGWs). A female with the longest-lasting tag visited all three major EGW reproductive areas off Baja California, Mexico, before returning to Sakhalin Island the following spring. Her 22 511 km round-trip is the longest documented mammal migration and strongly suggests that some presumed WGWs are actually EGWs foraging in areas historically attributed to WGWs. The observed migration routes provide evidence of navigational skills across open water that break the near-shore north-south migratory paradigm of EGWs. Despite evidence of genetic differentiation, these tagging data indicate that the population identity of whales off Sakhalin Island needs further evaluation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Late Eocene diatomite from the Peruvian coastal desert, coastal upwelling in the eastern Pacific, and Pacific circulation before the terminal Eocene event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, R.; Dunbar, R.; Martin, J.B.; Baker, P.

    1988-09-01

    Previously undocumented late Eocene diatomaceous sediments are present near Fundo Desbarrancado (FD) in southern Peru. These sediments are similar to Miocene diatomite from the same area but, unlike the Miocene diatomite, the FD sediments contain cherty layers, are enriched in CaCO/sub 3/, have a diverse and abundant radiolarian fauna, and possess varved-massive and millimeter- and meter-scale biogenic-terrigenous alternations. The FD sediments are part of an Eocene sequence that includes the clastic sediments of the Paracas Formation, and they are correlative to the Chira Formation of northern Peru. The Paleogene biogenic sediments of western South America show that coastal upwelling developed in the eastern Pacific before the latest Eocene, argue for the existence of a proto-Humboldt current at this time, and suggest that the terminal Eocene event was the culmination of gradual changes and not a catastrophic event at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary.

  17. Mortalities of eastern and pacific oyster larvae caused by the pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio cora...

  18. Particulate silica and Si recycling in the surface waters of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjou, Mohamed; Tréguer, Paul; Dumousseaud, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The distributions of biogenic and lithogenic silica concentrations and net silica production rates in the upper 120 m of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) were examined in December 2004, on two transects situated at 110°W (4°N to 3°S) and along the equator (110°W to 140°W). Lithogenic silica (...

  19. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Eastern Pacific region and Hawaii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastida-Zavala, J. Rolando; Hove, ten Harry A.

    2003-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the Hydroides species (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Eastern Pacific Ocean is presented. Twentyone taxa are described, of which two are widespread (H. diramphus Mörch, 1863 and H. elegans (Haswell, 1883)) and four are Amphiamerican (H. alatalateralis (Jones, 1962), H.

  20. Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S variations with El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, O.; Fukumori, I.; Lee, T.; Johnson, G. C.

    2004-01-01

    Temperature-Salinity (T-S) relationship variability in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5 degrees S ??degrees N, 150 degrees W ?? degrees W) over the last two decades is investigated using observational data and model simulation.

  1. El Niño and coral larval dispersal across the eastern Pacific marine barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S.; Baums, I. B.; Paris, C. B.; Ridgwell, A.; Kessler, W. S.; Hendy, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    More than 5,000 km separates the frequently disturbed coral reefs of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) from western sources of population replenishment. It has been hypothesized that El Niño events facilitate eastward dispersal across this East Pacific Barrier (EPB). Here we present a biophysical coral larval dispersal model driven by 14.5 years of high-resolution surface ocean current data including the extreme 1997-1998 El Niño. We find no eastward cross-EPB connections over this period, which implies that ETP coral populations decimated by the 1998 bleaching event can only have recovered from eastern Pacific sources, in congruence with genetic data. Instead, rare connections between eastern and central Pacific reefs are simulated in a westward direction. Significant complexity and variability in the surface flows transporting larvae mean that generalized upper-ocean circulation patterns are poor descriptors of inter-regional connectivity, complicating the assessment of how climate change will impact coral gene flow Pacific wide.

  2. A regional scale modeling analysis of aerosol and trace gas distributions over the eastern Pacific during the INTEX-B field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Adhikary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM is applied to the analysis of observations obtained during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B, conducted over the eastern Pacific Ocean during spring 2006. Predicted trace gas and aerosol distributions over the Pacific are presented and discussed in terms of transport and source region contributions. Trace species distributions show a strong west (high to east (low gradient, with the bulk of the pollutant transport over the central Pacific occurring between ~20° N and 50° N in the 2–6 km altitude range. These distributions are evaluated in the eastern Pacific by comparison with the NASA DC-8 and NSF/NCAR C-130 airborne measurements along with observations from the Mt. Bachelor (MBO surface site. Thirty different meteorological, trace gas and aerosol parameters are compared. In general the meteorological fields are better predicted than gas phase species, which in turn are better predicted than aerosol quantities. PAN is found to be significantly overpredicted over the eastern Pacific, which is attributed to uncertainties in the chemical reaction mechanisms used in current atmospheric chemistry models in general and to the specifically high PAN production in the SAPRC-99 mechanism used in the regional model. A systematic underprediction of the elevated sulfate layer in the eastern Pacific observed by the C-130 is another issue that is identified and discussed. Results from source region tagged CO simulations are used to estimate how the different source regions around the Pacific contribute to the trace gas species distributions. During this period the largest contributions were from China and from fires in South/Southeast and North Asia. For the C-130 flights, which operated off the coast of the Northwest US, the regional CO contributions range as follows: China (35%, South/Southeast Asia fires (35%, North America anthropogenic (20%, and North Asia fires (10

  3. Why the South Pacific Convergence Zone is diagonal

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wiel, Karin; Matthews, Adrian J.; Joshi, Manoj M.; Stevens, David P.

    2016-03-01

    During austral summer, the majority of precipitation over the Pacific Ocean is concentrated in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The surface boundary conditions required to support the diagonally (northwest-southeast) oriented SPCZ are determined through a series of experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model. Continental configuration and orography do not have a significant influence on SPCZ orientation and strength. The key necessary boundary condition is the zonally asymmetric component of the sea surface temperature (SST) distribution. This leads to a strong subtropical anticyclone over the southeast Pacific that, on its western flank, transports warm moist air from the equator into the SPCZ region. This moisture then intensifies (diagonal) bands of convection that are initiated by regions of ascent and reduced static stability ahead of the cyclonic vorticity in Rossby waves that are refracted toward the westerly duct over the equatorial Pacific. The climatological SPCZ is comprised of the superposition of these diagonal bands of convection. When the zonally asymmetric SST component is reduced or removed, the subtropical anticyclone and its associated moisture source is weakened. Despite the presence of Rossby waves, significant moist convection is no longer triggered; the SPCZ disappears. The diagonal SPCZ is robust to large changes (up to ±6 °C) in absolute SST (i.e. where the SST asymmetry is preserved). Extreme cooling (change <-6 °C) results in a weaker and more zonal SPCZ, due to decreasing atmospheric temperature, moisture content and convective available potential energy.

  4. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  5. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  6. The South Eastern Europe Higher Education Area: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Lacrama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Through history, South Eastern Europe has been a difficult and highly heterogeneous area of the continent. Nevertheless, recent developments have proved that a better future is possible. An important component of this genuine healing process is establishing connections and partnerships among universities inside the region. The present paper advocates the use of modern educational technology in order to implement common scientific and educational programs in this area.

  7. Mortalities of Eastern and Pacific oyster Larvae caused by the pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A; Needleman, David S; Church, Karlee M; Häse, Claudia C

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a well-known coral pathogen, has recently been shown to elicit mortality in fish and shellfish. Several strains of V. coralliilyticus, such as ATCC 19105 and Pacific isolates RE22 and RE98, were misidentified as V. tubiashii until recently. We compared the mortalities caused by two V. tubiashii and four V. coralliilyticus strains in Eastern and Pacific oyster larvae. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of V. coralliilyticus in Eastern oysters (defined here as the dose required to kill 50% of the population in 6 days) ranged from 1.1 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml seawater; strains RE98 and RE22 were the most virulent. This study shows that V. coralliilyticus causes mortality in Eastern oyster larvae. Results for Pacific oysters were similar, with LD50s between 1.2 × 10(4) and 4.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml. Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19106 and ATCC 19109 were highly infectious toward Eastern oyster larvae but were essentially nonpathogenic toward healthy Pacific oyster larvae at dosages of ≥1.1 × 10(4) CFU/ml. These data, coupled with the fact that several isolates originally thought to be V. tubiashii are actually V. coralliilyticus, suggest that V. coralliilyticus has been a more significant pathogen for larval bivalve shellfish than V. tubiashii, particularly on the U.S. West Coast, contributing to substantial hatchery-associated morbidity and mortality in recent years.

  8. Vertical structure variability and equatorial waves during central Pacific and eastern Pacific El Ninos in a coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitte, B.; Thual, S. [LEGOS/IRD, Toulouse (France); Choi, J.; An, S.I. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Recent studies report that two types of El Nino events have been observed. One is the cold tongue El Nino or Eastern Pacific El Nino (EP El Nino), which is characterized by relatively large sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern Pacific, and the other is the warm pool El Nino (a.k.a. 'Central Pacific El Nino' (CP El Nino) or 'El Nino Modoki'), in which SST anomalies are confined to the central Pacific. Here the vertical structure variability of the periods during EP and CP is investigated based on the GFDL{sub C}M2.1 model in order to explain the difference in equatorial wave dynamics and associated negative feedback mechanisms. It is shown that the mean stratification in the vicinity of the thermocline of the central Pacific is reduced during CP El Nino, which favours the contribution of the gravest baroclinic mode relatively to the higher-order slower baroclinic mode. Energetic Kelvin and first-meridional Rossby wave are evidenced during the CP El Nino with distinctive amplitude and propagating characteristics according to their vertical structure (mostly first and second baroclinic modes). In particular, the first baroclinic mode during CP El Nino is associated to the ocean basin mode and participates to the recharge process during the whole El Nino cycle, whereas the second baroclinic mode is mostly driving the discharge process through the delayed oscillator mechanism. This may explain that the phase transition from warm to neutral/cold conditions during the CP El Nino is delayed and/or disrupted compared to the EP El Nino. Our results have implications for the interpretation of the variability during periods of high CP El Nino occurrence like the last decade. (orig.)

  9. Epipelagic copepod distributions in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the weak La Niña event of 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha Tutasi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined the distribution and abundance of pelagic copepods in the eastern equatorial Pacific between the coast of Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands under oceanographic conditions associated with the weak La Niña event of 2001. In September-October 2001, negative anomalies of sea surface temperature from this event still remained in the eastern equatorial Pacific, mainly between Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands. The event allowed the incursion of the Humboldt Current farther north and of the Equatorial Undercurrent into the study area, favouring a strong Equatorial Front and upwelling processes. There was evidence of mesoscale eddies in the study area and of the presence of the South Equatorial Current going westward at about 1°N. We identified 107 copepod species and analyzed the distribution of the 10 most abundant ones: Oncaea venusta, Subeucalanus pileatus, S. crassus, S. subtenuis, Paraeucalanus attenuatus, Pleuromamma borealis, Scolecithrix danae, Clausocalanus farrani, Temora discaudata and Calanus chilensis. Copepod distribution and abundance exhibited marked latitudinal differences related to the oceanographic conditions; abundance was highest to the southeast of the Galapagos Islands. Oncaea venusta, Pleuromamma borealis, Calanus chilensis, and Subeucalanus subtenuis were the species that best defined the Equatorial Front and the upwelling process.

  10. Pleistocene dynamics of the Pacific South Equatorial Countercurrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuernberg, D.; Raddatz, J.; Rippert, N.; Tiedemann, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) with extremely high sea-surface-temperatures (SST) is a key area for global climate. It also acts as a crossroad for mode and intermediate water masses such as the South Equatorial Countercurrent (SECC) transporting water masses originating from higher latitudes. The SECC flows above the main thermocline and strongly interacts with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). To constrain changes in sea-surface and subsurface water mass dynamics affecting thermocline depth, we reconstruct SST, subSST and salinity conditions using combined δ18O and Mg/Ca signals of surface (Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer) and subsurface dwelling (Globorotalia tumida) planktonic foraminifera. Our study is based on RV SONNE SO-225 piston cores retrieved from Manihiki plateau, which is located at the southeastern margin of the WPWP (between ~ 5°S-15°S and 170-160°W). The proxy records cover the last ~ 3 Myr SSTMg/Ca remained nearly constant throughout the entire Pleistocene varying between ~30 to 32 (°C), while the subSSTMg/Ca reconstructions reveal pronounced variations from ~10 to 16 (°C). Our results imply that the WPWP thermocline depth has undergone significant vertical movements throughout the Pleistocene. Notably, thermocline depth is continuously decreasing from the early to the late Pleistocene, and coincides with the change from the 41 kyr to a dominant 100 kyr climate periodicity between 1 and 1.7 Ma. We hypothesize that the repeated change in thermocline depth is due to either 1) changes in mode or intermediate water masses advection from Southern Ocean sources via "ocean tunneling", 2) changes in the tropical Pacific wind regime, and/or 3) changes in the Western Pacific Monsoon sytem.

  11. Northern fulmars as biological monitors of trends of plastic pollution in the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; O'Hara, Patrick D; Kleine, Lydia; Bowes, Victoria; Wilson, Laurie K; Barry, Karen L

    2012-09-01

    Marine plastic debris is a global issue, which highlights the need for internationally standardized methods of monitoring plastic pollution. The stomach contents of beached northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) have proven a cost-effective biomonitor in Europe. However, recent information on northern fulmar plastic ingestion is lacking in the North Pacific. We quantified the stomach contents of 67 fulmars from beaches in the eastern North Pacific in 2009-2010 and found that 92.5% of fulmars had ingested an average of 36.8 pieces, or 0.385 g of plastic. Plastic ingestion in these fulmars is among the highest recorded globally. Compared to earlier studies in the North Pacific, our findings indicate an increase in plastic ingestion over the past 40 years. This study substantiates the use of northern fulmar as biomonitors of plastic pollution in the North Pacific and suggests that the high levels of plastic pollution in this region warrant further monitoring.

  12. Seasonal prediction of the South Pacific Convergence Zone in the austral wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, A. N.; Brown, J. R.; Cottrill, A.; Shelton, K. L.; Nakaegawa, T.; Kuleshov, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The position and orientation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), modulated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), determine many of the potentially predictable interannual variations in rainfall in the South Pacific region. In this study, the predictability of the SPCZ in austral summer is assessed using two coupled (ocean-atmosphere) global circulation model (CGCM)-based seasonal prediction systems: the Japan Meteorological Agency's Meteorological Research Institute Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (JMA/MRI-CGCM) and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA-M24). Forecasts of austral summer rainfall, initialized in November are assessed over the period 1980-2010. The climatology of CGCM precipitation in the SPCZ region compares favorably to rainfall analyses over subsets of years characterizing different phases of ENSO. While the CGCMs display biases in the mean SPCZ latitudes, they reproduce interannual variability in austral summer SPCZ position indices for forecasts out to 4 months, with temporal correlations greater than 0.6. The summer latitude of the western branch of the SPCZ is predictable with correlations of the order of 0.6 for forecasts initialized as early as September, while the correlation for the eastern branch only exceeds 0.6 for forecasts initialized in November. Encouragingly, the models are able to simulate the large displacement of the SPCZ during zonal SPCZ years 1982-1983, 1991-1992, and 1997-1998.

  13. A structural outline of the Yenkahe volcanic resurgent dome (Tanna Island, Vanuatu Arc, South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, O.; Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Bachèlery, P.; Garaébiti, E.

    2013-12-01

    A structural study has been conducted on the resurgent Yenkahe dome (5 km long by 3 km wide) located in the heart of the Siwi caldera of Tanna Island (Vanuatu arc, south Pacific). This spectacular resurgent dome hosts a small caldera and a very active strombolian cinder cone - the Yasur volcano - in the west and exhibits an intriguing graben in its central part. Detailed mapping and structural observations make it possible to unravel the volcano-tectonic history of the dome. It is shown that, following the early formation of a resurgent dome in the west, a complex collapse (caldera plus graben) occurred and this was associated with the recent uplift of the eastern part of the present dome. Eastward migration of the underlying magma related to regional tectonics is proposed to explain this evolution.

  14. Evaluation of the eastern equatorial Pacific SST seasonal cycle in CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The annual cycle of sea surface temperature (SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP with the largest amplitude in the tropical oceans is poorly represented in the coupled general circulation models (CGCMs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3. In this study, 18 models from CMIP5 projects are evaluated in simulating the annual cycle in the EEP. Fourteen models are able to simulate the annual cycle, and four still show erroneous information in the simulation, which suggests that the performances of CGCMs have been improved. The results of multi-model ensemble (MME mean show that CMIP5 CGCMs can capture the annual cycle signal in the EEP with correlation coefficients up to 0.9. For amplitude simulations, EEP region 1 (EP1 near the eastern coast shows weaker results than observations due to the large warm SST bias from the southeastern tropical Pacific in the boreal autumn. In EEP region 2 (EP2 near the central equatorial Pacific, the simulated amplitudes are nearly the same as the observations because of the presence of a quasi-constant cold bias associated with poor cold tongue climatology simulation in the CGCMs. To improve CGCMs in the simulation of a realistic SST seasonal cycle, local and remote climatology SST biases that exist in both CMIP3 and CMIP5 CGCMs must be resolved at least for the simulation in the central equatorial Pacific and the southeastern tropical Pacific.

  15. Modes of hurricane activity variability in the eastern Pacific: Implications for the 2016 season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucharel, Julien; Jin, Fei-Fei; England, Matthew H.; Lin, I. I.

    2016-11-01

    A gridded product of accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) in the eastern Pacific is constructed to assess the dominant mode of tropical cyclone (TC) activity variability. Results of an empirical orthogonal function decomposition and regression analysis of environmental variables indicate that the two dominant modes of ACE variability (40% of the total variance) are related to different flavors of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The first mode, more active during the later part of the hurricane season (September-November), is linked to the eastern Pacific El Niño through the delayed oceanic control associated with the recharge-discharge mechanism. The second mode, dominant in the early months of the hurricane season, is related to the central Pacific El Niño mode and the associated changes in atmospheric variability. A multilinear regression forecast model of the dominant principal components of ACE variability is then constructed. The wintertime subsurface state of the eastern equatorial Pacific (characterizing ENSO heat discharge), the east-west tilt of the thermocline (describing ENSO phase transition), the anomalous ocean surface conditions in the TC region in spring (portraying atmospheric changes induced by persistence of local surface anomalies), and the intraseasonal atmospheric variability in the western Pacific are found to be good predictors of TC activity. Results complement NOAA's official forecast by providing additional spatial and temporal information. They indicate a more active 2016 season ( 2 times the ACE mean) with a spatial expansion into the central Pacific associated with the heat discharge from the 2015/2016 El Niño.

  16. Invasive range expansion by the Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, in the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidberg, Louis D; Robison, Bruce H

    2007-07-31

    A unique 16-year time series of deep video surveys in Monterey Bay reveals that the Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, has substantially expanded its perennial geographic range in the eastern North Pacific by invading the waters off central California. This sustained range expansion coincides with changes in climate-linked oceanographic conditions and a reduction in competing top predators. It is also coincident with a decline in the abundance of Pacific hake, the most important commercial groundfish species off western North America. Recognizing the interactive effects of multiple changes in the environment is an issue of growing concern in ocean conservation and sustainability research.

  17. Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Ryo; Mizumoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Yohei; Nah, Kyeongah

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from the SNP-1 in the Coastal South Pacific and South Pacific in 1976 (NODC Accession 0001483)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts from the SNP-1 in the South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 24...

  19. Gymnothorax phalarus, a new eastern Pacific moray eel (Pisces: Muraenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Bussing

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Gymnothorax phalarus is described from 23 individuals taken in trawl and dredge collections made on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The new species is nearly always syntopic with a similar species, Gymnothorax equatorialis. The new moray is distinguished by its white-spotted pattern, uniserial, slightly serrated teeth in adults, four infraorbital pores and mean vertebral formula of 6-58-140. Of the total of 21 valid species of morays recorded from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, only the new species and G. equatorialis form part of the trawl fishery as the remainder are almost entirely restricted to nearshore rocky habitats. The known range of G. phalarus is from Baja California to Peru.Gymnothorax phalarus se describe con base en 23 individuos de colecciones hechas por redes de arrastre y dragas en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica. La especie nueva es casi siempre sintópica con la especie similar, Gymnothorax equatorialis. La nueva morena se distingue por su patrón de puntos blancos, dientes ligeramente aserrados y uniseriales en adultos, cuatro poros infraorbitales y MVF (Fórmula de Vértebras de 6-58-140. México a Perú.

  20. Cross equator transport of 137Cs from North Pacific Ocean to South Pacific Ocean ( BEAGLE2003 cruises)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, M.; Fukasawa, M.; Hirose, K.; Hamajima, Y.; Kawano, T.; Povinec, P. P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I and some transuranics are important tracers of transport and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. 137Cs, with a half-life of 30 years, a major fission product present in a dissolved form in seawater, is a good tracer of oceanic circulation at a time scale of several decades. At WOCE P6 line along 30°S during the BEAGLE cruise in 2003, surface seawater (around 80 L) was collected a few meters below the ocean surface by a pumping system. Water column samples (from 5 to 20 L) were collected using a Rosette multisampling system and Niskin bottles. 137Cs was separated from seawater samples using ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) and analysed for 137Cs in low-level HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers. Results allowed to draw a detailed picture of the distribution of 137Cs in the South Pacific Ocean along P6 line. A 137Cs depth section was depicted from about 160 samples. 137Cs concentrations in the subsurface layers ranged from 0.07 ± 0.04 Bq m -3 to 1.85 ± 0.145 Bq m -3, high in the Tasman Sea and very low in the eastern region where upwelling occurs. Water column inventories of 137Cs from surface to 1000 dbar depth ranged from 270 ± 104 to 1048 ± 127 Bq m -2. It was concluded that the source of higher 137Cs concentration and inventories in the Tasman Sea was 137Cs deposited in the mid latitude of the North Pacific Ocean and transported across the equator during four decades.

  1. Paleoceanography and the diachrony of radiolarian events in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. C.; Skackleton, N. J.; Pisias, N. G.

    1993-10-01

    The development of an orbitally tuned time scale for the ODP leg 138 sites provides biostratigraphers a very high resolution chronostratigraphic framework. With this framework we are better able to define which of the first and last appearances of species appear to be synchronous. In addition, the geographic distribution of sites provides the means with which the detailed spatial patterns of invasion of new species and the extinction of older species can be mapped. These maps not only provide information on the process of evolution, migration, and extinction, they can also be related to water mass distributions and near-surface circulation of the ocean. Of 39 radiolarian events studied at 11 sites in the eastern equatorial Pacific, 28 were found to have a minimum range in their estimated age that exceeded 0.15 m.y. The temporal pattern of first and last appearances of these diachronous events have coherent spatial patterns that indicate shifts in the areas of high oceanographic gradients over the past 10 Ma. These changes in the locations of high gradient regions suggest that the South Equatorial Current (SEC) was north of its present position prior to approximately 7 Ma. There was a southward shift in the northern boundary of this current between approximately 6 and 7 Ma, and the development of a relatively strong gradient between the northeastern and northwestern sites. Between approximately 3.7 and 3.4 Ma, there was a very slight northward shift in the northern boundary of the SEC and the steep gradients between the northeastern and northwestern sites may have disappeared. This change is thought to be associated with the closing of the Isthmus of Panama. The temporal-spatial patterns of diachronous events younger than 3.4 Ma are consistent with patterns of circulation in the modern ocean.

  2. Tropical Cyclone Exposure for U.S. waters within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin, 1900-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent modeled, historical exposure of U.S. offshore and coastal waters to tropical cyclone activity within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin. BOEM Outer...

  3. CTD and Water Chemistry data of the Eastern Pacific Redox Experiment of May - June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000833)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Eastern Pacific Redox Experiment (EPREX) took place 24 May to 28 June 2000 on the R/V Roger Revelle. The first station was at the Hawaii Ocean Time Series...

  4. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Notes on the Reproductive Biology of Female Salmon Sharks in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Little information has previously been published on the reproductive biology of the salmon shark in the Eastern North Pacific ocean. This data set incorporates basic...

  5. AFSC/NMML: Shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale stock from central California, 1967 - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 26 years from...

  6. The feeding habits of slope dwelling macrourid fishes in the eastern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Buckley, Troy W.; Hoff, Gerald R.

    2001-03-01

    The diet of slope dwelling macrourid fishes in the eastern North Pacific is poorly known. We collected several hundred stomach samples to investigate the feeding habits of Coryphaenoides acrolepis and Albatrossia pectoralis, the two dominant slope dwelling macrourids off the continental United States. Coryphaenoides acrolepis exhibited a pronounced ontogenetic shift in diet. Specimens 15 cm with scavenged food constituting approximately 20% of the weight of total prey and occurring in approximately 20% of fish 21-29 cm. Albatrossia pectoralis consumed primarily midwater fish and squid, and we believe that it feeds in the water column. There were significant differences between the diets of A. pectoralis and C. acrolepis suggesting some degree of niche separation between macrourid species on the continental slope of the eastern North Pacific. Both species are at the top of the food web on the upper continental slope and, because of their abundance, may exert significant pressures on their prey populations.

  7. Extreme negative coexceedances in South Eastern European stock markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE) stock markets. We use a multinomial logistic regression to analyze how persistence, asset class and volatility effects are related with negative coexceedances in SEE markets. We find evidence in favor...... of the continuation hypothesis in SEE stock markets. However, the factors associated with the coexceedances differ between the EU member countries from SEE and EU accession countries from SEE stock markets.The EU member countries are more dependent from the signals from major EU economies, while the accession...... countries are mainly influenced by the signals from the region....

  8. Status of the eastern Pacific agujon needlefish Tylosurus pacificusz (Steindachner, 1876) (Beloniformes: Belonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Collette, Bruce B.; Branford, Heidi M.

    2016-01-01

    Tylosurus pacificus (Steindachner, 1876) is confirmed to have full species rank based on: 1) sympatry with T. acus melanotus at Isla Gorgona and in Panamá; 2) level of morphological differentiation in numbers of vertebrae, dorsal and anal fin rays; and 3) level of mtDNAdifferentiation. The eastern Pacific agujon needlefish is found from the Gulf of California, Mexico, to Peru, including the Galápagos Islands. Se confirma que Tylosurus pacificus (Steindachner, 1876) tiene el rango de especi...

  9. The lynx in the Italian South-Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Molinari

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1986 to May 1995 I collected records of signs of lynx presence in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. A series of regularly checked trail transects, explorative excursions, and the collection of second-hand observations led to a total of 150 records. They confirm lynx presence and allow an assessment of the situation. The first lynx are believed to have immigrated to the northern part of the study area from Austria. An increase and the distribution in the signs of presence show a south-westerly expansion. The trend in the Julian Alps and Pre-Alps is also increasing. Some interpretations of the status of this new population are made. The study area is in the far south-eastern Alps. This area is important as a corridor between the Alps and the Balkans, where a reintroduced lynx population exists which would be able to support the Alpine lynx population through dispersing lynx.

  10. Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole C Monnahan

    Full Text Available Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus were exploited extensively around the world and remain endangered. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP population. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches. We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP. The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114 from 1905-1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42% of all catches in the North Pacific. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180. The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. The results of this study provide information for future studies investigating the recovery of these populations and the impact of continuing and future sources of anthropogenic

  11. Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnahan, Cole C; Branch, Trevor A; Stafford, Kathleen M; Ivashchenko, Yulia V; Oleson, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were exploited extensively around the world and remain endangered. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP) population. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches. We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP). The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114) from 1905-1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42%) of all catches in the North Pacific. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180). The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. The results of this study provide information for future studies investigating the recovery of these populations and the impact of continuing and future sources of anthropogenic mortality.

  12. Contrasting the eastern Pacific El Niño and the central Pacific El Niño: process-based feedback attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoming; Yang, Song; Cai, Ming

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the roles of radiative and non-radiative air-sea coupled thermodynamic processes in modifying sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies driven by (air-sea coupled) oceanic dynamic processes, focusing on their contributions to the key differences between the eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño and the central Pacific (CP) El Niño. The attribution is achieved by decomposing SST anomalies into partial temperature anomalies due to individual processes using a coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method. Oceanic processes induce warming from the central to the eastern equatorial Pacific and cooling over the western basin with a maximum warming center in the central Pacific for both types of El Niño. The processes that act to oppose the oceanic process-induced SST anomalies are surface latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, cloud, and atmospheric dynamic feedbacks, referred to as negative-feedback processes. The cooling due to each of the four negative-feedback processes is the strongest in the region where the initial warming due to oceanic processes is the largest. Water-vapor feedback is the sole process that acts to enhance the initial warming induced by oceanic processes. The increase in atmospheric water vapor over the eastern Pacific is much stronger for the EP El Niño than for the CP El Niño. It is the strong water-vapor feedback over the eastern Pacific and the strong negative feedbacks over the central equatorial Pacific that help to relocate the maximum warming center from the central Pacific to the eastern basin for the EP El Niño.

  13. Interannual sea level variability in the Eastern Indian Ocean and Southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S. S.; Vethamony, P.

    2016-12-01

    Sea level anomalies (SLAs) derived from satellite observations (over a period of 21 years) and tide gauge data compiled from 24 stations from the Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) and southern South China Sea (SCS) have been analysed to study the inter-annual variability of SLAs in the EIO and southern SCS. To examine the seasonality in interannual variability, 3 months to 7 years band pass filtered non-seasonal SLAs were considered. A large fraction of interannual SLA variability in the south eastern SCS is linked to ENSO and rest of the region is characterized by small scale interannual variations. Analysis of both tide gauge and altimetry data confirms that interannual sea level anomalies in the SCS shows seasonality with pronounced variation occurring during winter and fall seasons. Both tide gauge and altimetry data show that 40% of interannual SLAs at Malacca Strait and southeastern SCS and 50% at Java Sea could be explained by both ENSO and IOD. Malacca Strait and Java Sea SLAs at interannual scale show coherent variability with that of eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Regional correlation pattern and Wavelet power spectrum of SLAs at Java Sea shows similar dominant periodicities as in the Malacca Strait. Strong oscillations associated with climate modes are centered at 2-5 year period. Interannual SLAs at southeastern SCS show the importance of western Pacific on sea level modulation through the Luzon and Mindoro Straits. Wind variations largely explain the interannual SLA variation in the EIO and southern SCS. Interannual zonal wind variations in the equatorial Indian Ocean induce SLA variations in the Malacca Strait and Java Sea. Remote and local winds that drive interannual variability of SLAs in the EIO and southeastern SCS are associated with both ENSO and IOD events.

  14. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  15. Radiolytic Hydrogen Production in the South Pacific Subseafloor Basaltic Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzaugis, M. E.; Spivack, A. J.; Dunlea, A. G.; Murray, R. W.; D'Hondt, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is produced in geological settings by dissociation of water due to radiation from natural radioactive decay of uranium (238U, 235U), thorium (232Th) and potassium (40K). To quantify the potential significance of radiolytic H2 as an electron donor for microbes within the South Pacific subseafloor basaltic aquifer, we calculate radiolytic H2 production rates in basement fractures utilizing measured radionuclide concentrations in 42 basalt samples from IODP Expedition 329. The samples are from three sites with very different basement ages and a wide range of alteration types. Major and trace element concentrations vary by up to an order of magnitude from sample to sample. Comparison of our samples to each other and to previous studies of fresh East Pacific Rise basalt suggests that between-sample variation in radionuclide concentrations is primarily due to differences in initial (pre-alteration) concentrations (which can vary between eruptive events), rather than to alteration type or extent. Local maxima in radionuclide (U, Th, and K) concentrations produce 'hotspots' of radiolytic H2 production; calculated radiolytic rates differ by up to a factor of 80 from sample to sample. Fracture width also greatly influences H2 production. Due to the low penetration distance of alpha radiation, microfractures are 'hotpots' for radiolytic H2 production. For example, radiolytic H2 production rates normalized to water volume are 170 times higher in 1μm-wide fractures than in 10cm-wide fractures.

  16. The South Pacific Subtropical Mode Water in the Tasman Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Haibo; LIU Qinyu; LIN Xiaopei; LIU Wei

    2007-01-01

    From the synopical CTD sections in the WOCE PR11 repeated cruises, the South Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (SPSTMW) has been identified in the region of the Tasman Front Extension (TFE) around 29S to the east of Australia. In the depth range of 150-250 m, the SPSTMW appears as a thermostad with vertical temperature gradient lower than 1.6 ℃ (100 m)-1 and a tem perature range of 16.5-19.5 ℃ and as a pycnostad with PV lower than 2 × 10-10 m-1 s-1 and a potential density range of 25.4-26.0 kg m-3. Like the subtropical mode waters in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, the formation of the SPSTMW is associated with the convective mixing during the austral wintertime as manifested from the time series of the Argo floats. And cold water entrains into the mixed layer with the deepening mixed layer from September to the middle of October. During the wintertime formation process, mesoscale eddies prevailing in the TFE region play an important role in the SPSTMW formation, and have a great effect on the SPSTMW distribution in the next year. The deeper (shallower) mixed layer in wintertime, consistent with the depressed (uplifted) permanent thermocline, is formed by the anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies, and the substantial mode water thicker than 50m is mainly found in the region of the anticyclonic eddies where the permanent thermocline is deeper than 450 m.

  17. 78 FR 23634 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 18, 2012, Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway Company (EJ&E) \\1\\ has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union...

  18. Marine biodiversity of an Eastern Tropical Pacific oceanic island, Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco (also known as Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific; it is part of the largest national park of Costa Rica and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The island has been visited since the 16th Century due to its abundance of freshwater and wood. Marine biodiversity studies of the island started in the late 19th Century, with an intense period of research in the 1930’s, and again from the mid 1990’s to the present. The information is scattered and, in some cases, in old publications that are difficult to access. Here I have compiled published records of the marine organisms of the island. At least 1688 species are recorded, with the gastropods (383 species, bony fishes (354 spp. and crustaceans (at least 263 spp. being the most species-rich groups; 45 species are endemic to Isla del Coco National Park (2.7% of the total. The number of species per kilometer of coastline and by square kilometer of seabed shallower than 200m deep are the highest recorded in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Although the marine biodiversity of Isla del Coco is relatively well known, there are regions that need more exploration, for example, the south side, the pelagic environments, and deeper waters. Also, several groups of organisms, such as the flatworms, nematodes, nemerteans, and gelatinous zooplankton, have been observed around the Island but have been poorly studied or not at all.La Isla del Coco es una isla oceánica en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; es parte del Parque Nacional más grande de Costa Rica y es un sitio de Patrimonio Mundial. La isla ha sido visitada desde el Siglo XVI por su abundancia de agua dulce y árboles. Estudios de biodiversidad marina de la isla empezaron a finales del Siglo XIX, con un intenso período de investigación en la década de 1930, y de nuevo desde mediados de la década de 1990 al presente. La información sobre organismos marinos se encuentra dispersa y en algunos casos en publicaciones

  19. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Hugh J; De Roy, Emma M; Leung, Brian; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  20. Phylogenetic Characterization of Marine Benthic Archaea in Organic-Poor Sediments of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean (ODP Site 1225).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Antje; Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Teske, Andreas

    2016-09-06

    Sequencing surveys of microbial communities in marine subsurface sediments have focused on organic-rich, continental margins; the database for organic-lean deep-sea sediments from mid-ocean regions is underdeveloped. The archaeal community in subsurface sediments of ODP Site 1225 in the eastern equatorial Pacific (3760 m water depth; 1.1 and 7.8 m sediment depth) was analyzed by PCR, cloning and sequencing, and by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes. Three uncultured archaeal lineages with different depth distributions were found: Marine Group I (MG-I) within the Thaumarchaeota, its sister lineage Marine Benthic Group A (MBG-A), the phylum-level archaeal lineage Marine Benthic Group B (also known as Deep-Sea Archaeal Group or Lokiarchaeota), and the Deep-Sea Euryarchaeotal Group 3. The MG-I phylotypes included representatives of sediment clusters that are distinct from the pelagic members of this phylum. On the scale from fully oxidized, extremely organic carbon-depleted sediments (for example, those the South Pacific Gyre) to fully reduced, organic carbon-rich marine subsurface sediments (such as those of the Peru Margin), Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1225 falls into the non-extreme organic carbon-lean category, and harbors archaeal communities from both ends of the spectrum.

  1. Convection and Easterly Waves Observed in the Eastern Pacific ITCZ During EPIC2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System (EPIC2001) intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ-cold tongue complex over the Mexican warm-pool region (10 deg. N 95 deg. W) of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Major observational platforms deployed during this phase of EPIC2001 included two ships, the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown and the NSF R/V Horizon, and two research aircraft including a NOAA P-3 and the NCAR C-130. This study utilizes new C-band Doppler radar and sounding observations collected aboard the R/V Ronald Brown to describe the 4-D structure of ITCZ convection as a function of the environmental forcing and phase of 3-5 day easterly wave passages. Three distinct easterly wave passages occurred during EPIC2001. Each wave originated in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and after moving over Central America and into the eastern Pacific, were easily identified in time-height profiles of wind and thermodynamic data collected at the position of the R/V Brown. In all cases, the wave trough axes (as defined by changes in the meridional and zonal wind direction and changes in pressure altitude) exhibited relatively weak shear at low to mid-levels and tilted westward with height. The humidity profile in each wave did not exhibit as great a tilt in the vertical as the trough axes. Consistent with previous studies of westward tilting waves over the western Pacific Ocean, peaks in radar diagnosed rainfall tended to lead the passage of the surface wave trough by 0-2 days.

  2. Convection and Easterly Waves Observed in the Eastern Pacific ITCZ During EPIC2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System (EPIC2001) intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ-cold tongue complex over the Mexican warm-pool region (10 deg. N 95 deg. W) of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Major observational platforms deployed during this phase of EPIC2001 included two ships, the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown and the NSF R/V Horizon, and two research aircraft including a NOAA P-3 and the NCAR C-130. This study utilizes new C-band Doppler radar and sounding observations collected aboard the R/V Ronald Brown to describe the 4-D structure of ITCZ convection as a function of the environmental forcing and phase of 3-5 day easterly wave passages. Three distinct easterly wave passages occurred during EPIC2001. Each wave originated in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and after moving over Central America and into the eastern Pacific, were easily identified in time-height profiles of wind and thermodynamic data collected at the position of the R/V Brown. In all cases, the wave trough axes (as defined by changes in the meridional and zonal wind direction and changes in pressure altitude) exhibited relatively weak shear at low to mid-levels and tilted westward with height. The humidity profile in each wave did not exhibit as great a tilt in the vertical as the trough axes. Consistent with previous studies of westward tilting waves over the western Pacific Ocean, peaks in radar diagnosed rainfall tended to lead the passage of the surface wave trough by 0-2 days.

  3. ENSO signals on sea-surface salinity in the eastern tropical pacific ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    types collected in the tropical Pacific are analyzed to assess the regional impacts of past (1972-1996 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO events. Focus is made on the regional changes in sea-surface temperature and salinity. Commercial vessels were recently equipped with automated thermosalinographs which allows to monitor the location of salinity front along the Panama-Tahiti line, separating the Panama Gulf from the South Pacific water masses. The latitudinal change of the salinity front is well correlated with the latitudinal change of the ITCZ. Salinity distribution gives additional information on El-Niño development. How future real time SSS data might provide interesting information on the development of ENSO phenomenon in the eastern tropical Pacific area will be discussed.

  4. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  5. On the formation of the South Pacific quadrupole mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Wang, Faming

    2016-08-01

    The formation process of the South Pacific (SP) quadrupole (SPQ) mode was investigated in this study based on observations and reanalysis data. The SPQ is the dominant mode of the sea surface temperature (SST)-surface wind covariability in the SP after removing the ENSO-related signals. The positive phase of the SPQ is characterized by a warm SST anomaly (SSTA) west of the South American coast, a cool SSTA in its southwest, a positive SSTA southeast of New Zealand, and a negative SSTA off the southeast coast of Australia, overlain by cyclonic wind anomalies. The anomalous cyclonic winds weaken the mean southeast trade winds in the southeast SP and the westerlies in the high latitudes of the SP, increasing the SSTAs at the two positive poles through decreased evaporation and latent heat flux (LHF) loss. The southeast wind anomalies advect dry and cold air to the negative pole in the central SP, which reduces the SSTA there by increasing the LHF loss. Off the southeast coast of Australia, the southwest wind anomalies induce equatorward Ekman currents and advect cold water. The resulting oceanic horizontal advection is the main contributor to the negative SSTAs there. In addition to the above processes, cloud cover change can enhance the initial SSTAs in the southeast SP by affecting shortwave radiation. The decay of the SPQ is mainly due to LHF changes.

  6. Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, Joseph A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; German, Christopher R.; Jenkins, William J.; Moffett, James W.; Sohst, Bettina M.; Tagliabue, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Hydrothermal venting along mid-ocean ridges exerts an important control on the chemical composition of sea water by serving as a major source or sink for a number of trace elements in the ocean. Of these, iron has received considerable attention because of its role as an essential and often limiting nutrient for primary production in regions of the ocean that are of critical importance for the global carbon cycle. It has been thought that most of the dissolved iron discharged by hydrothermal vents is lost from solution close to ridge-axis sources and is thus of limited importance for ocean biogeochemistry. This long-standing view is challenged by recent studies which suggest that stabilization of hydrothermal dissolved iron may facilitate its long-range oceanic transport. Such transport has been subsequently inferred from spatially limited oceanographic observations. Here we report data from the US GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) that demonstrate lateral transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron, manganese, and aluminium from the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) several thousand kilometres westward across the South Pacific Ocean. Dissolved iron exhibits nearly conservative (that is, no loss from solution during transport and mixing) behaviour in this hydrothermal plume, implying a greater longevity in the deep ocean than previously assumed. Based on our observations, we estimate a global hydrothermal dissolved iron input of three to four gigamoles per year to the ocean interior, which is more than fourfold higher than previous estimates. Complementary simulations with a global-scale ocean biogeochemical model suggest that the observed transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron requires some means of physicochemical stabilization and indicate that hydrothermally derived iron sustains a large fraction of Southern Ocean export production.

  7. Examination of Health Effects and Long-Term Impacts of Deployments of Multiple Tag Types on Blue, Humpback, and Gray Whales in the Eastern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    deployments of multiple tag types on blue, humpback, and gray whales in the eastern North Pacific John Calambokidis Cascadia Research Collective 218...large whales including blue, humpback, and gray whales by conducting long term follow up of previously tagged individuals in the eastern North Pacific...humpback, and gray whales in the eastern North Pacific and our extensive monitoring of these populations. Despite extensive use of implant tags for more

  8. Assessment of seasonal prediction of South Pacific Convergence Zone using APCC multi-model ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Yeon

    2017-07-01

    We have quantified and examined the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) characteristics for the purpose of its seasonal prediction, by defining two orientation indices, strength and area. The multi-model ensemble (MME) tends to simulate the ENSO-associated shift of SPCZ orientation, especially for the 1-month forecast lead. The migration of the SPCZ orientation indices associated with ENSO phases is clear in the observation and the MME. The variation of the SPCZ strength and area associated with ENSO phases is not as clear as in the SPCZ orientation. In spite of marginal changes in the SPCZ strength and area related to ENSO phases, the SPCZ strength becomes a bit stronger during El Niño and weaker during La Niña, which is represented in individual models and MME. The performance of the MME in simulating the variability of the SPCZ orientation, strength and area is also examined. We found that the MME reasonably predicts the observed interannual variability of the western portion of the SPCZ, with systematic and marginal shift southward. Compared to the western part of the SPCZ, the MME seems to have a limitation in predicting the variability of the eastern part. In comparison to the SPCZ orientation, the MME is not capable of predicting the strength and area of the SPCZ. The interannual variability of the SPCZ strength in the MME is systematically weaker compared to that in the analysis. By comparison with SPCZ orientation and strength, the SPCZ area is not resolved in the MME. The SPCZ is a main source of precipitation in the South Pacific, and the SPCZ predictability also influences high impact weather prediction such as tropical cyclones. Therefore, skillful predictions of seasonal variability of the SPCZ could benefit users who utilize the seasonal forecasting information for their decision making in many applicable sectors.

  9. Distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars in the South East Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sempéré

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars were studied in the South East Pacific from October to December 2004 during the BIOSOPE cruise. Four contrasting stations were investigated: Marquesas Islands (MAR, the hyper-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre (GYR, the eastern part of the Gyre (EGY, and the coastal waters associated to the upwelling area off Chile (UPW. Total (free and combined dissolved neutral sugar (TDNS concentrations were in the same order of magnitude at MAR (387±293 nM, GYR (206±107 nM, EGY (269±175 nM, and UPW (231±73 nM, with the highest and lowest concentrations found at MAR (30 m, 890 nM and EGY (250 m, 58 nM, respectively. Their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (TDNS-C×DOC−1% was generally low for all sites varying from 0.4% to 6.7% indicating that South East Pacific surface waters were relatively poor in neutral sugars. Free dissolved neutral sugar (FDNS; e.g. sugars analyzed without hydrolysis concentrations were very low within the detection limit of our method (5–10 nM accounting for <5% of the TDNS. In general, the predominant sugars within the TDNS pool were glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose, while in the FDNS pool only glucose was present. TDNS stock to bacterial production ratios (integrated values from the surface to the deep chlorophyll maximum were high at GYR with respect to the low primary production, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the highly productive area of UPW. Intermediate situations were observed for MAR and EGY. Bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM exposed to natural solar radiation was also experimentally studied and compared to dark treatments. Our results showed no or little detectable effect of sunlight on DOM bacterial assimilation in surface waters of UPW and GYR, while a significant stimulation was found in MAR and EGY. The overall results clearly suggest that DOM is less labile at GYR compared to UPW, which is

  10. Distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars in the South East Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sempéré

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and bacterial availability of dissolved neutral sugars were studied in the South East Pacific from October to December 2004 during the BIOSOPE cruise. Four contrasted sites were investigated: Marquesas Islands (MAR, the hyper-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre (GYR, the eastern part of the Gyre (EGY, and the coastal waters associated to upwelling of Chile (UPW. Total (free and combined dissolved neutral sugar (TDNS concentrations were higher in UPW (149–329 nM and MAR (111–540 nM, than in GYR (79–390 nM and EGY (58–492 nM. Nevertheless, their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (TDNS-C/DOC% was generally low for all sites varying from 0.5% to 4% indicating that our South East Pacific surface waters were relatively poor in neutral sugars. Free dissolved neutral sugar (FDNS; e.g. sugars analyzed without hydrolysis concentrations were very low within the detection of our method (5–10 nM accounting <5% of the TDNS. In general, the predominant sugars within the TDNS pool were glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose while in the FDNS pool only glucose was present. TDNS stock to bacterial production ratios (integrated values from the surface to the deep chlorophyll maximum were relatively high in GYR with respect to the low primary production, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the highly productive area of UPW. Intermediate situations were observed for MAR and EGY. Bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM exposed to natural solar radiation was also experimentally studied and compared to dark treatments. Our results showed no or little detectable effect of sunlight on DOM bacterial assimilation in UPW and in GYR while a significant stimulation was found in MAR and EGY. The overall results clearly suggest the semi-labile character of DOM in GYR compared to the labile of UPW and are consistent with dissolved organic carbon accumulation and the elevated C/N ratios reported by Raimbault et al. (2007.

  11. Main factors determining bioerosion patterns on rocky cliffs in a drowned valley estuary in the Colombian Pacific (Eastern Tropical Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Viveros, Alba Marina; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Bioerosion is an important process that destroys coastal rocks in the tropics. However, the rates at which this process occurs, the organisms involved, and the dynamics of rocky cliffs in tropical latitudes have been less studied than in temperate and subtropical latitudes. To contribute to the knowledge of the bioerosion process in rocky cliffs on the Pacific coast of Colombia (Eastern Tropical Pacific) we compared: 1) boring volume, 2) grain size distribution of the rocks, and 3) rock porosity, across three tidal zones of two cliffs with different wave exposure; these factors were related to the bioeroding community found. We observed that cliffs that were not exposed to wave action (IC, internal cliffs) exhibited high percentages of clays in their grain size composition, and a greater porosity (47.62%) and perforation (15.86%) than exposed cliffs (EC, external cliffs). However, IC also exhibited less diversity and abundance of bioeroding species (22 species and 314 individuals, respectively) compared to the values found in EC (41.11%, 14.34%, 32 and 491, respectively). The most abundant bioeroders were Petrolisthes zacae in IC and Pachygrapsus transversus in EC. Our findings show that the tidal zone is the common factor controlling bioerosion on both cliffs; in addition to the abundance of bioeroders on IC and the number of bioeroding species on EC. The integration of geology, sedimentology, and biology allows us to obtain a more comprehensive view of the patterns and trends in the process of bioerosion.

  12. The Transmission of Foreign Shocks to South Eastern European Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrevski, Goran; Bogoev, Jane; Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    and non-policy shocks (the output gap, the money market rate and the inflation rate in the euro-zone) on monetary and fiscal policies and economic activity in the analysed countries. The main motivation behind our empirical investigation is the fact that all of these economies are small open economies......This paper investigates the transmission of foreign shocks to economic activity and macroeconomic policies in the South Eastern European (SEE) economies with fixed exchange rate regimes: Croatia, Macedonia and Bulgaria. Specifically, we provide empirical evidence on the influence of the EMU policy...... and relatively strong influence on SEE economies and these external shocks are transmitted relativity quickly. Moreover, the results also suggest that the effects of exogenous shocks are more persistent if the domestic economy is more integrated with the EU. An additional finding is that shocks in the foreign...

  13. The Transmission of Foreign Shocks to South Eastern European Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrevski, Goran; Bogoev, Jane; Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    and non-policy shocks (the output gap, the money market rate and the inflation rate in the euro-zone) on monetary and fiscal policies and economic activity in the analysed countries. The main motivation behind our empirical investigation is the fact that all of these economies are small open economies......This paper investigates the transmission of foreign shocks to economic activity and macroeconomic policies in the South Eastern European (SEE) economies with fixed exchange rate regimes: Croatia, Macedonia and Bulgaria. Specifically, we provide empirical evidence on the influence of the EMU policy...... and relatively strong influence on SEE economies and these external shocks are transmitted relativity quickly. Moreover, the results also suggest that the effects of exogenous shocks are more persistent if the domestic economy is more integrated with the EU. An additional finding is that shocks in the foreign...

  14. Migration and remittances in the South Pacific: towards new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J; Brown, R P

    1995-06-01

    The South Pacific region is comprised of 22 states. The indigenous populations are Melanesians, Micronesians, and Polynesians. Polynesian states have largely international emigration, Melanesians have considerable internal migration, and Micronesians have both internal and international migration. This article reviews recent research on some issues relating to migration, particularly remittances. Migration includes movement away from small, remote islands, movement down mountains to coastal areas, movement to urban areas, and international migration. Migration has tended to be circular, but it is becoming more permanent. A major influence on migration is identified as changes in aspirations about a suitable standard of living. In the quest for material goods remittances play an important role. Remittances not only satisfy material need, such as debt repayment, but serve as social ties and as insurance premiums. Remittances reinforce the social hierarchy and mainly go to senior family members. In some contexts remittances have reduced the pressure on national governments to provide employment opportunities and welfare services. In the short-term, benefits go to migrant families and sending countries. Remittances are usually cash flows through the banking system, but there is considerable hand-carrying of remittances or transporting of gifts and goods, particularly due to the limited value of money in remote areas. Remittances are bi-directional. Limited evidence suggests that remittances are intended for subsistence, church donations, family occasions, and school fees. "Modern" housing and airfares for relatives are other primary uses of remittances. It is expected that remittances would decline over time. Women tend to be more frequent remitters. Remittances tend to be a high proportion of income. Studies of remittance use in the Pacific suggest diversity of use, but a primary use is for consumption needs. When there is little domestic investment from remittances

  15. Hydrothermal conditions of South Eastern Siberia under the ongoing warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropay, N. N.; Maksyutova, E. V.; Riazanova, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    A great increase in air temperature has been observed since 1976. Siberia is a region with most severe ongoing climate change. To monitor the extreme weather events is important. To evaluate moisture conditions we used the D.A. Ped index (Si). Monthly air temperature and precipitation data from 19 weather stations of South Eastern Siberia (50-60° N 90-120° E) were used for the index calculation during the vegetation period. During 1976-2010 the number of droughts in the study region was more than the number of excessive moisture periods. The maximal statistically significant trend (0.4-0.6 per 10 years) in Eastern Siberia was observed in May. The characteristics of the winter-spring period preceding the vegetation season were analyzed. Significant positive trends exist in the study area for the May temperature (0.5-0.9 °C per 10 years) and the May sum of positive temperatures (14-28 °C per 10 years). There are tendencies to increase the number of days with temperatures above zero in March (1-3 days per 10 years) and the sum of positive temperatures in April (5-16 °C per 10 years). The stable transition of air temperature over 0 °C shifts into early dates by 1-7 days every 10 years.

  16. The South Pacific in the works of Robert Dean Frisbie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Potočnik

    2001-12-01

    In Tahiti he had ambitious writing plans but after four years of living in Tahiti, he left his plantation and sailed to the Cook Islands. He spent the rest of his life in the Cook Islands and married a local girl Ngatokorua. His new happiness gave him the inspiration to write. 29 sketches appeared in the United States in 1929, collected by The Century Company under the title of The Book of Puka-Puka. His second book My Tahiti, a book of memories, was published in 1937. After the death of Ropati 's beloved wife his goals were to bring up his children. But by this time Frisbie was seriously ill. The family left Puka-Puka and settled down on the uninhabited atoll of Suwarrow. Later on they lived on Rarotonga and Samoa where Frisbie was medically treated. Robert Dean Frisbie died of tetanus in Rarotonga on November 18, 1948. Frisbie wrote in a vivid, graceful style. His characters and particularly the atoll of Puka-Puka are memorably depicted. Gifted with a feeling for language and a sense of humor, he was able to capture on paper the charm, beauty, and serenity of life of the small islands in the South Pacific without exaggerating the stereotypical idyllic context and as such Frisbie's contribution to South Pacific literature went far deeper than that of many writers who have passed through the Pacific and wrote about their experiences. Frisbie's first book The Book of Puka-Puka was published in New York in 1929. It is the most endearing and the most original of his works. It was written during his lifetime on the atoll Puka-Puka in the Cook Islands. It is a collection of 29 short stories, episodic and expressively narrative in style. This is an account of life on Puka-Puka that criticizes European and American commercialism and aggressiveness, and presents the themes of the praise of isolation, the castigation of missionaries, and the commendation of Polynesian economic collectivism and sexual freedom. At the same time, the book presents a portrait of Frisbie himself

  17. Understanding TEX86H Temperature Estimates in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the Last Deglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, N. J.; Schmidt, M. W.; Bianchi, T. S.; Hertzberg, J. E.; Shields, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    An index based on the relative abundance of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (TEX86) has been gaining support for use as a sea surface temperature proxy. It has had limited application in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) and, prior to this study, has not been applied to a high-resolution record within this region. Here, we utilize the TEX86H temperature index to calculate a North-South temperature gradient in the EEP over the last ~25 kyr using two sediment cores, MV1014-02-17JC (located within the equatorial upwelling zone on the Carnegie Ridge) and MV1014-01-08JC (located North of the seasonal upwelling region on the Cocos Ridge). During the Late Holocene, the Cocos Ridge exhibited warmer TEX86H temperatures as compared to the Carnegie Ridge. The TEX86H calculated temperatures are within analytical error of both modern annual sea surface temperatures at each site and Mg/Ca-based SST estimates derived from Globigerinoides ruber. From 5.6 kyr to 8.5 kyr there is an abrupt ~3°C decrease in the TEX86H temperatures at the Cocos Ridge, marking a breakdown in the N-S temperature gradient. Then, similar TEX86H temperatures are calculated through the Early Holocene and into the deglacial as both sites cool into the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Interestingly, the temperature gradient switches during the LGM, with the Carnegie Ridge yielding temperatures 1-2°C warmer than the Cocos Ridge. This gradient reversal, in contrast, is not seen in the limited Mg/Ca temperatures measured during the LGM in the same core intervals. Instead, the calculated TEX86H temperatures from both sites are cooler than calculated Mg/Ca-SSTs from the near-surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera G. ruber. Additional foraminiferal Mg/Ca and stable isotope analyses will also be presented in an effort to better constrain deglacial changes in upper water column hydrography at both sites.

  18. The first report of a microdiverse anammox bacteria community in waters of Colombian Pacific, a transition area between prominent oxygen minimum zones of the eastern tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, M; Molina, V; Rodríguez-Rubio, E; Ulloa, O

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizers contribute to the removal of fixed nitrogen in oxygen-deficient marine ecosystems such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we surveyed for the first time the occurrence and diversity of anammox bacteria in the Colombian Pacific, a transition area between the prominent South and North Pacific OMZs. Anammox bacteria were detected in the coastal and oceanic areas of the Colombian Pacific in low oxygen (Pacific, Arabian Sea and Black Sea. Anammox bacteria-like sequences from the Colombian Pacific were grouped together with sequences retrieved from the distinct OMZ's marine subclusters (Peru, Northern Chile and Arabian Sea) within Candidatus ‘Scalindua spp’. Moreover, some anammox bacteria OTUs shared a low similarity with environmental phylotypes (86–94%). Our results indicated that a microdiverse anammox community inhabits the Colombian Pacific, generating new questions about the ecological and biogeochemical differences influencing its community structure.

  19. Lag influences of winter circulation conditions in the tropical western Pacific on South Asian summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By means of monthly mean NCEP/NCAR data analyses, this note investigates the lag influences of winter circulation conditions in the tropical western Pacific on South Asian summer monsoon through the methods of composite, correlation and statistical confident test. The results indicate clearly that winter climate variations in the equatorial western Pacific would produce significant influences on the following South Asian summer monsoon, and with the lapse of time the lag influences show clearly moving northward and extending westward features. When winter positive (negative) sea level pressure anomalies occupy the equatorial western Pacific, there is an anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation anomaly appearing in the northwestern Pacific. With the lapse of time, the anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation anomaly gradually moves to northeast, and its axis in the west-east directions also stretches, therefore, easterly (westerly) anomalies in the south part of the anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation anomaly continuously expand westward to the peninsula of India. Undoubtedly, the South Asian summer monsoon is weak (strong)

  20. 10m Gridded bathymetry of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific (netCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (10 m cell size) bathymetry of the slope environment of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  1. 10 m Gridded bathymetry of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (10 m cell size) bathymetry of the slope environment of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  2. Oceanographic influences on seabirds and cetaceans of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballance, Lisa T.; Pitman, Robert L.; Fiedler, Paul C.

    2006-05-01

    This paper is part of a comprehensive review of the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific, the oceanic region centered on the eastern Pacific warm pool, but also including the equatorial cold tongue and equatorial current system, and summarizes what is known about oceanographic influences on seabirds and cetaceans there. The eastern tropical Pacific supports on the order of 50 species of seabirds and 30 species of cetaceans as regular residents; these include four endemic species, the world’s largest populations for several others, three endemic sub-species, and a multi-species community that is relatively unique to this ecosystem. Three of the meso-scale physical features of the region are particularly significant to seabirds and cetaceans: the Costa Rica Dome for blue whales and short-beaked common dolphins, the Equatorial Front for planktivorous seabirds, and the countercurrent thermocline ridge for flocking seabirds that associate with mixed-species schools of spotted and spinner dolphins and yellowfin tuna. A few qualitative studies of meso- to macro-scale distribution patterns have indicated that some seabirds and cetaceans have species-specific preferences for surface currents. More common are associations with distinct water masses; these relationships have been quantified for a number of species using several different analytical methods. The mechanisms underlying tropical species-habitat relationships are not well understood, in contrast to a number of higher-latitude systems. This may be due to the fact that physical variables have been used as proxies for prey abundance and distribution in species-habitat research in the eastern tropical Pacific. Though seasonal and interannual patterns tend to be complex, species-habitat relationships appear to remain relatively stable over time, and distribution patterns co-vary with patterns of preferred habitat for a number of species. The interactions between seasonal and interannual variation in

  3. On the Cause of Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S Variations Associated with El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; Fukumori, Ichiro; Lee, Tong; Cheng, Benny

    2004-01-01

    The nature of observed variations in temperature-salinity (T-S) relationship between El Nino and non-El Nino years in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5(deg)S-5(deg)N, 150(deg)W-90(deg)W) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model. The origin of the subject water mass is identified using the adjoint of a simulated passive tracer. The higher salinity during El Nino is attributed to larger convergence of saltier water from the Southern Hemisphere and smaller convergence of fresher water from the Northern Hemisphere.

  4. Collection of Groundwater and Freshwater Fauna on the Islands of the South Pacific. Operation Raleigh -- Pacific Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1988-01-01

    During this project about 150 groundwater habitats were sampled on a number of islands in the South Pacific. The main habitats sampled were: wells, springs, caves, beaches and streams. Groundwater fauna was only found on two islands. On Easter Island we found a new species belonging to the Isopoda

  5. Collection of Groundwater and Freshwater Fauna on the Islands of the South Pacific. Operation Raleigh -- Pacific Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1988-01-01

    During this project about 150 groundwater habitats were sampled on a number of islands in the South Pacific. The main habitats sampled were: wells, springs, caves, beaches and streams. Groundwater fauna was only found on two islands. On Easter Island we found a new species belonging to the Isopoda (

  6. Drought variability in the eastern Australia and New Zealand summer drought atlas (ANZDA, CE 1500-2012) modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jonathan G.; Cook, Edward R.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Allen, Kathy; Fenwick, Pavla; Cook, Benjamin I.; O'Donnell, Alison; Lough, Janice; Grierson, Pauline; Baker, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production across eastern Australia and New Zealand is highly vulnerable to drought, but there is a dearth of observational drought information prior to CE 1850. Using a comprehensive network of 176 drought-sensitive tree-ring chronologies and one coral series, we report the first Southern Hemisphere gridded drought atlas extending back to CE 1500. The austral summer (December-February) Palmer drought sensitivity index reconstruction accurately reproduces historically documented drought events associated with the first European settlement of Australia in CE 1788, and the leading principal component explains over 50% of the underlying variance. This leading mode of variability is strongly related to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation tripole index (IPO), with a strong and robust antiphase correlation between (1) eastern Australia and the New Zealand North Island and (2) the South Island. Reported positive, negative, and neutral phases of the IPO are consistently reconstructed by the drought atlas although the relationship since CE 1976 appears to have weakened.

  7. Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Maximenko, Nikolai; Thiel, Martin; Cummins, Anna; Lattin, Gwen; Wilson, Stiv; Hafner, Jan; Zellers, Ann; Rifman, Samuel

    2013-03-15

    Plastic marine pollution in the open ocean of the southern hemisphere is largely undocumented. Here, we report the result of a (4489 km) 2424 nautical mile transect through the South Pacific subtropical gyre, carried out in March-April 2011. Neuston samples were collected at 48 sites, averaging 50 nautical miles apart, using a manta trawl lined with a 333 μm mesh. The transect bisected a predicted accumulation zone associated with the convergence of surface currents, driven by local winds. The results show an increase in surface abundance of plastic pollution as we neared the center and decrease as we moved away, verifying the presence of a garbage patch. The average abundance and mass was 26,898 particles km(-2) and 70.96 g km(-2), respectively. 88.8% of the plastic pollution was found in the middle third of the samples with the highest value of 396,342 particles km(-2) occurring near the center of the predicted accumulation zone.

  8. Remote influence of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation on the South Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Hosmay; Dong, Shenfu; Lee, Sang-Ki; Campos, Edmo

    2016-08-01

    This study explores potential factors that may influence decadal variability of the South Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (SAMOC) by using observational data as well as surface-forced ocean model runs and a fully coupled climate model run. Here we show that SAMOC is strongly correlated with the leading mode of sea surface height (SSH) variability in the South Atlantic Ocean, which displays a meridional dipole between north and south of 20°S. A significant portion ( 45%) of the South Atlantic SSH dipole variability is remotely modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Further analysis shows that anomalous tropical Pacific convection associated with the IPO forces robust stationary Rossby wave patterns, modulating the wind stress curl over the South Atlantic Ocean. A positive (negative) phase IPO increases (decreases) the westerlies over the South Atlantic, which increases (decreases) the strength of the subtropical gyre in the South Atlantic and thus the SAMOC.

  9. Fragile Reefs of the Eastern Pacific: Does low Cementation Provide a Model for Reefs in a High CO2 World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzello, D.; Kleypas, J.; Eakin, M.; Budd, D.

    2007-05-01

    Around the world, reefs will experience high pCO2, low pH, low carbonate concentrations, and low aragonite saturation state as atmospheric CO2 rises. Ocean carbon chemistry measurements show that eastern Pacific waters already exist at high pCO2 and low carbonate concentrations due to natural upwelling in the region. Because of the upwelling, this region may serve as a model for coral reef development under enhanced atmospheric CO2 and oceanic pCO2; that is, low coral growth, low secondary cementation, and high physical, chemical, and biological erosion. Reefs in the eastern Pacific Ocean are characterized by low biological diversity and relatively small size. Both past coring and recent analysis reveal that, while many reefs in the eastern Pacific are several thousand years old, they are fragile and lack significant cementation, even in the innermost, oldest structures. They are also extremely porous with high water throughflow. Without secondary cementation, branching coral frameworks are held together only by organically produced calcium carbonate (e.g. coralline algae), sponges, and other reef infauna, and contain a high proportion of loose sediments. The result is reef frameworks that are more susceptible to destruction from mechanical or biological erosion. The poorly cemented nature of eastern Pacific reefs is thus hypothesized to have been a factor in the severe bioerosion that occurred on these reefs after past bleaching events (1982-3, 1997-8). We will present data that indicate low rates of cementation and high rates of erosion on eastern Pacific coral reefs and will compare current carbonate chemistry in the eastern Pacific to model predictions of what reefs around the globe may experience in coming decades.

  10. Siderophore-based microbial adaptations to iron scarcity across the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Rene M.; Mende, Daniel R.; Hawco, Nicholas J.; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Saito, Mak A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity. Phylogenetic analysis of amphibactin biosynthetic genes suggests that the ability to produce amphibactins has transferred horizontally across multiple Gammaproteobacteria, potentially driven by pressures to compete for iron. In coastal and oligotrophic regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean, amphibactins were replaced with lower concentrations (1–2 pM) of hydrophilic ferrioxamine siderophores. Our results suggest that organic ligand composition changes across the surface ocean in response to environmental pressures. Hydrophilic siderophores are predominantly found across regions of the ocean where iron is not expected to be the limiting nutrient for the microbial community at large. However, in regions with intense competition for iron, some microbes optimize iron acquisition by producing siderophores that minimize diffusive losses to the environment. These siderophores affect iron bioavailability and thus may be an important component of the marine iron cycle.

  11. Homoplasious colony morphology and mito-nuclear phylogenetic discordance among Eastern Pacific octocorals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament-Velásquez, Sandra L; Breedy, Odalisca; Cortés, Jorge; Guzman, Hector M; Wörheide, Gert; Vargas, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    Octocorals are a diverse and ecologically important group of cnidarians. However, the phylogenetic relationships of many octocoral groups are not well understood and are based mostly on mitochondrial sequence data. In addition, the discovery and description of new gorgonian species displaying unusual or intermediate morphologies and uncertain phylogenetic affinities further complicates the study of octocoral systematics and raises questions about the role played by processes such as plasticity, crypsis, and convergence in the evolution of this group of organisms. Here, we use nuclear (i.e. 28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (mtMutS) markers and a sample of Eastern Pacific gorgonians thought to be remarkable from a morphological point of view to shed light on the morphological diversification among these organisms. Our study reveals the loss of the anastomosed colony morphology in two unrelated lineages of the seafan genus Pacifigorgia and offers strong evidence for the independent evolution of a whip-like morphology in two lineages of Eastern Pacific Leptogorgia. Additionally, our data revealed one instance of mito-nuclear discordance in the genera Leptogorgia and Eugorgia, which may be the results of incomplete lineage sorting or ancient hybridization-introgression events. Our study stresses the importance of comprehensive taxonomic sampling and the use of independent sources of evidence to address the phylogenetic relationships and clarifying the evolution of octocorals.

  12. Characterization of mesoscale convective systems over the eastern Pacific during boreal summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Sarah; Rouquié, Bastien; Roca, Rémy

    2015-04-01

    The eastern Pacific Ocean is one of the most active tropical disturbances formation regions on earth. This preliminary study is part of a broader project that aims to investigate how mesoscale convective systems (MCS) may be related to these synoptic disturbances with emphasis on local initiation of tropical depressions. As a first step, the main characteristics of the MCS over the eastern Pacific are documented with the help of the recently developed TOOCAN tracking algorithm (Fiolleau and Roca, 2013) applied to the infrared satellite imagery data from GOES-W and -E for the period JJAS 2012-2014. More specifically, the spatial distribution of the MCS population, the statistics of their spatial extensions and durations, as well as their trajectories and propagation speeds are summarized. In addition the environment of the MCS will be investigated using various Global Precipitation Mission datasets and the Megha-Tropiques/SAPHIR humidity microwave sounder derived products. Reference: Fiolleau T. and R. Roca, (2013), An Algorithm For The Detection And Tracking Of Tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems Using Infrared Images From Geostationary Satellite, Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2227762.

  13. Temporal separation of two fin whale call types across the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirović, Ana; Williams, Lauren N; Kerosky, Sara M; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2013-01-01

    Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) produce a variety of low-frequency, short-duration, frequency-modulated calls. The differences in temporal patterns between two fin whale call types are described from long-term passive acoustic data collected intermittently between 2005 and 2011 at three locations across the eastern North Pacific: the Bering Sea, off Southern California, and in Canal de Ballenas in the northern Gulf of California. Fin whale calls were detected at all sites year-round, during all periods with recordings. At all three locations, 40-Hz calls peaked in June, preceding a peak in 20-Hz calls by 3-5 months. Monitoring both call types may provide a more accurate insight into the seasonal presence of fin whales across the eastern North Pacific than can be obtained from a single call type. The 40-Hz call may be associated with a foraging function, and temporal separation between 40- and 20-Hz calls may indicate the separation between predominately feeding behavior and other social interactions.

  14. Impacts of an Improved Low-Level Cloud Scheme on the Eastern Pacific ITCZ-Cold Tongue Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DM Fushan; YU Rucong; ZHANG Xuehong; YU Yongqiang; LI Jianglong

    2005-01-01

    A statistically-based low-level cloud parameterization scheme is introduced, modified, and applied in the Flexible coupled General Circulation Model (FGCM-0). It is found that the low-level cloud scheme makes improved simulations of low-level cloud fractions and net surface shortwave radiation fluxes in the subtropical eastern oceans off western coasts in the model. Accompanying the improvement in the net surface shortwave radiation fluxes, the simulated distribution of SSTs is more reasonably asymmetrical about the equator in the tropical eastern Pacific, which suppresses, to some extent, the development of the double ITCZ in the model. Warm SST biases in the ITCZ north of the equator are more realistically reduced, too. But the equatorial cold tongue is strengthened and extends further westward, which reduces the precipitation rate in the western equatorial Pacific but increases it in the ITCZ north of the equator in the far eastern Pacific. It is demonstrated that the low-level cloud-radiation feedback would enhance the cooperative feedback between the equatorial cold tongue and the ITCZ. Based on surface layer heat budget analyses, it is demonstrated that the reduction of SSTs is attributed to both the thermodynamic cooling process modified by the increase of cloud fractions and the oceanic dynamical cooling processes associated with the strengthened surface wind in the eastern equatorial Pacific, but it is mainly attributed to oceanic dynamical cooling processes associated with the strengthening of surface wind in the central and western equatorial Pacific.

  15. Description of two new associated infaunal decapod crustaceans (Axianassidae and Alpheidae from the tropical eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Anker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of infaunal decapod crustaceans are described based on material collected in Bahía Málaga, Pacific coast of Colombia, in 2009. The mud-shrimp Axianassa darrylfelderi sp. nov. (Axianassidae appears to be most closely related to A. australis Rodrigues & Shimizu, 1992, A. canalis Kensley & Heard, 1990, and A. jamaicensis Kensley & Heard, 1990. The new species may be distinguished from each of them by a combination of morphological features, mainly on the uropodal exopod, antennal acicle, third maxilliped and first pleonite. The shrimp Leptalpheus canterakintzi sp. nov. (Alpheidae, associated with burrows of A. darrylfelderi sp. nov., undoubtedly represents the eastern Pacific sister species of the western Atlantic L. axianassae Dworschak & Coelho, 1999, which lives exclusively in burrows of A. australis. The two species are reliably distinguishable only by the proportions of the merus and propodus of the third pereiopod. Leptalpheus azuero Anker, 2011, previously known only from the Pacific coast of Panama, is reported for the first time from Bahía Málaga, Colombia.

  16. Metabolic activity of subseafloor microbes in the South Pacific Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morono, Y.; Ito, M.; Terada, T.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    The South Pacific Gyre (SPG) is characterized as the most oligotrophic open ocean environment. The sediment is rich in oxygen but poor in energy-sources such as reduced organic matter, and hence harbors very low numbers of microbial cells in relatively shallow subseafloor sediment (D'Hondt et al., 2009; Kallmeyer et al., 2012). In such an energy-limited sedimentary habitat, a small size of microbial community persists living functions with extraordinary low oxygen-consumption rate (Røy et al., 2012). During IODP Expedition 329, a series of sediment samples were successfully recovered from 7 drill sites (U1365-1371) from the seafloor to basement in the SPG, providing an unprecedented opportunity to study metabolic activity of the aerobic subseafloor microbial communities. We initiated incubation onboard by adding stable isotope-labeled substrates to the freshly collected sediment sample, such as 13C and/or 15N-labeled bicarbonate, glucose, amino acids, acetate, and ammonium under the (micro-) aerobic condition. One of the technological challenges in this study is to harvest microbial cells from very low-biomass sediment samples for the analysis using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). To address the technical issue, we improved existing cell separation technique for the SPG sediment samples with small inorganic zeolitic grains. By monitoring cell recovery rates through an image-based cell enumeration technique (Morono et al., 2009), we found that cell recovery rates in the SPG sediment samples are generally lower than those in other oceanographic settings (i.e., organic-rich ocean margin sediments). To gain higher cell recovery ratio, we applied multiple density gradient layers, resulting in the cell recovery ratio up to around 80-95% (Morono et al., in press). Then, using the newly developed cell separation technique, we successfully sorted enough number of microbial cells in small spots on the membrane (i.e., 103 to 105 cells per spot). Nano

  17. Financial services liberalization and international integration in South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prica Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper analyses the regulatory framework for international trade in financial services within the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO, with special attention paid to the open issues including the scope of prudential measures and capital mobility limitations. The process of the international integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE countries is mainly dictated by their goal of EU integration. With regard to the services' sectors, a major liberalization step on the way is WTO accession. Of the countries in the region only Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro are still not WTO members and in order to become members significant liberalization commitments will be demanded of them. For this reason the second part of the paper deals with concrete financial liberalization commitments undertaken by the original WTO members in SEE and the newly WTO acceded SEE member countries. The last part of the paper provides a quantitative analysis of these commitments by means of the measurement of liberalization indices in the banking sectors in SEE countries. This is to provide a general idea of the scope of liberalization that may be required from a SEE country in order to achieve WTO membership on the road to EU integration.

  18. Population genetics of an ecosystem-defining reef coral Pocillopora damicornis in the Tropical Eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Combosch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral reefs in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP are amongst the most peripheral and geographically isolated in the world. This isolation has shaped the biology of TEP organisms and lead to the formation of numerous endemic species. For example, the coral Pocillopora damicornis is a minor reef-builder elsewhere in the Indo-West Pacific, but is the dominant reef-building coral in the TEP, where it forms large, mono-specific stands, covering many hectares of reef. Moreover, TEP P. damicornis reproduces by broadcast spawning, while it broods mostly parthenogenetic larvae throughout the rest of the Indo-West Pacific. Population genetic surveys for P. damicornis from across its Indo-Pacific range indicate that gene flow (i.e. larval dispersal is generally limited over hundreds of kilometers or less. Little is known about the population genetic structure and the dispersal potential of P. damicornis in the TEP. METHODOLOGY: Using multilocus microsatellite data, we analyzed the population structure of TEP P. damicornis among and within nine reefs and test for significant genetic structure across three geographically and ecologically distinct regions in Panama. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS: We detected significant levels of population genetic structure (global R(ST = 0.162, indicating restricted gene flow (i.e. larvae dispersal, both among the three regions (R(RT = 0.081 as well as within regions (R(SR = 0.089. Limited gene flow across a distinct environmental cline, like the regional upwelling gradient in Panama, indicates a significant potential for differential adaptation and population differentiation. Individual reefs were characterized by unexpectedly high genet diversity (avg. 94%, relatively high inbreeding coefficients (global F(IS = 0.183, and localized spatial genetic structure among individuals (i.e. unique genets over 10 m intervals. These findings suggest that gene flow is limited in TEP P. damicornis

  19. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected from various platforms in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans from 1961-1964 (NODC Accession 0001903)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the ARGUS in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from...

  20. Spatial and temporal variability in nutrients and carbon uptake during 2004 and 2005 in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, A. P.; Chai, F.

    2012-01-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific plays a great role in the global carbon budget due to its enhanced biological productivity linked to the equatorial upwelling. However, as confirmed by the Equatorial Biocomplexity cruises in 2004 and 2005, nutrient upwelling supply varies strongly, partly due to th...

  1. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the waters of the eastern North Pacific, including the Gulf of California, Hawaii, and the western Arctic of North America. The animals described are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance in…

  2. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the waters of the eastern North Pacific, including the Gulf of California, Hawaii, and the western Arctic of North America. The animals described are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance in…

  3. Projected wave conditions in the Eastern North Pacific under the influence of two CMIP5 climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christie; Barnard, Patrick; Ruggiero, Peter; van Ormondt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hindcast and 21st century winds, simulated by General Circulation Models (GCMs), were used to drive global- and regional-scale spectral wind-wave generation models in the Pacific Ocean Basin to assess future wave conditions along the margins of the North American west coast and Hawaiian Islands. Three-hourly winds simulated by four separate GCMs were used to generate an ensemble of wave conditions for a recent historical time-period (1976–2005) and projections for the mid and latter parts of the 21st century under two radiative forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), as defined by the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) experiments. Comparisons of results from historical simulations with wave buoy and ERA-Interim wave reanalysis data indicate acceptable model performance of wave heights, periods, and directions, giving credence to generating projections. Mean and extreme wave heights are projected to decrease along much of the North American west coast. Extreme wave heights are projected to decrease south of ∼50°N and increase to the north, whereas extreme wave periods are projected to mostly increase. Incident wave directions associated with extreme wave heights are projected to rotate clockwise at the eastern end of the Aleutian Islands and counterclockwise offshore of Southern California. Local spatial patterns of the changing wave climate are similar under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, but stronger magnitudes of change are projected under RCP 8.5. Findings of this study are similar to previous work using CMIP3 GCMs that indicates decreasing mean and extreme wave conditions in the Eastern North Pacific, but differ from other studies with respect to magnitude and local patterns of change. This study contributes toward a larger ensemble of global and regional climate projections needed to better assess uncertainty of potential future wave climate change, and provides model boundary conditions for assessing the impacts of

  4. On the variability of tropospheric ozone in the Tropical Eastern Pacific and its impact on the oxidizing capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Gomez Martin, J.; Hay, T.; Mahajan, A.; Ordoñez, C.; Parrondo Sempere, M.; Gil, M. J.; Agama Reyes, M.; Paredes Mora, J.; Voemel, H.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of surface ozone, NOx and meteorological variables were made during two ground based field campaigns in the Eastern Pacific marine boundary layer (MBL). The first study was PIQUERO (Primera Investigación de la Química, Evolución y Reparto de Ozono), running from September 2000 to July 2001 in parallel to the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) in the Galápagos Islands. The second study is the Climate and HAlogen Reactivity tropicaL EXperiment (CHARLEX), running from September 2010 to present. These long-term, high frequency, measurements enable a detailed description of the daily, monthly, seasonal and interannual variability of ozone and help to constrain the MBL and lower free troposphere (FT) ozone budget. In the Equatorial Eastern Pacific "cold season" (August - October), net ozone photochemical destruction of ~ 2 ppb day-1 occurs in the MBL (~30% due to halogens, and the rest to HOx). Ozone recovers by entrainment from aloft at night. The monthly baseline is set by the tropical instability waves (TIW), which also impact the ozone concentration in the lower FT. In the cold phase of the TIWs the MBL is stratified and, apart from higher surface ozone, it may also contain an upper drier layer with higher ozone between ~ 500 m and the main inversion at ~1 km. In the warm phase the buoyant MBL expands upwards (as much as 500 m) and poor ozone air reaches the FT. As the system shifts to the warm season (February- April), the TIWs stop and the sea becomes warmer, increasing evaporation and reducing ozone. The inversion is pushed upwards and finally disappears or becomes very weak. Surface ozone is so low that even at the low background NOx levels observed ozone production balances photochemical destruction, so the daily profile is flat (observed local effects in the populated areas of Galapagos are discussed). In February Galapagos is almost in the doldrums because the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) shifts south. In this

  5. NUMERICAL MODELING STUDY OF EFFECTS OF EASTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL ON ENSO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Cai-jun; LU Wei-song; Xiaofan LI

    2010-01-01

    In this study,sensitivity experiments were conducted with the Zebiak-Cane ocean-atmosphere coupled model forced by the wind stress anomaly from the U.S.National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data to study the impacts of eastern Pacific warm pool on the formation and development of ENSO events.The effects of climatological mean sea surface temperature of the warm pool on forecast skill during the ENSO events of 1982-1999 are more considerable that those of climatological mean meridional winds and ocean currents.The forecast skill for the 1997/1998 E1 Ni(n)o event is characterized by sensitivity to climatological mean sea surface temperature and anomalies of northerly winds and currents.The forecast skill is found insensitive to climatological mean northerly meridional winds and currents.

  6. Plastic ingestion in marine-associated bird species from the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, S; Provencher, J F; Morgan, K H; Bertram, D F

    2013-07-15

    In addition to monitoring trends in plastic pollution, multi-species surveys are needed to fully understand the pervasiveness of plastic ingestion. We examined the stomach contents of 20 bird species collected from the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific, a region known to have high levels of plastic pollution. We observed no evidence of plastic ingestion in Rhinoceros Auklet, Marbled Murrelet, Ancient Murrelet or Pigeon Guillemot, and low levels in Common Murre (2.7% incidence rate). Small sample sizes limit our ability to draw conclusions about population level trends for the remaining fifteen species, though evidence of plastic ingestion was found in Glaucous-Winged Gull and Sooty Shearwater. Documenting levels of plastic ingestion in a wide array of species is necessary to gain a comprehensive understanding about the impacts of plastic pollution. We propose that those working with bird carcasses follow standard protocols to assess the levels of plastic ingestion whenever possible.

  7. Response of North Pacific eastern subtropical mode water to greenhouse gas versus aerosol forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Luo, Yiyong

    2016-04-01

    Mode water is a distinct water mass characterized by a near vertical homogeneous layer or low potential vorticity, and is considered essential for understanding ocean climate variability. Based on the output of GFDL CM3, this study investigates the response of eastern subtropical mode water (ESTMW) in the North Pacific to two different single forcings: greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosol. Under GHG forcing, ESTMW is produced on lighter isopycnal surfaces and is decreased in volume. Under aerosol forcing, in sharp contrast, it is produced on denser isopycnal surfaces and is increased in volume. The main reason for the opposite response is because surface ocean-to-atmosphere latent heat flux change over the ESTMW formation region shoals the mixed layer and thus weakens the lateral induction under GHG forcing, but deepens the mixed layer and thus strengthens the lateral induction under aerosol forcing. In addition, local wind changes are also favorable to the opposite response of ESTMW production to GHG versus aerosol.

  8. Non-destructive γ spectrum analysis of polymetallic nodules from the eastern Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广山; 黄奕普; 蔡毅华; 陈敏

    2002-01-01

    -- Non-destructive γ spectrum analyses of 20 polymetallic nodules from the eastern Pacific were carried out. Numerous nuclides, such as 238 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 235 U, 227 Ac ( or 231pa) and 40K were detected. The count rates of the nuclides in the top or bottom side of nodules facing detector were measured and the ratio R of the count rates of nuclides in the top and the bottom sides was obtained. From counts and ratios, some useful information relating to the growth and movement of the nodules, the source of nuclide and relationship between those and environment can be gotten. A new method for clear distinction between the top and bottom sides of the nodule based on the R value of 226Ra or 210pb was developed. In addition, one can infer the turnover of nodules according to the R value of 230Th.

  9. Performance of a multi-RCM ensemble for South Eastern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carril, A.F.; Menendez, C.G.; Salio, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Remedio, A.R.C.; Jacob, D.; Pfeifer, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M), Hamburg (Germany); Robledo, F.; Tencer, B. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soerensson, A.; Zaninelli, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Boulanger, J.P. [LOCEAN, UMR CNRS/IRD/UPMC, Paris (France); Castro, M. de; Sanchez, E. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Toledo (Spain); Le Treut, H.; Li, L.Z.X. [Sciences de l' Environnement en Ile de France, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), Institut-Pierre-Simon-Laplace et Ecole Doctorale, Paris (France); Penalba, O.; Rusticucci, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Samuelsson, P. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    The ability of four regional climate models to reproduce the present-day South American climate is examined with emphasis on La Plata Basin. Models were integrated for the period 1991-2000 with initial and lateral boundary conditions from ERA-40 Reanalysis. The ensemble sea level pressure, maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation are evaluated in terms of seasonal means and extreme indices based on a percentile approach. Dispersion among the individual models and uncertainties when comparing the ensemble mean with different climatologies are also discussed. The ensemble mean is warmer than the observations in South Eastern South America (SESA), especially for minimum winter temperatures with errors increasing in magnitude towards the tails of the distributions. The ensemble mean reproduces the broad spatial pattern of precipitation, but overestimates the convective precipitation in the tropics and the orographic precipitation along the Andes and over the Brazilian Highlands, and underestimates the precipitation near the monsoon core region. The models overestimate the number of wet days and underestimate the daily intensity of rainfall for both seasons suggesting a premature triggering of convection. The skill of models to simulate the intensity of convective precipitation in summer in SESA and the variability associated with heavy precipitation events (the upper quartile daily precipitation) is far from satisfactory. Owing to the sparseness of the observing network, ensemble and observations uncertainties in seasonal means are comparable for some regions and seasons. (orig.)

  10. Geologic Signatures of the September 2009 South Pacific Tsunami (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, B. M.; Buckley, M. L.; Etienne, S.; Strotz, L. C.; Chague-Goff, C.; Wilson, K.; Goff, J. R.; Dudley, W. C.; Sale, F.

    2009-12-01

    The September 29th 2009 tsunami caused widespread destruction along the shorelines of Samoa in the South Pacific. Preliminary measurements indicate maximum runup values of around 12 m (average ~3-6 m) and shore-normal inundation distances of up to ~ 400m. Geological field reconnaissance studies were conducted within three weeks of the event in order to document the erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment by the tsunami. Types of data collected included: a) general morphology and characteristics of the coast, b) tsunami water level measurements (inundation, flow depth and direction, and wave height, c) surficial and subsurface sediment samples, d) topographic mapping, and e) boulder size and location measurements. Where available for transport, mud, sand, and gravel size material was moved by the tsunami and formed distinct sedimentary deposits. Four main sedimentary deposits were identified: 1) Gravel deposits that typically occurred as either isolated coral boulders derived from the adjacent reef system and deposited on the lower beach face, or, fields of basalt boulders derived from coastal engineering structures and deposited inland on the coastal plain. In both cases the boulders were found either on the surface or partially buried by sand. Patchy accumulations of staghorn corals (Acropora sp?) occurred along some shorelines, presumably where there was a nearby reef source. 2) Sand deposits that ranged from very thin patches (reef flats, beaches, and in some cases erosion of the land surface (i.e. from sandy soil). 3) Organic debris of over 10 cm thickness found further inland (at the forest edge) in topographic lows. 4) Surface mud deposits ranged from thin mud drapes (< 1 cm thick) to multi-layered, thick (4+ cm) mud caps that showed pronounced desiccation cracks two weeks after the tsunami. Documenting the geologic characteristics of recent tsunami deposits is an important tool used in the identification of paleotsunamis in the geologic record. The

  11. Eccentricity pacing of eastern equatorial Pacific carbonate dissolution cycles during the Miocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Karlos G. D.; Holbourn, Ann; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Channell, James E. T.; Lyle, Mitch; Shackford, Julia K.; Wilkens, Roy H.; Andersen, Nils

    2016-09-01

    The Miocene Climatic Optimum (MCO; ~16.9 to 14.7 Ma) provides an outstanding opportunity to investigate climate-carbon cycle dynamics during a geologically recent interval of global warmth. We present benthic stable oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope records (5-12 kyr time resolution) spanning the late early to middle Miocene interval (18 to 13 Ma) at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1335 (eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean). The U1335 stable isotope series track the onset and development of the MCO as well as the transitional climatic phase culminating with global cooling and expansion of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at ~13.8 Ma. We integrate these new data with published stable isotope, geomagnetic polarity, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanner-derived carbonate records from IODP Sites U1335, U1336, U1337, and U1338 on a consistent, astronomically tuned timescale. Benthic isotope and XRF scanner-derived CaCO3 records depict prominent 100 kyr variability with 400 kyr cyclicity additionally imprinted on δ13C and CaCO3 records, pointing to a tight coupling between the marine carbon cycle and climate variations. Our intersite comparison further indicates that the lysocline behaved in highly dynamic manner throughout the MCO, with >75% carbonate loss occurring at paleodepths ranging from ~3.4 to ~4 km in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Carbonate dissolution maxima coincide with warm phases (δ18O minima) and δ13C decreases, implying that climate-carbon cycle feedbacks fundamentally differed from the late Pleistocene glacial-interglacial pattern, where dissolution maxima correspond to δ13C maxima and δ18O minima. Carbonate dissolution cycles during the MCO were, thus, more similar to Paleogene hyperthermal patterns.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide in deep waters from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Mark J.; Rapp, Insa; Schlosser, Christian; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is present ubiquitously in marine surface waters where it is a reactive intermediate in the cycling of many trace elements. Photochemical processes are considered the dominant natural H2O2 source, yet cannot explain nanomolar H2O2 concentrations below the photic zone. Here, we determined the concentration of H2O2 in full depth profiles across three ocean basins (Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans). To determine the accuracy of H2O2 measurements in the deep ocean we also re-assessed the contribution of interfering species to ‘apparent H2O2’, as analysed by the luminol based chemiluminescence technique. Within the vicinity of coastal oxygen minimum zones, accurate measurement of H2O2 was not possible due to interference from Fe(II). Offshore, in deep (>1000 m) waters H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.25 ± 0.27 nM (Mediterranean, Balearics-Algeria) to 2.9 ± 2.2 nM (Mediterranean, Corsica-France). Our results indicate that a dark, pelagic H2O2 production mechanism must occur throughout the deep ocean. A bacterial source of H2O2 is the most likely origin and we show that this source is likely sufficient to account for all of the observed H2O2 in the deep ocean.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide in deep waters from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Mark J.; Rapp, Insa; Schlosser, Christian; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is present ubiquitously in marine surface waters where it is a reactive intermediate in the cycling of many trace elements. Photochemical processes are considered the dominant natural H2O2 source, yet cannot explain nanomolar H2O2 concentrations below the photic zone. Here, we determined the concentration of H2O2 in full depth profiles across three ocean basins (Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans). To determine the accuracy of H2O2 measurements in the deep ocean we also re-assessed the contribution of interfering species to ‘apparent H2O2’, as analysed by the luminol based chemiluminescence technique. Within the vicinity of coastal oxygen minimum zones, accurate measurement of H2O2 was not possible due to interference from Fe(II). Offshore, in deep (>1000 m) waters H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.25 ± 0.27 nM (Mediterranean, Balearics-Algeria) to 2.9 ± 2.2 nM (Mediterranean, Corsica-France). Our results indicate that a dark, pelagic H2O2 production mechanism must occur throughout the deep ocean. A bacterial source of H2O2 is the most likely origin and we show that this source is likely sufficient to account for all of the observed H2O2 in the deep ocean. PMID:28266529

  14. The invasive snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei in the Tropical Eastern Pacific, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Armando Sánchez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carijoa riisei (Octocorallia: Cnidaria, a western Atlantic species, has been reported in the Pacific as an invasive species for nearly forty years. C. riisei has been recently observed overgrowing native octocorals at several rocky-coral littorals in the Colombian Tropical Eastern Pacific-(TEP. C. riisei has inhabited these reefs for at least 15 years but the aggressive overgrowth on other octocorals have been noted until recently. Here, we surveyed for the first time the distribution and inter-specific aggression by C. riisei in both coastal and oceanic areas colonized in the Colombian TEP (Malpelo, Gorgona and Cabo Corrientes, including preliminary multiyear surveys during 2007-2013. We observed community-wide octocoral mortalities (including local extinction of some Muricea spp. and a steady occurrence of competing and overgrowing Pacifigorgia seafans and Leptogorgia seawhips. In Gorgona Island, at two different sites, over 87% (n=77 tagged colonies of octocorals (Pacifigorgia spp. and Leptogorgia alba died as a result of C. riisei interaction and/or overgrowth between 2011 and 2013. C. riisei overgrows octocorals with an estimate at linear growth rate of about 1cm m-1. The aggressive overgrowth of this species in TEP deserves more attention and regular monitoring programs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1: 199-207. Epub 2014 February 01.

  15. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, WJ

    2000-01-01

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases, th

  16. Hawksbill turtle terra incognita: conservation genetics of eastern Pacific rookeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaos, Alexander R; Lewison, Rebecca L; Liles, Michael J; Gadea, Velkiss; Altamirano, Eduardo; Henríquez, Ana V; Torres, Perla; Urteaga, José; Vallejo, Felipe; Baquero, Andres; LeMarie, Carolina; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Chaves, Jaime A; Hart, Catherine E; Peña de Niz, Alejandro; Chácon, Didiher; Fonseca, Luis; Otterstrom, Sarah; Yañez, Ingrid L; LaCasella, Erin L; Frey, Amy; Jensen, Michael P; Dutton, Peter H

    2016-02-01

    Prior to 2008 and the discovery of several important hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting colonies in the EP (Eastern Pacific), the species was considered virtually absent from the region. Research since that time has yielded new insights into EP hawksbills, salient among them being the use of mangrove estuaries for nesting. These recent revelations have raised interest in the genetic characterization of hawksbills in the EP, studies of which have remained lacking to date. Between 2008 and 2014, we collected tissue samples from 269 nesting hawksbills at nine rookeries across the EP and used mitochondrial DNA sequences (766 bp) to generate the first genetic characterization of rookeries in the region. Our results inform genetic diversity, population differentiation, and phylogeography of the species. Hawksbills in the EP demonstrate low genetic diversity: We identified a total of only seven haplotypes across the region, including five new and two previously identified nesting haplotypes (pooled frequencies of 58.4% and 41.6%, respectively), the former only evident in Central American rookeries. Despite low genetic diversity, we found strong stock structure between the four principal rookeries, suggesting the existence of multiple populations and warranting their recognition as distinct management units. Furthermore, haplotypes EiIP106 and EiIP108 are unique to hawksbills that nest in mangrove estuaries, a behavior found only in hawksbills along Pacific Central America. The detected genetic differentiation supports the existence of a novel mangrove estuary "reproductive ecotype" that may warrant additional conservation attention. From a phylogeographic perspective, our research indicates hawksbills colonized the EP via the Indo-Pacific, and do not represent relict populations isolated from the Atlantic by the rising of the Panama Isthmus. Low overall genetic diversity in the EP is likely the combined result of few rookeries, extremely small

  17. Structural differences between the western and eastern Qiongdongnan Basin: evidence of Indochina block extrusion and South China Sea seafloor spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuimei; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Sun, Zhen; Liu, Jianbao; Wang, Zhangwen

    2013-12-01

    Located at the intersection between a NW-trending slip system and NE-trending rift system in the northern South China Sea, the Qiongdongnan Basin provides key clues for us to understand the proposed extrusion of the Indochina Block along with Red River Fault Zone and extensional margins. In this paper we for the first time systematically reveal the striking structural differences between the western and eastern sector of the Qiongdongnan Basin. Influenced by the NW-trending slip faults, the western Qiongdongnan Basin developed E-W-trending faults, and was subsequently inverted at 30-21 Ma. The eastern sector was dominated by faults with NE orientation before 30 Ma, and thereafter with various orientations from NE, to EW and NW during the period 30-21 Ma; rifting display composite symmetric graben instead of the composite half graben or asymmetric graben in the west. The deep and thermal structures in turn are invoked to account for such deformation differences. The lithosphere of the eastern Qiongdongnan Basin is very hot and thinned because of mantle upwelling and heating, composite symmetric grabens formed and the faults varied with the basal plate boundary. However, the Southern and Northern Uplift area and middle of the central depression is located on normal lithosphere and formed half grabens or simple grabens. The lithosphere in the western sector is transitional from very hot to normal. Eventually, the Paleogene tectonic development of the Qiongdongnan Basin may be summarized into three stages with dominating influences, the retreat of the West Pacific subduction zone (44-36 Ma), slow Indochina block extrusion together with slab-pull of the Proto-South China Sea (36-30 Ma), rapid Indochina block extrusion together with the South China Sea seafloor spreading (30-21 Ma).

  18. Connection of sea level height between Western Pacific and South Indian Ocean in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Y.; Wang, T.; Zhuang, W.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Based on merged altimetry data and in site observations from tide gauges, we analyzed the fast increasing trend of sea surface height (SSH) in the recent two decades in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean. The results of analysis indicated a dynamic connection of SSH between the tropical western Pacific and the southeastern Indian Ocean. The low-frequency variations of SSH propagate westward in the tropical Pacific, enter the Indonesian Seas through the waveguide, and influence the southeastern India Ocean with the Kelvin-Rossby wave transformation. The thermal structure of upper ocean reveals the above adjustment mainly occur in the thermocline. However, the impacts from the Pacific are limited in the southeast Indian Ocean. In the central and west of the south Indian Ocean, local wind dominates the SSH changes in the last two decades. By lead-lag statistic analyses, we identified the cause of interdecadal from the interannual SSH variations. The interannual SSH variations is dominated by ENSO, forced by the anomalous wind along the equatorial Pacific. Whereas, the interdecadal SSH variations results from the off-equatorial wind stress curl, which is closely related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The dynamic connections between the western Pacific and the south Indian Ocean were tested in the baroclinic Rossby wave solution and the numerical experiments based on the nonlinear reduced-gravity dynamics model.

  19. Constraining Cretaceous subduction polarity in eastern Pacific from seismic tomography and geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    Interpretation of recent mantle seismic images below the America ignited a debate on the Cretaceous subduction polarity in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The traditional view is that the massive vertical slab wall under eastern North America resulted from an eastward Farallon subduction. An alternative interpretation attributes this prominent seismic structure to a westward subduction of the North American Plate against a stationary intraoceanic trench. Here I design quantitative subduction models to test these two scenarios, using their implied plate kinematics as velocity boundary conditions. Modeling results suggest that the westward subduction scenario could not produce enough slab volume as seismic images reveal, as is due to the overall slow subduction rate (~2.5 cm/yr). The results favor the continuous eastward Farallon subduction scenario, which, with an average convergence rate of >10 cm/yr prior to the Eocene, can properly generate both the volume and the geometry of the imaged lower mantle slab pile. The eastward subduction model is also consistent with most Cretaceous geological records along the west coast of North America.

  20. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S Saayman

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  1. Assessment of South Pacific Albacore Stock (Thunnus alalunga ) by Improved Schaefer Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chien-Hsiung; Wang Shyh-Bin

    2006-01-01

    Based on catch and effort data of tuna longline fishery operating in the South Pacific Ocean, the South Pacific albacore stock was assessed by an improved Schaefer model. The results revealed that the intrinsic growth rate was about1.283 74 and carrying capacities vareied in the range from 73 734 to 266 732 metric tons. The growth ability of this species is remarkable. Stock dynamics mainly depends on environmental conditions. The stock is still in good condition. However, the continuous decreasing of biomass in recent years should be noticed.

  2. Determination of rainfall and condensational heating in the South Pacific convergence zone during FGGE SOP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The role of cloud related diabatic processes in maintaining the structure of the South Pacific Convergence Zone is discussed. The method chosen to evaluate the condensational heating is a diagnostic cumulus mass flux technique which uses GOES digital IR data to characterize the cloud population. This method requires as input an estimate of time/area mean rainfall rate over the area in question. Since direct observation of rainfall in the South Pacific is not feasible, a technique using GOES IR data is being developed to estimate rainfall amounts for a 2.5 degree grid at 12h intervals.

  3. Providing University Education in Physical Geography across the South Pacific Islands: Multi-Modal Course Delivery and Student Grade Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Poole, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Enormous distances across the vast South Pacific hinder student access to the main Fiji campus of the regional tertiary education provider, the University of the South Pacific (USP). Fortunately, USP has been a pioneer in distance education (DE) and promotes multi-modal delivery of programmes. Geography has embraced DE, but doubts remain about…

  4. Genetic variation in blue whales in the eastern pacific: implication for taxonomy and use of common wintering grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, R G; Archer, F I; Lang, A R; Martien, K K; Hancock-Hanser, B; Torres-Florez, J P; Hucke-Gaete, R; Rosenbaum, H C; van Waerebeek, K; Brownell, R L; Taylor, B L

    2017-02-01

    Many aspects of blue whale biology are poorly understood. Some of the gaps in our knowledge, such as those regarding their basic taxonomy and seasonal movements, directly affect our ability to monitor and manage blue whale populations. As a step towards filling in some of these gaps, microsatellite and mtDNA sequence analyses were conducted on blue whale samples from the Southern Hemisphere, the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) and the northeast Pacific. The results indicate that the ETP is differentially used by blue whales from the northern and southern eastern Pacific, with the former showing stronger affinity to the region off Central America known as the Costa Rican Dome, and the latter favouring the waters of Peru and Ecuador. Although the pattern of genetic variation throughout the Southern Hemisphere is compatible with the recently proposed subspecies status of Chilean blue whales, some discrepancies remain between catch lengths and lengths from aerial photography, and not all blue whales in Chilean waters can be assumed to be of this type. Also, the range of the proposed Chilean subspecies, which extends to the Galapagos region of the ETP, at least seasonally, perhaps should include the Costa Rican Dome and the eastern North Pacific as well. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Modeling the inorganic bromine partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer over the eastern and western Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Navarro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry burden arising from the degradation of brominated very short-lived organic substances (VSLorg and its partitioning between reactive and reservoir species is needed for a comprehensive assessment of the ozone depletion potential of brominated trace gases. Here we present modeled inorganic bromine abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause based on aircraft observations of VSLorg from two campaigns of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX 2013, carried out over the eastern Pacific, and ATTREX 2014, carried out over the western Pacific and chemistry-climate simulations (along ATTREX flight tracks using the specific meteorology prevailing. Using the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-Chem we model that BrO and Br are the daytime dominant species. Integrated across all ATTREX flights, BrO represents ∼ 43 and 48 % of daytime Bry abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The results also show zones where Br / BrO > 1 depending on the solar zenith angle (SZA, ozone concentration, and temperature. On the other hand, BrCl and BrONO2 were found to be the dominant nighttime species with ∼  61 and 56 % of abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The western-to-eastern differences in the partitioning of inorganic bromine are explained by different abundances of ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, total inorganic chlorine (Cly, and the efficiency of heterogeneous reactions of bromine reservoirs (mostly BrONO2 and HBr occurring on ice crystals.

  6. Modeling the inorganic bromine partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer over the eastern and western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Maria A.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Atlas, Elliot; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Elkins, James W.; Hintsa, Eric J.; Moore, Fred L.

    2017-08-01

    The stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry) burden arising from the degradation of brominated very short-lived organic substances (VSLorg) and its partitioning between reactive and reservoir species is needed for a comprehensive assessment of the ozone depletion potential of brominated trace gases. Here we present modeled inorganic bromine abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause based on aircraft observations of VSLorg from two campaigns of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX 2013, carried out over the eastern Pacific, and ATTREX 2014, carried out over the western Pacific) and chemistry-climate simulations (along ATTREX flight tracks) using the specific meteorology prevailing. Using the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-Chem) we model that BrO and Br are the daytime dominant species. Integrated across all ATTREX flights, BrO represents ˜ 43 and 48 % of daytime Bry abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The results also show zones where Br / BrO > 1 depending on the solar zenith angle (SZA), ozone concentration, and temperature. On the other hand, BrCl and BrONO2 were found to be the dominant nighttime species with ˜ 61 and 56 % of abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The western-to-eastern differences in the partitioning of inorganic bromine are explained by different abundances of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total inorganic chlorine (Cly), and the efficiency of heterogeneous reactions of bromine reservoirs (mostly BrONO2 and HBr) occurring on ice crystals.

  7. Genetic species identification and population structure of Halophila (Hydrocharitaceae) from the Western Pacific to the Eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vy X; Detcharoen, Matsapume; Tuntiprapas, Piyalap; Soe-Htun, U; Sidik, Japar B; Harah, Muta Z; Prathep, Anchana; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-04-30

    The Indo-Pacific region has the largest number of seagrass species worldwide and this region is considered as the origin of the Hydrocharitaceae. Halophila ovalis and its closely-related species belonging to the Hydrocharitaceae are well-known as a complex taxonomic challenge mainly due to their high morphological plasticity. The relationship of genetic differentiation and geographic barriers of H. ovalis radiation was not much studied in this region. Are there misidentifications between H. ovalis and its closely related species? Does any taxonomic uncertainty among different populations of H. ovalis persist? Is there any genetic differentiation among populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean, which are separated by the Thai-Malay peninsula? Genetic markers can be used to characterize and identify individuals or species and will be used to answer these questions. Phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region based on materials collected from 17 populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed that some specimens identified as H. ovalis belonged to the H. major clade, also supported by morphological data. Evolutionary divergence between the two clades is between 0.033 and 0.038, much higher than the evolutionary divergence among H. ovalis populations. Eight haplotypes were found; none of the haplotypes from the Western Pacific is found in India and vice versa. Analysis of genetic diversity based on microsatellite analysis revealed that the genetic diversity in the Western Pacific is higher than in the Eastern Indian Ocean. The unrooted neighbor-joining tree among 14 populations from the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed six groups. The Mantel test results revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations. Results from band-based and allele frequency-based approaches from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed that all

  8. La Niña-like conditions in the eastern equatorial Pacific and a stronger Choco jet in the northern Andes during the last glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MartíNez, Ignacio; Keigwin, Lloyd; Barrows, Timothy T.; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Southon, John

    2003-06-01

    Six deep sea cores from the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) were analyzed for planktonic foraminifera and stable isotopes in order to reconstruct sea surface temperatures (SST) for the last 40 ka. South of the Equatorial Front the abundance of Globorotalia inflata increased, and SST decreased by >5°C (core ODP846B), creating a stronger SST meridional gradient and advection of the Peru Current than present for the ˜16-35 ka interval. A sharper SST meridional gradient forced stronger Choco jet events and a moisture increase in western Colombia, which supplied, through the San Juan River and the south-flowing equatorial and the Peru-Chile countercurrents, abundant hemipelagic quartz over the northern Peru basin (core TR163-31B). The Choco jet, and its associated mesoscale convective cells, provoked an increase in snow precipitation over the Central Cordillera of Colombia and the advance of the Murillo glacier. In synchrony with the intensified Choco jet events, the "dry island" effect over the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia intensified, and the level of Fuquene Lake dropped.

  9. Hydrothermal versus active margin sediment supply to the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 23 million years traced by radiogenic Pb isotopes: Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfig, Tobias W.; Hoernle, Kaj; Hauff, Folkmar; Frank, Martin

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the evolution of the Pb isotopic composition of bulk sediments on the Cocos Plate in sedimentary successions of Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 495 and Ocean Drilling Program/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP/IODP) Site 1256 over the past 23 million years of depositional history. Our study addresses the relationship of the sediment Pb isotope record to plate tectonics, weathering inputs, and paleoceanography. It is the first effort to characterize the Pb isotopic evolution of eastern equatorial Pacific sedimentation covering the entire tectonic pathway of the Cocos Plate from its formation at the East Pacific Rise to its arrival at the Central American subduction zone. The Sites 495 and 1256 bulk sediment Pb isotope records are fully consistent over time despite distinct differences between the type of sediment deposited at both locations. A systematic and continuous trend from ∼23 to ∼6-4 Ma toward more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, e.g., 206Pb/204Pb ratios increase from 18.29 to 18.81, reflects a decrease in the contribution of hydrothermal particles from the East Pacific Rise and an increase in the predominantly eolian contribution of mixed weathering products from the continental arcs of the Northern and south Central Andes as well as from southern Mexico. Surprisingly, both the Pb isotopic composition of the detrital fraction and that of past seawater indicate that inputs from nearby Central America and the Galápagos Archipelago did not significantly contribute to the sediments of our core locations but were overwhelmed by other sediment sources. A systematic change to less radiogenic Pb isotope ratios in sediments younger than ∼4-3 Ma, reaching present-day 206Pb/204Pb values near 18.70, reflects a reduction of the continental input from the South Central Volcanic Zone of the Andean Arc and increased contributions from southern Mexican igneous complexes. This isotopic trend reversal took place as a consequence of

  10. Homotopy perturbation method of equatorial eastern Pacific for the El Ni(n)o-Southern Oscillation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mo Jia-Qi; Lin Wan-Tao

    2005-01-01

    The EI Ni(n)o/La Ni(n)a and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an interannual phenomenon involved in the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. In this paper, the aim is to create an asymptotic solving method of nonlinear equation for the ENSO models. And based on a class of oscillator of the ENSO models, employing the method of homotopic mapping, the approximation solution of corresponding problem is studied. It is proven from the results that the homotopic method can be used for analysing the sea surface temperature anomaly in the equatorial eastern Pacific and the thermocline depth anomaly of the atmosphere-ocean oscillation for ENSO model.

  11. Expanding diversity in the mantis shrimps: two new genera from the eastern and western Pacific (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Van Der Wal

    Full Text Available Abstract Squillidae is the largest family in the Stomatopoda, with 47 genera to date. Phylogenetic analyses have shown Squilla Fabricius, 1787 and Oratosquilla Manning, 1968 to be para- or polyphyletic. Two poorly documented species within these genera, Squilla parva Bigelow, 1891 (eastern Pacific and Oratosquilla kempi (Schmitt, 1931 (western Pacific are not closely related to the respective type species of the genera in which they are currently placed. We herein redescribe S. parva and O. kempi based on type and other material, and propose two new genera for their reception, increasing the number of squillid genera to 49.

  12. Population structure and phylogeography reveal pathways of colonization by a migratory marine reptile (Chelonia mydas) in the central and eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Peter H; Jensen, Michael P; Frey, Amy; LaCasella, Erin; Balazs, George H; Zárate, Patricia; Chassin-Noria, Omar; Sarti-Martinez, Adriana Laura; Velez, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Climate, behavior, ecology, and oceanography shape patterns of biodiversity in marine faunas in the absence of obvious geographic barriers. Marine turtles are an example of highly migratory creatures with deep evolutionary lineages and complex life histories that span both terrestrial and marine environments. Previous studies have focused on the deep isolation of evolutionary lineages (>3 mya) through vicariance; however, little attention has been given to the pathways of colonization of the eastern Pacific and the processes that have shaped diversity within the most recent evolutionary time. We sequenced 770 bp of the mtDNA control region to examine the stock structure and phylogeography of 545 green turtles from eight different rookeries in the central and eastern Pacific. We found significant differentiation between the geographically separated nesting populations and identified five distinct stocks (F ST = 0.08-0.44, P Chelonia mydas form a monophyletic group containing 3 subclades, with Hawaii more closely related to the eastern Pacific than western Pacific populations. The split between sampled central/eastern and western Pacific haplotypes was estimated at around 0.34 mya, suggesting that the Pacific region west of Hawaii has been a more formidable barrier to gene flow in C. mydas than the East Pacific Barrier. Our results suggest that the eastern Pacific was colonized from the western Pacific via the Central North Pacific and that the Revillagigedos Islands provided a stepping-stone for radiation of green turtles from the Hawaiian Archipelago to the eastern Pacific. Our results fit with a broader paradigm that has been described for marine biodiversity, where oceanic islands, such as Hawaii and Revillagigedo, rather than being peripheral evolutionary "graveyards", serve as sources and recipients of diversity and provide a mechanism for further radiation.

  13. Dissolved organic carbon in the South China Sea and its exchange with the Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Dai, Minhan; Chen, Junhui; Meng, Feifei; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Zhiyu; Du, Chuanjun; Gan, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Based on a large and high quality dataset of total organic carbon (TOC, an approximation of dissolved organic carbon) collected from three cruises in spring, fall and winter in 2009-2011, we examined the distribution of TOC and its seasonality in the oligotrophic regime of the Northern South China Sea (NSCS) as well as its exchanges with the West Philippine Sea (WPS) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean through the Luzon Strait, the only deep channel linking the South China Sea (SCS) and the Pacific Ocean. Surface TOC concentration in the slope and basin areas of the NSCS varied from 65 to 75 μmol L-1 with relatively high values in the northeast part (southwest of Taiwan Island) in spring, and in the eastern parts of the NSCS during fall and winter. The TOC inventory in the upper 100 m of the water column ranged from 6.0-7.5 mol m-2 with a similar distribution pattern as the surface TOC concentration. There were two most significant differences in the TOC profiles between the SCS and the WPS. One was in the upper 200 m, where more TOC was accumulated in the WPS; the other was in the intermediate layer at ~1000-1500 m, where the gradient of TOC concentration was still persistent below 1000 m in the SCS, a feature which did not exist in the WPS. At this intermediate layer, there also appeared an excess of TOC in the SCS as compared with that in the WPS. The TOC concentration below 2000 m in the SCS was identical to that in the Northwestern Pacific, both of which were ~40 μmol L-1 without significant difference among stations and seasons, suggesting that this deep water TOC was homogeneously distributed in the deep SCS basin owing to the fast replenishment of the deep water from the WPS. We adopted an isopycnal mixing model to derive the water proportion contributed respectively from the SCS and Kuroshio along individual isopycnal plane and examined the impact of the Kuroshio intrusion on the TOC in the NSCS. The upper 100 m TOC inventory in the NSCS was overall

  14. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  15. Proceedings of the 3rd workshop of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The 1994 workshop of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) was held in Canberra, at the Australian National University. Presentations were grouped around the themes of geochronology, environmental impact and analytical techniques. This volume contains 26 extended abstracts and 3 poster-presentations which have been separately indexed for inclusion in the INIS database. A list of participants is also included.

  16. Education and the Vestiges of Colonialism: Self-Determination, Neocolonialism and Dependency in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Outlines colonial histories and present constitutional statuses of 16 South Pacific Island countries. Discusses important legacies of colonialism in education systems, curriculum, and educational attitudes; education as an instrument of neocolonialist influence; and the complexities of international relationships (both regionally and with donor…

  17. Quaternary paleoceanographic reconstruction of Eastern Equatorial Pacific:planktic foraminiferal evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Kirtiranjan; Sinha, Devesh K.; Singh, Ashutosh K.

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) is quite unique in its oceanographic set up and exhibits considerable variations on shorter to longer time scales. The region encounters intense upwelling caused by the Peru Current. The EEP show a strong ocean-atmosphere coupling, which is manifested in form of events like (El Nino Southern Oscillations (ENSO) that affects the global climate. The present work is based on planktic foraminiferal census data from the ODP Hole 846B, situated at 3°S latitude near the Galapagos spreading centre in the EEP, for paleoceanographic reconstructions for the Quaternary Period. Four species which show significant fluctuations in the relative abundance are Globigerinoides ruber (mixed layer and oligotrophic species), Neogloboquadrina dutertrei (fertility indicator and thermocline dweller),Globigerina bulloides (upwelling indicator) and Globorotalia inflata (temperate species). Results of the analyses of the census count of the planktic foraminifera indicate the overall dominance of the shallow water thermocline species N. dutertrei, suggesting the prevalence of the robust EEP Cold tongue during the Quaternary. The increase in the relative abundance of Gs.ruber marks seven planktic foraminiferal events (2.52Ma to 0.5Ma) of reduced strength of the cold tongue along the EEP. These intervals are concomitant with spreading and encroachment of warm water from the Western Pacific suggesting El Nino like conditions due to reduced strength of trade winds. Seven planktic foraminiferal events (2.42Ma to 0.20Ma) show prominent increase in the relative abundance of Gg.bulloides indicating advection of nutrient rich waters due to enhanced coastal upwelling. Invasion of the temperate species Globorotalia inflata is indicated by its abundance reaching up to 20 percent of the total assemblage at 3°S occur during ~ 2.07 Ma, 1.32 Ma and 1.05 Ma. The unusual occurrence of the cold water temperate species indicates the expansion of southern polar front which

  18. Late Holocene Sea Surface Temperature Trends in the Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustic, G. T.; Koutavas, A.; Marchitto, T. M., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) is a highly dynamic ocean region capable of exerting influencing on global climate as illustrated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The sea surface temperature (SST) history of this region in past millennia is poorly constrained due to the lack of in situ records with appropriate resolution. Here we present a ~2700 year sub-centennially resolved SST reconstruction from Mg/Ca ratios of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber from Galápagos sediments. The ETP SST record exhibits a long-term cooling trend of over 0.2°C/ky that is similar to Northern Hemisphere multi-proxy temperature trends suggesting a common origin, likely due to insolation forcing. The ETP remains in-phase with Northern Hemisphere climate records through the warm Roman Climate Optimum (~0-400CE), cooler Dark Ages Cold Period (~450-850CE), and through the peak warming of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (900-1150 CE) when SST is within error of modern. Following peak MCA, the ETP cooled rapidly and then rebounded at ~1500 CE during the coldest portion of the Little Ice Age. Overall the data suggest an out-of-phase relationship during much of the last millennium, which we attribute to dynamical adjustments consistent with the "dynamical ocean thermostat" mechanism. Further evidence for these dynamical adjustments comes from reconstructions of the east-west zonal SST gradient using existing Mg/Ca SST reconstructions from the western Pacific warm pool. The last millennium has been the most dynamic period over the past 2700 years, with significant (~1 °C) SST variability in the ETP and modulation of the zonal gradient. A combination of dynamical and thermodynamic mechanisms are invoked to explain the region's complex SST history.

  19. Thermal adaptation of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenases of eastern Pacific barracuda (Sphyraena spp): the role of differential isoenzyme expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin; Somero

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic properties, electrophoretic patterns and thermal stabilities of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenases (cMDHs) were compared in Eastern Pacific barracuda (Sphyraena spp) from different latitudes. All tissues of the tropical species S. ensis contained only a single, thermostable form of cMDH. Subtropical (S. lucasana) as well as north (S. argentea) and south (S. idiastes) temperate barracuda contained both thermostable and thermolabile cMDHs, the pattern characteristic of most teleosts. Kinetic studies using unfractioned cMDHs showed that the apparent Michaelis­Menten constant (Km) of cofactor (NADH) increased with temperature, but at the physiological temperatures of the four species, Km of NADH was conserved within a narrow range (20­23 µmol l-1). Thermostable and thermolabile cMDHs were chromatographically separated and compared. Thermolabile cMDHs had higher Km values for NADH at all measurement temperatures than did thermostable cMDHs. Thermolabile cMDHs isolated from congeneric barracuda exhibited similar kinetic properties (Km versus temperature, optimal pH, optimal substrate and cofactor concentrations). Thermostable cMDHs, likewise, were similar among the barracuda. Conservation of Km in the differently thermally adapted barracudas is, therefore, apparently due to adjustments in the ratio of expression of the thermostable and thermolabile isoforms, rather than to temperature-adaptive differences among orthologous homologues, as is commonly found for enzymes encoded by a single gene locus. The effects of temperature on the Km of NADH for isolated thermostable and thermolabile cMDHs of a eurythermal goby, Gillichthys mirabilis, however, were consistent with adaptive change in orthologous homologues of cMDH. The selective basis for the absence of thermolabile cMDH in warm-adapted ectotherms, mammals and birds is discussed.

  20. Temperature profile data from BATHYTHERMOGRAPH (XBT) from LEXA MAERSK and other platforms in the eastern Pacific Ocean and southern Atlantic Ocean: 19880526 to 19890911 (NODC Accession 9000078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature data was collected from ships such as Lexa Maersk and 14 other ships. The data was collected from Eastern Pacific Ocean and Southern...

  1. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Distributional patterns of 0-group Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the eastern Bering Sea under variable recruitment and thermal conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that analyzed the late summer distribution of juvenile Pacific cod in the eastern Bering Sea for 6 cohorts (2004-2009), based on catches...

  2. The Colombia Current: An Eastern Tropical Pacific Coastal Current, Early Oceanographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rubio, E.

    2007-05-01

    Newly gathered hydrographic data from the Colombia Pacific Ocean is combined with remote sensing data to reassess the properties of the costal current named Colombian Current by Wooster (1959). The Colombian Pacific Ocean is located between 84°-76°W and 1°30'-5°N (oceanic zone), 1°30'- 7°N (coastal zone): This area is well-known also like Panama Bight. New hydrographic data were occupied along the Colombian Pacific coast during March of 2006, making 41 stations with measurements of CTD until a maximum depth of 1200 m, depending on the depth of the marine bottom. On the other hand, sea surface temperatures (SST) were obtained from the MODIS-AQUA satellite and sea surface wind speed and wind direction stem from QuickScat, both averaged for March 2006. Hydrographic grid layers necessary to obtain dynamic topography variable were made with objective mapping calculating is not total dynamic height, but the dynamic height between consecutive levels or "thickness". The purpose of this methodology is that in very coastal campaigns it can have a substantial number of stations that do not arrive at the reference level. Finally geostrophic velocity was computed for the Colombian Current area at several layers. The coast was characterized by low salinities due to river runoff in the North zone. The sea surface temperature during the month of March of 2006 was especially low in the oceanic zone, reaching temperatures between 19°C and 24°C.The dynamic topography indicated the presence of a surface coastal current flowing towards the north and a crosscurrent to 400 m of depth never before described. The wind corresponded to the pattern of the wind jet of Panama. During March the ITCZ moves south, drawing the Panama jet across the Isthmus and over the Pacific. Upwelling curl associated with the left (southeast) flank of this jet generates a cyclonic eddy in the Panama Bight and SST cooling in its center. In the Panama Bight, the curl dipole produces a cyclonic circulation

  3. Flooding in the South Platte River and Fountain Creek Basins in eastern Colorado, September 9–18, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Robert A.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    2015-11-25

    On September 9, 2013, rain began to fall in eastern Colorado as a large low-pressure system pulled plumes of tropical moisture northward from the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. By September 16, 2013, as much as 12 to 20 inches of rain had fallen in the foothills of the Front Range of the Southern Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains near Colorado Springs, Colorado, north to the Colorado-Wyoming border. The rain caused major flooding during September 9–18, 2013, in a large part of the South Platte River Basin and in the Fountain Creek Basin. The floods resulted in several fatalities, more than 31,000 damaged or destroyed structures, and an estimated 3 billion dollars in damages. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) documented peak stage, streamflow, or both from the flood event for 80 sites located on selected rivers and streams in the South Platte River and Fountain Creek Basins and on the Platte River in Nebraska. The majority of flood-peak streamflows occurred on September 12 or 13, 2013, coinciding with the period of maximum rainfall. The flood resulted in new record peak streamflows at 17 streamgages having at least 10 years of record; 13 in the South Platte River Basin and 4 in the Fountain Creek Basin.

  4. Extraordinary capture of a Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus in the temperate south-eastern Indian Ocean and its molecular phylogenetic relationship within the Etelinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, C B; Moore, G I; Bertram, A E; Snow, M; Newman, S J

    2016-02-01

    The capture of a rarely encountered Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus (female, 587 mm fork length) from the upper continental slope (c. 350 m) off the south coast of Western Australia (c. 34·5° S; 122·5° E) in January 2014 represents its first record from the temperate Indian Ocean and a southern range extension. This record suggests that spawning of this predominantly tropical species may probably be occurring in the eastern Indian Ocean, considering the extensive, and unlikely, distance the progeny would have otherwise travelled from its typical distribution in the western and central Pacific Ocean.

  5. Long-term variability of the leading seasonal modes of rainfall in south-eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Montazerolghaem; Willem Vervoort; Budiman Minasny; Alex McBratney

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of temporal and spatial variability of climate and rainfall can improve agriculture production and can help to manage risks caused by climate variability. Available high-quality monthly rainfall data from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for 1907–2011 was used to investigate the leading seasonal mode of the long-term rainfall variability over south-eastern and eastern Australia. Spatio-temporal variations of seasonal rainfall and their connection to oceanic-atmospheric predictor...

  6. Convection and Easterly Wave Structure Observed in the Eastern Pacific Warm-Pool during EPIC-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Walter A.; Cifelli, R.; Boccippio, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Fairall, C. W.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During September-October 2001, the East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System (EPIC-2001) ITCZ field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the warm-pool region of the East Pacific. In addition to the TAO mooring array, observational platforms deployed during the field phase included the NOAA ship RN Ronald H. Brown, the NSF ship RN Horizon, and the NOAA P-3 and NCAR C-130 aircraft. This study combines C-band Doppler radar, rawinsonde, and surface heat flux data collected aboard the RN Brown to describe ITCZ convective structure and rainfall statistics in the eastern Pacific as a function of 3-5 day easterly wave phase. Three distinct easterly wave passages occurred during EPIC-2001. Wind and thermodynamic data reveal that the wave trough axes exhibited positively correlated U and V winds and a slight westward phase tilt with height. A relatively strong (weak) northeasterly deep tropospheric shear followed the trough (ridge) axis. Temperature and humidity perturbations exhibited mid-to upper level cooling (warming) and drying (moistening) in the northerly (trough and southerly) phase. At low levels warming (cooling) occurred in the northerly (southerly) phase with little change in the relative humidity, though mixed layer mixing ratios were larger during the northerly phase. When composited, radar, sounding, lightning and surface heat flux observations suggest the following systematic behavior as a function of wave phase: approximately zero to one quarter wavelength ahead of (behind) the wave trough in northerly (southerly) flow, larger (smaller) CAPE, lower (higher) CIN, weaker (stronger) tropospheric shear, higher (lower) conditional mean rain rates, higher (lower) lightning flash densities, and more (less) robust convective vertical structure occurred. Latent and sensible heat fluxes reached a minimum in the northerly phase and then increased through the trough, reaching a peak during the ridge phase

  7. Strong Input and Removal of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Affect Dissolved Nd Isotope Composition of Seawater in the Panama Basin and the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M.; Bosse, L. M.; Grasse, P.; Pahnke, K.; Hathorne, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The distributions of dissolved REEs and Nd isotopes are controlled by inputs from land and water mass mixing. We present new data from the Panama Basin in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) extending previous studies in the frame of the German SFB 754 project. The samples were taken following GEOTRACES protocols along a section from close to the Panamanian coast into the deep Panama Basin during FS Meteor cruise M90 in October/November 2012. Elevated Nd concentrations near 13 pmol/kg are found at the surface, which rapidly decrease to a subsurface minimum of 8 pmol/kg near 100m depth and then increase with water depth reaching maximum values of 18 pmol/kg at 3000 m water depth. However, these deep water concentrations are more than a factor of 2 lower than observed for North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW), which is the prevailing Pacific deep water mass at the sampling locations. All the REEs are depleted compared to NPDW suggesting that efficient uptake and scavenging dominate compared to release from remineralized particles. The surface waters show the most radiogenic Nd isotope values (ɛNd = +4.3) so far obtained globally. In combination with the Nd concentration maxima at the surface this suggests riverine dissolved and fine grained particulate inputs from southern Panama and Colombia where highly radiogenic volcanic rocks are exposed. Elevated ɛNd values above -1 in the entire water column are more radiogenic than in NPDW in the Central Pacific and in waters further south in the EEP, which confirms that release of REEs from the sinking volcanogenic material affects the entire water column. These data clearly document that significant inputs from land combined with efficient scavenging and removal in surface and deep waters control the distribution of REEs and Nd isotopes in the Panama Basin and the adjacent EEP (Grasse et al., 2012), which also has important implications for the distribution of other trace metals.

  8. REE and (э)Nd of clay fractions in sediments from the eastern Pacific Ocean: Evidence for clay sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jihua; SHI Xuefa; CHEN Lirong; HUANG Yongyang; WANG Yinxi; CUI Yingchun; BU Wenrui

    2005-01-01

    Clay fractions in the non-calcareous surface sediments from the eastern Pacific were analyzed for clay minerals, REE and 143Nd/144Nd. Montmorillonite/illite ratio (M/I ratio), total REE contents ((REE), LREE/HREE ratio and cerium anomaly (бCe) may effectively indicate the genesis of clay minerals. Clay fractions with M/I ratio >1, бCe (0.85, (REE (400 μg/g, LREE/HREE ratio (4, and REE patterns similar to those of pelagic sediments are terrigenous and autogenetic mixed clay fractions and contain more autogenetic montmorillonite. Clay fractions with M/I ratio <1, бCe=0.86 to 1.5, ΣREE=200 to 350 μg/g, LREE/HREE ratio (6 and REE distribution patterns similar to that of China loess are identified as terrigenous clay fraction. The 143Nd/144Nd ratios or (э)Nd values of clay fractions inherit the features of terrigenous sources of clay minerals. Clay fractions are divided into 4 types according to (э)Nd values. Terrigenous clay minerals of type I with the (э)Nd values of -8 to -6 originate mainly from North American fluvial deposits. Those of type II with the (э)Nd values of -9 to -7 are mainly from the East Asia and North American fluvial deposits. Those of type III with (э)Nd values of -6 to -3 could come from the central and eastern Pacific volcanic islands. Those of type IV with (э)Nd values of -13 to -12 may be from East Asia eolian. The terrigenous and autogenetic mixed clay fractions show patchy distributions, indicating that there are volcanic or hot-spot activities in the eastern Pacific plate, while the terrigenous clay fractions cover a large part of the study area, proving that the terrigenous clay minerals are dominant in the eastern Pacific.

  9. Lowermost mantle anisotropy near the eastern edge of the Pacific LLSVP: constraints from SKS-SKKS splitting intensity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Long, Maureen D.; Creasy, Neala; Wagner, Lara; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando; Minaya, Estela

    2017-08-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been documented in many portions of the lowermost mantle, with particularly strong anisotropy thought to be present along the edges of large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). The region surrounding the Pacific LLSVP, however, has not yet been studied extensively in terms of its anisotropic structure. In this study, we use seismic data from southern Peru, northern Bolivia and Easter Island to probe lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath the eastern Pacific Ocean, mostly relying on data from the Peru Lithosphere and Slab Experiment and Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography experiments. Differential shear wave splitting measurements from phases that have similar ray paths in the upper mantle but different ray paths in the lowermost mantle, such as SKS and SKKS, are used to constrain anisotropy in D″. We measured splitting for 215 same station-event SKS-SKKS pairs that sample the eastern Pacific LLSVP at the base of the mantle. We used measurements of splitting intensity(SI), a measure of the amount of energy on the transverse component, to objectively and quantitatively analyse any discrepancies between SKS and SKKS phases. While the overall splitting signal is dominated by the upper-mantle anisotropy, a minority of SKS-SKKS pairs (˜10 per cent) exhibit strongly discrepant splitting between the phases (i.e. the waveforms require a difference in SI of at least 0.4), indicating a likely contribution from lowermost mantle anisotropy. In order to enhance lower mantle signals, we also stacked waveforms within individual subregions and applied a waveform differencing technique to isolate the signal from the lowermost mantle. Our stacking procedure yields evidence for substantial splitting due to lowermost mantle anisotropy only for a specific region that likely straddles the edge of Pacific LLSVP. Our observations are consistent with the localization of deformation and anisotropy near the eastern boundary of the Pacific LLSVP

  10. Frequency of pancreatic amyloid deposition in cats from south-eastern Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T A; Ainscow, J; Rand, J S

    1994-08-01

    Stereological procedures were used to estimate the amount of amyloid deposition in the pancreatic islets of 83 cats from random sources in south-eastern Queensland. Most had only minor deposits of less than 20% of islet volume (median 9%), but deposits equal to more than 50% of the islet volume were found in 10% of the cats. Amyloid deposition in pancreatic islets was correlated with the age of the cat. Although similar observations have been made previously in cats from the USA, the frequency of amyloid deposition was higher in this population of cats from south-eastern Queensland.

  11. Location of South Georgia and potential impact on early Pacific-Atlantic through flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A.; Curtis, M.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most significant Cenozoic reconfigurations of global ocean circulation involved the initiation of Pacific to Atlantic exchange that led to the isolation of Antarctica by the Antarctica Circumpolar Current though the separation of South America and Antarctica and the opening of the Scotia Sea and Drake Passage. Whether significant Pacific to Atlantic through-flow was possible in the early Cenozoic has remained unclear because it is not certain where continental fragments such as South Georgia, a potential barrier, were located before seafloor spreading created the Scotia Sea. Establishing where South Georgia was located is also critical to reconstructing the Scotia arc and understanding its evolution. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and apatite thermochronometry are used to constrain the pre-drift location of South Georgia. Data from Cretaceous turbidites exposed on South Georgia are consistent with a former connection to the Rocas Verdes back-arc basin giving support to models that have argued for a pre- tectonic translation location southeast of Tierra del Fuego. Following an early phase of rock uplift, thermal history models of the apatite chronometry data indicate that the South Georgia continental fragment underwent burial related heating and was therefore not a significant topographic feature until it emerged c. 10-7 Ma coeval with the cessation of spreading at the West Scotia Ridge and collision between the South Georgia continental block and the Northeast Georgia Rise.

  12. Microbes adapt to iron scarcity through siderophore production across the eastern tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeta, D.; Boiteau, R.; Mende, D. R.; DeLong, E.

    2016-02-01

    Iron regulates microbial growth and carbon fixation rates in vast regions of the ocean characterized by high nutrient and low chlorophyll (HNLC) concentrations. As competition for bioavailable iron in HNLC regions intensifies, microbial communities face tremendous selective pressure to develop efficient uptake and utilization strategies that access the strong organic ligands controlling iron bioavailability in these areas. Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, we found 27 unique iron complexes in surface waters sampled across the GEOTRACES eastern tropical Pacific zonal cruise track, with a clear trend in the abundance of different ligands across nutrient regimes. We identified siderophores, compounds produced by microbes under iron stress to facilitate iron uptake, as important components of iron ligands. Siderophore composition varied dramatically across the region, reflecting adaptive microbial strategies for acquiring iron. Concentrations of amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity, were low in coastal waters, but reached 9pM in HNLC waters, while ferrioxamine concentrations were higher in coastal and oligotrophic regions (1-2pM). These spatial changes in siderophore distributions represents adaptations used by marine microbes to acquire iron under different ecological conditions. To infer the potential ocean-wide contribution of amphibactins to microbial iron acquisition, we investigated the distribution of amphibactin synthesis genes in the recently published TARA Oceans metagenomic catalogue. We found amphibactin synthesis genes were present in other major iron-starved regions, suggesting that adaptations involving siderophore utilization likely impact global marine ecosystem composition and productivity.

  13. Bite force and feeding kinematics in the eastern North Pacific Kyphosidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Clinton Joseph; Ferry, Lara

    2014-04-01

    Some fishes that feed on attached food items possess an intramandibular joint (IMJ), which is thought to increase maximum gape and facilitate contact between the tooth-bearing surface and the substrate. However, the mechanical consequences of using an IMJ to remove attached food items from the substrate are still poorly understood. We examined the most prominent eastern North Pacific kyphosid, the scraper: Girella nigricans and two other kyphosids, Medialuna californiensis and Hermosilla azurea, which occupy similar habitats. Of the three species, G. nigricans had the highest theoretical bite force per unit length. We examined the feeding mechanics of G. nigricans in two different feeding scenarios: a scraping behavior elicited on a block of brine shrimp gelatin and a picking behavior elicited on Ulva sp. We measured cranial elevation, lower jaw rotation, premaxillary protrusion, premaxillary rotation, gape maximum, and intramandibular rotation. Ulva treatments produced significantly greater cranial rotation, when compared to gelatin treatments. Gelatin treatments were associated with greater lower jaw rotation and larger gape. Premaxillary rotation and premaxillary protrusion did not differ between treatments. Intramandibular rotation occurred only when G. nigricans physically contacted the gelatin, suggesting the IMJ is a passive joint with no associated musculature. We also noted that G. nigricans do not appear to use suction to draw food into the mouth. The lack of suction and the presence of the IMJ suggest that the jaws of G. nigricans are specialized for maximizing jaw force when scraping.

  14. A revision of the genus Muricea Lamouroux, 1821 (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) in the eastern Pacific. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedy, Odalisca; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-01-01

    The species of the genus Muricea were mainly described from 1846 to 1870. After that very few contributions were published. Although the highest richness of Muricea species is in the eastern Pacific shallow waters, a comprehensive systematic study of the genus does not exist. Recently we started a taxonomic review of the genus in order to validate the status of four species previously included in the genus Eumuricea. Herein we present the second part of the Muricea revision dealing with the species-group characterised by shelf-like calyces instead of tubular-like calyces (the Muricea squarrosa-group). Original type material was morphologically analysed and illustrated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Comparative character tables are provided for the genus. The taxonomic status of the species was analysed and established by designating lectotypes, alternatively by recognising a holotype by monotypy. We conclude that the genus Muricea comprises 20 valid species, including the previous four in the Muricea squarrosa-group. We propose 10 lectotypes, a new combination and three more species groups for the genus based on morphology: the Muricea fruticosa-group, Muricea plantaginea-group and Muricea austera-group.

  15. Halogens, OVOC and H2O Distributions over the Eastern Pacific Ocean during TORERO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, B. K.; Apel, E. C.; Baidar, S.; Zondlo, M. A.; Volkamer, R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogen species and Oxygenated VOC (TORERO) field project 17 research flights were conducted with the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft over the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean (42S to 14N Lat.; 70W to 105W Long). Equipped with a combination of chemical in-situ sensors and remote sensing instruments, a broad spectrum of reactive halogen species, oxygenated hydrocarbons, and aerosols were measured over different ocean environments. Using optical remote sensing (airborne Multi Axis DOAS), we measured iodine monoxide (IO), bromine monoxide (BrO), glyoxal (CHOCHO) and water vapor among others. A newly developed parameterization method allowed us to directly convert the measured slant column densities into mixing ratios along the whole flight track. Atmospheric reactive halogen species and organic carbon are important, because they modify HOx radical abundances, influence the reactive chemistry and lifetime of climate active gases (e.g., ozone, methane, dimethyl sulfide), modify aerosol-cloud interactions and halogen radicals can also oxidize atmospheric mercury. Here we summarize and evaluate the spatial distribution of IO, BrO and glyoxal over the TORERO study area. For select case studies we present comparisons to halogen precursors and OVOCs measured in-situ by on-line mass spectrometry (trace organic gas analyzer). The correlation of remotely observed water vapor to in-situ measurements further allows us to conclude on the homogeneity of spatial scales covered by both remote and in-situ sensors.

  16. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  17. Landforms and soils in eastern Surinam (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.W.H.

    1972-01-01

    Quaternary geogenesis in eastern Surinam was studied by field methods and sedimentary-petrographic research. The development of the river valleys was explained in terms of changes in sea level, tectonic movements and changes in climate. A preliminary stratigraphy was established.Eight soil profiles

  18. Landforms and soils in eastern Surinam (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.W.H.

    1972-01-01


    Quaternary geogenesis in eastern Surinam was studied by field methods and sedimentary-petrographic research. The development of the river valleys was explained in terms of changes in sea level, tectonic movements and changes in climate. A preliminary stratigraphy was

  19. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1101 in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from 2011-01-11 to 2011-02-16 (NCEI Accession 0126863)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0126863 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1101 in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  20. Borders in the South: Migration News in South Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnnabi Das

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the age of unprecedented movement of people, many migrants end up in the industrialized countries but originate from all over the world. A fuller picture of migration journalism thus warrants examining news from both the ‘source’ and ‘receiving’ countries of migration. However, most of the studies undertaken in this particular area deal with the issues from the perspectives of North America and Europe (i.e., ‘receiving’ countries, an approach which is inconsistent with the broad goal of comparative studies. The current study examines migration news from both the source and receiving countries. Given that South Asia and the Pacific are two regions that tend to be overlooked in the comparative studies literature, we studied the coverage of migration issues in six prominent English-language newspapers from six countries of these regions (Australia, Bangladesh, India, New Zealand, Pakistan and Sri Lanka over a four-month period in 2014. Our study utilized an exploratory frame analysis to determine whether, in line with several earlier studies, issues of migration are depicted as a crisis to be managed in the receiving countries. Moreover, we examined the emphasis attached to the subject matter by the source countries’ media. The findings suggest that the media frames in receiving countries are more diverse than expected. While newspapers in some countries follow the previously found crisis frame, others highlight the economic benefits of migration. Similarly, in the source countries, the frames are varied. Most newspapers portray migration as a problem to be solved, but some do focus on protecting the interests of the migrants.

  1. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available The marine areas of South America (SA include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA: the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama. Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies.

  2. Climatological analysis of passage-type tropical cyclones from the Western North Pacific into the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Ming Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclone (TC climatological characteristics with passage from the Western North Pacific (WNP into the South China Sea (SCS during the June - November season are analyzed in this study. These TCs tend to form in the WNP west of 150°E, and on average westward by 7 - 12° in longitude than TCs that do not track into the SCS. Their formation locations migrate with the monsoon trough, moving northward from June to August, and southward from September to November. The probability of a WNP TC moving into the SCS varies seasonally, with only 12 - 18% of the WNP TCs doing so during August-September due to more northern TC formation. However, this probability rises to 25 - 26% in June - July and 25 - 32% in October - November with more southern TC formation. The passage-type TCs generally form in the eastern part of an elongated lower-level cyclonic anomaly of the 10-day low-pass filtered environmental circulation in the 10 - 20°N zone, which is paired with an anticyclonic anomaly to the north. Between this circulation pair, anomalous easterly flows steer these TCs westward, giving them a westward track into the SCS. The formation of these passage-type TCs is associated with a southward displacement of the monsoon trough and a westward intensification of the Pacific subtropical high in August and September. During June - July (October - November, the associated features appear as a southeastward (meridional expansion of the monsoon trough and a northward displacement of the Pacific subtropical high.

  3. On the origin of tropospheric ozone and NOx over the tropical South Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Martin G.; Jacob, Daniel James; Wang, Yuhang; Logan, Jennifer A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Donald R.; Blake, Nicola J.; Bradshaw, John D.; Browell, Edward V.; Fenn, Marta A.; Flocke, Frank; Gregory, Gerald L; Heikes, Brian G.; Sachse, Glen W.; Sandholm, Scott T.

    1999-01-01

    The budgets of ozone and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in the tropical South Pacific troposphere are analyzed by photochemical point modeling of aircraft observations at 0–12 km altitude from the Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics A campaign flown in September-October 1996. The model reproduces the observed NO2/NO concentration ratio to within 30% and has similar success in simulating observed concentrations of peroxides ( H2O2, CH3OOH), lending confidence in its use to investigate ozone ...

  4. Dental caries in South Pacific populations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutress, T W

    2003-03-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) was uncommon in Pacific Island communities before European trading and migration expanded into the Region. The etiology of this oral microbial disease is a consequence of changed diets, food preparation and lifestyle. In particular, the easy availability of a high level of frequent dietary supplementation with refined sucrose (sugar) and carbohydrates is the key factor in the etiology of tooth decay. While tooth decay initially developed as a health problem in the more accessible Pacific islands over a century ago, it has spread increasingly as trading, travel and cash economies have developed to include even the more geographically remote communities. In this review selected epidemiological data are presented to show the magnitude, variation and secular changes in the prevalence of tooth decay in different communities. Tooth decay in conjunction with the historically endemic adult gum diseases poses a major public health problem in terms of pain, premature loss of teeth and the need for oral rehabilitation. Implementation and monitoring of caries control programs is a priority need in most communities. It is impractical to consider a return to indigenous diets and lifestyles as a strategy for caries prevention. Instead promotion of proven modern community preventive programmes, notably appropriate use of fluorides, 'fissure sealants' together with control of excessive consumption of diets rich in refined sugar is required if a significant increase in the levels of tooth decay is to be avoided.

  5. The ‘Mycenaeans’ in the south-eastern Aegean revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Eerbeek

    2014-01-01

    The main subject of this dissertation is the Mycenaean archaeological evidence from the south-eastern Aegean. The term "Mycenaean" is typically used to refer to the dominant archaeological culture of the central and southern Greek mainland during the Late Bronze Age, which is dated between about 170

  6. Vulnerability and resilience of competing land-based livelihoods in south eastern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: vulnerability; resilience; livelihood; drought; Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area; south eastern Zimbabwe. Vulnerability and resilience have emerged as powerful analytical concepts in the study of socio-ecological systems. In this research these concepts are used to enhance o

  7. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Arie; Dekker, Stefan C.; Hirota, Marina; van Nes, Egbert H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and t

  8. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, A.; Dekkers, S.; Hirota Magalhaes, M.; Nes, van E.H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and t

  9. Toward an Understanding of People Management Issues in SMEs: a South-Eastern European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szamosi, Leslie T.; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on developing an understanding, and benchmarking, human resource management HRM issues in small and medium enterprises SMEs in South-Eastern Europe. The importance of SMEs in helping transition-based economies develop is critical, but at the same time the research indicates that the movement toward westernized business…

  10. Rinorea calcicola (Violaceae), an endangered new species from south-eastern Gabon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, van R.; Wieringa, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Rinorea calcicola, endemic to south-eastern Gabon, is described as a new species. Its most striking characteristic is the laminate fruit, a character so far only known for R. zenkeri. Rinorea calcicola has a limited distribution and appears to be restricted to limestone outcroppings. We have

  11. Evidence for a Southern Pattern of Deglacial Surface Warming in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, H. J.; Schmidt, M. W.; Lea, D. W.; Lavagnino, L.

    2009-12-01

    The timing of both Southern and Northern hemisphere warming patterns has been used to explain tropical Pacific warming at the end of the last glacial period. Despite the importance of resolving this deglacial tropical-polar connection, the controversy is still ongoing (Koutavas & Sachs, 2008; Lea et al., 2000, 2006). For instance, the initiation of eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) surface warming, derived from Mg/Ca analyses of the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber, shows a clear correlation with the Southern hemisphere. In contrast, alkenone-derived temperatures from the EEP indicate tropical warming occurred at least 3 kyr later than that implied from Mg/Ca data, thereby suggesting a Northern hemisphere link to initial SST rise. Here, we use a multispecies, multiproxy approach that is based on fundamental foraminifera biology to resolve this controversy. Laboratory experiments demonstrate the final shell size of symbiont-bearing foraminifera varies primarily as a function of the light level (=symbiont photosynthetic rate) that an individual grew under. Because light decreases exponentially in the water column, and the EEP is highly stratified with a shallow mixed layer and cold thermocline, we hypothesize that symbiotic foraminifera with a broad habitat range such as Globigerinoides sacculifer, should produce smaller shells in the more dimly lit cold thermocline than individuals growing in the more illuminated mixed layer. Moreover, these larger shells should contain a temperature signal that is similar to G. ruber, which is constrained to the shallow mixed layer. Mg/Ca and δ18O analyses conducted on 350-400 μm and >650 μm sized G. sacculifer from EEP core TR163-19 (2N, 91W, 2348) demonstrate large specimens yield Mg/Ca and δ18O that are similar to data published previously for mixed layer dwelling G. ruber. In contrast, small G. sacculifer record significantly higher δ18O and lower Mg/Ca temperatures that are consistent with a shallow

  12. Late Quaternary Alluvial Fans of Southern Baja California, Mexico: Relation to Eastern Pacific Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinao, J.; McDonald, E.

    2009-12-01

    In the arid, non-glaciated regions of the Southwestern USA and Northwestern Mexico, aggradation in alluvial fan systems has been traditionally linked to cold and humid periods (e.g., Last Glacial Maximum) or to the transition to warm periods (e.g., the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, PHT). However, major intervals of sediment transport and aggradation have also occurred during climatically warm periods in these regions. These periods have also been identified as portraying enhanced humidity or “monsoonal’ conditions. Investigations on the weather systems able to perform geomorphic work during predominantly warm periods, i.e. the North American Monsoon (NAM) and Eastern Pacific (EP) Tropical Cyclones (TCs), have concentrated mainly in the USA. To understand the relative contribution of these systems to sediment transport over millennial timescales, we have mapped and characterized preliminarily the alluvial fans in four different areas of the Southern Baja California peninsula, Mexico. This region is dominated by EPTC precipitation, which in turn is driving the sediment transport along alluvial channels. Detailed geomorphologic mapping shows that a distinct Late Quaternary chronostratigraphy of alluvial fan units can be developed using geochronological and pedological tools. Specifically, a soil chronosequence can be compared to sequences in the SW USA, allowing a correlation to Late Pleistocene - Holocene events in the region. At least five alluvial units can be identified. Older units have well defined gravel pediments, Av and B horizons and pervasive pedogenic carbonate morphology, with alluvial terraces that rise tens of meters above the present channel. Intermediate age units have developed B horizons and carbonate morphology at different stages. The younger units have thin soil horizons, no carbonate morphology in the soil profile, and some of them are subject to episodic flooding during TC activity. The chronosequence developed is the first step towards

  13. Simulation of the intraseasonal variability over the Eastern Pacific ITCZ in climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xianan [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Waliser, Duane E. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), La Canada Flintridge, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Kim, Daehyun [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Zhao, Ming [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Sperber, Kenneth R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stern, William F. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Schubert, Siegfried D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Zhang, Guang J. [Scripps Institute of Oceanography. La Jolla, California (United States); Wang, Wanqiu [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Centers for Environmental Protection. Camp Springs, MD (United States); Khairoutdinov, Marat [Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Neale, Richard B. [National Center for Atmospheric Research. Boulder, CO (United States); Lee, Myong-In [Ulsan National Institute for Science and Technology. Seoul (Korea)

    2012-08-01

    During boreal summer, convective activity over the eastern Pacific (EPAC) inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) exhibits vigorous intraseasonal variability (ISV). Previous observational studies identified two dominant ISV modes over the EPAC, i.e., a 40-day mode and a quasi-biweekly mode (QBM). The 40-day ISV mode is generally considered a local expression of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. However, in addition to the eastward propagation, northward propagation of the 40-day mode is also evident. The QBM mode bears a smaller spatial scale than the 40-day mode, and is largely characterized by northward propagation. While the ISV over the EPAC exerts significant influences on regional climate/weather systems, investigation of contemporary model capabilities in representing these ISV modes over the EPAC is limited. In this study, the model fidelity in representing these two dominant ISV modes over the EPAC is assessed by analyzing six atmospheric and three coupled general circulation models (GCMs), including one super-parameterized GCM (SPCAM) and one recently developed high-resolution GCM (GFDL HIRAM) with horizontal resolution of about 50 km. While it remains challenging for GCMs to faithfully represent these two ISV modes including their amplitude, evolution patterns, and periodicities, encouraging simulations are also noted. In general, SPCAM and HIRAM exhibit relatively superior skill in representing the two ISV modes over the EPAC. While the advantage of SPCAM is achieved through explicit representation of the cumulus process by the embedded 2-D cloud resolving models, the improved representation in HIRAM could be ascribed to the employment of a strongly entraining plume cumulus scheme, which inhibits the deep convection, and thus effectively enhances the stratiform rainfall. The sensitivity tests based on HIRAM also suggest that fine horizontal resolution could also be conducive to realistically capture the ISV over the EPAC, particularly for the QBM mode

  14. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-63 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-03-15 to 2010-04-14 (NODC Accession 0103918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103918 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-63 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  15. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-42 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-01-09 to 2009-02-02 (NODC Accession 0103871)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103871 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-42 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  16. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1105 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2011-04-29 to 2011-05-28 (NODC Accession 0116958)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116958 includes chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1105 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  17. Physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1007 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-05-17 to 2010-06-16 (NODC Accession 0089615)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0089615 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1007 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  18. Zooplankton, temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from bottle and net casts in the South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific Oceans from the CORIOLIS from 05 April 1981 to 16 August 1981 (NODC Accession 0000527)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, nutrients, and other data were collected from bottle and net casts in the South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific Oceans from the CORIOLIS from 05 April...

  19. Physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN195-03 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-01-12 to 2009-02-23 (NODC Accession 0104265)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104265 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN195-03 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  20. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise AMAT02RR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2005-09-03 to 2006-03-03 (NCEI Accession 0155592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155592 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise AMAT02RR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  1. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise AMAT03RR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2006-03-07 to 2006-04-13 (NCEI Accession 0155593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155593 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise AMAT03RR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  2. Hydroclimate variability of the South American Monsoon System during the last 1600 yr inferred from speleothem isotope records of the north-eastern Andes foothills in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Apaéstegui

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore a speleothem δ18O record from Palestina Cave, North Eastern Peru, at a site on the eastern side of the Andes cordillera, upper Amazon Basin, interpreted as a proxy for South America Summer Monsoon (SASM intensity. This record allows reconstructing SASM activity with 5 yr time resolution over the last 1600 yr, spanning two major periods of climate variability: the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 900–1200 AD and Little Ice Age (LIA 1400–1850 AD recognized as periods of decrease and increase SASM activity respectively. Time series and wavelet analyses reveal decadal to multidecadal frequencies. Our results suggest that Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation mode (AMO plays an important role for SASM modulation on multidecadal scale (~65 yr, especially over dry periods such as observed during MCA. Frequencies of 8 and 25 yr simultaneously with multidecadal signal (65 yr are found over the LIA. and suggest that those modes could be related to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation mode (IPO. Comparison with other South American Paleoprecipitation records shows that the Atlantic and Pacific decadal to multidecadal variability and their teleconnections play an important role in the intensity and the regional patterns of rainfall distribution during the last 1600 yr.

  3. Fluorescence signatures of an iron-enriched phytoplankton community in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Wayne Wright, C.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.; Berry, Richard E.; Mitchell, Richard

    Laser-induced fluorescence profiles of chlorophyll and phycoerythrin pigments and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence acquired over an iron-enriched phytoplankton patch are compared to profiles made over adjacent, naturally occurring phytoplankton patches. A total of four airborne missions were flown during an 8 day period following the release of the iron-rich fertilizer. Analyses of the airborne laser-induced fluorescence profiles from the upper-ocean layer reveal: (1) Ship-dispersed iron enhances localized phytoplankton production in high-nutrient/low-chlorophyll regions such as found in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. (2) The chlorophyll concentration within the iron-enriched phytoplankton patch exceeded levels of chlorophyll found in naturally occurring phytoplankton patches located outside the enriched region. (3) An increase in phycoerythrin fluorescence was observed within the enriched region in correspondence with the elevated chlorophyll fluorescence. However, the phycoerythrin/chlorophyll fluorescence ratio was lower within the enriched patch than in naturally occurring phytoplankton patches outside of the enriched region. (4) No above-background chromorophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence was observed in the enriched patch. Elevated CDOM fluorescence was associated with some of the naturally occurring phytoplankton patches outside the enriched region, while other such phytoplankton patches showed no measurable increase in CDOM over background levels. (5) The surface layer manifestation of the patch was observed to be transported to the north and west in close agreement with the drogue positions. No elevated surface layer chlorophyll fluorescence was seen in the vicinity of the ship as it sampled the submerged fraction at the time of the 30 October and 1 November overflights. The phycoerythrin pigment fluorescence emission was insensitive to ambient cloud-induced downwelling irradiance variability, while at the

  4. Early diagenetic quartz formation at a deep iron oxidation front in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Patrick; Chapligin, Bernhard; Picard, Aude; Meyer, Hanno; Fischer, Cornelius; Rettenwander, Daniel; Amthauer, Georg; Vogt, Christoph; Aiello, Ivano

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of early diagenetic quartz formation under low-temperature conditions are still poorly understood. We studied lithified cherts consisting of microcrystalline quartz recovered from ODP Site 1226 in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. The cherts occur near the base of a 420-m-thick Miocene-Holocene sequence within unlithified nannofossil and diatom ooze. Palaeo-temperatures reconstructed from δ18O values in the cherts are near to present porewater temperatures and a sharp depletion in dissolved silica occurs around 385 mbsf indicating that silica precipitation is still ongoing. Also a deep iron oxidation front occurs at the same depth, which is caused by upward diffusing nitrate from an oxic seawater aquifer in the underlying basaltic crust. Sequential iron extraction and analysis of the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) revealed that iron in the cherts predominantly occurs as illite and amorphous iron oxide, whereas iron in the nannofossil and diatom ooze occurs mainly as smectites. Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed that the illite iron in the cherts is largely oxidized. A possible mechanisms that may be operative is quartz precipitation initiated by adsorption of silica to freshly precipitated iron oxides. The decrease in porewater silica concentration below opal-A and opal-CT saturation then allows for the precipitation of the thermodynamically more stable phase: quartz. We suggest that the formation of early-diagenetic chert at iron oxidation fronts is an important process in suboxic zones of silica-rich sediments. The largest iron oxidation front ever occurred during the great oxidation event ca. 2.5 Ga ago, when large amounts of iron and chert beds were deposited.

  5. Authigenic gypsum found in gas hydrate-associated sediments from Hydrate Ridge, the eastern North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jiasheng; Erwin; Suess; Dirk; Rickert

    2004-01-01

    Characteristic gypsum micro-sphere and granular mass were discovered by binocular microscope in the gas hydrate-associated sediments at cores SO143-221 and SO143/TVG40-2A respectively on Hydrate Ridge of Cascadia margin, the eastern North Pacific. XRD patterns and EPA analyses show both micro-sphere and granular mass of the crystals have the typical peaks and the typical main chemical compositions of gypsum, although their weight percents are slightly less than the others in the non-gas hydrate-associated marine regions. SEM pictures show that the gypsum crystals have clear crystal boundaries, planes, edges and cleavages of gypsum in form either of single crystal or of twin crystals. In view of the fact that there are meanwhile gas hydrate-associated authigenic carbonates and SO42(-rich pore water in the same sediment cores, it could be inferred reasonably that the gypsums formed also authigenically in the gas hydrate-associated environment too, most probably at the interface between the downward advecting sulfate-rich seawater and the below gas hydrate, which spilled calcium during its formation on Hydrate Ridge. The two distinct forms of crystal intergrowth, which are the granular mass of series single gypsum crystals at core SO143/TVG40-2A and the microsphere of gypsum crystals accompanied with detrital components at core SO143-221 respectively, indicate that they precipitated most likely in different interstitial water dynamic environments. So, the distinct authigenic gypsums found in gas hydrate-associated sediments on Hydrate Ridge could also be believed as one of the parameters which could be used to indicate the presence of gas hydrate in an unknown marine sediment cores.

  6. Atmosphere-ocean linkages in the eastern equatorial Pacific over the early Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povea, Patricia; Cacho, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Pena, Leopoldo D.; Menéndez, Melisa; Calvo, Eva; Canals, Miquel; Robinson, Rebecca S.; Méndez, Fernando J.; Flores, Jose-Abel

    2016-05-01

    Here we present a new set of high-resolution early Pleistocene records from the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP). Sediment composition from Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1240 and 1238 is used to reconstruct past changes in the atmosphere-ocean system. Particularly remarkable is the presence of laminated diatom oozes (LDOs) during glacial periods between 1.85 and 2.25 Ma coinciding with high fluxes of opal and total organic carbon. Relatively low lithic particles (coarse and poorly sorted) and iron fluxes during these glacial periods indicate that the increased diatom productivity did not result from dust-stimulated fertilization events. We argue that glacial fertilization occurred through the advection of nutrient-rich waters from the Southern Ocean. In contrast, glacial periods after 1.85 Ma are characterized by enhanced dust transport of finer lithic particles acting as a new source of nutrients in the EEP. The benthic ecosystem shows dissimilar responses to the high productivity recorded during glacial periods before and after 1.85 Ma, which suggests that the transport processes delivering organic matter to the deep sea also changed. Different depositional processes are interpreted to be the result of two distinct glacial positions of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Before 1.85 Ma, the ITCZ was above the equator, with weak local winds and enhanced wet deposition of dust. After 1.85 Ma, the glacial ITCZ was displaced northward, thus bringing stronger winds and stimulating upwelling in the EEP. The glacial period at 1.65 Ma with the most intense LDOs supports a rapid southward migration of the ITCZ comparable to those glacial periods before 1.85 Ma.

  7. Chemical composition of marine stratocumulus clouds over the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Derek J.; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2007-02-01

    Samples of marine cloud water collected over the eastern Pacific Ocean have been analyzed for pH, major ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+), hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, S(IV), Fe, Mn, and total organic carbon. The samples were obtained during the Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus, Phase II (DYCOMS-II) field project in July 2001. These measurements represent a unique in situ description of cloud water composition for stratocumulus clouds residing in the remote marine boundary layer, a regime for which there are few published cloud water composition data. A wide range of concentrations was observed for each species of interest, including sodium (36-2784 μN), sulfate (15-905 μN), nitrate (3-205 μN), hydrogen peroxide (37.8-283.2 μM), formaldehyde (2.2-8.7 μM) and Fe (water concentrations with cloud liquid water content (LWC) and volume mean drop diameter show that dilution played a role in cloud drop solute concentration variations during individual flights and that solute concentrations are related to cloud drop size and ultimately to below-cloud aerosol number concentration. Air equivalent concentrations (the amount of a solute in cloud water per unit volume of air) were derived in order to eliminate concentration dependence on LWC and to allow comparison with previous aerosol, trace gas, and cloud water studies. The analysis indicates that background marine conditions were not always encountered during the DYCOMS-II mission as a result of anthropogenic or biogenic sources impacting the study region.

  8. Late quaternary sea bottom conditions in the southern Panama basin, Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patarroyo, German D.; Martínez, José I.

    2015-11-01

    A paleoceanographic reconstruction of the southern Panama Basin for the last 23.000 years, based on the benthic foraminiferal analysis from the deep sea core ME0005A-24JC (0.01°N, 86.28°W, water depth 2941) is presented. Cluster and SHEBI (SHE Analysis for Biozone Identification) analyses performed on the benthic foraminiferal assemblages, evidence a faunal turnover in the early Holocene at 14 ky BP. Between 23 and 14 ky BP, Fursenkoina rotundata, Hoeglundina elegans, Globobulimina affinis, Globobulimina pacifica, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and Uvigerina hispidocostata were common. Conversely, from 14 ky to the present, the assemblage is represented by Chilostomella oolina, Laticarinina pauperata, and Uvigerina proboscidea. This faunal turnover suggests significant fluctuations in oxygen content at the sea floor and the organic matter (OM) influx, which could reflect: (1) fluctuations in the surface productivity related to the equatorial divergence and, (2) OM advection caused by the dynamic of the deep sea currents. Paleoproductivity estimates and benthic foraminiferal rates depict a general trend towards lower values since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) with a conspicuous change at 14 ky BP. Therefore, the paleoceanographic reconstructions of the ME0005A-24JC core suggest a transition from La Niña-like conditions during the LGM to El Niño-like conditions in the recent, as previously proposed for the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. Estimates of the paleo-intensity of deep sea currents based on the relative percentage abundance of the epifaunal foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi suggest stronger deep sea currents on the Carnegie Ridge before 14 ky BP.

  9. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  10. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959-2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China’s gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD.

  11. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-06-10

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959-2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China's gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD.

  12. Model Evidence for Interdecadal Pathway Changes in the Subtropics and Tropics of the South Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rong-Hua; WANG Zhanggui

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations using a version of the GFDL/NOAA Modular Ocean Model (MOM 3) are analyzed to demonstrate interdecadal pathway changes from the subtropics to the tropics in the South Pacific Ocean.After the 1976-77 climate shift,the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific underwent significant changes,characterized by a slowing down in its circulation and a southward displacement of its center by about 5°-10° latitude on the western side.The associated circulation altered its flow path in the northwestern part of the subtropical gyre,changing from a direct pathway connecting the subtropics to the tropics before the shift to a more zonal one after.This effectively prevented some subtropical waters from directly entering into the western equatorial Pacific.Since waters transported onto the equator around the subtropical gyre are saline and warm,such changes in the direct pathway and the associated reduction in equatorward exchange from the subtropics to the tropics affected water mass properties downstream in the western equatorial Pacific,causing persisted freshening and cooling of subsurface water as observed after the late 1970s.Previously,changes in gyre strength and advection of temperature anomalies have been invoked as mechanisms for linking the subtropics and tropics on interdecadal time scales.Here we present an additional hypothesis in which geographic shifts in the gyre structure and location (a pathway change) could play a similar role.

  13. The record-breaking 2015 hurricane season in the eastern North Pacific: An analysis of environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer M.; Klotzbach, Philip J.; Maue, Ryan N.; Roache, David R.; Blake, Eric S.; Paxton, Charles H.; Mehta, Christopher A.

    2016-09-01

    The presence of a near-record El Niño and a positive Pacific Meridional Mode provided an extraordinarily warm background state that fueled the 2015 eastern North Pacific hurricane season to near-record levels. We find that the western portion of the eastern North Pacific, referred to as the Western Development Region (WDR; 10°-20°N, 116°W-180°), set records for named storms, hurricane days, and Accumulated Cyclone Energy in 2015. When analyzing large-scale environmental conditions, we show that record warm sea surface temperatures, high midlevel relative humidity, high low-level relative vorticity, and record low vertical wind shear were among the environmental forcing factors contributing to the observed tropical cyclone activity. We assess how intraseasonal atmospheric variability may have contributed to active and inactive periods observed during the 2015 hurricane season. We document that, historically, active seasons are associated with May-June El Niño conditions, potentially allowing for predictability of future active WDR seasons.

  14. The human bioclimates of Western and South Pacific islands and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, G R

    1995-08-01

    The current bioclimates of equatorial Western and tropical South Pacific have been assessed, using the concepts of effective temperature and relative strain as a basis for evaluating likely changes in human comfort regimes as a consequence of global warming. Current bioclimates may be considered marginally stressful for indigenous populations. Global warming will result in changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of physioclimatically stressful conditions.

  15. Unraveling The Complex Interaction Between The Southern Caribbean, Northwest South America And The Pacific Plates During The Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagomez, D.; Spikings, R.

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the prominent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif (the highest peak in the world whose local base is at sea level, ~5.75km) in Northern Colombia and we are interested in quantifying the thermal and tectonic history of the Northernmost Andes during the Cenozoic in order to understand the complex interaction between the Caribbean, the South American and the Pacific plates. In order to do so, apatite fission track data (by the LA-ICP-MS method) has been used, collected along several traverses and a single vertical profile within the massif. Our results show that the easternmost part of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta exhumed at elevated rates (≥0.2 Km/My) during 65-58 Ma in response to the collision of the Caribbean Plateau with north-western South America. A second pulse of exhumation (≥0.32 Km/My) during 50-40 Ma was probably driven by the underthrusting of the Caribbean Plate beneath northern South America. More southern portions of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (the Sierra Nevada Province) exhumed rapidly during 26-29 Ma (~0.7 Km/My), whereas farther north, the northwestermost corner of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (the Santa Marta Province) exhumed at elevated rates during 30-25 Ma and 25-16 Ma. Our thermochronological data show that the highest exhumation rates within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta progressed towards the northwest via the propagation of NW-verging thrusts. The late Oligocene-Miocene exhumation was mainly a consequence of compression originating at the Pacific margin of South America that also gave rise to uplift and exhumation in other regions of Eastern Colombia (e.g. in the Santander Massif). Major continental faults such as the left-lateral Santa Marta-Bucaramanga Fault have played an important role transferring the deformation, Exhumation of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif is not recorded after ~16 Ma, which is unexpected, given the high elevation and high erosive power of the climate, implying that rock and

  16. Dynamics and energetics of the South Pacific Convergence Zone during FGGE SOP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    The major research objectives are to diagnose the physical processes responsible for the maintenance of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and to examine the role of the SPCZ in the large-scale circulation patterns of the Southern Hemisphere. To accomplish these objectives researchers used several data sources which include: a modified set of Level III-b upper air analyses, originally produced by ECMWF (Vincent, 1982); subjectively analyzed surface analyses for the South Pacific based on island station reports (Vincent, 1985); outgoing longwave radiation values supplied to us by NOAA/NESDIS; and equivalent black body temperatures and precipitation rates derived by Robertson. In the past year researchers found that wave number four plays an inportant role in the Southern Hemisphere tropics during the 15-day period when the sPCZ was a dominant feature, particularly with regard to the baroclinic conversion of potential to kinetic energy (Huang and Vincent, 1985). The convectively-active SPCZ area was found to make a significant contribution to this conversion process; thus, it appears that baroclinic effects and latent heating are important in maintaining the SPCZ. Recently efforts concentrated on two research tasks, an examination of cyclone activity within the SPCZ (Kann, 1985; Vincent, 1985; Vincent and Kann, 1985) and a study of the heat and moisture budgets in the South Pacific (Miller, et al., 1985). It was found that cyclonic disturbances occurred with regularity in the Zone from 10 to 17 January.

  17. Characterizing CMIP5 model spread in simulated rainfall in the Pacific Intertropical Convergence and South Pacific Convergence Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintner, Benjamin R.; Langenbrunner, Baird; Neelin, J. David; Anderson, Bruce T.; Niznik, Matthew J.; Li, Gen; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Current-generation climate models exhibit various errors or biases in both the spatial distribution and intensity of precipitation relative to observations. In this study, empirical orthogonal function analysis is applied to the space-model index domain of precipitation over the Pacific from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations to explore systematic spread of simulated precipitation characteristics across the ensemble. Two significant modes of spread, generically termed principal uncertainty patterns (PUPs), are identified in the December-January-February precipitation climatology: the leading PUP is associated with the meridional width of deep convection, while the second is associated with tradeoffs in precipitation intensity along the South Pacific Convergence Zone, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the spurious Southern Hemisphere ITCZ. An important factor distinguishing PUPs from the analogy to time series analysis is that the modes can reflect either true systematic intermodel variance patterns or internal variability. In order to establish that the PUPS reflect the former, three complementary tests are performed by using preindustrial control simulations: a bootstrap significance test for reproducibility of the intermodel spatial patterns, a check for robustness over very long climatological averages, and a test on the loadings of these patterns relative to interdecadal sampling. Composite analysis based on these PUPs demonstrates physically plausible relationships to CMIP5 ensemble spread in simulated sea surface temperatures (SSTs), circulation, and moisture. Further analysis of atmosphere-only, prescribed SST simulations demonstrates decreased spread in the spatial distribution of precipitation, while substantial spread in intensity remains.

  18. Impact of the Thermal State of the Tropical Western Pacific on Onset Date and Process of the South China Sea Summer Monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since the early or late onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSM) has a large impact on summer monsoon rainfall in East Asia, the mechanism and process of early or late onset of the SCSM are an worthy issue to study. In this paper, the results analyzed by using the observed data show that the onset date and process of the SCSM are closely associated with the thermal state of the tropical western Pacific in spring. When the tropical western Pacific is in a warming state in spring, the western Pacific subtropical high shifts eastward, and twin cyclones are early caused over the Bay of Bengal and Sumatra before the SCSM onset. In this case, the cyclonic circulation located over the Bay of Bengal can be early intensified and become into a strong trough. Thus, the westerly flow and convective activity can be intensified over Sumatra, the Indo-China Peninsula and the South China Sea (SCS) in mid-May. This leads to early onset of the SCSM. In contrast, when the tropical western Pacific is in a cooling state, the western Pacific subtropical high anomalously shifts westward, the twin cyclones located over the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean and Sumatra are weakened, and the twin anomaly anticyclones appear over these regions from late April to mid-May. Thus, the westerly flow and convective activity cannot be early intensified over the Indo-China Peninsula and the SCS. Only when the western Pacific subtropical high moves eastward, the weak trough located over the Bay of Bengal can be intensified and become into a strong trough, the strong southwesterly wind and convective activity can be intensified over the Indo-China Peninsula and the SCS in late May. Thus, this leads to late onset of the SCSM. Moreover, in this paper, the influencing mechanism of the thermal state of the tropical western Pacific on the SCSM onset is discussed further from the Walker circulation anomalies in the different thermal states of the tropical western Pacific.

  19. Food-web inferences of stable isotope spatial patterns in copepods and yellowfin tuna in the pelagic eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Robert J.; Popp, Brian N.; Graham, Brittany S.; López-Ibarra, Gladis A.; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E.; Bocanegra-Castillo, Noemi; Wallsgrove, Natalie J.; Gier, Elizabeth; Alatorre-Ramírez, Vanessa; Ballance, Lisa T.; Fry, Brian

    2010-07-01

    Evaluating the impacts of climate and fishing on oceanic ecosystems requires an improved understanding of the trophodynamics of pelagic food webs. Our approach was to examine broad-scale spatial relationships among the stable N isotope values of copepods and yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares), and to quantify yellowfin tuna trophic status in the food web based on stable-isotope and stomach-contents analyses. Using a generalized additive model fitted to abundance-weighted-average δ 15N values of several omnivorous copepod species, we examined isotopic spatial relationships among yellowfin tuna and copepods. We found a broad-scale, uniform gradient in δ 15N values of copepods increasing from south to north in a region encompassing the eastern Pacific warm pool and parts of several current systems. Over the same region, a similar trend was observed for the δ 15N values in the white muscle of yellowfin tuna caught by the purse-seine fishery, implying limited movement behavior. Assuming the omnivorous copepods represent a proxy for the δ 15N values at the base of the food web, the isotopic difference between these two taxa, “ ΔYFT-COP,” was interpreted as a trophic-position offset. Yellowfin tuna trophic-position estimates based on their bulk δ 15N values were not significantly different than independent estimates based on stomach contents, but are sensitive to errors in the trophic enrichment factor and the trophic position of copepods. An apparent inshore-offshore, east to west gradient in yellowfin tuna trophic position was corroborated using compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids conducted on a subset of samples. The gradient was not explained by the distribution of yellowfin tuna of different sizes, by seasonal variability at the base of the food web, or by known ambit distances (i.e. movements). Yellowfin tuna stomach contents did not show a regular inshore-offshore gradient in trophic position during 2003-2005, but the trophic

  20. Temporal size changes of Miocene planktonic foraminifera Paragloborotalia siakensis in the eastern Equatorial Pacific associated with Mi-events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, H.; Hayashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal changes in test size of planktonic foraminifera have been variously studied as a key for knowing evolution related to paleoceanographic changes. With respect to recent studies, rapid size reducing ('dwarfing') in several species have been observed around the last occurrence horizon. Generically, size changes of calcareous nannofossils have been used for global correlation. However, there are few previous studies of such temporal size changes for Miocene planktonic foraminifera. Paragloborotalia siakensis (LeRoy, 1939) is one of important index species in the middle Miocene. The upper boundary of planktonic foraminieral Zone N.14 is defined by the top occurrence of this species. It is a well known fact that P. siakensis is a dominant species in the tropical high-productivity area such as the eastern equatorial Pacific. The aims of this study are to reveal size changes of P. siakensis collected from IODP Site U1338 in the eastern equatorial Pacific and to correlate the size changes with paleoceanographic events. We measured maximum length of P. siakensis (50-200 individuals for each horizon) at approximately every 0.1 million years from 16.0 to 10.5 Ma. At the same time, we also conducted morphometric analyses of selected five horizons (14.96 Ma, 14.03 Ma, 13.00 Ma, 12.29 Ma and 11.11 Ma) by means of image analysis software (ImageJ). According to the morphometric analyses, the population from Site U1338 should be compared with the holotype of P. siakensis. The maximum length of P. siakensis shows significant reducing ('dwarfing') at cooling intervals inferred by previous studies based on alkenone and isotope data. It is possible to say that dwarfing of P. siakensis at Site U1338 might be induced by shallowing of the thermocline in the eastern equatorial Pacific.

  1. Heterotrophic bacterial production in the South East Pacific: longitudinal trends and coupling with primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Van Wambeke

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variations of heterotrophic bacterial production and phytoplankton primary production were investigated across South East Pacific Ocean (–141° W, –8° S to –72° W, –35° S in November–December 2004. Bacterial production (³H leucine incorporation integrated over the euphotic zone encompassed a wide range of values, from 43 mg C m−2 d−1 in the hyper-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre to 392 mg C m−2 d−1 in the upwelling off Chile. Within the gyre (120° W, 22° S records of low phytoplankton biomass (7 mg TChla m−2 were obtained and in situ 14C based particulate primary production rates were as low as 153 mg C m−2 d−1, thus equal to the value considered as a limit for primary production under strong oligotrophic conditions. In the South Pacific gyre average rates of ³H leucine incorporation rates, and leucine incorporation rates per cell (5–21 pmol L−1 h−1 and 15–56×10−21 mol cell−1 h−1, respectively, were in the same range as those reported for other oligotrophic sub tropical and temperate waters. Rates of dark community respiration, determined at selected stations across the transect varied in a narrow range (42–97 mmol O2 m−2 d−1, except for one station in the upwelling off Chile (245 mmol O2 m−2 d−1. Bacterial growth efficiencies varied between 5 and 38% and bacterial carbon demand largely exceeded 14C particulate primary production across the South Pacific Ocean. Net community production also revealed negative values in the South Pacific Gyre (–13±20 to –37±40 mmol O2 m−2 d−1. Such imbalances being impossible in this area far from any external input, we discuss the techniques involved for determining the coupling between

  2. Health risk assessment from mercury levels in bycatch fish species from the coasts of Guerrero, Mexico (Eastern Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanopoulos-Zarco, P; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Meza-Montenegro, M; Osuna-Sánchez, K; Amezcua-Martínez, F

    2014-09-01

    With the aim of determining Hg distribution in muscle and liver of bycatch fish from Guerrero state in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and assess the potential risk to consumer, Hg was quantified in 14 species of bycatch fish. For the majority of fish the order of Hg levels was liver > muscle. The highest concentration corresponded to the liver of Isopisthus remifer (2.05 µg g(-1)) and the lowest (0.02 µg g(-1)) was detected in muscle of Prionotus sp. The highest hazard quotient (0.75) was found in the Mexican milkfish Micropogonias ectenes; considering all the individuals, mean hazard quotient was 0.336.

  3. Dissolved methane distribution in the South Pacific and the Southern Ocean in austral summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Osamu; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Watanabe, Shuichi; Suzuki, Koji; Noriki, Shinichiro

    2011-07-01

    Oceanic methane (CH4) was examined in the South Pacific and the Southern Ocean from December 2001 to February 2002. From the oligotrophic South Pacific (10°S) to the Subtropical Front (STF), we observed the maximum concentrations of CH4 in the subsurface layer which ranged from 2.7 to 3.9 nmol kg-1. South of the STF, higher levels of CH4 were often detected in both the surface and the subsurface layers. Elevated surface CH4 concentrations (3.4-6.1 nmol kg-1) south of the STF tended to be higher than those north of the STF. Higher CH4 were often concomitant with an increase in chlorophyll a levels in the Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ). Considering that phytoplankton does not generate methane directly, the high CH4 production probably resulted from the grazing processes of Antarctic krill and/or zooplankton fed on phytoplankton and the subsequent microbial methanogenesis in addition to the aerobic CH4 production in the water column. Present results showed a good relation between surface CH4 data (speed.

  4. Evaluating controls on planktonic foraminiferal geochemistry in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kelly Ann; Thunell, Robert C.; Machain-Castillo, Maria Luisa; Fehrenbacher, Jennifer; Spero, Howard J.; Wejnert, Kate; Nava-Fernández, Xinantecatl; Tappa, Eric J.

    2016-10-01

    To explore relationships between water column hydrography and foraminiferal geochemistry in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific, we present δ18O and Mg/Ca records from three species of planktonic foraminifera, Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerina bulloides, and Globorotalia menardii, collected from a sediment trap mooring maintained in the Gulf of Tehuantepec from 2006-2012. Differences in δ18O between mixed-layer species G. ruber and G. bulloides and thermocline-dweller G. menardii track seasonal changes in upwelling. The records suggest an increase in upwelling during the peak positive phase of El Niño, and an overall reduction in stratification over the six-year period. For all three species, Mg/Ca ratios are higher than what has been reported in previous studies, and show poor correlations to calcification temperature. We suggest that low pH (7.6-8.0) and [3 2-CO] values (∼70-120 μmol/kg) in the mixed layer contribute to an overall trend of higher Mg/Ca ratios in this region. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry analyses of G. bulloides with high Mg/Ca ratios (>9 mmol/mol) reveal the presence of a secondary coating of inorganic calcite that has Mg/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios up to an order of magnitude higher than these elemental ratios in the primary calcite, along with elevated Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios. Some of the samples with abnormally high Mg/Ca are found during periods of high primary productivity, suggesting the alteration may be related to changes in carbonate saturation resulting from remineralization of organic matter in oxygen-poor waters in the water column. Although similar shell layering has been observed on fossil foraminifera, this is the first time such alteration has been studied in shells collected from the water column. Our results suggest a role for seawater carbonate chemistry in influencing foraminiferal calcite trace element:calcium ratios prior to deposition on the seafloor, particularly in high-productivity, low

  5. Rain ratio variation in the Tropical Ocean: Tests with surface sediments in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekik, Figen; Loubere, Paul; Richaud, Mathieu

    2007-03-01

    The organic carbon to calcite flux ratio (rain ratio) has a profound effect on the preservation of carbonates in the deep sea and may influence atmospheric pCO 2 over millennia. Unfortunately, the degree to which the rain ratio varies in the more productive regions of the oceans is not well determined with sediment trap data. The rain ratio in the upper ocean appears dominantly linked to diatom productivity, which is not necessarily directly linked to total production and may be regionally variable. However, ballasting and protection of organic carbon by calcareous particles in the deeps may limit ratio variability at the seafloor. Sediment trap data do not exist for the regional determination of rain ratios in key highly productive areas like the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP). To overcome this, we turn to surface sediment composition and accumulation rates as a representation of modern ratio variation. We present 230Thorium ( 230Th)-normalized carbonate, opal, organic carbon and detrital matter accumulation rates from core top samples in the EEP. We demonstrate a novel approach for estimating modern rain ratios from sedimentary proxies by (1) calculating vertical calcite flux from 230Th-normalized carbonate accumulation rates (CARs) with correction for preservation and (2) calculating organic carbon fluxes with multiple algorithms that depend in varying degrees on ballasting. We find that organic carbon flux estimates from algorithms with and without a ballasting function produce results different from one another. Sediment accumulation rates for opal reflect the likely pattern of diatom production. By contrast, the organic carbon accumulation rate does not correlate well with surface ocean productivity or any of our algorithm-based organic carbon flux estimates. Instead, it correlates with the detrital component of the sediments suggesting an allochthonous input to sedimentary organic carbon accumulation in the EEP, which reduces its value as a productivity

  6. Petrology and geochemistry of the San Félix-San Ambrosio islands, Eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper Percker, Oliver; Lara, Luis E.

    2015-04-01

    The San Félix-San Ambrosio (SF-SA) islands, Eastern Pacific, are fragments of two volcanic sequences 20 km apart. Both represent the top of an eroded large shield-volcano which rises over the Nazca Plate. Here, new geochemical and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data are presented in order to understand magmatic evolution and source features. Two units are recognized on the SF island: (1) the Cerro Amarillo unit (CAU) (190±30 ka) formed by a hyaloclastic-tuff cone and basanitic lavas (Ba/Yb=519; Ba/Zr=2.19; La/Yb=49.88; Nb/Ta=17.96; Nb/Y=3.78; Nb/Zr=0.25) with absent or scarce modal content of plagioclase (20%). The hyaloclastic-tuff cone of the CAU contains aphanitic-trachytic lithic fragments of Na-augite and kaersutite, which correspond to the final product of fractional crystallization of olivine+clinopyroxene+Fe-Ti oxides+apatite±plagioclase from alkaline primitive liquids similar to SF-SA lavas. The geochemical data suggest that the islands represent different evolutive stages of a same volcanic intraplate complex. The alkaline to transitional SA lavas (Ba/Yb=249; Ba/Zr=1.60; La/Yb=24.62; Nb/Ta=16.55; Nb/Y=2.22; Nb/Zr=0.19) would represent the shield stage (ca 2.9 Ma), while the basanitic SF lavas the post-erosional stage (ca 0.2 Ma). Considering the Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of the SF-SA lavas, previous works have ruled out a genetic relationship between SF-SA islands and the nearby Nazca Ridge. An heterogeneous mantle plume with mantelic metasomatized recycled lithologies is hypothesized as a possible magmatic source capable of explaining the petrologic differences between the SF-SA islands and between the CAU and PU, in SF island. This research is supported by FONDECYT Project 1141303.

  7. New records of sabellids and serpulids (Polychaeta: Sabellidae, Serpulidae) from the Tropical Eastern Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolando Bastida-Zavala, J.; Rodriguez Buelna, Alondra Sofia; Angel De Leon-Gonzalez, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    in the large expanse of the central and southern Mexican Pacific. Thus, sabellids and serpulids were collected from several shallow water habitats along the coast of Mexican Pacific, such as coastal lagoons, coral reefs, rocky shores and from man-made structures as marinas, piers and ships of several harbors...

  8. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  9. ENSO related SST anomalies and relation with surface heat fluxes over south Pacific and Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Nuncio, M.; Satheesan, K.

    2017-07-01

    The role of surface heat fluxes in Southern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean SST anomalies associated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is studied using observation and ocean reanalysis products. A prominent dipole structure in SST anomaly is found with a positive (negative) anomaly center over south Pacific (65S-45S, 120W-70W) and negative (positive) one over south Atlantic (50S-30S, 30W-0E) during austral summer (DJF) of El Nino (LaNina). During late austral spring-early summer (OND) of El Nino (LaNina), anomalous northerly (southerly) meridional moisture transport and a positive (negative) sea level pressure anomaly induces a suppressed (enhanced) latent heat flux from the ocean surface over south Pacific. This in turn results in a shallower than normal mixed layer depth which further helps in development of the SST anomaly. Mixed layer thins further due to anomalous shortwave radiation during summer and a well developed SST anomaly evolves. The south Atlantic pole exhibits exactly opposite characteristics at the same time. The contribution from the surface heat fluxes to mixed layer temperature change is found to be dominant over the advective processes over both the basins. Net surface heat fluxes anomaly is also found to be maximum during late austral spring-early summer period, with latent heat flux having a major contribution to it. The anomalous latent heat fluxes between atmosphere and ocean surface play important role in the growth of observed summertime SST anomaly. Sea-surface height also shows similar out-of-phase signatures over the two basins and are well correlated with the ENSO related SST anomalies. It is also observed that the magnitude of ENSO related anomalies over the southern ocean are weaker in LaNina years than in El Nino years, suggesting an intensified tropics-high latitude tele-connection during warm phases of ENSO.

  10. Transport corridors as a factor of integration in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of opening the state borders with the stress on its integration function through the constitution of cross-border regions cannot be achieved without a synchronized transport development. For South Eastern European countries, the top priority project would be the formation of pan-European transport corridors defined on Crete in 1994 and amended later on in Helsinki in 1997. Six of ten corridors pass through the territory of South Eastern Europe. Due to their transport and geographical locations, the capitals of the region should represent the key nodes on the main transport directions. Corridor X with its technical, economic and functional characteristics represents the axis of the entire transport network in SE Europe. Formation of this network has as its ultimate goal the functional inter-regional integration with simplified and accelerated transport lines. This also means the open barriers but at the same time, improved and harmonized transport infrastructures and services.

  11. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...

  12. Dynamics of mountain glaciation in the South-Eastern Siberia over the past 160 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Osipov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in areas of glaciers in three South-East Siberian mountainous regions (East Sayan, Baikalsky and Kodar ridges had been analyzed for the period since end of Little Ice Age (LIA to the present time (about 160 years. It was determined that since the end of LIA area of these glaciers reduced, on the aver- age, by 59% (or 0.37% per a year, and their termini retreated by 550 m (3.5 m/year. At the second half of 20th century deglaciation in mountains of South- Eastern Siberia proceeded more intensive than in other Siberian regions. 

  13. Climatic Impact of the Bølling-Allerød over Eastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim Catunda, M. C.; Chiessi, C. M.; Strikis, N. M.; Mulitza, S.; Cruz, F. W., Sr.; Vuille, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    The last deglaciation was marked by large scale and rapid changes in rainfall over the tropics. Previous studies have correlated pulses of increased terrigenous input off semi arid northeastern South America with abrupt cold events in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. However, deglacial climate changes in other areas of South America are still not resolved. Here we reconstruct deglacial (23-11.5 cal ka BP) continental conditions over eastern Brazil based on (i) Ti/Ca of a radiocarbon dated marine sediment core as a proxy for Doce River (draining eastern Brazil) terrigenous input, and (ii) δ18O of a suite of U-Th dated stalagmites from eastern Brazil. Our marine core was recovered from 1100 m water depth on the tropical Brazilian continental slope, while our stalagmites come from Lapa Sem Fim cave. Both the Doce River and Lapa Sem Fim cave are located in the highly populated and economically active eastern Brazil, where most of the rainfall is related to the activity of the South America Monsoon System (SAMS). The Ti/Ca record is relatively stable showing high proportions of Ti in relationship to Ca throughout the deglacial, with a major excursion towards lower values indicating a decrease in terrigenous input synchronous to the Bølling-Allerød. Interestingly, speleothem δ18O also record this major excursion as less negative values. Together, our results suggest a major decrease in precipitation likely related to a weakening of the SAMS. We further compared our results with the output of the SYNTRACE run of CCSM3 fully coupled climate model with transient forcing for the last deglaciation. Geochemical records and model output show a very good coupling and suggest that the eastern Brazil experienced the driest period of the whole last deglaciation during the Bølling-Allerød and this dry spell was indeed related to a decreased SAMS intensity.

  14. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang [Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki 3609, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan)

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The {sup 137}Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The {sup 137}Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m{sup -3} in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m{sup -3} in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of {sup 137}Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of {sup 137}Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of {sup 137}Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr{sup -1} in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr{sup -1} in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr{sup -1} in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. {sup 239+240}Pu activities and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using

  15. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+24}Pu and {sup 24}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masatoshi [Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki 3609, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan)]. E-mail: m_yamada@nirs.go.jp; Zheng Jian [Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki 3609, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan); Wang Zhongliang [Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki 3609, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guanshui Road 46, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The {sup 137}Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The {sup 137}Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m{sup -3} in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m{sup -3} in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of {sup 137}Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of {sup 137}Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of {sup 137}Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr{sup -1} in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr{sup -1} in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr{sup -1} in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. {sup 239+24}Pu activities and {sup 24}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The {sup 24}Pu / {sup 239}Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199 {+-} 0.026 to 0.248 {+-} 0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by

  16. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  17. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  18. Glazed pottery of the South-Eastern Crimea from the excavations of the Tsarev settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Iudin Nikita I.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the findings of glazed ceramics produced in the South-Eastern Crimea, and then excavated at the Tsarev settlement. Their typology, chronology and topography are being introduced by the author. On the basis of the 165 analyzed fragments and whole vessels the author suggests a 4-level classification scheme, which includes the production center, functional purpose of the items, morphological characteristics and ornamentation of the vessels. Basic types and variations of ve...

  19. Vulnerability and resilience of competing land-based livelihoods in south eastern Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Murungweni, C.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: vulnerability; resilience; livelihood; drought; Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area; south eastern Zimbabwe. Vulnerability and resilience have emerged as powerful analytical concepts in the study of socio-ecological systems. In this research these concepts are used to enhance our understanding of heterogeneous rural livelihoods in a semi-arid area on the western border of protected wildlife areas in Zimbabwe’s southeast lowveld. The purpose of this thesis is to deve...

  20. The 8200 calBP ‘climate event’ and the process of neolithisation in south-eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Budja

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate anomalies between 8247–8086 calBP are discussed in relation to the process of transition farming and to demographic dynamics and population trajectories in south-eastern Europe.

  1. Mapping Economic Development: The South Seas Government and Sugar Production in Japan’s South Pacific Mandate, 1919–1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti Ngo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan acquired the Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Island chains as a League of Nations mandate following World War I. Why did the local administration (the South Seas Government or Nanyōchō heavily subsidize the establishment of a sugar industry? While the South Seas Government did not explicitly state why it chose to support the sugar industry despite the wealth of oceanic resources surrounding the islands, imperial maps of the South Pacific produced by the Japanese navy and the South Seas Government provide a window into how both parties envisioned and planned for the economic future of the mandate. These maps included information regarding the available natural resources, land, and culture level of the Micronesian population. The author argues that in depicting the islands as spaces where a “primitive” nonagricultural population failed to take advantage of the islands’ resources, mapmakers and officials planned for the mass migration of Japanese labor to the mandate in order to support a newly established sugar industry.

  2. Glazed pottery of the South-Eastern Crimea from the excavations of the Tsarev settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudin Nikita I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings of glazed ceramics produced in the South-Eastern Crimea, and then excavated at the Tsarev settlement. Their typology, chronology and topography are being introduced by the author. On the basis of the 165 analyzed fragments and whole vessels the author suggests a 4-level classification scheme, which includes the production center, functional purpose of the items, morphological characteristics and ornamentation of the vessels. Basic types and variations of vessels’ shapes are being described according to three major chronological periods: 1. Early 1300s, 2. 1330s, 3. The second half of the 14th century. Notably, the earliest findings of ceramics dated by the first two periods were located on the South-Eastern part of the Tsarev settlement. Most of all, its are the bowls on a circular underpan lacking ornamentation and covered with green transparent glazing. Since the second half of the 14th century the vessels from the South-Eastern Crimea had been widely spread on the entire area of the settlement. The assortment of vessels’ shapes used at this time along with jars and bowls, was now widened by aftobes and apothecary amphoras.

  3. Drought reconstruction in eastern Hulun Buir steppe, China and its linkages to the sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Bao, Guang; Bao, Ming; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Lizhi; Ge, Yuxiang; Bao, Wurigen; Tian, Heng

    2016-01-01

    A tree-ring width chronology covering the period 1780-2013 AD was developed from Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica for the eastern Hulun Buir steppe, a region located on the edge of the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Climate-growth response analysis revealed drought stress to be the primary limiting factor for tree growth. Therefore, the mean February-July standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was reconstructed over the period 1819-2013, where the reconstruction could account for 32.8% of the variance in the instrumental record over the calibration period 1953-2011. Comparison with other tree-ring-based moisture sequences from nearby areas confirmed a high degree of confidence in our reconstruction. Severe drought intervals since the late 1970s in our study area consisted with the weakening East Asian summer monsoon, which modulating regional moisture conditions in semi-arid zone over northern China. Drought variations in the study area significantly correlated with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Pacific Ocean, suggesting a possible connection of regional hydroclimatic variations to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The potential influence associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was primarily analyzed.

  4. Resurrection of the name Albula pacifica (Beebe, 1942 for the shafted bonefish (Albuliformes: Albulidae from the eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pfeiler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The name Albula nemoptera (Fowler, 1911 is currently applied to the Shafted, or Threadfin, Bonefish (Albuliformes: Albulidae inhabiting the tropical coastal waters of both the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific. In the present paper I provide a brief review of the taxonomy and nomenclature of A. nemoptera, and argue that the available morphological, biogeographical and molecular evidence supports resurrecting the name A. pacifica (Beebe, 1942 for the population of A. nemoptera from the eastern Pacific. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 839-844. Epub 2008 June 30.El nombre Albula nemoptera (Fowler, 1911 se aplica actualmente a las poblaciones del macabí de hebra (Albuliformes: Albulidae de las aguas costeras tropicales del Atlántico Occidental y el Pacifico Oriental. En este artículo se presenta una revisión breve de la taxonomía y nomenclatura de A. nemoptera, y se sugiere que la evidencia morfológica, biogeográfica y molecular apoya el reestablecimiento del nombre A. pacifica (Beebe, 1942 para la población de A. nemoptera del Pacifico Oriental.

  5. Growth and mortality rates of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Perciformes: Scombridae, in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zhu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth parameters were estimated for the yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788. Atotal of 443 individuals were sampled from China longline fisheries in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean from February to November 2006. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L∞ = 175.9 cm fork length, k = 0.52 year-1, and t0 = 0.19 year. The total mortality rate (Z was estimated to be from 1.19 to 1.93 year-1, the fishing mortality (F and the natural mortality (M were calculated to be 0.91 year-1 and 0.65 year-1, respectively. The rate of exploitation (U was estimated to be 0.46. This study provides estimates of growth and mortality rate for yellowfin tuna in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean, which may be used as biological input parameters in future stock assessments for the oceanic region. However, age analysis with other techniques, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are also needed.

  6. A Review of the Systematics of Angel Sharks Emphasizing the Species of the Eastern Pacific Region with a Modified Set of Morphometrics for Order Squatiniformes

    OpenAIRE

    Alioto, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Members of the monofamilial chondrichthyan order Squatiniformes, commonly known as angel sharks, sand devils, ange de mer, and angelotes, are primarily benthic dwelling sharks found mainly in temperate and sub-tropical parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Squatiniformes are very easily recognized from other shark-like fishes, but the individual species within the order are much more difficult to distinguish from each other. In the eastern North Pacific (ENP) region, three species descrip...

  7. Revision of the genus Lolliguncula Steenstrup, 1881 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae off the Pacific Coast of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Cardoso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the species from the genus LolligunculaSteentrup, 1881 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae in Southeastern Pacific Ocean are reviewed. The presence of Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula panamensisBerry, 1911, Lolliguncula (Loliolopsis diomedeae Hoyle, 1911 and Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula argusBrakoniecki and Roper, 1985 are confirmed from Mexican waters to Perú and the species Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula arguscollected during a cruise of the R/V Anton Bruunfrom 1966 off the coast of South America is recorded for the first time in Peruvian waters. A key to identification of Pacific species is given. We report a diagnostic feature with taxonomic remarks of these species. Updated information on the distribution, biology, and fisheries of each species also is discussed.

  8. South Pacific Island Forum on Trade And Investment Held in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The 8th Western China International Economic and Trade Fair (WCIETF) was held in Chengdu,Sichuan Province from May 24 to 28. During the fair,the South Pacific Island Forum on Trade and Investment jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries was held successively in Chengdu and Yibing on May 26 and May 27. Invited by the CPAFFC,ambassadors or charge d affaires of Fiji,Papua New Guinea,Tonga and Vanuatu that had set up embassies in China and the representatives of the Trade Office of the Pacific Islands Forum attended the fair and the forum.

  9. An Indo-West Pacific `zooxanthella' invasive to the western Atlantic finds its way to the Eastern Pacific via an introduced Caribbean coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJeunesse, Todd C.; Forsman, Zac H.; Wham, Drew C.

    2016-06-01

    Phylogenetic evidence indicates that Siderastrea glynni, a species of coral thought to be endemic to the Eastern Pacific, is actually more likely to be Si. siderea introduced from the Atlantic. Our analyses of the endosymbionts of Si. glynni ( Symbiodinium) substantiate this as an introduced species; attempts to conserve and list Si. glynni as an endangered species are probably unwarranted. The specimens we examined harbored Symbiodinium trenchii and some also contained Sy. goreaui, symbionts that occur with Si. siderea in the Atlantic. Moreover, the genotype of Sy. trenchii (a single strain defined by ten diallelic microsatellite loci) was genetically distinct from genotypes of Sy. ` glynni,' also in Clade D, found abundantly in colonies of Pocillopora throughout the region. Furthermore, the strain of Sy. trenchii grouped with genotypes from the Greater Caribbean, an inbred population that was recently introduced from the Indo-West Pacific. This secondary introduction suggests that strains of Caribbean Sy. trenchii are capable of dispersal into new reef coral communities where this symbiont does not presently exist.

  10. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: northwest Atlantic through eastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas B Rusch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The world's oceans contain a complex mixture of micro-organisms that are for the most part, uncharacterized both genetically and biochemically. We report here a metagenomic study of the marine planktonic microbiota in which surface (mostly marine water samples were analyzed as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition. These samples, collected across a several-thousand km transect from the North Atlantic through the Panama Canal and ending in the South Pacific yielded an extensive dataset consisting of 7.7 million sequencing reads (6.3 billion bp. Though a few major microbial clades dominate the planktonic marine niche, the dataset contains great diversity with 85% of the assembled sequence and 57% of the unassembled data being unique at a 98% sequence identity cutoff. Using the metadata associated with each sample and sequencing library, we developed new comparative genomic and assembly methods. One comparative genomic method, termed "fragment recruitment," addressed questions of genome structure, evolution, and taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity, as well as the biochemical diversity of genes and gene families. A second method, termed "extreme assembly," made possible the assembly and reconstruction of large segments of abundant but clearly nonclonal organisms. Within all abundant populations analyzed, we found extensive intra-ribotype diversity in several forms: (1 extensive sequence variation within orthologous regions throughout a given genome; despite coverage of individual ribotypes approaching 500-fold, most individual sequencing reads are unique; (2 numerous changes in gene content some with direct adaptive implications; and (3 hypervariable genomic islands that are too variable to assemble. The intra-ribotype diversity is organized into genetically isolated populations that have overlapping but independent distributions, implying distinct environmental preference. We present novel methods for measuring the genomic

  11. A new Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several groups of copepods that are teleost parasites, the siphonostomatoid family Caligidae is by far the most widespread and diverse. With more than 108 nominal species, the caligid genus Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann is one of the most speciose. There are no reports of this genus in Costa Rican waters. A new species of Lepeophtheirus is herein described based on female specimens collected from plankton samples in waters off Bahía Wafer, isla del Coco, an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The new species, L. alvaroi sp. nov., has some affinities with other congeners bearing a relatively short abdomen, a wider than long genital complex and a 3-segmented exopod of leg 4. it differs from most of these species by the presence of an unbranched maxillular process and by the relative lengths of the terminal claws of leg 4, with two equally long elements. it is most closely related to two other Eastern Pacific species: L. dissimulatus Wilson, 1905 and L. clarionensis Shiino, 1959. it differs from these species by the proportions and shape of the genital complex, the shape of the sternal furca, the relative length of the maxillar segments, the absence of a pectiniform process on the distal maxillar segment, the length of leg 4 and the armature of leg 5. The new species represents the first Lepeophtheirus described from Costa Rican waters of the Pacific. The low diversity of this genus in this tropi- cal region is explained by its tendency to prefer hosts from temperate latitudes. Until further evidence is found, the host of this Lepeophtheirus species remains unknown.

  12. ‘Rethinking the geography of art history’, Jerzy Malinowski (ed., History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rampley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the conference proceedings History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. It focuses on the importance of the publication, and the fact that it highlights the almost complete ignorance of the historiography of art of central and eastern Europe, and also identifies a recurrent methodological deficit in many of the contributions, namely, their tendency to rely on a positivistic documentation of writers and texts with little analysis of their conceptual, aesthetic and ideological implications. The conference is thus an invaluable platform for further study, and also makes clear the need for more sophisticated critical interpretations.

  13. Economic valuation of ecosystem services from coral reefs in the South Pacific: taking stock of recent experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurans, Yann; Pascal, Nicolas; Binet, Thomas; Brander, Luke; Clua, Eric; David, Gilbert; Rojat, Dominique; Seidl, Andrew

    2013-02-15

    The economic valuation of coral reefs ecosystem services is currently seen as a promising approach to demonstrate the benefits of sustainable management of coral ecosystems to policymakers and to provide useful information for improved decisions. Most coral reefs economic studies have been conducted in the United States, Southeast Asia and the Caribbean, and only a few have covered the South Pacific region. In this region, coral reefs are essential assets for small island developing states as well as for developed countries. Accordingly, a series of ecosystem services valuations has been carried out recently in the South Pacific, to try and supply decision-makers with new information. Applying ecosystem services valuation to the specific ecological, social, economic and cultural contexts of the South Pacific is however not straightforward. This paper analyses how extant valuations address the various management challenges of coral reef regions in general and more specifically for the South Pacific. Bearing in mind that economic valuation has to match policy-making contexts, we emphasize a series of specific considerations when conducting and applying ecosystem services valuation in South Pacific ecological and social contexts. Finally, the paper examines the decision-making situations in which extant valuations took place. We conclude that, although ecosystem valuations have been effectively used as a means to raise awareness with respect to coral reef conservation, methodologies will have to be further developed, with multidisciplinary inputs, if they are to provide valuable inputs in local and technical decision-making.

  14. Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

    1990-08-01

    Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse.

  15. Introduction to the project VAHINE: VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of diazotroph derived N in the south wEst Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Sophie; Moutin, Thierry; Rodier, Martine; Grisoni, Jean-Michel; Louis, Francis; Folcher, Eric; Bourgeois, Bertrand; Boré, Jean-Michel; Renaud, Armelle

    2016-05-01

    On the global scale, N2 fixation provides the major external source of reactive nitrogen to the surface ocean, surpassing atmospheric and riverine inputs, and sustains ˜ 50 % of new primary production in oligotrophic environments. The main goal of the VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of diazotroph derived N in the south wEst Pacific (VAHINE) project was to study the fate of nitrogen newly fixed by diazotrophs (or diazotroph-derived nitrogen) in oceanic food webs, and how it impacts heterotrophic bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton dynamics, stocks and fluxes of biogenic elements and particle export. Three large-volume ( ˜ 50 m3) mesocosms were deployed in a tropical oligotrophic ecosystem (the New Caledonia lagoon, south-eastern Pacific) and intentionally fertilized with ˜ 0.8 µM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate diazotrophy and follow subsequent ecosystem changes. VAHINE was a multidisciplinary project involving close collaborations between biogeochemists, molecular ecologist, chemists, marine opticians and modellers. This introductory paper describes in detail the scientific objectives of the project as well as the implementation plan: the mesocosm description and deployment, the selection of the study site (New Caledonian lagoon), and the logistical and sampling strategy. The main hydrological and biogeochemical conditions of the study site before the mesocosm deployment and during the experiment itself are described, and a general overview of the papers published in this special issue is presented.

  16. Patterns of glacial-interglacial vegetation and climate variability in eastern South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Lydie; Caley, Thibaut; Malaizé, Bruno; Giraudeau, Jacques

    2010-05-01

    Vegetation is an integrated part of the earth system and our understanding needs records of its glacial-interglacial variability. Although the data coverage for South Africa is slightly better than for some other parts of Africa, there are only very few records that allow us a glimpse of the vegetation history and development through one or more late Quaternary climate cycles. The existing evidence is fragmentary and in some cases contradictory. Marine sediments can offer here continuous sequences that cover large periods of time and provide a record of a signal that integrates rather large continental regions. Core MD96-2048 has been cored off the Limpopo River mouth at 26°10'S 34°01'E in 660 m water depth. This area is under the double influence of continental discharge and Agulhas current water advection. The sedimentation is slow and continuous. The upper 5 meter (down till 250 ka) have been analysed for pollen and spores at millennial resolution. The terrestrial pollen assemblages indicate that during interglacials the vegetation of eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique largely consisted of evergreen and deciduous forests with an increase of dry deciduous forest and open woodland during interglacial optima. During glacials open mountainous shrubland extended. The pattern strongly suggests a shifting of altitudinal vegetation belts in the mountains primarily depending on temperature, although the decline of forested areas during glacial times might also be the effect of low atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. This pattern in eastern South Africa differs from that suggested for western South Africa, where extension of the winter rain climate seems likely, and corroborates findings of increased C4 vegetation during the Glacial of eastern South Africa. The spread of dry deciduous forest and open woodland suggests a hot and dry climate during interglacial optima. The vegetation and climate of eastern South Africa seems to follow a mid to high

  17. Tar pollution of beaches in the Indian Ocean, the south China Sea and the South Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostdam, B.L.

    1984-07-01

    During 1978, a comparative survey was made of the degree of pollution of 265 beaches in the Indian Ocean, the South China Sea, the South Pacific and along the Southern California Bight, the Mid-Atlantic Bight and the Dutch North Sea. Part of the results were published recently and elicited a number of requests for the full data set, which is, therefore, summarized in this note. Generalized observations on tar pollution are: (1) strandings from individual spills could rarely be correlated over distances longer than a few km; (2) tar is concentrated in distinct bands parallel to the water line; (3) there is a pronounced trend of vertical zonation of tar from smaller, well-rounded and soft particles near the water line to larger, flattened and hardened lumps landward; (4) buried tar is relatively uncommon, suggesting a residence time of around 30-90 days in the tropics; (5) tar concentrations display high variability indicating the need for large numbers of samples; (6) prevailing wind regimes are the main cause for seasonal variations in tar strandings. The highest beach tar concentrations were found in areas of oil production or near tanker routes, especially in enclosed seas; Persian Gulf, Red Sea and South China Sea.

  18. Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in South Eastern Africa coupled to sea surface temperature variations in the Western Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, L.M.; Caley, T.; Kim, J.H.; Castañeda, I.S; Malaize, B.; Giraudeau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the vegetation of South Africa might elucidate the climate system at the edge of the tropics between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. However, vegetation records covering a full glacial cycle have only been published from the eastern South Atlantic. We present a

  19. South East Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20° S during VOCALS-REx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Allen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx was conducted from 15 October to 15 November 2008 in the South East Pacific (SEP region to investigate interactions between land, sea and atmosphere in this unique tropical eastern ocean environment and to improve the skill of global and regional models in representing the region. This study synthesises selected aircraft, ship and surface site observations from VOCALS-REx to statistically summarise and characterise the atmospheric composition and variability of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL and Free Troposphere (FT along the 20° S parallel between 70° W and 85° W. Significant zonal gradients in mean MBL sub-micron aerosol particle size and composition, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone were seen over the campaign, with a generally more variable and polluted coastal environment and a less variable, more pristine remote maritime regime. Gradients in aerosol and trace gas concentrations were observed to be associated with strong gradients in cloud droplet number. The FT was often more polluted in terms of trace gases than the MBL in the mean; however increased variability in the FT composition suggests an episodic nature to elevated concentrations. This is consistent with a complex vertical interleaving of airmasses with diverse sources and hence pollutant concentrations as seen by generalised back trajectory analysis, which suggests contributions from both local and long-range sources. Furthermore, back trajectory analysis demonstrates that the observed zonal gradients both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere are characteristic of marked changes in airmass history with distance offshore – coastal boundary layer airmasses having been in recent contact with the local land surface and remote maritime airmasses having resided over ocean for in excess of ten days. Boundary layer composition to the east of 75° W was observed to be dominated by coastal

  20. Biochemical and volatile organic compound profile of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) cultivated in the Eastern Scheldt and Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houcke, van Jasper; Medina, Isabel; Linssen, Jozef; Luten, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two important different geographical cultivation areas in the Netherlands (Eastern Scheldt and Lake Grevelingen) on the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

  1. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    MacIsaac, Hugh J.; De Roy, Emma M.; Leung, Brian; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Ruiz, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to ...

  2. Chemical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN246 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-15 to 2010-03-05 (NODC Accession 0117396)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0117396 includes chemical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN246 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific...

  3. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1102 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2011-02-19 to 2011-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0130849)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0130849 includes chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1102 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific...

  4. Physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1204 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2012-04-03 to 2012-04-18 (NCEI Accession 0138036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0138036 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1204 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  5. Spatial and temporal variability in nutrients and carbon uptake during 2004 and 2005 in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, A. P.; Chai, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Eastern Equatorial Pacific plays a great role in the global carbon budget due to its enhanced biological productivity linked to the equatorial upwelling. However, as confirmed by the Equatorial Biocomplexity cruises in 2004 and 2005, nutrient upwelling supply varies strongly, also due......-temporal variability in primary productivity. We demonstrate for the first time that Tropical Instability Waves can be directly linked to increased NO3 and Si(OH)4 upwelling supply and enhanced nutrient and carbon uptake, in particular by large phytoplankton such as diatoms. In order to fully...... to the Tropical Instability Waves. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of spatial and temporal variability in the biological uptake of NO3, Si(OH)4 and carbon in this region, and to evaluate the role of biological and physical interactions controlling these processes over seasonal...

  6. Distribution, habitat preferences and population sizes of two threatened tree ferns, Cyathea cunninghamii and Cyathea x marcescens, in south-eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Ross J.; Downing, Alison; Brownsey, Patrick; Cameron, David

    2013-01-01

    The distribution, population sizes and habitat preferences of the rare tree ferns Cyathea cunninghamii Hook.f. (Slender Tree Fern) and F1 hybrid Cyathea x marcescens N.A.Wakef. (Skirted Tree Fern) in south-eastern Australia are described, together with the extension of the known distribution range of Cyathea cunninghamii from eastern Victoria into south-eastern New South Wales. Floristic and ecological data, encompassing most of the known habitat types, vegetation associations and population ...

  7. A new and presumably now extinct species of Millepora (Hydrozoa) in the eastern Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdt, de W.H.; Glynn, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    A new species of hydrocoral, Millepora boschmai, is described from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Pacific Panamá. This species was first found in the early 1970's, but it has disappeared from this area as a result of the severe 1982-83 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. Because the species has never

  8. Tropical Cyclone Wind Probability Forecasting for the Eastern North Pacific (EPWINDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    OFFICER DIRECTOR CHAIRMAN ATTN: WEATHER SERVICE OFFICE CENTRAL PACIFIC HURRICANE CEN. DLPI. 0F METEOROLOGY MARINE CORPS AIR STATION NWS, NOAA CALIfOrNIA...INSTITUTO DE GEOFISICA DIRECTOR HONOLULU, HI 96822 U.N.A.M. BIBLIOTECA NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER TORRE DE CIENCIAS, 3ER PISO NOAA, GABLES ONE TOWER CHAIRMAN

  9. Annual egg production rates of calanoid copepod species on the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Eva R.; Franco-Gordo, Carmen; Palomares-García, Ricardo; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first estimations of calanoid copepod egg production rates (EPR) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific over an annual cycle (January-December 2011). Gravid females were collected twice monthly and incubated for 12 h without food to estimate EPR, weight-specific fecundity (Gf), spawning success (SS, percentage of females to spawn out of the total species incubated per month and season) and egg hatching success (EHS). This study reports the average EPR of 10 species and the monthly EPR and Gf of four planktonic calanoid copepods (Centropages furcatus, Temora discaudata, Pontellina sobrina, and Nannocalanus minor) that spawned with enough frequency to infer their seasonal reproductive patterns. These species showed distinct seasonal reproductive strategies. Most copepod species spawned sporadically with large EPR variability, while three copepod species reproduced throughout the year (C. furcatus, T. discaudata and P. sobrina) and N. minor spawned only during the mixed period (Feb-May). The four species had relatively similar average EPR (C. furcatus 16, T. discaudata 18, P. sobrina 13, and N. minor 12 eggs fem-1 day-1). These are the first EPR estimations of P. sobrina and its previously known reproductive period is expanded. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to analyze EPR and species abundance of all calanoid copepods (40 spp.) collected throughout the time series in relation to temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth (MLD), dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations to identify the variables that best explained the copepod abundance variability. Temperature, Chl-a, and salinity had the strongest effect on the biological variables, linked to seasonal and episodic upwelling-downwelling processes in the surveyed area. As a result of moderate upwelling events and seasonal variation of environmental conditions, it appears relatively few species are capable of maintaining continuous reproduction under the relatively higher

  10. Climate and streamflow characteristics for selected streamgages in eastern South Dakota, water years 1945–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Stamm, John F.

    2015-11-02

    Upward trends in precipitation and streamflow have been observed in the northeastern Missouri River Basin during the past century, including the area of eastern South Dakota. Some of the identified upward trends were anomalously large relative to surrounding parts of the northern Great Plains. Forcing factors for streamflow trends in eastern South Dakota are not well understood, and it is not known whether streamflow trends are driven primarily by climatic changes or various land-use changes. Understanding the effects that climate (specifically precipitation and temperature) has on streamflow characteristics within a region will help to better understand additional factors such as land-use alterations that may affect the hydrology of the region. To aid in this understanding, a study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the East Dakota Water Development District and James River Water Development District, to assess trends in climate and streamflow characteristics at 10 selected streamgages in eastern South Dakota for water years (WYs) 1945–2013 (69 years) and WYs 1980–2013 (34 years). A WY is the 12-month period, October 1 through September 30, and is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. One streamgage is on the Whetstone River, a tributary to the Minnesota River, and the other streamgages are in the James, Big Sioux, and Vermillion River Basins. The watersheds for two of the James River streamgages extend into North Dakota, and parts of the watersheds for two of the Big Sioux River streamgages extend into Minnesota and Iowa. The objectives of this study were to document trends in streamflow and precipitation in these watersheds, and characterize the residual streamflow variability that might be attributed to factors other than precipitation. Residuals were computed as the departure from a locally-weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) model. Significance of trends was based on the Mann-Kendall nonparametric test at a 0

  11. Groundwater intensive use and mining in south-eastern peninsular Spain: Hydrogeological, economic and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Andreu-Rodes, José Miguel; Aragón, Ramón; Estrela, Teodoro; Ferrer, Javier; García-Aróstegui, José Luis; Manzano, Marisol; Rodríguez-Hernández, Luis; Sahuquillo, Andrés; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-15

    Intensive groundwater development is a common circumstance in semiarid and arid areas. Often abstraction exceeds recharge, thus continuously depleting reserves. There is groundwater mining when the recovery of aquifer reserves needs more than 50years. The MASE project has been carried out to compile what is known about Spain and specifically about the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. The objective was the synthetic analysis of available data on the hydrological, economic, managerial, social, and ethical aspects of groundwater mining. Since the mid-20th century, intensive use of groundwater in south-eastern Spain allowed extending and securing the areas with traditional surface water irrigation of cash crops and their extension to former dry lands, taking advantage of good soils and climate. This fostered a huge economic and social development. Intensive agriculture is a main activity, although tourism plays currently an increasing economic role in the coasts. Many aquifers are relatively high yielding small carbonate units where the total groundwater level drawdown may currently exceed 300m. Groundwater storage depletion is estimated about 15km(3). This volume is close to the total contribution of the Tagus-Segura water transfer, but without large investments paid for with public funds. Seawater desalination complements urban supply and part of cash crop cultivation. Reclaimed urban waste water is used for irrigation. Groundwater mining produces benefits but associated to sometimes serious economic, administrative, legal and environmental problems. The use of an exhaustible vital resource raises ethical concerns. It cannot continue under the current legal conditions. A progressive change of water use paradigm is the way out, but this is not in the mind of most water managers and politicians. The positive and negative results observed in south-eastern Spain may help to analyse other areas under similar hydrogeological conditions in a less

  12. Prevalence and intensity of Paragonimus uterobilateralis infection among school children in Oban village, South Eastern, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochigbo, S O; Ekanem, E E; Udo, J J

    2007-10-01

    A survey of Paragonimus infection among primary school children aged 6-10 years in Oban village, Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria, was conducted. A total of 198 children were examined:112 (56.6%) were boys while 86 (43.4%) were girls. Eleven of the subjects were sputum positive for paragonimus eggs, giving an overall prevalence rate of 5.5%. The findings show that paragonimiasis is a significant health problem in South Eastern Nigeria; the risk of infection could be minimized by the proper cooking of fresh water crabs and crayfish before consumption.

  13. ANTHROPIC AND HABITATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN PART OF THE TRASCĂU MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Adina LAZĂR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper represents an analysis and an overview of the anthropic component from the south-eastern part of the Trascău Mountains, its evolution as well as of the habitational resources (in terms of elements of the locative fund identified within the analyzed unit. The traditional values of these rural communities, the touristical potential and the uniqueness of the analyzed region recommend the implementation of adequate regional management measures in order to assert a sustainable development of the local communities strongly correlated with the biotic and abiotic component of the entire geocomplex of the Trascău Mountains.

  14. Trans Pacific Stategic Economic Partnership With Japan, South Korea and China Integrate: General Equilibrium Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP is a high standard and broad based Free Trade Agreement that aims to integrate the economies of the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, the US is pressing Japan to join the group. Japan is considering joining the TPP because of the dual considerations of its own economy and the political situation in East Asia. While, South Korea has yet to agree to join the TPP over concerns that their agriculture will be seriously affected. In addition, Japan and the US are employing both military and economic strategies to isolate China. However, China has contacted those already participating in TPP negotiations and shares some common views with Japan and South Korea on agricultural issues. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to assess the possibility of reaching full trade liberalization or trade creation through the TPP with the addition of new member countries including Japan, Korea and China. Approach: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE or Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model is used to evaluate the economic effects of a TPP agreement among TPP countries with trade creation. In this study, seven cases were created to distinguish the welfare and trade effects of policy changes. Results: We found that the new member countries among TPP countries with East Asia countries including Japan, South Korea and China would benefit from the FTA among member countries. They gain much more from the real GDP and welfare than the TPP agreement, particularly Vietnam and Korea. This is particularly a fact for trade in the meat product sectors between TPP with Japan, Korea and China, which most of them gain benefit. Conclusion: Therefore, the TPP would benefit both economies and welfare with the eliminate tariff rate.

  15. Acoustic detections of singing humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the eastern North Pacific during their northbound migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, T F; McDonald, M; Barlow, J

    1999-07-01

    Numerous (84) acoustic detections of singing humpback whales were made during a spring (08 March-09 June 1997) research cruise to study sperm whales in the central and eastern North Pacific. Over 15,000 km of track-line was surveyed acoustically using a towed hydrophone array. Additionally, 83 sonobuoys were deployed throughout the study area. Detection rates were greatest in late March, near the Hawaiian Islands, and in early April, northeast of the islands. Only one detection was made after April. Detection rates for sonobuoys were unequal in three equally divided longitudinal regions of the study area. Two high density clusters of detections occurred approximately 1200-2000 km northeast of the Hawaiian Islands and were attributed to a large aggregation of migrating animals. The distribution of these detections corroborates findings of previous studies. It is possible that these animals were maintaining acoustic contact during migration. Two unexpected clusters of singing whales were detected approximately 900 to 1000 km west of central and southern California. The location of these detections may indicate a previously undocumented migration route between an offshore breeding area, such as the Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico, and possible feeding areas in the western North Pacific or Bering Sea.

  16. Environmental noise and annoyance in adults: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Lekaviciute

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work on the adverse effects of noise on annoyance in adults is well documented in Western Europe, but there is a knowledge gap concerning this type of research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The objective of this review was to present findings and to propose future research directions for the studies on the effects of environmental noise on annoyance in adults conducted in these countries. After systematic search in accessible databases, scientific journals, conference proceedings, international and national reports in English and other languages, the authors identified 29 papers to be included to this review: 24 papers related to annoyance due to road traffic noise and 5 papers related to annoyance from other noise sources. In most of the identified studies, a cross-sectional design prevailed and the evaluations were mainly performed subjectively. The lack of recent annoyance studies related to railway and aircraft traffic noise was identified. Only two studies from NIS countries used noise exposure data for the evaluation of population annoyance according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END. Capacity building in CEE, SEE, and NIS countries is necessary to acquire the "know-how" on how to implement and use the different scenarios for evaluating population annoyance by environmental noise, depending on the availability and suitability of noise exposure data. Particular attention should be given to the possible use of END noise exposure data, where applicable.

  17. Noise and children′s health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children′s health in relation to noise exposure.

  18. Evidence of Enhanced Respired Carbon in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Deep-Waters over the last 30,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umling, N. E.; Thunell, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid decreases in glacial deep water reservoir ages have been observed in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP; this study), North Pacific (Rae et al., 2014), Southwest Pacific (Sikes et al., 2016), and North Atlantic (Skinner et al., 2013). It has been hypothesized that release of a deep ocean 14C-depleted, respired-carbon reservoir to the surface ocean and atmosphere is the most likely mechanism for the observed increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations recorded in ice cores during the last glacial-interglacial transition (Broecker and Barker, 2007). This study examines whether oxygenation, organic carbon flux, and carbonate chemistry in the EEP deep-waters reflect an increase in respired carbon associated with recorded 14C-depletions using isotopic and trace element records from three Panama Basin cores (2,650-3,200 m water-depth). An increase in glacial deep-water respired carbon storage would result in a shift of DIC speciation towards lower carbonate ion concentrations along with deoxygenation of bottom waters. Specifically, we use the boron to calcium (B/Ca) and uranium to calcium (U/Ca) ratios of the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi to reconstruct deep-water carbonate ion concentration (Yu and Elderfield, 2007; Raizsch et al., 2011). Additionally, bottom water oxygenation is estimated from the difference in δ13C of benthic foraminifera living in pore waters at the anoxic boundary and of those living in bottom water (Δ δ13C; Hoogakker et al., 2015, 2016), while carbon flux was assessed from the U/Ca and Cd/Ca of foraminiferal authigenic coatings.

  19. Eastern rock sengis as reservoir hosts of Anaplasma bovis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Alan; Bastos, Armanda D S; Medger, Katarina; Bennett, Nigel C

    2013-12-01

    Recent work has identified the presence of Anaplasma bovis, a tick-borne pathogen of cattle, in a previously undescribed species of tick collected from eastern rock sengis, Elephantulus myurus, in Limpopo Province, South Africa. These small insectivores are endemic to Africa and are important hosts of immature ticks, however, their role as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens has not been investigated. In order to elucidate the role of sengis in the epidemiology of A. bovis, we screened the blood of 105 sengis from Limpopo Province, South Africa, for the presence of members of the genera Anaplasma and Ehrlichia by PCR. A total of 30/105 (28.6%) of individuals were infected with A. bovis, and nucleotide sequencing revealed the presence of a novel genetic variant of this pathogen. This represents the first evidence that sengis may be natural reservoir hosts of A. bovis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Bovine theileriosis--an emerging problem in south-eastern Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Khyrul; Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is an arthropod-borne disease caused by one or more haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. Traditionally, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli, now assigned to the Theileria orientalis-group. There have been some recent outbreaks of theileriosis in dairy and beef cattle, mainly in subtropical climatic zone (New South Wales) of Australia. Here, we provide the first published evidence of an outbreak of bovine theileriosis in the south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria) linked to the ikeda and chitose genotypes of T. orientalis. Future investigations should focus sharply on the elucidating the epidemiology and ecology of Theileria in this region to subvert the possible impact on the cattle industry.

  1. Early period of early Permian tubular cyanobacteria reef in the eastern part of south Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A typical reef occurs in the eastern part of south Qinling Mountains in Sanlixia, Xunyang, Shaanxi Province. The reef, extending in north-south direction, was built up by various kinds of calcareous tubes including Girvanella, tubular cyanobacteria and problem microbials. The bioclastic bank, built up by algal clasts, foraminiferous, and fusulinids, formed the reef basement, on which dasyclads baffle bioclasts formed the original bafflestone at a small scale on the reef basement, and then a mass of bindstone was made up by all kinds of calcareous tubes and algae. On lateral part the reef is cryptalgal mudstone. The reef that occurred in the geosynclinal area is so familiar with one of the platforms in many respects, such as in reef structure, morphology and building mold. This indicates that building organisms have amazing adaptability and identity for building capacity in the two kinds of geotectonic background mentioned above.

  2. Early period of early Permian tubular cyanobacteria reef in the eastern part of south Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩恩普; 范嘉松

    2000-01-01

    A typical reef occurs in the eastern part of south Qinling Mountains in Sanlixia, Xun-yang, Shaanxi Province. The reef, extending in north-south direction, was built up by various kinds of calcareous tubes including Girvanella, tubular cyanobacteria and problem microbials. The bio-clastic bank, built up by algal clasts, foraminiferous, and fusulinids, formed the reef basement, on which dasyclads baffle bioclasts formed the original bafflestone at a small scale on the reef basement, and then a mass of bindstone was made up by all kinds of calcareous tubes and algae. On lateral part the reef is cryptalgal mudstone. The reef that occurred in the geosynclinal area is so familiar with one of the platforms in many respects, such as in reef structure, morphology and building mold. This indicates that building organisms have amazing adaptability and identity for building capacity in the two kinds of geotectonic background mentioned above.

  3. Pre-whaling genetic diversity and population ecology in eastern Pacific gray whales: insights from ancient DNA and stable isotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Elizabeth Alter

    Full Text Available Commercial whaling decimated many whale populations, including the eastern Pacific gray whale, but little is known about how population dynamics or ecology differed prior to these removals. Of particular interest is the possibility of a large population decline prior to whaling, as such a decline could explain the ~5-fold difference between genetic estimates of prior abundance and estimates based on historical records. We analyzed genetic (mitochondrial control region and isotopic information from modern and prehistoric gray whales using serial coalescent simulations and Bayesian skyline analyses to test for a pre-whaling decline and to examine prehistoric genetic diversity, population dynamics and ecology. Simulations demonstrate that significant genetic differences observed between ancient and modern samples could be caused by a large, recent population bottleneck, roughly concurrent with commercial whaling. Stable isotopes show minimal differences between modern and ancient gray whale foraging ecology. Using rejection-based Approximate Bayesian Computation, we estimate the size of the population bottleneck at its minimum abundance and the pre-bottleneck abundance. Our results agree with previous genetic studies suggesting the historical size of the eastern gray whale population was roughly three to five times its current size.

  4. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Eastern Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 135oW-120oW (eastern...

  5. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía-Falla Paola A; Navia Andrés F; Giraldo Alan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found i...

  6. Neothalassius, a new genus of Parathalassiinae (Diptera: Dolichopodidae s.lat.) from the Pacific coast of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Scott E; Cumming, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-15

    A new genus, Neothalassius gen. nov., and two new species, Neothalassius triton sp. nov. and Neothalassius villosus sp. nov., are described from rocky shorelines along the Pacific seacoast of South America. The phylogenetic placement of Neothalassius within the subfamily Parathalassiinae is discussed.

  7. A comparative study of Taiwan's short-term medical missions to the South Pacific and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Ya-Wen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan has been dispatching an increasing number of short-term medical missions (STMMs to its allied nations to provide humanitarian health care; however, overall evaluations to help policy makers strengthen the impact of such missions are lacking. Our primary objective is to identify useful strategies by comparing STMMs to the South Pacific and Central America. Methods The data for the evaluation come from two main sources: the official reports of 46 missions to 11 countries in Central America and 25 missions to 8 countries in the South Pacific, and questionnaires completed by health professionals who had participated in the above missions. In Central America, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from multiple institutions. In the South Pacific, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from single institutions. Results In comparison to STMMs to Central America, STMMs to the South Pacific accomplished more educational training for local health providers, including providing heath-care knowledge and skills (p Conclusions Health-care services provided by personnel from multiple institutions are as efficient as those from single institutions. Proficiency in the native language and provision of education for local health-care workers are essential for conducting a successful STMM. Our data provide implications for integrating evidence into the deployment of STMMs.

  8. Incidence and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus from Swine in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusesan Adeyemi Adelabu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus-mediated infection is a serious public health concern in economically developing nations of the world. Globally, four major genotypes of HEV have been documented. Hepatitis E has been suggested to be zoonotic owing to the increase of evidence through various studies. Thus far, this paper reports on prevalence of hepatitis E virus among swine herd in selected communal and commercial farms in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A total of 160 faecal samples were collected from swine herds in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities of Eastern Cape Province for the presence of HEV. Of the 160 faecal samples screened, only seven were positive (4.4% for HEV. The nucleotide sequences analyses revealed the isolates as sharing 82% to 99% identities with other strains (KX896664, KX896665, KX896666, KX896667, KX896668, KX896669, and KX896670 from different regions of the world. We conclude that HEV is present among swine in the Eastern Cape Province, albeit in low incidence, and this does have public health implications. There is a need for maintenance of high hygienic standards in order to prevent human infections through swine faecal materials and appropriate cooking of pork is highly advised.

  9. DOES THE HIGHER EDUCATION PROMOTE STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMITAR NIKOLOSK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a widespread recognition that business start-ups are a driving force of economic growth and significant job creation. Given the segmented characteristics of the labour markets, youth population is among those segments that are disproportionally affected by high and sustained unemployment. The situation with youth unemployment is particularly unfavourable in developing countries such as South-Eastern European countries where almost half of the active young population is jobless. Even though the governments in these countries have repeatedly undertaken measures for improving the position of youth on the labour markets, it seems that these endeavours have not reached the planned goals. From this perspective, it is important to analyse the potential contribution of education, and particularly the higher education to the development of entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the higher education in South-Eastern European countries in fostering the students’ entrepreneurial potential. For this purpose we have carried out a survey on representative samples of students in two universities: “St. Kliment Ohridski” (Macedonia and “Aleksander Xhuvani” (Albania. We found that considerable number of surveyed students have ideas for starting own businesses, but only a small portion of them attempted to develop their business ideas in practice. As a consequence, we can conclude that there exists a wide room for further policy recommendations that will shape directions for future reforms in the SEECs higher education systems and will improve the students’ entrepreneurial potential

  10. Associations among habitat characteristics and meningeal worm prevalence in eastern South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central North America. We used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across eastern South Dakota, US. The highest-ranked binomial regression model for detecting probability of meningeal worm infection was spring temperature + summer precipitation + percent wetland; weight of evidence (wi=0.71) favored this model over alternative models, though predictive capability was low (Receiver operating characteristic=0.62). Probability of meningeal worm infection increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold for each 1-cm and 1-C increase in summer precipitation and spring temperature, respectively. Similarly, probability of infection increased 1.2-fold for each 1% increase in wetland habitat. Our findings highlight the importance of wetland habitat in predicting meningeal worm infection across eastern South Dakota. Future research is warranted to evaluate the relationships between climatic conditions (e.g., drought, wet cycles) and deer habitat selection in maintaining P. tenuis along the western boundary of the parasite.

  11. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.

  12. Labor support: an overlooked maternal health need in Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dim, Cyril C; Ikeme, Arthur C; Ezegwui, Hyginus U; Nwagha, Uchenna I

    2011-03-01

    The current call for continuous support by women for women during labor takes for granted that women prefer to be supported by other women rather than their husbands. This study aimed at identifying the experiences and preferences of parturients as regards support in labor. Questionnaires were administered to 395 parturients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria from January to August 2006. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. None of the respondents' husband, relations or friends was allowed into the labor room. Ninety-five (24.1%) parturients did not wish to be supported in labor by their husbands. Sixty-five (68.4%) of this group preferred to be supported in labor by medical/midwifery staff only, while the remaining 30 (31.6%) would have preferred a relation. Three hundred (75.9%) parturients, if permitted, would have preferred labor support by their husbands. The preference for labor support by husband was significantly associated with maternal educational status (p=0.003), parity groups (p=0.022), and age category (p=0.037). Labor support by a non-medical employee of health institutions is not practiced in Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria. Most women would prefer to be supported by their husbands during labor. There is a strong desire by mothers for a policy change as regards labor support by family and friends.

  13. Modelling origin and transport fate of waste materials on the south-eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia

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    M. Tudor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern parts of the Adriatic Sea coastline were severely polluted by large amounts of accumulated waste material in the second half of November 2010. The waste, reported by major news agencies, accumulated dominantly during 21 November 2010 by favourable wind – ocean current transport system. In the study we analysed meteorological and oceanographic conditions that lead to the waste deposition using available in situ measurements, remote sensing data as well numerical models of the ocean and the atmosphere. The measured data reveal that an intensive rainfall event from 7 till 10 November 2010, over the parts of Montenegro and Albania, was followed by a substantial increase of the river water levels indicating flash floods that possibly splashed the waste material into a river and after to the Adriatic Sea. In order to test our hypothesis we set a number of numerical drifter experiments with trajectories initiated off the coast of Albania during the intensive rainfall events following their faith in space and time. One of the numerical drifter trajectory experiment resulted with drifters reached right position (south-eastern Adriatic coast and time (exactly by the time the waste was observed when initiated on 00:00 and 12:00 UTC of 10 November 2010 during the mentioned flash flood event.

  14. Deglacial shift in subsurface watermass source in the subtropcal South Pacific North of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiraldi, B.; Sikes, E. L.; Elmore, A. C.; Cook, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Glacial-interglacial changes in global temperature are linked with shifts in atmospheric winds and oceanic fronts. Climatic shifts associated with last glacial conditions include a northward shift of the southern hemisphere westerlies, a southward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and a northward shift of the subtropical front (STF) from their modern day locations. These shifts would compress the transition zone in the subtropical south Pacific affecting the source of surface waters. Here we present a δ18Oseawater and δ13C reconstruction from surface dwelling Globogerina bulloides from Bay of Plenty core 87JPC from North of New Zealand to illustrate changes in subtropical South Pacific surface water mass structure over the past 30 ka. Age control is based on tephra stratigraphy benthic foraminiferal δ18O and 14C dates. Sea level reconstruction and surface temperature (SST) reconstructions based on Mg/Ca were used to remove the temperature effect and the ice volume effect was removed from δ18O yielding an estimate of δ18Oseawater of surface-mixed layer water in the Bay of Plenty for the deglaciation. Early in the last glacial period (27-24 ka), reconstructed δ18Oseawater averaged -0.2‰ increasing at 24-21 ka to reach 0.5‰ for 1.2 kyr at the height of the LGM (21-19ka). At 19ka there is a rapid depletion of δ18Oseawater to -0.2‰ after which values average 0.2‰ into the Holocene. More depleted δ18Oseawater values during the LGM suggest surface waters were sourced at high latitudes and were fresher relative to modern. The enrichment through the height of the LGM suggests gradual shift in source waters to more saline and/or lower latitudes. Glacial δ13C holds steady at ~-0.5‰ with a late glacial enrichment maximum of -0.3‰ at 21-20 ka. A subsequent depletion of 0.6‰ at 19.8 ka marks a step change after which δ13C is level through the deglaciation at an average value of -0.8‰ and through the Holocene at -1.0‰. The δ13C

  15. Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services in the Eastern Cape / René Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, René

    2002-01-01

    The suicide rate in the South African Police Services is relatively high compared with other suicide statistics. The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between coping, stress and suicide ideation within the SAPS in the Eastern Cape. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population consisted of 307 uniformed police members from the job level of constable to that of senior superintendent in the Eastern Cape. The COPE Questionnaire, Police Stres...

  16. PAN in the eastern Pacific free troposphere: A satellite view of the sources, seasonality, interannual variability, and timeline for trend detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liye; Payne, Vivienne H.; Walker, Thomas W.; Worden, John R.; Jiang, Zhe; Kulawik, Susan S.; Fischer, Emily V.

    2017-03-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is an important trace gas that serves to transport nitrogen oxide radicals throughout the troposphere. We present an analysis of satellite observations of PAN from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) over the eastern Pacific Ocean for April and July 2006-2010 and the spring-to-summer seasonal transition for 2006. TES can provide quantitative estimates of free tropospheric PAN in clear-sky or thin cloud conditions where elevated PAN (>0.2 ppbv) is present. The percentage of successful PAN detections increases from April to July and then decreases in August and September. However, there are no significant differences in the tropospheric average PAN either interannually or between these months. Plumes containing elevated PAN are present almost every day in July. Elevated PAN observed in July has multiple sources, including fires in Siberia, anthropogenic sources in eastern China, and recirculated pollution from the continental U.S. We combined the observed variability in the TES PAN retrievals over the eastern Pacific Ocean with a range of possible trends in PAN to determine the observational requirements to detect such trends. Based on the variability observed in the PAN retrievals over this region, we predict that it would be faster to detect a trend of a given magnitude in PAN using satellite observations over the eastern Pacific Ocean region rather than in situ surface observations and that a trend of a given magnitude would be more quickly detected in summer than spring.

  17. Family planning education: working with target groups in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, M

    1992-07-01

    Family planning education programs are commonly designed by expert educators who are far removed, in location and experience, from their target audiences. Educators operate on the premise that their job is simply to develop strategies to successfully transfer their knowledge to the target audience. Judgements are often colored by a determination not to offend local sensibilities, which can lead educators to uncritically adopt the local wisdom about what is and is not culturally acceptable. A proper exploration of sexuality is absent from most family planning programs. Usual features of expert-designed family planning programs are an admonishment about people having too many children (the stick), a clear rationale for having fewer children (the carrot), the provision of detailed contraceptive information (the means), and the encouragement of individuals to exercise some personal control over their fertility (the ends). This standard model, although widely used throughout the Pacific, was not adopted by the Family Planning Federation of Australia in its regional family planning education work. The Federation, in conjunction with the independent Family Planning Association in the South Pacific, has taken a more participatory, learner-focused approach that values the contribution of the audience in all phases of the program. There is a huge need to target men, particularly young, unmarried men. The Federation found that not only did Pacific men want to view and discuss the women's documentary video Taboo Talk about family planning issues, they wanted their own men's version. The Federation soon discovered that attempts to meet the requests can easily flounder on the issue of language. The Federation has worked with the target audience to develop a lexicon of acceptable words for reproductive health education.

  18. Interview: Mr. Stephen Chee, team leader, UNFPA country support team (CST) for the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The UNFPA country support team (CST) for the South Pacific is the action-arm at the regional level of the new Technical Support Services arrangement introduced by the agency. Operational since April 1993, the CST currently covers the following Pacific island countries or territories: the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. The CST office is located in Suva, Fiji, with the main goal of strengthening national capacity and building self-reliance in the countries of the region. The office in Suva is currently staffed by six highly qualified advisors with extensive experience in the population and related fields; two more advisors are expected to join the Team in early 1994. The Team is well equipped to provide countries and territories of the region with a wide range of technical support services ranging from ad hoc technical advisory services to the conceptualization and development of comprehensive population policies and programs. Services are offered in the areas of basic data collection, processing, and research in population dynamics; population policy formulation, evaluation, and implementation; family planning and maternal-child health; information, education, and communication; women in population and development; and population program management. The team also plays an advocacy role in mainstreaming population concerns into the programs and activities of international, regional, and national organizations. The team leader responds to questions about population problems experienced by the countries served, the scope of UNFPA assistance to country governments in the subregion, the importance of population information in the subregion, and how Asia-Pacific POPIN may help the team and countries served.

  19. USA, Russia and the Geopolitical Theatre in the South-Eastern Europe: The Place of Romania

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    Florin Pintescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Core issues addressed in this article are: the existing threats to address the interests of the US geopolitical and geostrategical, particularly in South-Eastern Europe; the resources available to the American State for the protection of those interests; main features (elements geopolitical of Romania; importance for Romania's Alliance with US. Only states or groups of states that may threaten the economic interests of the U.S. military are originated from Eurasia: China, Russia, the Organization of Shanghai cooperation, the European Union. The main opponent of the U.S. in South-Eastern Europe is Russia. Geostrategical interests of Russia remains fundamentally the attempt to divide alliance NATO (in particular by providing the economic benefits of Germany and France and isolate Eastern Europe; in this way, the US military presence in Europe would become problematic. Currently, the US has enough economic and military means in order to avoid this situation.Geopolitical and geostrategical problems of Romania are of two kinds: external and internal. Externally, Romania has some diplomatic disagreements with Ukraine. At the same time, Romania was not able to resolve in the manner of the former Federal Republic of Germany, a consequence of the Second World War: the unification with the Republic of Moldova, the State created artificially by former USSR after the Second World War. Internally, the main geopolitical problems of Romania are the following: underdevelopment and the absence of real economic competitiveness of industry and agriculture; the demographic decline, lowering the standard of living of population. In the absence of support of the USA for Romania, this country will increase the degree of economic dependence towards Russia.

  20. [Emerging viral infections in South East Asia and the Pacific region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P; Tarantola, A; Lassel, L; Mollet, T; Quatresous, I; Paquet, C

    2008-10-01

    The epidemiology of several viral diseases underwent profound changes in South-East Asia and Oceania over the past decades. This was due to several factors, including the geographical distribution of vectors and the viruses they transmit; increasing traveling and trade; increasing ecological and demographic pressure. We reviewed the current state of knowledge based on published sources and available epidemiological data. The review was limited to potentially emerging viruses in Southeast Asia and the Pacific reported in human cases. Dengue, Chikungunya, and Japanese Encephalitis viruses have recurred on a yearly basis with a steady increase in these regions. Ross River and Barmah viruses now appear regularly in Australia, in an increasing number of cases. Nipah virus strikes regularly with limited but deadly epidemics in Southeast Asia. Finally, infections by lyssaviruses, Kunjin, Murray Valley, or Zika viruses were also reviewed.

  1. IMPOSEX IN THE MARINE SNAIL XANTHOCHORUS BUXEA (BRODERIP, 1833 (MURICIDAE FROM THE SOUTH AMERICAN PACIFIC

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    Guabloche, Angélica

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The imposex phenomenon is the emergence of male sexual characteristics on the reproductive system of female prosobranch gastropod snails. This alteration was historically associated with contamination with organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT. In this study we evaluated the incidence of imposex in the marine snail Xanthochorus buxea (Broderip, 1833 (Muricidae from Hermosa Beach, Ancon, Lima, Peru. Imposex percentage was 97.6%. The rate of the relative length of the penis (RPLI was equal to 94.3. Astatistically significant relationship was found between the shell length and length of the penis in males and females. This research is the first application of X. buxea as a bioindicator of organotin components in Peru from the South American Pacific coast.

  2. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved.

  3. The role of latent heat in kinetic energy conversions of South Pacific cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Deirdre M.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1986-01-01

    The four-dimensional behavior of cyclone systems in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) is analyzed. Three cyclone systems, which occurred during the period from January 10-16, 1979, are examined using the data collected during the first special observing period of the FGGE. The effects of latent heating on the life cycles of the cyclones are investigated. Particular attention is given to the conversions of eddy available potential energy to eddy kinetic energy and of mean kinetic energy to eddy kinetic energy. The net radiation profile, sensible heat flux, total field of vertical motion, and latent heat component were computed. The life cycles of the cyclones are described. It is observed that the latent heating component accounts for nearly all the conversion in the three cyclones, and latent heating within the SPCZ is the major source of eddy kinetic energy for the cyclones.

  4. The role of latent heat in kinetic energy conversions of South Pacific cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Deirdre M.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1986-01-01

    The four-dimensional behavior of cyclone systems in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) is analyzed. Three cyclone systems, which occurred during the period from January 10-16, 1979, are examined using the data collected during the first special observing period of the FGGE. The effects of latent heating on the life cycles of the cyclones are investigated. Particular attention is given to the conversions of eddy available potential energy to eddy kinetic energy and of mean kinetic energy to eddy kinetic energy. The net radiation profile, sensible heat flux, total field of vertical motion, and latent heat component were computed. The life cycles of the cyclones are described. It is observed that the latent heating component accounts for nearly all the conversion in the three cyclones, and latent heating within the SPCZ is the major source of eddy kinetic energy for the cyclones.

  5. The great canoes in the sky starlore and astronomy of the South Pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, Stephen Robert

    2017-01-01

    Presenting spectacular photographs of astronomical objects of the southern sky, all taken by author Stephen Chadwick, this book explores what peoples of the South Pacific see when they look up at the heavens and what they have done with this knowledge. From wives killing brothers to emus rising out of the desert and great canoes in the sky, this book offers the perfect blend of science, tradition and mythology to bring to life the most famous sights in the heavens above the southern hemisphere. The authors place this starlore in the context of contemporary understandings of astronomy. The night sky of southern societies is as rich in culture as it is in stars. Stories, myths and legends based on constellations, heavenly bodies and other night sky phenomena have played a fundamental role in shaping the culture of pre-modern civilizations throughout the world. Such starlore continues to influence societies throughout the Pacific to this day, with cultures throughout the region – from Australia and New Zealand...

  6. A new deep-water goatfish of the genus Upeneus (Mullidae) from Vanuatu, South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uiblein, Franz; Causse, Romain

    2013-01-01

    A new goatfish, Upeneus vanuatu (Mullidae), is described based on five specimens collected off two islands of Vanuatu (South Pacific), at depths of 191-321 m, and compared with five closely related species: Upeneus davidaroni (Red Sea), U. mascareinsis (Western Indian Ocean), U. stenopsis (northern Australia, Philippines, 127-275 m), and the more shallow-occurring Indo-West Pacific species U. subvittatus (26-120 m) and U. vittatus (

  7. Adsorption of a hydrophobic mutagen to dietary fiber from taro (Colocasia esculenta), an important food plant of the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, L R; Roberton, A M; McKenzie, R J; Watson, M E; Harris, P J

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer is lower in Polynesian populations of the South Pacific than in European populations. This difference in incidence of the disease may be, at least partly, related to diet. Dietary fiber is believed to protect against colorectal cancer, and one of the ways it may act is by adsorbing mutagens that are carcinogenic. Very little is known about the chemical composition or the ability to adsorb mutagens of these dietary fibers from South Pacific food plants. In contrast to European food plants, which are mostly dicotyledons, South Pacific food plants are mainly monocotyledons. We isolated cell walls (dietary fiber) from the three edible parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta), which is a monocotyledon and a major South Pacific food plant. The ability of these three unlignified cell-wall preparations to adsorb the hydrophobic environmental mutagen 1,8-dinitropyrene was studied. The greatest adsorption occurred with walls from leaf blade, followed by petiole and corm walls, although the differences were not major. The amount of adsorption was intermediate between the low adsorption previously found with unlignified dicotyledon walls (from the flesh of potato tubers and immature cabbage leaves) and the much higher adsorption found with unlignified walls from monocotyledons of the grass and cereal family (Poaceae) (from leaves of seedling Italian ryegrass). These data are consistent with the monosaccharide compositions of the taro wall preparations, which were more similar to those of unlignified walls of dicotyledons than to unlignified walls of the Poaceae. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the composition of the dietary fiber determines its adsorptive properties and that there may be important differences between the major dietary fibers of South Pacific and European food plants.

  8. Precipitation Changes Throughout the South Pacific Convergence Zone During the Last 2000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, A. E.; Nelson, D. B.; Sachs, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) is the southern hemisphere's most prominent precipitation feature extending 3000km southeastwards from Papua New Guinea to French Polynesia. Seasonal and interannual variability in SPCZ rainfall is well characterized by satellite data, however an understanding of this feature prior to the instrumental record is lacking. Rainfall in the western tropical Pacific is difficult to reconstruct due to a dearth of archives that are both high-resolution and continuous. Here we present molecular fossil hydroclimate reconstructions from the last 2000 years. The hydrogen isotopic composition of the algal lipid biomarker dinosterol was measured in 10 freshwater lake sediment cores from 7 lakes on 4 islands in Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Wallis and Futuna. Coretop δ2Hdinosterol values were well correlated with satellite-derived rainfall rates, providing a transfer function for deriving precipitation rates from sedimentary δ2Hdinosterol values. The Vanuatu and Wallis records indicate that the south-western portion of the SPCZ was driest during the transition from the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) (1200-1400 CE) with rainfall rates as low as 2mm/day compare to more typical values of 4mm/day. Conversely, the central SPCZ (Solomon Islands) experienced the driest conditions ( 5mm/day) during the MWP (600-1200 CE) and has maintained high ( 9mm/day) rainfall rates since the LIA. The tropical water cycle influences global climate and these quantitative precipitation records are important for understanding SPCZ natural variability.

  9. Groups without cultured representatives dominate eukaryotic picophytoplankton in the oligotrophic South East Pacific Ocean.

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    Xiao Li Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE with a cell size less than 3 microm play a critical role in oceanic primary production. In recent years, the composition of marine picoeukaryote communities has been intensively investigated by molecular approaches, but their photosynthetic fraction remains poorly characterized. This is largely because the classical approach that relies on constructing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries from filtered seawater samples using universal eukaryotic primers is heavily biased toward heterotrophs, especially alveolates and stramenopiles, despite the fact that autotrophic cells in general outnumber heterotrophic ones in the euphotic zone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better assess the composition of the eukaryotic picophytoplankton in the South East Pacific Ocean, encompassing the most oligotrophic oceanic regions on earth, we used a novel approach based on flow cytometry sorting followed by construction of 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. This strategy dramatically increased the recovery of sequences from putative autotrophic groups. The composition of the PPE community appeared highly variable both vertically down the water column and horizontally across the South East Pacific Ocean. In the central gyre, uncultivated lineages dominated: a recently discovered clade of Prasinophyceae (IX, clades of marine Chrysophyceae and Haptophyta, the latter division containing a potentially new class besides Prymnesiophyceae and Pavlophyceae. In contrast, on the edge of the gyre and in the coastal Chilean upwelling, groups with cultivated representatives (Prasinophyceae clade VII and Mamiellales dominated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that a very large fraction of the eukaryotic picophytoplankton still escapes cultivation. The use of flow cytometry sorting should prove very useful to better characterize specific plankton populations by molecular approaches such as gene cloning or metagenomics

  10. Reproductive dynamics and potential annual fecundity of South Pacific albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga.

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    Jessica H Farley

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the South Pacific Ocean was investigated with samples collected during broad-scale sampling between 2006 and 2011. Histology was done in a single laboratory according to standard protocols and the data analysed using generalized linear mixed-effects models. The sex ratio of albacore was female biased for fish smaller than approximately 60 cm FL and between 85 and 95 cm, and progressively more male biased above 95 cm FL. Spawning activity was synchronised across the region between 10°S and 25°S during the austral spring and summer where sea surface temperatures were ≥24 °C. The average gonad index varied among regions, with fish in easterly longitudes having heavier gonads for their size than fish in westerly longitudes. Albacore, while capable of spawning daily, on average spawn every 1.3 days during the peak spawning months of October to December. Spawning occurs around midnight and the early hours of the morning. Regional variation in spawning frequency and batch fecundity were not significant. The proportion of active females and the spawning fraction increased with length and age, and mature small and young fish were less active at either end of the spawning season than larger, older fish. Batch fecundity estimates ranged from 0.26 to 2.83 million oocytes with a mean relative batch fecundity of 64.4 oocytes per gram of body weight. Predicted batch fecundity and potential annual fecundity increased with both length and age. This extensive set of reproductive parameter estimates provides many of the first quantitative estimates for this population and will substantially improve the quality of biological inputs to the stock assessment for South Pacific albacore.

  11. Desertification of subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Are there alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, G I; Knight, M H; de Kock, M

    1995-01-01

    The Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket (ECST) froms the transition between forest, semiarid karroid shrublands, and grassland in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Undegraded ECST forms an impenetrable, spiny thicket up to 3 m high consisting of a wealth of growth forms, including evergreen plants, succulent and deciduous shrubs, lianas, grasses, and geophytes. The thicket dynamics are not well understood, but elephants may have been important browsers and patch disturbance agents. These semiarid thickets have been subjected to intensive grazing by domestic ungulates, which have largely replaced indigenous herbivores over the last 2 centuries. Overgrazing has extensively degraded vegetation, resulting in the loss of phytomass and plant species and the replacement of perennials by annuals. Coupled with these changes are alterations of soil structure and secondary productivity. This rangeland degradation has largely been attributed to pastoralism with domestic herbivores. The impact of indigenous herbivores differs in scale, intensity, and nature from that of domestic ungulates. Further degradation of the ECST may be limited by alternative management strategies, including the use of wildlife for meat production and ecotourism. Producing meat from wildlife earns less income than from domestic herbivores but is ecologically sustainable. The financial benefits of game use can be improved by developing expertise, technology, and marketing. Ecotourism is not well developed in the Eastern Cape although the Addo Elephant National Park is a financial success and provides considerable employment benefits within an ecologically sustainable system. The density of black rhinoceros and elephant in these thickets is among the highest in Africa, with high population growth and the lowest poaching risk. The financial and ecological viability of ecotourism and the conservation status of these two species warrant expanding ecotourism in the Eastern Cape, thereby reducing the probability of

  12. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  13. New Miocene sulid birds from Peru and considerations on their Neogene fossil record in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Stucchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Boobies and gannets (family Sulidae are the most specialized plunge divers among seabirds. Their fossil record along the Pacific coast of South America extends to the early Middle Miocene. Here we describe three new species of sulids: Sula brandi sp. nov., Sula figueroae sp. nov., and Ramphastosula aguirrei sp. nov., from the early Late Miocene of the Pisco Formation (Peru. Two of them are relatives of the living genus Sula, which represents medium and large-sized boobies. A new species of the extinct genus Ramphastosula is also described, adding to the discussion of possible alternative feeding strategies among sulids. The fossil record suggests that sympatric sulids exhibit different body sizes at least since the Oligocene epoch, a strategy related with resource partitioning. Furthermore, we find current analysis and knowledge of the fossil record unsuitable to evaluate properly seabird diversity changes through time.

  14. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  15. Explained and unexplained tissue loss in corals from the Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguilera, Luis Eduardo; Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Hernández, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs rival rainforest in biodiversity, but are declining in part because of disease. Tissue loss lesions, a manifestation of disease, are present in dominant Pocillopora along the Pacific coast of Mexico. We characterized tissue loss in 7 species of Pocillopora from 9 locations (44 sites) spanning southern to northern Mexico. Corals were identified to species, and tissue loss lesions were photographed and classified as those explainable by predation and those that were unexplained. A focal predation study was done concurrently at 3 locations to confirm origin of explained lesions. Of 1054 cases of tissue loss in 7 species of corals, 84% were associated with predation (fish, snails, or seastar) and the remainder were unexplained. Types of tissue loss were not related to coral density; however there was significant geographic heterogeneity in type of lesion; one site in particular (Cabo Pulmo) had the highest prevalence of predator-induced tissue loss (mainly pufferfish predation). Crown-of-thorns starfish, pufferfish, and snails were the most common predators and preferred P. verrucosa, P. meandrina, and P. capitata, respectively. Of the 9 locations, 4 had unexplained tissue loss with prevalence ranging from 1 to 3% with no species predilection. Unexplained tissue loss was similar to white syndrome (WS) in morphology, indicating additional study is necessary to clarify the cause(s) of the lesions and the potential impacts to dominant corals along the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  16. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 21 November 1981 - 20 November 1983 (NODC Accession 8500258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean from November 21, 1981 to November 20, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  17. Physical and underway data collected aboard the Marcus G. Langseth during cruise MGL1208 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2012-04-30 to 2012-05-26 (NODC Accession 0104335)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104335 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the Marcus G. Langseth during cruise MGL1208 in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  18. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1214 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2012-11-05 to 2012-11-16 (NCEI Accession 0129852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129852 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1214 in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  19. Plankton, temperature and other measurements found in dataset OSD taken from the BONDY, BAP EXPLORADOR and other platforms in the Coastal S Pacific, South Pacific and other locations from 1961 to 1965 (NODC Accession 0001140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, nutrients, and plankton data were collected using plankton net and bottle casts in the South Pacific Ocean from 01 August 1961 to 09 September 1965. Data...

  20. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1213 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2012-10-04 to 2012-11-05 (NCEI Accession 0129851)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129851 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1213 in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  1. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON during cruise NH1418 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2014-09-19 to 2014-10-08 (NCEI Accession 0153297)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0153297 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON during cruise NH1418 in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  2. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1014 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-10-19 to 2010-11-14 (NODC Accession 0089659)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0089659 includes chemical, optical, physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1014 in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  3. A quantitative analysis of microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, H A; Froneman, P W

    2015-12-15

    The extent of microplastic pollution (coastline of South Africa, looking at whether bays are characterised by higher microplastic densities than open stretches of coastline in both beach sediment and surf-zone water. Microplastic (mean ± standard error) densities in the beach sediment ranged between 688.9 ± 348.2 and 3308 ± 1449 particles · m(-2), while those in the water column varied between 257.9 ± 53.36 and 1215 ± 276.7 particles · m(-3). With few exceptions there were no significant spatial patterns in either the sediment or water column microplastic densities; with little differences in density between bays and the open coast (P>0.05). These data indicate that the presence of microplastics were not associated with proximity to land-based sources or population density, but rather is governed by water circulation.

  4. The Influence of the East Pacific Rise Hydrothermal Field on the Distributions of Dissolved Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Cd in the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, S.; Wu, J.

    2014-12-01

    East Pacific Rise (EPR) hosts the largest hydrothermal field in the world. The concentrations of dissolved key trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu and Cd) were determined in the seawater samples collected from EPR to Tahiti in the South Pacific along 10-15 ºS during U. S. GEOTRACES 2013 by means of Mg(OH)2 co-precipitation isotope dilution method using ICP-MS. Dissolved Mn was determined in these samples using a new method combining Mg(OH)2 co-precipitation with calibration with external standards of 57Fe, 52Cr and 59Co. The results show substantial mid-depth maxima of Fe and Mn extended from EPR. These hydrothermally-enriched Fe and Mn show long-distance westward transportation to the central South Pacific. The mid-depth enrichment of Zn was also observed at stations close to EPR. In contrast, Cu and Cd show depletions around the hydrothermal vent near EPR. Overall the results suggest that hydrothermal activity is a source for Fe, Mn and Zn and a sink for Cu and Cd.

  5. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  6. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.

  7. Location of the Suture Zone between the South and North China Blocks in Eastern Dabie Orogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Laili; Wu Weiping; Chu Dongru

    2005-01-01

    The Dabie Mountains are a collisional orogen between the South and North China blocks. The rock assemblages, isotopic dating and tectonic relationship of the tectonic-petrologic units in the eastern Dabie orogen indicate that the orogen is mainly composed of the different-grades metamorphic basement with minor low-grade metamorphic cover. No ophiolitic southern margin of the North China block were found there, suggesting that they belong to the northern margin of the South China block. The boundary between the tectonic-petrologic units is generally an extensional shear zone developed in the exhumation process of the ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks. In the northern part of the Dabie Mountains, the extensional-thrust and nappe structure represent the products of extensional tectonism. That is, there is no key tectonic boundary to indicate the occurrence of the suture zone there. Therefore, neither the Shuihou-Wuhe shear zone, nor the Mozitan-Xiaotian fault, is the suture zone between the South and North China blocks. The zone is believed to be at the front area of the Xinyang-Shucheng fault, covered by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits within the Hefei basin.

  8. On Vastness and Variability: Cultural Transmission, Historicity, and the Paleoindian Record in Eastern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASTOLFO G.M. ARAUJO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eastern South America, or what is today Brazilian territory, poses interesting questions about the early human occupation of the Americas. Three totally distinct and contemporaneous lithic technologies, dated between 11,000 and 10,000 14C BP, are present in different portions of the country: the Umbu tradition in the south, with its formal bifacial industry, with well-retouched scrapers and bifacial points; the Itaparica tradition in the central-west / northwest, totally unifacial, whose only formal artifacts are limaces; and the "Lagoa Santa" industry, completely lacking any formal artifacts, composed mainly of small quartz flakes. Our data suggests that these differences are not related to subsistence or raw-material constraints, but rather to different cultural norms and transmission of strongly divergent chaînes opératoires. Such diversity in material culture, when viewed from a cultural transmission (CT theory standpoint, seems at odds with a simple Clovis model as the origin of these three cultural traditions given the time elapsed since the first Clovis ages and the expected population structure of the early South American settlers.

  9. On Vastness and Variability: Cultural Transmission, Historicity, and the Paleoindian Record in Eastern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Astolfo G M

    2015-01-01

    Eastern South America, or what is today Brazilian territory, poses interesting questions about the early human occupation of the Americas. Three totally distinct and contemporaneous lithic technologies, dated between 11,000 and 10,000 14C BP, are present in different portions of the country: the Umbu tradition in the south, with its formal bifacial industry, with well-retouched scrapers and bifacial points; the Itaparica tradition in the central-west / northwest, totally unifacial, whose only formal artifacts are limaces; and the "Lagoa Santa" industry, completely lacking any formal artifacts, composed mainly of small quartz flakes. Our data suggests that these differences are not related to subsistence or raw-material constraints, but rather to different cultural norms and transmission of strongly divergent chaînes opératoires. Such diversity in material culture, when viewed from a cultural transmission (CT) theory standpoint, seems at odds with a simple Clovis model as the origin of these three cultural traditions given the time elapsed since the first Clovis ages and the expected population structure of the early South American settlers.

  10. Exceptional warming in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean warm pool has contributed to more frequent droughts in eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Peterson, Thomas C.; Stott, Peter A.; Herring, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, East Africa faced a tragic food crisis that led to famine conditions in parts of Somalia and severe food shortages in parts of Ethiopia and Somalia. While many nonclimatic factors contributed to this crisis (high global food prices, political instability, and chronic poverty, among others) failed rains in both the boreal winter of 2010/11 and the boreal spring of 2011 played a critical role. The back-to-back failures of these rains, which were linked to the dominant La Niña climate and warm SSTs in the central and southeastern Indian Ocean, were particularly problematic since they followed poor rainfall during the spring and summer of 2008 and 2009. In fact, in parts of East Africa, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of below-normal rainy seasons, which may be related to the warming of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans (for more details, see Funk et al. 2008; Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011; Lyon and DeWitt 2012). The basic argument of this work is that recent warming in the Indian–Pacific warm pool (IPWP) enhances the export of geopotential height energy from the warm pool, which tends to produce subsidence across eastern Africa and reduce onshore moisture transports. The general pattern of this disruption has been supported by canonical correlation analyzes and numerical experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (Funk et al. 2008), diagnostic evaluations of reanalysis data (Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011), and SST-driven experiments with ECHAM4.5, ECHAM5, and the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) (Lyon and DeWitt 2012).

  11. The prevalence and distribution of Argas walkerae (Acari: Argasidae in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : research communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nyangiwe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and geographic distribution of the fowl tampan, Argas walkerae Kaiser & Hoogstraal, 1969 was determined in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by inspecting two fowl houses in the vicinity of each of 72 randomly selected communal cattle dip-tanks. Tampans were collected from 102 (70.8 % of the 144 fowl houses in the neighbourhood of 57 (79.2 % of the 72 selected dip-tanks, and the localities of the collections were mapped. Argas walkerae was present in fowl houses from the warm coastal regions of the Indian Ocean in the south to the cold and mountainous Drakensberg in the north-east of the Province. Taking into account the probable sensitivity of the sampling method, it is estimated that A. walkerae is likely to be present in fowl houses belonging to between 74 and 84 % of communities making use of cattle dip-tanks in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, and that when it is present, between 64 and 75 % of fowl houses will be infested. The geographic distribution of A. walkerae seemed to be more strongly associated with the presence of fowls and fowl houses containing raw or processed wood in their structure than with climate.

  12. Physical, chemical and biological CTD and bottle data from R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN278 in eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean from March 19 to April 20, 2012 (NODC Accession 0109846)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains data from R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN278 to the eastern tropical north pacific oxygen deficient zone. The objective of the cruise was to...

  13. Shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale stock from central California conducted from 1967-12-18 to 2007-02-22 (NCEI Accession 0138007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 26 years from...

  14. Tales from the South (and West) Pacific in the Common Era: A Climate Proxy Perspective (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Partin, J. W.; Maupin, C. R.; Hereid, K. A.; Gorman, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    The southwest Pacific is a major source of tropical climate variability through heat and moisture exchanges associated with the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). These variations are especially significant at the annual, interannual (El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO), and multi-decadal timescales. Gridded SST data products are available in the pre-satellite era in this region for the past ~130 years, although data density is a significant issue for the older half of these records. Time series of salinity (SSS) and rainfall from this region are exceedingly rare. Thus, climate proxy records must be used to reconstruct SST, SSS, and rainfall variations in the Common Era (CE) in the tropical Pacific. The analytical laboratory for paleoclimate studies at UT has focused its research efforts into producing climate proxy time series from southwest tropical Pacific using modern and fossil corals, and speleothems. Our most recent results are summarized in this presentation, although much of this work is still in progress. Coral climate records have been generated from Sabine Bank, Vanuatu (16°S, 166°E) and Misima Island, Papua New Guinea (10.6°S, 152.8°E). The Vanuatu coral record of monthly resolved Sr/Ca variations extends back to the late 18th century. All strong ENSO warm phase events of the 20th century observed in the instrumental record are also observed in the coral record. We note that several ENSO warm phase events in the 19th century portion of the coral record are comparable in size to that recorded in response to the 1982/1983 and 1997/1998 events. The Misima coral record of monthly resolved δ18O and Sr/Ca variations spans the interval ~1414-1645 CE — the heart of the Little Ice Age. Amplitude modulation of interannual variability is observed in this LIA record, much like what is observed during the relatively quiescent period of 1920-1950 in the 20th century instrumental and proxy records of ENSO. However

  15. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  16. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria; A 15 Years Histopathologic Review (2000-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukekwe, FI; Olusina, DB; Banjo, AAF; Akinde, OR; Nzegwu, MA; Okafor, OC; Ocheni, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has brought about a resurgence in tuberculosis (TB), especially in developing countries. Previous studies on TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) in South-Eastern Nigeria were done before the advent of the HIV pandemic making a review pertinent. Aim: To evaluate the role of TBLN as a cause of superficial lymphadenopathy in the post-HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) era of South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 15 years (2000-2014) retrospective review of all superficial lymph node biopsies (SLNBs) received at the Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla Enugu, Nigeria. Results: One hundred and seventy-two cases of TBLN were identified in this study constituting 14.6% (172/1,180) of SLNBs received at our Hospital's Morbid Anatomy Department during the 15 years period under review. Twenty-eight cases of TBLN were clinically screened for HIV, 23 of which tested positive, representing 82.1% (23/28) of clinically screened cases. Acid fast bacilli demonstration was positive in 15.1% (26/172) of cases using Ziehl-Neelsen stain. 48.8% (84/172) of TBLN cases were males, and 51.2% (88/172) were females with most (22) cases received in 2012 and least (5) cases in 2000. Most TBLN occurred in the 21-25 years age group with a total of 21.5% (37/172) of cases and a male to female ratio of 1:1.5 The most common biopsy site for TBLN was the cervical group followed by the axillary and inguinal groups with 73.8% (127/172), 14% (24/172), and 4.7% (8/172) of cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a remarkable decline in the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria indicating a change in trend from the pre- to the post-HIV/AIDS era with slightly more females now presenting with TBLN and most TB lymphadenitis patients now presenting with associated HIV/AIDS disease. There is an urgent need to provide modern diagnostic facilities in our medical

  17. Integrating Sustainability into Teaching and Research at the University of the South Pacific to Enhance Capacity for the Sustainable Development of Pacific Island Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanayathu C. Koshy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Pacific Island countries have been recognised globally as a ‘special case for environment and Sustainable Development (SD’ because of their extreme vulnerability to a host of both external and internal development challenges such as: Narrow range of resources, high population density, limited export volume, impacts of climate change and natural disasters, trade, ICT and globalisation pressures. As part of their strategic approach to address these threats, the island countries have become party to a number of international and regional multi-lateral agreements. However, there are severe capacity constraints, at all levels-individual, institutional and systemic-to the full-scale implementation of these agreements. Part of the problem is that the educational system in general and in particular the higher educational institutions have not yet mainstreamed sustainability into their curriculum. Thus there is a ‘campus-workplace’ mismatch for SD implementation that needs to be addressed urgently. Approach: This study addresses how the University of the South Pacific (USP and two other Pacific universities in the Pacific island region have been addressing these capacity issues using a ‘logical framework approach’ for the development and implementation of two on-going, multidisciplinary ESD projects. The first is a USP project, funded by the Asia-Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO (ACCU-USP, the second may be seen as a much broader extension of the ACCU-USP project, in the form of a networked initiative involving USP, UPNG and NUS. Results: Within the limitations discussed elsewhere (ibid, the ACCU-USP and EDULINK-NIU (NIU: network of island universities projects are progressing well in establishing institutional structures for the promotion of ESD, developing new courses and resource materials, establishing new postgraduate programmes, enhancing community capacity to manage natural resources sustainably and contributing

  18. Persistent decadal-scale rainfall variability in the tropical South Pacific Convergence Zone through the past six centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Maupin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations and reconstructions of decadal-scale climate variability are necessary to place predictions of future global climate change into temporal context (Goddard et al., 2012. This is especially true for decadal-scale climate variability that originates in the Pacific Ocean (Deser et al., 2004; Dong and Lu, 2013. We focus here on the western tropical Pacific (Solomon Islands; ~ 9.5° S, ~ 160° E, a region directly influenced by: the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ, the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP, the Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC, and the Hadley Circulation. We calibrate δ18O variations in a fast growing stalagmite to local rainfall amount and produce a 600 yr record of rainfall variability from the zonally oriented, tropical portion of the SPCZ. We present evidence for large (~ 1.5 m, persistent and decade(s-long shifts in total annual rainfall amount in the Solomon Islands since 1416 ± 5 CE. The timing of the decadal changes in rainfall inferred from the 20th century portion of the stalagmite δ18O record coincide with previously identified decadal shifts in Pacific ocean-atmosphere behavior (Clement et al., 2011; Deser et al., 2004. The 600 yr Solomons stalagmite δ18O record indicates that decadal oscillations in rainfall are a robust characteristic of SPCZ-related climate variability, which has important implications to water resource management in this region.

  19. The Circum-Pacific Teleconnection Pattern in Meridional Wind in the High Troposphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huijun

    2005-01-01

    The Circum-Pacific Teleconnection Pattern (CPTP) is revealed in the meridional wind in the high troposphere via an emprirical orthogonal function (EOF) and correlation analysis on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The CPTP is found to be composed of the North Pacific-North American teleconnection pattern (PNA), the South Pacific-South American teleconnection pattern (PSA), and the teleconnection patterns over the tropical western Pacific and the tropical eastern Pacific (or, Central America, or, tropical Atlantic). There is substantial interannual variability of the CPTP and a typical CPTP can be detected in some years. It is speculated that the zonal wind anomalies over the equatorial region in the western and eastern sides of the Pacific may play a role in linking the two hemispheres. The anomalous convection activities in the Tropics are plausible triggering factors for the zonal wind anomalies that are responsible for the composition of the CPTP.

  20. Reply to Comment on 'Drought Variability in the Eastern Australia and New Zealand Summer Drought Atlas (ANZDA, CE 1500-2012) Modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jonathan G.; Cook, Edward R.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Allen, Kathy; Fenwick, Pavla; Cook, Benjamin I.; O'Donnell, Alison; Lough, Janice; Grierson, Pauline; Baker, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    This reply is in response to Vance et al (2017), who expressed concern that their Law Dome summer sea salt record (LDsss; Vance et al 2013) and two Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) reconstructions (PLF and DT-median; Vance et al 2015) were not compared properly in our recent study (Palmer et al 2015) describing the eastern Australian and New Zealand summer Drought Atlas (ANZDA) and that this omission mischaracterizes their records.

  1. Changes in the depth habitat of the Oligocene planktic foraminifera (Dentoglobigerina venezuelana) induced by thermocline deepening in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroki; Nishi, Hiroshi; Takashima, Reishi; Kuroyanagi, Azumi; Ikehara, Minoru; Takayanagi, Hideko; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2016-06-01

    Understanding planktic foraminiferal depth habitat along with consistent taxonomic concepts is key to accurate reconstruction of paleoceanographic records. The Oligocene-Pliocene long-ranging and widely distributed species Dentoglobigerina venezuelana lived in the mixed layer (shallower) during the early Oligocene, whereas the same species calcified at thermocline or subthermocline depths (deeper) during the late Oligocene and Miocene. The exact timing of the species' depth habitat change and its possible relationships with Oligocene climate dynamics remain unknown. Here we reveal isotopic records of D. venezuelana along with the Paragloborotalia siakensis group (a mixed-layer dweller) by using sediments at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1334 in the eastern equatorial Pacific throughout the Oligocene. A two-step depth habitat change of D. venezuelana is apparent: (1) from upper to lower mixed layer (~27.4 Ma) and (2) from lower mixed layer to thermocline depth (~26.3 Ma). In addition, the planktic foraminiferal faunal assemblage experienced a marked change from dominantly thermocline (deeper) species to abundant mixed-layer (shallower) species, suggesting that depth habitat shifts of D. venezuelana were clearly related to thermocline deepening in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Comparison of the first isotopic shift (~27.4 Ma) at multiple sites (U1334, U1333, and 1218) revealed a southward depth habitat change of D. venezuelana within ~200 kyr, implying overall thermocline deepening with reduced steepness in the eastern equatorial Pacific. We consider that global warming conditions during the late Oligocene likely caused thermocline deepening with upwelling decrease in the eastern equatorial Pacific, guiding D. venezuelana to adapt to greater depths in the water column.

  2. The comparative statuses of the Far Eastern seas and the northwestern Pacific Ocean based on the range of integral characteristics of pelagic and bottom trawl macrofauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Volvenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of the pelagial and benthal of the Far Eastern seas (mainly within the borders of the Russian EEZ and the contiguous part of the Pacific Ocean according to the macrofauna population density, species richness, evenness and diversity, and average individual weight of animals, is provided on the basis of the results of multiannual broad-scale pelagic and bottom trawl surveys carried out in 1977–2010.

  3. Prevalence of the commensal barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis on cetacean species in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, and a review of global occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Distribution and prevalence of the phoretic barnacle Xenobalanus on cetacean species are reported for 22 cetaceans in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (21 million km2). Four cetacean species are newly reported hosts for Xenobalanus: Bryde’s whale (Balaenoptera edeni), long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), and spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Sightings of Xenobalanus in pelagic waters are reported for the first time, and concentr...

  4. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L.; Clark, D.R.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  5. Numerical Analysis and Simulation Experiment of Lithospheric Thermal Structures in the South China Sea and the Western Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Ge; Peng Meili; Zhao Chongbin; Zhang Lu; Zhang Desheng; Liu Shilin

    2009-01-01

    The asthenosphere upwelled on a large scale in the western Pacific and South China Sea during the Cenozoic,which formed strong upward throughflow and caused the thermal structure to be changed obviously.The mathematical analysis has demonstrated that the upward throughflow velocity may have varied from 3×1011 to 6×1012 m/s.From the relationship between the lithospheric thickness and the conductive heat flux,the Hthospherie heat flux in the western Pacific should be above 30 mW/m2,which is consistent with the observed data.The huge low-speed zone within the upper mantle of the marginal sea in the western Pacific reflects that the upper mantle melts partially,flows regionally in the regional stress field,forms the upward heat flux at its bottom,and causes the change of the lithospheric thermal structure in the region.The numerical simulation result of the expansion and evolution in the South China Sea has demonstrated that in the early expansion,the upward throughflow velocity was relatively fast,and the effect that it had on the thickness of the lithosphere was relatively great,resulting in the mid-ocean basin expanding rapidly.After the formation of the ocean basin in the South China Sea,the upward throughflow velocity decreased,but the conductive heat flux was relatively high,which is close to the actual situation.Therefore,from the heat transfer point of view,this article discusses how the upward heat flux affects the lithospheric thermal structure in the western Pacific and South China Sea.The conclusions show that the upward heat throughflow at the bottom of the llthospheric mantle resulted in the tectonic deformation at the shallow crust.The intensive uplifts and rifts at the crust led to the continent cracks and the expansion in the South China Sea.

  6. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  7. Corruption, public integrity, and globalization in South-Eastern European states. A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew I.E. EWOH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades have witnessed a proliferation of studies on the globalization of corruption or convergence of anticorruption strategies. These studies have been motivated by scholarly concerns from various administrative, economic, and political fields. In view of these interdisciplinary concerns, the purpose of this article is to provide a comparative analysis of corruption phenomena and the demand for public integrity because these developments pertain to the discourse on globalization issues in some South-Eastern European nations within the last decade. The article concludes that the differences observed in these countries are due to their level of maturation in the democratic processes, their stages in the European Union integration process, and the geopolitical condition of each nation, and offers a palatable public policy prescription for achieving a lasting impact in the region.

  8. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE AND THE ACTORS OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Eduard GROSARU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt regarding the importance that south-eastern Europe has gained over the past years in geopolitical and geostrategic terms. Due to its history and considering the changes that have taken place here after the fall of the Iron Curtain, and also as a consequence of the “hot spots” emerged here on ideological, political, economic and terrorist grounds, this part of the continent still is an area of control and interests confrontations orchestrated by the actors that provide the international affairs with a multipolar dimension. All the aforementioned factors lead to various phenomena in which individual or group interests result in regional as well as global consequences.

  9. Comparative Analysis of South Eastern Europe Economies facing the Crisis. Future Prospects for the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Paul (Vass

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effects of the global economic crisis in ten South Eastern European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, within a European perspective. It also points out the main transmission channels of the economic crisis, by outlining the strong economic and financial ties with the EU, acting like contagion corridors in the event of global downturns. In terms of macroeconomic policy responses of the countries, these mainly led to increased fiscal deficits and public debts. Taking as benchmark the Romanian experience during the crisis, we outline several important structural reforms intended to boost competitiveness in the area. The paper concludes that, in spite of the recent negative evolutions, the SEE-10 region has an important economic potential for the future. In the final recommendations we explore the creativity potential of the region, as a strategic opportunity for putting the region on the global competitiveness map.

  10. Condition of South-Eastern Baltic Sea Shores and Methods of Protecting Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Pruszak, Zbigniew; Babakov, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    The paper describes lithodynamic and morphodynamic processes occurring in the main part of the south-eastern Baltic coastal area, namely on the sea shores from the Vistula mouth in the Gulf of Gdansk to the Lithuanian-Latvian border. The study area is subject to intensive natural coastal changes, as well as shore evolution caused by anthropogenic impacts at several locations. Methods of coastal protection against erosion and shore stabilization systems applied in the past and currently are described. The paper deals with the causes of the dynamics of beach/dune shores and cliffs. It presents the authors' field observations of 2010-2013, as well as previously gained knowledge and the results of Polish, Russian and joint Polish-Russian field surveys.

  11. Genetic studies in Medzev, an isolate in south-eastern Slovakia. 1. History, demography, marriage patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siváková, D; Walter, H

    1996-09-01

    In Medzev, a village located in South-Eastern Slovakia, the secular variation of two indices of genetic isolation has been studied. It could be seen that this village was highly isolated till the beginning of the 20th century. Both indices show a tendency to increase in the first five decades of this century. For the entire period from 1766-1950 the coefficient of inbreeding estimated by the method of isonymy was found to be F = 0.0074 with different ratios of random (Fr) and non-random (Fn) components in particular periods. The coefficient of inbreeding estimated from the ecclesiastical dispensations for marriages comes to F = 0.0019. The genetic significance of the changes in the population structure of this village will be analyzed in further studies.

  12. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjola Pampuri

    2015-12-01

    the overall scores and the subscale scores of the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals. Results: Mean value of the overall summary score for the 52 items of the instrument was significantly lower for the current leadership competency level compared with the required leadership competency level (138.4±11.2 vs. 159.7±25.3, respectively; P<0.001. Most of the subscales’ scores were significantly higher for the required than for the current leadership competency level. Conclusion: Our study provides useful evidence about the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals in transitional Albania. Findings of this study may help policymakers in Albania to identify the gap between the required and the current level of leadership competencies among health  professionals. Furthermore, findings of this study should be expanded in the neighbouring countries of the South Eastern European region and beyond.

  13. Remote-sensing observations of coastal sub-mesoscale eddies in the south-eastern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Gurova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the sub-mesoscale eddies observed in the coastalzone of the south-eastern Baltic near the shores of the Sambian Peninsula and theCuronian Spit based on CODAR (high-frequency coast-based radar measurementsand analysis of MODIS and ASAR satellite images for the period 30 March2000-31 December 2011. It was found that when winds are predominantly SW, S or W,a wake eddy of varying size (up to 25 km in diameter forms off Cape Taran andcan cover the area between the shoreline and the 65 m isobath. Its longestlifetime, observed using MODIS images, was 6 days. Another location wherecoastal sub-mesoscale eddies (up to 10-15 km in diameter of varying formregularly appear is the coastal slope near the southern and central part ofthe Curonian Spit.

  14. Community members’ interference and conduct of University distance learning examinations In South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Odera Unamma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work was aimed at determining the degree of community members’ interference in the conduct of university distance learning examination in South Eastern Nigeria. It was also aimed at finding out the factors responsible for the community members’ interference, the ways by which interference is effected, the consequences and the strategies to improve the conduct of the examination. A survey descriptive research design was adopted. Information obtained was analyzed by using the Z-test statistical technique. Findings include community members reluctance to provide their infrastructural facilities at cheap rate; use of some spaces for religious worships when examinations are taking place; harassment and bribing of invigilators or examiners; conspiracy with some community members to throw paper balls containing answers into halls, etc. The study recommends preventive measures for minimizing interference during the examinations.

  15. Erosion-land use change-climate change nexus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakembo, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many parts of the world where land recovery has been realised as a response to less dependence on land for a livelihood, soil erosion - mainly on abandoned cultivated and overgrazed communal lands in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - has intensified. Land abandonment is attributed by most elderly land users to drought that hit the area in the 1960s. The interaction among land-degradation drivers - ranging from soil properties, topography, land-use changes and vegetation to local climate - has given rise to a self-amplifying land degradation feedback loop that has perpetuated severe forms of soil erosion. This has rendered the degraded areas particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts on water. The perpetual degradation calls for developing a dedicated policy on the management and rehabilitation of eroded lands. Restoration approaches should entail promoting disconnectivity on eroded hillslopes. Communal farmers also have to be sensitised and empowered to take ownership of the land-restoration process.

  16. Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Service in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Meyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between coping and stress on the one hand and suicide ideation among police members on the other. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population (N = 307 consisted of uniformed police members in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The COPE, Police Stress Inventory, Adult Suicide Ideation Questionnaire and a Biographical Questionnaire were used as measuring instruments. The results showed that passive coping strategies are related to suicide ideation. A discriminant analysis showed that suicide attempt, passive coping strategies, medical conditions, use of alcohol, problem-focused coping strategies and police-specific demands correctly classified 64.29 per cent of participants who scored high on suicide ideation.

  17. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (PChlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (PChlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  18. First record of the non-indigenous fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina from Rhodes Island, south- eastern Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KALOGIROU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The collection of one specimen of the non-indigenous fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina of tropical Atlantic origin was for the first time found in an area of south eastern Aegean Sea. This record may indicate a recent establishment of the species on the coasts of Rhodes Island and a possible expansion of it on the coastal rocky habitats.

  19. Geodynamics and intermediate-depth seismicity in Vrancea (the south-eastern Carpathians): Current state-of-the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismael-Zadeh, A.; Matenco, L.C.; Radulian, M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Panza, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Vrancea region of the south-eastern Carpathians is a remarkable site of intra-continental intermediate-depth seismicity. A large set of geological, geophysical, and geodetic observations has been accumulated for the last few decades and utilised to improve our knowledge of the shallow and deep s

  20. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  1. School Effectiveness and Educational Management: Towards a South­-Eastern Europe Research and Public Policy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfirevic, N., Ed.; Burušic, J., Ed.; Relja, R., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This book analyzes educational management in the context of developing effective schools in SouthEastern European countries and situates the discussion within ongoing education debates in EU countries. The book revolves around the specific role and practices of school principals, who are positioned as a nexus of educational management in each…

  2. Ecology and Equity in Rights to Land and Water: A Study in South-Eastern Palakkad in Kerala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, J.; George, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the existing property rights regime over land and water on the sustainable and equitable management and use of these resources, in the context of changing irrigation practices in a paddy-growing area in the south-eastern part of the Palakkad district in Kerala, In

  3. Genetic diversity and occurrence of the F129L substitutions among isolates of Alternaria solani in south-eastern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odilbekov, Firuz; Edin, Eva; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Hovmalm, Helena Persson; Liljeroth, Erland

    2016-01-01

    Early blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, occurs on potato mainly in the south-eastern part of Sweden, but also in other parts of the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of A. solani populations from different potato growing regions in south-eastern Sweden using AFLP marker analysis. In addition, the cultured isolates were examined for substitutions in the gene encoding cytochrome b, associated with loss of sensitivity against QoI fungicides. Nei's gene diversity index for the Swedish populations of A. solani revealed a gene diversity of up to 0.20. Also genetic differentiation was observed among populations of A. solani from different locations in south-eastern Sweden. The mitochondrial genotype of the isolates of A. solani was determined and both known genotypes, GI (genotype 1) and GII (genotype 2), were found among the isolates. The occurrence of the F129L substitution associated with a loss of sensitivity to strobilurins was confirmed among the GII isolates. In vitro conidial germination tests verified that isolates containing the F129L substitution had reduced sensitivity to azoxystrobin and, at a lower extent, to pyraclostrobin. Genetic diversity was relatively high among isolates of A. solani in south-eastern part of Sweden. F129L substitutions, leading to reduced sensitivity to strobilurins, have been established in field populations, which may have implications for the future efficacy of QoI fungicides.

  4. Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions (1976-1986) in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.

    1993-01-01

    Species of Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic are described and discussed, altogether five species belonging to three genera of Corallimorphidae: the shallow water forms Corynactis viridis Allman, 1846, Pseudocorynactis caribbeoru

  5. Marine shallow-water Haplosclerida (Porifera) from the South-Eastern Part of the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdt, de W.H.; Soest, van R.W.M

    1986-01-01

    Sixteen species of marine Haplosclerida were collected by the CANCAP-expeditions, among which two are new to science, viz. Petrosia canariensis and Oceanapia cancap. The Haplosclerida fauna of the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic, comprising 46 species, is reviewed, discussed and compared wi

  6. Supporting rural teachers 21st century skills development through mobile technology use: A case in Cofimvaba, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available . The ICT4RED initiative is supporting rural teachers to integrate tablets in teaching mathematics and science in schools in Cofimvaba in the Nciba district of the Eastern Cape in South Africa. The teachers have to “learn to earn” the technology and have...

  7. Concurrent validation of two key health literacy instruments in a South Eastern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Sørensen, Kristine; Kamberi, Haxhi; Brand, Helmut

    2015-06-01

    Public health practice has come to increasing recognition of health promotion and the central role of knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices in achieving health promotion. Health literacy (HL) is an under-explored topic in South Eastern European countries. There are no HL reports from Albania to date. The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in a population-based sample of adults in Albania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Tirana, Albania, including 239 individuals aged ≥ 18 years (61% women; 87% response). A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied twice (test and retest procedure after 2 weeks) including HLS-EU-Q and TOFHLA instruments. The internal consistency was high for both instruments (Cronbach's alpha for the test procedure was 0.92 for TOFHLA and 0.98 for HLS-EU-Q). Both tools exhibited a high stability over time (Spearman's rho: 0.88 for TOFHLA and 0.87 for HLS-EU). Mean values of both instruments were similar in men and women (mean score for TOFHLA: 76.0 vs. 76.5, P = 0.83; mean score for HLS-EU-Q: 32.2 vs. 32.6, P = 0.63). For both instruments, higher HL scores were significantly associated with younger age, higher educational and economic level and lower body mass index. Our study provides valuable novel evidence on concurrent validation of two major HL instruments in a South Eastern European population-based sample. Future studies should be conducted in order to confirm and expand our findings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. The household costs of visceral leishmaniasis care in south-eastern Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Uranw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is an important public health problem in south-eastern Nepal affecting very poor rural communities. Since 2005, Nepal is involved in a regional initiative to eliminate VL. This study assessed the economic impact of VL on households and examined whether the intensified VL control efforts induced by the government resulted in a decrease in household costs. METHODS: Between August and September 2010, a household survey was conducted among 168 patients that had been treated for VL within 12 months prior to the survey in five districts in south-eastern Nepal. We collected data on health-seeking behaviour, direct and indirect costs and coping strategies. RESULTS: The median total cost of one episode of VL was US$ 165 or 11% of annual household income. The median delay between the onset of symptoms and presentation to a qualified provider was 25 days. Once the patient presented to a qualified provider, the delay to correct diagnosis was minimal (median 3 days. Direct and indirect costs (income losses represented 47% and 53% of total costs respectively. Households used multiple strategies to cope with the cost of illness, mainly mobilizing cash/savings (71% or taking a loan (56%. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of free VL diagnosis and drugs by the Nepalese control programme has been an important policy measure to reduce the cost of VL to households. But despite the free VL drugs, the economic burden is still important for households. More effort should be put into reducing indirect costs, in particular the length of treatment, and preventing the transmission of VL through vector control.

  9. Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheona Shackleton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the drivers and pathways of local livelihood change and the prospects for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Data are used from several studies, and a participatory social learning process, which formed part of a larger project in two sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary information from a wealth of related work is used to place our results within the historic context and more general trends in the country. Findings indicate that livelihoods in the rural Eastern Cape are on new trajectories. Agricultural production has declined markedly, at a time when the need for diversification of livelihoods and food security seems to be at a premium. This decline is driven by a suite of drivers that interact with, and are influenced by, other changes and stresses affecting local livelihoods. We distil out the factors, ranging from historical processes to national policies and local dynamics, that hamper peoples’ motivation and ability to respond to locally identified vulnerabilities and, which, when taken together, could drive households into a trap. We end by considering the transformations required to help local people evade traps and progress towards a more promising future in a context of increasing uncertainty.

  10. Desertification of the eastern Karoo, South Africa: Conflicting paleoecological, historical, and soil isotopic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M T; Bond, W J; Stock, W D

    1995-01-01

    The desertification debate in South Africa has benefitted greatly in recent years from the contributions of a wide range of disciplines. In this paper we review the conflicting and supporting evidence for degradation in the eastern Karoo as reported in recent archaeological, historical, and stable carbon isotope studies as it relates to three key aspects of the debate: the precolonial environment, the rate and nature of change, and the relative contributions of humans and climate to the process. First, all studies suggest a greater grassiness at some time in the past, but researchers disagree on the timing of the switch to more shrubby conditions in the eastern Karoo. Second, regional rainfall records for the past 2 decades reveal an above-average rainfall period, and numerous long-term surveys show an increase in grass cover over the same period. These findings question the expanding Karoo hypothesis as well as the argument that the Karoo's carrying capacity has decreased in recent years. Finally, the relative responsibilities of humans and climate in the degradation process remain poorly understood and generally have not formed the focus of investigation.

  11. Investigating 19th and early 20th century Earthquakes in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Paola; Strasser, Fleur O.; Flint, Nicolette S.

    2014-05-01

    The seismicity for the years between 1820 and 1936 of Grahamstown, a settlement located in the heart of the current Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, is investigated with recourse to contemporaneous documentary sources. This investigation led to the development of a seismic history incorporating consideration of the broader geo-political context of the Eastern Cape colonial territory at that time. Individual studies of five regional events, ranging from Mw 6 to 4, that were felt in Grahamstown during that period are presented. An additional earthquake that was not felt at Grahamstown was included to present the exhaustive approach adopted in the study of the seismicity of the area. Each earthquake study includes the development of a full set of intensity data points (IDPs), which are used to determine reappraised epicentral locations and magnitudes, some of which differ significantly from previously listed parameters. The results thus obtained highlight the value of seeking out additional contemporary sources from a variety of sources in different languages when revisiting the source parameters of earthquakes for which no or only very limited instrumental information is available.

  12. Rock glaciers, protalus ramparts and pronival ramparts in the south-eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, R. R.; Boccali, C.; Žebre, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts are characteristic landforms of the periglacial domain often used as markers for the occurrence of permafrost in mountain terrains. As such, relict rock glaciers can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions. We present here the first previously unreported rock glacier inventory of the south-eastern Alps (including the north-eastern-most region of Italy and Slovenia), interpreted from high resolution orthophotos and a high resolution digital terrain model interpolated from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). We mapped 53 rock glaciers covering a total area of 3.45 km2. The majority of rock glaciers are classified as relict and distributed between 1708 and 1846 m a.s.l. with slope ranging between 19° and 27°. In addition to rock glaciers we observed 66 protalus (pronival) ramparts, having median elevation of 1913 m a.s.l. and covering 0.48 km2. More than half of the inventoried protalus ramparts are located in the more maritime area of the Alps with higher precipitation compared to the location of rock glaciers. Using paleoclimate reconstruction based on the 1981-2010 climatological record of the area, we infer that the rock glaciers formed during one of the dry and cold periods of the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Possible evolution of the active pronival forms observed in the most maritime area of this alpine sector is also discussed.

  13. Size-fractionated diversity of eukaryotic microbial communities in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, Manon T; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Stewart, Frank J; Sarode, Neha; Christaki, Urania; Monchy, Sébastien; Srivastava, Ankita; Edgcomb, Virginia P

    2015-05-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) caused by water column stratification appear to expand in parts of the world's ocean, with consequences for marine biogeochemical cycles. OMZ formation is often fueled by high surface primary production, and sinking organic particles can be hotspots of interactions and activity within microbial communities. This study investigated the diversity of OMZ protist communities in two biomass size fractions (>30 and 30-1.6 μm filters) from the world's largest permanent OMZ in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Diversity was quantified via Illumina MiSeq sequencing of V4 region of 18S SSU rRNA genes in samples spanning oxygen gradients at two stations. Alveolata and Rhizaria dominated the two size fractions at both sites along the oxygen gradient. Community composition at finer taxonomic levels was partially shaped by oxygen concentration, as communities associated with versus anoxic waters shared only ∼32% of operational taxonomic unit (OTU) (97% sequence identity) composition. Overall, only 9.7% of total OTUs were recovered at both stations and under all oxygen conditions sampled, implying structuring of the eukaryotic community in this area. Size-fractionated communities exhibited different taxonomical features (e.g. Syndiniales Group I in the 1.6-30 μm fraction) that could be explained by the microniches created on the surface-originated sinking particles.

  14. Measurements of vertical distributions of bromine oxide, iodine oxide, oxygenated hydrocarbons and ozone over the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkamer, R. M.; Baidar, S.; Dix, B. K.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Pierce, B.; Gao, R.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogen species and Oxygenated VOC (TORERO) field experiment 17 research flights were conducted with the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft equipped with a combination of chemical in-situ sensors, and remote sensing instruments to characterize air-sea exchange of reactive halogen species, oxygenated hydrocarbons, and aerosols, and their transport into the free troposphere, over different ocean environments of the Humboldt current in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean (42S to 14N Lat.; 70W to 105W Long.). This presentation presents measurements of the spatial distributions of halogen oxide radicals, oxygenated hydrocarbons, and discusses their impact on ozone destruction rates, and the oxidation of atmospheric mercury. Air mass history is assessed by means of the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS), a global meteorological, chemical and aerosol assimilation/forecasting system that assimilates real-time stratospheric ozone retrievals from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), total column ozone from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Reactive halogen species and organic carbon are important in the atmosphere, because they modify HOx radical abundances, influence the reactive chemistry and lifetime of climate active gases (e.g., ozone, methane, dimethyl sulfide), modify aerosol-cloud interactions; halogen radicals can further oxidize atmospheric mercury.

  15. Role of circulation scales and water mass distributions on larval fish habitats in the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Chávez, Cristina A.; Beier, Emilio; Sánchez-Velasco, Laura; Barton, Eric Desmond; Godínez, Victor M.

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of five oceanographic cruises carried out in the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico, relationships between the larval fish habitats (areas inhabited by larval fish assemblages) and the environmental circulation scales (mesoscale, seasonal, and interannual) were examined. Analysis of in situ data over a grid of hydrographic stations and oblique zooplankton hauls with bongo net (505 µm) was combined with orthogonal robust functions decomposition applied to altimetry anomalies obtained from satellite. During both cool (March and June) and warm (August and November) periods, Bray-Curtis dissimilarity Index defined three recurrent larval fish habitats which varied in species composition and extent as a function of the environmental scales. The variability of the Tropical larval fish habitat (characterized by high species richness, and dominated by Vinciguerria lucetia, Diogenichthys laternatus, and Diaphus pacificus) was associated with the seasonal changes. The Transitional-California Current larval fish habitat (dominated by V. lucetia and D. laternatus, with lower mean abundance and lower species richness than in the Tropical habitat) and Coastal-and-Upwelling larval fish habitat (dominated by Bregmaceros bathymaster) was associated mainly with mesoscale activity induced by eddies and with coastal upwelling. During February 2010, the Tropical larval fish habitat predominated offshore and the Transitional-California Current larval fish habitat was not present, which we attribute to the effect of El Niño conditions. Thus, the mesoscale, seasonal, and interannual environmental scales affect the composition and extension of larval fish habitats.

  16. Gross and microscopic pathology of lesions in Pocillopora spp. from the subtropical eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Work, Thierry Martin; Calderon-Aguilera, Luis Eduardo; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge Abelardo

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by a variety of factors including diseases that have caused significant damage in some regions such as in the Caribbean. At present, no data are available on coral diseases in the Mexican Pacific where Pocillopora spp. is a dominant component of coral communities. Here, we describe gross and microscopic morphology of lesions found in pocilloporids at four sites in the Mexican Pacific. Corals were identified and their lesions photographed and quantified in the field. Tissue samples were collected from healthy and affected colonies for histopathology. We recorded seven species of pocilloporids at the study sites with Isla Isabel being the location with the highest coral diversity (H′ = 1.27). Lesions were present in 42% of the colonies and included discoloration (32%), predation-induced tissue loss (30%), unexplained tissue loss (3%) and overgrowth by sponges or algae (35%). The most affected species, P. damicornis (50%), was also one of the most common in the region. No species was more prone to a particular lesion, but there was a significant association between location and the presence of lesions. Northern Islas Marietas (61%) and Isla Isabel (41%) had the highest prevalence of lesions, followed by Manzanillo (37%) and Bahías de Huatulco (23%). Histological changes included atrophy of the surface body wall with depletion of zooxanthellae (91%) in corals with discoloration (bleaching). Ablation of tissue from mesoglea (18%) was also observed. Colonies with unexplained tissue loss showed atrophy and thinning of the epidermis (89%), characterized by cuboidal instead of pseudocolumnar cells normally found in healthy pseudocolumnar ciliated epithelium. Bacterial aggregates between the mesoglea and gastrodermis (11%) were very conspicuous in healthy and diseased corals. Lesions produced by fish bites and gastropods were associated with tissue atrophy (40%) and, in some cases, algal overgrowth near the lesion (20%). No infectious agents

  17. A hybrid zone between Bathymodiolus mussel lineages from eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Shannon B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhabitants of deep-sea hydrothermal vents occupy ephemeral island-like habitats distributed sporadically along tectonic spreading-centers, back-arc basins, and volcanically active seamounts. The majority of vent taxa undergo a pelagic larval phase, and thus varying degrees of geographical subdivision, ranging from no impedance of dispersal to complete isolation, often exist among taxa that span common geomorphological boundaries. Two lineages of Bathymodiolus mussels segregate on either side of the Easter Microplate, a boundary that separates the East Pacific Rise from spreading centers connected to the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Results A recent sample from the northwest flank of the Easter Microplate contained an admixture of northern and southern mitochondrial haplotypes and corresponding alleles at five nuclear gene loci. Genotypic frequencies in this sample did not fit random mating expectation. Significant heterozygote deficiencies at nuclear loci and gametic disequilibria between loci suggested that this transitional region might be a ‘Tension Zone’ maintained by immigration of parental types and possibly hybrid unfitness. An analysis of recombination history in the nuclear genes suggests a prolonged history of parapatric contact between the two mussel lineages. We hereby elevate the southern lineage to species status as Bathymodiolus antarcticus n. sp. and restrict the use of Bathymodiolus thermophilus to the northern lineage. Conclusions Because B. thermophilus s.s. exhibits no evidence for subdivision or isolation-by-distance across its 4000 km range along the EPR axis and Galápagos Rift, partial isolation of B. antarcticus n. sp. requires explanation. The time needed to produce the observed degree of mitochondrial differentiation is consistent with the age of the Easter Microplate (2.5 to 5.3 million years. The complex geomorphology of the Easter Microplate region forces strong cross-axis currents that

  18. A new Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several groups of copepods that are teleost parasites, the siphonostomatoid family Caligidae is by far the most widespread and diverse. With more than 108 nominal species, the caligid genus Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann is one of the most speciose. There are no reports of this genus in Costa Rican waters. A new species of Lepeophtheirus is herein described based on female specimens collected from plankton samples in waters off Bahía Wafer, isla del Coco, an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The new species, L. alvaroi sp. nov., has some affinities with other congeners bearing a relatively short abdomen, a wider than long genital complex and a 3-segmented exopod of leg 4. it differs from most of these species by the presence of an unbranched maxillular process and by the relative lengths of the terminal claws of leg 4, with two equally long elements. it is most closely related to two other Eastern Pacific species: L. dissimulatus Wilson, 1905 and L. clarionensis Shiino, 1959. it differs from these species by the proportions and shape of the genital complex, the shape of the sternal furca, the relative length of the maxillar segments, the absence of a pectiniform process on the distal maxillar segment, the length of leg 4 and the armature of leg 5. The new species represents the first Lepeophtheirus described from Costa Rican waters of the Pacific. The low diversity of this genus in this tropi- cal region is explained by its tendency to prefer hosts from temperate latitudes. Until further evidence is found, the host of this Lepeophtheirus species remains unknown.Entre los varios grupos de copépodos que son parásitos de teleósteos, la familia sifonostomatoide Caligidae incluye los más dispersos y diversos. Con más de 108 especies nominales, el género de calígidos Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann es uno de los más diversos. No existen registros previos de este género en aguas de Costa Rica. Se describe una nueva especie de

  19. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Andrés F; Mejía-Falla, Paola A; Giraldo, Alan

    2007-09-18

    Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods) and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization). It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation.

  20. Nd isotope as the tracer of seawater evolution of early Miocene in the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Fifty-six samples of nannofossil ooze were collected from Core PC5794 in the northern equatorial Pacific at 5 cm intervals. With the methods of mass spectrometer (VG354) and ICP, the Nd isotopic compositions εNd(t ), Mn contents and Mg/Sr ratios of carbonate phase have been analyzed. CaCO3 contents of bulk sediments were obtained by dissolution of 0.5 mol/L HCl. Based on these data, the high-resolution εNd(t) profile of seawater in early Miocene with core depth(or time) have been established. The values of εNd(t) range from -6.2 to -2.97 and 4 fluctuation cycles existed during 24.06-22.02 Ma. 4 low εNd(t) values (about -6.4) correspond to high CaCO3 contents, which implicates that there were 4 cold epochs or 4 times of Antarctic Bottom Water activity. They occurred at the time of 24.06 Ma, 23.85 Ma, 22.88 Ma and 22.26 Ma, respectively. High εNd(t ) values correspond to the high Mn contents and high values of Mg/Sr ratio, which indicates the existence of 4 intense hydrothermal activity periods during 24.06-22 Ma, the durations of them are 4.05-23.98 Ma, 23.69-23.15 Ma, 22.74-22.37 Ma and 22.06-22.02 Ma, respectively.

  1. Nd isotope as the tracer of seawater evolution of early Miocene in the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJihua; CHENLirong; WANGYingxi; HANJianxiu

    2003-01-01

    Fifty-six samples of nannofossil ooze were collected from Core PC5794 in the northern equatorial Pacific at 5 cm intervals. With the methods of mass spectrometer (VG354) and ICP, the Nd isotopic compositions (εNd(t)), Mn contents and Mg/Sr ratios of carbonate phase have been analyzed. CaCO3 contents of bulk sediments were obtained by dissolution of 0.5 mol/L HCl. Based on these data, the high-resolution εNd(t) profile of seawater in early Miocene with core depth(or time) have been established. The values of εNd(t) range from -6.2 to -2.97 and 4 fluctuation cycles existed during 24.06-22.02 Ma. 4 low εNd(t) values (about -6.4) correspond to high CaCO3 contents, which implicates that there were 4 cold epochs or 4 times of Antarctic Bottom Water activity. They occurred at the time of 24.06 Ma, 23.85 Ma,22.88 Ma and 22.26 Ma, respectively. High εNd(t) values correspond to the high Mn contents and high values of Mg/Sr ratio, which indicates the existence of 4 intense hydrothermal activity periods during 24.06-22 Ma, the durations of them are 4.05-23.98 Ma, 23.69-23.15 Ma, 22.74-22.37 Ma and 22.06-22.02 Ma, respectively.

  2. Benthic Macrofauna Associated with Submerged Bottoms of a Tectonic Estuary in Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Guevara-Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and distribution of the main associations of submerged macrobenthos of Bahía Málaga (Colombian pacific coast, were studied in relation to the distribution of hard and soft substrates and some abiotic factors. Eight localities were sampled during six months: three in the external border of the estuary and five in the inner part. In total, 728 organisms were registered, belonging to 207 species, 132 genera, 86 families, and 14 orders of six invertebrate groups (Porifera, Cnidaria, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata. The submerged bottoms presented soft and hard substrates, with rocks and thick sand in five sites, soft bottoms with fine sand in one, and soft bottoms with slime and clay in two. The temperature and salinity values were higher in the external localities, while dissolved oxygen and pH were higher in the internal localities. The localities with hard substrates presented the highest richness of species while the soft substrates, were characterized by a paucity of species and individuals. The similarity classification analyses showed two groups: one characterized by having 61 species in common and high richness with 113 exclusive species. The other group with low diversity and richness values, 37 species in common and 23 exclusive species.

  3. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the lagoon environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  4. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from the submarine slope environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 5 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000...

  5. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the lagoon environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  6. Temperature Data From AUSTRALIA STAR and Other Platforms From Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean From 19860929 to 19890106 (NODC Accession 8900196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data from Australia Star and other ships from Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from September 29, 1986 to January 6, 1989. The data were collected by...

  7. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments at Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific with 16 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Tutuila, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters. The...

  8. Zooplankton biomass data from net tows from the South Pacific Ocean from 27 January 1967 to 26 November 1967 (NODC Accession 9500090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass data were collected from net tows from the South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected by the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) from 27...

  9. North and South Pacific Ocean Temperature Profile Data collected by the SCRIPPS Institute of Oceanography from 17 February 2000 to 11 August 2002 (NODC Accession 0000925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from XBT casts from the North and South Pacific Oceans. Data were collected from 17 February 2000 to 11 August 2002. Data were collected...

  10. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from the submarine slope environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 5 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000...

  11. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity measurements collected using bottle from the ELTANIN in the South Pacific in 1969 (NODC Accession 0001458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from the ELTANIN in the South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 30 September 1969 to 10 November...

  12. Temperature profile and other data collected from bottle casts by MONOWAI in South Pacific Ocean from 16 November 1992 to 03 December 1992 (NODC Accession 9400103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using bottle casts in the South Pacific Ocean by MONOWAI. Data were collected from 16 November 1992 to 03 December...

  13. From the South Pacific: experiences in the development of instructional materials in population education in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The population education program in the Pacific was established in 1980, a decade behind that in Asia. Some countries produced materials on population. Fiji produced excellent student and teacher guides, and the Marshall Islands conducted a workshop to develop curriculum materials for use in elementary schools and in an adult education program. In the Solomon Islands 10 modules on population education will be used in the "core" subject for all 1st year students of the new College of Higher Education. Of these 10 modules, 5 have been completed. Because other Pacific countries had not moved further from their plans of developing curriculum and instructional materials in this field a workshop was conducted during September 1983 to provide training in the development of population education materials. The workshop was aimed at preparing guidelines for the development of in-school and out-of-school curricula and sample instructional materials and developing prototype materials which can be adopted by the Pacific countries. While there may be many materials in population education developed in Asia which can be used in the Pacific, it was deemed helpful to have prototype instructional materials for the Pacific region developed by the Pacific islandes themselves. The following guidelines were suggested: stress the unfiqueness of the Pacific; emphasize culture and traditional lifestyle; use local examples; focus on the interrelationships of population factors; employ local or regional resources, materials, and expertise; and stay sensitive to what is aceptable in population education. The major work of developing draft prototype curricula and sample instructional materials was done by the participants in 2 teams, 1 for the in-school and the other for the out-of-school program. The in-school group developed sample units instead of sample lessons in population edcuation for social science, science, mathematics, environmental science, and home economics for the secondary

  14. Modelling the impact of climate change on South Pacific albacore tuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna; Nicol, Simon; Hampton, John

    2015-03-01

    The potential impact of climate change under the IPCC AR4-A2 scenario (close to the AR5-RCP8.5 scenario) on south Pacific albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) is simulated with the Spatial Ecosystem And Population Dynamics Model (SEAPODYM) and environmental forcing variables provided by the Earth Climate model IPSL-CM4. Parameters controlling the habitat and dynamics of the population were optimized by fitting the model, using maximum likelihood, to a complete fishing data set for the historical fishing period since 1950. Albacore undertake clear seasonal migrations between feeding and spawning grounds, as evidenced by seasonal catch and size composition changes. This seasonality was well predicted by the SEAPODYM albacore simulations. The total biomass estimate of south Pacific albacore was predicted to have decreased from ~1.8 million tonnes (Mt) at the beginning of industrial fisheries in 1950 to 1.25 Mt in 2006, in good agreement with an independent estimate from stock assessment analysis. A simulation without fishing indicated an equivalent contribution of environmental variability and fishing to the historical decrease of the stock biomass. The parameterized SEAPODYM model was used to project the dynamics of the population until the end of the 21st century with an average fishing effort based on recent years. Under this fishing and climate change scenario, the population was predicted to decrease and to stabilize after 2035 just below 0.8 Mt, i.e., 55% below the initial biomass of 1960. After 2080 however, the trend was reversed when a new spawning ground emerged in the north Tasman Sea. A test simulation highlighted the sensitivity of the model results to projected dissolved oxygen concentration for which there is large uncertainty in the tropical region. A second test simulation showed that genetic selection favouring albacore with preferences for higher optimal ambient spawning temperature would maintain a reduced level of spawning in current tropical spawning

  15. Mineral chemistry of tourmaline from Mashak Pahar, South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ), eastern Indian Shield

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santanu Acharjee; Jyotisankar Ray; Payel Dey; Debapriya Bhattacharyya; Mousumi Banerjee; Basab Chattopadhyay; Shyamal Sengupta; A K Bhatt; D Chowdhury; A K Dwivedi; Sanjoy Mahato; Arka Ranjan Jana; P B Maithani; P V Ramesh Babu

    2016-12-01

    The area of investigation at and around Mashak Pahar, Bankura district, West Bengal, India comprises a number of rock types namely: granite gneiss, migmatized quartz tourmaline gneiss, quartz pebbleconglomerate, ferruginous quartzite, quartz tourmaline veins (as veins) and graphite schists. Interestingly, the study area lies in the region extending South Purulia Shear Zone (∼Tamar–Porapahar Shear Zone) which marks the boundary between two contrasting tectonic blocks of eastern India, namely, the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Terrane (CGC) to the north and Singhbhum Group of rocks to the south. The rocks of the study area are poly-phasedly deformed by three phases of folding, namely, F1, F2 and F3. All the tourmalines are classified to be of ‘Alkali Group’. Chemistry of tourmalines from migmatized quartz tourmaline gneiss and those from quartz tourmaline veins are in conformity with their relation to (earthquake induced) shear system evolution in this terrain. In general, the compositional evolutionof tourmaline during prograde metamorphism (∼400°–730°C) has been supported by both petrographic and chemical evidences. Assessment of mineral–chemical data of constituent tourmaline grains clearly suggests compositional variations across zonal boundaries within tourmaline that was controlled by changing metamorphic milieu in this terrane. Field and petrographic evidences clearly indicate activation of earlier and later shears in this region accompanied by infiltration of boron and formation of zoned tourmaline crystals.

  16. The near-eastern roots of the Neolithic in South Asia.

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    Kavita Gangal

    Full Text Available The Fertile Crescent in the Near East is one of the independent origins of the Neolithic, the source from which farming and pottery-making spread across Europe from 9,000 to 6,000 years ago at an average rate of about 1 km/yr. There is also strong evidence for causal connections between the Near-Eastern Neolithic and that further east, up to the Indus Valley. The Neolithic in South Asia has been far less explored than its European counterpart, especially in terms of absolute (14C dating; hence, there were no previous attempts to assess quantitatively its spread in Asia. We combine the available (14C data with the archaeological evidence for early Neolithic sites in South Asia to analyze the spatio-temporal continuity of the Neolithic dispersal from the Near East through the Middle East and to the Indian subcontinent. We reveal an approximately linear dependence between the age and the geodesic distance from the Near East, suggesting a systematic (but not necessarily uniform spread at an average speed of about 0.65 km/yr.

  17. Mast fruiting is a frequent strategy in woody species of eastern South America.

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    Natalia Norden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is thought that mast seeding is a rare reproductive strategy in the tropics, since tropical climates are less variable, and fruit consumers tend to be more generalist in these regions. However, previous tests of this hypothesis were based on only few tropical datasets, and none from tropical South America. Moreover, reproductive strategies have been quantified based on the coefficient of variation of interannual seed production, an index that potentially confounds masting and high interannual variability in seed production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new approach to model the monthly variability in seed production for 28 tree species, and 20 liana species monitored during 5 years in a tropical forest of Central French Guiana. We found that 23% of the species showed a masting pattern, 54% an annual fruiting pattern, and 23% an irregular fruiting pattern. The majority of masting species were trees (8 out of 11, most of them animal-dispersed. The classification into reproductive strategies based on the coefficient of variation was inconsistent with our results in nearly half of the cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to clearly evidence the frequency of the masting strategy in a tropical forest community of Eastern South America. The commonness of the masting strategy in tropical plants may promote species coexistence through storage dynamics.

  18. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  19. The drought of the 1890s in south-eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Kathleen; Nash, David; Klein, Jorgen; Endfield, Georgina

    2016-04-01

    During the second half of the 1890s south-eastern Africa, from modern day Zimbabwe and Botswana down to South Africa, was hit by a drought driven ecological crisis. Using instrumental observations and previously unexploited documentary records in the form of British administrative sources, reports and letters by various Protestant mission societies and newspapers, the extent, duration and severity of the drought are explored. Generally the period was marked by a delayed onset of the rainy season of several months; rainfall totals dropped and perennial rivers such as the Limpopo dried up. The delay of the rainy season negatively impacted the rain-fed agriculture. Recurrent drought conditions during the rainy season frequently withered the young crops. In the interior of southern Africa, on the border of the Kalahari desert, the drought was more severe and continuous than towards the coast of the Indian Ocean. The prolonged dry conditions furthered the outbreak of locust plagues and cattle disease, which in the 1890s took the disastrous form of Rinderpest. A model is established showing how the drought as the original driver of the crisis, triggered a cascade of responses from harvest failure to famine and finally leading to profound socio-economic change.

  20. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía-Falla Paola A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Conclusion Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization. It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation.

  1. Fatty acids as biomarkers for food web structure in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, J.; Aluwihare, L.; Stephens, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Resulting from a NSF funded REU program at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 2015, this research utilized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to analyze the fatty acid composition of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and zooplankton (ZP; primarily copepods). Samples analyzed for this study were collected simultaneously from surface waters approximately 9 miles off the coast of San Diego in June 2015. I was testing the hypothesis that essential fatty acids in ZP should reflect their diet, in particular, distinguishing contributions from a microbial versus traditional food web. Food web structure in this region of the ocean has been shown to be sensitive to climate change on inter-annual and longer timescales. Thus, a proxy that identifies restructuring of food webs would be useful for examining the response of ocean ecosystems to future climate change. Lipids were extracted from ZP and POM using a modified Bligh and Dyer method with sonication. Following saponification free fatty acids and other lipids were further purified using column chromatography. Polar functional groups in lipids were then methylated prior to GC-MS analysis. In addition, 2-dimensional GCxGC with time of flight MS was used to distinguish polyunsaturated fatty acid isomers. My poster will present initial findings of shared fatty acids of zooplankton and POM suspended material from the Northern Pacific collection site. Further research will be focused on analyzing the hydrogen isotope composition of fatty acids in zooplankton and suspended DOM obtained at the collection site to further characterize and increase certainty on the role of microbes and phytoplankton in the region's food-web to distinguish prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources.

  2. Uranium and plutonium in anoxic marine sediments of the Santiago River mouth (Eastern Pacific, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Torres, María Guadalupe; Ordóñez-Regil, Eduardo; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina

    2016-11-01

    The uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) content with depth in a sediment core collected in the continental shelf off the mouth of the Santiago River in the Mexican Pacific was studied to evaluate the contamination effects of the effluent of the Santiago-Lerma River as it moves into the sea. The large mass of terrestrial detritus delivered by the river influences the physicochemical and geochemical processes in the seafloor. Abnormal concentrations of U and Pu in sediments were examined as indicative of the effects of anoxic conditions. One of the indicators of pollution of seawater is the bacterial activity of the shallow seabed layer; and among the prevailing bacteria, the magnetotactic ones induce the formation of euhedral and framboidal shapes (pyrite). These pyrite entities are by-products of anoxic environments loaded with decomposing detrital material and are very abundant in the surface layers of the sediment core analyzed. The pyrite formation is the result of a biochemical reaction between iron and organic sulphur reduced by bacteria, and the pyrite entities precipitate to the seafloor. In the same upper zone of the profile, (238)U is readily immobilized, while (234)U is oxidized and dissolved in seawater by the effect of hot atom chemistry. This may cause the activity ratio (AR) (234)U/(238)U disequilibrium (near 0.41). Furthermore, in the shallow layer of the sediment core, an abnormally high concentration of (239+240)Pu was detected. In this upper layer, the activity concentrations found were 3.19 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 1.32 kg(-1) for (234)U and 2.78 Bq kg(-1) for (239+240)Pu. In the lower fractions of the sediment core, normal values of AR (234)U/(238)U (≈1) were found, with traces of (239+240)Pu.

  3. What do we know of consumers’ preferences and food choices in the islands of the South Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Kate M.

    1999-01-01

    Governments in developing countries have tended to focus on the production end of their food systems. However, there is increasing recognition of the need to understand the nature of post-harvest marketing and consumers' behaviour in order to develop effective policies for food marketing initiatives and nutrition security. This paper presents an examination of the available research into consumer preferences in the South Pacific region and the contexts in which the research was conducted. Of ...

  4. Barriers to accessing and receiving mental health care in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Isabell; Johansson, Peter; Andersson, Lena; van Rooyen, Dalena

    2013-12-12

    The right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health is enshrined in many international human rights treaties. However, studies have shown that people with mental disabilities are often marginalized and discriminated against in the fulfillment of their right to health. The aim of this study is to identify and reach a broader understanding of barriers to the right to mental health in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Eleven semi-structured interviews were carried out with health professionals and administrators. The researchers used the Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, and Quality (AAAQ) framework from the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to structure and analyze the material. The framework recognizes these four interrelated and partly overlapping elements as necessary for implementation of the right to health. The study identifies eleven barriers to the enjoyment of the right to health for people with mental disabilities. Three categories of barriers relate to availability: lack of staff, lack of facilities, and lack of community services and preventive care. Four barriers relate to accessibility: lack of transport, lack of information, stigmatization, and traditional cultural beliefs of the community. Two barriers relate to acceptability: lack of cross-cultural understanding among staff and traditional cultural beliefs of staff. Finally, two barriers relate to quality: lack of properly trained staff and lack of organizational capacity. The results, in line with earlier research, indicate that the implementation of the right to health for people with mental disabilities is far from achieved in South Africa. The findings contribute to monitoring the right to mental health in South Africa through the identification of barriers to the right to health and by indicating the importance of building monitoring procedures based on the experiences and knowledge of staff involved in mental health

  5. High gene flow due to pelagic larval dispersal among South Pacific archipelagos in two amphidromous gastropods (Neritomorpha: Neritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, E D; Taffel, J R; Barber, P H

    2010-06-01

    The freshwater stream fauna of tropical oceanic islands is dominated by amphidromous species, whose larvae are transported to the ocean and develop in the plankton before recruiting back to freshwater habitat as juveniles. Because stream habitat is relatively scarce and unstable on oceanic islands, this life history would seem to favor either the retention of larvae to their natal streams, or the ability to delay metamorphosis until new habitat is encountered. To distinguish between these hypotheses, we used population genetic methods to estimate larval dispersal among five South Pacific archipelagos in two amphidromous species of Neritid gastropod (Neritina canalis and Neripteron dilatatus). Sequence data from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) revealed that neither species is genetically structured throughout the Western Pacific, suggesting that their larvae have a pelagic larval duration (PLD) of at least 8 weeks, longer than many marine species. In addition, the two species have recently colonized isolated Central Pacific archipelagos in three independent events. Since colonization, there has been little or no gene flow between the Western and Central Pacific archipelagos in N. canalis, and high levels of gene flow across the same region in N. dilatatus. Both species show departures from neutrality and recent dates for colonization of the Central Pacific archipelagos, which is consistent with frequent extinction and recolonization of stream populations in this area. Similar results from other amphidromous species suggest that unstable freshwater habitats promote long-distance dispersal capabilities.

  6. Spatial and sex-specific variation in growth of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga across the South Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J Williams

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in growth is a common feature of demersal fish populations which often exist as discrete adult sub-populations linked by a pelagic larval stage. However, it remains unclear whether variation in growth occurs at similar spatial scales for populations of highly migratory pelagic species, such as tuna. We examined spatial variation in growth of albacore Thunnus alalunga across 90° of longitude in the South Pacific Ocean from the east coast of Australia to the Pitcairn Islands. Using length-at-age data from a validated ageing method we found evidence for significant variation in length-at-age and growth parameters (L(∞ and k between sexes and across longitudes. Growth trajectories were similar between sexes up until four years of age, after which the length-at-age for males was, on average, greater than that for females. Males reached an average maximum size more than 8 cm larger than females. Length-at-age and growth parameters were consistently greater at more easterly longitudes than at westerly longitudes for both females and males. Our results provide strong evidence that finer spatial structure exists within the South Pacific albacore stock and raises the question of whether the scale of their "highly migratory" nature should be re-assessed. Future stock assessment models for South Pacific albacore should consider sex-specific growth curves and spatial variation in growth within the stock.

  7. WATER QUALITY MODELING AND POLLUTION CONTROL FOR THE EASTERN ROUTE OF SOUTH TO NORTH WATER TRANSFER PROJECT IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; WANG Yan-ying; WANG Pei-fang

    2006-01-01

    South to North Water Transfer Project in China is the largest project over centuries to solve the water shortage problem in vast areas of northern China. It comprises of three routes: the eastern, central and western route and this study mainly focused on the eastern route. As water quality is the key factor for the eastern route, this paper examined the main factors influencing water quality of the main route south of the Yellow River, by investigating the point source, non-point source (diffusive source) and internal source pollutions along the main eastern route and in its drainage basins, and assessing the current water quality in the waterways. According to the complicated and combined systems of rivers and lakes in this route, one-dimensional water quantity and quality model for rivers and two-dimensional model for lakes were developed to simulate the hydrodynamic and pollutant transport processes. The numerical method and model algorithm were described. The values of model parameters were estimated by using field-monitoring data along the main route and the inverse modeling technique. Established models were employed to predict the degradations of CODMn and NH4+-N in the main stream, under the conditions of current pollution loads and different hydrologic conditions. Schemes were present for controlling total quantities of pollutants from point source and non-point source along the main route to secure water quality for the eastern route.

  8. Mid-term coral-algal dynamics and conservation status of a Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern Pacific coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Zapata

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Colombian coral reefs, as other reefs worldwide, have deteriorated significantly during the last few decades due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The National Monitoring System for Coral Reefs in Colombia (SIMAC was established in 1998 to provide long-term data bases to assess the changes of Colombian coral reefs against perturbations and to identify the factors responsible for their decline or recovery. On the Pacific coast, data on coral and algal cover have been collected yearly during seven consecutive years (1998-2004 from 20 permanent transects in two sites at La Azufrada reef, Gorgona Island. Overall, coral cover was high (55.1%-65.7% and algal cover low (28.8%-37.5% and both exhibited significant changes among years, most notably on shallow areas. Differences between sites in both coral and algal cover were present since the study began and may be explained by differences in sedimentation stress derived from soil runoff. Differences between depths most likely stem from the effects of low tidal sub-aerial exposures. Particularly intense sub-aerial exposures occurred repeatedly during January-March, 2001 and accounted for a decrease in coral and an increase in algal cover on shallow depths observed later that year. Additionally, the shallow area on the Northern site seems to be negatively affected by the combined effect of sedimentation and low tidal exposure. However, a decrease in coral cover and an increase of algal cover since 2001 on deep areas at both sites remain unexplained. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the reef at La Azufrada has been more resilient than other reefs in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP, recovering pre-disturbance (1979 levels of coral cover within a 10 year period after the 1982-83 El Niño, which caused 85% mortality. Furthermore, the effects of the 1997-98 El Niño, indicated by the difference in overall live coral cover between 1998 and 1999, were minor (<6% reduction. Despite

  9. Mid-term coral-algal dynamics and conservation status of a Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern Pacific) coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Fernando A; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Caro-Zambrano, Carlos; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Colombian coral reefs, as other reefs worldwide, have deteriorated significantly during the last few decades due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The National Monitoring System for Coral Reefs in Colombia (SIMAC) was established in 1998 to provide long-term data bases to assess the changes of Colombian coral reefs against perturbations and to identify the factors responsible for their decline or recovery. On the Pacific coast, data on coral and algal cover have been collected yearly during seven consecutive years (1998-2004) from 20 permanent transects in two sites at La Azufrada reef, Gorgona Island. Overall, coral cover was high (55.1%-65.7%) and algal cover low (28.8%-37.5%) and both exhibited significant changes among years, most notably on shallow areas. Differences between sites in both coral and algal cover were present since the study began and may be explained by differences in sedimentation stress derived from soil runoff. Differences between depths most likely stem from the effects of low tidal sub-aerial exposures. Particularly intense sub-aerial exposures occurred repeatedly during January-March, 2001 and accounted for a decrease in coral and an increase in algal cover on shallow depths observed later that year. Additionally, the shallow area on the Northern site seems to be negatively affected by the combined effect of sedimentation and low tidal exposure. However, a decrease in coral cover and an increase of algal cover since 2001 on deep areas at both sites remain unexplained. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the reef at La Azufrada has been more resilient than other reefs in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), recovering pre-disturbance (1979) levels of coral cover within a 10 year period after the 1982-83 El Niño, which caused 85% mortality. Furthermore, the effects of the 1997-98 El Niño, indicated by the difference in overall live coral cover between 1998 and 1999, were minor (coral cover in 2004 was as high as

  10. Observations of heterogeneous reactions between Asian pollution and mineral dust over the Eastern North Pacific during INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. McNaughton

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In-situ airborne measurements of trace gases, aerosol size distributions, chemistry and optical properties were conducted over Mexico and the Eastern North Pacific during MILAGRO and INTEX-B. Heterogeneous reactions between secondary aerosol precursor gases and mineral dust during long-range transport lead to irreversible sequestration of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the supermicrometer particulate size range.

    Simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distributions and weak-acid soluble calcium result in an estimate of 11 wt% of CaCO3 for Asian dust. During transport across the North Pacific, 10–30% of the CaCO3 is converted to CaSO4 or Ca(NO32 through reactions with trace gases. The 11-year record from the Mauna Loa Observatory confirm these findings, indicating that, on average, 16% of the CaCO3 has reacted to form CaSO4 and 14% has reacted to form Ca(NO32. Heterogeneous reactions resulting in ~3% increase in dust solubility is shown to have an insignificant effect on their optical properties compared to their variability in-situ. However, competition between supermicrometer dust and submicrometer primary aerosol for condensing secondary aerosol species led to a 25% smaller number median diameter for the accumulation mode aerosol. A 10–25% reduction of accumulation mode number median diameter results in a 30–70% reduction in submicrometer light scattering at relative humidities in the 80–95% range. At 80% RH submicrometer light scattering is only reduced ~3% due to a higher mass fraction of hydrophobic refractory components in the dust-affected accumulation mode aerosol. Thus reducing the geometric mean diameter of the submicrometer aerosol has a much larger effect on aerosol optics than changes to the hygroscopic:hydrophobic mass fractions of the aerosol.

    In the presence of dust, nitric acid concentrations are

  11. Variations in terrigenous matter transport evaluated by plant terpenoid analysis in the Neogene eastern equatorial Pacific sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H.; Sawada, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Kobayashi, M.

    2012-12-01

    We analyze land plant biomarkers in sediments recovered during the IODP Expeditions 320/321, the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT), to reconstruct variations in terrestrial input in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, as well as to evaluate transport systems of terrigenous matter from land to ocean. We used the Neogene sediments (23-0.23 Ma) recovered from site U1337. We could identify cadalene (sesquiterpenoid), as well as series of aromatic abietane type diterpenoids (e.g. retene) from most samples. These terpenoids are derived from biomolecules that constitute plant resin and supportive tissues. Plant-derived compounds in deep-sea sediments are considered that initially transported via fluvial process, followed by redistribution by gravity flow to the deeper part. Although, the typical pelagic setting of site U1337, even far from land across the mid-ocean-ridge, exclude such pathway. Therefore, the variations in mass accumulation rate (MAR) of plant terpenoids in this site depend eolian transportation and can be used as an indicator of change in atmospheric circulation. The increasing spikes in MAR of plant terpenoids were observed in the horizons of 16 Ma, 14 Ma, 12 Ma, 10 Ma, 9 - 8 Ma, 7 Ma and 2.5 - 1Ma. It is found that some of the spikes, 14 Ma, 7 Ma, 2.5 - 1 Ma correspond to the East Antarctica Ice Sheet event (EAIS), the Biogenic bloom event, and the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG), respectively. Furthermore, the degree of aromatization in diterpenoids, which represented by retene to the sum of abietane type diterpenoids, tends to increase concurrently with the MAR of total plant terpenoids. The aromatization of plant terpenoids take place under thermal maturation after deposition as well as in earlier processes such as biomass burning. In the U1337 sediments, the degree of aromatization of diterpenoids was uncorrelated with the age or depositional depth, suggesting its variations retain potential for paleoclimatic application. For example

  12. Planktonic foraminifera as recorders of sea surface hydrography in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (Gulf of Tehuantepec, MX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, K.; Thunell, R.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Wejnert, K.; Nava-Fernández, X. A.; Rodriguez-Ramírez, A.; Tappa, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Gulf of Tehuanetpec (GoT) (14°-16°N and 92°-96°W) is located in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific, a region that is sensitive to changes in both Atlantic-Pacific water vapor transport as well as changes in ENSO. Within the ETNP, the GoT is unique in that it experiences significant changes in temperature (ΔT = 8-10°C) and salinity (ΔS = 3) associated with seasonal variations in precipitation and wind-driven upwelling. Establishing robust relationships between δ18O and Mg/Ca of foraminiferal calcite to sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) in this region can then be used to study past changes in Atl-Pac water vapor transport and ENSO and how these relate to regional and global climate change. We present here a six year (2006-2012), weekly to biweekly resolved record of paired δ18O-Mg/Ca analyses of the planktonic foraminfer Globigerina bulloides, collected from a sediment trap mooring in the GoT (15° 38.826N, 95° 16.905 W). The G. bulloides δ18O values ranges from -0.14‰ to - 3.98‰, equivalent to ~16°C temperature, or nearly twice the observed instrumental change in SST. To help constrain the temperature influence on the δ18Ocalcite signal, Mg/Ca values were converted to temperature using previously published equations for G. bulloides. In addition, we calculated new equations using the Mg/Ca and satellite SST data. Depending on the calibration equation used, G. bulloides from the GoT show a ~5-8% change in Mg/Ca with temperature, and show generally good agreement with SST, particularly in winter upwelling months. The agreement between SST and Mg/Ca-based temperatures is less robust during the winter months of 2009, when a moderate El Niño year resulted in warmer and fresher surface conditions in the GoT than pervious and following years, indicating a deeper habitat depth for G. bulloides and perhaps reduced upwelling during El Niño conditions.

  13. Decade-long deep-ocean warming detected in the subtropical South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Denis L.; Lee, Sang-Ki; Landerer, Felix W.; Lumpkin, Rick

    2017-01-01

    The persistent energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, inferred from satellite measurements, indicates that the Earth's climate system continues to accumulate excess heat. As only sparse and irregular measurements of ocean heat below 2000 m depth exist, one of the most challenging questions in global climate change studies is whether the excess heat has already penetrated into the deep ocean. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis of satellite and in situ measurements to report that a significant deep-ocean warming occurred in the subtropical South Pacific Ocean over the past decade (2005-2014). The local accumulation of heat accounted for up to a quarter of the global ocean heat increase, with directly and indirectly inferred deep ocean (below 2000 m) contribution of 2.4 ± 1.4 and 6.1-10.1 ± 4.4%, respectively. We further demonstrate that this heat accumulation is consistent with a decade-long intensification of the subtropical convergence, possibly linked to the persistent La Niña-like state.

  14. Environmental rock-magnetism of Cenozoic red clay in the South Pacific Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Takaya; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu

    2016-04-01

    Nonfossiliferous red clay can be used for elucidating long-range environmental changes, although such studies were limited so far because of the difficulty in precise age estimation and extremely low sedimentation rates. We conducted an environmental rock-magnetic study of Cenozoic red clay at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1365 in the South Pacific Gyre. Magnetostratigraphy could be established only above ˜6 m below the seafloor (mbsf) (˜5 Ma). Below ˜6 mbsf, the ages of the cores were transferred from the published ages of nearby Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 596, which is based mainly on a constant Cobalt flux model, by intercore correlation using magnetic susceptibility and rare earth element content variation patterns. Rock-magnetic analyses including first-order reversal curve diagrams, the ratio of anhysteretic remanent magnetization susceptibility to saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), and IRM component analyses revealed that magnetic minerals consist mainly of biogenic magnetite and terrigenous maghemite, and that the proportion of the terrigenous component increased since ˜23 Ma. We consider that the increase reflects a growth of eolian dust flux associated with a northward shift of Australia and the site to an arid region of the middle latitudes. The increase of the terrigenous component accelerated after ˜5 Ma, which may be associated with a further growth of the Antarctic glaciation at that time. This is coeval with the onset of the preservation of magnetostratigraphy, suggesting that the primary remanent magnetization is carried by the terrigenous component.

  15. A Large Plasmodium vivax Reservoir and Little Population Structure in the South Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available The importance of Plasmodium vivax in malaria elimination is increasingly being recognized, yet little is known about its population size and population genetic structure in the South Pacific, an area that is the focus of intensified malaria control.We have genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 295 P. vivax isolates from four geographically distinct sites in Papua New Guinea (PNG and one site from Solomon Islands, representing different transmission intensities.Diversity was very high with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.62 to 0.98 for the different markers. Effective population size was high (12'872 to 19'533 per site. In PNG population structuring was limited with moderate levels of genetic differentiation. F ST values (adjusted for high diversity of markers were 0.14-0.15. Slightly higher levels were observed between PNG populations and Solomon Islands (F ST = 0.16.Low levels of population structure despite geographical barriers to transmission are in sharp contrast to results from regions of low P. vivax endemicity. Prior to intensification of malaria control programs in the study area, parasite diversity and effective population size remained high.

  16. The relationship between terrorist activities and cases of malaria in the eastern and south-eastern regions of Turkey, 1984-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ilhan; Egri, Mucahit; Celbis, Osman; Toprak, Sadik; Ozag, Kadir

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cases of malaria are related to terrorist activities that have occurred in the eastern and south-eastern regions of Turkey. Some of the determinants related to malaria have been investigated using a national dataset for 11 provinces located in these regions of Turkey. In these regions, both terrorist activity and cases of malaria were common from 1984 to 1998. A multiple regression technique was used to identify the variables that are significantly associated with cases of malaria. Annual incidence of malaria was chosen as the dependent variable along with three independent (explanatory) variables: annual number of terrorist incidences, people per healthcare technician and number of thick blood films per 100,000 people. Based on this analysis, it is determined that the annual number of terrorist incidences has been associated with the annual number of malaria cases in these regions of Turkey since the beginning of terrorist activity in 1984.

  17. Paralarvae of the complex Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis-Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) in the northern limit of the shallow oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean (April 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Velasco, Laura; Ruvalcaba-Aroche, Erick D.; Beier, Emilio; Godínez, Victor M.; Barton, Eric D.; Díaz-Viloria, Noe; Pacheco, María. R.

    2016-03-01

    The three-dimensional distribution of the paralarvae of the complex Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis-Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) was analyzed at the northern limit of the shallow oxygen minimum zone in the Eastern Tropical Pacific in April 2012. The upper limit of the oxygen minimum water (˜44 µmol/kg or 1 mL/L) rises from ˜100 m depth in the entrance of the Gulf of California to ˜20 m depth off Cabo Corrientes. Most of the paralarvae of this complex, dominated by D. gigas, were concentrated in the Gulf entrance, between the thermocline (˜20 to ˜50 m depth) and the sea surface, in the warmest (>19°C) oxygenated (>176 µmol/kg) layer. The highest abundance of paralarvae was detected in an anticyclonic eddy (˜120 km diameter and >500 m deep), which contained lower-salinity water (<35 g/kg), consistent with formation in the California Current. Lower paralarvae abundance was recorded further south