Full Text Available Background: Acne neonatorum (AN is characterized by a facial eruption of inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesions in a neonate. Hyperactivity of sebaceous glands, stimulated by neonatal androgens, is implicated in its pathogenesis. Aim: To elucidate the clinical profile of AN in eastern Saudi Arabia. Methods: All patients diagnosed with AN in King Fahd Hospital of the University in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2005 were evaluated clinically. Results: AN was diagnosed in 26 patients (male/female ratio 1:1. The lesions included mainly facial comedones (30.8%; papules and pustules (15.3% each; and combination of papules, pustules, and cysts (53.4%. Conclusion: All patients recovered spontaneously. In 50% of the cases, one of the parents reported having had acne vulgaris during adolescence. Hereditary factors seem to play a significant role in our series.
Ibrahim, A W
In Saudi Arabia, there were no attempts previously to describe a population based frequency or incidence, particularly so the age adjusted incidence of various CNS tumors. This paper presents the primary CNS tumors from a population based tumor registry over two years period, from January 1987 till December 1988. There was a total of 85 cases representing 5.4% of the total captured cases (1,568 cases of malignant tumors at all sites). The population of the Eastern Province is estimated to be 1.37 million, the Saudis forming 80% of the total population. Out of the 85 cases captured over two years, there were 64 cases diagnosed in indigenous Saudi population forming 75%. The remaining occurred in non-Saudi residents. The male/female ratio in Saudis was 1:1.1 with a slight predominance of the female, while the reverse is true in the non-Saudis (2:1). The total captured cases per annum is 43, making the incidence of primary CNS neoplasms in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia 3.1/100,000 of all the population and 2.9/100,000 in Saudi nationals. Comparing this incidence to the international figure, it was clear that it is far less than the incidence reported from North America and Europe, particularly in the Caucasian population, but similar to incidences reported in the Chinese, black Americans, Romanians and Yugoslavians, but certainly less than the Ashkenazi or Safari Jews, and slightly higher than the incidence reported in Japan and Southeast Asia. Malignant brain tumors of various types dominated the primary CNS neoplasms reported over these two years forming 69% of the cases and 52% of the primary brain tumors.
Nadira A Al-Baghli
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.
Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital′s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008. Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17. The most common presentations were cough (48%, dyspnea (21%, joint pain (18%, splenomegaly (12%, hepatomegaly (9%, and lymphadenopathy (5%. The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in 14 (46.7%. The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29 except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%, and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.
Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.
Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, p<0.000). Findings revealed that the empathy dimension contributed most patients’ expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. Conclusion: The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285
In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development.
Magdy A. Darwish
Full Text Available Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years attending primary health care centers (PHCCs in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%, smoking in front of children (11.3%, overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%, noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3% and children (68%, children watching television (T.V more than 2 hours (50%, adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%, and late solid food introduction (65.3%. Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services.
Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.
Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804
Ali M Al-Amri
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the attitude of future physicians regarding the disclosure of diagnosis, prognosis, benefits, and adverse effects of therapeutic intervention if they happen to have cancer. It also examined the differences if any between regions or gender. Materials and Methods: A total of 332 medical students from University of Dammam, in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of nine questions on the attitudes to disclosure of information on cancer. This self-administered questionnaire was completed by the students in the presence of an investigator. Results: The vast majority of Saudi medical students stated that they would like to know about diagnosis of cancer (92.8% and only 7.2% wanted information withheld from them. Further, 67% of the males and 74.1% of the females wanted family members to know (P = 0.01, but one-third (33% did not want their family to know. Only 24.1% of the male and 21.1% of female students wanted their friends to know. In addition, -97% of the males and 98.8% of the females wanted to know the diagnosis, and 97% and 95.8% of females and males, respectively, would like to know the side effects of the therapy. Almost 95% of male and 93.4% of female students wanted to know the prognosis. Also, 98% of medical students from the Eastern Region would want the diagnosis of cancer to be disclosed compared to 73.6% of those from other regions (P = 0.01. There is no difference between the genders in attitudes toward the disclosure of the diagnosis, 94.6% and 92.2% (P = 0.38. Conclusions: There was a consensus among Saudi medical students on the knowledge of the benefits of treatment, adverse effects of therapy, and prognosis. Female students significantly more than males would like their families to be informed. Significantly more medical students from the Eastern Region than those from other regions would like the diagnosis of
Al-Dawsari, Najla A; Amra, Nasir
Skin cancer is the ninth most common malignancy in Saudi Arabia. It represented 3.2% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases in the year 2010. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of skin cancer in relation to age, sex, and anatomic location among Saudi patients attending the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center in Dhahran, Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. We retrospectively reviewed the surgical pathology records of Saudi nationals from 1995 to 2014 at the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center, which directly provides for the healthcare needs of Saudi Aramco company employees and dependents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Tumor metastases to skin, skin involvement by primary breast carcinoma, and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma with secondary involvement by skin were excluded. The total number of primary skin tumors was 204. The commonest cutaneous malignancies were basal cell carcinoma (36%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (23%), with the head and neck being the commonest location for both tumors. Mycosis fungoides (MF) was the third most common malignancy (11%). Malignant melanoma was the fourth commonest skin malignancy (7%) with the lower extremities being the commonest location. The four most common skin cancers in our tertiary center in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, MF, and malignant melanoma. Other regions of Saudi Arabia report a similar pattern of skin cancers as our center, with MF having a higher frequency at our center.
Ahmed, Ashraf M.; Shaalan, Essam A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Tripet, Frédéric; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.
The present study aimed to identify the mosquito vectors distributed throughout AL-Ahsaa district situated in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Mosquito larvae were collected seasonally for one year (October 2009 to September 2010) from different breeding sites in seven rural areas utilizing long aquatic nets. Salinity and pH of these breeding sites were also measured seasonally. The survey revealed the presence of five mosquito species, Aedes caspius Pallas (Diptera: Culicidae), Anopheles multicolor Cambouliu, Culex perexiguus Theobald, Culex pipiens L., and Culex pusillus Macquart, representing three genera; four of them (Ae. caspius, An. multicolor, Cx. perexiguus, and Cx. pipiens) are important vectors of diseases. Ae. caspius is the most common vector followed by Cx. pipiens and then Cx. perexiguus. Mosquitoes in AL-Ahsaa are prevalent in both winter and spring seasons, rarely encountered in summer, and are found in moderation during the autumn months. These results are compared with results of other regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22958070
Waleed H. BuAli
Full Text Available Purpose: No study had been conducted to assess the hospitals’ environment for learning purposes in multicenter sites in Saudi Arabia. It aims to evaluate the environment of hospitals for learning purposes of pediatric residents. Methods: We applied Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM to measure the learning environment at six teaching hospitals in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2013. Results: The number of respondents was 104 (86.7% out of 120 residents and 37 females and 67 male residents have responded. The residents’ response scored 100 out of 160 maximum score in rating of PHEEM that showed overall learning environment is favorable for training. There were some items in the social support domain suggesting improvements. There was no significant difference between male and female residents. There was a difference among the participant teaching hospitals (p<0.05. Conclusion: The result pointed an overall positive rating. Individual item scores suggested that their social life during residency could be uninspiring. They have the low satisfactory level and they feel racism, and sexual discrimination. Therefore, there is still a room for improvement.
Full Text Available Residential buildings are vital in the energy scenario of Saudi Arabia as they account for 52% of the total electricity consumption. The Eastern Province, due to its harsh weather conditions, is one of the most challenging areas in Saudi Arabia in terms of residential energy consumption. The province is vital also because of its large land area, accounting for almost one third of the entire country. This article investigates some of the important factors related to the residential energy consumption i.e. weather conditions, types of dwellings, building envelops, air-conditioning (A/C systems and domestic appliances especially cooking ovens. The work is based upon an analysis of the actual monthly electricity consumption for 115 dwellings in Dhahran for the year 2012. The investigated buildings include 62 apartments, 28 villas, and 25 traditional houses. The annual average electricity consumption for the surveyed dwellings was found to be 176.5 kWh/m2, a value higher than international energy-efficiency benchmarks. It is found that the use of mini-split A/C systems, thermal insulation and double-glazed windows can help reduce the electricity consumption by over 30%.
Abid, N; Khan, A Sattar; Al Otaibi, F Huzam
This retrospective study aimed to collect data related to the clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia, in one of the tertiary-care centers, King Fahd Hospital Al-Hasa, and to compare it with other regions of Saudi Arabia. Forty-six patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology 1997 criteria (ACR) were collected over a period from January 2004 to December 2008. The results showed an average age of onset of 26.17 (±9.17). The most common clinical features were nonspecific constitutional symptoms (fever, fatigue and malaise) seen in 44 patients (95.7%). Musculoskeletal features seen were mostly arthralgias (91.3%) and arthritis (76.1%). Nephritis was seen in 58.7% and hypertension in 52.2%. Mucocutaneous involvement included oral ulcers (71.7%), hair loss (65.2%), butterfly rashes (67.4%), photosensitivity (47.8%) and discoid lupus (13%). Neurologic manifestations showed psychosis in 17.4%, depression in 15.2% and headache in 28.3%. The most common hematologic presentation was leukopenia (58.7%) followed by hemolytic anemia and anemia of chronic disease (47.8%). Antinuclear antibodies were positive in 44 (95.7%), anti-dsDNA in 38 (42.6%), anti-Ro SSA and La SSB in 38 (82.6%). Anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant were positive in eight (17.4%). Low complement levels (C3 and C4) were seen in 41 (89.1%) of the patients with active disease. The drugs used in treatment were NSAIDs (100%), antimalarials (97.8%), steroids (100%), intermittent cyclophosphamide and other immunosuppressive drugs (71.7%). We found that the age of onset and sex distributions were different from other areas of Saudi Arabia, while clinical manifestations were the same as in other areas. The prognosis of lupus was good overall despite the multi-organ involvement. However, further studies based on larger number of patients are needed.
Mahalli, Azza El.
Although electronic health records (EHRs) have been implemented in many hospitals and healthcare providers benefit from their effective and efficient data processing, their evaluation from nurses has received little attention. This project aimed to assess the adoption and barriers to the use of an EHR system by nurses at three governmental hospitals implementing the same EHR software and functionalities in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. The study was a cross-sectional, paper-based questionna...
Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are one of the habitats that host high environmental diversity at the level of physical, geomorphological and biological features in arid regions. In Saudi Arabia, mangrove ecosystems are heavily threatened by both natural hazards and human pressure. The total estimated area of mangroves in Safwa Al Khurais, Saudi Arabia, is approximately 20 000 ha in extent and comprises two species: Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata. They supply detritus to the marine food web and play a significant role in the conservation of biological diversity. The main objective of this study was to analyse the demographic population sensitivity of A. marina in two representative sites on the Red Sea and the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the contributions of the inputs to the total uncertainty in the analysis outcomes. Demographic features affecting mangroves in Saudi Arabia are complex and include various aspects. The phenological phase, tree size, density, cover, number of dead trees and pneumatophore characteristics were considered in this study. A comparative analysis of Gaussian process emulators for performing a global sensitivity analysis was used to conduct a variance-based sensitivity analysis to identify which uncertain inputs drive the output uncertainty. The results showed that the interconnections between different demographic features were predictable, but that the extent of the sensitivity was uncertain. Findings from the current study are anticipated to contribute significantly towards an inclusive mangrove demographic features assessment, and towards the subsequent conservation of mangroves in Saudi Arabia.Conservation implications: The findings of the current research are discussed in light of the application of sensitivity analyses outputs in the conservation and management of mangrove ecosystems at a national level
El Mahalli, Azza; El-Khafif, Sahar H; Yamani, Wid
The pharmacy information system is one of the central pillars of a hospital information system. This research evaluated a pharmacy information system according to six aspects of the medication process in three hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. System administrators were interviewed to determine availability of functionalities. Then, system users within the hospital were targeted to evaluate their level of usage of these functionalities. The study was cross-sectional. Two structured surveys were designed. The overall response rate of hospital users was 31.7 percent. In all three hospitals studied, the electronic health record is hybrid, implementation has been completed and the system is running, and the systems have computerized provider order entry and clinical decision support. Also, the pharmacy information systems are integrated with the electronic health record, and computerized provider order entry and almost all prescribing and transcription functionalities are available; however, drug dispensing is a mostly manual process. However, the study hospitals do not use barcode-assisted medication administration systems to verify patient identity and electronically check dose administration, and none of them have computerized adverse drug event monitoring that uses the electronic health record. The numbers of users who used different functionalities most or all of the time was generally low. The highest frequency of utilization was for patient administration records (56.8 percent), and the lowest was for linkage of the pharmacy information system to pharmacy stock (9.1 percent). Encouraging users to use different functionalities was highly recommended.
Mahmoud F El-Sharkawy
Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The complex hospital environment requires special attention to ensure a healthy indoor air quality (IAQ to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections and occupational diseases. Poor hospital IAQ may cause outbreaks of building-related illness such as headaches, fatigue, eye, and skin irritations, and other symptoms. The general objective for this study was to assess IAQ inside a large University hospital at Al-Khobar City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Different locations representing areas where most activities and tasks are performed were selected as sampling points for air pollutants in the selected hospital. In addition, several factors were studied to determine those that were most likely to affect the IAQ levels. The temperature and relative percent humidity of different air pollutants were measured simultaneously at each location. Results: The outdoor levels of all air pollutant levels, except volatile organic compounds (VOCs, were higher than the indoor levels which meant that the IAQ inside healthcare facilities (HCFs were greatly affected by outdoor sources, particularly traffic. The highest levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs and those less than 10 microns (PM 10 inside the selected hospital were found at locations that are characterized with m4ore human activity. Conclusions:Levels of particulate matter (both PM 10 and TSP were higher than the Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs. The highest concentrations of the fungal species recorded were Cladosporium and Penicillium. Education of occupants of HCF on IAQ is critical. They must be informed about the sources and effects of contaminants and the proper operation of the ventilation system.
Althunyan, Abdullatif K.; Darwish, Magdy A.; Abdel Wahab, Moataza M.
INTRODUCTION: Bicycling is one of the most enjoyable aerobic exercises recommended for the promotion of an individual's health. The Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has seen a huge increase in the number of people who cycle. People have different goals for bicycling, but the injuries they sustain are common. Most of them relate to overuse, particularly of lower body joints. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of knee problems and factors associated with knee pain in cyclists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015, using an online self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on pertinent literature, was piloted, and validated. A web link was sent to 513 cyclists (professional and amateur) using E-mail, WhatsApp application, or SMS. Three hundred and eleven responses were received, 283 of which were included in the analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of knee pain was 25.8%; 27.6% for amateur cyclists and 15.9% for professional cyclists. Only 17.2% knee pain was attributed to cycling, whereas in 32.8% it happened spontaneously and in 25% of cases it occurred while running. Majority of the cyclists reported pain as mild (61.6%) or moderate (28.7%); anterior knee pain accounted for 58.1% knee pain. Different goals of cycling and different bicycle types had statistically significant difference on the rate of knee pain. Of underweight cyclists, 62.2% reported knee pain. Cyclists who run more or participated in football had a higher rate of pain. CONCLUSION: Knee injuries are common with cyclists. Factors such as the type of the bicycle, the goal of bicycling, club type, body mass index, and participation in other sports play a significant role in the rate of knee pain. PMID:28163572
Amira H.A Al-Abdalall
Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine microbial contamination of mobile phones in the city of Dammam, in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia, and identify the most important microbial species associated with these phones in order to take the necessary remedial measures. Materials and Methods: The analysis of a total of 202 samples was done to identify fungal and pathogenic bacteria isolates. Sterile swabs were firmly passed on the handset, the buttons and the screens of mobile phones, then inoculated into media of bacteria and fungi. Frequency distribution of isolates were calculated. Results: There were 737 isolated of the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria sicca, Micrococcus luteus, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterobacter aerogenes at the rate of 56.58, 13.57, 8.01, 7.73, 6.51, 3.66, 2.85 and 1.09% respectively. There were fungal isolates as follows: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus ochraceus at the rate of 29.07, 26.74, 20.93, 10.47, 6.98, 2.33, 2.33, 1.16%, respectively. Conclusions: The study showed that all mobile phones under consideration were infected by several microbes, most of which belonged to the natural flora of the human body as well as airborne fungi and soil. This means that it is necessary to sterilize hands after contact with a phone since it is a source of disease transmission.
Al Fraihi, Khalid J; Latif, Shahid A
To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients' demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients' expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients' expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, p less than 0.000). Findings revealed that the empathy dimension contributed most patients' expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management.
Nancy J. Karlin PhD
Full Text Available Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes.
Hafez M Ghanem
Results : From 474 patients, 20 (4.2% had a noncancer diagnosis. The main reason for the referral of noncancer patients was pain control. The most prevalent diagnoses were sickle cell disease (SCD in 6 (30% patients and peripheral arterial disease (PAD in 5 (25%. Conclusions : These findings suggest that the PC needs of noncancer patients are largely unmet in our region. Further efforts are necessary to advance noncancer PC in Saudi Arabia. The PC needs of patients with SCD and PAD need to be addressed in future research.
Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.
The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.
Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.
Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…
Abdullah A Yousef
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the available pediatric pulmonary services, in terms of workforce, resources, and distribution across Saudi Arabia. This would help in proper utilization of resources and direct future planning. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among pediatric pulmonologists registered in the Saudi Thoracic Society. Results: Among 43 practicing pediatric pulmonologist in Saudi Arabia, 29 have responded to the survey (response rate of 67.4%. The majority of practicing pediatric pulmonologists were young graduates with less than 5 years′ experience (44.8% and were North American training programs graduates (69%. The majority of the respondents (51% were located in Riyadh, 27% in Jeddah, 14% in the Eastern region and 3% in Madinah and Al-Majma′a. Most of the respondents had access to basic diagnostic tools required in the subspecialty, a majority of them (85% lack dedicated pediatric pulmonary function laboratories. Nearly, 80% of the hospitals performed less than 50 flexible bronchoscopies/year. Conclusion: Pediatric pulmonology is a growing subspecialty in Saudi Arabia with well-trained and experienced physicians. Our study represents an overview of the available pediatric pulmonology services in Saudi Arabia, which would help in future planning and better utilization of the available resources.
Ahmed A. Alsunni
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculated and categorized into low (0-12, moderate (13-24 and high (25-36 scores. The association of misconception score with various potential determinants was calculated using Chi-square test. Step-wise logistic regression was applied to the variables showing significant association with the misconception score in order to identify the determinants of misconceptions. Results: The mean age was 39.62 ± 16.7 and 112 (56% subjects were females. Type 1 diabetics were 78 (39%, while 122 (61% had Type 2 diabetes. Insulin was being used by 105 (52.5%, 124 (62% were self-monitoring blood glucose and 112 (56% were using diet control. Formal education on diabetes awareness had been received by 167 (83.5% before the interview. The mean misconception score was 10.29 ± 4.92 with 115 (57.5% subjects had low misconception scores (15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no dietary control and no diabetes education were all significantly (P 15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no diet control and no education about diabetes.
Nour El Din, Moustafa M
As the demand for and complexity of inpatient care increases and hospital beds become more and more expensive and difficult to obtain, the appropriate use of hospital beds becomes increasingly important. The aim of the present study was to assess the actual hospital capacity and to study fluctuations in hospital occupancy rate during the year 2002 at a University Hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, and their impact on hospital cost. Results of the present study showed that 61 beds were not conforming to the standard definition of hospital beds; constituting 15.6 % of the actual hospital capacity. Wellborn nursery cribs and delivery beds accounted for the majority of these beds (82.0%). The present study revealed low average hospital occupancy rate in 2002 (62.0%) together with fluctuations in the average occupancy rates of all departments ranging between 30.9% and 77.0%; coefficient of variation ranges from 0.11 to 0.92. The observed low occupancy rate resulted in wasting of a large proportion of the hospital fixed costs amounting to 133, 591, 943 Saudi Riyals. Recommendations for improving the occupancy rate of the hospital and reducing its fluctuations are presented.
Hajjar, M Jamal; Al-Salam, Ahmad
This study presents the level of organochlorine pesticide (OC) residues in human milk samples collected from donor mothers aged from 18 to 30 years old, from four cities in Eastern district of Saudi Arabia (Al-Hassa, Al- Khobar, Al-Jubail, and Al-Dammam). Pesticides residues were extracted from the samples and analyzed using GC-MS. The results showed that, only pp'DDE and p,pDDD, were found in 82.5% and 70% of analyzed samples respectively, the total DDT were at level of 0.37, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.46 μg/L in the four cities respectively and were far below the MRL of 50 μg/L (FAO/WHO). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of DDT ingested by infant weight 3.5 kg ranged between 0.06 and 0.10 μg/kg, which is less than the ADI issued by (EFSA, 2014). Lindane (γ-HCH) found in 91.25% of the analyzed samples at level of 0.37, 0.35, 0.35 and 0.29 μg/L. The EDIs of Lindane by infant were far below the ADI of 5 μg/kg bw/day. Dieldrin and Enderin were found in 27.5% and 58.8% of samples respectively and were lower than MRL issued by FAO/WHO, but the (EDI) was higher than the ADI issued by EFSA. The isomer A-heptachlor was detected in 51% of the samples, at levels were 15 times lower than the MRL issued by FAO/WHO, but EDIs by infants were 2-4 times higher than the ADI issued by EFSA. However, the results of the four studied areas in Saudi Arabia showed no statistically different among locations (p > 0.05).
Benjamin P Kear
Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.
Al-Ameer, Ali M.; Al-Akloby, Omar M.
Objective: This study aims to review the clinical pattern of acne vulgaris cases referred to one hospital in the Eastern Province. Methods: Two hundred cases diagnosed in the Dermatology Department at King Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia were studied Results: Inflammatory acne was the predominant type observed in both males and females (76% and, 79%, respectively). Seborrhea (greasy skin) was the most frequently associated condition 22 (11%) followed by dandru...
Al Quorain Abdulaziz
Full Text Available To determine the pattern of lower gastrointestinal disease in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia we analysed 1907 colorectal biopsies obtained from 1590 consecutive patients (1256 males &334 females, evaluated during a 13 year period (1983-1996 in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The age range was 6-81 years with a mean of 37 + 15. During the same period 6874 new patients were seen in the Gastroenterology Clinics. Saudi Arabs constituted 970 (61 % of all patients. The remaining 620 (39% were non-Saudi, mostly of Arab origin from neighbouring countries. The most common presenting symptom for referral was abdominal pain (1193 patients, 75% followed by diarrhea (636 patients, 40%. The most frequent histologic diagnosis was a normal mucosa followed by non specific proctocolitis accounting respectively for 37.9% and 37.4% of all cases. These were followed by schistosomiasis, 113 (7.1%, adenocarcinoma, 91 (5.7% and ulcerative colitis, 91 cases with a relative frequency of 5.7% and a calculated prevalence of 1.3%. Of significance was the encounter of 14 cases of Crohn′s disease amounting to 0.9% of all cases with a calculated prevalence of 0.2%. A minority of 83 patients (5.2% were cases of either a benign polyp, diverticular disease, tuberculosis, ischaemia, lymphoma, pseudomembranous colitis (PMC, eosinophilic gastroenteritis or malacoplakia. These data show that although a "normal mucosa" and "nonspecific proctocolitis" were the dominant diagnoses, significantly, ulcerative colitis and Crohn′s disease exist and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lower GI disease.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients. Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51% had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%. Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is
Bah, Sulaiman; Almutawa, Hanadi Hassan Ali; Alassaf, Nouf Fahad M; Al Hareky, Mai Saad; Hashishi, Aqilah Salman M; Alkhater, Zainab Jassem Hassan; Ajaimi, Jenan Ali M
This pilot study examines reimbursement practices in private healthcare centers in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the private healthcare sector in Saudi Arabia follows international best practices in reimbursement, as identified in a literature review. The study examined reimbursement practices in a sample of six private healthcare facilities through the use of similar questionnaire guidelines with each facility. Similarities among the facilities' practices included the use of contracts with insurance companies and the availability of a chargemaster. Differences included the types of reimbursement software used. Bundled payment systems were identified in four facilities but were not examined in all of the facilities studied. International best practices that were not present in any of the facilities in the study included electronic transfer protocols to link healthcare facilities, insurance companies, and banks; the use of reimbursement key performance indicators; the use of diagnosis-related groups; and the integration of disease coding into the reimbursement process. Major findings of this pilot study are that diverse types of reimbursement systems are in use in Saudi healthcare facilities and that these systems are preliminary and are largely unregulated. The authors suggest that regulation and standardization would therefore be easier at this stage than at later stages of the development of private healthcare systems in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Levels of selected heavy metals (Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cd in the heart and kidney tissues of parrot fish, collected from the Arabian Gulf, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, were determined by wet-digestion based atomic absorption method. The results showed that accumulation pattern of analyzed metals in the kidney tissues followed the order; Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Ni > Mn > Cd. In the heart tissue the analyzed metals followed similar pattern of metal accumulation. The average Pb (0.85 ± 0.50 ppm, Cd (0.12 ± 0.07 ppm, Ni (0.92 ± 0.35 ppm and Mn (0.86 ± 0.43 ppm were significantly lower in the heart tissue whereas Zn (26.4 ± 12.9 ppm and Cu (3.29 ± 2.18 ppm were higher in the kidney tissues. In general, the data indicated that marine fish from the sampling site of the Arabian Gulf contain relatively less burden of heavy metals in their tissues.
Adel F Almutairi Population Health Research Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaWhile I was reading on this topic, I came across an online article attributed to a Saudi psychologist that contained information about mental illness among the Saudi population. What really struck me right away was the estimate that was given for the number of m...
Three species of Monograptus are recognized from Qusayba, Al-Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia. The Qusayba Shales Member of the Tabuk Formation in central Saudi Arabia contains M. decipiens decipiens, M. ex gr. barrandei and M. elongatus, associated with other graptolites. This assemblage is indicative
M. Anaam Hashmi; Nadia Abdulghaffar; Iman Edinat
Saudi Arabia is an important country among the Middle Eastern nations and a pivotal one because of its key position in international petroleum production. Sustainable practices are becoming prominent considerations among public and private sector Saudi Arabian business enterprises. Secondary and primary data pertaining to sustainability and carbon management practices in Saudi Arabia and its business enterprises were analyzed in this study. Saudi Arabian government has been serious in tacklin...
To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures.
Objective:To determine the proportion of imported frozen fish contaminated with Salmonella among retail food stores and supermarkets in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 223 frozen freshwater fish purchased from different supermarkets and grocery stores were analyzed for the presence of foodborne pathogen Salmonella. The isolation of Salmonella was determined and confirmed by using the methods of US Food and Drug Administration’s Bacteriological Analytical Manual, CHROMagar Salmonella plus, biochemical tests and API 20E strips. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, as described by Kirby-Bauer, in accordance with the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results:Out of the total 223 fish samples (20 of catfish, 18 of carfu, 20 of mirgal, 25 of milkfish, 35 of mackerel, 75 of tilapia, and 30 of rohu), 89 (39.9%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The prevalence of positive samples were reported for the freshwater fish of pangas (60.0%, n=12), carfu (27.7%, n=5), mirgal (35.0%, n=7), milkfish (52.0%, n=13), mackerel (31.4 %, n=11), tilapia imported from Thailand (64.0%, n=16), tilapia imported from India (28.0%, n=14), rohu imported from Thailand (26.6%, n=4) and rohu imported from Myanmar (46.6%, n=7). A total of 140 isolates of Salmonella spp. were yielded from at least seven different types of frozen freshwater fish imported from 5 different countries and were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents. The highest antibiotic resistance was observed to tetracycline (90.71%) followed by ampicillin (70%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (45%). Conclusions: The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures.
Nemer, Areej M Al; Aldamanhori, Reem B.
Objectives: To explore the spectrum of pathologies diagnosed in prostatic biopsies of Saudi men, and test whether the frequency of diagnosing the malignant fraction has been changed over the last 15 years, and assess the association between chronic inflammation (CI) with both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and cancer (PCa), and investigate the histological findings of cases presented with acute urinary retention (AUR) clinically. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study including all...
Nina Lutfi Abdul Razzak
Full Text Available This paper presents a reflection on students’ levels and types of motivation at a college of health sciences in Saudi Arabia and highlights the social and cultural factors possibly contributing to the differences in motivation among those students. The results of this study, which followed a mixed-methods approach, indicate a multiplicity of contributing factors and values, namely: gender stereotyping, appreciation of early graduation, stereotypes regarding career status, family background, and parents’ educational levels, value attributed to education, ultra-conservatism, and social image and prestige. From these factors, a number of key implications and recommendations are deduced, some of which are general while others are more college specific.
On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...
Houssien Kamal Nofal
Full Text Available Background: Sudden death (SD remains an important worldwide public health problem. The incidence of SD and causes vary in different societies, and these differences are influenced also by demographic and clinical factors such as age, gender and prodromal symptoms and signs. This six-year study describes the influence of these factors on SD. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of SD in all age groups undertaken in King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU, Eastern Saudi Arabia. All cases of death (1273 total, 1050 expected death and 223 cases of sudden unexpected death that occurred between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2005 were investigated and subsequently analyzed on demographic and clinical parameters of the deceased patients. The statistical analysis was performed as appropriate to illustrate any possible association between different demographic variables and SD. Results: There were 223 cases of SD (17.5% out of 1273 total deaths in KFHU in the 6-year study period. There was a definite influence of age on the incidence of sudden death (SD as it increased clearly at the two ends of the age spectrum, 32.2% of the cases were infants (from birth to 12 months, and 31.4% were elderly (> 60 year-old. However, among infantile age group, the highest frequency of SD (22.2% of the cases was among the neonates. There was also a significant trend of gender influence on the incidence of SD which was higher in men than women (56% vs. 42%. The influence of prodromal symptoms and signs on SD was variable. Dyspnea and cough as major symptoms of cardiovascular and respiratory disease were the most frequent presenting symptoms in 32.3% of the cases, followed by fever as a sign of infections in 11.7%, premature infants in 10.8%, circulatory collapse in 9.4%, and angina in 7.6% of the cases. Conclusion: The current study indicated a definite influence of age, gender and prodromal symptoms on the incidence of SD. The highest incidence
Bah, Sulaiman; Alharthi, Hana; El Mahalli, Azza Ali; Jabali, Abdelkaream; Al-Qahtani, Mona; Al-kahtani, Nouf
This study aims to determine the level and extent of usage of electronic health records (EHRs) in government-related hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Another aim is to develop a Web site to serve as a forum of exchange on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. All government hospitals (n = 19) in the province were included. The information technology (IT) managers in those hospitals made up the target population. An online questionnaire was developed, and the IT managers in all 19 government hospitals were invited to participate in the survey. The responses from the online survey were downloaded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 19 hospitals, only three (15.8 percent) use EHRs. These hospitals were established in 1984, 1995, and 2005. All three of these hospitals have implemented the same EHR software and were using it successfully, and all three were using the three core features of laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy electronic modules. Some modules were present in the EHR system but were underutilized. Some of the main challenges faced by the IT managers in implementing EHRs in their hospitals were related to the uncooperative attitudes of some physicians and nurses toward EHRs. In fulfillment of the second aim of the study, a Web site, http://ehr2011.weebly.com, was developed to serve as a forum for exchange of information on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. The government of Saudi Arabia has prioritized the development of eHealth (health information technology) and allocated committed funding for it during 2008-2011. During this period, some sectors of government made highly commendable efforts in developing eHealth services. Along these lines, we had hoped to see higher uptake of EHRs than the 15.8 percent found in this study. The rate of implementing EHRs in government hospitals should be accelerated. The aim should be on achieving some basic EHR functionality in these hospitals, and once this has been achieved
Al Uruq al Mu'taridah-Umm as Samim area is located in a large topographic depression in the eastern Rub al Khali desert where playas several thousand square kilometers in area are exposedo A crust of eolian sand cemented with gypsum and halite has formed on many playa surfaces. Anhydrite nodules are common in the sampled area, where the depth to ground water generally exceeds 172 Cmo The chemistry of the three ground-water samples collected near the water well Ramallah-1 (lat 22?10'20'' N., long 54?20'37'' E.) is similar to that of sabkhah-related brines on the coast of the United Arab Emirates. Although there is no indication of economic quantities of evaporite minerals in the sampled area, the extent of the depression and its unique geologic environment recommend it for resource-evaluation studies.
At the invitation of Prince Alwaleed,chairman of Kingdom Holding Company of Saudi Arabia,CPAFFC President Li Xiaolin led a delegation to visit Saudi Arabia from Feb 16 to 20.During the visit,Ms.Li met with the prince,visited Kingdom Hospital and Kingdom School and held working talks with Alwaleed Philanthropies.During the meeting with Prince Alwaleed,Ms.Li mentioned that Chi-
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey of email users in different regions of Saudi Arabia about email SPAM. The survey investigated the nature of email SPAM, how email users in the eastern, western, central, southern and northern dealt with it, and the efforts made to combat it. It also investigated the effectiveness of existing Anti-SPAM filters in detecting Arabic and English email SPAM. 1,500 participants located in the eastern, western, central, southern and northern regions of Saudi Arabia were surveyed and completed surveys were collected from 1,020 of the participants. The results showed that there were different definitions for email SPAM based on different users’ opinions in Saudi Arabia. The results showed that the participants in the central and western regions were more aware of SPAM than the participants in other regions. The results revealed that the volume of email SPAM was different from region to another and the volume of SPAM received by the participants in the northern and central regions was larger than that received in other regions. The results indicated that the majority of email SPAM received by the participants in different regions was written in English. The results showed that the most common type of email SPAM received in Arabic was emails related to forums and in English was phishing and fraud, and business advertisements. The results also showed that a few participants in all regions responded to SPAM and the average of the participants who responded to SPAM was larger in the southern region than other regions. The results showed that most of the participants were not aware of Anti-SPAM programs and the participants in the central region were more aware of Anti-SPAM programs than the participants in other regions. The results showed that the participants in all regions estimated that the existing Anti-SPAM programs were more effective in detecting English SPAM than Arabic SPAM. The results showed that most
Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training
Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.
De Klebnikoff, S
The social, political, and economic implications of the immigrant presence in Saudi Arabia are explored. The author notes that about one-third of the population of the country is made up of working nonnationals. The tensions that exist are examined, with reference to the exclusion of the migrants from Saudi Arabian society and the extreme imbalance in the sex ratio caused by predominately male migration. The author suggests that dependence on migrant labor is likely to increase rather than decrease as Saudi nationals are oriented toward nontechnical studies and Saudi women are excluded from the labor force.
Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz
[Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.
Shanks, N J; Ansari, M; al-Kalai, D
Road traffic accidents are a major health hazard in Saudi Arabia, particularly during Ramadan. The ensuing trauma has increased in direct proportion to the increase in the number of road vehicles. An audit of RTAs over a one-year period revealed that, out of 361 victims, 16% were under 10 years and 47% between 11 and 30 years. None of those involved in accidents was wearing a seat belt. Half of the children injured were pedestrians. There was a male to female ratio of 4:1 reflecting the driving laws in Saudi Arabia. Burst tyres due to intense heat were identified as a common cause (39%) of accidents. The introduction of seat belt legislation and stricter law enforcement should lead to a rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality on the roads in Saudi Arabia.
Huda M. Al-Makhaita
Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related stress (WRS is an insidious and persistent part of everyday life related to the response of people to work environment. Nursing is a strenuous job and WRS is prevalent among nurses. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of WRS among nurses working in primary and secondary health care levels in Dammam, Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 17 primary health care centers (PHCCs representing the primary level of health care and Medical Tower Complex (MTC representing the secondary health care level in Dammam city. The total number of nurses included in the study was 637 nurses (144 in PHCCs and (493 MTC. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which was developed based on the pertinent literature. It included two main parts: Sociodemographic and job characteristics of nurses and 31 WRS questions. Results: The overall prevalence of WRS among all studied nurses was 45.5%; 43.1% and 46.2% in primary and secondary levels, respectively. In the primary level, there was a statistical significant association between WRS and being married (85.5%, and having living three children and more (53.2%. Moreover, younger age group 20-<30 years (79.4%, Saudi nationality (86.8%, being married (74.6%, having nonbachelor degree (83.3%, work shifts (89.5%, and working in surgical department (46.5% were the significant associating factors with the occurrence of WRS among nurses in secondary levels. Young age was the only predicting factor for WRS in primary care level. While being female, Saudi, married, with work shifts, and working in surgical department were found to predict WRS in the secondary level. Recommendations: Appropriate strategy in health care organization to investigate stress in health care settings is recommended. Moreover, interventional programs to identify, and relieve sources and effects of stress should be developed.
Full Text Available Adel F Almutairi Population Health Research Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaWhile I was reading on this topic, I came across an online article attributed to a Saudi psychologist that contained information about mental illness among the Saudi population. What really struck me right away was the estimate that was given for the number of mentally ill people in the country. It was claimed that about half of the Saudi population is suffering from mental illness.1 This made me wonder on what grounds the psychologist was basing the claim and how she came up with this scary statistic. If the figure was based on an empirical study, what was the sample size and how robust was the research? Unfortunately, no details were given to answer these questions. Nevertheless, such an alarming figure was the main impetus and driving force for me to write this article and provide readers with an overview of the magnitude of mental illness in the world, and more specifically, in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, based on recent literature. This article also provides perspectives of scientists working at King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, on how we intend to tackle this issue.
This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness. Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 11/17/2010.
Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar
Discussion of national information policy focuses on Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. Documents from the two countries that were reviewed to examine policy provisions related to library and information services are listed, and Malaysia's national policy on library and information services is presented as a model for other developing countries. (Contains…
Alwadie, Adnan D.
As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…
Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril
Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)
F. R. Pazheri
Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.
Al-Zarah, Abdullah I
Saudi Arabia is an arid and the largest country in the middle east with a total land area of 2.253 x 10(6) km2. Recent urban and rural expansion has shown manifold increases in water use in various sectors. Water resources are limited and non-renewable coupled with unpredicted scanty rainfall. In order to meet the rising water needs, evaluation of water quality is important for allocation to various uses. A total of 101 well water samples were collected from Al-Ahsa Oasis. Water samples were analyzed for total salt concentration, pH, Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, F and B contents. Soil Salinity Development (SSD), adjusted sodium adsorption ratio (adj.SAR), adjusted sodium adsorption ratio (adj. R(Na)) and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) were calculated. The EC of groundwater ranged between 1.23 and 5.05 dS m(-1). Sodium was the most abundant cation followed by Ca, Mg and K in descending order. Chloride was the most abundant anion followed by SO4 and HCO3 in groundwater of Al-Ahsa Oasis. A significant correlation was found between Na and Cl (R2 = 0.936). Thermodynamics calculation revealed that an appreciable amount of Ca and Mg is associated with Cl and SO4 ions. The SAR and ESP values are within the permissible limits according to Ayers and Westcot, 1985. The NO3 concentration is within safe limits for drinking purpose according to WHO (1998) standards. The Saturation Indices (SI) indicated that groundwater is under-saturated (negative SI) with respect to certain minerals (for example: calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, pyrite, fluorite and aragonite) and oversaturated (positive SI) with respect to some other minerals (For example: Goethite, Siderite and hematite). The negative saturation index (SI) reveals that most of minerals are in un-saturated state and will dissolve more Ca and Mg into the soil solution after irrigation. A good relationship exists between Cl and other ions (Na, Ca and Mg) as well as between SO4 and Ca and Mg ion of
Ali, Kamal A.; Stern, Robert J.; Manton, William I.; Johnson, Peter R.; Mukherjee, Sumit K.
The Neoproterozoic Atud diamictite in Wadi Kareim and Wadi Mobarak in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and the Nuwaybah formation in NW Saudi Arabia consist of poorly sorted, polymictic breccia, with clasts up to 1 m of granitoid, quartz porphyry, quartzite, basalt, greywacke, marble, arkose, and microconglomerate in fine-grained matrix. Stratigraphic relations indicate that the diamictite was deposited in a marine environment. Integrated field investigation, petrographic study and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages demonstrate that the Atud and Nuwaybah are correlative. The distribution of zircon ages indicate that ~750 Ma ages are dominant with a significant component of older materials, characterized by minor Mesoproterozoic and more abundant Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean ages. Some matrix and metasedimentary clast zircons yield ages that are a few 10s of Ma younger than the age of the youngest clast (754 ± 15 Ma), suggesting Atud/Nuwaybah diamictite deposition ~750 Ma or slightly later, broadly consistent with being deposited during the Sturtian glaciation (740-660 Ma). The Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean clasts have no source within the ensimatic Arabian-Nubian Shield. The distribution of the pre-Neoproterozoic ages are similar to the distribution of the pre-Neoproterozoic ages in Yemen and Saharan Metacraton, suggesting that these clasts have been transported hundreds of kilometers, maybe by ice-rafting. The Atud diamictite may represent important evidence for Cryogenian “Snowball Earth” in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.
the wetlands and change in the habitats in Saudi Arabia. Mackey (2007 ... interaction between climate change and other drivers of biodiversity that .... in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea: Part 1. ... Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan. Jackson ...
Alkhareif Ryadh M.
Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.
Huaman, A; Cavender, J C
The geographic incidence of tumors usually uncovers the influence that environment, race and culture exert upon the prevalence of cancer. Therefore this study of tumors of the eye is presented as a baseline for Saudi Arabia between the years 1982G and 1989G. The most common malignant tumors, in decreasing order of frequency, are retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, and malignant melanoma. The most common benign tumors, in the same order, are nevi, epithelial cysts, hemangiomas and dermoid cysts. There are, in Saudi Arabia, certain unique features for retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Furthermore, these conditions have distinctive incidence rates when compared with cancer incidence in Western countries.
Al-Khaldi, Yahia M; AlDawood, Kassim M; AlKhudeer, Basima K; AlSaqqaf, Abdullah A
This paper aims to assess trainees' satisfaction with the process and assessment aspects of the Saudi Diploma of Family Medicine (SDFM). This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2015 among trainees undertaking the SDFM. A questionnaire was distributed to all trainees in four examination centres in Saudi Arabia, under the supervision and guidance of the investigators (four members of the scientific committee of SDFM). There was a total of 97 participants in this study, the majority of whom were Saudis. More than 85% were satisfied with most elements of training including; an adequate number and variety of patients and cases, allocating time for training, giving regular written evaluation. Satisfaction with mentoring and giving constructive feedback scored less well and trainees were less satisfied with some hospital clinical rotations, which requires further exploration.
Murata, N. [Arabian Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
This paper presents recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia. At present Saudi Arabia yielding crude oil of 8 million BPD is the biggest oil yield and export country in the world. The estimated amount of oil deposits of nearly 2.6 hundred billion bbl accounts for nearly 25% of that over the world. Oil exploration was started by American enterprise in 1933, and a promising oil deposit was first confirmed in carbonate rocks in Jurassic Arabian stratum in 1938. The survey area of oil exploration gradually expanded up to all of eastern provinces and Arabian Bay. Ghawar oil field largest in the world and Safaniya oil field largest in the world as marine oil field were found in 1948 and 1951, respectively. Oil exploration in Central Arabia started in 1988 after nearly 50 years from oil exploration in eastern provinces, and low-sulfur/super-light oil was found in Paleozoic sand rock stratum. Up to this day light oil was confirmed at 15 sites in these areas, and further oil exploration is now in promotion. 4 figs., 3 tabs.
Full Text Available Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.
... interested in participating in the ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia must complete and submit an application... Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011... representatives from a variety of U.S. ICT industry suppliers and service providers. This trade mission...
Full Text Available Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group. C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95 and 34.4% (35/102 of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001. The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102 among the control group (P < 0.01. N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%, tetracycline (50%, ampicillin (25%, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25% and ciprofloxacin (37.5%, while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.
Koeshidayatullah, Ardiansyah; Chan, Septriandi Asmaidi; Al-Ghamdi, Majed; Akif, Tariq; Al-Ramadan, Khalid
Different particle size parameters have been investigated in this study in order to distinguish the characteristics of different dune morphologies in the Eastern Saudi Arabia. Sand samples were collected from various environments including: the stoss, lee, crest and interdune sides of the inland dunes and foreshore; berm; backshore and backdune of the coastal dunes. Statistical parameters reveal that the majority of inland dune samples are dominated by well sorted fine sand whereas coastal dune samples are mainly dominated by very coarse to medium sand, ranging from well sorted to moderately sorted with a low percentage of silt and clay. The presence of relatively coarser grains in the coastal dunes might be explained by continuous wind deflation along the coast together with wave and tidal activities that concentrate coarser grains. Cross-plots from four statistical parameters and supported by the ANOVA test clearly distinguish the particle variations between these dunes. The log-probability analysis suggest that the main transport mechanism in inland and coastal dunes is dominated by the saltation population, comprising up to 80 percent of the distribution. However, the coastal dunes suspension population is mostly belonging to coarser grained material, whereas the inland dunes population is finer. In comparison with particle size characteristics of dunes in the region, the current study shows a close relationship to mean particle size in Iraq, but is relatively finer compared to the Kuwait dunes. This similarity and difference in particle size variation is mostly controlled by the proximity to the coast and also the wind energy and variation in the wind direction.
Turki Al Faisal, were entitled to foreign sovereign immunity for their official acts. [Burnett v. Al Baraka Inv. and Development Corp., 292 F.Supp.2d 9...the Palestinian Authority (PA), donations to charitable organizations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and by means of direct assistance to over...killing others by means of suicide bombings, and Saudi religious leaders have condemned the taking of innocent lives.” See [http://www.saudiembassy.net
Serenius, F; Hofvander, Y
The general background to child health in Saudi Arabia is reviewed. Information is provided on the social and demographic characteristics of the population, on common health indicators, on the health care system and its utilization, and on the general pattern of childhood morbidity and mortality. The unprecendented socioeconomic development has transformed the health care system. In 15 years the number of nurses have increased from 3261 to 29896, physicians from 1172 to 14335, primary health care centers from 591 to 1821, and hospital beds from 9036 to 30707. In spite of this progress, the disease pattern seems to resemble that of some developing countries with more limited resources. Parasitic diseases are still widespread, and sample surveys have indicated suboptimal nutrition of rural preschool children. Recent estimates on the infant mortality rate have ranged from 65 to 120 per 1000 live births. The preferred marriage partner is a close relative, and genetic diseases, such as hemoglobin disorders, are common in certain areas. Thus, the prevalence of alpha thalassemia is reported at 50 percent, and the sickle cell trait at 4.4-20 percent in sample surveys from the Eastern Province. The modest educational attainment of the mother, the heavy reliance on foreign manpower in all sectors, including the health sector, and the further development of the primary health care system are key issues today. It is emphasized that demographic and epidemiological information from Saudi Arabia is scarce and frequently uncertain, and that further studies are needed to identify the health needs of Saudi children.
Full Text Available This study focused on the factors that affect motivation of faculty in Saudi Arabia. It included two surveys and open-ended queries to a focus group of five academic managers and 25 faculty members of varying nationalities, rank, and institutes in Saudi Arabia. The research showed that the faculties in Saudi Arabia’s higher education industry feel disconnected from the program development. The faculty members did not feel motivated to participate in the development and improvement of the academic program due to: (a lack of monetary and non-monetary incentives, (b management not involving faculty in decision-making, and (c lack of recognition and moral support. However, the faculties were intrinsically motivated to perform their best within the confines of the classroom. The results of the study indicated that there was a greater interest in intrinsic motivation as a personal measure for success inside the classroom, but extrinsic motivation was a factor that needed greater improvement from the management of the universities for faculty to partake in development of the program. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i4.211
Johnson, Peter R.; Stewart, Ian C. F.
A compilation of magnetic data acquired during the past three decades for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wavelength, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength anomalies. Anomalies in the western and central sectors correlate with Neoproterozoic metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks of the Arabian shield and are interpreted as delineating extensions of shield-type rocks down-dip beneath Phanerozoic cover. These rocks constitute terranes making up part of a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt that underlies Northeast Africa and western Arabia and it is proposed that their magnetically indicated easternmost extent marks the concealed eastern edge of the orogenic belt in central Arabia. The flat magnetic signature of the eastern sector, not entirely accounted for as an effect of deep burial, may reflect the presence of a crustal block different in character to the terranes of the orogenic belt and, speculatively, may outline a continental block that, according to some tectonic models of the region, collided with the Neoproterozoic terranes and thereby caused their deformation and tectonic accretion.
Mansour Saleh AlYami
Full Text Available Achieving and maintaining a stable nursing workforce is an important issue for the well-being of the rapidly growing population of Saudi Arabia. However, high turnover of expatriate staff and low recruitment of Saudi nationals have led to a serious staff shortage in the professions, particularly of well-qualified and experienced nurses. Nursing leaders need to work to improve the image of nurses and facilitate the recruitment of women into the nursing profession. Reduced working hours and part-time contracts with increased salaries and benefits could attract more young women to the profession, as might the provision of facilities such as private transportation and on-site childcare. Furthermore, establishing a national association for nurses would advance the nursing profession and help to ensure that all nurses undertake fully comprehensive training before entering the workforce.
Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.
Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.
Aldossary, Ameera; Barriball, Louise; While, Alison
The health promotion practice of nurses working in Saudi Arabia is unidentified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived health promotion practice of staff nurses in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved by surveying the views of nurses (n = 614), doctors (n = 130) and patients (n = 322) in 10 hospitals located in the Eastern Province of the country using a self-report questionnaire. There was agreement that nurses had the necessary skills to promote health in general and had sufficient knowledge to promote health in the three specific areas explored: physical activity, smoking cessation and weight control. However, the findings also showed that the majority of participants wanted nurses to give priority to acute care over health promotion within the hospital setting and that patients dislike nurses asking about health-related behaviours when these are not directly relevant to their presenting health problems. Concerns were also raised about the language and cultural competency of a largely migrant nursing workforce to effectively communicate health promotion messages to patients. In view of the findings, policy-makers in Saudi Arabia need to consider providing appropriate training programmes for nurses to introduce the wider concept of their health promotion role. Health promotion protocols, strategies and standards to support nurses to more effectively implement health promotion with their routine practice are also required. It is suggested that, while reliance on a largely migrant workforce who do not speak Arabic continues, the potential benefits of a good quality interpretation service to improve nurse-patient communication should be considered.
Mahnert, Volker; Sharaf, Mostafa; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S
Five species of pseudoscorpions are recorded from the southwestern mountains of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pseudochthonius arabicus Mahnert n. sp. is described as new to science; this genus was previously known only from sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America and represents the first record of the family Chthoniidae from the Arabian Peninsula. Paratemnoides ellingseni (Beier, 1932), a widespread species in tropical Africa, and Withius piger (Simon, 1878) are added to the faunal list of Saudi Arabia. Minniza monticola Mahnert, 1991 and Rhacochelifer sonyae Mahnert, 1991 are apparently endemic to the southwestern mountains of Saudi Arabia.
Feb 28, 2012 ... environmental conditions and the different nutritional regimes under which .... statistical program analysis (Statistica® Version 5). RESULTS AND .... kids in Saudi Arabia at different ages and affecting factors. J. king. Saud Univ ...
B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper
...) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S...
Discusses English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia and argues that available program options are in adequate for EFL teacher preparation. Recommendations are offered for improving EFL teacher education programs. (Author/VWL)
Hisham El Khashab
This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.
Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A
Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the
Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field.
Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram
This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…
Educational development in Saudi Arabia is closely related to Moslem religious belief. A review of the socio/cultural behavior based upon Saudi religious belief can provide insight to educators on how to make educational and research activities in developing nations more relevant to people with a non-Western frame of reference. Among muslims,…
Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.
Full Text Available This article, which opens a new line of research, is intended to make a first assessment of the consequences of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia, in particular during the first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added that while documentary evidence and partial studies on this period exist, it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period is scarce. This article also is concerned with describing the evolution of certain striking aspects of the close relation between the pilgrimage to Mecca and Indonesian migrants looking for work. We need to consider the methods of hiring labor, the networks involved in recruiting it, the organization of travel, as well as the increasing indebtedness of the migrants through intermediaries who, more and more professionally, arrange these attempts to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767
Saudi Arabia needs to continue to take steps to exercise oversight of fundraising activities in the Kingdom and Saudi charitable activities abroad...a personal minute to Attorney General in December 2006, Prime Minister Blair wrote “it is in my judgment very clear that the continuation of the SFO...nationwide fundraising campaign under the auspices of the Saudi Committee to Support the Palestinian People in response to Israel’s military
..., Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular goods... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...
Mutlaq B. Alotaibi
Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the adoption behavior of mobile computing in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to acquire new insight into mobile computing trends, specifically in Saudi Arabia, in order to develop hypotheses and formulate precise criteria for mobile computing evaluation. In order to achieve these aims, the researcher created a focus group by recruiting eight participants with solid background knowledge of usability engineering and mobile computing. The focus group proposed a four-phase process: determination, qualification, categorization and evaluation of the mobile computing applications developed by Saudi organizations. During the determination phase, two hundred and twenty seven (n=227 mobile applications were determined as having been developed by organizations in Saudi Arabia. During the qualification phase, one hundred and forty two (n=142 mobile applications were qualified. Within the categorization phase, the experts categorized only the qualified applications into a two-level categorization hierarchy. Finally, in the evaluation phase, the qualified applications were evaluated in terms of purpose, platform, visual appearance, content, organization and usability. The results herein revealed that 43% of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia were M-Government applications, while 57% were M-Business applications. In addition, the study proposed a sample of thirty six (n=36 applications as having statistical significance from all of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia.
Abeer Abdullah Al Saud
Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.
Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.
This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia
Almazroui, Mansour; Kamil, S.; Ammar, K.; Keay, Kevin; Alamoudi, A. O.
The relationship between the Mediterranean 500-hPa storm tracks and wet season (November-April) rainfall over Saudi Arabia is investigated. The analysis is based on the application of an objective tracking scheme to the 6-hourly 500-hPa geopotential height ERA-Interim dataset (0.75° × 0.75°) for the period 1979-2012. The resulting tracks are then associated with the ERA-Interim rainfall events over Saudi Arabia. The association procedure showed that 34 % of the tracks are related to about 70 % of the rainfall. These associated tracks are used to construct climatology. A climatology of these storm tracks revealed that the eastern Mediterranean region is the preferred location for cyclogenesis with a maximum in the southwest parts of the Black Sea. The study also examined the mean radius, average intensity and average depth of the storms. The number of tracks in winter (December-February) is about 60 % of the total number which confirms the major contribution of the Mediterranean storms to rainfall over Saudi Arabia. A significant negative trend was found for storm cyclogenesis over the central Mediterranean, and the Black sea. A significant trend decrease in track density is observed over most of the northern parts of Saudi Arabia. The peaks of storm activities are observed in December and January in 1996, 1997 and 2009. Storm activity generally declines after 2000, especially in the second half of the wet season months (February-April).
Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani
We use surface-wave tomography to investigate the lithospheric structure of the Arabian plate, which is traditionally divided into the Arabian shield in the west and the Arabian platform in the east. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks. The Arabian platform is primarily covered by very thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. We develop high-resolution tomographic images from fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocities across Saudi Arabia, utilizing the teleseismic data recorded by the permanent Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN). Our study extends previous efforts on surface wave work by increasing ray path density and improving spatial resolution. Good quality dispersion measurements for roughly 3000 Rayleigh-wave paths have been obtained and utilized for the group-velocity tomography. We have applied the Fast Marching Surface Tomography (FMST) scheme of Rawlinson (2005) to obtain Rayleigh-wave group-velocity images for periods from 8 s to 40 s on a 0.8° 0.8° grid and at resolutions approaching 2.5° based on the checkerboard tests. Our results indicate that short-period group-velocity maps (8-15 s) correlate well with surface geology, with slow velocities delineating the main sedimentary features including the Arabian platform, the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia. For longer periods (20-40 s), the velocity contrast is due to the differences in crustal thickness and subduction/collision zones. The lower velocities are sensitive to the thicker continental crust beneath the eastern Arabia and the subduction/collision zones between the Arabian and Eurasian plate, while the higher velocities in the west infer mantle velocity.
Alshammari, Thamir M
Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s) and their medication(s) which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals. In Saudi Arabia, different stakeholders such as hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, healthcare professionals, health societies and association and governmental agencies do not do their job as patient education. Aim of this paper was to throw some light about the current situation in Saudi Arabia.
Ziad A. Memish
Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.
Sidawi, Bhzad; Alhariri, Mohamed Taha; Albaker, Walid Ibrahim
Many studies worldwide have demonstrated the negative impact of an unhealthy built environment on citizens. In the case of diabetes, studies have concentrated on the environmental impact and accessibility issues of a place i.e. the home and neighborhood, whereas few studies have addressed the comfort of the type and spatial arrangement of a household and linked it with the prevalence of diabetes. Also, little research has tackled the place's impact on diabetic patients and their views concerning their environments. This paper demonstrates the outcomes of survey that was carried out on diabetic individuals who usually visit the King Fahd teaching hospital of the University of Dammam, Al-Khober, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The patients were surveyed and physically examined. The present researchers found significant links between patients' diabetes symptoms such as reported paresthesia and blurred vision, and medical investigations results such as lipid profile, blood glucose and blood pressure with the environmental conditions of their homes and neighborhoods. The paper shows that the prevalence of the disease is not only caused by an unhealthy lifestyle but also by an unhealthy built environment. Moreover, it illustrates that unhealthy built environment promotes unhealthy life styles. It makes recommendations on how to improve the built environment in the KSA to be healthier for all citizens including the diabetic patients.
dissemination of wealth among middle and lower classes (including expatriates) in Saudi Arabia has proven to be a remarkably effective emollient for latent...extra revenues. The large drop in price resulted in only 200,000 b/d rise in exports, some of which went to barter deals in Eastern Europe. In effect ...capital. While these programs are expensive, the stabilizing effect of satisfying rising expectations has not been lost on the ruling house of Saud, and
Ahmed G. Hegazi
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria.
KKhodran H. Al-Zahrani and M. B. Baig
Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources affecting the Saudi development plans. The acute shortage of fresh water resources poses a major challenge in Saudi Arabia. Demand for fresh water is on the rise as sufficient water is no longer available to meet daily needs. Some 95% of water comes from aquifers. Desalination plants and waste water reclamation projects provide about 4% and 1% water respectively. About 30% of the water for household consumption comes from desalinating p...
Haytham Z Al-Gameel
Full Text Available Context: Traumatic aortic injury (TAI accounts for 1/3 of all trauma victims. Aim: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of the adopted standardized immediate pre-operative and intra-operative hemodynamic goal directed control, anesthetic technique and organs protection on the morbidity and mortality in patients presented with TAI. Settings and Design: An observational retrospective study at a single university teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Following ethical approval, we recruited the data of 44 patients admitted to the King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, with formal confirmation of diagnosis of blunt TAI during a 5-year period from February 2008 to April 2013 from the hospital medical records. Statistical Analysis: descriptive analysis. Results: A total of 44 victims (41 men, median (range age 29 (22-34 years with TAI who underwent surgical repair were recruited. Median (range post-operative chest tube output was 700 (200-1100 ml necessitated transfusion in 5 (11.4% of cases. Post-operative complications included transient renal failure (13.6%, pneumonia (6.8%, acute lung injury/distress syndrome (20.5%, sepsis (4.5%, wound infection (47.7% and air leak (6.8%. No patient developed end stage renal failure or spinal cord injury. Median intensive care unit stay was 6 (4-30 days and in-hospital mortality was 9.1%. Conclusion: We found that the implementation of a standardized early goal directed hemodynamic control for the peri-operative management of patients with TAI reduces the post-operative morbidity and mortality after surgical repair.
Bogari, Naima Bakor
In Saudi Arabia there is a growing amount of leisure time and a high percentage of disposable income is being spent on various forms of tourism; such trends have increased the number of Saudis travelling to tourist destinations, internationally or domestically. Spending the annual holiday away from Saudi is normal for most Saudi families and it is estimated that the total expenditure on domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia is only 16.7% of total tourism expenditure. International e...
civilizations to include Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia, Rome , Byzantium, India, China, and Persia to mention just a few.2 The Koran, or book of faith for... catapulted the United States’ relationship with Saudi Arabia into the limelight. Many Americans around the country, to include influential members
Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.
This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse them
Roberts, Ralph Jackson; Greenwood, William R.; Worl, Ronald G.; Dodge, F.C.W.; Kiilsgaard, Thor H.
Mineral deposits in Saudi Arabia include a variety of deposits which were formed in many geologic environments. These include magmatic and late magmatic deposits in igneous masses, contact metamorphic deposits along the margins of igneous bodies, and stratiform sulfide deposits and veins. Notable deposits of sedimentary origin include deposits of iron oxides and phosphate.
Lawrence, Barry A. M.
This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003) model to investigate factors predicting the acceptance of iPad tablets by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at a technical vocational college in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was conducted on 199 male learners,…
Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin
Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…
Khan, Intakhab Alam
The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as…
Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes
Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif
This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…
Alakeel, Ali M.
Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…
This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and
Campbell, Clifton P.
Saudi Arabia has a modern nationwide school system that embraces institutions from kindergarten through the university level and encompasses special, adult, industrial, and commercial education. Education is not compulsory, and coeducation does not exist. Secondary vocational industrial schools have been established for young men who have…
Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)
Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.
This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse
Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna
The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…
This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and
....ita.doc.gov/doctm/tmcal.html ) and other Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media... International Trade Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing an...
Amal Y. ALDHEBIANI
Full Text Available Many diseases are compromising fig production in Saudi Arabia and in particular those caused by viruses. RT-PCR assays were conducted on 80 samples collected from four fig-growing provinces in the West Mecca region of Saudi Arabia, including the Fatima, Khulais, Rabigh and Alshifa valleys. Samples consisted of leaf tissues taken from caprifig and common fig trees. The presence of Fig mosaic virus (FMV, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2 and Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV was assessed from the samples. RT-PCR results showed that all four viruses were present in the surveyed areas with different proportions of infection. Incidence was 69% of samples, with a peak of 80%, from the Alshifa and Fatima valleys, 60% from Rabigh and 55% from Khulais valley. FLMaV-1 was the prevailing virus (55% of samples, followed by FMV (34%, whereas FLMaV-2 (11% of samples and FMMaV (6% were less common. Most of the mosaic symptoms observed in surveyed fig orchards occurred with the presence of FMV. However, many other symptoms remained unexplained because of the arduous task of determining the involvement of other fig-infecting viruses with mosaic disease. This is the first report of FMMaV and FLMaV-2 in Saudi Arabia, and of FMV and FLMaV-1 in western Saudi Arabia. The virus status of this crop is probably compromised and a sanitation programme is required to produce healthy plant material in Saudi Arabia.
This dissertation explores the social responsibility of MNCs operating in Saudi Arabia (SA) and their social impact on Saudi society through survey research using both primary and secondary data. To furnish the reader with a better understanding of this subject, to develop the hypothesis to be tested, and to define NMCs and social responsibility, this author reviewed literature related to MNCs and social responsibility with specific reference to developing countries, particularly SA; described briefly the Saudi environment in which MNCs operate; and determined the number and type of MNCs and their activities in SA as reported in Saudi government records. The author examined the social responsibility of MNCs toward Saudi society by comparing the perception of MNCs' non-Saudi managers with Saudis (managers, government officials, and elite) regarding some specific issues (e.g., MNCs' concerns for profit versus public good); regarding some suggested programs (e.g., training); and through looking at the actual programs undertaken by MNCs (e.g., medical care). The study helped to understand better the nature of MNCs. It indicated that MNCs seem to be attracted to SA, that their number is greater than government records indicate, and that a large number of MNCs have Saudi nationality.
Farooqi, Faraz A.; Khabeer, Abdul; Moheet, Imran A.; Khan, Soban Q.; Farooq, Imran; ArRejaie, Aws S.,
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries in the primary and permanent teeth, and evaluate the brushing habits of school children in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was conducted at Dammam, KSA. Oral examination of the participants was conducted from February to May 2014. The total sample size for this cross-sectional study was 711. There were 397 children between the age of 6-9 years, who were examined for primary teeth caries, and 314 between the age 10-12 years were examined for permanent teeth caries. Primary and permanent dentitions were studied for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft [primary teeth], DMFT [permanent teeth]). Results: The overall prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was almost 73% (n=711). Among the 6-9-year-old, the prevalence of caries was approximately 78% (n=397) whereas, among the 10-12-year-old children, it was approximately 68% (n=314). Mean dmft value among the 6-9-year-olds was 3.66±3.13 with decayed (d) component of 3.28±2.92, missing (m) component of 0.11±0.69, and filled (f) component of 0.26±0.9. Mean DMFT value among the 10-12-year-old children was 1.94±2.0 with decayed (D) component of 1.76±1.85, missing (M) component of 0.03±0.22, and filled (F) of component 0.15±0.73. Daily tooth brushing had a positive effect on caries prevention, and this effect was statistically significant for caries in primary teeth. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was not found to be as high as other researchers reported from different cities of KSA, still the prevalence was high considering the World Health Organization future oral health goals. Awareness should be provided to students, as well as, teachers and parents regarding the importance of good brushing habits and regular dental visits. PMID:25987118
Kentab, Basma Y; Al-Rowiali, Kholuod Z; Al-Harbi, Rehab A; Al-Shammari, Nouf H; Balhareth, Wiam M; Al-Yazeed, Huda F
To explore the characteristics of medication use and challenges experienced by the blind patients. This cross-sectional descriptive study included blind persons living in Saudi Arabia who were at least 18 years of age. Participants were recruited through a number of nongovernmental blind associations (in the central, western, eastern regions), universities, social networks, and specialized websites for the blind. A questionnaire was designed and administered via face-to-face meetings with participants and made available online through Google Docs. There were a total of 121 respondents of which 26 were excluded based on their ability to visually identify their medications or being medication information. The medication information and services provided by pharmacists were viewed as inadequate by 46%. The most common challenges encountered by blind patients were linked to drug identification (75%), dose recognition (82%), and identification of expiration date (92%). A large number of patients had to rely on persons with normal vision for dispensing and administering the medications. Pharmacists can no longer ignore the medication use problems encountered by the blind people. This study may serve as an initial step for planning improvements in pharmaceutical services provided to blind patients. The government, pharmaceutical companies and pharmacists must work in collaboration to address the special needs of the blind.
Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I; Al-Rehaili, Abdullah M; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I; Khan, Mujahid A
Contamination of groundwater by nitrate is considered a global problem. Nitrates are introduced in the groundwater from a variety of sources like agricultural activities, poor sewer system, wastewaters, and industrial activities. In the present research, a survey of wells (n = 1,060) was undertaken in all 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained nitrate (NO(3)) levels. The results indicated variation in nitrate levels from 1.1 to 884.0 mg/L as NO(3) throughout the Kingdom. The average nitrate levels in milligrams per liter as NO(3) were as follows in descending order: 65.7 (Jizan), 60.3 (Asir), 60.0 (Qassim), 51.3 (Hail), 41.8 (Makkah Al Mukaramma), 41.3 (Madina Al Munnawara), 38.0 (Al Baha), 37.0 (Najran), 30.7, (Tabouk), 25.2 (Eastern Province), 18.8 (Riyadh), 15.8 (Al Jouf), and 9.1 (Hadwed Shamalyah). The results indicated that nitrate levels exceeded the maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (45 mg/L as NO(3)) in a number of wells (n = 213) in different regions of the Kingdom. The maximum and minimum wells exceeding the maximum contaminant limits for nitrate in drinking water were in Jizan (52.6%) and Hadwed Shamalyah (4.9%), respectively. Most of the wells which exceeded the maximum allowed limits for nitrate were in the areas which were used for agricultural and residential purposes.
Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Eastern Saudi Arabia. Results: A total of 1040 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 489, insulin detemir (n = 360, insulin aspart (n = 37, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 96 and other insulin combinations (n = 57. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 10.0% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.2% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −2.7%, insulin users: −1.7%. No major hypoglycaemic episodes were observed at 24 weeks. SADR was reported in 0.6% of insulin users. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.
Alotaibi, Mohammad H; Bahammam, Salman A; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Bahnassy, Ahmed A; Hassan, Imad S; Alothman, Adel F; Alkayal, Abdulkareem M
Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although the occurrence of leprosy has declined in Saudi Arabia, it has not yet been eradicated. To our knowledge, this descriptive retrospective study is the first to assess the clinical presentation of leprosy at the time of diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. All study subjects were leprosy patients admitted to Ibn Sina hospital, the only referral hospital for leprosy in Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and May 2012. A total of 164 subjects, the majority of whom (65%) were between 21 and 50 years of age, were included, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Of these 164 patients, 63% were Saudis, and 77% of all admitted patients were from the western region. Lepromatous leprosy was observed most frequently (33%), and 31% of cases had a positive history of close contact with leprosy. At the time of diagnosis, 84% of all subjects presented with skin manifestation. The prevalence of neurological deficit at the time of diagnosis was 87%. Erythema nodosum leprosum (E.N.L.) developed in only 10% of all subjects. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics pertaining to each type of leprosy in the region, and training courses in caring for and diagnosing patients with leprosy should be organized for health workers.
Khaled A Alasmari
.... Saudi Arabia, like many countries around the world is affected by money laundering. This is because money laundering washes money collected from different sources to finance criminal activities...
Habib M. Alshuwaikhat
Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.
Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B
In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.
Benaafi, Mohammed; Abdullatif, Osman
Sedimentological, mineralogical, morphological and geochemical studies of sand dunes from ten locations in Saudi Arabia were conducted in order to determine the differences between them and to find out the provenance and tectonic setting of these sand dunes. Sixty seven samples were collected from different sand dunes types ranging in morphology from linear, barchans, parabolic to stars dunes. In overall, the sand dunes are fine to coarse grained mean grain size, moderately sorted, near symmetrical skewness with mesokurtic distribution characterized sand dunes in most locations. The sand dunes grains are subrounded in all locations except in the Red sea, Qassim, central Arabia and the eastern province which showed sub-angular grains. The main mineral compositions of studied aeolian sand dunes are quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. Quartz is the dominant mineral in locations with significant amount of feldspars and mica in Najran, Red sea and Central Arabia locations. Moreover, calcite is present in Sakaka and NW Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Basement related sand dunes in Najran, Central Arabia and Red sea locations are sub-mature in terms of their mineralogical maturity. Whereas, sand dunes in other locations are texturally mature except those from the Red sea which showed sub-mature sand. The sands are classified as quartz arenite, except in the basement related sand dunes in Najran, central Arabia and the Red sea are ranging from sub-arkose, sub-litharenite and lithraenite. Morphologically, parallel to sub-parallel sand ridges with NE-SW orientation occurred in east and north parts of Empty Quarter (Najran and Jafurah) and NW-SE orientation in Dahna and Nafud deserts in central and north regions of Saudi Arabia. Parabolic sand dunes characterized the Nafud desert (Hail, Sakaka, Tayma locations). Barchans and star sand dunes characterize the Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Major, trace, and rare earth elements studies were carried out to determine the composition
Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Jastaniah, Wasil; Al Afghani, Sameera; Al Bagshi, Muneer H; Nasserullah, Zaki; Al-Suliman, Ahmed M; Alabdulaali, Mohammed K
Allogeneic HSCT is the only curative treatment for SCD. In this study, we estimated the number of Saudi patients with SCD who are candidates for HSCT. We used the presence of overt stroke, recurrent ACS, and frequent severe pain crisis as indications for HSCT. We calculated the frequencies of these complications among a Saudi SCD cohort of 376 patients with SCD, 250 from SW and 126 from Eastern (E) provinces. We found that 59 (23.6%) of SW patients were transplant candidates compared to 22 (17.4%) from E province. It is estimated that about 61 000 patients with SCD live in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the projected number of Saudi patients with SCD who are candidates for HSCT is 10 536 patients. Of those, 2148 are children. The burden of SCD on HSCT centers in Saudi Arabia is substantial and is difficult currently to meet the demand. We recommend recruiting/training more transplant physicians and nurses, expand current capacity of centers if feasible, and open new transplant centers to make HSCT a practical therapeutic option for patients with severe SCD in Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia sees protectionism in the petrochemical industry as self-defeating and against the interests of the world economy. Taking a world view based on the forces of a free market, the Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources argues that a free market, at best, is burdened with second-best solutions unless it is a universal free market. The burden is greatest on developing countries. Saudi Arabia's industrialization program is aimed at developing independence from oil exports by enhancing the value-added of hydrocarbon and mineral resources through manufacturing activities. An internal free market based on competition and privatization is forming a stronger economic base than government nurturing of infant industries.
Omari, Sana; Woodcock, Andree
The physical school environment has been shown to be important in helping children fulfill their academic potential and in providing appropriate working conditions for staff. However, few tools have been developed that enable multi stakeholder consultation which takes into account the opinions of young students. In Saudi Arabia there has been widespread investment in schools, but few guidelines have been provided to assist design or continuous evaluation. A Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) method was developed and used to evaluate three international primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The methods identified weaknesses in the three schools and differences in responses from the three groups consulted (children, teachers and parents). Conclusions drawn from the study are that greater efforts need to be made to draw together research about how school facilities can support teaching and learning, increase effectiveness and levels of satisfaction. POE, when used in conjunction with checklists could be used as a means of driving up standards of educational facilities.
Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administ...
Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Adminis...
Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.
Basuony, Mohamed A. K.; Ehab K. A. Mohamed
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and characteristics of voluntary internet disclosures by listed companies in Saudi Arabia and Oman. This paper uses archival data from listed companies on Tadawul Stock Exchange and Muscat Securities Market. Mann-Whitney test is used to examine the differences in disclosure characteristics between the two countries. The results reveal that a number of disclosure characteristics that differ significantly between the two countries. Also, this s...
Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard
Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)
El Bcheraoui C
Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam
Full Text Available This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by considering segregation, women's mobility, videoconferencing courses, and the roles of professors. I attempt to explain how the current education system fails to prepare its students for the global economy: by limiting women's access to the labor market, and by not preparing men for the realities of the global market and therefore creating the need for migrant workers. In conclusion, conserving culture is significant, but for economic change to occur, the extent of cultural conservatism and its effect on the education system need to be re-evaluated.
Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.
Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA
Alhamlan, Fatimah Saeed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant etiological factor and an important prognosticator in cervical cancer. Indeed, researchers worldwide have confirmed these roles for high-risk HVPs in over 70% of cervical cancer cases. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 561,200 new cancer cases (5.2% of all new cancers) are attributed to HPV infection. Over 120 types of HPV are classified further as either low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) based on their oncological potential of transforming cells. The LR-HPV types cause benign hyperproliferative lesions (i.e. genital warts) while the HR-HPV types are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Data on the prevalence of HPV, survival of infected patients, and mortality rate are scarce in Saudi Arabia. The unsubstantiated assumption of a low prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia has contributed to limiting HPV research in this conservative country. Therefore, the goal of this review is to shed light on the current HPV research being conducted and the prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Hussain Issa1, Sami Al-Momen1, Bahaa Bseiso1, Ghada Ali Al-Janobi1, Mohamad Al-Jama1, Fadel Ali Almousa1, Mahdi E Al-Jarodi1, Ahmed H Al-Salem21Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Thromboembolism (TE is a serious but under-recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is specially so in developing countries where the incidence of IBD is low. In Saudi Arabia, IBD is considered to be rare, but the incidence is increasing. Where the clinical manifestations resemble those of developed countries, TE as a complication of IBD is considered to be very rare. This report describes six IBD patients with TE. This importance of the complication of TE is stressed, and physicians caring for these patients should be aware of it in order to obviate potential morbidity and mortality.Keywords: thromboembolism, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis
Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.
Gallagher, E B; Searle, C M
Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility.
Albalawi, Yousef; Sixsmith, Jane
New media platforms, such as Twitter, provide the ideal opportunity to positively influence the health of large audiences. Saudi Arabia has one of the highest number of Twitter users of any country, some of whom are very influential in setting agendas and contributing to the dissemination of ideas. Those opinion leaders, both individuals and organizations, influential in the new media environment have the potential to raise awareness of health issues, advocate for health and potentially instigate change at a social level. To realize the potential of the new media platforms for public health, the function of opinion leaders is key. This study aims to identify and profile the most influential Twitter accounts in Saudi Arabia. Multiple measures, including: number of followers and four influence scores, were used to evaluate Twitter accounts. The data were then filtered and analysed using ratio and percentage calculations to identify the most influential users. In total, 99 Saudi Twitter accounts were classified, resulting in the identification of 25 religious men/women, 16 traditional media, 14 sports related, 10 new media, 6 political, 6 company and 4 health accounts. The methods used to identify the key influential Saudi accounts can be applied to inform profile development of Twitter users in other countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Malone, M; Gannass, Al; Bowling, F
This case study describes the presentation of a tropical foot infection that presented in a 38-year-old male farm worker from the eastern province of Saudi Arabia who contracted the fungal infection that is Madurella mycetomatis. Mycetomas or Madura foot is characterized by a slow progressive infection that can result in severe soft tissue and muscle involvement along with destruction of the underlying bone. This foot pathology is rare in the United States and across Europe; however, the increasing influx of a migrant population means that a heightened awareness of its existence is needed.
Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla
Full Text Available We investigated two outbreaks of papillomatosis between 2013 and 2015 in Al Ahsa region of eastern Saudi Arabia involving fourteen dromedary camels. The disease affected both young and adult animals and occurred in coincidence with demodectic mange infestation. Diagnosis was made based on gross and histopathological characteristics of the wart lesion and was confirmed by PCR. Rolling circle amplification followed by degenerate primer PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of both Camelus dromedarius papillomavirus types 1 and 2, previously identified in infected dromedaries in Sudan.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby report the waiver of...
... of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the accompanying Memorandum...
Alnefaie, Sultan Klaib
Teachers' participation in curriculum development is an area of research that has not been given adequate attention in the context of Saudi Arabia. This critical exploratory study investigated the issue of teachers' marginalisation in the curriculum development process with the aim of problematising power relations in Saudi Arabia's education…
Ghulam, Ayman S.
Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects
Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Mai, P. Martin
We are utilizing receiver function and surface wave dispersion data to investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia. The Arabian plate consists of the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of several Proterozoic terrains, separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (so-called harrats). The Arabian platform is covered by thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. To understand the geo-dynamics and present-day geology in western Saudi Arabia, the origin and activity of the harrats needs to be investigated: are they controlled primarily by a local mantle plume underneath western Saudi Arabia or by lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps) Jordan hotspots? In our study, we first estimate Vp/Vs ratios by applying the H-κ stacking technique and construct local shear-wave velocity-depth profiles by jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). Our results reveal significant lateral variations in crustal thickness, S-velocity, and bulk Vp/Vs ratio. The Arabian shield has, on average a ~34 km thick crust with Vs ~3.72 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.73. Thinner crust (~25 - 32 km thick) with strong lateral variations is present along the Red Sea coast. In contrast, the Arabian platform reveals a ~41 km thick crust with Vs ~3.52 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.77. We find anomalously high Vp/Vs ratios at Harrat Lunayyir, interpreted as solidified magma intrusions. Slow shear-velocities in the upper-mantle lid throughout the southernmost and northernmost Arabian shield suggest lateral heating from hot mantle upwellings centered beneath Afar and (perhaps) Jordan. Our findings on crustal S-velocity structures, Vp/Vs ratios, and upper-mantle lid velocities support the hypothesis of lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps
Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondentsâ€™ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.
Bassam Hamdar; Hussin Hejase; Tamar Sayed
Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources in the world generally and in Saudi Arabia specially. Situated in the tropical and sub-tropical desert region with arid climate, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is exposed to dry winds and limited water resources .Therefore, the scarcity of fresh water resources poses a major challenge and affects the Saudi development plans since they realized that their supply of freshwater cannot be taken for granted. Moreover, the demand for fresh...
Abunadi, Ibrahim; Sanzogni, Louis; Sandhu, Kuldeep; Woods, Peter
Saudi Arabia is predetermined to implement eGovernment and provide world-class government services to citizens by 2010. However, this initiative will be meaningless if the people did not adopt these electronic services. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine success factors that will facilitate the adoption of eGovernment in Saudi Arabia. The results of the literature review have been deployed into surveys with Saudi eGovernment users. The discussion of the analysis from results...
Almutairi AF, McCarthy A
This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take c...
Amer, Haitham Mohamed
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of respiratory tract illness in children. Two HMPV subgroups, A and B, and four genotypes, A1, A2, B1 and B2, have been identified. Concurrent circulation of the different genotypes in yearly epidemics has been recorded globally, but not in Saudi Arabia. The current report was designed to study HMPV epidemiology in Saudi children and to analyze the genetic diversity and circulation patterns. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 174) were collected from hospitalized children in Riyadh (2008-2009). The screening of samples using real-time RT-PCR identified 19 HMPV strains. The majority of the strains belonged to subgroup B, while all strains of subgroup A were members of genotype A2. In 2008, only subgroup B was recognized, whereas in 2009 both subgroups were identified to be cocirculating at similar rates. The full-length attachment (G) gene and a partial sequence of the fusion (F) gene of positive samples were sequenced. The G gene showed a high degree of genetic diversity and exhibited a variable number of positively selected sites in different lineages. In contrast, the F gene demonstrated an extensive genetic stability with a higher tendency toward purifying selection. This is the first report on HMPV genotype circulation in Saudi Arabia; however, the exact circulation kinetics requires further retrospective and prospective study.
Abdulkarim K Alhowaish
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380 than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah
The concept of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) had been used as a patient reported outcome measure in healthcare settings. It has been conceptualised and measured using validated instruments in the Western scientific community. However, in the Saudi literature, the true meaning of this concept is still lacking. The aim of this study is to explore the gap in literature and define the concept of HRQoL, identify its key domains and conceptualise it as perceived specifically by patients wi...
Aljadhey, Hisham; Asiri, Yousef; Albogami, Yaser; Spratto, George; Alshehri, Mohammed
Background: Pharmacy education in developing countries faces many challenges. An assessment of the challenges and opportunities for the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia has not been conducted. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the views and opinions of pharmacy education stakeholders regarding the current issues challenging pharmacy education, and to discuss the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 48 participants attended a one-day meeting in October 2011, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into six round-table discussion sessions with eight persons in each group. Six major themes were explored in these sessions, including the need to improve pharmacy education, program educational outcomes, adoption of an integrated curriculum, the use of advanced teaching methodologies, the need to review assessment methods, and challenges and opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants agreed that pharmacy education in the country needs improvement. Participants agreed on the need for clear, measureable, and national educational outcomes for pharmacy programs in the Kingdom. Participants raised the importance of collaboration between faculty members and departments to design and implement an integrated curriculum. They also emphasized the use of new teaching methodologies focusing on student self-learning and active learning. Assessments were discussed with a focus on the use of new tools, confidentiality of examinations, and providing feedback to students. Several points were raised regarding the opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training, including the need for more experiential sites and qualified preceptors, addressing variations in training quality between experiential sites, the need for
Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel
The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards.
Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.
Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H
Researchers looking for health statistics on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) may face difficulty. This is partly due to the lack of awareness of potential sources where such statistics can be found. The purpose of this paper is to review various online sources of health statistics on KSA, and to highlight their content, coverage, and presentation of health statistics. Five bibliographic databases where local research can be found are described. National registries available are summarized. Governmental agencies, as well as societies and centers where the bulk of health statistics is produced are also described. Finally, some potential international sources that can be used for the purpose of comparison are presented.
... International Trade Administration U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh... (MAS) units are organizing an Executive-Led Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi... generation. The trade mission will target products, technologies and services in the clean energy sector...
Gawi, Elsadig Mohamed Khalifa
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi…
Khairia Mohamed Ahmed Al-Qahtani
Full Text Available Background and aims: Since the dawn of civilization cosmetics have constituted a part of routine body care not only by the upper strata of society but also by middle and low class people. Heavy metals contamination in cosmetic products is becoming an important health problem in both worldwide and locally at the level of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA.The aim of this study was tostudy.Quantitatively estimated heavy metals “lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic” using graphite.Methods: total of 21 popular brands used lipstick products sold in Riyadh market samples from 3 different types of lipsticks frequently used among females in Saudi Arabia was digested. The digested samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic using graphite furnace- atomic absorption spectrometry. Results:the mercury concentration was high followed by arsenic and cadmium, finally lead. The results indicate that the toxic heavy metals in all the samples were below the US FDA and SFDA permissible limits for cosmetic products with the exception the mercury content in some lipstick samples was higher than SFDA. There was no significant difference among the lipsticks in price categories.Conclusion: Continuous use and possible unintended ingestion of these toxic heavy metals, though in low levels in the cosmetics, may pose potential health risk due to their bioaccumulation in body organs.
Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M
Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world.
Full Text Available Background: Despite strong evidence of the benefits of rapid sequence intubation in neonates, it is still infrequently utilized in neonatal intensive care units (NICU, contributing to avoidable pain and secondary procedure-related physiological disturbances. Objectives: The primary objective of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the practice of premedication and regimens commonly used before elective endotracheal intubation in NICUs in Saudi Arabia. The secondary aim was to explore neonatal physicians′ attitudes regarding this intervention in institutions across Saudi Arabia. Methods: A web-based, structured questionnaire was distributed by the Department of Pediatrics, Umm Al Qura University, Mecca, to neonatal physicians and consultants of 10 NICUs across the country by E-mail. Responses were tabulated and descriptive statistics were conducted on the variables extracted. Results: 85% responded to the survey. Although 70% believed it was essential to routinely use premedication for all elective intubations, only 41% implemented this strategy. 60% cited fear of potential side effects for avoiding premedication and 40% indicated that the procedure could be executed more rapidly without drug therapy. Treatment regimens varied widely among respondents. Conclusion: Rates of premedication use prior to non-emergent neonatal intubation are suboptimal. Flawed information and lack of unified unit policies hampered effective implementation. Evidence-based guidelines may influence country-wide adoption of this practice.
Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S
Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia.
Hisham Jameel Bardesi
Full Text Available As internet use in Saudi Arabia are dramatically increasing, a powerful demand is being laid down on internet service purpose where this paper aims at identifying major factors that influence these demand pertaining to internet services. Within a selected theoretical model, such multiple factors are being conceptualized and interrelated. Using time series data, the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique is employed to analyze the relationships. The results of the model indicated clearly that using the internet in Saudi Arabia is influenced most strongly by the number of educated people, the number of mobile subscribers, income, the number of fixed lines, and employment level. The results also suggest that demographic factors have a significant impact on the demand for internet, specifically, the number of educated people and levels of employment. This paper concludes with a recommendation on increasing the level of understanding of those the factors affecting practitioners who plan and promote new forms of internet services in the current competitive market.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.
Full Text Available One of key objectives of modern economics is to determine factors that influence the economic development. This paper, therefore, seeks to discuss entrepreneurship as one of the factors that influence the economy of a nation, either directly or indirectly. It is a fact that entrepreneurship plays a significant part in shaping the landscape of a country’s economy. Economists and policy makers recognize this fact. In fact, entrepreneurship is the engine of economic growth and it has come to be perceived as a catalytic agent for expansion and promotion of productive activities in every sphere of global economy life. This research will focus on finding out how entrepreneurship influences the economy of Saudi Arabia. The paper will begin with a brief introduction of the topic before proceeding to present a comprehensive review of literature relevant to the topic. It will then proceed to present an overview of relevant variables used in determining the role played by entrepreneurship in the economy of Saudi Arabia. There will then follow a discussion on the disadvantages of entrepreneurship to the economy. The paper will end with a conclusion summarizing all the keys points discussed, research limitations, and recommendations for further research.
Online pharmacies sell medicine over the Internet and deliver them by mail. The main objective of this study is to explore the extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia which will be useful for the scientific community and regulators. An Arabic survey questionnaire was developed for this study. The questionnaire was distributed via email and social media. Four sections were created to cover the objectives: experience with online shopping in general, demographics, awareness of the existence and customer experiences of buying medicine online, and reasons for buying/not buying medicine online. A total of 633 responses were collected. Around 69% (437) of them were female and the majority (256, 40.4%) was in the age range 26-40. Only 23.1% (146) were aware of the existence of online pharmacies where 2.7% (17) of them had bought a medicine over the Internet and 15 (88.2%) respondents out of the 17 was satisfied with the process. Lack of awareness of the availability of such services was the main reason for not buying medicines online. Many respondents (263, 42.7%) were willing to try an online pharmacy, although majorities (243, 45.9%) were unable to differentiate between legal and illegal online pharmacies. The largest categories of products respondents were willing to buy them online were nonprescription medicines and cosmetics. The popularity of purchasing medicines over the Internet is still low in Saudi Arabia. However, because the majority of respondents are willing to purchase medicines online, efforts should be made by the Saudi FDA to set regulations and monitor this activity.
Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M
Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing.
Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.
Alghamdi, Jawahir; Elamin, Maha Hussein; Alhabib, Samia
Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan that can infect all mammals, who serve as intermediate host. It causes congenital, neurological, eyes complications and mild or asymptomatic infections in humans. Purpose of this study: To investigate not only the prevalence of T. gondii, but also to find out its genotyping using multiple sequential molecular methods to predict exactly the precise genotyping of T. gondii among Saudi pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage methods. Initial stage involved enrolment of 250 Saudi pregnant women from multi-centre healthcare and community based settings in the capital of Saudi Arabia Riyadh. The second stage was embracement of the laboratory investigation that included Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), DNA extraction, PCR, nested-PCR assay, and genotyping of the seropositive cases. Results: 203 women agreed to take part in our study with a response rate of 81.2% (203/250). Using ELISA, we found that the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 32.5% and 6.4%, respectively. We found that 29 samples (80.6%) were of genotype II; however 7 samples (19.4%) were of genotype III. Conclusion: Defining the population structure of T. gondii from Saudi Arabia has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity, pathogenesis, and in planning preventive strategies. Relationship between such variation in structure and disease manifestation in pregnant women is still difficult to assess due to the role of host immune status and genetic background on the control of infection, and of other parasitic features such as the infecting dose or parasite stage. Our finding of the genotyping of T. gondii might facilitate and inform future studies on comparative genomics and identification of genes that control important biological phenotypes including pathogenesis and transmission among Saudi women.
Al-Jarallah, M I; Fazal-ur-Rehman
An indoor radon survey was carried out recently in nine cities of Saudi Arabia using nuclear track detectors (NTD)-based passive radon detectors. The survey included Qatif City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, where 225 detectors were collected back successfully. It was found that the average indoor radon concentration in the dwellings was 22 +/- 15 Bq m(-3). However, one of the dwellings showed an anomalous radon concentration of 535 +/- 23 Bq m(-3). This finding led to a detailed investigation of this dwelling using active and passive techniques. In the active technique, an AlphaGUARD 2000 PRQ radon gas analyser was used. In the passive technique, CR-39 based passive radon detectors were used in all the rooms of the dwelling. Radon exhalation from the wall and the floor was also measured using the can technique. The active measurement confirms the passive one. Before placing the passive radon detectors in all the rooms of the two-storey building, the inhabitant was advised to ventilate his house regularly. The radon concentration in the different rooms was found to vary from 124 to 302 Bq m(-3). Radon exhalation from the floor and the wall of the room with the anomalous radon concentration was found to vary from 0.5 to 0.8 Bq m(-2) h(-1). These low radon exhalation rates suggest that the anomalous radon concentration is most probably due to underground radon diffusion into the dwelling through cracks and joints in the concrete floor.
We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.
Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud
Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4
Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Zahran, Hani; Mai, P. Martin
We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.
Jawad, L. A.
Full Text Available The first record of M. argenteus from the Arabian Gulf coasts of Saudi Arabia is confirmed, based on a sample measuring 158 mm in SL. Morphometric and meristic data are provided for this specimen.
Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful
The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...
Abdulaziz Aldaarmi; Maysam Abbodb; Hussein Salameh
...) in an emerging market with an Islamic Culture: Saudi Arabia Market (Tadwal), Generalized Methods of Moments and t Test statistical techniques were used to find the coefficients and to compare between real and expected...
Conclusion: People in Saudi Arabia expose to huge amount of radiological hazardous with a common believe that radiology is essential for diagnosis all musculoskeletal injuries. Wealthy medical system does not always lead to competent practice.
Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional
Kaddam, Ibrahim M; Al-Shaikh, Adnan M; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A; Asseri, Khalid S; Al-Saleh, Yousef M; Al-Qarni, Ali A; Al-Shuaibi, Ahmed M; Tamimi, Waleed G; Mukhtar, Abdelmoneim M
To measure prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, unveil the life style, nutritional habits and status, as well as identify the potential risk factors. Method: A school-based survey targeting Saudi school students and employees was conducted during the period from 2013 to 2014 using multistage cluster random sample in Central, Western and Eastern regions. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and difference between various population subgroups were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of potential risk factors. Results: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 49.5% in students and 44% in employees. Life style was not adequate to protect against vitamin D depletion. Unhealthy nutritional habits were widespread, some manifested in childhood while others manifested later in life. Living in the Eastern region, females, 16-19 years of age, low economic class, obese and lack of omega 3 supplements were risk factors in students. Employees living in the Eastern region, females, middle-income class, carbonated soft drink consumers, and lack of multivitamin supplements were at higher risk. Conclusion: There is a need for a health awareness program using evidence-based recommendations. Screening for early detection and correction of the condition should be proposed to be part of the national health strategy. There is need for identifying the burden of vitamin D deficiency on other diseases to control and improve the prognosis of these conditions.
Akbar, Hisham O; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Qattan, Faten; Fallatah, Hind I.; Al Rumani, Maha
Background Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a global infection. In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of CHC is declining due to the implementation of a blood screening program. However, CHC still remains a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Objectives This is a retrospective study of CHC patients at the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods Out of a total of 291 CHC patients from the hepatology clinic at King Abdul Aziz University h...
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Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Zagzoog, Nisreen
The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P
Full Text Available Ali I Swaid,1 Abdelkhalig H Elhilu,2 Mohamed S Mahfouz3 1Department of ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85 enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results: Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively. Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32, while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39. Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively. The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%, while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion: It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Jazan University, internship program, gynecology and
Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ≥18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction
Full Text Available Background: Pharmacy education in developing countries faces many challenges. An assessment of the challenges and opportunities for the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia has not been conducted. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the views and opinions of pharmacy education stakeholders regarding the current issues challenging pharmacy education, and to discuss the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 48 participants attended a one-day meeting in October 2011, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into six round-table discussion sessions with eight persons in each group. Six major themes were explored in these sessions, including the need to improve pharmacy education, program educational outcomes, adoption of an integrated curriculum, the use of advanced teaching methodologies, the need to review assessment methods, and challenges and opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants agreed that pharmacy education in the country needs improvement. Participants agreed on the need for clear, measureable, and national educational outcomes for pharmacy programs in the Kingdom. Participants raised the importance of collaboration between faculty members and departments to design and implement an integrated curriculum. They also emphasized the use of new teaching methodologies focusing on student self-learning and active learning. Assessments were discussed with a focus on the use of new tools, confidentiality of examinations, and providing feedback to students. Several points were raised regarding the opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training, including the need for more experiential sites and qualified preceptors, addressing variations in training quality between experiential sites, the
Obeidat, Akef S; Alhaqwi, Ali Ibrahim; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad
There are numerous national efforts to determine and develop research priorities of medical education in Saudi Arabia. These priorities were first proposed in 2010 by "Dr Al-Khuli's Chair for Developing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia". The proposed priority domains were: curriculum, students, faculty, and quality assurance and accreditation. To investigate publications in medical education at the national and international levels in areas relating to these proposed priorities. Electronic search within PubMed database for papers relating to each domain of priority was conducted at national and international levels in the last three years, using the same keywords as the priority domains, but only confined to undergraduate medical education. Out of 3145 articles retrieved when searching with keyword as broad as "undergraduate medical curriculum" only 81 articles worldwide and 3 articles from Saudi Arabia were dealing with curriculum related issues as a whole. Further search on the sub-domains "effective strategies to manage undergraduate curriculum" and "undergraduate medical education models", resulted in the retrieval of few articles worldwide and none from Saudi Arabia. At the national level, there were 63 publications from Saudi Arabia that were either course (topic)-specific or could not be classified under the four domains specified by Dr Al-Khuli's Chair. Research activities in medical education in Saudi Arabia in the last 3 years showed diversity and lack of focus in the research priorities. Efforts of academic and research centers should continue to monitor and encourage these activities toward achieving the recommended priorities.
Zaidi, Faisal K.; Mogren, Saad; Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Ibrahim, Elkhedr
The present study deals with the assessment of groundwater with respect to the main hydrological processes controlling its chemistry and its subsequent impact on groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system. Groundwater samples were collected from 73 bore wells tapping the Cretaceous Biyadh and Wasia sandstone aquifers. The main groundwater facies in the area belong to the mixed Casbnd Mgsbnd SO4/Cl type and the SO4sbnd Cl type. Prolonged rock water interaction has resulted in high TDS (average of 2131 mg/l) and high EC (average of 2725 μS/cm) of the groundwater. The average nitrate (56.38 mg/l) value in the area is higher than the WHO prescribed limits of 50 mg/l in drinking water and is attributed to agricultural activities. The Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) shows that 33% of the water samples fall within the excellent to good category whereas the remaining samples fall in the poor to unsuitable for drinking category. In terms of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium percentage (Na %) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) the groundwater is suitable for irrigation however the high salinity values can adversely affect the plant physiology.
Aljarbou, Ahmad N
Chronic viral hepatitis is highly prevalent and creates a substantial burden to healthcare systems globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 350 and 250 million people worldwide are chronic carrier of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection respectively. These two diseases are the cause of significant global mortality and morbidity with approximately 1 million deaths each year attributable to them and their sequelae, liver disease and primary liver cancer. Although the efforts have been met with the long-lasting level of success and holds the promise for large reductions in disease burden in spite of the huge numbers of HBV infected population. The viral hepatitis has also been emerged as a leading public health concern and continues to be major disease burden in the Eastern Mediterranean. The WHO, estimates that approximately 4.3 million persons are infected with HBV in the Region each year. Saudi Arabia has been classified as a country with an intermediate prevalence of HBV showed up to 7% in Saudi children in late 1980s but declined to as low as 0.3% in 1997 since the introduction of universal vaccination of all Saudi children in 1989. In spite of this remarkable decline, the burden of decompensated liver disease secondary to hepatitis B is estimated to increase drastically in the next 40 years as the previously infected children start aging.
Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Results Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). Conclusions A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words:Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia. PMID:27957258
Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.
This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.
Mashael K. Alshaikh
Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.
Alshaikh, Mashael K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Baldove, Juren P; Majeed, Azeem; Rawaf, Salman
Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.
Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.
Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…
Ha, Phan Le; Barnawi, Osman Z.
The internationalization of higher education globally continues to grow more and more towards commercialization and neoliberalism paths, despite growing concerns about the underlying consequences. Building further on our work and using Saudi Arabia as a national case, this article critically investigates how and in what ways the Saudi government's…
A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...
... International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi... Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait City, Kuwait, from September 28-October 1, 2013. The mission will focus on the cyber security, critical infrastructure...
Swaid, Ali I; Elhilu, Abdelkhalig H; Mahfouz, Mohamed S
Background Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85) enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively). Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32), while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39). Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively). The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%), while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:28203115
Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.
Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.
Tarek Tawfik Amin
Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7% at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay
Hoskins, E J; Abdul al-Hamid Noor, F; Ghasib, S H
Health care services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are unique not only in the varied patient population served and multinational staff recruited to provide services, but also because they are not driven by financial or medicolegal constraints. As part of a five-year plan (carried out in four phases) to improve the quality of health care provided in the Kingdom, the North West Armed Forces Hospitals (NWAFH) in Tabuk became the first health care facility in the Kingdom to implement total quality management (TQM). This was not an implementation de novo, but a well-coordinated transition from quality assurance (QA) to TQM. The hospital leadership believe that TQM is best implemented when there is a strong foundation of QA to provide a pre-existing process for data collection and performance measurement. Using the eight-step model for implementing TQM adapted from Joint Commission standards and The Health Care Manager's Guide to Continuous Quality Improvement, the QA staff identified the customers of the QA department, their needs, and professional requirements; implemented changes to meet these needs; identified internal monitors to evaluate the effectiveness of the operational changes and monitor performance; reported results and identified opportunities for improvement; and problem solved with FOCUS-PDCA. These efforts yielded a customer satisfaction survey in the form of a report card. In addition, three case studies launched by the QA department to address abstract data accuracy and completion, nosocomial infection rates in cesarean-section patients, and receipt of hospital laboratory reports by peripheral clinics are described in detail. The NWAFH Program leadership believes that TQM is a pancultural concept and that these first successful efforts can provide a model for the expansion of TQM not only in Saudi Arabia but throughout the rest of the Middle East.
Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.
This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.
Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Renal abnormalities in SCD are well known but renal involvement in Saudi patients with SCD has not been studied. We sought to identify renal abnormalities in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with SCD. We prospectively studied 73 patients with SCD followed up at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2005 to November 2006,. All patients underwent evaluation of kidney fu...
Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.
Bahammam, Ahmed S
Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.
Nasser Saad Al Kahtani
Full Text Available Higher education sector in Saudi Arabia had a phenomenal growth over the last decade. This study sets out to empirically examine the technical and scale efficiency of government universities in Saudi Arabia. In general, the technical efficiency of Saudi public universities appears to be high. However, majority of public universities relative performance is a dismal when the scale efficiency is taken into consideration. Only two universities out of the total sample of twenty are on the frontier in comparison to five universities based on the VRS efficiency.
Habbash, Murya; Hussainey, Khaled; Ibrahim, Awad
Our study has three objectives. The first is to determine the voluntary disclosure level in Saudi Arabia. The second is to compare this level with that of some other Arab countries. The third is to identify the main drivers of voluntary disclosure in Saudi Arabia. We use a 54-item disclosure checklist and apply the regression and content analyses to examine a sample of 361 firm-year observations of firms listed on Saudi Stock Exchange during 2007-2011. We find the voluntary disclosure average...
Alyousif, M S; AL-Rasheid, K A
Eimeria auratae n. sp. was described from the gall bladder of the lizard Mabuya aurata collected at Al-Hofuf village, eastern region, Saudi Arabia. Morphology of sporulated as well as non-sporulated oocysts were studied. Sporulated oocysts were ellipsoidal 22-31.5x13.5-21.8 (27.7x18.5) microm with smooth brownish-yellow bilayered wall, 1.1 (0.9-1.3) microm. Micropyle, polar granule and oocyst residuum were absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal 10.5-12.8x7.5-9 (11.8x8.5) microm. Sporocyst residuum was present but Stieda body was absent. Sporozoites were crescent-shaped, blunt at one end and slightly tapered at the other. Eimeria species from Scincidae were compared.
Ibarra, Mercedes; Frasquet, Miguel; Al Rished, Abdulaziz; Tuomiranta, Arttu; Gasim, Sami; Ghedira, Hosni
The collaboration between the Research Center for Renewable Energy Mapping and Assessment (ReCREMA) at Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and the King Abdullah City for Atomic & Renewable Energy (KACARE) aims to create an interactive web tool integrated in the Renewable Resource Atlas where different solar thermal electricity (STE) utility-scale technologies will be simulated. In this paper, a methodology is presented for sizing and performance simulation of the solar field of parabolic trough collector (PTC) plants. The model is used for a case study analysis of the potential of STE in three sites located in the central, western, and eastern parts of Saudi Arabia. The plant located in the north (Tayma) has the lowest number of collectors with the best production along the year.
Jobran M. Alqahtani
Full Text Available The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5% were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353 reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma. In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management.
Alqahtani, Jobran M.; Asaad, Ahmed M.; Awadalla, Nabil J.; Mahfouz, Ahmed A.
The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5%) were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353) reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma). In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management. PMID:28036050
Ismail, Mahmoud M; Mohamed, Mahmoud H A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M; Al-Hammadi, Mohamed A
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is an acute fatal highly contagious viral infectious disease that causes high losses among rabbitries. The disease was first reported in China in 1984 and later on in Saudi Arabia in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the emergence and pathogenicity of new rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains in Saudi Arabia. The pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation in susceptible rabbits. Three RHDV strains were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting VP60 capsid protein gene in infected rabbitries during 2012 and 2013. These strains clustered into two genetically distinct genogroups related to year of isolation (G2 and G3). All new Saudi Arabia viruses clustered with the European strains, while the old strains clustered with strains from China and America. Based on amino acids and nucleotide sequences, the Saudi Arabia strains (RHD/1/SA/2012, RHD/2/SA/2012, and RHD/3/SA /2013) had high identity with Mexico89, Ca11-ITA, and 00-13,FRA virus; on the other hand, there was a relatively high identity with Bahrain strain. The evolutionary relationship of Saudi RHDVs strains revealed significant nucleotides and amino acid substitutions in hypervariable region E, suggesting the emergence of new RHDVs circulating in Saudi Arabia rabbitries. These antigenic changes represented by the antigenic index might be a potential cause of vaccination failure and raises the need to review the vaccination strategies against RHD.
Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alam, Mohammed S., E-mail: email@example.com [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Harrison, Roy M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)
Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources.
Meo, S A; Hassan, A; Usmani, A M
Since last decade, Saudi Arabia has been swiftly moving ahead to promote an education and research in the country. This study aimed to investigate the research outcome of Saudi Arabia in medical sciences during the period 1996-2012. In this study, the research papers published in various global science journals during the period 1996-2012 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an affiliation with Saudi Arabia. The main source for information was Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, Thomson Reuters and SCI-mago/Scopus. In global science data base, Saudi Arabia contributed 103804 documents in all science and social sciences. In medicine the total number of research papers from Saudi Arabia are 16196, citable documents 14732, total citations 102827, citations per documents 6.36 and Hirsch index (h-index) is 92. However, in combined medical and allied health sciences the total number of research papers are 27246, citable documents 25416, total citations 181999, mean citations per documents 7.07 and mean h-index is 41.44. Furthermore, Saudi Arabia contributed 40797 research documents in ISI indexed journals only and also 151 research documents in highly reputable and towering science journals. Saudi Arabia's research performance in global medical sciences has markedly increased during the period 2006-2012. The research publications are continuously on mounting path; however, the number of citations has decreased. The country improved its regional as well as international research rankings and graded 45 in the world in year 2012.
Full Text Available In this book, Khalid Al-Seghayer offers a thorough study of the history and status of English language teaching in Saudi Arabia, highlighting deficiencies and suggesting remedies in an attempt to cure the current standards of English education, particularly in public schools which, in his own words, “have deteriorated perhaps beyond hope of recovery” (p. 95.
Alomair, Miznah O.
In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…
Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.
Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.
DeNicola, Erica; Aburizaiza, Omar S; Siddique, Azhar; Khwaja, Haider; Carpenter, David O
Climate change is expected to bring increases in average global temperatures (1.4°C-5.8°C [34.52°F-42.44°F] by 2100) and precipitation levels to varying degrees around the globe. The availability and quality of water will be severely affected, and public health threats from the lack of this valuable resource will be great unless water-scarce nations are able to adapt. Saudi Arabia provides a good example of how the climate and unsustainable human activity go hand in hand in creating stress on and depleting water resources, and an example for adaptation and mitigation. A search of the English literature addressing climate change, water scarcity, human health, and related topics was conducted using online resources and databases accessed through the University at Albany, State University of New York library web page. Water scarcity, which encompasses both water availability and water quality, is an important indicator of health. Beyond drinking, water supply is intimately linked to food security, sanitation, and hygiene, which are primary contributors to the global burden of disease. Poor and disadvantaged populations are the ones who will suffer most from the negative effects of climate change on water supply and associated human health issues. Examples of adaptation and mitigation measures that can help reduce the strain on conventional water resources (surface waters and fossil aquifers or groundwater) include desalination, wastewater recycling and reuse, and outsourcing food items or "virtual water trade." These are strategies being used by Saudi Arabia, a country that is water poor primarily due to decades of irresponsible irrigation practices. The human and environmental health risks associated with these adaptation measures are examined. Finally, strategies to protect human health through international collaboration and the importance of these efforts are discussed. International, multidisciplinary cooperation and collaboration will be needed to promote
Salama, Ahmed K
Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants.
Alhamdan, Nasser Abdulrahman; Almazrou, Yagob Yousaf; Alswaidi, Fahad Mohammad; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil
To estimate the prevalence of sickle cell disorders and beta thalassemia, with their regional distribution, in the adult population screened as part of the Saudi Premarital Screening Program. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted as part of the National Premarital Screening Program. It covered all the individuals who applied for a marriage license during the years 1425 and 1426 Hijra (February 2004 to January 2005). A network of 123 reception centers in the Ministry of Health facilities and 70 laboratories all over Saudi Arabia was involved in data collection. Of a total of 488,315 individuals screened, 4.20% had sickle cell trait, 0.26% had sickle cell disease, 3.22% had thalassemia trait, and 0.07% had thalassemia disease. Both the diseases were focused mainly in the eastern, western, and southwestern parts of the country. Among the 207,333 couples who were issued certificates for matching, 2.14% were declared high risk. Among the 2,375 high-risk couples contacted by telephone, 89.6% married each other, despite the known high-risk status. The results showed excellent access to the target population. However, the program's objective of decreasing high-risk marriages was not as successful, indicating the need for improvement of health education programs for the public, more efforts in counseling high risk couples, and changes in the strategy of timing of screening in relation to marriage.
Maha M. H. K. Mansour
Full Text Available Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic and a common health problem worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the vitamin D status in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to study its relation to various variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric clinic in Jeddah Clinic Hospital-Kandarah, Jeddah, KSA, from October through December 2010, in which 510 healthy children aged 4-15 years were enrolled. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] were measured. Dietary vitamin D intake and duration of daily sunlight exposure were determined. 25(OHD levels <20 ng/mL and <7 ng/mL were defined as relative and severe vitamin D deficiency, respectively. Results: The mean concentration of 25(OHD was 13.07 ± 7.81 ng/mL. Seventy subjects (13.72% had normal 25(OHD level ranging 20-70 ng/mL. Three hundred (58.82% had relative 25(OHD deficiency and 140 (27.45% had severe deficiency (P=0.000. 220 (43.14% subjects were males and 290 (56.86% were females having a statistically significant higher incidence of 25(OHD deficiency (P=0.019. 54.9% were Saudis, 27.45% were Yemenis and 11.76% were Egyptians. Saudis and Yemenis were more subjected to 25(OHD deficiency in comparison to Egyptians and other nationalities (P=0.01. There were significant inverse correlations between 25(OHD levels and bony aches (P=0.000. 56.25% of asymptomatic children had vitamin D deficiency (P=0.000. Duration of sunlight exposure and daily intake of vitamin D had significant effects on serum level of vitamin D (P=0.000. Conclusions: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah was observed in this study. Vitamin D supplementation of food products can prevent vitamin D deficiency in these children.
Ayman N. Alkhaldi
Full Text Available This study explores the adoption of mobile banking practices in Saudi Arabia. It focuses on the existence of sufficient infrastructure, and the possible challenges that m-banking services may face. Also, discovers the potential opportunities in the country. A sample of banks in Saudi Arabia was surveyed via questionnaire, with a particular focus on the staff in the related IT departments. The findings demonstrate that although m-banking is believed to be important, there is a general lack of awareness, and it is still not widely accepted by the public. M-banking services provided should be easier to use and offer more security to its users. Furthermore, findings reveal that cooperation among the concerned parties is currently not extensive. From this, the researcher recommends that governing regulations and policies should be properly identified and put in place, and proposes that banking decision-makers in Saudi Arabia should reevaluate their bank’s strategic plans.
Al-Obaid, Sami; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Thomas, Jacob; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Schneider, Wolfgang; O'Connell, Mark
The wetlands of Saudi Arabia are located in a water-stressed region that is highly vulnerable to climate and other global changes. Sebkhas, mudflats, mangroves, and wadis are the dominant wetlands in the arid regions of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. These unique wetlands are recognized as a sanctuary for biodiversity and for their economic services generated from mineral extraction, agriculture, and grazing. Despite their ecological values and societal services, the long-term permanence of Saudi Arabia's wetlands faces strong challenges resulting from human activities associated with sustained population growth, habitat degradation, and coastal development. This paper consolidates a literature review of Saudi Arabia's wetlands from local to global importance, highlights their biodiversity, and identifies threats and evolution of these vulnerable ecosystems in the arid Arabian Peninsula by focusing on the status of key freshwater taxa (Odonata, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and waterbirds) and documenting changes affecting important wetlands.
Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.
Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.
Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277
Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.
Al-Moamary, Amal M.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Al Moamary, Mohamed S.
AIM: The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristic of patient with refractory asthma (RA) from Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This paper prospectively studied in a university hospital factors leading to RA in a cohort of patients who have inadequately controlled asthma or with frequent exacerbations despite optimum controller therapy. It also studied patients with asthma that requires extended periods of oral steroids to control. RESULTS: The mean age was 45.1 years (±9.1) where 74 patients were enrolled in this study with the age group (37–48 years) is having the highest percentage (64.8%). Female patients represented 62.2%. The two major comorbid conditions were allergic rhinitis (54.1%) and gastroesophageal reflux (33.8%). The vast majority (72 patients) had at least one trigger factor for asthma (97.3%). The asthma control test showed that 86.4% had an uncontrolled status. Spirometry showed mild disease in 9.5%, moderate in 47.3%, and severe in 43.2%. Eosinophilia was seen in only 16.2%. Immunoglobulin E level between 70 and 700 μg/L was found in 58.1% of patients. CONCLUSION: RA has certain clinical characteristics and associated comorbid conditions as well as precipitating factors that facilitate the identifications of these cases. PMID:28197221
Al-Megrin, Wafa A I
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal(-1)) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p < 0.001), followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.
Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.
For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.
Al-Jassir, Mohammed; Moizuddin, Syed Khaja; Al-Bashir, Bushra
Breastfeeding is the ideal and most natural way of nurturing infants. The importance of breastfeeding has been proved unequivocally, and UNICEF and WHO have issued guidelines to ensure breastfeeding. Saudi Arabia is a country where the legislation is derived from the Quran and Hadiths. The Holy Quran says that the mothers shall give suck to their offspring for two complete years.... The majority of mothers start breastfeeding their infants but soon introduce bottles. The single most common reason cited for the early introduction of bottle feeding is that the breast milk is insufficient. Because of this tendency, many mothers practice mixed feeding. The duration of breastfeeding varies but in general it is done beyond six months, and various factors affect the duration. Researchers have recently started using the WHO recommended key breastfeeding indicators. In a study these key indicators were found to be very low. The authors feel that there is a need to revise the media campaign for promoting breastfeeding utilizing the instructions and guidance from the Holy Quran and Hadiths.
Adel M. Alhababy
Full Text Available Jazan province is an arid area, located at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea coast. Groundwater is the only resource of drinking water in this area; thus, its suitability for drinking and domestic uses is of public and scientific concern. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from 23 sites in Jazan area during fall 2014; measurements and analysis of water quality parameters including pH, total dissolved solids TDS, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, iron and fluoride were carried out with references to WHO and Gulf Standardization Organization GSO. TDS values exceeded the permissible limit of 600 mg/l in 30.4% of samples, total hardness values exceeded the permissible limits of 300 mg/l in 34.8% of samples, and nitrate concentration exceeded the permissible limit of 50 mg/l in only one sample. However, the concentrations of investigated parameters in the groundwater samples were within the permissible limits of WHO. Our results showed that the water quality of groundwater in Jazan area is acceptable and could be used safely for drinking and domestic purposes. However, a special attention should be paid to the concentration of TDS and nitrate in groundwater in future studies.
Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.
Sulaiman O. Aljaloud
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.
Saudi Arabia was seriously exposed to the influence of the oil glut since 1982 as the swing producer in OPEC, which has brought up the rapid reduction in oil income, tightening and deficit in the finance. The construction industry was most severely affected by the tightened finance and economic slowdown in the country. The fourth 3-year plan (1985-89) was approved in March 1985. The plan is directed to the continued industrialization and stable growth by the combination of private investment and labor force with the continued expenditure for the people's living to function as the shock absorber under the condition of continued oil glut. However, it faced a wide reduction in oil production immediately after the initiation of the plan as the country turned to the swing producer. The government took the policy to protect its market share by the net back sales to overcome the difficulty; however, the policy has caused the fall of international oil price, resulted in further reduction of oil income. (1 fig, 9 tabs, 7 refs)
Abdou, Adel A.
The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.
Zuhairy, A.A.; Sayigh, A.A.M. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering
A mathematical model is used to generate the hourly data for the total solar radiation on a horizontal surface. The generated data are based on the hourly recorded visibility data for 20 years (1970-1989). The model year technique was then applied to model the 20 years of hourly data of solar radiation into one statistically representative year. A model year of hourly data was then generated for the beam and diffuse components of solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Similarly, a model year of hourly data was also generated for the total solar radiation on tilted surfaces with different orientations with its beam, diffuse and reflected components. A simple methodology is proposed for calculating the solar radiation on vertical surfaces, based on a solar impact factor (SIF). Monthly means and daily totals of hourly sums for each month of the year are discussed. The hourly data of solar radiation for a typical day for each month of the year are presented. The data were generated for the four climatic zones of Saudi Arabia, the hot-dry (Riyadh), the warm-humid (Jeddah), the maritime inland desert climate (Dhahran) and the upland climate zone (Taif). The accuracy of the results is discussed and found to be above 90% representative. (author)
Full Text Available The study aims at identifying and assessing the main causes of contractors’ failure in industrial projects in Saudi Arabia. 24 causes were identified from the literature for assessment by owners, contractors and subcontractors. These causes were classified under five categories, namely managerial causes, financial causes, growth causes, environmental causes and uncontrollable causes. A survey of 36 participants was conducted. Data was collected from 15 owners, 11 contractors and 10 subcontractors. The results indicated that lack of experience in the business field, war, poor project management, poor cost estimation, unavailability of stationed project leader at site, neglect and type of the contract are the most severe causes behind contractor’s failure in construction projects. The rank correlation coefficient indicated that there is a high level of agreement among owners, contractors and subcontractors on the severity of the different failure causes. The research provides a severity of the ranking of the different causes of failure so that mitigation measures could be developed to avoid them or lessen their effects.
Alonazi, Wadi B; Albaiz, Alyaa S; Albejaidi, Fahd M; Alenazi, Fatimah Z
This study was conducted to assess the level of health awareness (HA) among students attending three undergraduate programs in the Colleges of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (SA). A modified self-reported survey was utilized to measure HA demonstrating four domains: Nutrition (NU), Personal Health (PH), Physical Exercise (PE), and Body Build (BB). The questionnaire was distributed to 302 female students attending the first semester of the academic year 2014-2015 BS degree in Radiology Sciences (RS), Clinical Laboratory (CL), and Health Education (HE) departments. Bloom's taxonomy was utilized to describe the three cognitive levels. Synthesizing, creating, and evaluating were grouped to represent high level indicators; applying cognitive skills only revealed an intermediate level; while memorizing and listing demonstrated low levels. In a 5-point Likert scale, the overall mean (M) of HA among CAMS students was 3.82 with the highest among students attending HE (M = 3.89). The domain of PH ranked first with a high average (M = 4.30). There were significant differences (α = 0.05), in the level of HA in PH and BB domains, among students in terms of program specialty only, but no such significant differences were found for other characteristics. The study recommended incorporating health promotion concepts within teaching curricula and conducting health and education campaigns by health education institutions.
El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M
This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.
Alangari, Abdullah A; Riaz, Muhammad; Mahjoub, Mohamed Osman; Malhis, Nidal; Al-Tamimi, Saleh; Al-Modaihsh, Abdullah
Major sand storms are frequent in the Middle East. This study aims to investigate the role of air particulate matter (PM) level in acute asthma in children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An aerosol spectrometer was used to evaluate PM 1000 μg/m(3), representing major sand storms, plus the following 5 days and other days with PM10storms, even major ones, had no significant impact on acute asthma exacerbations in children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The very high levels of PM, however, deserve further studying especially of their long-term effects.
Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen
The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; Pover-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.
Varghese, Bright; Al-Hajoj, Sahal
An extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) infection rate of 30% in Saudi Arabia remains above the global rate. A variable rate of infection in each province has been reported and the involvement of most organs has been cited. Nationwide collective data on the current trends of infection are scarce and the factors behind the increased rate of EPTB are perplexing. This review endeavors to shed light into the epidemiology of EPTB, various types of infections sites, geographical differences in the infection rate, known risk factors, and challenges in the diagnosis and management of EPTB in Saudi Arabia.
Rehman, Faisal; El-Hady, Sherif M.; Atef, Ali H.; Harbi, Hussein M.
Seismic hazard assessment is carried out by utilizing deterministic approach to evaluate the maximum expected earthquake ground motions along the Western Coastal Province of Saudi Arabia. The analysis is accomplished by incorporating seismotectonic source model, determination of earthquake magnitude ( M max), set of appropriate ground motion predictive equations (GMPE), and logic tree sequence. The logic tree sequence is built up to assign weight to ground motion scaling relationships. Contour maps of ground acceleration are generated at different spectral periods. These maps show that the largest ground motion values are emerged in northern and southern regions of the western coastal province in Saudi Arabia in comparison with the central region.
Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen
To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.
Wael Mohamed Lotfy
Full Text Available Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant
Mohammad Dasseh, Mohammad Yousef
Previous research reveals that the centralized, bureaucratic and rigid authority lines are the main features in the Saudi work environment. Researchers have studied several HRM topics in Saudi Arabia such as leadership, regulations and the impact of culture on employees. However, there seems to be a lack of attention to topics related to motivation, empowerment and organizational design. This paper aimed to explore the factors that motivate employees, investigate the relationship between orga...
Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Abdelaziz Eldeib; Sabri Hammad
Objective: To highlight some clinical and epidemiological features of dengue fever.Methods:All patients who were admitted to hospitals in Holly Mecca City, Saudi Arabia and were confirmed as dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were included in this study. The data were collected from patient files and through direct interview with patients or their relatives. Cases were followed through their hospital stay. Routine laboratory investigations were done and diagnosis was confirmed by PCR.Results: Most of cases admitted in stable condition (94.37%) and only one case (1.41%) died. Dengue-1 and 3 types were the prevalent dengue viruses and cases in age group 16-44 were the most frequent (70.40%). The most common symptoms was fever reported from all cases followed by headache (74.60%), myalgia and anorexia (67.60%), back pain (59.20%) and chills (54.90%). DF represented (60.57%) of the cases while DHF represented (39.43%). About half of cases had underground water tanks for human use, 5.60% had over house roof water tanks and 43.70% had both types, 16.90% of these tanks were uncovered. Approximately 70.00% of cases reported presence of small collection of water nearby houses and 46.80% reported the presence of mosquitoes within their houses.Conclusions: Most dengue fever cases might be endogenous in origin due to prevalence of mosquitoes and their breeding places within the houses and in nearby localities. Control of mosquitoes and their breeding places will contribute to prevention of dengue fever.
Mubashir Ahmad Khan, Aftab Faiz
Full Text Available Objective: Carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is emerging as an important pathogen worldwide which has alarming clinical threat with serious effects on patients’ outcome. The aim of our study is to determine prevalence of carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern in tertiary care hospitals. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 260 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae collected from five different hospitals of Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January to July 2015. All clinical isolates were confirmed as K. pneumoniae using Vitek 2 system. These isolates were then screened for potential carbapenemase producers by determining reduced susceptibility to carbapenems using representative antibiotic disks of third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems in the disk diffusion test following guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Minimum inhibitory concentration of isolates found positive in screening test were determined for cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides and tigecycline and colistin using Vitek-2 system. Modified Hodge test was performed to detect carbapenemase production on the isolates suspected for carbapenemase production. Results: Out of 260 K. pneumoniae isolates, 31 (11.9% have shown 100% resistance to all cephalosporins. Of 31 K. pneumoniae isolates, 15 (48.4% were found positive for carbapenemase. All carbapenem resistant isolates were sensitive to colistin and tigecycline. However, these isolates have shown resistance to amikacin (41.9% and gentamicin (51.6%, respectively. Conclusion: This is the first report from Makkah reporting carbapenamse producing K.pneumoniae. Of 12% potential carbapenemase producing K.pneumoniae, 48.4% were found positive for carbapenemase production. Molecular characterization of these strains will help to determine the type of carbapenemase prevalent in this area. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(3: 121-127
Darraj, Abdulrahman; Barakat, Walid; Kenani, Mona; Shajry, Reem; Khawaji, Abdullah; Bakri, Sultan; Makin, Abdulrahman; Mohanna, Azza; Yassin, Abu Obaida
BACKGROUND The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children. Our institutions are working toward the longevity and welfare of the residents, and healthcare is one of the important aspects in such a field. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all patients less than 18 years of age who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic of Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, between October 2014 and October 2015. The data, collected on 385 cases, included the age at first presentation, sex, clinical diagnosis, refractive error (RE) if present, and whether the child had amblyopia. If the child did not undergo complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction, he/she was excluded. All data were collected and analyzed using the software SPSS. A P-value sex among children with REs and squint. Trauma was seen more commonly among males and in the group aged 12–18 years. CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, the focus was on the common childhood eye diseases that were considerably high. Hypermetropia was the predominant RE, which is in contrast to other studies where myopia was more common. However, it is important to promote public education on the significance of early detection of strabismus, REs, and amblyopia and have periodic screening in schools. The discussion of the various issues is aimed at increasing the awareness and building a support for the cause by creating the knowledge base to treat things on time and acknowledging the severity of the issues. PMID:27679531
Annual rainfall records of 20 stations for 30 years are used in order to detect rainfall regimes and climatic features of Saudi Arabia using harmonic analysis techniques. In this study, the percentages of variance, amplitudes, and phase angles are calculated in order to depict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the country's rainfall. The first harmonic explains 42 % of rainfall variation in the western (W) region. This percentage increases toward east (E) and north (N) with 69 and 67 %, respectively. In the southwest (SW) region, the percentages explain 43 % of rainfall variation. The percentages of variance in W and SW are lower than in the E, NW, and central (C) regions. This implies significant contributions of the second harmonic in W and SW regions with 26 and 16 %, respectively. The high percentages of the second and third harmonics in W and SW regions suggest that these two regions are affected by different weather systems at different times. The SW region has the highest amplitudes of the first, second, and third harmonics. The amplitude of the first harmonic reaches to 21 mm in SW and 9 mm in both C and E regions. The time of maximum rainfall is calculated using phase angle; the result reflects that maximum rainfall is shifted forward on the time axis toward the spring season in SW and C regions, January in E and NW regions, and October and November in the W region. This reveals that the SW region is a completely different climatic region, though some of what affects this region also affects the central region. Conditions in the E and NW regions are mainly affected by Mediterranean weather systems, while the W region is affected by unstable conditions caused by the active Red Sea Trough (RST) in October and November.
Rajaa M. Milyani
Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms
Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A.; Schmieder, Martin; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.; Matter, Albert; Alwmark, Carl
We have investigated the Ash Shutbah circular structure in central Saudi Arabia (21°37'N 45°39'E) using satellite imagery, field mapping, thin-section petrography, and X-ray diffraction of collected samples. The approximately 2.1 km sized structure located in flat-lying Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone has been nearly peneplained by erosional processes. Satellite and structural data show a central area consisting of Dhruma Formation sandstones with steep bedding and tight folds plunging radially outward. Open folding occurs in displaced, younger Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation blocks surrounding the central area, but is absent outside the circular structure. An approximately 60 cm thick, unique folded and disrupted orthoquartzitic sandstone marker bed occurring in the central area of the structure is found 140 m deeper in undisturbed escarpment outcrops located a few hundred meters west of the structure. With exception of a possible concave shatter cone found in the orthoquartzite of the central area, other diagnostic shock features are lacking. Some quartz-rich sandstones from the central area show pervasive fracturing of quartz grains with common concussion fractures. This deformation was followed by an event of quartz dissolution and calcite precipitation consistent with local sea- or groundwater heating. The combination of central stratigraphic uplift of 140 m, concussion features in discolored sandstone, outward-dipping concentric folds in the central area, deformation restricted to the rocks of the ring structure, a complex circular structure of 2.1 km diameter that appears broadly consistent with what one would expect from an impact structure in sedimentary targets, and a possible shatter cone all point to an impact origin of the Ash Shutbah structure. In fact, the Ash Shutbah structure appears to be a textbook example of an eroded, complex impact crater located in flat-lying sedimentary rocks, where the undisturbed stratigraphic section can be
Full Text Available Background We all want to live a long, happy and healthy life with an abundance of energy and vitality to perform well both mentally and physically. A healthy lifestyle is a valuable resource for reducing the incidence and impact of health problems, enabling you better to cope with life stressors, as well as improving your quality of life. Aims The study was aimed to assess the lifestyle (eating habits and physical activity of health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. Methods This cross-sectional institutional based study was conducted from 25th November 2014-3 rd May 2015. A total of 450 students (370 males and 80 females aged between 18–28 years were randomly chosen. Self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection from the College of Medicine, College of Applied Medical Sciences and College of Dentistry. Results Majority of the students, 62.4 per cent, were physically inactive. Students from the College of Medicine, 40.4 per cent, were the most physically active. The most common reason that restrained the students from being active was time limitation. In addition to that, many of the participants, 29.6 per cent, have never had breakfast at home. Also, most of the participants, 42.7 per cent, were not satisfied with their eating habits. Almost one quarter of students were consuming soft drinks more than four times a day. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. There is an urgent need for arranging health education programs for promoting healthy and active living among health sciences students of Majmaah University in Saudi Arabia.
Mufti, M H
Is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia getting value for money invested in health? Quality care is being provided throughout health facilities in the Kingdom, however there is minimal control of utilization in all health sectors, consequently leading to abuse and over utilization, particularly in the public sector. Managed care programs have proven effective in reducing unnecessary inpatient and ancillary service utilization by reducing use of expensive procedures and unnecessary, highly specialized services, and shifting to less expensive care options. Health maintenance organizations are the best example of a managed health care model; tracking good performance and cost savings averaging between 20-40% compared to more traditional health plans. Key features of health maintenance organizations include serving a defined population voluntarily enrolled in the health plan; assumption of contractual responsibility and financial risk by plan to provide a range of services, and payment of a fixed periodic payment by the enrollee, independent of the actual use of services. The key characteristic that distinguishes health maintenance organizations from other delivery systems is prepayment for the care that is provided. Preferred Provider Organizations offer discounts for services received from a selected set of physicians and hospitals. Services received by enrollees are not fully reimbursed from this selected list of providers. Preferred Provider Organizations use health maintenance organizations administrative processes for controlling costs but do not include some of the intrinsic cost and quality controls of health maintenance organizations. Review of several studies indicate that patients enrolled in prepaid group practices (managed care organizations) were hospitalized 15-40% less often than those enrolled in fee-for-service health plans.
Full Text Available This paper contributes to the issue of eGovernment implementation in Saudi Arabia by discussing the current situation of ministry websites. It evaluates the rate of web development progress of vital government websites in Saudi Arabia using the eGovernment stage model. In 2010, Saudi Arabia ranked 58th in the world and 4th in the Gulf region in eGovernment readiness according to United Nations reports. In particular, Saudi Arabia has ranked 75th worldwide for its online service index and its components compared to the neighbouring Gulf country of Bahrain, which was ranked 8th for the same index. While this is still modest in relation to the Saudi government’s expectation concerning its vision for eGovernment implementation for 2010, and the results achieved by the neighbouring Gulf countries such as Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates on the eGovernment index, the Saudi government has endeavoured to meet the public needs concerning eGovernment and carry out the implementation of eGovernment properly. Governments may heed the importance of actively launching official government websites – the focus of this study – as the main portals for delivering their online services to all the different categories of eGovernment (including G2C, G2B, and G2G. However, certain Saudi ministries have not given due attention to this vital issue. This is evidenced by the fact that some of their websites are not fully developed or do not yet exist, which clearly impedes that particular ministry from appropriately delivering eServices.
Zahran, H. M.; McCausland, W. A.; Pallister, J. S.; Lu, Z.; El-Hadidy, S.; Aburukba, A.; Schawali, J.; Kadi, K.; Youssef, A.; Ewert, J. W.; White, R. A.; Lundgren, P.; Mufti, M.; Stewart, I. C.
Since 2007 there have been periodic small earthquake swarms recorded at seismic stations located around Harrat Lunayyir in northwest Saudi Arabia. In response to a longer-lived and larger seismic swarm, in early May 2009 the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) installed a network of broadband seismometers surrounding the Harrat, with real-time data transmitted by VSAT back to its Earthquake and Volcano Center in Jeddah. The new network captured data from the swarm, which culminated with a M5.4 earthquake on 19 May that caused very minor structural damage in the town of Al Ays, 40 km to the southeast. Because of the strength of ground-shaking and resulting structural damage, the Saudi government evacuated more than 30,000 people from a 40 km radius surrounding Harrat Lunayyir, including the town of Al Ays. At the request of the SGS and the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (a partnership program of the USGS and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance) sent two advisers to work with the SGS to determine if the unrest was volcanic in origin and to assess hazards associated with the unrest. The SGS-USGS team collected geologic, geodetic and seismic data that confirmed the volcanic nature of the activity. 1) A 3-km-long NW-trending surface rupture appeared in the central part of the Harrat before 19 May, during a time when maximum earthquake magnitudes exceeded M4. 2) The length of this rupture extended to 8 km with the M5.4 earthquake on 19 May. 3) The rupture opened 0.5 m and had an absolute motion of 0.9 m to N35W with a 63 degree plunge to the NE- a tensional offset consistent with that expected from an M5.4 earthquake in a rift-shoulder setting. 4) InSAR data showed about a meter of extension and uplift (as of July 2009) with the majority of deformation associated with the 19 May M5.4 earthquake. The InSAR-derived deformation field is best modeled by intrusion of a narrow (~2 m wide), 8-km-long dike to shallow crustal levels. 5
Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Otaibi, Hamad S
Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae) were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped.
Ahmad, Afnan Masaoud
This paper discusses the issues with EFL teaching in Saudi Arabia, including the reliance on traditional teaching methodologies and banning use of first languages in classrooms. As a result, these traditional teaching practices produce less proficient learners who have limited knowledge about proper linguistic use. In order to overcome these…
Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H
Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.
Salam, Mohammad Abdul; Siddiqui, Aesha Farheen
Background and Objectives: Saudi Arabia has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes. This study was conducted with the following objectives: (1) To study the socio-demographic profile of diabetic patients in Abha. (2) To find the socio-demographic determinants of compliance among diabetic patients in Abha.
Full Text Available Time performance of a project is usually a particularly important consideration for the construction parties. Often, the most troublesome construction disputes involve delay and failure to complete the work in the specified time frame. Many variables have an impact upon construction delay in Saudi Arabia. This study aims at identifying the risk matrix for delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ viewpoint. A questionnaire survey was undertaken of 51 consultants working on construction projects in the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia. Thirty five delay causes were identified through literature review. The study concluded that the top delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ perspective are: bid award for lowest price, changes in material types and specifications during construction, contract management, duration of contract period, fluctuation of prices of materials, frequent changes in design, improper planning, inflationary pressure, lack of adequate manpower, long period between design and time of implementation, payments delay, poor labor productivity and rework.
Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte
We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....
Alosayfir Mohammed Abdulrahman S.
Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD is increasing in different parts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, particularly Hail Region. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the respiratory complications that associated with ESRD.
... tubular goods from India and Turkey and LTFV imports of certain oil country tubular goods from India... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam: Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...
Full Text Available Land covers in Saudi Arabia are generally described as salty soils with sand dunes and sand sheets. Waterlogging and higher soil salinity are major challenges to sustaining agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia principally within closed drainage basins. Agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia were flourishing in the last two decades. The newly reclaimed lands were added annually and distributed all over the country. Irrigation techniques are mostly modernized to fulfill water saving strategies. Nevertheless, water resources in Saudi Arabia are under stress and groundwater levels are depleted rapidly due to heavy abstraction that may exceed crop water requirements in most of the cases due to high evaporation rates. The excess use of irrigational water leads to severe soil salinity problems. Applications of remote sensing technique in agricultural practices became widely distinctive and cover multidisciplinary principal interests on both local and regional levels. The most important remote sensing applications in agricultural practices are vegetation indices which are related to vegetation and water especially in an arid environment. Soil salinity mapping in an arid ecosystem using remote sensing data is a demanding task. Several soil salinity indices were implemented and evaluated to detect soil salinity effectively and quantitatively. Thematic maps of soil salinity were satisfactorily produced and assessed.
Hill, C.R.; Wagner, R.H.; El-Khayal, A. A.
The marattialean fern Qasimia schyfsmae (Lemoigne) gen. et comb. nov. is described from the Late Permian plant bed at Unayzah in central Saudi Arabia. Although no organic matter is preserved, impregnation of the compressions by iron minerals at an early stage of diagenesis has partly mineralised the
Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.
The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…
Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid; Al-Qumaizi, Khalid I; El-Mardi, Abdelmoniem S
The field of higher education has been progressing at a rapid pace in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over the past decade, with doubling the number of government and private universities and colleges. Quality and accreditation are of great importance to higher education institutes world-wide. Thus, developing a generic model for quality management in higher education is badly needed in the country.
Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung
Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…
This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment…
Hamadneh, Burhan M.
The current study aims to identify the level of job creativity among learning disabilities teachers from their perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and investigate the differences according to gender, scientific qualification and years of experience. The study sample consisted of (80) male and female teachers, who were randomly selected from…
Garming, J.F.L.; Franks, S.G.; Cremer, H.; Abbink, O.A.
Biogenic silica particles (BSPs) have been discovered in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation of Saudi Arabia. The BSPs are extracted from sediments that are generally barren of macro- or microfossils. BSPs have been found in the Basal Khuff Clastics (BKC), and the Unayzah A, B
This is a comprehensive review of the salient key features of the actual English instructional practices in Saudi Arabia. The goal of this work is to gain insights into the practices and pedagogic approaches to English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching currently employed in this country. In particular, we identify the following central features…
Al Saud, Al Johara Fahad
Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that encounter the issue of bilingualism due to the spread of private schools that offer programs in different languages. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of bilingualism on the creative capabilities (Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, Details) of kindergarten children in Riyadh. It aims at…
Alrashidi, Oqab; Phan, Huy
This paper discusses the education context and English teaching and learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The paper is organised into five main sections. The first section offers a brief glance at the social, religious, economic, and political context in KSA. The second section provides an overview of the education system in KSA, which…
International Monetary Fund; World Bank
The present document is the assessment of the systemically important payment systems in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) based on the CPSS Core Principles for Systemically Important Payment Systems (CPSIPS). The document also contains an analysis of some developmental issues related to the reform of the payments system as a whole. The assessment was conducted in the context of the field m...
Murshid, Ebtissam Z.
The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…
Aljoufie, M.O.; Aljoufie, Mohammed; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.
Understanding the interaction between urban land-use change and transport is critical for urban planning as well as for transport planning, particularly in the case of rapidly growing and motorising cities, such as Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Dynamic land use and transport interaction models provide a
The new genus Hanadirella - with the type species H. bramkampi - from the Lower Ordovician (Llanvirn) of central Saudi Arabia represents a segmented organism which appears to have an arthropod affinity. The problematic genus is oval hat-shaped, less than 1 mm in diameter. Its affinity and palaeoecol
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Pub....
Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…
Hakim, Badia Muntazir
This study reports on the use of teacher evaluation and appraisal process as a tool for professional development. A group of 30 teachers from seven different nationalities with diverse qualifications and teaching experiences participated in this case study at the English Language Institute (ELI) at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabia.…
This study introduces a critical issue in the practicality of training programs, not only in Saudi Arabia, but also in other developing countries where billions of dollars are spent on training human resources without evaluation of these programs on workplace practice and organization development. This study investigates barriers encountered in…
Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.
This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…
Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei
This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi…
This study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational background. Three hundred…
Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam
This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…
Ashaalan, Latifah; Alsukah, Aljawharh; Algadheeb, Nourah Abdulrhman
This research aimed to identify the prevalence of the emotional (emo) subculture among students at Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University (PNU), Saudi Arabia, and to detect differences in emo behavior and orientation among university departments and academic levels. A questionnaire assessing emo behavior/orientation was developed and…
Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen
Objective: To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value
Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte
We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....
Murshid, Ebtissam Z.
The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…
Masoodi, Ibrahim; Alsayari, Khalid; Albishri, Jamal
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are among the leading cause of financial burden, morbidity and employee absenteeism in developed countries because of their chronic remitting and relapsing courses. IBD is estimated to affect the Canadian economy to the tune of 100 million dollars per year. The data regarding exact prevalence in Asian countries, including Saudi Arabia, is still incomplete as there is underreporting and lack of proper registry of the diagnosed cases. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) has increased over the last decade in Saudi Arabia due to increased IBD awareness among population, as more patients seek medical help and also due to unknown reasons. There is a need of proper registration of IBD patients and establishment of Crohn's & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia (CCFSA) as in other parts of the world. The Crohn's & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia will be a forum which will co ordinate IBD treatment and research in the country in addition to health education among IBD population.
Campbell Michael Field Raymond Close *Christine Helms Anthony Cordesman *David Holden * Herman Eilts *Richard Johns Fred Halliday *J.B. Kelly Parker Hart...Military Balance, i98o-i8t (London: IISS, 1980), p. 47; and Abdul Kasim Mansur (pseud.), "The American Threat to Saudi Arabia," Armed Forces Journal
Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Ali, Tasneem
Universities and colleges at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assess new applicants using academic indicators, such as high school grade point average (HSGPA) and the score of a national standardized test (the General Aptitude Test), to ensure that they are academically fit to join the institution. Such criteria have been suggested in previous research…
... International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in the... later than February 7, 2011. The U.S. Department of Commerce will review all applications...
Mazawi, Andre Elias
This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…
AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.
Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…
AlDosari, Abdullah M; Akpata, Enosakhare S; Khan, Nazeer
a) To correlate fluoride levels in drinking water sources with caries experience and dental fluorosis in Saudi Arabia, and suggest appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in the country. Fluoride levels were determined from 3,629 samples obtained from drinking water sources in 11 regions of Saudi Arabia. Based on the fluoride concentrations, a stratified sample of subjects aged 6-7, 12-13, and 15-18 years was obtained from the regions. A total of 12,200 selected subjects were examined for dental caries according to the World Health Organization criteria, and dental fluorosis, using Thylstrup and Fejerskov classification. There was an inverse relationship between fluoride exposure and caries experience, but the prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increase in fluoride concentration. There was no significant difference in caries experience or in the prevalence of dental fluorosis when fluoride levels increased from 0.3 ppm to 0.6 ppm. In contrast, caries experience was lower, while severity of fluorosis was significantly higher at fluoride levels above 0.6 ppm. a) Fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia correlate significantly with caries experience and prevalence of dental fluorosis. b) Appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in Saudi Arabia may be about 0.6 ppm.
Riyadh A. Alzaheb
Full Text Available Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.
Alzaheb, Riyadh A
Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.
Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.
The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.
The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions.
Hasanean, H. M.; Basset, H. Abdel; Hussein, M. A. A.
The synoptic circulation over Saudi Arabia is complicated and frequently governed by the effect of large-scale pressure systems. In this work, we used NCEP-NCAR global data to illustrate the relationship between climatic variables and the main pressure systems that affect the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia, and also to investigate the influence of these pressure systems on surface air temperature (SAT) and rainfall over the region in the winter season. It was found that there are two primary patterns of pressure that influence the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia. The first occurs in cases of a strengthening Subtropical High (SubH), a weakening Siberian High (SibH), a deepening of the Icelandic Low (IceL), or a weakening of the Sudanese Low (SudL). During this pattern, the SubH combines with the SibH and an obvious increase of sea level pressure (SLP) occurs over southern European, the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East. This belt of high pressure prevents interaction between midlatitude and extratropical systems, which leads to a decrease in the SAT, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall over Saudi Arabia. The second pattern occurs in association with a weakening of the SubH, a strengthening of the SibH, a weakening of the IceL, or a deepening of the SudL. The pattern arising in this case leads to an interaction between two different air masses: the first (cold moist) air mass is associated with the Mediterranean depression travelling from west to east, while the second (warm moist) air mass is associated with the northward oscillation of the SudL and its inverted V-shape trough. The interaction between these two air masses increases the SAT, RH and the probability of rainfall over Saudi Arabia, especially over the northwest and northeast regions.
Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.
Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.
Almutairi, Adel F; McCarthy, Alexandra; Gardner, Glenn E
In Saudi Arabia, the health system is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Given the potential risks this situation poses for patient care, it is important to understand how cultural diversity can be effectively managed in this multicultural environment. The purpose of this study was to explore notions of cultural competence with non-Saudi Arabian nurses working in a major hospital in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face, audio-recorded, semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 non-Saudi Arabian nurses. Deductive data collection and analysis were undertaken drawing on Campinha-Bacote's cultural competence model. The data that could not be explained by this model were coded and analyzed inductively. Nurses within this culturally diverse environment struggled with the notion of cultural competence in terms of each other's cultural expectations and those of the dominant Saudi culture. The study also addressed the limitations of Campinha-Bacote's model, which did not account for all of the nurses' experiences. Subsequent inductive analysis yielded important themes that more fully explained the nurses' experiences in this environment. The findings can inform policy, professional education, and practice in the multicultural Saudi setting. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y
Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis is due to dissemination of amastigotes via the lymphatics to the subcutaneous tissues. A comparison was made between the potential to disseminate by this route of 2 parasites of different zymodemes in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. In Sudan cutaneous leishmaniasis...... is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...... differences between subcutaneous nodules, particularly when they ulcerate, and multiple primary cutaneous lesions are described and treatment of localized and sporotrichoid leishmaniasis is discussed. The pathological features of the primary lesions in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia were similar....
Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani
Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all
Sabtan, Abdullah A.; Shehata, William M.
In Saudi Arabia, coastal sabkhas cover extensive areas along the coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf in addition to the continental sabkhas scattered in many places inland. Al-Lith sabkha is one of the typical coastal sabkhas located along the Red Sea coast. Sabkhas, in general, pose a number of geotechnical problems and need to be carefully investigated before being urbanized. A generalized geologic section in Al-Lith sabkha indicates a salty crust at the surface followed by yellowish brown silt and silty sand, olive gray silt and sandy silt and bottomed by coralline reefal limestone. Within this succession, there are several isolated lenticular bodies of sandy silt, silty sand and shelly silty sand. The clay minerals constituting the fine-grained portion of the soil are, in decreasing order, kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite in addition to minor chlorite. The depth to groundwater in 17 observation wells ranged from 0.18 to 1.81 m with a maximum fluctuation of 0.60 m between summer and winter. The permeability of the top silt layer was found to be very low with an average of 5.4×10 -4 m/day. A pumping test was performed in a deep well penetrating the coralline limestone. The measured permeability is 1.1×10 2 m/day and the estimated storage coefficient is 4×10 -5. Soil water evaporation was measured using a lysimeter constructed with undisturbed soil samples having different depths to the water level. The rate of evaporation ranges from 2.8 to 27.8 ml/day decreasing with an increase in depth to the water level. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their major anions and cations. Salt concentrations show a general increase toward the sea except for the calcium and carbonates that show a landward increase. The groundwater could be classified as a Cl+SO 4 brine. The salinity of the groundwater was determined at different depths in the pumping well and was found to be low in the top 4 m. It sharply increases until it reaches a value approximately 10 times
Al-Abbad, Hani Mohammed; Al-Haidary, Hisham Mohammed
[Purpose] To explore the views of the physical therapy service leaders in Saudi Arabia regarding the integration of physical therapy service in primary health care settings. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered questionnaire consisting of both open and closed ended questions was distributed during May?July 2013 via email to physical therapy leaders representing different regions and health care providers in Saudi Arabia. [Results] Twenty-six participants answered the questionnaire. Eigh...
Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah G.; Salameh, Iyad; Abdirizak, Fatima; Alhakeem, Raafat; Algarni, Homoud; El Nil, Osman A.; Mohammed, Mutaz; Assiri, Abdullah M.; Alabdely, Hail M.; Watson, John T.; Gerber, Susan I.
Saudi Arabia has reported >80% of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases worldwide. During April 2015–February 2016, Saudi Arabia identified and tested 57,363 persons (18.4/10,000 residents) with suspected MERS-CoV infection; 384 (0.7%) tested positive. Robust, extensive, and timely surveillance is critical for limiting virus transmission. PMID:28322710
Bah, Sulaiman; Alanzi, Turki
While internship training is well established for medical records and for healthcare quality improvement, it is not quite so for training related to IT/health informatics. A comparison was made on the hospital-based IT/health informatics internship training received by students completing their training at the Imam AbdulRahman Bin Faisal University (IAU) in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The three hospitals studied all have the Joint Commission International accreditation and advanced Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems. Over the period from 2011 to 2015, interns from the IAU prepared 120 reports based on their training at these three hospitals. Data abstraction was done on the internship reports, and the results were summarized and interpreted. The study found wide differences in the training received at these hospitals. The main reason for the differences is whether or not the EHR system used in the hospital was a commercial one or developed in-house. The hospital that had developed its own EHR system made more use of health information management interns during their IT rotation in comparison to hospitals which had adopted commercial EHR systems. Recommendations are made of both local relevance and of international relevance.
Ahmed, H. R.; Al Shayea, N. A.
This study aimed at the micro-level seismic behavior and zoning of the saline sabkha strata in Jubail industrial area in Eastern Saudi Arabia. It encompasses the evaluation of the site-specific seismic response parameters and the liquefaction potential for various possible subsurface conditions under the probable seismic event(s). The approach to achieve the objectives of this study included the following: analysis of geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical data of the area; performance of field and laboratory dynamic testing; and dynamic modeling and analysis of the subsurface profiles. The results of the simulation have been used to develop liquefaction potential maps and site-specific spectra of the study area, consisting of ten seismic zones under a range of probable peak horizontal ground acceleration (PHA). Results do not show significant probability of liquefaction of the loose soil layers in the study area at the maximum possible design PHA of 0.035 g; however, liquefaction is anticipated at higher PHA values. Site-specific spectral response resulted in values of S s and S 1 spectral accelerations to be different as compared to those suggested by local standards. The resulting seismic micro-zonation maps and the corresponding parameters are very useful for the stability analysis of the existing and planned structures in the Jubail area.
Al-Mustafa, Zaki H; Al-Ghamdi, Mastour S
The use of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals has become an important public health issue due to the spread of microbial resistance. This study was aimed at identifying the antimicrobial agents available for poultry use and highlighting their possible impact on public health. Twenty-three randomly selected poultry farms and all veterinary pharmacies in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were surveyed for the antibiotics used or dispensed. Further, a comprehensive literature survey was performed. Twenty-nine antimicrobial agents were identified as being available for poultry use, of which 22 (75.9%) were important for the treatment of human infections. Enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, neomycin, sulphamethoxazole, colistin, doxycycline and erythromycin were the most frequently used drugs. Food-borne hypersensitivity reactions and the emergence of microbial resistance, as well as cross-resistance to the various groups of antibiotics in animals and its transfer to human pathogens, are well documented. The misuse of antibiotics in the local poultry industry poses a serious health risk to the public and may complicate the treatment of human infections. The veterinary use of antimicrobial agents, especially those with dual animal and human applications, should therefore be restricted. The establishment of a government department concerned with food and drug safety is also highly recommended.
Hadidi, Laith A; Omer, Mohamed Mahmoud
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation in Saudi Arabia is increasingly growing at a fast rate, as it hurtles towards ever increasing urban development coupled with rapid developments and expanding population. Saudi Arabia's energy demands are also rising at a faster rate. Therefore, the importance of an integrated waste management system in Saudi Arabia is increasingly rising and introducing Waste to Energy (WTE) facilities is becoming an absolute necessity. This paper analyzes the current situation of MSW management in Saudi Arabia and proposes a financial model to assess the viability of WTE investments in Saudi Arabia in order to address its waste management challenges and meet its forecasted energy demands. The research develops a financial model to investigate the financial viability of WTE plants utilizing gasification and Anaerobic Digestion (AD) conversion technologies. The financial model provides a cost estimate of establishing both gasification and anaerobic digestion WTE plants in Saudi Arabia through a set of financial indicators, i.e. net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), modified internal rate of return (MIRR), profitability index (PI), payback period, discounted payback period, Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and Levelized Cost of Waste (LCOW). Finally, the analysis of the financial model reveals the main affecting factors of the gasification plants investment decision, namely: facility generation capacity, generated electricity revenue, and the capacity factor. Similarly, the paper also identifies facility waste capacity and the capacity factor as the main affecting factors on the AD plants' investment decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdulaziz F Alkabba
Full Text Available Background: Despite the relatively high expenditure on healthcare in Saudi Arabia, its health system remains highly centralized in the main cities with its primary focus on secondary and tertiary care rather than primary care. This has led to numerous ethical challenges for the healthcare providers. This article reports the results of a study conducted with a panel of practitioners, and non-clinicians, in Saudi Arabia, in order to identify the top ten ethical challenges for healthcare providers, patients, and their families. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and qualitative one. The participants were asked the question: "What top ten ethical challenges are Saudis likely to face in health care?" The participants were asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout a modified Delphi process, using a ranking Scale. A consensus was reached after three rounds of questions and an experts′ meeting. Results: The major 10 ethical issues, as perceived by the participants in order of their importance, were: (1 Patients′ Rights, (2 Equity of resources, (3 Confidentiality of the patients, (4 Patient Safety, (5 Conflict of Interests, (6 Ethics of privatization, (7 Informed Consent, (8 Dealing with the opposite sex, (9 Beginning and end of life, and (10 Healthcare team ethics. Conclusion: Although many of the challenges listed by the participants have received significant public and specialized attention worldwide, scant attention has been paid to these top challenges in Saudi Arabia. We propose several possible steps to help address these key challenges.
Khaled A. ALASMARI
Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.
Ayman A Abdo
Full Text Available Some 400 million people worldwide are currently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV, and the infection is common in the Middle East. Another 170 million people around the globe presently live with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Both HBV and HCV represent a worldwide epidemic. Despite significant decline in the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in Saudi Arabia, these viral diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, and impose a great burden on the country′s healthcare system. On the other hand, Saudi epidemiology studies have shown that the hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in the country has reduced considerably over the past two decades. The progress in mapping the epidemiological pattern of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has not only aided our understanding of the disease, but has also exposed the small but relevant gaps in our identification of the intricate details concerning the disease′s clinical expression. In this review, we aim to document the timeline of viral hepatitis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia, while summarizing the relevant published literature on the subject.
Abdo, Ayman A; Sanai, Faisal M; Al-Faleh, Faleh Z
Some 400 million people worldwide are currently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and the infection is common in the Middle East. Another 170 million people around the globe presently live with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Both HBV and HCV represent a worldwide epidemic. Despite significant decline in the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in Saudi Arabia, these viral diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, and impose a great burden on the country's healthcare system. On the other hand, Saudi epidemiology studies have shown that the hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in the country has reduced considerably over the past two decades. The progress in mapping the epidemiological pattern of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has not only aided our understanding of the disease, but has also exposed the small but relevant gaps in our identification of the intricate details concerning the disease's clinical expression. In this review, we aim to document the timeline of viral hepatitis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia, while summarizing the relevant published literature on the subject.
Cruz, J P; Alquwez, N; Cruz, C P; Felicilda-Reynaldo, R F D; Vitorino, L M; Islam, S M S
This study assessed the cultural competence of nursing students in a Saudi University. With the current situation of immigration in Saudi Arabia, the cultural diversity in healthcare facilities is anticipated to grow. This presents a great challenge to the members of the healthcare team. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 272 nursing students in a Saudi university using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of two parts, namely the respondents' demographics and cultural background information sheet and the Cultural Capacity Scale Arabic version. The respondents showed the highest competence in their ability to demonstrate communication skills with culturally diverse patients and lowest in the familiarity with health- or illness-related cultural knowledge or theory. Gender, academic level, clinical exposure, prior diversity training, the experience of taking care of culturally diverse patients and patients belonging to special population groups were significant factors that could likely to influence cultural competence. The findings suggest that the Saudi nursing students possess the ability to provide culturally appropriate nursing care to patients with a diverse cultural background. Despite the good cultural competence reflected in this study, some aspects in ensuring a culturally competent care rendered by Saudi nursing students need to be improved. With the country's Saudization policy in health care (replacing foreign nurses with Saudi nurses), the findings can be used in designing training and interventions to meet the needs of Saudi nursing students regarding cultural competence development, which is integral in their preparation to assume their future roles as nurses. Policy guidelines, such as including cultural competency training and foreign languages training as mandatory continuing education for nurses, as well as integrating cultural competency and foreign languages in the prelicensure curriculum, should be developed and implemented in
Memish, Ziad Ahmed; Saeedi, Mohammad Y
Saudi Arabia has a high prevalence of hereditary hemoglobin disorders. Data has been collected by the Saudi Premarital Screening and Genetic Counseling Program on the prevalence of sickle cell disease and β...
Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Mohamed, Gamal; Al-Hamdan, Nasser Abdulrahman
Earlier studies on cancer knowledge/awareness from Saudi Arabia have been few and mostly limited to knowledge of and attitude towards breast cancer. The objectives of the present cross sectional study were to determine the levels of knowledge concerning cancer and to identify associated factors. This study was carried out among 1,407 Saudis who were either patients or their escorts, attending selected hospitals in Riyadh region and aged 15 years or more. Required information was obtained by interview using a piloted Arabic questionnaire. Associations between different variables and respondents knowledge were evaluated by Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the potential impact of the variables. This study population consisted of 688 males and 719 females. Approximately two thirds of participants (67.6%) had never heard of any cancer warning signals, but 80.7% believed some cancers can be cured if detected early, 27.1% believed cancer means end of life and 74.2% believed cancer will appear overnight. The majority of the respondents (65.1%) received information about cancer from television/radio. Although 1,159 had high level knowledge (scored 50.0% and more), only 233 individuals scored 75.0% and more. Significant differences in the knowledge level across age groups, educational levels and marital status were observed. Females had higher level knowledge than males. Odds of having high level knowledge about cancer was 5.27 times higher among those who had undergone any of the tests (breast self examination, mammography, occult blood, Papanicolau smear) compared to those who had none of those tests (95% CI: 1.87-14.8). Those who had heard about any cancer warning signal were more knowledgeable (OR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.10-2.19) than those who hadn't. The other most important determinants of knowledge level included age, and attending a primary health care centre. Our results suggest that the knowledge of cancer is poor among the
Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George
This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…
Conclusion: Prevalence of osteopenia is higher than osteoporosis in the Saudi women above 40 years in the Northern part of Saudi Arabia. The major cause of low BMD is lack of exercise even though there is a high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 274-278
Hilal, Kholoud T.; Scott, Safiyyah; Maadad, Nina
Since 2006, Saudi Arabian politicians, economists and sociologists have had to consider the implications of their country's King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP). Because Saudi Arabia has certain religious traditions and economic practices that are sensitive, international scholars are examining from different perspectives the outcomes and…
Basheer M. Al-Ghazali
Full Text Available This study explores the underlying dynamics of motivation for women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, using t-test and ANOVA analyses. Various distinct motivational factors were found in both countries. Self-achievement was the most prominent factor motivating Saudi women to start their own businesses. However, for Bahraini women, the profit motive was the most prominent motivational factor.
Bin Saleh, Ghada; Rezk, Naser L; Laika, Laila; Ali, Anna; El-Metwally, Ashraf
In Saudi Arabia there is an estimated need of more than 100,000 pharmacy graduates to cover all present sectors. The shortage of pharmacists has affected many of these sectors especially the pharmaceutical industry. The contribution of Saudi pharmacists to local pharmaceuticals industry would be extremely beneficial and important for shaping the future of the drug industry within the Kingdom. It is not clear whether future Saudi pharmacists are willing to contribute to local pharmaco-industrial fields. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted on all final-year pharmacy students in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Out of a total of 130 students registered in the final-year of the pharmacy program in KSU, 122 (93.8%) were able to complete the questionnaire. The results showed that the majority (83%) of Saudi pharmacy students indicated that they had not received practical training in the pharmaceutical companies, while only 17.2% of the students felt that they had the knowledge and the skills to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. The majority of the students (66.7%) chose clinical pharmacy as their future career field while only 10.9% indicated willingness to work in a pharmaceutical industry career. Only 8.2% selected working in the pharmaceutical industry. The significant predictor of possibly choosing a career in the local drug industry is a student with a bachelor's degree (compared to Pharm D degree) in pharmacy (OR = 2.7 [95% CI 1.1-6.3]). Pharmacy students who are enrolled in the capital city of Riyadh are not properly trained to play an influential role in local drug companies. As a result, their level of willingness to have a career in such important business is not promising (more among Pharm D program). Future research in other pharmacy colleges within Saudi Arabia is needed to confirm such results.
T. I. Tyukaeva
Full Text Available In less than a century of its existence Saudi Arabia has developed from mass illiteracy and lack of education of its population into the current state of complex structure of educational and research institutions and organizations equipped with most modern and advanced technologies and top world specialists in accordance with the highest international standards. It is especially important that the Kingdom has managed to achieve such success in no time. Until lately scientifi c development in Saudi Arabia was mostly concentrated on applied research, especially in the Kingdom’s key economic sphere – energy. Despite the country’s abundant financial resources, science was considerably underfunded and lacked any development strategy. Meanwhile, in the last 15 years the Saudi Kingdom has made a huge leap in scientifi c development with a clear action plan worked out, a solid structure of scientifi c institutes formed and the world experience effi ciently used. The success came with the Saudi authorities’ realization of the importance of scientifi c and technical progress both for the national economy and political positions of the state in the region and in the world. The article aims to analyze the scientifi c policy of Saudi Arabia on the stage of its birth and in the current state by means of studying offi cial documents, statistics and the existing institutes in the scientifi c system of the Kingdom. The author concludes that the key features of the Saudi scientifi c policy are prevailing role of the state, priority of applied over fundamental research and internalization with serious dependency on foreign support in the absence of a national scientifi c tradition.
Yasser S. A. Mazrou
Full Text Available Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egyptian orange exports has just a statistically signified market power by SUR and 3-SLS and has a negative sign, which may gain monopolistic profits by the relative mark-up over its marginal cost by about 63.7% without losing any of its market share. The source of Egyptian orange exports market power is due to: 1- product differentiation where Egypt exports navel orange most its export season compared with sweet orange which exported from other competitors. 2- Saudi Arabia Market demand characteristics which reflect on the consumers preference for Egyptian oranges.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the state of software engineering practice for software industry in Saudi Arabian organizations. The main goal was mainly to gain insight into the ways these organizations are using to adopt software engineering techniques and also the sources of obstacles and difficulties faced by these organizations. To achieve that, we have designed and conducted a survey that measures the adoption of various software engineering practices. Results clearly reveal that there are several weaknesses in applying software engineering practices in Saudi Arabia especially for small organizations.
Duncan, Robert A.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Thornber, Carl R.; Schlieder, Tyler D.; Al-Amri, Abdullah M.
Harrat Hutaymah is an alkali basalt volcanic field in north-central Saudi Arabia, at the eastern margin of a large Neogene continental, intraplate magmatic province. Lava flow, tephra and spatter cone compositions in the field include alkali olivine basalts and basanites. These compositions contrast with the predominantly tholeiitic, fissure-fed basalts found along the eastern margin of the Red Sea. The Hutaymah lava flows were erupted through Proterozoic arc-associated plutonic and meta-sedimentary rocks of the Arabian shield, and commonly contain a range of sub-continental lithospheric xenoliths, although the lavas themselves show little indication of crustal contamination. Previous radiometric dating of this volcanic field (a single published K-Ar age; 1.8 Ma) is suspiciously old given the field measurement of normal magnetic polarity only (i.e. Brunhes interval, ≤ 780 Ka). We report new age determinations on 14 lava flows by the 40Ar-39Ar laser step heating method, all younger than ~ 850 Ka, to better constrain the time frame of volcanism, and major, trace and rare earth element compositions to describe the chemical variation of volcanic activity at Harrat Hutaymah. Crystal fractionation was dominated by olivine ± clinopyroxene at a range of upper mantle and crustal pressures. Rapid ascent and eruption of magma is indicated by the array of lower crustal and lithospheric xenoliths observed in lava flows and tephra. Modeling suggests 1-7% melting of an enriched asthenospheric mantle source occurred beneath Harrat Hutaymah under a relatively thick lithospheric cap (60-80 km).
Duncan, Robert A; Kent, Adam J R; Thornber, Carl; Schliedler, Tyler D; Al-Amri, Abdullah M
Harrat Hutaymah is an alkali basalt volcanic field in north-central Saudi Arabia, at the eastern margin of a large Neogene continental, intraplate magmatic province. Lava flow, tephra and spatter cone compositions in the field include alkali olivine basalts and basanites. These compositions contrast with the predominantly tholeiitic, fissure-fed basalts found along the eastern margin of the Red Sea. The Hutaymah lava flows were erupted through Proterozoic arc-associated plutonic and meta-sedimentary rocks of the Arabian shield, and commonly contain a range of sub-continental lithospheric xenoliths, although the lavas themselves show little indication of crustal contamination. Previous radiometric dating of this volcanic field (a single published K–Ar age; 1.8 Ma) is suspiciously old given the field measurement of normal magnetic polarity only (i.e. Brunhes interval, ≤ 780 Ka). We report new age determinations on 14 lava flows by the 40Ar–39Ar laser step heating method, all younger than ~ 850 Ka, to better constrain the time frame of volcanism, and major, trace and rare earth element compositions to describe the chemical variation of volcanic activity at Harrat Hutaymah. Crystal fractionation was dominated by olivine ± clinopyroxene at a range of upper mantle and crustal pressures. Rapid ascent and eruption of magma is indicated by the array of lower crustal and lithospheric xenoliths observed in lava flows and tephra. Modeling suggests 1–7% melting of an enriched asthenospheric mantle source occurred beneath Harrat Hutaymah under a relatively thick lithospheric cap (60–80 km).
This paper aims to study the attitude of Saudi Arabian undergraduate English students towards the American and British culture by studying their attitude to materials with relevant cultural contents in their textbook...
Far from being essentially a dispute over democratic governance or even human rights, the current Saudi-Swedish row basically represents a clash of state genders, pitting a “masculine” religious autocracy against a “feminine” social democracy.
Amina Buallay; Allam Hamdan; Qasim Zureigat
This study aimed to measure the impact of Corporate Governance on Firm performance of listed companies in Saudi stock exchange. The study methodology was a pooled data collected from the Saudi stock exchange (TADAUWL) for the period from 2012 to 2014. The study sample is 171 listed companies. The study independent variable is Corporate Governance principals. The dependent variable is Firm performance which was measured using ROA, ROE and Tobin's Q. The study also utilized five con...
The transition from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy requires that the Saudi population dramatically increases its level of human capital. This paper argues that noncognitive skills may be a bottleneck in the formation of human capital and proposes a policy to indirectly strengthen those skills. The core of the proposal is a government-financed gift to each Saudi citizen reaching adult age, the SSGY.
El-Sinawi, Abdulaziz; Shathele, Mohammad
Biodiesel production is rapidly moving towards the mainstream as an alternative source of energy. Algae oil is one of the viable feed stocks among others to produce Biodiesel. However the difficulties in efficient biodiesel production from algae lie not in the extraction of the oil, but in finding an algal strain with a high lipid content and fast growth rate. This paper presents an experimental work performed to study the production of biodiesel from local algae strains in Al-Hassa territory of the eastern province in Saudi Arabia which was found to contain high lipid contents and show rapid growth. The collected results predict that those types of desert algae are promising and are considered to be a potential feedstock for biofuels.
Full Text Available Thirty-one patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD were offered continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD at the Dammam Central Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia over a period of five years. The group included 21 women and 10 men with a mean age of 41.3 ± 17.2 years. The main indication for CAPD was poor or failed vascular access (51.4%. Peritonitis remained the major complication with an overall incidence of 0.62 episode per patient year. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the main causative organism. Therapy with CAPD lasted a mean of 26 ± 7.4 months. Our results, showing good technique survival and low peritonitis rate, suggest that CAPD should be promoted to become a full arm of the integrated care of ESRD in Saudi Arabia.
Alshehri, Saud Ali; Rezgui, Yacine; Li, Haijiang
Saudi Arabia has experienced frequent occurrences of biological disasters due to a wide range of generator factors, including natural disasters and epidemics. A national survey (n=1,164) was conducted across 13 regions of Saudi Arabia to examine public perceptions to the risk of a biological disaster. The primary results reveal: (a) a degree of knowledge about biological threats such as SARS and H5N1 flu, despite the lack of individual experience with disasters; (b) age, gender, education and faith are positively related to the perception of biological risk; and (c) a number of important community resilience factors exist, including faith, education and willingness. This study concludes that the development of adapted resilience strategies in disaster management can be achieved through public education and training involving cooperation with official organisations and religious authorities in the country to increase public awareness, knowledge and skills in mitigating biological threats.
Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.
Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.
Al-Kheliewi, A. S. [National Center for Radiation Protection King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)
Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.
Nadia Al Tamimi
Full Text Available A sample of 50 wives and 50 husbands from Saudi Arabia completed a battery of scales assessing different aspects of couple relationship functioning which had been translated from English to Arabic. The selection of measures was based on the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (VSA, Karney & Bradbury, 1995 and included measures of partner attachment, conflict behaviour, and relationship with members of the family-in-law as predictors and marital satisfaction as criterion variable. All scales of the test battery showed acceptable reliability. The newly developed conflict behaviour scale consisted of three theoretically meaningful factors (Positive behaviour, Negative behaviour, and Abuse. All instruments showed evidence for convergent validity and contributed significantly to the prediction of relationship satisfaction. The results showed in general a similar pattern of correlations in Saudi Arabia as previous studies in Western countries.
Youssef, Ahmed M.; Al-Harbi, Hasan M.; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zabramwi, Yasser A.; Bulkhi, Ali B.; Zahrani, Saeed A.; Bahamil, Alaa M.; Zahrani, Ahmed J.; Otaibi, Zaam A.; El-Haddad, Bosy A.
Approximately 60 % of the 2,150,000 km2 area of Saudi Arabia is underlain by soluble sediments (carbonate and evaporite rock formations, salt diapirs, sabkha deposits). Despite its hyper-arid climate, a wide variety of recent sinkholes have been reported in numerous areas, involving significant property losses. Human activities, most notably groundwater extraction, have induced unstable conditions on pre-existing cavities. This work provides an overview of the sinkhole hazard in Saudi Arabia, a scarcely explored topic. It identifies the main karst formations and the distribution of the most problematic sinkhole areas, illustrated through several case studies covering the wide spectrum of subsidence mechanisms. Some of the main investigation methods are presented through selected examples, including remote sensing, trenching and geophysics. Based on the available data, the main causal factors are identified and further actions that should be undertaken to better assess and manage the risk are discussed.
Alamri, Badrya H; Xiao, Lily D
Previous international studies have indicated that a range of factors influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people were education, past work experiences, and social contact with healthy older people. This article reports on the findings of a literature review in relation to attitudes toward older people among health professionals working in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this narrative literature are reported through 5 themes: the instruments used in the selected studies to measure attitudes toward older people; the instruments used to measure knowledge on ageing; attitudes toward older people; knowledge of the care of older people; and factors that influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Further investigation is needed to identify the level of knowledge on ageing, attitudes toward older people, and the factors which affect health professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia is renown for its rich oil and gas resources with the bulk of the reserves reservoired in the Mesozoic.However,the discovery of Paleozoic fields in the late 1980s has encouraged further exploration in the Paleozoic.This paper reviews the salient features of the Paleozoic petroleum geology in central Saudi Arabia and discusses the main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Paleozoic.The Lower Silurian Qusaiba hot shale is the principal source rock for the hydrocarbons discovered in the Ordovician to Permian reservoirs.Of them,the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah and Upper Ordovician Sarah Formations have the best exploration potential.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Unayzah Formation are migration pathways and reservoir petrophysics.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Sarah Formation are reservoir petrophysics and the development of structural traps.
Alotaibi, Fawaz S; Alsaeedi, Abdullah
To explore medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia and to examine impact of socio-demographic variables on the attitudes towards learning these skills. In this cross-sectional study, sample of medical students were recruited from Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the second semester (January-May 2014). Participants were all year 2 (197 students) and year 5 (151 students). The study utilize the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) to measure students' attitudes toward communication skills learning. The response rate was 93.9%. The study showed that Taif medical students hold highly positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitude score (PAS) was significantly higher in level 5 students, older age group. Significant positive attitude toward learning communication skills clearly observed in target group. Students with more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to be higher level and older age.
Full Text Available Abstract Seismic hazard assessment is carried out by utilizing deterministic approach to evaluate the maximum expected earthquake ground motions along the Western Coastal Province of Saudi Arabia. The analysis is accomplished by incorporating seismotectonic source model, determination of earthquake magnitude (M max, set of appropriate ground motion predictive equations (GMPE, and logic tree sequence. The logic tree sequence is built up to assign weight to ground motion scaling relationships. Contour maps of ground acceleration are generated at different spectral periods. These maps show that the largest ground motion values are emerged in northern and southern regions of the western coastal province in Saudi Arabia in comparison with the central region.
Memish, Ziad A; Owaidah, Tariq M; Saeedi, Mohamad Y
Hemoglobinopathies represent a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia (SA). Reports suggest that their higher prevalence is not evenly distributed in SA. Regional differences were studied in sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia and their at-risk marriages using national data. The carrier and case status of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia were determined in couples approaching marriage between 2004 and 2009 using standard blood tests. Prevalence of both diseases and at-risk marriages in different SA administrative and geographical regions were calculated and compared. A total of 15,72,140 men and women were examined over 6 years. This represented 0.06% of the entire population of Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of couples who tested positive for sickle cell was 45.1 (42.4 for carriers and 2.7 for cases) per 1000 persons examined. The prevalence was highest in the Eastern region (134.1 per 1000), followed by Southern and Western regions (55.6 and 28.5 per 1000, respectively) and lowest in Central and Northern regions (13.7 and 13.5 per 1000, respectively). The prevalence of couples testing positive for β-thalassemia was 18.5 (18.0 for carriers and 0.5 for cases) per 1000 persons examined. The prevalence was highest in the Eastern region (59.0), moderate in the Southern, Western and Central regions (14.2, 10.2, and 10.1 per 1000, respectively) and lowest in the Northern region (3.9). Vast regional differences in hemoglobinopathies among adult Saudis are being reported that may help policy makers better allocate resources of available preventive programs. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.
Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W
Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants' suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse drug reactions reporting, use of technology
Full Text Available Abdullah S Amoudi,1 Mohammed H Albar,2 Amjed M Bokhari,3 Sultan H Yahya,4 Anas A Merdad1 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, 4Department of Radiology, King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objective: Do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders in Saudi Arabia were first regulated by a fatwa on a national level in 1988, one that excludes the patient and their families from decision making. Although the core of this policy is taken up by all hospitals in Saudi Arabia, there is no homogeneity in implementation. Here, we appraise what interns and residents know of these policies and their attitudes toward DNR. Methods: Interns and residents in four major hospitals in Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, National Guard Hospital, King Fahad General Hospital, and King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, were given a questionnaire in English with four blocks of questions. Results: A total of 140 questionnaires were included in our study. From these questionnaires, we conclude a lack of familiarity with DNR's policies and the fatwa and also a lack of understanding when it comes to treating DNR-labeled patients. The majority opinion was to include the patient in the decision-making process who is excluded according to the fatwa. Participants considered patients' dignity, religious concerns, and legal concerns to be important in considering resuscitation. Conclusion: We conclude a need to emphasize the issue of DNR and treatment of DNR patients in medical ethics classes in Saudi Arabia and put more effort to enact national DNR laws that include the patient in the decision-making process. Keywords: passive euthanasia, Middle East, cross-sectional study
Background : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important pathogen in gastrointestinal disorders. Seroprevalence among asymptomatic and chronically diseased children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was determined to gain insight into its prevalence. Methods : Serum samples obtained from 1432 children; 543 asymptomatic and 889 chronically diseased children (diabetes, chronic asthma, chronic hemolytic anemia, neurological impairment and Down′s syndrome); were tested by ELIZA for H. pylori IgG...
used by permission of Shutterstock. Bottom right: A woman in traditional dress. Photo used by permission of Shutterstock. JSOU Press Report 15-3...regional influence, as well as how the historical fracturing of the U.S.- Iran relationship played well for Saudi Arabia. Dr. Barrett also provides...Paradigm in Context (JSOU Press, 2011); Oman: The Present in the Context of a Fractured Past (JSOU Press, 2011); Iran : Illusion, Reality and
Almdal, T P; Handlos, L N; Valerius, M; Juul, E; Nielsen, K E; Vistisen, D; Nielsen, L B; Sheikh, A; Belhadj, M; Nadir, D; Zinai, S; Raposo, J; Lund-Andersen, H; Witte, D R
We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% (42-47 mmol/mol) and in individuals with HbA(1c) >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%.
Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem O; Matar, Madonna J; Moghnieh, Rima; Alothman, Adel F; Alenazi, Thamer H; Farahat, Fayssal; Corman, Shelby; Solem, Caitlyn T; Raghubir, Nirvana; Macahilig, Cynthia; Haider, Seema; Stephens, Jennifer M
The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011-2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities), treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials), hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay), and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality). Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Chart-level data were collected for 93 patients with MRSA pneumonia, 50 in Saudi Arabia and 43 in Lebanon. The average age of the patients was 56 years, and 60% were male. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (39%), congestive heart failure (30%), coronary artery disease (29%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (28%). Patients most frequently had positive cultures from pulmonary (87%) and blood (27%) samples. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid, and only one-third of the isolates tested were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Beta-lactams (inactive therapy for MRSA) were prescribed 21% of the time across all lines of therapy, with 42% of patients receiving first-line beta-lactams. Fifteen percent of patients did not receive any antibiotics that were considered to be MRSA active. The mean hospital length of stay was 32 days, and in-hospital mortality was 30%. The treatment for MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon may be suboptimal with inactive therapy prescribed a substantial proportion of the time. The information gathered
Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to ...
Khaled A. ALASMARI
Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information w...
Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz
Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially
Gashgari, Rukaia; Gherbawy, Youssuf; Ameen, Fuad; Alsharari, Salam
Background: Endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate and characterize, at the molecular level, the diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Fungi growing on plant segments were isolated and identified based on morphologica...
Mutlaq B. Alotaibi
This paper identifies factors that determine user acceptance of the mobile version of the stock exchange system in Saudi Arabia (Tadawul). It examines the conditions under which users use Mobile Tadawul (M-Tadawul), the findings will provide an in-depth understanding of the mobile financial services for developers, potential users and Information Technology (IT) managers. The study proposed a theoretical framework based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. ...
Sami N Alsuwaidan
Full Text Available "PHACES" is a neurocutaneous syndrome that refers to the following associations: Posterior fossa malformations, Hemangiomas, Arterial malformations, Coarctation of the aorta/Cardiac defects, Eye abnormalities, and Sternal defects. Herein, we report the association of PHACES syndrome with airway hemangioma, a serious association that should not be overlooked. The findings of such an association presented here are the first to be reported from Saudi Arabia.
Alidina, Mazahirali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Yoon, Min; Hamadeh, Ahmed F; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jörg E
Emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health.
Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis
The plumes from the Kuwait oil field fires reduced hemispheric (total) solar radiation by 26 36% during January June 1991 in Jubail (300 km SE of Kuwait City), Saudi Arabia. Residents feel noticeably cooler even though air temperatures have not been lowered significantly (up to June 1991). These observations support human comfort theories and demonstrate the importance of shade to comfort. The desirability of complete solar radiation measurements, including those of diffuse radiation, is indicated.
Sandeep Agrawal; Saud Binsaleem; Mohammed Al-Homrani; Abdullaziz Al-Juhayim; Abdullah Al-Harbi
Organ transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advanced medical science and technology, shortage of organs had led to a growing gap between the demand for organs and the number of donors. With a limited number of studies on the subject and based on those findings, the public knowledge and attitudes must be assessed to understand more clearly that why many people are opposing donating their organs in Saudi Arabia. The objective of our stu...
Almuslmani, B.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Moore, T.
Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains, and the Farasan Islands, all in south-western Saudi Arabia, have been established, for which the past and future campaign GPS measurements will provide valuable data for investigations of crustal deformations close to the plate boundaries between the Nubia, Somalian and Arabian plates. In this presentation we will show results in the form of velocity field and plate motion estimates based on data from at least three campaigns occupying the initial 32 GDMS GPS network stations, but also from a number of IGS stations in the region. Our reference frame is aligned to ITRF2005 and uses approximately 40 IGS reference frame stations located on all major tectonic plates, e.g. Nubia and Somalia, surrounding the Arabian plate. Furthermore, we apply absolute satellite and receiver antenna phase center models together with newly available GPS products from a recent global re-processing effort.
Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem O; Matar, Madonna J; Moghnieh, Rima; Alothman, Adel F; Alenazi, Thamer H; Farahat, Fayssal; Corman, Shelby; Solem, Caitlyn T; Raghubir, Nirvana; Macahilig, Cynthia; Haider, Seema; Stephens, Jennifer M
Objectives The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities), treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials), hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay), and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality). Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Results Chart-level data were collected for 93 patients with MRSA pneumonia, 50 in Saudi Arabia and 43 in Lebanon. The average age of the patients was 56 years, and 60% were male. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (39%), congestive heart failure (30%), coronary artery disease (29%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (28%). Patients most frequently had positive cultures from pulmonary (87%) and blood (27%) samples. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid, and only one-third of the isolates tested were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Beta-lactams (inactive therapy for MRSA) were prescribed 21% of the time across all lines of therapy, with 42% of patients receiving first-line beta-lactams. Fifteen percent of patients did not receive any antibiotics that were considered to be MRSA active. The mean hospital length of stay was 32 days, and in-hospital mortality was 30%. Conclusion The treatment for MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon may be suboptimal with inactive therapy prescribed a substantial proportion
Sulaiman O. Aljaloud
A Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. The global market for energy drink has gained momentum in the past decade, and demand is increasing every year. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of commercial energy drinks available in the local stores in Saudi Arabia. Total bacterial count, coliform, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus were included in this analysis. Out of a total of 20 tested energy drinks, micro...
Osama El Minshawy; Tawfik Ghabrah; Eman El Bassuoni
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, etiology and risk fac-tors of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the region of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. We studied 460 renal replacement therapy patients through a review of medical records and patient interviews and obtained patient demographics, family history, risk factors for ESRD, environmental exposure to toxins, work conditions, social history and causes of death. The estimated prevalence of treated ESRD was 460 per million ...
Yousef A Al-Turki
Conclusions: Complete (severe and partial erectile dysfunction was quite common among adult diabetic patients in a hospital-based primary care setting in Saudi Arabia. It is important for primary care physicians to diagnose erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients, and to counsel them early, as most patients are hesitant to discuss their concern during a consultation. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the effect of other risk factors on erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients.
Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.
Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S
Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.
Nada M. Albawardi
Full Text Available Research in Saudi Arabia has revealed a shocking level of insufficiently physically active adults, particularly women. The risk of sedentary behavior will likely increase as the number of women with office-based jobs increases. The aim of this study is to determine the level of sedentary behavior, and its associated factors, among Saudi women working office-based jobs in the city of Riyadh. A cross-sectional study of 420 Saudi female employees at 8 office-based worksites were measured to determine body mass index and were given a self-administered survey to evaluate their level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Median sitting time on work days was 690 min per day (interquartile range, IQR 541–870, with nearly half accumulated during work hours, and 575 min per day (IQR 360–780 on non-work days. Predictors of work day sitting time were level of education, number of children, and working in the private sector. Number of children, whether they were single, and whether they lived in a small home were found to predict non-work day sitting time. This study identifies Saudi women in office-based jobs as a high-risk group for sedentary behavior. There is a need to promote physical activity at worksites and reduce prolonged sitting.
Full Text Available Significant headway has been made in the global fight against malaria in the past decade and as more countries enter the elimination phase, attention is now focused on identifying effective strategies to shrink the malaria map. Saudi Arabia experienced an outbreak of malaria in 1998, but is now on the brink of malaria elimination, with just 82 autochthonous cases reported in 2012. A review of published and grey literature was performed to identify the control strategies that have contributed to this achievement. The number of autochthonous malaria cases in Saudi Arabia decreased by 99.8% between 1998 and 2012. The initial steep decline in malaria cases coincided with a rapid scaling up of vector control measures. Incidence continued to be reported at low levels (between 0.01 and 0.1 per 1,000 of the population until the adoption of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment and the establishment of a regional partnership for a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula, both of which occurred in 2007. Since 2007, incidence has decreased by nearly an order of magnitude. Malaria incidence is now very low, but a high proportion of imported cases, continued potential for autochthonous transmission, and an increased proportion of cases attributable to Plasmodium vivax all present challenges to Saudi Arabia as they work toward elimination by 2015.
Amal Hatem Alkhaldi
Full Text Available Global competition in the international business environment has pushed companies to achieve competitive advantage through mergers, acquisitions and through locating their subsidiaries in less developed counties for cost effectiveness. Consequently, the competitive pressure has increased the significance of human resource management (HRM in multinational companies (MNCs, and MNCs have recognised the significance of the transfer HRM process across borders. This study examines the transfer of HRM policies and practices of US MNCs to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to determine the extent to which US MNCs transfer HRM policies and practices from their Headquarters to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia; and identify the factors that facilitate and inhibit HRM transfer. The paper is based on an investigation of the interaction between home-country and host-country effects in determining HRM policies and practices in MNCs in the context of the Middle East. The study adopts a mixed methods approach of documentary analysis, focus group interviews of employees and in depth interviews of key informants in four subsidiaries of US owned international hotel chains located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed
Increasing alcohol consumption in many countries is an important cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of tobacco use and alcohol consumption and its related perception among population of Hail, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2012 covering 451 participants, in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Out of 451 respondents, 355(78.7%) were male and 96 (21.3%) were female giving a male to female ratio of 3.7:1. The age range of respondents was 11 - 77 years with a mean of 32 years. Prevalence of tobacco use and alcoholic beverages consumption were 30.3% and 7.5%, respectively. Most of the tobacco users and alcohol consumers showed positive knowledge concerning the relation between tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption and cancer. It is evident that the prevalence of tobacco consumption is rising in the Hail region. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies in the Hail - Saudi Arabia represent a major obstacle since it is considered as social stigma due to complete prohibition by law.
Da'ar, Omar B; Al Shehri, Ali M
In an era of expanding health sectors and rising costs, doctors are expected to have a working knowledge of health economics to better use resources and improve outcomes and quality of health care. This article recognizes the dearth of knowledge and application of economic analyses in medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it highlights the desirability of knowledge of health economics in ensuring certain competencies in medical education and the rationale for inviting doctors to apply knowledge of economics in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the article discusses challenges that hinder integrating health economics into clinical practice. Furthermore, the article typifies some of the important economic phenomena that physicians need to discern. Besides, the article provides implications for incorporating economic analysis into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the article concludes by demonstrating how health economics can enhance doctors' knowledge and recommends the country to move towards integrating health economics into medical education and clinical practice for best practice.
Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.
AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z
Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.
Almajhdi, Fahad N; Farrag, Mohamed A; Amer, Haitham M
The genetic variability and circulation pattern of human respiratory syncytial virus group B (HRSV-B) strains, identified in Riyadh during the winters of 2008 and 2009, were evaluated by partial sequencing of the attachment (G) protein gene. The second hypervariable region (HVR-2) of G gene was amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to representatives of different HRSV-B genotypes. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Saudi strains belonged to the genotype BA, which is characterized by 60-nucleotide duplication at HVR-2. Only strains of 2008 were clustered with subgroup BA-IV, while those isolated at 2009 were clustered among the most recent subgroups (particularly BA-X and CB-B). Amino acid sequence analysis demonstrated 18 amino acid substitutions in Saudi HRSV-B strains; among which five are specific for individual strains. Furthermore, two potential N-glycosylation sites at residues 230 and 296 were identified for all Saudi strains, and an additional site at amino acid 273 was found only in Riyadh 28/2008 strain. O-glycosylation was predicted in 42-43 sites, where the majority (no = 38) are highly conserved among Saudi strains. The average ratio between non-synonymous and synonymous mutations (ω) implied stabilizing selection pressure on G protein, with evidences of positive selection on certain Saudi strains. This report provides preliminary data on the circulation pattern and molecular characteristics of HRSV-B strains circulating in Saudi Arabia.
Hasnain, Syed Mahmood; Alabbadi, Naif Mohammed [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Energy Research Inst., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
In Saudi Arabia, the growth of demand for electrical energy in the rapidly expanding towns, cities and industries, far exceeds the growth of the power being made available. Recently the Saudi Consolidated Electric Companies (SCECO) are facing a shortage of electricity during the summer period mainly due to the high consumption of electricity in the air conditioning sector. The incorporation of thermal energy storage (TES) technologies with a conventional air conditioning system is found to be an appropriate solution for energy-demand management. In this paper an introductory overview of thermal storage air conditioning is presented, comparing phase change (e.g. ice) and sensible heat (e.g. chilled water) storage technologies. The pros and cons of each are evaluated. The suitability of TES technology for the Saudi HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) industry is explored with the benefits to the owner such as: reduced energy consumption; less operation and maintenance costs; and downsizing of the chiller plant and system for new facility; alternative to new chiller installation to cater for increased cooling load; and stored water as a fire protection source. Furthermore, an economic study has been presented to illustrate the feasibility of TES based air conditioning in Saudi Arabia. (Author)
Almajhdi, Fahad N; Alshaman, Mohamed S; Amer, Haitham M
Human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV-3) is a leading cause of respiratory disease in children worldwide. Previous sequence analyses of the entire virus genome, among different HPIV-3 strains, demonstrated that HN is the most variable gene. There is a dearth of data on HPIV-3 strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. In this report, HPIV-3 was screened in nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from hospitalized children with acute respiratory disease during two successive seasons (2007/08 and 2008/09) using nested RT-PCR. Out of 73 samples collected during 2007/08, seven (9.59%) were positive; while 3 out of 107 samples collected during 2008/09 (2.8%) were positive. Virus isolation in cell culture was successful using HEp2, but not Vero cells. The identity of the isolated viruses was confirmed using immunofluorescence and neutralization assays. To elucidate the genetic characteristics and phylogeny of Saudi HPIV-3 strains, the complete HN gene sequence of two selected Saudi strains was analyzed in comparison to 20 strains isolated by others from different countries worldwide. Both strains showed the highest degree of sequence homology with Indian strains, followed by Chinese and most Japanese strains. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains fell into a distinct Asian lineage. This study is the first in Saudi Arabia to recover HPIV-3 isolates of confirmed identity, and to generate sequence data that may help in understanding virus diversity and evolution.
Arif, Jamal M; Al-Saif, Ahmad M; Al-Karrawi, Mohammed A; Al-Sagair, Othman A
The unwarranted connection between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer has gained new ground in recent years. Breast cancer in Saudi females accounts for approximately 21% of all cancers and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Saudi females is also 21.5%. DM is diagnosed in the age group of 30+ years with possible exposure to predisposing factors like hyperinsulinemia and obesity at younger age. Further, 12% of the breast cancer cases are diagnosed in the young females aged 20-34 years. Despite the readily available access to healthcare facilities in the Kingdom, a large number of diabetics, approximately 27.9%, were unaware of having diabetes mellitus. This subpopulation is quite susceptible of developing breast cancer at later age. This review discusses common etiological and predisposing factors for breast cancer and diabetes, regional distribution and possible correlation of diabetes and cancer in Saudi Arabia.
Warsy, A S; El-Hazmi, M A; Sedrani, S H; Kinhal, M
This study was conducted on 204 plasma samples obtained from Saudis living in the central province of Saudi Arabia, to determine the prevalence of alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) phenotypes. The alpha1AT phenotypes were separated by isoelectric focusing on ampholine gels (pH 4-5). The prevalences of PiMM, MS, MZ, SZ, and ZZ were 0.8676, 0.0931, 0.0245, 0.0098, and 0.0049, respectively. The gene frequencies of the alpha1AT variants, i.e.., PiM, PiS, and PiZ, were 0.9265, 0.0515, 0.022, respectively. We describe and compare our results in a Saudi population with those reported for other populations.
Seraj, Mohamed Abdullah
This illustrated detailed article will describe history of over forty years struggle, of hardship and discrimination to the specialty. I have with my colleagues faced obstacles and disappointments during the development of modern anaesthesia services with its subspecialties in Saudi Arabia. I have all support and encouragement from the top authorities of the university. I have managed to establish a top class anaesthesia department, Saudi Anaesthetic Association and the King Saud Fellowship in anaesthesia and intensive care within one decade. The next decade was assigned for expansion to create the Arab Board of anaesthesia and Intensive Care followed by the Saudi Specialty of anaesthesia and intensive care and its fellowship in different Subspecialties. I always wonder within myself, have I and my colleagues achieved our goal and did we do well. PMID:25885493
Coulthart, Michael B; Geschwind, Michael D; Qureshi, Shireen; Phielipp, Nicolas; Demarsh, Alex; Abrams, Joseph Y; Belay, Ermias; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Jansen, Gerard H; Lang, Anthony E; Schonberger, Lawrence B
As of mid-2016, 231 cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease-the human form of a prion disease of cattle, bovine spongiform encephalopathy-have been reported from 12 countries. With few exceptions, the affected individuals had histories of extended residence in the UK or other Western European countries during the period (1980-96) of maximum global risk for human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. However, the possibility remains that other geographic foci of human infection exist, identification of which may help to foreshadow the future of the epidemic. We report results of a quantitative analysis of country-specific relative risks of infection for three individuals diagnosed with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the USA and Canada. All were born and raised in Saudi Arabia, but had histories of residence and travel in other countries. To calculate country-specific relative probabilities of infection, we aligned each patient's life history with published estimates of probability distributions of incubation period and age at infection parameters from a UK cohort of 171 variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. The distributions were then partitioned into probability density fractions according to time intervals of the patient's residence and travel history, and the density fractions were combined by country. This calculation was performed for incubation period alone, age at infection alone, and jointly for incubation and age at infection. Country-specific fractions were normalized either to the total density between the individual's dates of birth and symptom onset ('lifetime'), or to that between 1980 and 1996, for a total of six combinations of parameter and interval. The country-specific relative probability of infection for Saudi Arabia clearly ranked highest under each of the six combinations of parameter × interval for Patients 1 and 2, with values ranging from 0.572 to 0.998, respectively, for Patient 2 (age at infection × lifetime) and
Aldossari, Ali Tarad; Al Khaldi, Jamal Khalil; Altarawneh, Mohammad Hasan
This study aims to identify the current situation of science books in Jordan and Saudi Arabia from an Islamic perspective. For this end, the content analysis approach has been used through the analysis of the unit concept in the science books for the seventh, eighth and ninth grades in the academic year (2015/2016) in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The…
the border authorities captured 2,000 kg of hashish, four kg of marijuana, and 40,000 pills . The Yemeni News Agency reported on January 25, 2011...families have only one meal every three days.34 The result will include a significant refugee crisis with hundreds of thousands trying to cross the Saudi
Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the impact of Corporate Governance on Firm performance of listed companies in Saudi stock exchange. The study methodology was a pooled data collected from the Saudi stock exchange (TADAUWL for the period from 2012 to 2014. The study sample is 171 listed companies. The study independent variable is Corporate Governance principals. The dependent variable is Firm performance which was measured using ROA, ROE and Tobin's Q. The study also utilized five control variables in order to help measuring the relationship between Corporate Governance and Firm Performance. In conclusion, the study found that the governance level was 61.4% in Saudi stock exchange which is considered high compared to previous studies. The results of the study test indicate that there is no significant impact for corporate governance adoption on firm's operational and financial performance in the listed companies in Saudi stock exchange. By testing the Tobin's Q model the study also concluded that there’s no significant impact for ownership of the largest shareholder and independency of Board of Directors on firm's market performance. Significant impact was found for the ownership and the size of the Board of Directors on firm's performance.
Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.
Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…
Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara
Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi…
Allari, Rabia S; Ismaile, Samantha; Househ, Mowafa
Professional values are essential to nursing practice because they guide standards for working, provide a structure for evaluating behavior, and influence decisions making. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of Saudi female nursing students on professional values and to assess the correlation between their perception of professional values in relation to their year of academic studies. We used a cross-sectional descriptive study where a survey was administered to 150 Saudi female nurses living in Riyadh. Results show that Saudi female nurses have a high perception of professional values relating to confidentiality, privacy, moral and legal rights, health and safety, and the work environment. Whereas Saudi nursing students have a low perception for participating in professional nursing activities, utilizing research in practice, peer review, public policy, and engaging in on-going self-evaluation. There was positive correlation between different professional values and academic years. The highest correlations were for the items related to caring and trust more than activism because nursing students at higher academic levels viewed the relationship with patients as more important than advancing health care systems through public policy, research, and professional organizations. In conclusion, nursing program administrators should put emphasis on improving the development of professional values through a role modeling approach to promote activism and professional values through the arrangement of meetings, exchange forums, and conferences with other nurses, managers, policy makers, innovators, and researchers within the nursing field.
Al Mohammedali, Zainab; O’Dwyer, Tom K.; Broderick, Julie M.
CONTEXT: Respiratory physiotherapy plays a key role in the management and treatment of patients with respiratory diseases worldwide, yet this specialty is not well established in Saudi Arabia. AIMS: To profile the attitudes among physicians and nurses toward physiotherapists working in respiratory care settings in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted. A questionnaire was developed consisting of 23 items, which was distributed both electronically and in paper form to physicians and nurses working in hospitals and health-care centers in Saudi Arabia. Physicians and nurses working outside of Saudi Arabia, and other health professionals, were excluded from the study. RESULTS: A total of 284 questionnaires were returned (nurses: n = 158; physicians: n = 126). The majority believed that physiotherapists have the skills to be involved in respiratory care (79.9%, n = 226) and that physiotherapists are an important member of the Intensive Care Unit team (90.4%, n = 255). Most respondents (n = 232, 82.9%) felt in need of more information regarding the role of physiotherapy within respiratory care; significantly more nurses than physicians believed they needed additional education (P = 0.002). Specialized physicians were more likely than nonspecialized physicians to refer respiratory patients to physiotherapy (P working in hospitals and health-care facilities in Saudi Arabia. The need for further education for physicians and nurses on the role of physiotherapy in respiratory care was highlighted; this would enable physiotherapy to develop and be further integrated into the respiratory care multidisciplinary team.
Osama Ahmed Hassan
Full Text Available Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000 and Sudan (2007 from a One Health perspective. Methods: Using the terms ‘Saudi Arabia’, ‘Sudan’, and ‘RVF’, articles were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and web pages of international organizations as well as local sources in Saudi Arabia and Sudan. Results: The outbreak in Saudi Arabia caused 883 human cases, with a case fatality rate of 14% and more than 40,000 dead sheep and goats. In Sudan, 698 human cases of RVF were recognized (case fatality, 31.5%, but no records of affected animals were available. The ecology and environment of the affected areas were similar with irrigation canals and excessive rains providing an attractive habitat for mosquito vectors to multiply. The outbreaks resulted in livestock trade bans leading to a vast economic impact on the animal market in the two countries. The surveillance system in Sudan showed a lack of data management and communication between the regional and federal health authorities, while in Saudi Arabia which is the stronger economy, better capacity and contingency plans resulted in efficient countermeasures. Studies of the epidemiology and vectors were also performed in Saudi Arabia, while in Sudan these issues were only partly studied. Conclusion: We conclude that a One Health approach is the best option to mitigate outbreaks of RVF. Collaboration between veterinary, health, and environmental authorities both on national and regional levels is needed.
Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali
After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to…
Asiri, Yousif A.
The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of “medical and pharmacy education” is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of “pharmacy education” to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective. PMID:23960737
AlGeffari, Metab Ali; Almogbel, Ebtehal Solaiman; Alhomaidan, Homaidan Turki; El-Mergawi, Ragab; Barrimah, Issam Alsaed
Dates are consumed worldwide, and are an important fruit for many individuals in Saudi Arabia. Currently, limited information is available on the glycemic indices of different date varieties. To determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response for 17 common date varieties in Saudi Arabia. Prospective clinical trial on healthy subjects. College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia. The available carbohydrate content of Tamer stage dates was determined using standard laboratory methods. Healthy subjects (ten males and nine females) received 50 g of glucose (on three separate occasions) and 50 g equivalent of available carbohydrates from the seventeen varieties of date (each once). The GI and GL were then calculated. GI, GL, and glycemic response. The mean (SEM) GI of the date samples was 55.2 (7.7) (range, 42.8-74.6). Sellaj and Maktoomi exhibited the highest GI (74.6 [10.1] and 71.0 [11.1]), respectively, whereas Shaqra, Sukkary, and Sag'ai had the lowest GI (42.8 [5.5], 43.4 [4.7] and 44.6 ), respectively. The GL of the date samples ranged from 8.5 to 24. Sellaj had a high GL (24), whereas Ajwah and Shaqra had a low GL (8.5 and 9.2). The analyses suggested no significant difference in GI between the date varieties. However, the GL values differed significantly between the 17 date varieties (P glycemic responses may help lower the GI of the diet of both healthy and diabetic Saudi individuals. We used dates at the Tamer stage, which may not be translatable to all types of dates.
Yahia M Al-Khaldi
Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension (HTN is a common health problem in Saudi Arabia. Good control depends on the quality of care, which should be supervised and monitored regularly through clinical audit. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of HTN care at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Settings and Design: This study was conductedin 2009 at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Medical records of all hypertensive patients were extracted and reviewed using master sheets. Assessment of processes and outcomes of HTN care were based on the standards of quality assurance manual issuedby the Ministry of Health. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were entered and analyzed by SPPS, version 15. Relevant statistical tests were used accordingly and the P-value was considered significant when it was less than 0.05. Results: A total of 295 medical records were reviewed and assessed. Most patients were Saudi, married, and about 50% were educated. Two-hundred and thirty-one records were assessed for processes and outcomes of HTN care. Weight measurement and physical examination were carried out for 99% and 97% of the patients, respectively. For 53% of the patients, blood was checked for glucose and kidney function and a lipid profile was done. More than two-thirds of the patients were overweight and obese while 46% had diabetes. Less than one half of the patients had good control of HTN. Conclusions: By most standards, quality of HTN care in Al-Manhal Family Practice was unsatisfactory. Most of the patients had comorbidities and poor HTN control. Essential facilities should be provided to the practice to optimize HTN care and to improve the degree of control.
Al-Sayegh, Nasser Y.; Eldeek, Basem S.; Kafy, Souzan M.; Al-Ahwal, Mahmoud S.; Bondagji, Nabeel S.
Background Health care is a basic human right, and Saudi Arabia affirms these rights for all its citizens. Objectives To assess the knowledge of medical students regarding health rights in Saudi Arabia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University (KAU) from September 2015 through November 2015. A questionnaire written in English collected demographic data and included questions about reproductive health care and health rights of women and patients with cancer, senility, or special needs. Results Of the 267 participants, 184 (68.9%) were female, and 252 (94.4%) were Saudi. Regarding consent, 87 (32.6%) and 113 (42.3%) participants believed a female patient required the consent of a male guardian to receive medical treatment or surgery, respectively, in Saudi Arabia, and only 106 (39.7%) knew that a female patient could provide consent for a caesarean section. Sixty-six (24.7%) believed that abortion is never allowed in Islam. Only 93 (34.8%) were aware that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients had health rights, about half (144, 53.9%) knew that cancer patients have a right to full information, and most (181, 67.8%) believed that a patient had the right to withhold health information from his/her family. Approximately half were aware that cancer patients have the right to free medical treatment (138, 51.7%) or that health rights applied to special needs patients (137, 51.3%) and senile patients (122, 45.7%). Conclusions The knowledge of KAU medical students regarding health rights of certain patient populations highlights the importance of health rights education in medical school. PMID:28459869
Pegram, R G; Hoogstraal, H; Wassef, H Y
Hyalomma (Hyalommina) arabica sp. n. is described from 62 adults (29 males, 33 females) taken throughout the year from 23 goats and two sheep, mostly at 200 m altitude in the southern tihama foothills of Ta'izz Province, Yemen Arab Republic. One female from a goat at 2,300 m altitude in this Province may have attached to the host elsewhere and a male from Mecca, Saudi Arabia, was on a goat imported from an unknown source for the traditional religious pilgrimage feast. We postulate that the original host of adults was the Nubian ibex, Capra ibex nubiana F. Cuvier (Artiodactyla: Caprinae). This parasite is most closely related to H. (H.) kumari Sharif, which infests chiefly wild and domestic Caprinae from India to northwestern Iran and Tadzhik, SSR. It also shows relationships to H. (H.) punt Hoogstraal, Kaiser and Pedersen, which parasitizes gazelles and domestic mammals in Somalia and Ethiopia, but differs more widely from the third African-Arabian member of this subgenus, H. (H.) rhipicephaloides Neumann, which feeds on the Nubian ibex and gazelles in the Red Sea and Dead Sea areas. The Hyalomma subgenus Hyalommina now contains seven species, four confined to the Indian subcontinent (including Nepal, Burma, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Afghanistan) and Southwest Asia, and three in eastern Africa north of the equator and Arabia.
Amoudi, Abdullah S; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman H; Abulaban, Abdulrahman A; Azab, Abdulrahman M; Radi, Suhaib A; Ayoub, Mohammed D; Albayrouti, Basim T
To assess the quality of life in the thalassemia adult patients and clarify how effective the management is of these patients and whether a change in care is warranted. In this cross-sectional study, adult thalassemia patients (>18 years) of both genders, attending the day care unit in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeedah, Saudi Arabia were surveyed using SF-36 questionnaire. Data were collected between October 2012 and December 2012. The questions highlighted 3 health status scales; physical functioning (PF), emotional functioning (EF), and social functioning (SF). Scores were analyzed using SPSS. Forty-eight adults were surveyed (mean+/-SD: 26.02+/-5.56). These were made up of 60.4% males and 41.7% were Saudis. The frequency of blood transfusion was every 3 weeks in 81.3% of patients, but 18.8% were having transfusions less frequently. Half of our sampled patients were splenectomized (54.2%). The PF score for the total sample was 61.4 (SD=22.7), the SF score was 75 (SD=26.4) and the EF score was 69.7 (SD= 21.6); the SF and EF scores were lower in females and non-Saudis compared to male Saudis. The PF score in our sample was low compared to other regional studies; the SF and EF scores were low in females and non-Saudis.
critical infrastructure protection, and deliver advanced stand-off air weaponry and precision-guided air-to-ground munitions to equip Saudi-purchased...Bangladesh, Benin, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia , Maldives, Mali, Morocco...displacement; food , medicine, and water shortages; advances by AQAP forces; Islamic State attacks; and persistence by the Houthis and their pro-Saleh allies
5 Gender Issues, Minority Relations, and Human Rights ............................................................ 7...considerable financial clout and deepening energy ties to major U.S. trading partners in Asia are important factors for U.S. and Saudi decision makers to...a deep and abiding confidence in the kingdom— its religion, its culture , and they’re excited about the future. On the other hand you have those who
GERAINT W. HUGHES
Full Text Available Saudi Arabian Jurassic carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs were first examined stratigraphically using microfauna. Current microfaunal studies concentrate on the identification and constraint of palaeoenvironmental variations and determination of high-resolution depositional cyclicity of the reservoir carbonates. It is apparent that the environmental sensitivity of benthonic foraminifera provides a potentially valuable technique for the determining subtle variations in the depositional environment and also providing a proxy for sea-level fluctuations.
Al-Hawsawi, Zakaria M.; Al-Zaid, Mohamed A.; Barnawi, Ashwaq I.; Yassine, Saadeddine M.
We report a 10-year-old Saudi girl who has Fanconi anemia (FA) and was admitted due to acute hemiplegia, of the right side. She had a previous attack of left side hemiplegia that resolved spontaneously. The brain magnetic resonance angiography showed a cerebrovascular pattern of moyamoya disease. She underwent partially matched related donor stem cell transplantation (SCT), but unfortunately died 3 months later with post SCT complications. The association of moyamoya disease with FA is uncomm...
Reem L. Al-Mutairi
Full Text Available Objectives: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is growing rapidly in the Saudi population. The purpose of this study was to assess the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as they relate to T2DM lifestyle and prevention behaviours among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2013 among 426 non-diabetic secondary school students from randomly selected schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An Arabic version of an adapted English language questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and attitudes related to the severity and prevention of T2DM. A preventative behaviour assessment was also conducted to assess physical activity and dietary habits. Results: The majority of the students (63.4% had at least one diabetic family member. Obesity was more frequent in males compared to females (P = 0.013. Awareness about the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight to prevent T2DM was lower in males than females (P = 0.037, although males engaged in routine exercise more often (P = 0.001. Males were less likely than females to recognise the risks for T2DM, including obesity (P = 0.030, heredity (P = 0.013 and high fat intake (P = 0.001. Conclusion: An alarmingly high number of Saudi students were unaware of T2DM severity and associated risk factors. Female students were more aware of the benefits of T2DM preventative lifestyle behaviours than males, although males engaged in routine exercise more often. Raising adolescents’ awareness about the primary prevention strategies for T2DM should be a public health priority in Saudi Arabia. The HBM could inform further research on diabetes prevention among Saudi adolescents.
Passive acoustic monitoring has been successfully used on many elasmobranch species, but no such study has yet been published for the whale shark (Rhincodon typus). In some ways this is surprising as the known whale shark aggregation sites would seem to be ideal targets for this method. For this dissertation, two acoustic studies were carried out in Saudi Arabia and Tanzania. Each was performed in parallel with visual surveys and the Saudi population was also studied using satellite telemetry. Sighting and acoustic data were compared at both sites, and the results were mixed. The acoustic monitoring largely confirmed the results of visual surveys for the Saudi Arabian sharks, including seasonality, residency and a degree of parity and integration between the sexes that is unique to this site. Satellite tracks of tagged Saudi sharks were used to confirm that some animals migrated away from the aggregation site before returning in subsequent seasons, confirming philopatric behavior in this species. In contrast, the acoustic results in Tanzania demonstrated year-round residency of whale sharks in the area, despite seasonal declines in visually estimated abundance. Seasonal changes in habitat selection render the sharks at this site temporarily cryptic to visual sampling. The differing results are compelling because both the philopatric behavior demonstrated in Saudi Arabia and the cryptic residency of the Tanzanian sharks could explain the seasonal patterns in whale shark abundances reported at other aggregation sites. Despite their differences, both sites in this study can be classified as secondary whale shark nurseries and each may be a vital feeding ground for its respective population.
Charbel El Bcheraoui
Full Text Available Introduction: It is unknown whether Saudis receive health examinations periodically. To inform health authorities on the health-seeking behavior of the Saudi population, we investigated patterns of periodic health examination (PHE use by Saudis. Materials and Methods: We conducted a nationally representative multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older on sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure associations between PHE and sociodemographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 12,000 households were contacted, and 10,735 participants completed the survey (response rate of 89.4%. Among participants, 2542 (22.9%, representing more than 2.7 million Saudis aged 15 years or older, received a PHE during the past 2 years. Moreover, 7463 (73.5% participants, representing 9.1 million Saudis, visited a healthcare setting in the past 2 years due to illness or injury. The likelihood of receiving a PHE in the past 2 years increased with age, education, being married, consumption of five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, diagnoses of prediabetes, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia, and a visit to a healthcare setting within the last 2 years due to an illness or an injury. Discussion: This is the first national study to investigate the use of PHE in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA where healthcare is freely available. Few Saudis seek preventive healthcare and most healthcare visits are for injuries or sickness. KSA may reduce its health expenditures by routinizing PHE and detecting chronic conditions at early stages.
Mohammed K. Al-Sadoon
Full Text Available Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped.
Hadley, Donald G.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Coleman, Robert Griffin
In 1936, geologic work related to the Tertiary System in western Saudi Arabia began with a study of the Umm Gerad barite deposit by K. S. Twitchell. In 1944, a study focusing specifically on Tertiary rocks was conducted by Steineke and others near Jiddah. Small-scale mapping of Tertiary sequences began in 1950 in southwestern Saudi Arabia and later in northern 3audi Arabia as part of the Kingdom's early mapping program. These studies were part of a larger program being directed by the Government of Saudi Arabia in connection with mineral resource investigations. In the mid- to late-1960's, the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres discovered mineralized Tertiary rocks al Jabal Dhaylan and began a study, which continues to the present, of both the Tertiary rocks and the mineralization. Following a number of early local studies, in 1973 the U.S. Geological Survey began detailed study of the Tertiary layered rocks along the Red Sea coastal plain south of Jiddah. More recently, Riofinex and Seltrust have been exploring for selected commodities in Tertiary sequences of northwestern Saudi Arabia and the Red Sea coastal plain. Results of these studies, including work by the Saudi Arabian Directorate General of Mineral Resources and the Saudi government agency preceding it, are summarized in this report. Characteristics of the Tertiary rocks south of lat 23? N. and the Tertiary mineral deposits of western Saudi Arabia are also summarized. Recommendations are made for future geologic studies and mineral assessment of the Tertiary rocks of western Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of Arabic and English literacy skills and practices for Saudi female university students at their homes and at their school as indicated by the students themselves using literacy questionnaires. The study did not evaluate the proficiency of the students in any aspect of the language such as phonology, vocabulary, or grammar but rather compiled students' answers to the availability of literacy resources in English and in Arabic in their homes/school and the students' practices of literacy in both languages. Data was gathered by distributing two types of questionnaires (Arabic and English to 200 students of English major at the department of linguistics and translation at the University of Tabuk, which is a government university in Saudi Arabia. Supporting data of cultural and religious influences on literacy was obtained through the researcher's own notes and observations. The purpose of the questionnaires was to investigate mainly: the students' literacy practices and frequency of using Arabic and English and the literacy infrastructure and literacy resources available to the students at their homes and at their school. The students' answers to the questionnaires indicated that most students interacted using mainly Arabic and very little English at their homes and they used some English at their school, which is related to reading their school academic books, doing homework assignments, and having rare English conversations with their classroom teachers.Keywords: Arabic literacy, English literacy, Saudi Arabia
Al-Aqeel, Sinaa Abdulmohsen; Al-Sabhan, Jawza Fahad; Sultan, Noha Yahia
Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia. Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO) ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51%) were for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and 71 (38%) were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8%) advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7%) of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), and 33 (16.5%) advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64%) provided references for information presented. Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.
Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.
Abdulrahman A Al-Mohaimeed
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased significantly in Saudi Arabia, parents are unable to appreciate obesity in their child. The objective of the study was to identify the percentage of parents who misclassify the status of child′s weight, and determine whether there is a difference between those parents whose children are overweight and obese and those with children of normal weight. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 601 children aged 6-10 years. The children were recruited from the primary schools located in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. The body mass index of the children was assessed in the school, and their parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire which contained questions on parental perception of the children′s weight/obesity status. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Parents with overweight/obese children had significantly more misclassification than those with normal weight children. Ninety percent of parents of the 81 overweight children misclassified and reported that their child had normal weight, while 65% of parents of the 61 obese children, misclassified the child′s weight status. Conclusions: The level of misclassification of children′s weight status by parents is high. Saudi parents with overweight and obese children do not recognize their child′s weight status. Parents′ awareness of childhood obesity and its negative health impact needs to be improved.
Saudi Arabia covers a large portion of the Arabian plate, a region characterized by seismic activity, along complex divergent and convergent plate boundaries. In order to understand these plate boundaries it is essential to optimize the design of the broadband seismic station network to accurately locate earthquakes. In my study, I apply an optimization method to design the broadband station distribution in Saudi Arabia. This method is based on so called D-optimal planning criterion that optimizes the station distribution for locating the hypocenters of earthquakes. Two additional adjustments were implemented: to preferentially acquire direct and refracted wave, and to account for geometric spreading of seismic waves (and thus increases the signal to noise ratio). The method developed in this study for optimizing the geographical location of broadband stations uses the probability of earthquake occurrence and a 1-D velocity model of the region, and minimizes the ellipsoid volume of the earthquake location errors. The algorithm was applied to the current seismic network, operated by the Saudi Geologic Survey (SGS). Based on the results, I am able to make recommendations on, how to expand the existing network. Furthermore, I quantify the efficiency of our method by computing the standard error of epicenter and depth before and after adding the proposed stations.
Pallister, John S.
The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Mohamed W. Negm
Full Text Available A survey was carried out to investigate astigmatid mites associated with four unrelated insect species, belonging to four families. The four insect species, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1785 (Diptera: Muscidae, Labidura riparia (Pallas, 1773 (Dermaptera: Labiduridae, Gryllus bimaculatus (DeGeer, 1773 (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, and Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria: Blattidae, collected from different localities in Riyadh, were observed. Four astigmatid mites (Caloglyphus csibbii Eraky, Histiostoma camphori Eraky, Histiostoma pickaxei Eraky and Shoker, and Myianoetus lili Eraky belonging to two families, Acaridae and Histiostomatidae, were recorded on G. bimaculatus, L. riparia, P. americana, and M. domestica, respectively. All recorded mites are considered new to Saudi Arabian mite fauna. One individual of Copronomoia sphaerocerae (Vitzthum (Histiostomatidae mite, previously recorded in Saudi Arabia, was found on M. domestica. For each mite species found, notes on density and attachment sites are given. An identification key, based on deutonymphal stages, for the five mite species reported in this study and other phoretic astigmatid mites previously recorded on insects in Saudi Arabia is provided.
Al Sulaiman, Ayman; Suliman, Ahmed; Al Mishari, May; Al Sawadi, Aziza; Owaidah, Tarek M
Genetic screening is an important tool to control, minimize, and prevent genetic disorders. Saudi Arabia started the first national premarital screening (PMS) program to control inherited hemoglobin (Hb) disorders that are the most commonly inherited genetic disorders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception, and attitude among the Saudi population about the PMS program through a questionnaire-based survey. A total of 1,047 candidates were included, divided into three groups. Group A represented the general population, group B was composed of couples presenting for PMS, and group C represented couples who had received their results. There was a fair knowledge among participants of the three groups about the nature of the tests and the targeted disorders, with more than 80% believing that it should include both sexually and genetically transmitted diseases. The concept of genetic counseling was liked by most of the participants. There was a positive attitude toward the program and the majority agreed to apply the PMS program to all couples in all country regions. More than 60% of all the participants were in favor of preventing at-risk marriages.
Abdulkareem M Albekairy
Full Text Available Objectives: The shortage of clinical pharmacists in Saudi Arabia has limited the full implementation of pharmaceutical care in most of its hospitals. The National Guard Health Affairs hospitals. This work discussed the Department of Pharmaceutical Care, and the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Pharmacy four initiatives that were planned in 2009–2010 to develop and recruit clinical pharmacists, practitioners, or faculty. Methods: The combined initiatives were aimed at (1 instituting a 4-year clinical skills development career ladder, (2 expanding the National Guard Health Affairs postgraduate residency program, (3 offering scholarships to qualified pharmacy graduates to pursue the PharmD degree and a PGY-1 residency training in the United States, and (4 recruiting non-Saudi clinical pharmacists educated and trained in the United States to ameliorate the current shortage of practitioner. Results: The current number of clinical pharmacists practicing at the National Guard Health Affairs at central region is 24, most of whom are Board Certified by the American Pharmacists Association Board of Pharmacy Specialties. Conclusions: The four initiatives, based on current trends, suggest that 60–65 positions will be added by 2017–2018, barring attrition. Saudi Arabia and many developing countries will continue to experience a shortage in clinical pharmacists due to the high demand for clinical pharmacy services. A multifaceted approach is recommended to address the problem.
Pallister, J.S.; McCausland, W.A.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Lu, Zhiming; Zahran, H.M.; El, Hadidy S.; Aburukbah, A.; Stewart, I.C.F.; Lundgren, P.R.; White, R.A.; Moufti, M.R.H.
The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees.
Pallister, John S.; McCausland, Wendy A.; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Lu, Zhong; Zahran, Hani M.; Hadidy, Salah El; Aburukbah, Abdallah; Stewart, Ian C. F.; Lundgren, Paul R.; White, Randal A.; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.
The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8km long with 91cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees.
Alrazeeni, Daifallah; Al Sufi, Mohammed S
To evaluate infection control and the incidence of bacterial pathogens in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) ambulances in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effectiveness of fumigation techniques used for these ambulances to minimize the spread of infection to transported patients and pre-hospital care providers was also assessed. Based on previous literature review indicating a higher propensity of microbial load, 3 areas within the ambulance, such as, stretcher handle, oxygen flow meter knob, and interior handle of the rear door were selected for specimen collection. Swab samples were collected both in the day and night shift, after the intended disinfection and cleaning (before and after fumigation). Micro-organisms were identified using standard procedures. This phase-I study was conducted at the Emergency Medical Services Department, Prince Sultan Bin AbdulAziz College of Emergency Medical Services, Al Malaz, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between October and November 2013, wherein a total of 10 ambulances from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority in Riyadh were selected for inclusion in the study. The specimens from all 10 ambulances showed similar results. In post disinfection and before fumigation, swab samples showed positive cultures that grew moderate to large quantities of environmental and skin flora. However, almost all organisms were susceptible to the fumigation technique. This study confirms the importance of evaluating the frequency and efficiency of various fumigation techniques as an ambulance is a potential reservoir for microbial transmission to patients and staff.
Alrazeeni, Daifallah; Al Sufi, Mohammed S.
Objectives: To evaluate infection control and the incidence of bacterial pathogens in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) ambulances in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effectiveness of fumigation techniques used for these ambulances to minimize the spread of infection to transported patients and pre-hospital care providers was also assessed. Methods: Based on previous literature review indicating a higher propensity of microbial load, 3 areas within the ambulance, such as, stretcher handle, oxygen flow meter knob, and interior handle of the rear door were selected for specimen collection. Swab samples were collected both in the day and night shift, after the intended disinfection and cleaning (before and after fumigation). Micro-organisms were identified using standard procedures. This phase-I study was conducted at the Emergency Medical Services Department, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz College of Emergency Medical Services, Al Malaz, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between October and November 2013, wherein a total of 10 ambulances from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority in Riyadh were selected for inclusion in the study. Results: The specimens from all 10 ambulances showed similar results. In post disinfection and before fumigation, swab samples showed positive cultures that grew moderate to large quantities of environmental and skin flora. However, almost all organisms were susceptible to the fumigation technique. Conclusion: This study confirms the importance of evaluating the frequency and efficiency of various fumigation techniques as an ambulance is a potential reservoir for microbial transmission to patients and staff. PMID:25399212
Changing pattern of Saudi Arabia＇s oil exports Saudi Arabia （hereinafter referred to as Saudi） long time ranks No. one of world oil production and lost the title only in 2009 and 2010 due to cutting output which is slightly lower than the Russian output. It is predicted that global annual oil output in the next 10 years will be more than 4 billion tons, during which Saudi annual oil output will be up to 540-550 million tons, accounting for about 14 percent of global annual oil output. Saudi＇s 2005 oil exports of about 360 million tons accounted for 17.78 percent of the global oil exports, and 42.66% of the Middle East. Over the next 10 years, it is expected Saudi oil exports will reach 380-400 tons. Saudi plenty of spare oil production capacity and enhanced oil recovery will increase its remaining recoverable oil reserve,
Aljefree, Najlaa M; Lee, Patricia; Alsaqqaf, Jamal M; Ahmed, Faruk
Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD). Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D Saudi adults.
Al Ateeq, Asma; Al Moamary, Eman; Daghestani, Tahani; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Alsughayr, Abdulrahman; Altuwaijri, Majid; Househ, Mowafa
The objective of this paper is to investigate the experiences of using a digital marketing platform to promote the use of an internet based health encyclopedia in Saudi Arabia. Key informant interviews, meeting documentation, and Google Analytics were the data collection sources used in the study. Findings show that using a digital marketing platform led to a significant increase in the number of visitors to the health encyclopedia. The results demonstrate that digital marketing platforms are effective tools to be used for promoting internet based health education interventions. Future work will examine long-term educational impacts and costs in using digital marketing platforms to promote online healthcare sites in Saudi Arabia.
Toula, F H; Ramadan, H H
Five Eimeria species were reported from domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) caught from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. According to their prevalences, they were: Eimeria perfarans (65%), E. magna (45%), E. stiedae (25%), E. exigua (20%) and E. piriformis (10%). 90% of the examined rabbits were positive and mixed infection with two or three Eimeria species was most frequent. E. stiedae, E. piriformis and E. exigua were identified and recorded for the first time from rabbits in Saudi Arabia and are considered as new locality or geographical distribution.
Tesis Doctoral leída en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid en 2015. Directores de la Tesis: José Luis Montes Botella y Vasilica Maria Margalina Saudi woman face many typesof sexual segregation, which hinders her opportunity to reach leadership positions, even that there are misconceptions in our society that she is not suitable for leadership, so we try here to focus on this subject in the light of lack of studies which investigate this matter. This paper aims to highlight t...
Al-Jadid, Maher Saad
Disability is a major challenge for the Saudi healthcare sector. Data about the incidence and prevalence of impairment and disability and sociodemographic characteristics of people with disabilities are scarce and incomplete and probably underestimate the actual burden of disability. Policies and legislation have supported the equal rights of persons with disabilities, but ineffective implementation of these laws has created a gap between the intended aims and the actual provision of services. Clearly, more research is needed to plan for appropriate management programs, effective implementation of primary prevention strategies, and proper allocation of health resources in this area.
Full Text Available Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,1 Madonna J Matar,2 Rima Moghnieh,3 Adel F Alothman,4 Thamer H Alenazi,5 Fayssal Farahat,1 Shelby Corman,6 Caitlyn T Solem,6 Nirvana Raghubir,7 Cynthia Macahilig,8 Seema Haider,9 Jennifer M Stephens6 1Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, 3Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanese Republic; 4Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Central Region, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, 5Infection Prevention & Control Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 6Real World Evidence: Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, 7Medical Affairs, Pfizer, New York, NY, 8Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 9Outcomes & Evidence, Global Health and Value, Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods: A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities, treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials, hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay, and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality. Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Results: Chart
Alanezi, Abdullah N.
This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Workforce Localisation policies in Saudi Arabia (commonly known as ‘Saudisation’) have passed their nineteenth year, aiming at replacing foreign employees in the private sector with local employees. The government’s rationale behind the localisation of the workforce includes both the high rate of unemployment amongst Saudi nationals and the massive presence of expatriates in the labo...
Mohammed S. Alhussaini
Background: Helicobacter pylori is an important gastrointestinal pathogen associated with gastritis, peptic ulcers, and an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. The present study was carried out to determine the relationship between this organism with different gastrointestinal ailments.Methods: 150 outpatients referrals to Saudi Arabian Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was recruited in January to June 2015. Each patient was subjected to endoscopic examination. Biopsy specimens we...
Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.
Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Al-Manaa, Hamad A.; Khoja, Tawfik A.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Aburisheh, Khaled H.; Youssef, Amira M.; Alotaibi, Metib S.; Al-Gamdi, Ali A.
Objectives: To assess health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and diabetes health care expenditure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was part of a nationwide, household, population based cross-sectional survey conducted at the University Diabetes Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2007 and December 2009 covering 13 administrative regions of the Kingdom. Using patients’ interview questionnaires, health care services data were collected by trained staff. Results: A total of 5,983 diabetic patients were chosen to assess health care services and expenditure. Approximately 92.2% of health services were governmental and the remaining 7.8% were in private services. The mean annual number of visits to physicians was 6.5±3.9 and laboratories was 5.1±3.9. Diabetic patients required one admission every 3 years with a mean admission duration of 13.3±28.3 days. General practitioners managed 85.9% of diabetic cases alone, or shared with internists and/or endocrinologists. Health care expenditure was governmental in 90% of cases, while it was personal in 7.7% or based on insurance payment in 2.3%. Conclusion: Health services and its expenditure provided to diabetic citizens in Saudi Arabia are mainly governmental. Empowerment of the role of both the private sector and health insurance system is badly needed, aside from implementing proper management guidelines to deliver good services at different levels. PMID:26446334
El-Shahawy I. S.
Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and has been estimated to infect over 200 million people. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis by detection of specific antibodies is likely to be more sensitive than the traditional method of diagnosis by detection of eggs in stool or urine. Therefore the present study was the first attempt to highlight the seroepidemiology of schistosomiasis among the general population of Najran City, southern of Saudi Arabia, as well as to achieve the performance of the diagnostic tests used. A total of 180 participants attending King Khaled hospital in Najran Province, Saudi Arabia, over a one year period, from September 2013 to September 2014 were screened for the presence of Schistosoma antibody in their blood serum using an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. Specific immunoglobulin (Ig G antibody was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Out of the 180 samples of sera tested using IHA, 32 (20 % were found to be positive with a titer ranging from 1:160 to 1:1280, while 42(23.2 % revealed Schistosoma IgG. A positive relationship was found between the seroprevalence of schistosomiasis and age of tested participants, especially in the age group of 20-40 years old. Additionally, prevalence of infection was more in males (36 % than females (7.5 %, and showed statistical significance (P < 0.001. Similarly, there was significant association between the presence of Schistosoma antibodies and the nationality of residence, and education of participants (P < 0.05. The current investigation reveals an alarmingly high prevalence of schistosomiasis among participants in Najran, southern region of Saudi Arabia and this supports an urgent need to re-evaluate the current control measures and implement an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control measures.
Agrawal, Sandeep; Binsaleem, Saud; Al-Homrani, Mohammed; Al-Juhayim, Abdullaziz; Al-Harbi, Abdullah
Organ transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advanced medical science and technology, shortage of organs had led to a growing gap between the demand for organs and the number of donors. With a limited number of studies on the subject and based on those findings, the public knowledge and attitudes must be assessed to understand more clearly that why many people are opposing donating their organs in Saudi Arabia. The objective of our study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the adult population toward organ donation in Saudi Arabia. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study where the information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was distributed in both King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, and data gathered analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0). There were a total of 403 respondents. Nearly 35.6% did not have the knowledge that organ donation is legal in the KSA. Almost 97% did not know where to go if they want to become donors. All of who were willing to donate, the most common reason was to save someone's life (92.7%). Body distortion (39%) and fear of health complications (35%) were the most common causes people opposed donation. It was suggested that, in order to increase the awareness for organ donation, the important role of health workers and hospital displays should be immediately addressed and public lectures should be held on regular basis. Information regarding organ donation should be incorporated with clear messages in various mass media.
Full Text Available Organ transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advanced medical science and technology, shortage of organs had led to a growing gap between the demand for organs and the number of donors. With a limited number of studies on the subject and based on those findings, the public knowledge and attitudes must be assessed to understand more clearly that why many people are opposing donating their organs in Saudi Arabia. The objective of our study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the adult population toward organ donation in Saudi Arabia. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study where the information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was distributed in both King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, and data gathered analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. There were a total of 403 respondents. Nearly 35.6% did not have the knowledge that organ donation is legal in the KSA. Almost 97% did not know where to go if they want to become donors. All of who were willing to donate, the most common reason was to save someone′s life (92.7%. Body distortion (39% and fear of health complications (35% were the most common causes people opposed donation. It was suggested that, in order to increase the awareness for organ donation, the important role of health workers and hospital displays should be immediately addressed and public lectures should be held on regular basis. Information regarding organ donation should be incorporated with clear messages in various mass media.
Ahmad S BaHammam
Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of sleepy driving and sleep-related accidents (SRA varies widely, and no data exist regarding the prevalence of sleepy driving in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence and predictors of sleepy driving, near-misses, and SRA among drivers in Saudi Arabia. Materials And Methods: A questionnaire was developed to assess sleep and driving in detail based on previously published data regarding sleepy driving. The questionnaire included 50 questions addressing socio-demographics, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, driving items, and the Berlin Questionnaire. In total, 1,219 male drivers in public places were interviewed face-to-face. Results: The included drivers had a mean age of 32.4 ± 11.7 years and displayed a mean ESS score of 7.2 ± 3.8. Among these drivers, 33.1% reported at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness. Among those who had actual accidents, 11.6% were attributed to sleepiness. In the past six months, drivers reported the following: 25.2% reported falling asleep at least once during, driving and 20.8% had to stop driving at least once because of severe sleepiness. Young age, feeling very sleepy during driving, and having at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness in the past six months were the only predictors of accidents. Conclusion: Sleepy driving is prevalent among male drivers in Saudi Arabia. Near-miss accidents caused by sleepiness are an important risk factor for car accidents and should be considered as a strong warning signal of future accidents.
AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Inam, Sarah S; AlEissa, Majid A; Noor, Ismail K; Almuneef, Maha A
The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying those in danger or at risk. The objective of this study is to identify school professional's awareness of child maltreatment and the existing national policies and procedures to examine the extent of efforts made in Saudi Arabia and to activate the roles of schools and school professionals in protecting children from violence and implementation of Article 19 of the CRC. This was a cross-sectional study, where school professionals from randomly selected schools throughout the country were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 3,777 school professionals participated in the study. Fifty-five percent of professionals had at least 10 years of work experience. A low-level of awareness of child maltreatment was found in about 1/3 of school professionals. Only 1.9% of school professionals had ever attended any sort of specific training on child maltreatment, though 69.3% of those who had not, were willing to attend future training. With regards to awareness of CRC Article 19 or policies and procedures addressing child maltreatment, only 22% reported being aware of it. The majority of school professionals in Saudi Arabia have a low-intermediate level of awareness of child maltreatment, ratification of CRC, and related national policies and procedures, yet most are willing to attend training programs on this subject matter. Efforts need to be made in the country to fill this gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dhaifallah A Alenizi
Full Text Available Context: Epidemiological studies have shown that vitiligo is a complex trait, involving combinations of pathogenic effects of multiple susceptibility genes as well as environmental risk factors. Aim: To observe whether consanguinity increased the incidence of vitiligo in Saudi patients from Arar. Patients and Methods: This study included 69 Saudi patients with vitiligo and their families. These patients, selected from the experience specialist dermatology center in Arar, from April 2011 to 2012, were interviewed by a dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and complete a questionnaire. Results: A total of 69 patients, 40 males and 29 females were selected. Their mean age was 34.5 ± 11.8 years with the median age of 23 years. The mean age at onset of disease was 27.9 ± 12.9 years. The mean duration of the disease was 9.7 ± 5.3 years. The frequency of focal, vulgaris, universal, and acrofacial subtypes was 22 (31.9%, 21 (30.4%, 8 (11.6%, and 18 (26.1%, respectively. A positive family history of vitiligo was obtained in 45 (65.2% cases. A comparison of the frequency of vitiligo among siblings in relation to the general population was more in accord with the multifactorial model. Conclusion: Consanguinity in marriage increases the incidence of the disease. Therefore, genetic counseling and premarital examination would be important contributions to lower the prevalence of vitiligo.
Conclusion: This pathological study suggested that MCD was the most common corneal stromal dystrophy that required keratoplasty in Saudi Arabia. Patient with MCD and GCD presented at a significantly younger age than LCD. The clinical diagnosis of MCD is not achieved in all cases likely due to a more severe phenotype in the Saudi population or the presence of corneal scarring that is associated with previous trachoma, which obscures the classical appearance of LCD. We believe that PKP is first-line surgical treatment, especially for MCD because it involves all corneal layers. However, deep stromal involvement and changes in Descemet′s membrane in MCD should be considered when selecting the surgical procedure.
Alajmi, R A; AlGhufaili, H; Farrukh, A; Aljohani, H; Mashaly, A M A
Necrophagous species of insects provide useful complementary data to estimate the postmortem interval in forensic cases. Here, for the first time, we report on insect specimens collected from human corpses in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. During the study, 14 beetle larvae were collected from the outdoor corpse (case report one) and five flies and seven beetles were collected from the indoor corpse (case report two). Sequencing was performed to study the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as the prospective basis of an identification technique. The sequencing focused on a section of the cytochrome oxidase I encoding region of mtDNA. Two beetle species, Dermestes frischii (Kugelann) and Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), and one fly species, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were identified. These results will be instrumental in the implementation of a Saudi database of forensically relevant insects.
Mohammad S Abouzeid
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB remains a public health problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, which has a very large labour force from high TB endemic countries. Understanding the epidemiological and clinical features of the TB problem, and the TB burden in the immigrant workforce, is necessary for improved planning and implementation of TB services and prevention measures. METHODS: A 10 year retrospective study of all TB cases reported in KSA covering the period 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2009. Data was obtained from TB reporting forms returned to the Ministry of Health. Data were then organised, tabulated and analysed for annual incidence rates by province, nationality, country of origin and gender. RESULTS: There was an annual increase in the number of TB cases registered from 3,284 in 2000 to 3,964 in 2009. Non-Saudis had nearly twice the TB incidence rate compared to Saudis (P = <0.05. All but four provinces (Najran, Riyadh, Makkah, Tabuk showed decreasing TB incidence rates. The highest rates were seen in the 65+ age group. In the 15-24 year age group the incidence rate increased from 15.7/100,000 in 2000 to 20.9/100,00 in 2009 (P = <0.05. The incidence of TB in Saudi males was higher than Saudi females. Conversely, for non-Saudis the TB incidence rates were significantly higher in females compared to males. CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant investments in TB control over 15 years, TB remains an important public health problem in the KSA affecting all age groups, and Saudis and non-Saudis alike. Identification of the major risk factors associated with the persistently high TB rates in workers migrating to KSA is required. Further studies are warranted to delineate whether such patients re-activate latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb infection or acquire new M.tb infection after arrival in KSA. Appropriate interventions are required to reduce TB incidence rates as have been implemented by other countries.
Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz
Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4 ± 1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8 ± 0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0 ± 1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1 ± 1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites.
Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic
Al Wahbi A
Full Text Available Abdullah Al Wahbi, Salman Aldakhil, Saud Al Turki, Abdulrahman El Kayali, Hussein Al Kohlani , Abdulaziz Al Showmer Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Amputation is most closely associated with blunt, lower limb injuries associated with vascular trauma. These vascular injuries require a special attention to prevent life and limb loss. Patient outcomes can also be improved by organizing vascular trauma data into appropriate systems to facilitate future studies. Keywords: vascular injuries, extremities trauma, amputation, ischemia
Al-Aboudi, Ibrahim Suliman; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The EuroQoL-five-dimensional (EQ-5D) scale was used to assess HRQoL. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. The brief diabetic knowledge test in questionnaire format developed by the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center and the attitude toward self-care questionnaire based on the diabetic care profile were used. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of a history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were in the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. A moderate level of HRQoL (0.71 ± 0.22) was recorded in the study cohort. The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs. 0.74 ± 0.20). The mean score of Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test was 8.96 ± 2.1 and the median score was 9.00. Of 75 diabetic patients, 14.7% had poor knowledge; 72% had moderate knowledge, and only 13.3% had good knowledge. The average attitude score of all respondents was 6.38 ± 2.11. There was a significant positive association between attitude and EQ-5D score. Conclusion: HRQoL and knowledge scores were moderate in type 2 diabetic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patient attitude toward the disease was positive, and this was positively associated with HRQoL; most respondents believed they are responsible for their care. It is likely that a high quality of diabetes self-management education program will provide benefits and affect significantly on type 2 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27413347
and receipt for cash and vouchers on hand. Reporting Structure of the Army’s Disbursing Stations in Kuwait The Army disbursing station at Camp...No. DODIG-2014-057 A P R I L 9 , 2 0 1 4 Improvements to Controls Over Cash Are Needed at Army Disbursing Stations in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia...2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improvements to Controls Over Cash Are Needed at Army
Sherif Shalaby; Bauer E Sumpio
Diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportions globally,exhibiting the most striking increase in third worldcountries with emerging economies. This phenomena isparticularly evident in the Middle East and North Africa（MENA） region, which has the highest prevalence ofdiabetes in adults. The most concerning indirect costof diabetes is the missed work by the adult populationcoupled with the economic burden of loss of productivity.The major drivers of this epidemic are the demographicchanges with increased life expectancy and lifestylechanges due to rapid urbanization and industrialization.Our focus is to compare MENA region countries,particularly Egypt and Saudi Arabia, in terms of theireconomic development, labor force diversity and theprevalence of diabetes.
Emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health. © 2014
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University The present dissertation provides an analytical and comparative study of the application of Islamic law (Shari’ah) and international human rights law in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It provides an analysis of the sources of Islamic law as well as the sources of international law to set the background for analysis and defines the nature of both laws. It also tackles the subject of the domes...
Soban Qadir Khan; Imran Alam Moheet; Imran Farooq; Faraz Ahmed Farooqi; Aws Saleh ArRejaie; Mohammad Hassan Abdullah Al Abbad; Abdul Khabeer
Objective: Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its pattern in primary and permanent teeth among 6-12-year-old Pakistani school going children living in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed between June and September 2014. A total number of screened children were 496 among them 259 were males and 237 were females. World Health Organization′s scale was used to examine children for dental fluorosis. Results...
Zhang, Min; Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Hu, Wenxing; Sang, Hong
We report an imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 37-year-old man from Saudi Arabia caused by Leishmania major. He presented with non-healing nodulo-ulcerative lesions with a "volcanic crater" on the lower limbs. It was clearly cutaneous leishmaniasis - a rare disease in China - as reflected by the patient's clinical history, the lesions' morphology, histopathological examination, culture and PCR analysis of the lesions. The patient was completely cured after two cycles of sodium stibogluconate treatment. This case report demonstrates that dermatologists should be aware of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in non-endemic areas. PMID:27438208
Makbul A. M. Ramli; Ayong Hiendro; H. R. E. H. Bouchekara
The potential implementation of hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/diesel energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia is analyzed in this paper. The solar radiation intensity considered in this study is in the range of 4.15–7.17 kWh/m2/day. The HOMER software is used to perform the technical and economical analysis of the system. Three different system configurations, namely, stand-alone diesel system, and hybrid PV/diesel system with and without battery storage element, will be evaluated and discu...
Mohammed G. Turkmani; Abdulaziz H. Al-Hussain
Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms (AWP) is a rare dermatologic disease. It was first described four decades ago as a potential test for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) by detecting “skin wrinkling” in response to water immersion. We are reporting two cases of AWP diagnosed at Derma Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The first case was a 9-year old girl and the second case was a 17-year adolescent male. The second case was associated with palmer hyperhidrosis. Both patients denied any medication use. Additiona...
Makki, M S
"The aim of this paper is to study the development of population weights for regions and urban centres in Saudi Arabia through the period 1962-1974. In order to achieve this aim some non-parametric statistical rules have been used such as rank-size rule and the four-city index. The results show non-balanced distribution of population on both regional and urban scales. The concentration of people in urban centres is more pronounced than the concentration in regions. This is due to internal and external movement of population towards large-sized urban centres." excerpt
Ibrahim Suliman Al-Aboudi
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude with health-related quality of life (HRQoL among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The EuroQoL-five-dimensional (EQ-5D scale was used to assess HRQoL. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. The brief diabetic knowledge test in questionnaire format developed by the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center and the attitude toward self-care questionnaire based on the diabetic care profile were used. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35% respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of a history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3% were in the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. A moderate level of HRQoL (0.71 ± 0.22 was recorded in the study cohort. The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs. 0.74 ± 0.20. The mean score of Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test was 8.96 ± 2.1 and the median score was 9.00. Of 75 diabetic patients, 14.7% had poor knowledge; 72% had moderate knowledge, and only 13.3% had good knowledge. The average attitude score of all respondents was 6.38 ± 2.11. There was a significant positive association between attitude and EQ-5D score. Conclusion: HRQoL and knowledge scores were moderate in type 2 diabetic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patient attitude toward the disease was positive, and this was positively associated with HRQoL; most respondents believed they are responsible for their care. It is likely that a high quality of diabetes self-management education program will provide benefits and affect significantly on type 2 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia.
SERVICk:/.AC 4 L’ 4 .1 LHAHAN SAUDI ARABIA 4A6-6? MA STA~N STATION HANW YCA*IS MONTH PACE __9__-_)__ NOIS IL. S. T.) WET BULB TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F...TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F) TOTAL TOTAL (F) 0 2 3 4 .- 7. 9.0- I213 4 -1S. 1.jl7 - 16j19 .20121.22123-24i2S.2 272 292 I 0 *. w.a. 0 P.... 0’ 1 0 1 1TJ- / 4
The Zarghat quadrangle is located in the northern Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia between lat 26°30' and 27°00' N. and long 41°00' and 41°30 ' E. The area is underlain by three Precambrian volcanosedimentary units and a range of Precambrian dioritoid and granitoid plutonic intrusive rocks. Paleozoic(?) sandstone crops out in small areas in the northwestern part of the quadrangle, and a lobe of QuaternaryC?) basalt from Harrat Ithnain penetrates the southwest corner of the quadrangle.
Khalefah A. K. Al-Masaud
This paper presents the real reasons which constraint the application of the E-learning in higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia (Case study: Qassim University)and some suggested solutions. A questionnaire has been designed for the study include 48 paragraphs, divided into 5 parts, the first include the principle information, the second define how the technology can be used in the E-learning, the third deals with how to support the E-learning idea, the fourth part, asking the difficul...
Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Ansari, Abid A.
Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number of women with BC increased steadily from 1990-2010. On the basis of the number of cases, the percentage distribution of BC appears to be increasing. There were 1152 female BC cases in 2008 in comparison with 1308 in 2009, and 1473 in 2010. Breast cancer ranked first among females accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers (5378) in the year 2010. The average age at the diagnosis of BC was 48; weighted average was 49.8, and range 43-52. Conclusion: Among Saudi patients, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of BC, which occurs at an earlier age than in Western countries. Continued vigilance, mammographic screening, and patient education are needed to establish early diagnosis and perform optimal treatment. PMID:26446327
Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro
Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.
Aloufi, Abdulaziz D; Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; McNabb, Scott J N
Human brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease and is especially concerning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), where livestock importation is significant. We analyzed reported human brucellosis disease trends in KSA over time to help policymakers understand the magnitude of the disease and guide the design of prevention and control measures. By using data from the national registry from 2004 to 2012, we calculated the cumulative numbers by age group and months. Trends of incidence rates (IRs) by gender, nationality, and region were also calculated. We found that there was a greater number of cases (19,130) in the 15-44 years age group than in any other age group. The IRs significantly decreased from 22.9 in 2004 [95% confidence interval (CI)=22.3, 23.5] to 12.5 in 2012 (95% CI=12.1, 13). Males had a significantly greater IR than females. Most cases were reported during spring and summer seasons. The IR of Saudi citizens was significantly greater than that of non-Saudis, but this difference reduced over time. The IRs of Al-Qassim, Aseer, and Hail were in the highest 25th percentile. Young, male Saudi citizens living in highly endemic areas were at greatest risk of acquiring brucellosis. We recommend vaccinating susceptible animals against brucellosis and increasing the public's awareness of preventive measures.
Lubna Ibrahim Al Asoom
Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. Some evidences indicate its association with metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In the current study we aim to study the association of vitamin D level and indicators of adiposity in young Saudi females. Subjects and Methods. 87 young healthy Saudi females were recruited from University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Each subject filled vitamin D questionnaire and had exercise stress test to determine VO2 peak. Body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, and ratios were determined. Blood was analyzed for 25-OH vitamin D, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and differential cholesterol. Results. 25-OH vitamin D/body weight was negatively associated with waist circumference and waist/stature ratio. No significant difference was found between the groups of BMI with regard to the data of questionnaire or 25-OH vitamin D/body weight. Obese and overweight subjects had lower VO2 peak. Conclusion. In young Saudi females we found that the relative value of vitamin D to body weight is a better indicator of vitamin D status particularly in obese subjects and it is negatively associated with adiposity measures of waist circumference and waist/stature ratio.
Alsuraihi, Anas Khaleel; Almaqati, Ahmed Saeed; Abughanim, Sultan Adnan; Jastaniah, Nisreen Abdulrahman
Social media (SM), a virtual place where people can share, exchange, and communicate their ideas and knowledge, has become the new trend in communication and learning. This study aims to explore Saudi Arabian medical students' usage of SM and to discover the most common resources used in medical education. Furthermore, it aims to illustrate students' belief about the influence of SM on their learning. This cross-sectional study administered validated questionnaires to medical students from different universities in Saudi Arabia, via emails, Twitter, Facebook, and short message service. A non-probability sampling technique was utilized and a sample size of 381 students was arrived at, using 95% confidence interval and 5% margin of error, since the total number of medical students in Saudi Arabia is approximately 36,000. The total respondents were 657 students from 23 different Saudi Arabian medical schools (females: 60.5%, n=397; males: 39.5%, n=260). The questionnaires of 21% of the students (n=139) were excluded from the analysis since they were incomplete. The most common website used by both genders was YouTube (42.3%, n=185); however, males preferred using Twitter and Wikis (p=0.001). With regard to utilizing SM for learning, 95.8% (n=419) of the students believed that it is beneficial. Females stated that SM helps them link basic and clinical science (p=0.003). Medical schools need to improve the utilization of SM by their faculty and students by developing activities and encouraging the usage of SM in education.
Omar A. Al-Mohrej
Full Text Available Context: In Saudi Arabia, no studies have been conducted on the correlation between any possible cigarette′s price increase and its effects on cigarette consumption. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia and to predict the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in April and May 2013. Methods: We developed an Arabic questionnaire with information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, smoking history, and personal opinion on the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. The questionnaire was distributed in public places such as malls and posted on famous Saudi athlete media′s twitter accounts. Results: Among the 2057 included responses, 802 (39% were current smokers. The smokers′ population constituted of 746 (92% males, of which 546 (68% had a monthly income equal or greater to 800 US dollars, and 446 (55% were aged between 21 and 30 years. Multivariate analyses of the risk factors for smoking showed that male gender and older age were associated with greater risk. Despite the current low prices of 2.67 US dollars, 454 smokers (56% thought that cigarette prices are expensive. When asked about the price of cigarettes that will lead to smoking cessation, 443 smokers (55% expected that a price of 8.27 US dollars and more per pack will make them quit. Conclusions: Increasing the price of popular cigarettes pack from 2.67 US dollars to 8.27 US dollars is expected to lead to smoking cessation in a large number of smokers in the Saudi population.
Overstreet, William C.; Rossman, D.L.
The Wadi Wassat quadrangle covers an area of 2926 sq km in the southwestern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The west half of the quadrangle is underlain by crystalline rocks of the Arabian Shield, but in the eastern half of the quadrangle the Precambrian rocks are covered by Permian or older sandstone which is succeeded farther east by aeolian sands of Ar Rub' al Khali. The Shield consists of a sequence of unmetamorphosed to metamorphosed interlayered volcanic and sedimentary rocks intruded by igneous rocks ranging in composition from gabbro to syenite and in age from Precambrian to Cambrian(?). The volcanic rocks range in composition from andesite to rhyolite and in texture from agglomerate to thick, massive flows and lithic tuff. They are interlayered with conglomerate, fine-grained graywacke sandstone, calcareous graywacke, siltstone, tuffaceous laminated shale, pyritiferous sediment, carbonaceous shale, limestone, and dolomite. Most clastic debris is derived from andesite. In places the rocks are polymetamorphosed; elsewhere they are unmetamorphosed. The rocks on which this volcano-sedimentary eugeosynclinal sequence was deposited are not exposed in the area of the quadrangle. Reglonal dynamothermal metamorphism was .the dominant process affecting the volcanic-sedimentary rocks in the western part of the quadrangle. In the eastern part of the Precambrian area the chief metamorphic effect results from contact action along the walls of intrusive plutons. The oldest igneous rock to intrude the volcanic-sedimentary sequence, after the dikes and sills of the sequence itself, is granite gneiss and gneissic granodiorite. The gneiss is sparsely present in the quadrangle, but northwest of the quadrangle it forms an immense batholith which is one of the major geologic features of southwestern Arabia. However, the most common intrusive rocks of the quadrangle are a magnetic differentiation sequence that ranges in composition from gabbro and diorite to granite
Full Text Available Ahmed Aljohaney, Yasser Bawazir Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions and practices of internal medicine residents in the western region of Saudi Arabia regarding the implementation of do not resuscitate (DNR orders to improve future training practices among physicians. Methods: Medical residents involved in training programs in the western region of Saudi Arabia, including Jeddah, Makah, Medinah, and Taif, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey regarding DNR orders. The 16-question survey was distributed to residents in all training programs in the region using surveymonkey.com, and the results were collected and tabulated. Results: Of 364 residents, 157 completed the questionnaire, resulting in a 43% response rate. The study showed that most (66% internal medicine residents in the western region of Saudi Arabia participate in DNR discussions with patients and family or surrogate decision-makers. In addition, 43% were observed by faculty members, and half of them (51.9% reported feeling comfortable during these discussions. Furthermore, most residents believed that additional educational programs would enhance their competence in addressing issues related to DNR discussions. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for a structured curriculum to teach skills relating to end-of-life issues such as DNR orders to residents in the Saudi Arabian medical system. The majority of residents surveyed believe they would benefit from additional training in DNR discussions. Therefore, an evidence-based curriculum providing instruction for improving discussions regarding DNR orders would improve physician confidence and effectiveness in caring for critically ill patients. Keywords: medical residents, do not resuscitate, internal medicine training program, Saudi Arabia
Mostafa A. Abolfotouh
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and risk perception among Saudi nursing students, and to identify predictors of their willingness to provide care for patients with AIDS. A cross-sectional study of 260 baccalaureate nursing students at King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was done using a previously validated instrument. Students’ knowledge percentage mean score (PMS on AIDS was 72.93 ± 10.67 reflecting an average level of knowledge. There were many misconceptions about how AIDS is transmitted, for example, use of same toilets and bathrooms and washing clothes together (24.9%, swimming (53.7%, and coughing and sneezing (49.6%. Nursing students reported an overall negative attitude toward AIDS, with a PMS of 43.48 ± 9.21. The majority of students agreed that AIDS patients should be isolated from other patients (83%, and should not share the room with other noninfected patients (81.8%, and some reported that people living with AIDS deserve what has happened to them (24.7%. After controlling for confounders, students’ poor knowledge and negative attitude were associated only with having never been given nursing education as their primary university education “Stream 2 students” (p = .012 and p = .01, respectively. These findings have implications for development of teaching strategies and curricular approaches for nursing to address this health care issue.
A 2-year study investigated the attitudes of 63 Saudi medical residents and their 74 Western clinical teachers concerning the teacher-student relationship. Conflicts in perceptions in the first year were found to be largely resolved in the second year, possibly because of the study itself. (MSE)
Alaboudi, Abdulellah; Atkins, Anthony; Sharp, Bernadette; Balkhair, Ahmed; Alzahrani, Mohammed; Sunbul, Tamara
Despite emerging evidence about the benefits of telemedicine, there are still many barriers and challenges to its adoption. Its adoption is often cited as a failed project because 75% of them are abandoned or 'failed outright' and this percentage increases to 90% in developing countries. The literature has clarified that there is neither one-size-fit-all framework nor best-practice solution for all ICT innovations or for all countries. Barriers and challenges in adopting and implementing one ICT innovation in a given country/organisation may not be similar - not for the same ICT innovation in another country/organisation nor for another ICT innovation in the same country/organisation. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive scientific study has investigated these challenges and barriers in all Healthcare Facilities (HCFs) across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This research, which is undertaken based on the Saudi Telemedicine Network roadmap and in collaboration with the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH), is aimed at identifying the principle predictive challenges and barriers in the context of the KSA, and understanding the perspective of the decision makers of each HCF type, sector, and location. Three theories are used to underpin this research: the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the Technology-Organisation-Environment (TOE) theoretical framework, and the Evaluating Telemedicine Systems Success Model (ETSSM). This study applies a three-sequential-phase approach by using three mixed methods (i.e., literature review, interviews, and questionnaires) in order to utilise the source triangulation and the data comparison analysis technique. The findings of this study show that the top three influential barriers to adopt and implement telemedicine by the HCF decision makers are: (i) the availability of adequate sustainable financial support to implement, operate, and maintain the telemedicine system, (ii) ensuring conformity of
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…
Mehmood, Syed Imran; Norcini, John J.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.
Background: Career advice is an important instrument to help students with the proper specialty selection. The study aims (1) to explore the views of newly graduated doctors in Saudi Arabia about their experience with the current status of career support system during medical training and (2) to
Hoof, T.B. van; Steinhauff, D.M.; Hooker, N.P.
Unayzah Group correlation in Saudi Arabia is hindered by the lack of terrestrial fossils preserved in oxidized red-beds. Phytoliths are biogenic siliceous plant infillings and casts resistant to oxidation. In previous studies the presence of Biogenic Silica microfossils (Phytoliths) in Unayzah Group
Thorner, Anna R; Cao, Bin; Jiang, Terrence; Warner, Amy J; Bonis, Peter A
Background. UpToDate is an online clinical decision support resource that is used extensively by clinicians around the world. Digital surveillance techniques have shown promise to aid with the detection and monitoring of infectious disease outbreaks. We sought to determine whether UpToDate searches for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) could be used to detect and monitor MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Methods. We analyzed daily searches related to MERS in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during 3 outbreaks in these cities in 2014 and 2015 and compared them with reported cases during the same periods. We also compared UpToDate MERS searches in the affected cities to those in a composite of 4 negative control cities for the 2 outbreaks in 2014. Results. UpToDate MERS searches during all 3 MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia showed a correlation to reported cases. In addition, UpToDate MERS search volume in Jeddah and Riyadh during the outbreak periods in 2014 was significantly higher than the concurrent search volume in the 4 negative control cities. In contrast, during the baseline periods, there was no difference between UpToDate searches for MERS in the affected cities compared with the negative control cities. Conclusions. UpToDate search activity seems to be useful for detecting and monitoring outbreaks of MERS in Saudi Arabia.
Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain AK1 was isolated from Al-Ain Alhara, a thermal hot spring located 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia (16°56ʹN, 43°15ʹE). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,630,664 bp and encodes 2,799 genes.
Robertson, Margaret; Al-Zahrani, Abdulrahman
Success factors for integration of ICTs in higher education teaching and learning reveal a complex mixture of old and new paradigms. A review of the relevant literature and findings from research conducted in Saudi Arabia highlights the importance of actual and perceived self-efficacy within the new paradigms. The research reported reflects these…
Nowadays the use of information communications technology (ICT) is prevalent in higher education across all countries. This study focuses on the level of use of ICT among teachers at a leading university in Saudi Arabia. 16 in-depth interviews reveal that the majority of teachers do not make use of ICT in their teaching. A number of attitudes were…
Lafi, Feras Fawzi
Micrococcus luteus strain K39 is an endophyte bacterium isolated from roots of the desert plant Cyperus conglomeratus collected from the Red Sea shore, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. The draft genome sequence of strain K39 revealed a number of enzymes involved in salinity and oxidative stress tolerance or having herbicide-resistance activity.
Lafi, Feras F.; Ramirez-Prado, Juan S.; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B.
ABSTRACT Micrococcus luteus strain K39 is an endophyte bacterium isolated from roots of the desert plant Cyperus conglomeratus collected from the Red Sea shore, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. The draft genome sequence of strain K39 revealed a number of enzymes involved in salinity and oxidative stress tolerance or having herbicide-resistance activity. PMID:28126944
Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih
Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…
Zainab Al Mohammedali
Conclusion: Physiotherapy in respiratory care settings was positively regarded by nurses and physicians working in hospitals and health-care facilities in Saudi Arabia. The need for further education for physicians and nurses on the role of physiotherapy in respiratory care was highlighted; this would enable physiotherapy to develop and be further integrated into the respiratory care multidisciplinary team.
Hoof, T.B. van; Steinhauff, D.M.; Hooker, N.P.
Unayzah Group correlation in Saudi Arabia is hindered by the lack of terrestrial fossils preserved in oxidized red-beds. Phytoliths are biogenic siliceous plant infillings and casts resistant to oxidation. In previous studies the presence of Biogenic Silica microfossils (Phytoliths) in Unayzah Group
Alotaibi, Faihan; Almalki, Nabil
The present study sought to examine parents' perceptions of early interventions and related services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Saudi Arabia. In this study a survey was distributed to a sample of 80 parents with children who have ASD. Parents also were asked open-ended questions to enable them to provide suggestions. The…
Saqlain, Nadeem; Mahmood, Zahir
This study used qualitative research methods to explore English language teachers' perceptions about the use of technology for language learning at Northern Border University (NBU) in Saudi Arabia. Data collection relied on interviews. Stream of behaviour chronicles was also used as a strategy of non interactive data collection.14 non native…
Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad
Aptitude tests should predict student success at the university level. This study examined the predictive validity of the General Aptitude Test (GAT) in Saudi Arabia. Data for 27420 students enrolled at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University were analyzed. Of these students, 17565 were male students, and 9855 were female students. Multiple…
This study examines the level of psychographic attributes among the preparatory year students enrolled at the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The study sample consists of 209 students chosen with the help of random sampling and questionnaire survey was employed for data collection. Based on the findings, the entire study variables, which are…
Alabdulmenem, Fahad Mohammed
Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that allot substantial amount of government resources for education. Thus, it is important to measure how these resources are used to generate favorable academic outcomes for its nationals. In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to measure the relative efficiency of 25 public universities in…