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Sample records for eastern red cedar

  1. Comparative characterization of extractives in Alaskan Yellow, Eastern Red, and Western Red Cedars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderquita K. Moore; Doreen Mann; Gabriel Epstein; Phoebe Wagner; Brett Hinkforth; Jun Hyunji

    2017-01-01

    Softwoods, more specifically Cedars, are a set of tree species known to have extractive components with many different biological activities. Research has shown that certain compounds in Cedars are able to resist various forms of attack (microbial, fungal, insect, etc.). Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar, Cupressus/Chamacyparis...

  2. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  3. Development of wood decay in wound-initiated discolored wood of eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Logs of eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana L., with well-developed bands of light-colored wood ("included sapwood") within heartwood can be unsuitable for sawn wood products. This finding is in contrast to published information that the "included sapwood" is (1) a heartwood anomaly rather than sapwood and (2) its occurrence...

  4. Biomass accumulation and radiation use efficiency of honey mesquite and eastern red cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiniry, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Rangeland models that simulate hydrology, soil erosion and nutrient balance can be used to select management systems which maximize profits for producers while they minimize adverse impacts on water quality. Values are needed for parameters that describe the growth of invading woody species in order to allow simulation of their competition with grasses. Three attributes useful for describing and quantifying plant growth are: the potential leaf area index (LAI) or ratio of leaf area divided by ground area; the light extinction coefficient (k) that is used to calculate the fraction of light intercepted by leaves, applying Beer’s law; and the radiation-use efficiency (RUE) or amount of dry biomass produced per unit of intercepted light. Objectives in this study were to measure LAI, k, and RUE for eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa), without competing plants, as a first step toward simulating their growth. Seedlings were planted in the field at Temple, Texas, USA in early 1992 and kept free of competition from herbaceous plants. During 1993, 1994 and 1995 data were collected on biomass, leaf area and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for individual trees. Both tree species showed exponential biomass increases. At the end of the 1995 growing season, mean LAI values were 1.16 for cedar and 1.25 for mesquite. Mean k values were 0.34 for mesquite and 0.37 for cedar. Radiation use efficiency for aboveground biomass was 1.60±0.17 (mean±standard deviation) g per MJ of intercepted PAR for cedar and 1.61±0.26 for mesquite. The rapid growth in 1995 was accompanied by greater leaf area and thus greater summed intercepted PAR. These values are critical for quantifying growth of these two species. (author)

  5. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  6. Potential in using elemental concentrations in radial increments of old growth eastern red cedar to examine the chemical history of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyette, R.; McGinnes, E.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Research examines the potential of utilizing elemental concentrations in the wood of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) to make inferences about past changes in atmospheric and site chemistry. Crossdated growth increments from live trees and remnant wood are analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP Scan) for elements with potential environmental information. Radial heartwood ring series from 300 to 700 years in length are analyzed in 20 year increments for 37 different elements. Evidence for minimal radial translocation of elements in the heartwood is presented. The radial concentration of elements in the bole is found to be coincident with early smelting activities. 7 references, 4 figures

  7. Molecular and optical properties of tree-derived dissolved organic matter in throughfall and stemflow from live oaks and eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbins, Aron; Silva, Leticia M.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Van Stan, John T.

    2017-03-01

    Studies of dissolved organic matter (DOM) transport through terrestrial aquatic systems usually start at the stream. However, the interception of rainwater by vegetation marks the beginning of the terrestrial hydrological cycle making trees the headwaters of aquatic carbon cycling. Rainwater interacts with trees picking up tree-DOM, which is then exported from the tree in stemflow and throughfall. Stemflow denotes water flowing down the tree trunk, while throughfall is the water that drips through the leaves of the canopy. We report the concentrations, optical properties (light absorbance) and molecular signatures (ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry) of tree-DOM in throughfall and stemflow from two tree species (live oak and eastern red cedar) with varying epiphyte cover on Skidaway Island, Savannah, Georgia, USA. Both stemflow and throughfall were enriched in DOM compared to rainwater, indicating trees were a significant source of DOM. The optical and molecular properties of tree-DOM were broadly consistent with those of DOM in other aquatic ecosystems. Stemflow was enriched in highly colored DOM compared to throughfall. Elemental formulas identified clustered the samples into three groups: oak stemflow, oak throughfall and cedar. The molecular properties of each cluster are consistent with an autochthonous aromatic-rich source associated with the trees, their epiphytes and the microhabitats they support. Elemental formulas enriched in oak stemflow were more diverse, enriched in aromatic formulas, and of higher molecular mass than for other tree-DOM classes, suggesting greater contributions from fresh and partially modified plant-derived organics. Oak throughfall was enriched in lower molecular weight, aliphatic and sugar formulas, suggesting greater contributions from foliar surfaces. While the optical properties and the majority of the elemental formulas within tree-DOM were consistent with vascular plant-derived organics, condensed aromatic formulas were

  8. Differential Consumption of Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by Avian and Mammalian Guilds: Implications for Tree Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased abundance of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginianus), a native but invasive species in the Great Plains, has been associated with changes in ecosystem functioning and landscape cover. Knowledge of the main consumers and dispersal agents of eastern redcedar fruits is e...

  9. Exposure to an environment containing the aromatic red cedar, Juniperus virginiana: procarcinogenic, enzyme-inducing and insecticidal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine, J R

    1975-11-01

    (1) Shavings from the Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) were examined for three diverse biological properties, i.e. enzyme induction, procarcinogenicity and insecticidal activity. (2) The ability of a cedar environment to stimulate liver drug-metabolizing enzymes in mice was confirmed by lowered values for barbiturate sleeping time. (3) In susceptible strains of mice (C3H-Avy, C3H-AvyfB and CBA/J) the use of cedar shavings as bedding increased significantly the incidence of spontaneous tumors of the liver and mammary gland, and also reduced the average time at which tumors appeared. (4) Cedar and some of its derivatives (Oil of Cedarwood, cedrene, cedrol) disrupted the reproductive and developmental cycle of a number of insects, including the Peanut Trash Bug (Elasmolomus sordidus), the Indian Meal Moth (Plodia interpunctella) and the Forage Mite (Tyrophagus putrescentiae).

  10. Regional climatic and North Atlantic Oscillation signatures in West Virginia red cedar over the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Buckley, Brendan; Cook, Ed; Wilson, Rob

    2012-03-01

    We describe a millennial length (~ 1500-yr) tree-ring chronology developed from West Virginia (WVA), USA red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) ring widths that is significantly correlated with local to regional temperature and precipitation for the region. Using ensemble methods of tree-ring standardization, above average ring widths are indicated for the period between ~ 1000 and 1300 CE, the approximate time of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the most recent major warm episode prior to the modern era. The chronology then transitions to more negative overall growth persisting through much of the subsequent period known as the Little Ice Age (LIA). While WVA cedar growth levels during the MCA are broadly similar to the 20th century mean, the most positive values during the MCA are associated with RCS-standardized chronologies, which pseudoproxy tests reveal are likely biased artificially positive, warranting further investigation. This cedar record is significantly correlated with the NAO, due to the tendency for warmer, wetter conditions to occur in the eastern-central USA during the NAO's positive phase. These types of conditions are inferred for this cedar chronology during the MCA period, during which NAO reconstructions suggest a persistently-positive NAO state.

  11. Growth comparison of northern white-cedar to balsam fir and red spruce by site class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; John C. Brissette

    2006-01-01

    Though northern white-cedar is a common and economically important component of the Acadian Forest of Maine and adjacent Canada, there is little regional data about the growth and development of this species. Sixty sites in northern Maine were used to compare growth of cedar to that of red spruce and balsam fir along a range of site classes and light exposures. On...

  12. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the response to public comments and the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the Red Cedar Gathering Company, Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  13. Proposed Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proposed synthetic minor NSR permit, public notice bulletin, and administrative permit docket for the Red Cedar Gathering Company, Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in Colorado.

  14. Red Cedar Invasion Along the Missouri River, South Dakota: Cause and Consequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    This research evaluates drivers of and ecosystem response to red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) invasion of riparian surfaces downstream of Gavin's Point Dam on the Missouri River. Gavin's Point Dam changed the downstream geomorphology and hydrology of the river and its floodplain by reducing scouring floods and flood-deposited sediment. The native cottonwood species (Populus deltoides) favors cleared surfaces with little to no competitors to establish. Now that there are infrequent erosive floods along the riparian surfaces to remove competitor seeds and seedlings, other vegetation is able to establish. Red cedar is invading the understory of established cottonwood stands and post-dam riparian surfaces. To assess reasons and spatial patterns for the recent invasion of red cedar, a stratified random sampling of soil, tree density and frequency by species, and tree age of 14 forest stands was undertaken along 59 river kilometers of riparian habitat. Soil particle size was determined using laser diffraction and tree ages were estimated from ring counts of tree cores. As an indicator of ecosystem response to invasion, we measured organic matter content in soil collected beneath red cedar and cottonwood trees at three different depths. Of 565 red cedars, only two trees were established before the dam was built. We applied a multiple regression model of red cedar density as a function of cottonwood density and percent sand (63-1000 microns in diameter) in StatPlus© statistical software. Cottonwood density and percent sand are strongly correlated with invasion of red cedar along various riparian surfaces (n = 59, R2 = 0.42, p-values cedar and cottonwood trees (p-value > 0.05 for all depths). These findings suggest that the dam's minimization of downstream high-stage flows opened up new habitat for red cedar to establish. Fluvial geomorphic surfaces reflect soil type and cottonwood density and, in turn, predict susceptibility of a surface to red cedar invasion. Nonetheless

  15. Evaluating the Invasion of Red Cedar (Juniperus viriginiana) Downstream of Gavins Point Dam, Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Gavins Point Dam, the final dam on the main-stem Missouri River, alters downstream river form and function. Throughout a 59-mile downstream reach, the dam reduces overbank flooding and lowers the water surface by 1-3 meters. Under the dam-created hydro-geomorphic conditions, native cottonwood trees are unable to regenerate. The limited regeneration of native riparian cottonwoods, the lowered water surface, and the reduced overbank flooding creates a terrace environment within the riparian habitat. Consequently, red cedars, a native upland tree, are invading this new terrace-like riparian environment. To this end, we apply Bayesian statistical models to investigate patterns of red cedar riparian invasion and assess ecosystem function patterns along this flow-regulated reach. We set up plots within cottonwood stands along a 59-km reach downstream of Gavins Point Dam. Within each plot, we collected soil samples, litter samples, stem densities of trees, and collected cores of the largest cottonwood and largest red cedar in each plot. To assess influences of red cedar on soil indicators of ecosystem function and general patterns of ecosystem function within the study area, we measured organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity, and hydrophobicity. To determine drivers and patterns of invasion and ecosystem function we conducted Bayesian linear regressions and means comparison tests. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation. However, according to our tree age data and stem density data red cedars existed at a lower population than today. We found that 2 out of 565 red cedars established before the dam was completed. Also, we found no significant difference in soil properties between soils with established red cedar and soils with established cottonwood. By studying soil texture data, and interpreting fluvial geomorphic surfaces in the field and via aerial photography, we found soil texture generally reflects the type of fluvial surface

  16. Aqueous leachate from western red cedar: effects on some aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, G B; Dawson, H J; Hrutfiord, B F; Whitney, R R

    1976-01-01

    Water-soluble extractives from western red cedar heartwood, bark, and foliage were investigated for their toxicity to aquatic organisms. The heartwood lignins and bark extractives were found to be moderately toxic, but the foliage terpenes and heartwood tropolones were more toxic, causing 50% mortality to coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry at 0.33 and 2.7 mg/liter, respectively. Tropolones were significantly less toxic to invertebrates than to free-swimming stages of the fish tested. Fry were found to be the stage of development of coho salmon (O. kisutch) most sensitive to the tropolones, and eyed eggs the least sensitive. Sensitivity of the coho fry to tropolones was moderated by previous sublethal exposure or the presence of a chelatable cation. Results from field studies and a leaching study indicate that directly releasing cedar leachate from landfills or allowing logging debris to enter streams should be avoided. 13 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  17. ABOVE AND BELOW GROUND INTERACTIONS IN THE AGROFORESTAL ASSOCIATION 'RED CEDAR-PERSIAN LIME-CHAYA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Mao Estanislao Aguilar-Luna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Above and below ground interactions were analyzed in the agroforestal association 'red cedar-Persian lime-chaya', to know the initial optimum planting density (PD, in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Red cedar and Persian lime were placed in a 'Nelder' circle of 3154 m2 which consisted of 20 concentric circles alternating red cedars and Persian limes to 1.50 m apart and 10 plants per circle; chaya rectangular frame was set at 1.50 x 3.00 m, superimposed on the 'Nelder' circle. Defined eight PD 2602 to 3772 pl·ha-1 with 10 repetitions, to evaluate the length of main root (LMR, radical exploration range (RER, below ground interaction (BGI, plant height (PH, crown diameter (CD, above ground interaction (AGI and soil fertility (SF. The growth intraspecific he present statistical difference (P≤0.05 when moving from one PD to another PD, while the growth interespecific manifested different growth habit. The agroforestal association propitious in soil decreased phosphorous ±2 %, and increases organic matter ±14 % and nitrogen ±10 % on all PD. The BGI was increased in direct relation with the PD, reaching its highest value (64±5.8 % to 3772 pl·ha-1; the AGI also increased in direct relation with the PD, its highest value (52±3.1 % went to 3772 pl·ha-1; therefore, to higher PD increased BGI and AGI, at 20 months after planting.

  18. Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Orozco, Yohanna; Freitag, F.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.

    Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity...... between treated and non-treated samples, and to examine the use of molecular techniques for assessing fungal community structure in a ground-proximity-test located in Hilo, Hawaii. Fungi were recovered in culture after 6, 12, or 18 months, yielding 178 unique DNA sequences that represented 85 taxa...

  19. A simple method to estimate radiation interception by nursery stock conifers: a case study of eastern white cedar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Goudriaan, J.; Stilma, E.S.C.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    A simple method was developed to estimate the fraction radiation intercepted by small eastern white cedar plants (Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant'). The method, which describes the crop canopy as rows of cuboids, was compared with methods used for estimating radiation interception by crops with

  20. Flood-inundation maps for Grand River, Red Cedar River, and Sycamore Creek near Lansing, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew; Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2015-08-26

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a total of 19.7 miles of the Grand River, the Red Cedar River, and Sycamore Creek were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Lansing, Michigan, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, show estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at three USGS streamgages: Grand River at Lansing, MI (04113000), Red Cedar River at East Lansing, MI (04112500), and Sycamore Creek at Holt Road near Holt, MI (04112850). Near-real-time stages at these streamgages can be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at all of these sites.

  1. Comparison of Organic Matter Dynamics in Soil between Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Forest and Adjacent Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Forest Established on Flatland

    OpenAIRE

    Terumasa, Takahashi; Akiko, Minami; Yoshito, Asano; Tatsuaki, Kobayashi; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba Universit; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University:(Present)Hashikami town office; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University

    1999-01-01

    In order to clarify the effects of tree species on organic matter dynamics in soil, we investigated the amount of forest floor material, leaf litter decomposition rate, soil chemical characteristics, soil respiration rate and cellulose decomposition rate in a Japanese cedar forest (cedar plot) and an adjacent Japanese red pine forest (pine plot) established on a flatland. The amount of forest floor material in the cedar plot was 34.5 Mg ha^ which was greater than that in the pine plot. Becaus...

  2. Test Excavations at the Cedar Grove Site (3LA97): A Late Caddo Farmstead on the Red River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    trees around Maya Lake, just eastward of the Cedar Grove site (Figure 3). There appears to be some lcorrelation in this region between floodplain prairies...Press, New York. Davis, E. Mott 1970 Archaeological and historical assessment of the Red River Basin in Texas. In Archeological and historical... Archaeological Conference, Atlanta. 113 4 -- - - - - .. .. .- .. - . . . Webb, Clarence B. 1945 A second historic Caddo site at Natchitoches, Louisiana

  3. Adsorption of Acid Red 18 by Activated Carbon Prepared from Cedar Tree: Kinetic and Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Samarghandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Textile effluents are one of the main environmental pollution sources and contain toxic compounds which threat the environment. For that reason, the activated carbon prepared from Cedar Tree was used for removal of Acid Red 18 as an Azo Dye. Material and Methods: Activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation and was used in batch system for dye removal. Effect of various experimental parameters such as pH (3 to11, initial dye concentration (50, 75 and 100 mg/L, contact time (1 to 120 min and adsorbent dosage (2 to 10 g/L were investigated. Equilibrium data was fitted onto Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. In addition, pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to investigate the kinetic of adsorption process. Results: Results shows that dye removal was increase with increase in adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration. In addition, higher removal efficiency was observed in low pH (pH=3. At 120 min contact time, pH=3, 6 g/L adsorbent dosage and 100 mg/L of initial dye concentration, more than 95% of dye was removed. Equilibrium data was best fitted onto Freundlich isotherm model. According to Langmuir constant, maximum sorption capacity was observed to be 51/28 mg/L. in addition pseudo second order model best describe the kinetic of adsorption of Acid Red 18 onto present adsorbent. Conclusion: The results of present work well demonstrate that prepare activated carbon from Pine Tree has higher adsorption capacity toward Acid Red 18 Azo dye and can be used for removal of dyes from textile effluents.

  4. Coupling legacy geomorphic surface facies to riparian vegetation: Assessing red cedar invasion along the Missouri River downstream of Gavins Point dam, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Samantha L.; Knox, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Floods increase fluvial complexity by eroding established surfaces and creating new alluvial surfaces. As dams regulate channel flow, fluvial complexity often decreases and the hydro-eco-geomorphology of the riparian habitat changes. Along the Missouri River, flow regulation resulted in channel incision of 1-3 m within the study area and disconnected the pre-dam floodplain from the channel. Evidence of fluvial complexity along the pre-dam Missouri River floodplain can be observed through the diverse depositional environments represented by areas of varying soil texture. This study evaluates the role of flow regulation and depositional environment along the Missouri River in the riparian invasion of red cedar downstream of Gavins Point dam, the final dam on the Missouri River. We determine whether invasion began before or after flow regulation, determine patterns of invasion using Bayesian t-tests, and construct a Bayesian multivariate linear model of invaded surfaces. We surveyed 59 plots from 14 riparian cottonwood stands for tree age, plot composition, plot stem density, and soil texture. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation, but at a much lower density than today. We found 2 out of 565 red cedars established prior to regulation. Our interpretation of depositional environments shows that the coarser, sandy soils reflect higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces that were geomorphically active islands and point bars prior to flow regulation and channel incision. The finer, clayey soils represent lower energy depositional pre-dam surfaces, such as swales or oxbow depressions. When determining patterns of invasion for use in a predictive statistical model, we found that red cedar primarily establishes on the higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces. In addition, as cottonwood age and density decrease, red cedar density tends to increase. Our findings indicate that flow regulation caused hydrogeomorphic changes within the study area that

  5. Contact allergy to finished woods in furniture and furnishings: a small allergic contact dermatitis epidemic to western red cedar in sauna interior decoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huilaja, L; Kubin, M E; Riekki, R

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dust remains uncommon and most cases are occupational. Contact allergy to finished wooden products is even more rare and only few cases of contact dermatitis to wooden furnishings and furniture are described. During 2012-2014 surprisingly many patients with dermatitis associated to sauna baths were referred to our clinic. We report three novel cases with allergic contact dermatitis to western red cedar due to exposure during sauna baths. Three cases of non-occupational contact dermatitis to western red cedar were confirmed by patch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to interior decoration or furniture is a rarity, but can be induced by novel exposures, like western red cedar in sauna interior decoration. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Cedar Grove: An Interdisciplinary Investigation of a Late Caddo Farmstead in the Red River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-31

    render all rimless Natchitoches Engraved body sherds (Figure 1 l-48h). These could be from an unrecorded variety unsortable to type. This is a good...Aloerta, Alford and Arlis. At Cedar Grove the only types mnat renders these 17 Dewey rims unsertaoie to type. Two that use these patterns are Foster...i’auconte) ) 0-H) extent of .ts distribution before contact. It was used in California (Ross 1940; Heizer and Treganza 1944). It aiso occurred in

  7. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral

  8. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Madhav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m of that observed in the core populations (15 m. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82 than in the peripheral (Nb = 48 populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short

  9. A simple method to estimate radiation interception by nursery stock conifers: a case study of eastern white cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronk, A.A.; Goudriaan, J.; Stilma, E.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    A simple method was developed to estimate the fraction radiation intercepted by small eastern white cedar plants (Thuja occidentalis ‘Brabant’). The method, which describes the crop canopy as rows of cuboids, was compared with methods used for estimating radiation interception by crops with homogeneous canopies and crops grown in rows. The extinction coefficient k was determined at different plant arrangements and an average k-value of 0.48 ± 0.03 (R 2 = 0.89) was used in the calculations. Effects of changing plant characteristics and inter- and intra-row plant distances were explored. The fraction radiation intercepted that was estimated with the method for rows of cuboids was up to 20% and for row crops up to 8% lower than estimated with the method for homogeneous canopies at low plant densities and a LAI of 1. The fraction radiation intercepted by small plants of Thuja occidentalis ‘Brabant’ was best estimated by the simple method described in this paper

  10. Genetic consequences of fragmentation in "arbor vitae," eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.), toward the northern limit of its distribution range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huaitong; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves; Paul, Véronique; Chen, Cungen

    2012-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that marginal fragmented populations of eastern white cedar (EWC) are genetically isolated due to reduced pollen and gene flow. In accordance with the central-marginal model, we predicted a decrease in population genetic diversity and an increase in differentiation along the latitudinal gradient from the boreal mixed-wood to northern coniferous forest. A total of 24 eastern white cedar populations were sampled along the north-south latitudinal gradient for microsatellite genotyping analysis. Positive F(is) values and heterozygote deficiency were observed in populations from the marginal (F(is) = 0.244; P(HW) = 0.0042) and discontinuous zones (F(is) = 0.166; P(HW) = 0.0042). However, populations from the continuous zone were in HW equilibrium (F(is) = -0.007; P(HW) = 0.3625). There were no significant latitudinal effects on gene diversity (H(s)), allelic richness (AR), or population differentiation (F(st)). Bayesian and NJT (neighbor-joining tree) analyses demonstrated the presence of a population structure that was partly consistent with the geographic origins of the populations. The impact of population fragmentation on the genetic structure of EWC is to create a positive inbreeding coefficient, which was two to three times higher on average than that of a population from the continuous zone. This result indicated a higher occurrence of selfing within fragmented EWC populations coupled with a higher degree of gene exchange among near-neighbor relatives, thereby leading to significant inbreeding. Increased population isolation was apparently not correlated with a detectable effect on genetic diversity. Overall, the fragmented populations of EWC appear well-buffered against effects of inbreeding on genetic erosion.

  11. Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. Cedar Elm

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Stransky; Sylvia M. Bierschenk

    1990-01-01

    Cedar elm (Ulmus cassifolia) grows rapidly to medium or large size in the Southern United States and northeastern Mexico, where it may sometimes be called basket elm, red elm, southern rock elm, or olmo (Spanish) It usually is found on moist, limestone soils along water courses with other bottomland trees, but it also paws on dry limestone hills. The...

  12. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer--eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Madhav; Rajora, Om P

    2012-04-05

    Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral populations have several

  13. Safety and long-term immunological effects of CryJ2-LAMP plasmid vaccine in Japanese red cedar atopic subjects: A phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Anagnostou, Athanasia; Fitz-Patrick, David; Hearl, William; Heiland, Teri

    2017-12-02

    Japanese Red Cedar (JRC) pollen induced allergy affects one third of Japanese and the development of effective therapies remains an unachieved challenge. We designed a DNA vaccine encoding CryJ2 allergen from the JRC pollen and Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP-1) to treat JRC allergy. These Phase IA and IB trials assessed safety and immunological effects of the investigational CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine in both non-sensitive and sensitive Japanese expatriates living in Honolulu, Hawaii. In the Phase IA trial, 6 JRC non-sensitive subjects and 9 JRC and/or Mountain Cedar (MC) sensitive subjects were given 4 vaccine doses (each 4mg/1ml) intramuscularly (IM) at 14-day intervals. Nine JRC and/or MC sensitive subjects were given 4 doses (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM at 14-day intervals. The safety and functional biomarkers were followed for 132 d. Following this, 17 of 24 subjects were recruited into the IB trial and received one booster dose (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM approximately 300 d after the first vaccination dose to which they were randomized in the first phase of the trial. All safety endpoints were met and all subjects tolerated CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations well. At the end of the IA trial, 10 out of 12 JRC sensitive and 6 out of 11 MC sensitive subjects experienced skin test negative conversion, possibly related to the CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations. Collectively, these data suggested that the CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine is safe and may be immunologically effective in treating JRC induced allergy.

  14. 75 FR 13668 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cedar Rapids, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ...-0916; Airspace Docket No. 09-ACE-12] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cedar Rapids, IA AGENCY: Federal... Cedar Rapids, IA, to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at The Eastern Iowa Airport, Cedar Rapids, IA. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety...

  15. Development of clonal matrices of australian red cedar in different substrates under fertilizer doses Desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro Australiano em diferentes substratos sob doses de fertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Peres Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate fertilizers doses in different substrates for growth and development of clonal matrices of Australian Red Cedar [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Five substrates were evaluate, with proportions by volume, the first consisting of 100% of Multiplant florestal®, the second of 50% vermiculite, 20% carbonized rice hulls, 20% soil and 10% coconut fiber, the third with 50% soil and 50% sand, the fourth was composed by 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% soil and 40% coconut fiber and the fifth with 65% of Multiplant florestal®, 25% vermiculite and 10% carbonized rice hulls. The fertilizers doses applied were 0.0; 0.3; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4 of fertilization suggested by Malavolta (1980 for vases. The characteristics evaluated were: collar diameter of the matrices, production of dry mater by shoots, root system and total and accumulation of nutrients by shoot at the end of the experimental period of 150 days. The Australian Red Cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, as showed by the better development obtained with higher fertilizer doses than those suggested by Malavolta (1980. The substrate three provided the worst development to clonal matrices while the substrates 1, 4 and 5 provided the best environment for the development considering all the fertilizer doses and all variables.Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos com taxas de fertilizantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro australiano [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliados cinco substratos, com as proporções em volume, sendo o primeiro composto por 100% Multiplant florestal®, o segundo de 50% Vermiculita, 20% casca de arroz carbonizada, 20% terra e 10% fibra de coco, o terceiro com 50% terra e 50% areia, o quarto com proporção de 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% terra e 40% de fibra de coco e

  16. Response of understory vegetation over 10 years after thinning in an old-growth cedar and cypress plantation overgrazed by sika deer in eastern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Tamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest management strategies such as thinning have long been used to enhance ecosystem functions, especially in plantations. Thinning in plantations with high deer density, however, may not yield a desired increase in understory vegetation because deer graze on germinating plants after thinning. Here, we examine the changes in understory vegetation after thinning in plantations that have been overgrazed by sika deer to provide insight into the effects of thinning on ecosystem functions such as soil conservation and biological diversity. Methods We conducted our survey in the Tanzawa Mountains of eastern Japan. We surveyed the change in understory vegetation within and outside of three deer exclosures on a single slope with three levels of understory vegetation cover: sparse (1%, exclosure “US”, moderate (30%, exclosure “MM”, and dense (80%, exclosure “LD” over 10 years after a 30% thinning of an old-growth cedar and cypress plantation which was overgrazed by sika deer. Results Understory vegetation cover, biomass and species richness increased within and outside the “US” and “MM” exclosures after thinning, and biomass was greater within than outside the exclosures at 10 years after thinning. Unpalatable species dominated both “US” and “MM” exclosures before thinning, and trees and shrubs dominated within the exclosures over time after thinning. In contrast, unpalatable, grazing-tolerant, perennial, and annual species increased outside the “US” and “MM” exclosures. No noticeable changes were observed within and outside the “LD” exclosure when compared with the “US” and “MM” exclosures. Conclusions Our results suggest that thinning a stand by 30% based on volume resulted in an increase in understory vegetation cover mainly composed of both unpalatable and grazing-tolerant species in a plantation forest where understory vegetation is sparse or moderate and sika deer density is high. We

  17. Weevil - red rot associations in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Clifford H. Foster

    1957-01-01

    The presence of red rot (Fomes pini) in pruned white pine stands has often been attributed to the act of pruning. This assumption may well be true for heavily stocked stands where thinning has been neglected and pruning scars are slow to heal. The question then arises: How do we account for the red rot often found in vigorous unpruned white pine stands? Evidence...

  18. Ongoing decline of shark populations in the Eastern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2016-06-30

    Information on the abundance and diversity of Red Sea elasmobranchs is notoriously scarce, even though sharks are among the most profitable fisheries of the region. Effective conservation would ideally entail baselines on pristine conditions, yet no such data is available for the Red Sea. To collect distribution and abundance data on Red Sea elasmobranchs, we conducted a dedicated longline and Baited Remote Underwater Video system (BRUVs) sampling program along the entire Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia over the course of two years. Both survey techniques were opportunistically employed at central and southern Saudi Arabian (SA) Red Sea reef systems. In addition, BRUVs were employed in the northern SA Red Sea and at selected reef systems in Sudan. Shark catch per unit effort (CPUE) data for BRUVs and longline surveys were compared to published data from non-Red Sea reef systems. This comparison revealed CPUE estimates several orders of magnitude lower for both survey methods in the SA Red Sea compared to other reef systems around the world. Catch per unit effort values of BRUVs on Sudanese reefs on the contrary were within the range of estimates from various locations where sharks are considered common. We argue that decades of heavy fishing pressure on Red Sea marine resources has significantly altered the community structure of SA Red Sea reefs. There is an urgent need to establish effective management strategies for species of highest conservation concern. Our results have the potential to be used as a baseline, if such management strategies were to be established. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  19. Atlantic white-cedar being eliminated by excessive animal damage in south Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; H. A. Somes

    1965-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar, which grows in the swamps of the New Jersey Pine Region, is a prized timber species. Most areas now growing white-cedar have been clearcut 4 or 5 times since 1700. In contrast, the associated swamp hardwoods-red maple, blackgum, and sweetbay-rarely produce wood that is valuable enough to harvest.

  20. The CEDAR Project

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, J M; Waugh, B M; Stirling, W J; Whalley, M R

    2005-01-01

    We describe the plans and objectives of the CEDAR project (Combined e-Science Data Analysis Resource for High Energy Physics) newly funded by the PPARC e-Science programme in the UK. CEDAR will combine the strengths of the well established and widely used HEPDATA database of HEP data and the innovative JetWeb data/Monte Carlo comparison facility, built on the HZTOOL package, and will exploit developing grid technology. The current status and future plans of both of these individual sub-projects within the CEDAR framework are described, showing how they will cohesively provide (a) an extensive archive of Reaction Data, (b) validation and tuning of Monte Carlo programs against these reaction data sets, and (c) a validated code repository for a wide range of HEP code such as parton distribution functions and other calculation codes used by particle physicists. Once established it is envisaged CEDAR will become an important Grid tool used by LHC experimentalists in their analyses and may well serve as a model in ...

  1. The first CEDAR counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The first differential Cerenkov counter with chromatic corrections (called CEDAR) successfully tested at the PS in July 75. These counters were used in the SPS hadronic beams for particle identification. Some of the eight photomultipliers can be seen: they receive the light reflected back through the annular diaphragm. René Maleyran stands on the left.

  2. Chemical and energetic characterization for utilization of thinning and slab wood from Australian red cedar Caracterização química e energética para aproveitamento da madeira de costaneira e desbaste de cedro australiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Bufalino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to quantify and compare chemical and energetic properties of Australian red cedar Toona ciliata MJ Roem var. australis (FV Muell. C. DC wood from thinning and primary sawing for reconstituted panel and energy production; and also to verify the efficiency of extractive removal by water treatments, in order to improve wood quality for particleboard production. Lignin, holocellulose, extractives, ash, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur contents and higher heating value were determined. Two water treatments for extractive removal were performed: immersion in cold water for 24 hours and immersion in boiling water for 2 hours. Lower values of ash, holocellulose, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and higher contents of lignin, total extractives, hydrogen and nitrogen contents were found for wood from primary sawing residues. For other properties, the values were significantly equal. Australian red cedar wood presents high extractive content, being water pre-treatment necessary for the production of some particleboards. Higher heating values of materials indicate potential for energy production.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.13

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi quantificar e comparar as propriedades químicas e energéticas da madeira de cedro australiano Toona ciliata MJ Roem var. australis (FV Muell. C. DC proveniente de desbaste e desdobro para produção de painéis reconstituídos e energia, além de verificar a eficiência da remoção de extrativos por tratamentos em água para viabilizar a produção de painéis de partículas. Os teores de lignina, holocelulose, extrativos totais, cinzas, carbono, hidrogênio, oxigênio, nitrogênio, enxofre e poder calorífico superior foram determinados. Dois tratamentos em água para remoção de extrativos foram realizados nos materiais: imersão em água fria durante 24 horas e em água fervente durante 2 horas. Foram encontrados menores teores de cinzas, holocelulose

  3. Spanish-cedar : Cedrela spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1964-01-01

    From the earliest days of exploration and colonization in tropical America, Spanish-cedar has been one of the most important timber trees of the area. The wood became an article for the export trade during the 1800’s when the cigar industry demanded the use of Spanish-cedar for packing cigars. These fragrant boxes were commonplace before rising costs in the 1930’s...

  4. Preliminary report on the geology of the Red River Valley drilling project, eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-two wells, 26 of which penetrated the Precambrian, were drilled along the eastern edge of the Williston Basin in the eastern tier of counties in North Dakota and in nearby counties in northwestern Minnesota. These tests, along the Red River Valley of the North, were drilled to study the stratigraphy and uranium potential of this area. The drilling program was unsuccessful in finding either significant amounts of uranium or apparently important shows of uranium. It did, however, demonstrate the occurrence of thick elastic sections in the Ordovician, Jurassic and Cretaceous Systems, within the Red River Valley, along the eastern margins of the Williston Basin which could serve as host rocks for uranium ore bodies

  5. Water use and carbon exchange of red oak- and eastern hemlock-dominated forests in the northeastern USA : implications for ecosystem-level effects of hemlock woolly adelgid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.L.; Kuzeja, P.S.; Singh, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study used the eddy flux method to measure water use and carbon exchange of a red oak forest and an eastern hemlock-dominated forest located in north-central Massachusetts over a period of 2 years. The study demonstrated that water use by the red oak reached approximately 4 mm per day -1 . A maximum rate of 2 mm per day -1 was used by the eastern hemlock forest. Carbon (C) uptake rates were higher in the red oak forest than in the eastern hemlock forest. Measurements of sap flux suggested that transpiration of red oak and black birches in the eastern hemlock forest were approximately twice as high as transpiration rates observed for eastern hemlock. However, annual C storage of eastern hemlock was almost equal to C storage rates of the red oak forest, due to net C uptake by the hemlock during an unusually warm fall and spring. The study showed that C storage by eastern hemlock forests will increase as a result of climatic warming. Although forest water use will decrease as a result of eastern hemlock due to insect disturbances, the replacement of eastern hemlock by deciduous species such as red oak will increase water use during the summer-time in areas where hemlock is a predominant species. 24 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs

  6. Stable hydrogen isotopes record the summering grounds of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortney L. Pylant

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bats face numerous threats associated with global environmental change, including the rapid expansion of wind-energy facilities, emerging infectious disease, and habitat loss. An understanding of the movement and migration patterns of these highly dispersive animals would help reveal how spatially localized the impacts from these threats are likely to be on bat populations, thus aiding in their conservation. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H can be used to infer regions where bats have foraged during the summer molt season, thus allowing an assessment of summering location and distance of movement of bats sampled during other times of year. However, a major impediment to the application of δ2H for inference of bat movements is that the relationship between δ2H of bat hair and precipitation tends to be species specific and is still unknown for some key species of conservation concern. We addressed this issue by using geo-referenced museum specimens to calibrate the relationship between δ2H of hair (δ2Hhair and long-term δ2H of growing-season precipitation (δ2HGSprecip at the site of collection for eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis, one of the main species of bats experiencing large numbers of fatalities at wind-energy facilities in North America. Based on comparison of δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip values for males we estimated a period of molt of June 14–August 7. Within this period, male and female red bats exhibited a significant positive relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip. These results establish the relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip for red bats, which is necessary for the use of δ2Hhair to infer the movement and migration patterns of this important species. These results provide a critical resource to conservation biologists working to assess the impacts of environmental change on bat populations.

  7. Iron oxide minerals in dust of the Red Dawn event in eastern Australia, September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Cattle, Stephen R.; Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Yauk, Kimberly; Flagg, Cody B.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Morman, Suzette A.; Breit, George N.

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide minerals typically compose only a few weight percent of bulk atmospheric dust but are important for potential roles in forcing climate, affecting cloud properties, influencing rates of snow and ice melt, and fertilizing marine phytoplankton. Dust samples collected from locations across eastern Australia (Lake Cowal, Orange, Hornsby, and Sydney) following the spectacular “Red Dawn” dust storm on 23 September 2009 enabled study of the dust iron oxide assemblage using a combination of magnetic measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Red Dawn was the worst dust storm to have hit the city of Sydney in more than 60 years, and it also deposited dust into the Tasman Sea and onto snow cover in New Zealand. Magnetization measurements from 20 to 400 K reveal that hematite, goethite, and trace amounts of magnetite are present in all samples. Magnetite concentrations (as much as 0.29 wt%) were much higher in eastern, urban sites than in western, agricultural sites in central New South Wales (0.01 wt%), strongly suggesting addition of magnetite from local urban sources. Variable temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy (300 and 4.2 K) indicates that goethite and hematite compose approximately 25–45% of the Fe-bearing phases in samples from the inland sites of Orange and Lake Cowal. Hematite was observed at both temperatures but goethite only at 4.2 K, thereby revealing the presence of nanogoethite (less than about 20 nm). Similarly, hematite particulate matter is very small (some of it d < 100 nm) on the basis of magnetic results and Mössbauer spectra. The degree to which ferric oxide in these samples might absorb solar radiation is estimated by comparing reflectance values with a magnetic parameter (hard isothermal remanent magnetization, HIRM) for ferric oxide abundance. Average visible reflectance and HIRM are correlated as a group (r2 = 0.24), indicating that Red Dawn ferric oxides have

  8. Tree ring proxies show physiological responses of eastern red cedar to increased CO2 and SO4 concentrations over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. B.; Spal, S.; Maxwell, S.; Nippert, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    We examined the relationships between tree growth during the past century and the ratio of internal carbon dioxide concentration to atmospheric CO2 concentration (ci/ca) and instantaneous water-use efficiency (iWUE) by analyzing δ13C in tree rings of Juniperus virginiana growing on a limestone outcrop in West Virginia, US. Tree rings from years 1909 to 2008 from five Juniperus virginiana trees that ranged from 116 years to over 300 years in age were measured for basal area growth and used for isotopic analysis. Instantaneous WUE increased from approximately 75 to 112μmol mmol-1 over the past century, representing a 49% increase. In addition, we found a positive relationship between iWUE and the basal area increase over this time period, suggesting the increase in WUE translated into greater growth of the Juniperus trees. Typically, we might expect that increased growth of these trees reflects increased photosynthetic rates and decreased stomatal conductance rates resulting from increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, this area of the central Appalachian Mountains has historically received some of the highest rates of acid deposition in the nation resulting from being downwind from an abundance of coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River valley. Our results show that ci/ca declined 14% between 1909 and 1980, but increased 9.6% between 1980 and 2009. We hypothesize that the directional change in ci/ca that occurred around 1980 was due to a reduction in sulfur emissions imposed by the Clean Air Act, environmental legislation enacted in 1970 and amended in 1990. Sulfur deposition measured by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) in West Virginia near our Juniperus site shows a 53% decline between 1979 and 2009 and these NADP data show a highly significant negative correlation with ci/ca of Juniperus over this time period. Previously, experimental studies have shown that acidic sulfur mist leaches calcium from leaves causing a reduction in stomatal control and lowering internal leaf CO2 concentrations. Thus, these tree-ring data show proxy evidence for physiological responses to increased CO2 over the previous century, but also provide a biotic signature illustrating the role of environmental legislation to alleviate environmental pollution at large spatial and temporal scales.

  9. Japanese red cedar as an alternative species for wood production in the State of Paraná Criptoméria como espécie alternativa para produção de madeira no Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Yukio Shimizu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Japanese red cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (L. F. D. Don. is an important alternative tree species for
    wood production in the State of Paraná. This study reports on the performance of this species from different geographic origins in comparison to a previously introduced population of unknown origin. The test plantations were established in three locations in the State of Paraná. The sites differed in soil types as well as in mean annual rainfall. Provenance performances varied in frost tolerance and in growth traits. Among planting sites, Cantagalo was the most productive due to better soil quality than in other sites. Also, the mean annual rainfall at Cantagalo site is higher (1,831 mm than in Rio Negro and Colombo (1,420 mm and 1,407 mm, respectively. The seed origins with the greatest potential for wood production in the State of Paraná are the Japanese prefectures of Nara, Miyagi, and Shimane, where mean annual temperatures are higher than 12 oC. Seeds brought from cold sites such as Toyama and Akita prefectures resulted in slow growing stands in the State of Paraná.A criptoméria (Cryptomeria japonica (L. F. D. Don. é uma espécie alternativa potencial para produção de madeira no Estado do Paraná. Neste estudo, foram comparadas as produtividades de plantios feitos com
    sementes de várias origens com um material genético existente no País, introduzido de origem desconhecida. Os plantios experimentais foram estabelecidos em três locais, com tipos de solos e precipitações  luviométricas
    médias anuais distintos. Houve variações entre origens quanto à intensidade de danos causados pelas geadas
    e, também, quanto ao crescimento das árvores. Dentre os locais em que foram plantados os experimentos, o maior potencial de produção de madeira de criptoméria foi verificado em Cantagalo, onde o solo é caracterizado como Cambissolo de basalto e há maior precipitação pluviométrica (1.831 mm/ano, em compara

  10. Movement Ecology of the Reef Manta Ray Manta alfredi in the Eastern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Braun, Camrin D.

    2013-07-01

    Many well-studied elasmobranch populations have recently exhibited significant decline. The limited data related to fisheries and sightings for many unstudied or poorly understood populations indicate that these are also suffering. Directed fisheries and more cryptic threats such as entanglement and vessel strike represent significant risk to mobulid rays, arguably one of the most vulnerable elasmobranch groups. Very little information currently exists describing the basic ecology of manta rays or quantifying anthropogenic threats and impacts; however, recent efforts have drastically improved the body of knowledge available for these species, including oceanographic influences on movement, seasonal migration, and mating behaviors. Nevertheless, Red Sea mantas remain completely enigmatic. In this thesis, Chapter 1 details results from tagging 18 reef manta rays Manta alfredi in the eastern Red Sea using satellite and acoustic tag technology and demonstrates that mantas occupy areas with high human traffic. The combined satellite and acoustic techniques define both regional movements and ‘hotspots’ of habitat use where there is significant potential for manta-human interaction. I also present opportunistic sighting data that corroborate anthropogenic impacts on this population. Chapter 2 explores the vertical component of the nine satellite tags that were deployed on Manta alfredi as described in the previous chapter. Seven tags returned adequate data for analysis. Three of the seven were physically recovered yielding full archival datasets of depth, temperature, and light levels every 10-15 seconds for over 2.6 5 million cumulative data points. Mantas frequented the upper 10 m during the day and occupied deeper water through nocturnal periods. Individuals also exhibited deep diving behavior as deep as 432 m, extending the known depth range of the species. An investigation of 76 high-resolution deep dives suggests gliding is a significant behavioral component of

  11. Summer Roost Tree Selection by Eastern Red, Seminole, and Evening Bats in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Ozier, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotraction of six eastern red bats, six seminole bats and twenty-four evening bats to 55, 61, and 65 day roosts during 1996 to 1997 in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. For each species, testing was done for differences between used roost trees and randomly located trees. Also tested for differences between habitat characteristics surrounding roost trees and randomly located trees. Eastern Red and Seminole bats generally roosted in canopies of hardwood and pine while clinging to foilage and small branches. Evening bats roosted in cavities or under exfoliating bark in pines and dead snags. Forest management strategies named within the study should be beneficial for providing roosts in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

  12. Genetic approaches to the conservation of migratory bats: a study of the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J. Vonhof

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. However, for most bat species we have no knowledge of the size of populations and their demographic trends, the degree of structuring into discrete subpopulations, and whether different subpopulations use spatially segregated migratory routes. Here, we utilize genetic data from eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis, one of the species most highly affected by wind power development in North America, to (1 evaluate patterns of population structure across the landscape, (2 estimate effective population size (Ne, and (3 assess signals of growth or decline in population size. Using data on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, we demonstrate that this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population. Further, using coalescent estimates we estimate that the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions of individuals. The high levels of gene flow and connectivity across the population of eastern red bats indicate that monitoring and management of eastern red bats must integrate information across the range of this species.

  13. Can the eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) persist in an acidified landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Cheryl A; Beier, Colin M.; Ducey, Peter K; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Bailey, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Hardwood forests of eastern North America have experienced decades of acidic deposition, leading to soil acidification where base cation supply was insufficient to neutralize acid inputs. Negative impacts of soil acidity on amphibians include disrupted embryonic development, lower growth rates, and habitat loss. However, some amphibians exhibit intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, suggesting the potential for local adaptation in areas where soils are naturally acidic. The eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) is a highly abundant top predator of the northern hardwood forest floor. Early research found that P. cinereus was sensitive to acidic soils, avoiding substrates with pH habitats. However, recent studies have documented P. cinereus populations in lower pH conditions than previously observed, suggesting some populations may persist in acidic conditions. Here, we evaluated relationships between organic horizon soil pH and P. cinereus abundance, adult health (body size and condition), and microhabitat selection, based on surveys of 34 hardwood forests in northeastern United States that encompass a regional soil pH gradient. We found no associations between soil pH and P. cinereus abundance or health, and observed that this salamander used substrates with pH similar to that available, suggesting that pH does not mediate their fine-scale distributions. The strongest negative predictor of P. cinereus abundance was the presence of dusky salamanders (Desmognathus spp.), which were most abundant in the western Adirondacks. Our results indicate that P. cinereus occupies a wider range of soil pH than has been previously thought, which has implications for their functional role in forest food webs and nutrient cycles in acid-impaired ecosystems. Tolerance of P. cinereus for more acidic habitats, including anthropogenically acidified forests, may be due to local adaptation in reproductively isolated populations and/or generalist

  14. Hydrologic variability in the Red River of the North basin at the eastern margin of the northern Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiche, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The temporal and spatial variations in streamflow in the Red River of the North basin on the eastern margin of the Great Plains are described and related to the various climatic conditions associated with the flows. The Red River drains about 290,000 square kilometers in parts of Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, and a 200 year flood history is available from documents of fur traders, explorers and missionaries, as well as from gauging-station records. The coefficient of variation of mean annual streamflow ranges from ca 110% for streams in the southern and western parts of the Assiniboine River basin to ca 50% for streams along the eastern margin of the Red River of the North basin. Decadal streamflow variability is great in the Red River of the North basin, with mean annual streamflow for the 10 years ending 1940 of 489 cubic hectometers and for the 10 years ending 1975 of 3,670 cubic hectometers. Construction of the Rafferty Reservoir on the Souris River and the Almeda Reservoir on Moose Mountain Creek will cause changes in water quality in the Souris River, with most problems occurring during protracted low flow conditions

  15. Brushy Basin drilling project, Cedar Mountain, Emergy County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiloh, K.D.; McNeil, M.; Vizcaino, H.

    1980-03-01

    A 12-hole drilling program was conducted on the northwestern flank of the San Rafael swell of eastern Utah to obtain subsurface geologic data to evaluate the uranium resource potential of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic). In the Cedar Mountain-Castle Valley area, the Brushy Basin Member consists primarily of tuffaceous and carbonaceous mudstones. Known uranium mineralization is thin, spotty, very low grade, and occurs in small lenticular pods. Four of the 12 drill holes penetrated thin intervals of intermediate-grade uranium mineralization in the Brushy Basin. The study confirmed that the unit does not contain significant deposits of intermediate-grade uranium

  16. Port-Orford-Cedar Root Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Roth; Robert D. Jr. Harvey; John T. Kliejunas

    1987-01-01

    The most serious disease of Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.) is a root disease caused by the fungus Phytophthora lateralis. Nursery stock, ornamentals, and timber trees are subject to attack. Other species of Chamaecyparis are less susceptible than Port-Orford-cedar, and trees of other genera are not affected.

  17. The influence of habitat structure on genetic differentiation in red fox populations in north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Jacinta; McDevitt, Allan D; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Ruczyńska, Iwona; Górny, Marcin; Wójcik, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    The red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) has the widest global distribution among terrestrial carnivore species, occupying most of the Northern Hemisphere in its native range. Because it carries diseases that can be transmitted to humans and domestic animals, it is important to gather information about their movements and dispersal in their natural habitat but it is difficult to do so at a broad scale with trapping and telemetry. In this study, we have described the genetic diversity and structure of red fox populations in six areas of north-eastern Poland, based on samples collected from 2002-2003. We tested 22 microsatellite loci isolated from the dog and the red fox genome to select a panel of nine polymorphic loci suitable for this study. Genetic differentiation between the six studied populations was low to moderate and analysis in Structure revealed a panmictic population in the region. Spatial autocorrelation among all individuals showed a pattern of decreasing relatedness with increasing distance and this was not significantly negative until 93 km, indicating a pattern of isolation-by-distance over a large area. However, there was no correlation between genetic distance and either Euclidean distance or least-cost path distance at the population level. There was a significant relationship between genetic distance and the proportion of large forests and water along the Euclidean distances. These types of habitats may influence dispersal paths taken by red foxes, which is useful information in terms of wildlife disease management.

  18. Characterization of non-calcareous 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil: applicability in wall tile manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, S. J.G.; Holanda, J. N.F., [Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos - LAMAV-CCT, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this work the use of 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ) as raw material for the manufacture of wall tile was investigated. A wide range of characterization techniques was employed, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain-size analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The wall tile body was prepared by the dry process. The tile pieces were uniaxially pressed and fired between 1080 - 1180 deg C using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength. The development of the microstructure was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. It was found that the 'thin' red clay is kaolinitic type containing a substantial amount of quartz. The results also showed that the 'thin' red clay could be used in the manufacture of wall tiles, as they present properties compatible with those specified for class BIII of ISO 13006 standard. (author)

  19. Plutonium, americium, 90Sr and 137Cs in bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Gaca, P.; Blazej, S.; Kitowski, I.

    2008-01-01

    90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 137 Cs activity concentrations are presented in the jaw bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from eastern Poland. The short description of the applied radiochemical method is presented. Activity concentrations for 90 Sr ranged between 2.2±0.7 and 41.4±4.7 Bq/kg (aw = ash weight). Average results for plutonium and americium are on the level of 10 mBq/kg (aw). No clear relationship was observed among the radionuclide concentrations. The samples analyzed do not show elevated contamination levels when compared with results of bones of small animals (rodent or insectivorous mammals) determined previously, so no accumulation of bone seeking isotopes on higher step of food-chain is concluded. (author)

  20. Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford; Katherine P. O' Neill; Harry W. Godwin

    2008-01-01

    Woodland salamander responses to either traditional grazing or silvopasture systems are virtually unknown. An information-theoretic modelling approach was used to evaluate responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to silvopasture and meadow conversions in southern West Virginia. Searches of area-constrained plots and artificial...

  1. Physical condition, sex, and age-class of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in forested and open habitats of West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford

    2012-01-01

    Nonforested habitats such as open fields and pastures have been considered unsuitable for desiccation-prone woodland salamanders such as the Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Recent research has suggested that Plethodon cinereus may not only disperse across but also reside within open habitats including fields,...

  2. Physical body parameters of red-crowned cranes Grus japonensis by sex and life stage in eastern Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masako; Shimura, Ryoji; Uebayashi, Akiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Iima, Hiroko; Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Teraoka, Hiroki; Makita, Kohei; Hiraga, Takeo; Momose, Kunikazu; Masatomi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Red-crowned (or Japanese) cranes Grus japonensis are native to eastern Hokkaido, Japan--the island population, and mainland Asia--the continental population that migrates from breeding grounds along the Amur River Basin to winter in east China and the Korean Peninsula. The island population was reduced to about 50-60 birds in early part of the 20th century. Since 1950s, the population has increased to more than 1,300 as a consequence of human-provided food in winter, resulted in change of their habitats and food resource. From the carcasses of 284 wild cranes from the island population, collected in Hokkaido since 1976 until 2010, we measured six physical parameters (body weight and lengths of body, wing, tarsus, tail and exposed culmen) and divided into groups by sex and three developmental stages (juvenile, yearling and adult). All parameters of males were larger than those of females at the same stage. Total body length of females tends to grow up earlier than males, in contrast to body weight. Obvious time trends were not observed in these all parameters during 34 years for these six categories measured, except total length of male juveniles, which showed a significant increasing trend. These results provide the first extensive data on body size and mass in the wild red-crowned cranes.

  3. Selected water-quality data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids well fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 2006-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer approximately 40 to 80 feet below land surface. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality of the aquifer since 1992. Cooperative reports between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, surface-water-groundwater interaction, and pesticides in groundwater and surface water. Water-quality analyses were conducted for major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. Physical characteristics (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were measured in the field and recorded for each water sample collected. This report presents the results of routine water-quality data-collection activities from January 2006 through December 2010. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance, and water-quality analyses are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  4. Influence of soil site class on growth and decay of northern white-cedar and two associates in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.V. Hofmeyer; R.S. Seymour; L.S. Kenefic

    2009-01-01

    Basal area growth of outwardly sound northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) was compared with that of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) across site and light exposure class gradients on 60 sites throughout northern Maine. Once adjusted for sapwood area,...

  5. Vegetation Analysis in the Red Sea-Eastern Desert Ecotone at the Area between Safaga and South Qusseir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. Sheded

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work is concerned with the studying the impact of environmental conditions on the vegetation in the arid ecotone located between Red Sea and Eastern Desert from Safaga to south Qusseir. Ninety eight quadrats inside 13 transects were selected to cover the environmental gradient across the ecotone, from the coastal region to the boundary of Eastern Desert. Forty five species were recorded belonged to 24 different families and 38 genera. The perennial species were 38 while the annuals were seven species. Zygophyllum coccineum had the highest presence value (89.8% followed by Tamarix nilotica (56.1% and Zilla spinosa (51.02%. Chamaephytes and Hemicryptophytes were the most prevailed life-forms. Chrological analysis exhibited that SaharoSindian and Sahro-Sindian with its extension to Sudano-Zambezian elements were the most dominant. TWINSPAN classification technique produced three vegetation groups include nine clusters at the fourth level. These groups identified according to the first and second dominant species as follows: Convolvulus hystrix - Panicum turgidum, Tamarix aphylla - Limonium pruinosum and Nitraria retusa - Tamarix nilotica. DECORANA results indicated a reasonable segregation among these groups along the ordination axis 1 and 2. Vegetation analysis showed that ecotonal clusters have highest number of species/cluster, high species richness and high species turnover. Therefore, the largest group existed in the ecotone (34 species while the desert group contained eight species and the coastal group included three species. Among the estimated soil variables in this study, pH, coarse sand, HCO3-, SO42- , clay and PO43- have the highest effect on species distribution. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR was the effective factor in detecting the ecotonal species, Aeluropus lagopoides and Limonium pruinosum.

  6. Groundwater balance in the Khor Arbaat basin, Red Sea State, eastern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Abdalla E. M.; Zeielabdein, Khalid A. Elsayed; Babikir, Ibrahim A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Khor Arbaat basin is the main source of potable water supply for the more than 750,000 inhabitants of Port Sudan, eastern Sudan. The variation in hydraulic conductivity and storage capacity is due to the heterogeneity of the sediments, which range from clay and silt to gravely sand and boulders. The water table rises during the summer and winter rainy seasons; it reaches its lowest level in the dry season. The storage capacity of the Khor Arbaat aquifer is estimated to be 21.75 × 106 m3. The annual recharge through the infiltration of flood water is about 1.93 × 106 m3. The groundwater recharge, calculated as underground inflow at the ‘upper gate’, is 1.33 × 105 m3/year. The total annual groundwater recharge is 2.06 × 106 m3. The annual discharge through underground outflow at the ‘lower gate’ (through which groundwater flows onto the coastal plain) is 3.29 × 105 m3/year. Groundwater discharge due to pumping from Khor Arbaat basin is 4.38 × 106 m3/year on average. The total annual groundwater discharge is about 4.7 × 106 m3. A deficit of 2.6 × 106 m3/year is calculated. Although the total annual discharge is twice the estimated annual recharge, additional groundwater flow from the fractured basement probably balances the annual groundwater budget since no decline is observed in the piezometric levels.

  7. Effects of Florida Red Tides on histone variant expression and DNA methylation in the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Rodriguez-Casariego, Javier; Garcia-Souto, Daniel; Diaz, Gabriel; Smith, Abraham; Pasantes, Juan Jose; Rand, Gary; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2017-05-01

    Massive algal proliferations known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) represent one of the most important threats to coastal areas. Among them, the so-called Florida Red Tides (FRTs, caused by blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and associated brevetoxins) are particularly detrimental in the southeastern U.S., causing high mortality rates and annual losses in excess of $40 million. The ability of marine organisms to cope with environmental stressors (including those produced during HABs) is influenced by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter resulting in phenotypic changes caused by heritable modifications in gene expression, without involving changes in the genetic (DNA) sequence. Yet, studies examining cause-effect relationships between environmental stressors, specific epigenetic mechanisms and subsequent responses are still lacking. The present work contributes to increase this knowledge by investigating the effects of Florida Red Tides on two types of mechanisms participating in the epigenetic memory of Eastern oysters: histone variants and DNA methylation. For that purpose, a HAB simulation was conducted in laboratory conditions, exposing oysters to increasing concentrations of K. brevis. The obtained results revealed, for the first time, the existence of H2A.X, H2A.Z and macroH2A genes in this organism, encoding histone variants potentially involved in the maintenance of genome integrity during responses to the genotoxic effect of brevetoxins. Additionally, an increase in H2A.X phosphorylation (γH2A.X, a marker of DNA damage) and a decrease in global DNA methylation were observed as the HAB simulation progressed. Overall, the present work provides a basis to better understand how epigenetic mechanisms participate in responses to environmental stress in marine invertebrates, opening new avenues to incorporate environmental epigenetics approaches into management and conservation programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Florida Red Tides on histone variant expression and DNA methylation in the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria [Environmental Epigenetics Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Rodriguez-Casariego, Javier [Environmental Epigenetics Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment Laboratory, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Garcia-Souto, Daniel [Departamento de Bioquimica, Xenetica e Inmunoloxia, Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain); Diaz, Gabriel [Environmental Epigenetics Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Smith, Abraham [Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment Laboratory, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Pasantes, Juan Jose [Departamento de Bioquimica, Xenetica e Inmunoloxia, Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain); Rand, Gary [Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment Laboratory, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Eirin-Lopez, Jose M., E-mail: jeirinlo@fiu.edu [Environmental Epigenetics Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Massive algal proliferations known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) represent one of the most important threats to coastal areas. Among them, the so-called Florida Red Tides (FRTs, caused by blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and associated brevetoxins) are particularly detrimental in the southeastern U.S., causing high mortality rates and annual losses in excess of $40 million. The ability of marine organisms to cope with environmental stressors (including those produced during HABs) is influenced by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter resulting in phenotypic changes caused by heritable modifications in gene expression, without involving changes in the genetic (DNA) sequence. Yet, studies examining cause-effect relationships between environmental stressors, specific epigenetic mechanisms and subsequent responses are still lacking. The present work contributes to increase this knowledge by investigating the effects of Florida Red Tides on two types of mechanisms participating in the epigenetic memory of Eastern oysters: histone variants and DNA methylation. For that purpose, a HAB simulation was conducted in laboratory conditions, exposing oysters to increasing concentrations of K. brevis. The obtained results revealed, for the first time, the existence of H2A.X, H2A.Z and macroH2A genes in this organism, encoding histone variants potentially involved in the maintenance of genome integrity during responses to the genotoxic effect of brevetoxins. Additionally, an increase in H2A.X phosphorylation (γH2A.X, a marker of DNA damage) and a decrease in global DNA methylation were observed as the HAB simulation progressed. Overall, the present work provides a basis to better understand how epigenetic mechanisms participate in responses to environmental stress in marine invertebrates, opening new avenues to incorporate environmental epigenetics approaches into management and conservation programs.

  9. Effects of Florida Red Tides on histone variant expression and DNA methylation in the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Rodriguez-Casariego, Javier; Garcia-Souto, Daniel; Diaz, Gabriel; Smith, Abraham; Pasantes, Juan Jose; Rand, Gary; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M.

    2017-01-01

    Massive algal proliferations known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) represent one of the most important threats to coastal areas. Among them, the so-called Florida Red Tides (FRTs, caused by blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and associated brevetoxins) are particularly detrimental in the southeastern U.S., causing high mortality rates and annual losses in excess of $40 million. The ability of marine organisms to cope with environmental stressors (including those produced during HABs) is influenced by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter resulting in phenotypic changes caused by heritable modifications in gene expression, without involving changes in the genetic (DNA) sequence. Yet, studies examining cause-effect relationships between environmental stressors, specific epigenetic mechanisms and subsequent responses are still lacking. The present work contributes to increase this knowledge by investigating the effects of Florida Red Tides on two types of mechanisms participating in the epigenetic memory of Eastern oysters: histone variants and DNA methylation. For that purpose, a HAB simulation was conducted in laboratory conditions, exposing oysters to increasing concentrations of K. brevis. The obtained results revealed, for the first time, the existence of H2A.X, H2A.Z and macroH2A genes in this organism, encoding histone variants potentially involved in the maintenance of genome integrity during responses to the genotoxic effect of brevetoxins. Additionally, an increase in H2A.X phosphorylation (γH2A.X, a marker of DNA damage) and a decrease in global DNA methylation were observed as the HAB simulation progressed. Overall, the present work provides a basis to better understand how epigenetic mechanisms participate in responses to environmental stress in marine invertebrates, opening new avenues to incorporate environmental epigenetics approaches into management and conservation programs.

  10. Mountain cedar allergens found in nonpollen tree parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, D W; Goetz, M A; Whisman, B A

    1995-09-01

    Mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen is the principal aeroallergen in south central Texas from late December through February. The major mountain cedar allergen is a 40-kD glycoprotein, gp40. To identify allergens in mountain cedar wood, leaves, and berries and to detect mountain cedar allergen in smoke from burning male or female trees. SDS-PAGE plus mountain cedar human sIgE and monoclonal antibody immunoblots identified mountain cedar allergens within pollen and nonpollen tree part extracts. IgE immunoblots identified a single wood allergen at 36 kD and three berry allergens at 36, 26-27, and 21 kD, in addition to known pollen allergens. Mountain cedar monoclonal antibody bound an allergen epitope present not only on 40, 33, and 28-kD pollen allergens, but also on 36 and 32-kD wood allergens, and the 26-27-kD berry allergen. Immunoblot studies detected no mountain cedar allergen in leaves and no allergen in smoke from burning male and female trees. Allergens constituted a much smaller percentage of extractable protein in wood and berries than in pollen. Mountain cedar berry allergen content is too small to give credence to the ingestion of berries as a folk medicine treatment of mountain cedar pollinosis. In addition, while smoke from burning mountain cedar trees may be irritating, it contains no allergens that could cause allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

  11. Offshore observations of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis in the Mid-Atlantic United States using multiple survey methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaylyn K Hatch

    Full Text Available Little is known about the migration and movements of migratory tree-roosting bat species in North America, though anecdotal observations of migrating bats over the Atlantic Ocean have been reported since at least the 1890s. Aerial surveys and boat-based surveys of wildlife off the Atlantic Seaboard detected a possible diurnal migration event of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis in September 2012. One bat was sighted approximately 44 km east of Rehoboth Beach, Delaware during a boat-based survey. Eleven additional bats were observed between 16.9 and 41.8 km east of New Jersey, Delaware, and Virginia in high definition video footage collected during digital aerial surveys. Observations were collected incidentally as part of a large baseline study of seabird, marine mammal, and sea turtle distributions and movements in the offshore environment. Digital survey methods also allowed for altitude estimation for several of these bats at >100 m above sea level. These observations provide new evidence of bat movements offshore, and offer insight into their flight heights above sea level and the times of day at which such migrations may occur.

  12. Selected Water-Quality Data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids Well Fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer at approximately 40 to 80 feet deep. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality near the well fields since 1992. Previous cooperative studies between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, evaluation of surface and ground-water interaction, assessment of pesticides in groundwater and surface water, and to evaluate water quality near a wetland area in the Seminole well field. Typical water-quality analyses included major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. In addition, two synoptic samplings included analyses of additional pesticide degradates in water samples. Physical field parameters (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were recorded with each water sample collected. This report presents the results of water quality data-collection activities from January 1999 through December 2005. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance samples, water-quality analyses, and statistical summaries are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly and synoptic sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  13. Care at home for elderly – lessons learnt from the Swiss Red Cross “Integrated Home Care” in Eastern Europe/CIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rutschmann, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The Swiss Red Cross (SRC) is supporting local partners in Eastern Europe/CIS in developing services to allow elderly a dignified ageing in their homes. SRC promotes integrated medico-social home care services in agreement with the local partners, their strategies and capacities. “Help to self-help” is crucial besides the provision of good quality low cost services, accessible for people in need. In many post-Soviet countries, cooperation between Health and Social Ministries is r...

  14. A New Species of Megastigmus Dalman (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) Reared from Seeds of Atlantic White Cedar (Cupressaceae), with Notes on Infestation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Turgeon; K. Kamijo; G. DeBarr

    1997-01-01

    A new species, Megastigmus thyoides Kamijo (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), which emerged from seeds of Atlantic white cedar, Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P., collected in eastern United States is described and illustrated. This is the first record of this genus exploiting seeds of Cupressaceae in the Nearctic region. An average of 7% of the seeds collected from five sites...

  15. Concentrations of Ca and Mg in early stages of sapwood decay in red spruce, eastern hemlock, red maple, and paper birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jody Jellison; Jon Connolly; Jonathan Schilling

    2007-01-01

    The decay of coarse woody debris is a key component in the formation of forest soil and in the biogeochemical cycles of Ca and Mg. We tracked changes in density and concentration of Ca and Mg in sapwood of red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and...

  16. Admixture of Eastern and Western European Red Deer Lineages as a Result of Postglacial Recolonization of the Czech Republic (Central Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Koubek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Due to a restriction of the distributional range of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) during the Quaternary and subsequent recolonization of Europe from different refugia, a clear phylogeographical pattern in genetic structure has been revealed using mitochondrial DNA markers. In Central Europe, 2 distinct, eastern and western, lineages of European red deer are present; however, admixture between them has not yet been studied in detail. We used mitochondrial DNA (control region and cytochrome b gene) sequences and 22 microsatellite loci from 522 individuals to investigate the genetic diversity of red deer in what might be expected to be an intermediate zone. We discovered a high number of unique mtDNA haplotypes belonging to each lineage and high levels of genetic diversity (cyt b H = 0.867, D-loop H = 0.914). The same structuring of red deer populations was also revealed by microsatellite analysis, with results from both analyses thus suggesting a suture zone between the 2 lineages. Despite the fact that postglacial recolonization of Central Europe by red deer occurred more than 10000 years ago, the degree of admixture between the 2 lineages is relatively small, with only 10.8% admixed individuals detected. Direct translocations of animals by humans have slightly blurred the pattern in this region; however, this blurring was more apparent when using maternally inherited markers than nuclear markers. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Ventilatory accommodation of oxygen demand and respiratory water loss in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, T J; Munn, A J; Blaney, C E; Krockenberger, A; Maloney, S K

    2000-01-01

    We studied ventilation in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), respectively, within the range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) from -5 degrees to 45 degrees C. At thermoneutral temperatures (Ta=25 degrees C), there were no differences between the species in respiratory frequency, tidal volume, total ventilation, or oxygen extraction. The ventilatory patterns of the kangaroos were markedly different from those predicted from the allometric equation derived for placentals. The kangaroos had low respiratory frequencies and higher tidal volumes, even when adjustment was made for their lower basal metabolism. At Ta>25 degrees C, ventilation was increased in the kangaroos to facilitate respiratory water loss, with percent oxygen extraction being markedly lowered. Ventilation was via the nares; the mouth was closed. Differences in ventilation between the two species occurred at higher temperatures, and at 45 degrees C were associated with differences in respiratory evaporative heat loss, with that of M. giganteus being higher. Panting in kangaroos occurred as a graded increase in respiratory frequency, during which tidal volume was lowered. When panting, the desert red kangaroo had larger tidal volumes and lower respiratory frequencies at equivalent T(a) than the eastern grey kangaroo, which generally inhabits mesic forests. The inference made from this pattern is that the red kangaroo has the potential to increase respiratory evaporative heat loss to a greater level.

  18. The EASTNET Project: Extending the Network of Climate-Sensitive Tree-Ring Chronologies From the Eastern United States for Reconstructing the Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Climate and Drought Over the Past Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, B. M.; Cook, E. R.

    2002-12-01

    Recently, a network of gridded PDSI reconstructions for the contiguous United States was produced, based on the available network of drought-sensitive tree-ring chronologies (Cook et al. 1999). Analyses were constrained to the common period of 1700 - 1979 due to the limitations of the available tree-ring data. While several chronologies from the western U.S. span 1,000 years or more, very few chronologies from the eastern U.S. covered even the past 500 years. The objective of this project, funded by the National Science Foundation's ESH program, is to extend the tree-ring chronology network from the eastern U.S. with chronologies spanning the past 500-1,000 years. This aim is being achieved by sampling in areas that have escaped the effects of development, logging and major disturbance such as fire. The two main target species are Thuja occidentalis (eastern white cedar) and Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar). The primary terrain types are on cliffs, rocky outcrops, and other areas that have been difficult to access. We have already developed chronologies from Wisconsin, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Virginia that span from 500 to 1500 years. The temporal depth of these chronologies is being extended through the exploitation of "sub-fossil" wood found at these sites, in the form of standing-dead stems and downed and buried logs. We are also currently pursuing leads in Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey Pennsylvania, Kentucky and North Carolina where old cedar trees have either been reported or where terrain types match criteria developed for this project. In this paper we discuss the current status of the network, and explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of climate and drought across the eastern US for the past 500 years and more. We use our preliminary network to explore the regional expression of climate anomalies such as drought. Our analyses so far demonstrates multicentennial variability suggestive

  19. INVESTIGATION THE BEHAVIOR OF MODIS OCEAN COLOR PRODUCTS UNDER THE 2008 RED TIDE IN THE EASTERN PERSIAN GULF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghanea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical properties of water undergo serious variations under red tide (RT outbreak. During RT conditions, algal blooms spread out in the estuarine, marine and fresh waters due to different triggering factors such as nutrient loading, marine currents, and monsoonal winds. The Persian Gulf (PG was a talent region subjected to different RTs in recent decade. A massive RT started from the Strait of Hormuz in October 2008 and extended towards the northern parts of the PG covering more than 1200 km of coastlines. The bloom of microorganism C. Polykrikoides was the main specie that generated large fish mortalities, and hampered marine industries, and water desalination appliances. Ocean color satellite data have many advantages to monitor and alarm RT occurrences, such as wide and continuous extent, short time of imagery, high accessibility, and appropriate estimation of ocean color parameters. Since 1999, MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite sensor has estimated satellite derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH, and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm (kd490. It provides a capability to study the behavior of these parameters during RT and normal conditions. This study monitors variations in satellite derived Chl-a, nFLH, and kd490 under both RT and normal conditions of the PG between 2002 and 2008. Up to now, daily and monthly variations in these products were no synchronously investigated under RT conditions in the PG. In doing so, the MODIS L1B products were provided from NASA data archive. They were corrected for Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption, and atmospheric interference in turbid coastal waters, and then converted to level 2 data. In addition, Enhanced Red Green Blue (ERGB image was used to illustrate better water variations. ERGB image was built with three normalized leaving water radiance between 443 to 560nm. All the above data processes were applied by SeaDAS 7

  20. Vegetation ecology of eastern white pine and red pine forests in Ontario. Forest fragmentation and biodiversity project technical report No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleton, T.J.

    1993-12-31

    This study explored changes in understory species composition and floristic diversity in eastern white pine and red pine stands in Ontario in relation to differences in site condition and stand age. It surveyed 170 natural, fire-origin stands containing at least a 10% component of red pine and white pine basal area throughout the Canadian Shield in Ontario during 1991 and 1992. The stands had not been previously logged and ranged in age from 50-300 years. Sampling was conducted using plots of fixed area. Within these plots, subplots were sampled to capture the variety of vegetation that occurred at different scales. Stand-level data were also recorded outside the fixed area plots. Detailed site data were also collected, including information on soils, topography, coarse woody debris (both standing and fallen), and the nature of the forest floor substrates.

  1. 15 CFR 754.4 - Unprocessed western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or better grades, with a maximum cross section of 2,000 square centimeters (310 square inches) for... exporting or selling for export in unprocessed form all or part of the commodities to be harvested. (4...

  2. Port-Orford-cedar—a poor risk for reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hunt; Edward J. Dimock

    1957-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.) has been the most widely used introduced species in reforestation projects in western Washington and Oregon. However, as a result of two recent and unrelated occurrences, a severe early cold wave and a destructive root disease, the advisability of continued planting of Port-Orford-cedar...

  3. Silvical characteristics of Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar ((Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.) has been a highly prized species since Colonial times because of the durability and high quality of its wood. The wood has been used for many purposes: boat boards, shingles and lath, framing, house and boat finish, pails and tanks, cabin logs, posts, and poles. Good white-cedar has always...

  4. 75 FR 430 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Sigurd-Red Butte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...; UTU-83067] Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Sigurd-Red Butte...) Cedar City Field Office, Cedar City, Utah, intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Fishlake National Forests), State of Utah, Millard County, Sevier County, Beaver County, Utah Division of...

  5. Characterization of non-calcareous 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil: applicability in wall tile manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, S.J.G.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: sidnei_rjsousa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: holanda@uenf.br [Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos - LAMAV-CCT, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this work the use of 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ) as raw material for the manufacture of wall tile was investigated. A wide range of characterization techniques was employed, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain-size analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The wall tile body was prepared by the dry process. The tile pieces were uniaxially pressed and fired between 1080 - 1180 deg C using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength. The development of the microstructure was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. It was found that the 'thin' red clay is kaolinitic type containing a substantial amount of quartz. The results also showed that the 'thin' red clay could be used in the manufacture of wall tiles, as they present properties compatible with those specified for class BIII of ISO 13006 standard. (author)

  6. Main Introduction Way of Indo-Pacific and Red Sea Originated Benthic Foraminifers to the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin MERİÇ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the alien foraminifers recorded in the eastern Mediterranean are Indo-Pacific originated and entered the Mediterranean via Suez Canal. In this study, current literature on the alien benthic foraminiferal fauna of the eastern Mediterranean was reviewed and the main dispersal pathways are determined. Distribution patterns of the alien species suggests that most of the species are introduced via Suez Canal and expand their range of distributions in a counter-clockwise manner by the general surface currents of the eastern Mediterranean. However, not all, but some of the species have also been dispersed westwards along the North African coast and reached central Mediterranean. Locally abundant records of Euthymonacha polita (Chapman, Coscinospira acicularis (Batsch and Amphistegina lobifera in the Aegean Sea indicates that Suez Canal may not be the only vector for the Indo-Pacific species to enter eastern Mediterranean and submarine springs help these thermophilic species to form establish populations in cool waters of the northern Aegean and the Sea of Marmara

  7. Isotopes - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  8. Diet - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  9. 78 FR 44090 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Hossein Hashemzadeh...

  10. Cedar River Chinook genotypes - Estimate relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall Chinook salmon in the Cedar River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using genetic pedigree information to estimate the reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall-run Chinook salmon spawning in the Cedar River, Washington....

  11. Hanford Reach - Control of Salt Cedar Plants in an Isolated Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Target Invasive Species: salt cedar (Tamarix sp.; a Class “B” noxious weed in WA, “B” designated weed in OR) minimum of 32 acres within ~760 acres. Salt cedar...

  12. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.

    2014-07-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.; Apprill, A.; Cervino, J.M.; Ossolinski, J.E.; Hughen, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Consumer willingness to pay a price premium for standing-dead Alaska yellow-cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2004-01-01

    Alaska yellow-cedar has declined in Southeast Alaska over the past 100 years, resulting in half a million acres of dead or dying trees. The natural decay resistance of Alaska yellow-cedar means that many of these trees are still merchantable. However, the topography of Southeast Alaska is such that selectively harvesting Alaska yellow-cedar may often require helicopter...

  15. 75 FR 68780 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RC11-1-000] Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing November 2, 2010. Take notice that on October 27, 2010, Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC (Cedar Creek) filed an appeal with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) of...

  16. Bio-concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina along eastern coast of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Amin Bashir M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous sources of chemical pollutants which can impact the mangrove ecosystem through adjacent waters, industrial and sewage discharges and air depositions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are semi volatile ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutants detected in all environmental compartments. In the monitoring framework for the mangrove ecosystem along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia, nine mangrove stands were examined for the accumulation of PAHs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The mean values detected for total PAHs in sediments, roots and leaf were 2.98, 8.57 and 23.43 ng/g respectively. The trend of the total PAHs concentration in all sites showed the descending order: leaf > roots > sediments. Beside the sandy nature of the sediments, the presences of all stands in remote areas fare from the direct anthropogenic effects lead to these relative low values. PAH bio-concentration factors for leaf are two to three magnitudes higher than that in roots, suggesting atmosphere deposition /leaf uptake mechanism in addition to the sediment/root mechanism. The diagnostic ratios revealed that the sources of PAHs are mainly pyrogenic.

  17. Haematological reference for red-browed parrot ( Amazona rhodocorytha , Salvadori, 1890 captive in the Atlantic Forest in Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To conduct the survey were used 35 (thirty-five red-browned parrots (A. rhodocorytha, adults, captive, of both genders and clinically healthy, belonging to the live collection of the Museum of Biology Teacher Mello Leitao, located in Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Harvests were performed in the morning, by puncture of the brachial vein getting 0.5mL of blood stored in EDTA for a period no longer than 6 hours. Blood smears of fresh material were made at collection, stained using the method of May-Grunwald-Giemsa. Analysis of blood elements was done by cell counting in a mirrored Neubauer chamber using Natt and Herrick solution at a ratio of 2:200 as diluent. For the analysis of the methodology, homoglobinometry cyanide hemoglobin using commercial kits by colorimetry on a semi-automatic biochemical analyzer was used. After completion of the statistical data the following parameters were obtained (mean±standard deviation: Erythrocytes (x106/μl: 2.68±0.56; Hemoglobin (g/dl: 14.27±0.69; Hematocrit (%: 53±3.38; Mean corpuscular volume (fl: 206.7±45.82; Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (pg: 56.4±14.46; Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (%: 27.5±1.19; Thrombocytes (x3/μl: 25.8 ± 10.5; Total plasma protein (g/dl 5.4±0.5; Leukocytes (x103/dl: 3.1±2; Heterophile (/uL: 1937±1676; Lymphocytes (/uL: 1144±599; Monocytes (/uL: 24.4 ± 28.2; Basophils (/uL: 42.2±46.2; Eosinophils (/uL: 11.7±19.9. In the relation between males and females, no significant differences were found in any hematological parameter evaluated.

  18. Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.): an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) is arguably one of the least studied commercial tree species in United States and Canada. It is an important source of wildlife habitat and forage, as well as commodities such as fence posts, shingles and siding. Much of the research on this species comes from the Lake States and Canada; few studies have...

  19. CEDAR : The Dutch Historical Censuses as Linked Open Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Ashkpour, Ashkan; Guéret, Christophe; Schlobach, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Here, we describe the CEDAR dataset, a five-star Linked Open Data representation of the Dutch historical censuses. These were conducted in the Netherlands once every 10 years from 1795 to 1971. We produce a linked dataset from a digitized sample of 2,288 tables. It contains more than 6.8 million

  20. 78 FR 58470 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 13-182; RM-11701; DA 13-1882] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  1. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  2. Effect of the Cedar River on the quality of the ground-water supply for Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeyer, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Surface Water Treatment Rule under the 1986 Amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act requires that public-water supplies be evaluated for susceptibility to surface-water effects. The alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River is evaluated for biogenic material and monitored for selected water-quality properties and constituents to determine the effect of surface water on the water supply for the City of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Results from monitoring of selected water-quality properties and constituents showed an inverse relation to river stage or discharge. Water-quality properties and constituents of the alluvial aquifer changed as water flowed from the river to the municipal well as a result of drawdown. The values of specific conductance, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen at observation well CRM-4 and municipal well Seminole 10 generally follow the trends of values for the Cedar River. Values at observation well CRM-3 and the municipal water-treatment plant showed very little correlation with values from the river. The traveltime of water through the aquifer could be an indication of the susceptibility of the alluvial aquifer to surface-water effects. Estimated traveltimes from the Cedar River to municipal well Seminole 10 ranged from 7 to 17 days.

  3. Seasonal differences in freezing tolerance of yellow-cedar and western hemlock trees at a site affected by yellow-cedar decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paul E. Hennon; Amore, David V. D; Gary J. Hawley; Catherine H. Borer; Catherine H. Borer

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether inadequate cold hardiness could be a contributor to yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) decline, we measured the freezing tolerance of foliage from yellow-cedar trees in closed-canopy (nondeclining) and open-canopy (declining at elevations below 130 m) stands at three sites along an elevational gradient in the heart of the decline...

  4. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  5. A Study of the Distribution of Natural Radionuclides and their Environmental Impacts in Halayeb Triangle Area, along the South Eastern Coast of the Red Sea, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.H.M.; Khedr, R.F.E.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty samples (14 surficial soil, 3 Sea water-3 desalinated water, and 10 plant) were collected from halayeb triangle are a along the south eastern Coast of the Red Sea, Egypt . Distributions of natural radionuclides of "2"2"6 Ra, "2"3"2 Th, "4"0 K and "1"3"7Cs in these samples were determined using γ-ray spectrometry. The average activities of natural radionuclides in all samples in the study are a are 19.38 (3.35-61.09) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"2"6 Ra, 10.87 (1.39-24.28) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"3"2 Th, 245.25 (132.46-531.19) Bq kg"-"1 for "40 K, and 1.48 (0.67 - 2.52) Bq kg"-"1 "1"3"7 Cs for surficial soil samples . These values were 8.59 (1.48-21.57) Bq kg"-"1 for 226 Ra, 11.34 (2. 64-25.44) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"3"2Th, and 254.66(69.73-450.58) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0K, for plant samples. For sea water samples, the average activity for "2"2"6 Ra is 3.20 (1.99-3.91) Bq kg"-"1, for "2"3"2Th is 1.73(1.24-2.45) Bq kg"-"1, and 15.10 (8.67-23.25) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0 K. For desalinised water the average activity is under detection limits for "2"2"6Ra, "2"3"2Th, and 13.49 (8.67-17.85) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0K. A comparison of radionuclide activities in the study area and in other coastal and aquatic environments is given. The radiation hazard parameters (absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, internal hazard index, external hazard index ,annual gonadal dose equivalent); and transfer factor of elements from soil to plant were calculated. The results of measurements will serve as base line data and background reference level for south Egyptian coastlines

  6. Mechanical properties of salvaged dead yellow-cedar in southeast Alaska : Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald; P. E. Hennon; J. H. Stevens; D. W. Green

    An intensive decline and mortality problem is affecting yellow-cedar trees in southeast Alaska. Yellow-cedar snags (dead trees) could be important to the economy in southeast Alaska, if some high-value uses for the snags could be established. Due to the high decay resistance of yellow-cedar, the rate of deterioration is so slow that snags may remain standing for a...

  7. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-01-01

    Background Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their r...

  8. New basal iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain formation of Utah and the evolution of thumb-spiked dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T McDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia.

  9. New Basal Iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and the Evolution of Thumb-Spiked Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew T.; Kirkland, James I.; DeBlieux, Donald D.; Madsen, Scott K.; Cavin, Jennifer; Milner, Andrew R. C.; Panzarin, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Background Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. Conclusions/Significance Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia. PMID:21124919

  10. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes in response to eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus introduction (NW Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115 in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989. Comparison included also the diet of badgers (Meles meles, considered as potential competitors for food resources. Alien lagomorphs (mean percent volume, Vm% = 68% represented by far the most exploited resource, only three other food items reaching values of mean percent volume barely higher than 5%. Cottontails frequency of occurrence did not vary according either to season or to their reproductive cycle (II-IX vs. X-I, whilst diet niche breadth varied inversely proportional to the use of this key-resource. Overall fox trophic niche breadth varied from 0.64 in 1988-89 to 0.31 in 1998-00 (B, Levin’s index. These findings led us to consider the feeding habits of the fox in the study area as a result of local specialization of a typical generalist carnivore, according to the predictions of optimal foraging theory. No variation occurred in the badger niche breadth since cottontail introduction, whilst niche overlap between foxes and badgers decreased from 0.59 to 0.13 (O, Pianka’s index, possibly reducing competition for food in summer. Riassunto Specializzazione alimentare a livello locale della Volpe Vulpes vulpes in risposta all’introduzione del Silvilago Sylvilagus floridanus (Italia nord occidentale. Per valutare gli effetti dell’introduzione del Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus sul comportamento alimentare della volpe (Vulpes vulpes, nel periodo giugno 1998-febbraio 2000, la dieta del carnivoro è stata definita tramite l’analisi di 115

  11. Ecology, pathology, and management of Port-Orford-Cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B. Zobel; Lewis F. Roth; Glenn M. Hawk

    1982-01-01

    Information about the biology, diseases, and management of Port-Orford- cedar was collected from the literature, from unpublished research data of the authors and the USDA Forest Service, conversations with personnel involved in all facets of Port-Orford-cedar management, and visits to stands throughout the range of the species. Information is summarized and presented...

  12. Yellow-cedar decline in the North Coast Forest District of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Stefan Zeglan; Mike. Grainger

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of a forest decline of yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (D. Don) Örsted) has been documented in southeast Alaska, but its occurrence in British Columbia was previously unknown. We conducted an aerial survey in the Prince Rupert area in September 2004 to determine if yellow-cedar forests in the North Coast Forest District of...

  13. 75 FR 55477 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie & Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie & Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard... portions of the Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Cedar Point Triathlon. The temporary safety zone is... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have...

  14. Identification of Cha o 3 homolog Cry j 4 from Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) pollen: Limitation of the present Japanese cedar-specific ASIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yuki; Yamada, Akira; Sasaki, Eiji; Utsugi, Teruhiro

    2018-03-07

    About one-third of the Japanese population suffers from Japanese cedar pollinosis, which is frequently accompanied by Japanese cypress pollinosis. Recently, a novel major Japanese cypress pollen allergen, Cha o 3, was discovered. However, whether a Cha o 3 homolog is present in Japanese cedar pollen remains to be determined. Western blot analysis was performed using Cha o 3-specific antiserum. In addition, cloning of the gene encoding Cry j 4 was conducted using total cDNA from the male flower of Japanese cedar trees. Allergen potency and cross-reactivity were investigated using a T-cell proliferation assay, basophil activation test, and ImmunoCAP inhibition assay. A low amount of Cha o 3 homolog protein was detected in Japanese cedar pollen extract. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cry j 4 showed 84% identity to that of Cha o 3. Cross-reactivity between Cry j 4 and Cha o 3 was observed at the T cell and IgE levels. Cry j 4 was discovered as a counterpart allergen of Cha o 3 in Japanese cedar pollen, with a relationship similar to that between Cry j 1-Cha o 1 and Cry j 2-Cha o 2. Our findings also suggest that allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) using Japanese cedar pollen extract does not induce adequate immune tolerance to Cha o 3 due to the low amount of Cry j 4 in Japanese cedar pollen. Therefore, ASIT using Cha o 3 or cypress pollen extract coupled with Japanese cedar pollen extract is required in order to optimally control allergy symptoms during Japanese cypress pollen season. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Red Crescent and its effect on the geography security on eastern borders (comparative study of social abnormalities during 1383-89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh allah Shahbahrami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: drugs have some multidimensional effects on people and their lives. People who live in eastern provinces are at the risk of getting addicted and abnormal. Afghanistan is and has been the main problem for Iran. Method: this research has been done by library method and for this many books and articles have been read. The determined time was about 6 years. Findings: drugs have direct effects on life of people. Border cities are under the unkind effects of drugs and its relevant things. Conclusion: authorities must pay too much attention to drugs and eastern provinces

  16. Rhabdom constriction enhances filtering by the red screening pigment in the eye of the Eastern Pale Clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate (Pieridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikawa, Kentaro; Pirih, Primoz; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2009-01-01

    Here we report the remarkable anatomy of the eye of the Eastern Pale Clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate. An ommatidium of C. erate bears nine photoreceptors, R1-9, which together form a tiered and fused rhabdom. The distal tier of the rhabdom consists of the rhabdomeral microvilli of R1-4

  17. Quantifying Effectiveness of Streambank Stabilization Practices on Cedar River, Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisargi Dave

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sediment is a major pollutant to surface waters worldwide. In some watersheds, streambanks are a significant source of this sediment, leading to the expenditure of billions of dollars in stabilization projects. Although costly streambank stabilization projects have been implemented worldwide, long-term monitoring to quantify their success is lacking. There is a critical need to document the long-term success of streambank restoration projects. The objectives of this research were to (1 quantify streambank retreat before and after the stabilization of 18 streambanks on the Cedar River in North Central Nebraska, USA; (2 assess the impact of a large flood event; and (3 determine the most cost-efficient stabilization practice. The stabilized streambanks included jetties (10, rock-toe protection (1, slope reduction/gravel bank (1, a retaining wall (1, rock vanes (2, and tree revetments (3. Streambank retreat and accumulation were quantified using aerial images from 1993 to 2016. Though streambank retreat has been significant throughout the study period, a breached dam in 2010 caused major flooding and streambank erosion on the Cedar River. This large-scale flood enabled us to quantify the effect of one extreme event and evaluate the effectiveness of the stabilized streambanks. With a 70% success rate, jetties were the most cost-efficient practice and yielded the most deposition. If minimal risk is unacceptable, a more costly yet immobile practice such as a gravel bank or retaining wall is recommended.

  18. Increasing Drought Sensitivity and Decline of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica in the Moroccan Middle Atlas Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Julio Camarero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the interactions between climate change and forest structure on tree growth are needed for decision making in forest conservation and management. In this paper, we investigated the relative contribution of tree features and stand structure on Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica radial growth in forests that have experienced heavy grazing and logging in the past. Dendrochronological methods were applied to quantify patterns in basal-area increment and drought sensitivity of Atlas cedar in the Middle Atlas, northern Morocco. We estimated the tree-to-tree competition intensity and quantified the structure in Atlas cedar stands with contrasting tree density, age, and decline symptoms. The relative contribution of tree age and size and stand structure to Atlas cedar growth decline was estimated by variance partitioning using partial-redundancy analyses. Recurrent drought events and temperature increases have been identified from local climate records since the 1970s. We detected consistent growth declines and increased drought sensitivity in Atlas cedar across all sites since the early 1980s. Specifically, we determined that previous growth rates and tree age were the strongest tree features, while Quercus rotundifolia basal area was the strongest stand structure measure related to Atlas cedar decline. As a result, we suggest that Atlas cedar forests that have experienced severe drought in combination with grazing and logging may be in the process of shifting dominance toward more drought-tolerant species such as Q. rotundifolia.

  19. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-12-01

    Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their rotation period. It is of interest to know whether these plantations could be viable for future carbon sequestration through the accumulations of stand carbon stocks. Twelve even-aged Japanese cedar stands along a stand age gradient from 37 to 93 years were selected in Xitou of central Taiwan. The study aims were to investigate the basic stand characteristics and biomass carbon stock in current Japanese cedar stands, and determine the relationships among stand characteristics, tree biomass carbon, and stand age. Our results indicate that existing Japanese cedar plantations are still developing and their live tree biomass carbon continues to accumulate. At stands with a stand age of 90 years, tree density, canopy height, mean diameter at breast height, basal area, and live tree biomass carbon stocks reach to nearly 430 tree ha -1 , 27 m, 48 cm, 82 m 2 ha -1 and 300 Mg C ha -1 , respectively. Therefore, with no harvesting, current Japanese cedar plantations provide a carbon sink by storing carbon in tree biomass.

  20. The National Science Foundation's Coupling, Energetics and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Student Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sox, L.; Duly, T.; Emery, B.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation sponsors Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Workshops, which have been held every summer, for the past 29 years. CEDAR Workshops are on the order of a week long and at various locations with the goal of being close to university campuses where CEDAR type scientific research is done. Although there is no formal student group within the CEDAR community, the workshops are very student-focused. Roughly half the Workshop participants are students. There are two Student Representatives on the CEDAR Science Steering Committee (CSSC), the group of scientists who organize the CEDAR Workshops. Each Student Representative is nominated by his or her peers, chosen by the CSSC and then serves a two year term. Each year, one of the Student Representatives is responsible for organizing and moderating a day-long session targeted for students, made up of tutorial talks, which aim to prepare both undergraduate and graduate students for the topics that will be discussed in the main CEDAR Workshop. The theme of this session changes every year. Past themes have included: upper atmospheric instrumentation, numerical modeling, atmospheric waves and tides, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, equatorial aeronomy and many others. Frequently, the Student Workshop has ended with a panel of post-docs, researchers and professors who discuss pressing questions from the students about the next steps they will take in their careers. As the present and past CSSC Student Representatives, we will recount a brief history of the CEDAR Workshops, our experiences serving on the CSSC and organizing the Student Workshop, a summary of the feedback we collected about the Student Workshops and what it's like to be student in the CEDAR community.

  1. Determination of sedimentation, diffusion, and mixing rates in coastal sediments of the eastern Red Sea via natural and anthropogenic fallout radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mur, Bandar A; Quicksall, Andrew N; Kaste, James M

    2017-09-15

    The Red Sea is a unique ecosystem with high biodiversity in one of the warmest regions of the world. In the last five decades, Red Sea coastal development has rapidly increased. Sediments from continental margins are delivered to depths by advection and diffusion-like processes which are difficult to quantify yet provide invaluable data to researchers. Beryllium-7, lead-210 and ceseium-137 were analyzed from sediment cores from the near-coast Red Sea near Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results of this work are the first estimates of diffusion, mixing, and sedimentation rates of the Red Sea coastal sediments. Maximum chemical diffusion and particle mixing rates range from 69.1 to 380cm -2 y -1 and 2.54 to 6.80cm -2 y -1 , respectively. Sedimentation rate is constrained to approximately 0.6cm/yr via multiple methods. These data provide baselines for tracking changes in various environmental problems including erosion, marine benthic ecosystem silting, and particle-bound contaminant delivery to the seafloor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Tamarisk (Salt Cedar) Infestations in Northwestern Nevada Mapped Using Landsat TM Imagery and GIS Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Geraci, C.; Kolkowitz, S.

    2004-12-01

    Tamarisk, also known as salt cedar (Tamarix sp.) is a prevalent invasive species that has infested many riparian areas in the southwestern United States. Mature salt cedar plants are resistant to high stress environments and fare well in drought conditions, mainly due to their extensive root systems that derive much of their sustenance from the water table rather than surface water and precipitation. The salt cedar root systems have altered hydrological patterns by tapping into underlying aquifers. This has decreased water available for recreational use, regional ecology and plant diversity. Many states have implemented salt cedar monitoring programs at the local level, but the problem of large-scale mapping of this invasive species has continued to be a challenge to land management agencies. Furthermore, inaccessible and unexplored areas continue to be absent in the mapping process. In August 2004, using field data consisting of large areas as training sets for classification of Landsat TM imagery, the DEVELOP student research team at NASA Ames Research Center generated a preliminary map of areas that that were susceptible to salt cedar growth for a region in northwestern Nevada. In addition to the remote sensing-based classification of satellite imagery, the team used the variables of elevation and estimated distance to the water table in conjunction with collected field data and knowledge of salt cedar growth habits to further refine the map. The team has further extended the mapping of key environmental factors of water availability for salt cedar, soil types and species distribution in regions infested by salt cedar. The investigation was carried out by 1) improving an existing GIS layer for water access using a suitable interpolation method, 2) including a GIS layer for soils associated with salt cedar growth and 3) completing field work to evaluate species distribution and regions of presence or absence of salt cedar. The outcome of this project served to

  3. Experimental streams - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  4. Embracing the River: Smart Growth Strategies for Assisting in Cedar Rapids' Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report from an EPA-FEMA technical assistance project with Cedar Rapids, IA, offers ideas to encourage infill development, make development more resilient to floods, and improve stormwater management.

  5. Fish abundance, composition, distribution - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  6. Effects of Pranlukast Hydrate on Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Non-Asthmatic Patients with Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Sagara

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that pranlukast hydrate inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness in non-asthmatic patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In turn, this suggests that cysteinyl leukotrienes have a role in increased airway responsiveness.

  7. Growth, movement and survival - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  8. Present state of Japanese cedar pollinosis: the national affliction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takechiyo; Saito, Hirohisa; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2014-03-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) caused by Japanese cedar pollen (JCP; ie, sugi-pollinosis) is the most common disease in Japan and has been considered a national affliction. More than one third of all Japanese persons have sugi-pollinosis, and this number has significantly increased in the last 2 decades. In our opinion the reason why sugi-pollinosis became a common disease in the last half century is the increased number of cedar pollens, with global climate change and forest growth caused by the tree-planting program of the Japanese government after World War II playing substantial roles; dust storms containing small particulate matter from China might also contribute to the increased incidence of sugi-pollinosis. To help minimize their symptoms, many Japanese wear facemasks and eyeglasses at all times between February and April to prevent exposure to JCP and aerosol pollutants. Forecasts for JCP levels typically follow the weather forecast in mass media broadcasts, and real-time information regarding JCP levels is also available on the Internet. Because a large amount of JCP is produced over several months, it can induce severe symptoms. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis recommend prophylactic treatment with antihistamines or antileukotrienes before the start of JCP dispersion. Additionally, sublingual immunotherapy will be supported by health insurance in the summer of 2014. However, many patients with sugi-pollinosis do not find satisfactory symptom relief with currently available therapies. Collaboration between scientists and pharmaceutical companies to produce new therapeutics for the control of sugi-pollinosis symptoms is necessary. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 77 FR 49401 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... meeting would be beneficial. If we determine that one would aid this rulemaking, we will hold one at a..., Cedar Point, OH extending outward 100 yards on either side of a line running between 41-28'-38.59''N 082-41'-10.51''W and 41-28'-17.25''N 082-40'-54.09''W running adjacent to the Cedar Point Marina. These...

  10. Development of Northern White-Cedar Regeneration Following Partial Cutting, with and without Deer Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Larouche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L. is an important commercial species with a high wildlife value, both as a food source and habitat for many bird and mammal species. Concerns have been expressed about its decreasing abundance across its range, and especially in mixedwood stands, where it has to compete with several other species and can suffer from heavy browsing. In this study, we quantified the development of natural northern white-cedar seedlings and saplings under various partial cutting regimes, with and without white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus Zimmerman browsing, in three selected sites in Quebec (Canada and in Maine (USA. Our data show that northern white-cedar regeneration was present in all studied stands, but that only a few stems were taller than 30 cm on the two sites with high densities of deer. In the absence of heavy browsing, stems reached a height of 30 cm in 11 years, and 130 cm in 28 years. Height growth of northern white-cedar regeneration increased with canopy light transmittance, while ground-level diameter increment increased after partial cutting. This suggests that partial cutting can be used in mixedwood stands to release natural northern white-cedar regeneration, but also that the recruitment of northern white-cedar seedlings to larger size classes constitutes a major challenge in stands subject to heavy deer browsing.

  11. Assessment of intra and interregional genetic variation in the Eastern Red-backed Salamander, Plethodon cinereus, via analysis of novel microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Cameron

    Full Text Available The red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus has long-served as a model system in ecology, evolution, and behavior, and studies surveying molecular variation in this species have become increasingly common over the past decade. However, difficulties are commonly encountered when extending microsatellite markers to populations that are unstudied from a genetic perspective due to high levels of genetic differentiation across this species' range. To ameliorate this issue, we used 454 pyrosequencing to identify hundreds of microsatellite loci. We then screened 40 of our top candidate loci in populations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio-including an isolated island population ~ 4.5 km off the shore of Lake Erie (South Bass Island. We identified 25 loci that are polymorphic in a well-studied region of Virginia and 11 of these loci were polymorphic in populations located in the genetically unstudied regions of Ohio and Pennsylvania. Use of these loci to examine patterns of variation within populations revealed that South Bass Island has low diversity in comparison to other sites. However, neither South Bass Island nor isolated populations around Cleveland are inbred. Assessment of variation between populations revealed three well defined genetic clusters corresponding to Virginia, mainland Ohio/Pennsylvania, and South Bass Island. Comparisons of our results to those of others working in various parts of the range are consistent with the idea that differentiation is lower in regions that were once glaciated. However, these comparisons also suggest that well differentiated isolated populations in the formerly glaciated portion of the range are not uncommon. This work provides novel genetic resources that will facilitate population genetic studies in a part of the red-backed salamander's range that has not previously been studied in this manner. Moreover, this work refines our understanding of how neutral variation is distributed in this ecologically

  12. The population size, demography and the harvest strategy for the red deer (Cervus elaphus L. in the Polish eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merta, D.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a line intercept snow track index, the population density and numbers of red deer (Cervus elaphusL. in 8 Forest Districts (Baligród, Cisna, Dukla, Lutowiska, Komacza, Stuposiany, Rymanów and Wetlina were estimated during February 2000. The total number of red deer inhabiting the study area (134.0 thousand hectares of forest was 4,081 individuals. The average population density was 30.4 red deer/1000 ha and it ranged from 10.1 animals/1000 ha in Wetlina Forest District to 39.3 individuals/1000 ha in Dukla Forest District. In September 2000, observation records of 952 red deer indicated that male/female ratio was 1:1.6, and the calf/female index was 31 calves per 100 females. Using a population dynamics model, an annual population recruitment rate was calculated. It ranged from 10.5% to 18.1% of the population size in March and it was negatively correlated with the population density of wolves. A computer simulation of various harvest strategies showed that the low percentage of old stags in the present red deer population was caused by over-harvest of 2-5-year-old stags. Therefore, it is suggested that the percentage of young males in the hunting bag should not be higher than 30% of the total harvested males.

    [fr]
    En février 2000 nous avons estimé la densité de population et le nombre de cerfs (Cervus elaphusL. dans 8 Districts Forestiers (Baligrod, Cisn, Dukla, Lutowiska, Komancza, Stuposiany, Rymanow et Wetlina. Pour cela un index des empreintes sur la neige interceptant une ligne a été utilisé. Le nombre total de cerfs habitant dans la zone d'étude -134.000 ha de forêt- s'élevait à 4 081 animais. La densité moyenne de la population était de 30,4 cerfs par 1000 ha, chiffre oscillant entre 10,1 animais par 1000 ha dans le District Forestier de Wetlina et 39,3 individus par 1000 ha dans le District Forestier de Dukla. En Septembre 2000, les observations enregistrées pour 952 cerfs ont montré que le

  13. 76 FR 78641 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RC11-1-002; Docket No. RC11-2-002] Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing Take...) June 16, 2011 Order.\\1\\ \\1\\ Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC and Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC, 135...

  14. Geomorphic and hydrologic study of peak-flow management on the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Marineau, Mathieu D.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the linkages between high-flow events, geomorphic response, and effects on stream ecology is critical to river management. High flows on the gravel-bedded Cedar River in Washington are important to the geomorphic function of the river; however, high flows can deleteriously affect salmon embryos incubating in streambed gravels. A geomorphic analysis of the Cedar River showed evidence of historical changes in river form over time and quantified the effects of anthropogenic alterations to the river corridor. Field measurements with accelerometer scour monitors buried in the streambed provided insight into the depth and timing of streambed scour during high-flow events. Combined with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the recorded accelerometer disturbances allowed the prediction of streambed disturbance at the burial depth of Chinook and sockeye salmon egg pockets for different peak discharges. Insight gained from these analyses led to the development of suggested monitoring metrics for an ongoing geomorphic monitoring program on the Cedar River.

  15. The “anomalous cedar trees” of Lake Ashi, Hakone Volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    On the bottom of Lake Ashi at Hakone, Japan, there stand great trees that, since ancient times, have been widely known as the "Anomalous Cedar Trees" of Ashi. It is not known why these trees grow on the bottom of the lake, and it remains one of the mysteries of Hakone. It was formerly thought that, at the time Lake Ashi was born, a great forest of cedar trees which was growing in the caldera of the volcano sank into the water. From radioactive carbon dating techniques, it is known that a steam explosion in the Kami Mountains created the caldera approximately 3,000 years ago. The age of the "Anomalous Cedars" is placed at approximately. 

  16. Cedar virus: a novel Henipavirus isolated from Australian bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A Marsh

    Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV, which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin-B2 for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-β response than HeV.

  17. Betriebseigenschaften der CEDARs für Likelihood-Teilchenidentifikation bei COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Gensler, Armin

    Die CEDAR Detektoren bei COMPASS können genutzt werden um Teilchen zu identifizieren. In dieser Arbeit wird eine Unregelmäßigkeit untersucht, die in den Daten der Photomultiplier der CEDARs auftritt. Insbesondere wird ermittelt, welche Daten davon betroffen sind und wie diese identifiziert und herausgefiltert werden können. Dabei zeigt sich, dass etwa 10% aller Events betroffen sind. Anschließend werden die Auswirkungen auf das in [4] beschriebene Likelihod-Identifikationsverfahren für Pionen und Kaonen analysiert, wobei sich heraus stellt, dass sich die Effizienz der Verfahrens dadurch deutlich verbessern lässt.

  18. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Forsyth

    Full Text Available There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor is a large (≥ 150 kg exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring. We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10% fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  19. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  20. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  1. EVALUATION OF COLOR OF THE JUVENILE AND MATURE CEDAR WOOD BY MEANS OF CIEL*a*b* METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Avila Delucis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to characterize the radial profile of cedar wood (Cedrela fissilis by the colorimetric technique. Three different trees of approximately 100 years old were selected in Canguçu, Rio Grande do Sul. From each felled tree, discs were removed at breast height (1,3 m with a thickness of 20 cm and subsequently samples were segmented in centimeter lengths from pith to bark. The samples were conditioned at equilibrium moisture content of 12%, to carry out the colour evaluation with a portable colorimeter Konica Minolta brand in accordance with the CIEL*a*b* method. To determine the segregation of juvenile and mature woods position was employed the apparent specific gravity to 12% (ρa12% as a parameter. With colorimetric analysis, it was found that the lightness, the green-red coordinate and hue angle presented intimate relation with the transition from juvenile and adult logs. Has a result of blueyellow coordinate and chromaticity showed approximately a linear trend in pith-bark direction.

  2. [Suppressive Effects of Extract of Cedar Wood on Heat-induced Expression of Cellular Heat Shock Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Junji; Matsubara, Eri; Narita, Eijiro; Koyama, Shin; Shimizu, Yoko; Kawai, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

     In recent years, highly antimicrobial properties of cedar heartwood essential oil against the wood-rotting fungi and pathogenic fungi have been reported in several papers. Antimicrobial properties against oral bacteria by hinokitiol contained in Thujopsis have been also extensively studied. The relation of naturally derived components and human immune system has been studied in some previous papers. In the present study, we focused on Japanese cedar, which has the widest artificial afforestation site in the country among various tree species. Extract oil was obtained from mixture of sapwood and heartwood of about 40-year cedar grown in Oguni, Kumamoto, Japan. We examined the influence of extract components from Japanese cedar woods on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) during heating, and on the micronucleus formation induced by the treatment of bleomycin as a DNA damaging agent. Cell lines used in this study were human fetal glial cells (SVGp12) and human glioma cells (MO54). Remarkable suppression of the Hsp70 expression induced by heating at 43°C was detected by the treatment of cedar extract in both SVGp12 and MO54 cells. We also found that cedar extract had an inhibitory tendency to reduce the micronucleus formation induced by bleomycin. From these results, the extract components from Japanese cedar woods would have an inhibitory effect of the stress response as a suppression of the heat-induced Hsp70 expression, and might have a reductive effect on carcinogenicity.

  3. Ground verification of aerial for Port-Orford-cedar root disease in Southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kanaskie; M. McWilliams; D. Overhulser; J. Prukop; R. Christian; S. Malvitch

    2002-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (POC) (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) is limited in its natural range to southwest Oregon and northwest California. It is highly susceptible to the introduced root pathogen, Phytophthora lateralis, which causes a fatal root disease throughout most of its range. The disease is transmitted by movement of infested soil and water and is...

  4. An increase in pectin methyl esterase activity accompanies dormancy breakage and germination of yellow cedar seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, C; Kermode, A R

    2000-09-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) (EC 3.1.1.11) catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylester groups of cell wall pectins. We investigated the role of this enzyme in dormancy termination and germination of yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis [D. Don] Spach) seeds. PME activity was not detected in dormant seeds of yellow cedar but was induced and gradually increased during moist chilling; high activity coincided with dormancy breakage and germination. PME activity was positively correlated to the degree of dormancy breakage of yellow cedar seeds. The enzyme produced in different seed parts and in seeds at different times during moist chilling, germination, and early post-germinative growth consisted of two isoforms, both basic with isoelectric points of 8.7 and 8.9 and the same molecular mass of 62 kD. The pH optimum for the enzyme was between 7.4 and 8.4. In intact yellow cedar seeds, activities of the two basic isoforms of PME that were induced in embryos and in megagametophytes following dormancy breakage were significantly suppressed by abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid had a stimulatory effect on the activities of these isoforms in embryos and megagametophytes of intact seeds at the germinative stage. We hypothesize that PME plays a role in weakening of the megagametophyte, allowing radicle emergence and the completion of germination.

  5. Cedar Pollen Aggravates Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood Monozygotic Twin Patients with Allergic Rhino Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Murakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 7-year-old monozygotic twin patients with atopic dermatitis. The HLA haplotypes were HLA A2, A11, B27, B61, DR1, and DR4. Both serum IgE levels and cedar pollen radioallergosorbent test (RAST scores were high in the twins (elder/younger sister: IgE: 5170/3980 IU/ml and Japansese cedar pollen: >100/64.0 in contrast to low mite and food RAST scores (Dermatophagoides Pterygonium; 0.59/0.4 and egg white 9.24/4.6. The patients showed positive immediate (20 min in both sisters and delayed (24 hours in elder sister, 24, 48, 72 hours in younger sister reactions to a scratch test with Japanese cedar pollen. Skin lesions on the face were aggravated and extended to the trunk and extremities during the Japanese cedar pollen season and gradually subsided in summer. Oral provocation with egg white or cow milk showed no exacerbations, and topical corticosteroid did not improve the eczema. In contrast, successful protection from severe scratching behaviors was achieved by use of topical anti-allergic eye drops and wearing nightgowns made by the mother.

  6. PERCHLORATE UPTAKE BY SALT CEDAR (TAMARIX RAMOSISSIMA) IN THE LAS VEGAS WASH RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate ion (CIO4-) has been identified in samples of dormant salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) growing in the Las vegas Wash. Perchlorate is an oxidenat, but its reduction is kineticaly hindered. CXoncern over thyrpoid effects caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  7. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the wood and bark of Port OrFord cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    Heartwood, sapwood, and inner and outer bark of Port Orford cedar were extracted with methanol, and the extracts evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenol content (TPC) of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Butylated hydroxytoluene was used as a positive control in the free-radical-...

  8. Composition of the heartwood essential oil of incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens Torr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba Veluthoor; Rick G. Kelsey; M.P. Gonzalez-Hernandez; Nicholas Panella; Marc Dolan; Joe. Karchesy

    2011-01-01

    Incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) is a tree native to Oregon and California, perhaps best known for its aromatic wood and use in the manufacturing of pencils. The wood is also highly valued for its decorative appearance and durability in lumber, related sawmill products, and fence posts. Chemical investigations of heartwood extracts have shown...

  9. Natural decay resistance of heartwood from dead, standing yellow-cedar trees : laboratory evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney C. De Groot; Bessie Woodward; Paul E. Hennon

    2000-01-01

    Yellow-cedar trees have been mysteriously dying for more than a century in southeast Alaska. As these stems continue to stand for decades in the forest, foliage, twigs, and branches deteriorate. The sapwood in the stem degrades, leaving columns of essentially heartwood standing like ghosts in the forest until they eventually drop. To estimate the potential for...

  10. Methods for screening Port-Orford-cedar for resistance to Phytophthora lateralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett M. Hansen; Paul Reeser; Wendy Sutton; Richard A. Sniezko

    2012-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl.) (POC) is an economically and ecologically valuable tree in the forests of southwest Oregon and northern California and in the horticultural trade worldwide. Phytophthora lateralis, the aggressive, invasive cause of POC root disease, was introduced to the native...

  11. 76 FR 55564 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Cedar Point, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard... Erie during the Revolution 3 Triathlon. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect participants..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  12. Valencene oxidase CYP706M1 from Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cankar, K.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Goedbloed, M.A.; Renirie, R.; Jong, de R.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Sonke, Th.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    (+)-Nootkatone is a natural sesquiterpene ketone used in grapefruit and citrus flavour compositions. It occurs in small amounts in grapefruit and is a major component of Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) heartwood essential oil. Upon co-expression of candidate cytochrome P450 enzymes from

  13. Distribution of ^<90>Sr and ^<137>Cs in Annual Tree Rings of Japanese Cedar, Cryptomeria Japonica D.Don.

    OpenAIRE

    千木良, みどり; 斎藤, 裕子; 木村, 幹; MIDORI, CHIGIRA; YUKO, SAITO; KAN, KIMURA; 青山学院大学理工学部; 青山学院大学理工学部; 青山学院大学理工学部; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University

    1988-01-01

    The contents of ^Sr and ^Cs in two samples of Japanese cedar from Takao and Tsukui districts were determined in tree rings cut into segments representing steps of 5 years of growth. ^Sr in both cedar samples and ^Cs in the Tsukui cedar sample were determined after ashing and chemical isolation, while ^Cs in the Takao sample was directly determined from the sample ash. The distribution of ^Sr fallout in tree rings suggests that ^Sr had given a rather direct effect and showed no significant tra...

  14. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.

  15. Minearl associated microbial communities from The Cedars, associate with specific geological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, A. R.; Wanger, G. P.; Bhartia, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Cedars, an area of active serpentinization located in the Russian River area of Northern California, represents one of the few terrestrial areas on Earth undergoing active serpentinization. One of the products of the serpentinization reaction is the formation of hydroxyl radicals making the springs of the Cedars some of the most alkaline natural waters on Earth. These waters, with very high pH (pH>11), low EH and, low concentrations of electron acceptors are extremely inhospitible; however microbial life has found a way to thrive and a distinct microbial community is observed in the spring waters. Previous work with environmental samples and pure culture isolates [3] derived from The Cedars has suggested the importance of minearal association to these characteristic microbes. Here we show the results combined spectroscopic and molecular studies on aseries of mineral colonization experiemnts performed with a pure culture Cedar's isolate (Serpentenamonas str. A1) and in situ at CS spring. Centimeter scale, polished coupons of a variety of mminerals were prepared in the lab, spectroscopically characterized (Green Raman, DUV Raman, and DUV Fluorescence maps) and deployed into the springs for three months. The coupons were recovered and the distribution of the microbes on the minerals was mapped using a deep-UV native fluorescent mapping sustem that allows for non-destructive mapping of organics and microbes on surfaces. Subsequently the DNA from the minerals was extracted for community structure analysis. The MOSAIC (i.e. deep UV Fluorescence) showed extensicve colonization of the minerals and in some cases we were able to correlate microbial assemblages with specific geological features. In one example, organisms tended to associate strongly with carbonate features on Chromite mineral surfaces (Figure 1). The 16s rDNA revealed the microbial assemblages from each slide was dominated by active Cedars community memebers (i.e., Serpentinamonas and Silanimonas species

  16. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  17. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea parasitizing the gills of snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae: revision of Euryhaliotrema with new and previously described species from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, the eastern and Indo-west Pacific Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delane C. Kritsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty one of 29 species of snappers (Lutjanidae, examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, the Indo-west and eastern Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea were parasitized by 16 new and 11 previously described species of Euryhaliotrema: Euryhaliotrema adelpha sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema anecorhizion sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema cardinale sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema chrysotaeniae, Euryhaliotrema cognatus sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema cryptophallus sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema diplops sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema distinctum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema fajeravilae sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema fastigatum, Euryhaliotrema fatuum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema ferocis sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema hainanense, Euryhaliotrema longibaculum, Euryhaliotrema mehen comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema paracanthi, Euryhaliotrema paululum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema perezponcei, Euryhaliotrema ramulum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema seyi sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema simplicis sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema spirotubiforum, Euryhaliotrema tormocleithrum sp. nov., Euryhaliotrema torquecirrus, Euryhaliotrema tubocirrus, Euryhaliotrema xinyingense, and Euryhaliotrema youngi sp. nov. Six species of Euryhaliotrema, previously reported from lutjanid hosts, were not collected: Euryhaliotrema anguiformis comb. nov., Euryhaliotrema guangdongense, Euryhaliotrema johni, Euryhaliotrema lutiani, Euryhaliotrema lutjani, and Euryhaliotrema nanaoense comb. nov. The diagnosis of Euryhaliotrema was emended to include species having tandem or slightly overlapping gonads, a pretesticular germarium, a globose haptor with morphologically similar anchors and hooks, a coiled or meandering male copulatory organ, a dextral vaginal pore, and hooks with upright acute thumbs and slender shanks comprised of one subunit. A bulbous base of the MCO and presence of an accessory piece in the copulatory complex were no longer considered features defining the genus. As a result, Euryhaliotrematoides and Aliatrema were

  18. Measurement of injected Sr in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ko, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1999-01-01

    Distribution profiles of Sr injected into the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) were determined using PIXE. The Sr injected into the middle of the sapwood of the cedar stem moved upwards easily along the grain. The Sr in the stem moved in a radial direction in the sapwood section (assumed to be through the ray) and there was almost no tangential movement. (author)

  19. Determining Accuracy of Thermal Dissipation Methods-based Sap Flux in Japanese Cedar Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Man-Ping; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Laplace, Sophie; Lin, Song-Jin; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Thermal dissipation method, one kind of sap flux measurement method that can estimate individual tree transpiration, have been widely used because of its low cost and uncomplicated operation. Although thermal dissipation method is widespread, the accuracy of this method is doubted recently because some tree species materials in previous studies were not suitable for its empirical formula from Granier due to difference of wood characteristics. In Taiwan, Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) is one of the dominant species in mountainous area, quantifying the transpiration of Japanese cedar trees is indispensable to understand water cycling there. However, no one have tested the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux for Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. Thus, in this study we conducted calibration experiment using twelve Japanese cedar stem segments from six trees to investigate the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux in Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. By pumping water from segment bottom to top and inserting probes into segments to collect data simultaneously, we compared sap flux densities calculated from real water uptakes (Fd_actual) and empirical formula (Fd_Granier). Exact sapwood area and sapwood depth of each sample were obtained from dying segment with safranin stain solution. Our results showed that Fd_Granier underestimated 39 % of Fd_actual across sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 150 (cm3m-2s-1); while applying sapwood depth corrected formula from Clearwater, Fd_Granier became accurately that only underestimated 0.01 % of Fd_actual. However, when sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 50 (cm3m-2s-1)which is similar with the field data of Japanese cedar trees in a mountainous area of Taiwan, Fd_Granier underestimated 51 % of Fd_actual, and underestimated 26 % with applying Clearwater sapwood depth corrected formula. These results suggested sapwood depth significantly impacted on the accuracy of thermal dissipation

  20. Effects of Inhalation of Emissions from Cedar Timber on Psychological and Physiological Factors in an Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Components extracted from cedar timber have been reported to have stress-reducing effects in humans. If the positive effects of cedar timber in indoor environments are scientifically proven, an indoor environment that utilizes cedar timber may contribute to the improvement or promotion of well-being in humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inhaling emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber (Cryptomeria japonica on the psychological and physiological factors in indoor environments. A case-control study with a crossover design was conducted with 10 subjects occupying two rooms that were controlled for interior materials, indoor climate, and room size. Cedrol and β-eudesmol were specifically detected in the case room. However, no significant differences were observed in psychological and physiological factors. There was a significant loss in vigor in the control group from the time before entering the room to the time after leaving the room; however, this loss in vigor was not seen in the case group. Temperature conditions were higher than the indoor environmental standard in Japan but similar in the two groups. Our results showed a minor positive change in vigor among participants exposed to cedar timber for a short term. Inhalation of emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber may have positive effects in humans; however, further research on their efficacy is needed.

  1. The cedar counters for particle identification in the SPS secondary beams: A description and an operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovet, C.; Maleyran, R.; Piemontese, L.; Placci, A.; Placidi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The Cerenkov Differential counter with Achromatic Ring Focus (Cedar) has been designed and a number built at Cern for the identification (and selection) of particles in the secondary beams of a high-energy accelerator. Cedar-N can separate kaons from pions up to 300 GeV/c but can detect protons only down to 60 GeV/c; Cedar-W can flag protons of 12 GeV/c and separate kaons from pions up to 150 GeV/c. After a brief account of the relevant physics of the Cerenkov effect, this report describes Cedars with emphasis on those characteristics and construction features that are of interest to the user. Details are given of the high-precision optical system, the mechanical construction to achieve uniform temperature (0.1 K) and rigidity, and the gas handling and measurement. The layout of the Cedars in the secondary beams of the Cern Super Proton Synchrotron is described. The signals provided to the user are listed and explained, together with the programs for on-line control of the counters. Details are given of the performances attained, together with various hints and suggestions on the procedure to follow in order to set-up, tune, and operate a Cedar. The dependence of the performance on beam optics is stressed. (orig.)

  2. Produce of seedlings of cedar in function of types of container and fertilization sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique de Castro Pias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of cedar seedlings according to the size of containers and nutrient sources. It was tested three types of containers (Root trainers, plastic bag and plastic vase, three sources of fertilization (Conventional, Kimcoat® and Osmocote® in seven evaluations. The cedar seedlings in root trainers, fertilized with source Osmocote® presented the greatest increments in height and stem diameter when compared to another sources of fertilization. The plastic bag and plastic vase containers promoted similar seedlings height growth. However the seedlings grown in plastic vase presented greatest growth in stem diameter when compared with the ones in plastic bag.

  3. Reconstructing Northeastern United States temperatures using Atlantic white cedar tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Jessie K.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Pederson, Neil; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2017-11-01

    Our knowledge of climate variability in the densely populated Northeastern United States is limited to instrumental data of the last century. Most regional paleoclimate proxies reflect a mix of climate responses, which makes reconstructing historical climate a challenge. Here we analyze tree-ring chronologies from Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) as a potential regional paleotemperature proxy. We evaluate our tree-ring network for spatiotemporal climate signal strength and reconstruction skill across New England. Atlantic white cedar sites in the northern section of the species’ range exhibit positive significant annual growth relationships with local and regional temperatures. Chronologies constructed from northern sites yield skillful reconstructions of temperature that reproduce centennial, multidecadal, and interannual variability in the instrumental record, providing a novel paleotemperature record for New England.

  4. Feeding Behavior-Related Toxicity due to Nandina domestica in Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moges Woldemeskel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dozens of Cedar Waxwings were found dead in Thomas County, Georgia, USA, in April 2009. Five of these were examined grossly and microscopically. Grossly, all the examined birds had pulmonary, mediastinal, and tracheal hemorrhages. Microscopically, several tissues and organs were diffusely congested and hemorrhagic. Congestion and hemorrhage were marked in the lungs. Intact and partly digested berries of Nandina domestica Thunb. were the only ingesta found in the gastrointestinal tract of these birds. Due to their voracious feeding behavior, the birds had eaten toxic doses of N. domestica berries. N. domestica contains cyanide and is one of the few berries readily available at this time of the year in the region. The gross and microscopic findings are consistent with lesions associated with cyanide toxicity. This paper for the first time documents toxicity associated with N. domestica in Cedar Waxwings.

  5. Valencene oxidase CYP706M1 from Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Goedbloed, Miriam; Renirie, Rokus; de Jong, René M; Bouwmeester, Harro; Bosch, Dirk; Sonke, Theo; Beekwilder, Jules

    2014-03-18

    (+)-Nootkatone is a natural sesquiterpene ketone used in grapefruit and citrus flavour compositions. It occurs in small amounts in grapefruit and is a major component of Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) heartwood essential oil. Upon co-expression of candidate cytochrome P450 enzymes from Alaska cedar in yeast with a valencene synthase, a C. nootkatensis valencene oxidase (CnVO) was identified to produce trans-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone. Formation of (+)-nootkatone was detected at 144±10μg/L yeast culture. CnVO belongs to a new subfamily of the CYP706 family of cytochrome P450 oxidases. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining Minimal Clinically Important Differences in Japanese Cedar/Cypress Pollinosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Takaya Higaki; Mitsuhiro Okano; Shin Kariya; Tazuko Fujiwara; Takenori Haruna; Haruka Hirai; Aya Murai; Minoru Gotoh; Kimihiro Okubo; Shuji Yonekura; Yoshitaka Okamoto; Kazunori Nishizaki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Statistically significant results of medical intervention trials are not always clinically meaningful. We sought to estimate the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) (the smallest change in a given endpoint that is meaningful to a patient) during seasonal alteration of Japanese cedar/cypress pollinosis (JCCP). Methods: Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of JCCP patients conducted between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed using an anchor-based method in wh...

  7. Atlantic white cedar: ecology, restoration, and management: Proceedings of the Arlington Echo symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Sheridan

    2005-01-01

    A symposium was held on the globally threatened and coastally restricted tree species, Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides (L) B.S.P.) at the Arlington Echo Outdoor Education Center, Millersville, MD, in June 2003. The theme of the symposium was “Uniting Forces for Action,” and participants in the symposium came from throughout the range of this species, from...

  8. Forests in decline: yellow-cedar research yields prototype for climate change adaptation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Paul Hennon; David D' Amore

    2013-01-01

    Yellow-cedar has been dying across 600 miles of North Pacific coastal rain forest—from Alaska to British Columbia—since about 1880. Thirty years ago, a small group of pathologists began investigating possible biotic causes of the decline. When no biotic cause could be found, the scope broadened into a research program that eventually encompassed the fields of ecology,...

  9. Moessbauer spectroscopic study of iron in Japanese cedar bark (Paper No. HF-02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.B.; Ichikuni, M.

    1990-02-01

    The bark samples of Japanese cedar collected from mountainous and urban areas were characterised by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The Moessbauer spectra showed that iron in the bark samples was distributed among paramagnetic Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ and magnetic iron and their relative abundance changed appreciably from one area to other. Further, low Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio and high magnetic iron in urban samples indicated an influence of human activities. (author). 1 tab., 1 fig

  10. Increasing Drought Sensitivity and Decline of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica) in the Moroccan Middle Atlas Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, Juan C.; Taïqui, Lahcen; Camarero, Jesús Julio

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of the interactions between climate change and forest structure on tree growth are needed for decision making in forest conservation and management. In this paper, we investigated the relative contribution of tree features and stand structure on Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica) radial growth in forests that have experienced heavy grazing and logging in the past. Dendrochronological methods were applied to quantify patterns in basal-area increment and drought sensitivity of Atla...

  11. Water quality of Cedar Creek reservoir in northeast Texas, 1977 to 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrand, Norman F.; Gibbons, Willard J.

    1987-01-01

    Water in Cedar Creek Reservoir in northeast Texas had volume-weighted average concentrations of less than 140 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, less than 30 milligrams per liter of dissolved sulfate, and less than 25 milligrams per liter of chloride between vh nuary 1977 and August 1984. The water was soft to moderately hard; the total hardness concentrations ranged from 55 to 75 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.

  12. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A.; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J.

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, val...

  13. Antibiofilm and Antihyphal Activities of Cedar Leaf Essential Oil, Camphor, and Fenchone Derivatives against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans can form biofilms composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal elements, and C. albicans cells in the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. The present study describes the chemical composition, antibiofilm, and antihyphal activities of cedar leaf essential oil (CLEO), which was found to possess remarkable antibiofilm activity against C. albicans but not to affect its planktonic cell growth. Nineteen components were identified in CLEO by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...

  14. Twentieth-century warming and the dendroclimatology of declining yellow-cedar forests in southeastern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, C.M. [Alaska Fairbanks Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Biology and Wildlife; Sink, S.E.; Juday, G.P. [Alaska Fairbanks Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences; Hennon, P.E.; D' Amore, D.V. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Juneau, AK (United States). Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory

    2008-06-15

    The decline of yellow cedar in temperate rainforests in southeastern Alaska was investigated. Dieback of the species has been observed as early as 1909. The dehardening process for the species is highly temperature-dependent. Declining stands have been found in open-canopy forests on poorly drained sites. Historical climate data sets were compiled suing extensive tree-ring chronologies. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that a specific suite of microclimatic conditions that occur during late winter involving early dehardening, reduced snowpack, and freezing injury are responsible. The assumption was tested by examining regional climatic trends and growth responses of declining cedar populations. Results of the study showed increasing winter temperatures in the region which have resulted in the frequent occurrence of severe thaw-freeze events. Late winter weather was the best predictor of annual growth for surviving trees. Results of the study also verified the impact of elevational gradients of temperature and snow cover on the exposure of the trees to climatic stressors. It was concluded that yellow cedars may continue to decline with continued climatic warming. 36 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.

  15. Breeding for a low pollen variety of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Teiji

    1998-01-01

    The number of sufferers of Japanese cedar pollinosis has been increasing recently and this type of pollinosis is a serious allergic disease in Japan, where one of ten persons is suffering it to some extent. Breeding of Japanese cedar trees was attempted to produce less pollen and set fewer male flowers. Because the degree of male flower setting was varied among plus trees, it was thought possible to select the plus trees that set fewer than normal male flowers for use as low pollen varieties. The degree of male flower setting was evaluated under natural conditions and the conditions of gibberellic acid treatment. Since a spontaneous male sterile mutant was previously identified, it was thought possible to induce such mutation. Therefore, the cedars cultivars growing in the γ-field of Institute of Radiation Breeding were examined in respect of male fertility and some abnormal male flowers were obtained. The changes after transplanting these varieties from the γ-field remain to be resolved. Further, it is necessary to monitor the volume and the number of male flowers, and also the allergen content. (M.N.)

  16. Essential Oil of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Wood Increases Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels after Monotonous Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Eri; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Ohira, Tatsuro; Sugiyama, Masaki

    2017-01-21

    Employee problems arising from mental illnesses have steadily increased and become a serious social problem in recent years. Wood is a widely available plant material, and knowledge of the psychophysiological effects of inhalation of woody volatile compounds has grown considerably. In this study, we established an experimental method to evaluate the effects of Japanese cedar wood essential oil on subjects performing monotonous work. Two experiment conditions, one with and another without diffusion of the essential oil were prepared. Salivary stress markers were determined during and after a calculation task followed by distribution of questionnaires to achieve subjective odor assessment. We found that inhalation of air containing the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil increased the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s). Slight differences in the subjective assessment of the odor of the experiment rooms were observed. The results of the present study indicate that the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil affect the endocrine regulatory mechanism to facilitate stress responses. Thus, we suggest that this essential oil can improve employees' mental health.

  17. Estimation of lead sources in a Japanese cedar ecosystem using stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yuko; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Takahashi, Masamichi; Okamoto, Toru; Yoshinaga, Shuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Anthropogenic Pb affects the environment worldwide. To understand its effect on forest ecosystem, Pb isotope ratios were determined in precipitation, various components of vegetation, the forest floor, soil and parent material in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) forest stand. The average 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio in bulk precipitation was 1.14 ± 0.01 (mean ± SD), whereas that in the subsoil (20-130 cm) was 1.18 ± 0.01. Intermediate ratios ranging from 1.15 to 1.16 were observed in the vegetation, the forest floor, and the surface soil (0-10 cm). Using the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios, the contribution of anthropogenic sources to Pb accumulated in the forest were estimated by the simple binary mixing model. Sixty-two percent of the Pb in the forest floor, 71% in the vegetation, and 55% in the surface soil (0-10 cm) originated from anthropogenic sources, but only 16% in the sub-surface soil (10-20 cm) was anthropogenic. These results suggest that internal Pb cycling occurs mainly between surface soil and vegetation in a Japanese cedar ecosystem, and that anthropogenic Pb strongly influences Pb cycling. Although the Japanese cedar ecosystem has a shallow forest floor, very little atmospherically derived Pb migrated downward over 10 cm in depth

  18. Effect of root strength and soil saturation on hillslope stability in forests with natural cedar decline in headwater regions of SE Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaide C. Johnson; Peter. Wilcock

    1998-01-01

    A natural decline in the population of yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) is occurring in pristine southeast Alaska forests and may be the most significant forest decline in the western United States. The frequency of landslides in cedar decline areas is three times larger than in areas of healthy forest. Three regions are investigated in...

  19. Adaptation to exploit nitrate in surface soils predisposes yellow-cedar to climate-induced decline while enhancing the survival of western redcedar: a new hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. D' Amore; Paul E. Hennon; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley

    2009-01-01

    Yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn), two valuable tree species of Pacific Northwest forests, are competitive in low productivity forests on wet, nearly saturated soils with low nitrogen (N) availability and turnover. We propose a mechanism where cedar trees survive in...

  20. Evaluation of soil saturation, soil chemistry, and early spring soil and air temperatures as risk factors in yellow-cedar decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.V. D' Amore; P.E. Hennon

    2006-01-01

    Yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (D. Don) Oerst.) is a valuable tree species that is experiencing a widespread decline and mortality in southeast Alaska. This study evaluated the relative importance of several potential risk factors associated with yellow-cedar decline: soil saturation, soil aluminum (Al) toxicity or calcium (Ca) deficiency...

  1. Early results from genetic trials on the growth of Spanish cedar and itssusceptibility to the shoot borer moth in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheila E. Ward; Kevyn E. Wightman; Bartolo. Rodriguez Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Cedrela odorata (Spanish cedar) is a neotropical broadleaf tree species that is in high demand for furniture and interior fittings. In 1998, seed collections were made from Spanish cedar in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, for genetic conservation and tree improvement projects. Progeny from these collections were established in genetic trials at Bacalar, Noh Bec, and Zoh...

  2. Soil ecology of a rock outcrop ecosystem: Abiotic stresses, soil respiration, and microbial community profiles in limestone cedar glades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Advised by Dzantor, E. Kudjo

    2015-01-01

    Limestone cedar glades are a type of rock outcrop ecosystem characterized by shallow soil and extreme hydrologic conditions—seasonally ranging from xeric to saturated—that support a number of plant species of conservation concern. Although a rich botanical literature exists on cedar glades, soil biochemical processes and the ecology of soil microbial communities in limestone cedar glades have largely been ignored. This investigation documents the abiotic stress regime of this ecosystem (shallow soil, extreme hydrologic fluctuations and seasonally high soil surface temperatures) as well as soil physical and chemical characteristics, and relates both types of information to ecological structures and functions including vegetation, soil respiration, and soil microbial community metabolic profiles and diversity. Methods used in this investigation include field observations and measurements of soil physical and chemical properties and processes, laboratory analyses, and microbiological assays of soil samples.

  3. Distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in annual tree rings of Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigira, Midori; Saito, Yuko; Kimura, Kan

    1988-01-01

    The contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in two samples of Japanese cedar from Takao and Tsukui districts were determined in tree rings cut into segments representing steps of 5 years of growth. 90 Sr in both cedar samples and 137 Cs in the Tsukui cedar sample were determined after ashing and chemical isolation, while 137 Cs in the Takao sample was directly determined from the sample ash. The distribution of 90 Sr fallout in tree rings suggests that 90 Sr had given a rather direct effect and showed no significant translocation from sapwood to heartwood, whereas 137 Cs tends to concentrate in heartwood irrespective of the effect of the fallout. Average contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were 22 and 9.4 pCi/kg in the Takao sample (9.61 kg air dried) and were 23 and 12 in the Tsukui (4.71 kg air dried) in 1982. (author)

  4. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  5. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2016-02-01

    Salmon are a valuable resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the long term implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat after 12 years of re-colonization, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the long term, landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  6. Spatial distribution of chlordanes and PCB congeners in soil in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Andres; Erdman, Nicholas R.; Rodenburg, Zachary L.; Eastling, Paul M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2012-01-01

    Residential soils from Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA were collected and analyzed for chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study is one of the very few urban soil investigations in the USA. The chlordanes concentrations ranged from 0 to 7500 ng g −1 dry weight (d.w.), with a mean and standard deviation of 130 ± 920 ng g −1 d.w., which is about 1000 times larger than background levels. ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 3 to 1200 ng g −1 d.w., with a mean and standard deviation of 56 ± 160 ng g −1 d.w. and are about 10 times higher than world-wide background levels. Both groups exhibit considerable variability in chemical patterns and site-to-site concentrations. Although no measurements of dioxins were carried out, the potential toxicity due to the 12 dioxin-like PCBs found in the soil is in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Graphical Abstract: Spatial location and measured concentrations of ΣPCB (left, 64 sites) and chlordanes (right, 66 sites) (ng g −1 d.w.) in soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Samples were collected in August 2008. Estimated flood area was obtained from the Linn County Auditor's Office. Highlights: ► Chlordanes and PCBs congeners were measured in surficial soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. ► Measured values for both chemical groups are similar to other urban/industrial site around the world. ► This is one of the few urban soil studies in the USA. ► TEQs values are in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Chlordane compounds (trans-, cis- and trans-nonachlor) and PCBs (164 peaks for 209 congeners) were measured in the soils of a small medium-sized American city.

  7. Flood-inundation maps for Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2018-02-27

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 1.9-mile reach of Cedar Creek at Auburn, Indiana (Ind.), from the First Street bridge, downstream to the streamgage at 18th Street, then ending approximately 1,100 feet (ft) downstream of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. (station number 04179520). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, although forecasts of flood hydrographs are not available at this site (ABBI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. streamgage and the documented high-water marks from the flood of March 11, 2009. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute seven water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft, or near bankfull, to 13 ft, in 1-foot increments. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps, along with internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at Cedar Creek

  8. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ14C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year......(s). The elevated 129I and 134,137Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134Cs/137Cs and 129I/137Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic...

  9. Transfer of 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in a forest canopy of Japanese cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Tagawa, Y.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.; Inokura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be, 210 Pb and 210 Po of ca. 60 parts of a whole tree of Japanese cedar and of underlying litter and soil samples were determined for studying their transfer in a forest canopy. The results suggest that the mean residence times of 7 Be and 210 Pb in the forest canopy were ca. 20 and 900 days, respectively, and the dry deposition rate of 7 Be on the forest canopy was about a half of the total deposition rate. (author)

  10. Xylophage complex associated with the decline of the Atlas cedar Belezma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamina, T.; Taril, B.R.

    2015-01-01

    The study of insects associated with the decline of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica Manetti) in the massif of Belezma (Algeria), resulted in the determination of18 species of xylophagous beetles. Their majority (85%) are represented by the subfamily of Scolytinae. The most dominant were Scolytus amygdali Guerin, 1847 andCryphalus numidicus Eichhoff, 1878.The Buprestidae occupy second place with 14.24% from the total of inventoried xylophagouswith 6 species, whereas the most common was Melanophila marmottani (Fairmaire, 1868). The knowledge of bioecology and outbreaks mechanisms of these species is necessary in order to develop efficient protection strategy against them. (author)

  11. Throughfall and stemflow dynamics in a riparian cedar swamp: possible ecohydrological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    Partitioning of rainfall through forest canopies as throughfall and stemflow have deservedly been the subject of much research in the past; however, very little is known about the fluxes of water and solutes through forested wetland communities. Temperate swamps are characterized by intermittent canopy coverage, with areas that are denser than upland forests of similar species, but also contain canopy gaps of meadow and marsh communities,. Understanding the role of vegetation on the distribution of precipitation in these ecosystems is necessary to effectively constrain water balance estimates and predict possible community responses to shifting climate regimes. This study examines throughfall, stemflow, and interception dynamics in a riparian cedar swamp in Alliston, Ontario, Canada over the 2012 growing season. Throughfall averaged 76 % of above-canopy rainfall; however, there were spatial-magnitude interaction variations within the swamp. For events less than 20 mm, between 17 and 75 % of the measured swamp floor received greater depth of rain than above the canopy, whereas for events greater than 20 mm only between 2 and 23 % of the sampled swamp floor received more water than the actual event. The observed spatial variability in throughfall was not related to leaf area index, suggesting remote sensing modelling efforts may not be an accurate method for quantification of wetland precipitation dynamics. Stemflow along the predominantly cedar trees averaged 5 %; therefore, net precipitation on a seasonal basis in this cedar swamp was 81 % of above canopy rainfall. Throughfall DOC and total nitrogen concentrations averaged 31 and 2.2 mg/L, respectively, with stemflow DOC and TN concentrations averaging 109 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. These values are much higher than reported for upland forest species. In general, throughfall magnitudes increased and solute concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the existing forest boles. The delivery of high

  12. Radiocarbon dating for tree rings of dendro-chronologically dated Japan cedars buried in the paddy field at Fukui

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, S.; Kawano, E.; Kimura, K.; Mine, T.; Harada, M.

    1999-01-01

    14 C dating of 6 Japan cedars having the relative growing ages were made. On the basis of correlation analysis of our data to a 14 C age data set, INTCAL of CALIB (Stuiver), the growing ages of these Japan cedars were estimated (BC 1090-2375). The atmospheric 14 C concentration (Δ 14 C) at their growing ages were obtained from the 14 C age data. The variation of Δ 14 C shows basically the same pattern with that of Europe or America (r=0.783). (author)

  13. [Effects of quantity of Japanese cedar pollen, air pollution and urbanization on allergic rhinitis morbidity in Ibaraki prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunling, Wu; Tamura, Kenji; Matsumoto, Yukio; Endo, Tomohiko; Watari, Chisato; Arai, Takashi; Murakami, Masataka

    2002-07-01

    It has been reported that morbidity from allergic rhinitis in the National Health Insurance records in Ibaraki Prefecture for May correlated with the quantity of Japan cedar pollen scattered in each year. The purpose of the present investigation was to clarify the Japanese cedar pollinosis contribution to morbidity, and also clarifying the influence of air pollution and medical resources on the crisis and symptoms of allergic rhinitis. The charts in four otolaryngology facilities were used for analyzing the Japan cedar pollinosis content with reference to the allergic rhinitis during the pollen season. The age-adjusted morbidity of allergic rhinitis was annually compared employing data of National Health Insurance records for medical examinations made in May during the period between 1988 and 1996 in Ibaraki Prefecture. The quantity of Japanese cedar pollen was measured at seven area points in Ibaraki Prefecture during the three-year period from 1994 to 1996, and was compared with the degree of Japan cedar wood occupation in each municipality. Traffic volume according to municipalities in Ibaraki Prefecture was taken as a surrogate indicator of air pollution. The area otolaryngology facilities and doctors were taken as medical resources. Values were thus compared with allergic rhinitis morbidity. Sixty to eighty percent of the allergic rhinitis patients examined in May were found to be suffering from pollinosis. The quantities of Japanese cedar pollen scatter at the seven points in Ibaraki Prefecture varied in concert every year, the quantities correlating well with the area of Japanese cedar woods stands in each municipality in some but not in other years. The morbidity in the records of allergic rhinitis according to municipalities correlated negatively with the proportion of the population occupied in farming (r = -0.38) and with the area of Japanese cedar woods in each municipality (r = -0.40). The traffic volume calculated according to municipalities in

  14. Sex-specific roost selection by adult red bats in a diverse forested landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill; S. Andrew Carter

    2007-01-01

    The eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) is a common, widespread species that occurs throughout eastern North America; however, information on potential differences in roost selection between sexes is limited. We studied summer diurnal roosting of adult red bats in a diverse forested landscape to: (1) characterize roosts of adult males and females, (2...

  15. Microbial diversity in The Cedars, an ultrabasic, ultrareducing, and low salinity serpentinizing ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shino; Ishii, Shun'ichi; Wu, Angela; Cheung, Andrea; Tenney, Aaron; Wanger, Greg; Kuenen, J Gijs; Nealson, Kenneth H

    2013-09-17

    The Cedars, in coastal northern California, is an active site of peridotite serpentinization. The spring waters that emerge from this system feature very high pH, low redox potential, and low ionic concentrations, making it an exceptionally challenging environment for life. We report a multiyear, culture-independent geomicrobiological study of three springs at The Cedars that differ with respect to the nature of the groundwater feeding them. Within each spring, both geochemical properties and microbial diversity in all three domains of life remained stable over a 3-y period, with multiple samples each year. Between the three springs, however, the microbial communities showed considerable differences that were strongly correlated with the source of the serpentinizing groundwater. In the spring fed solely by deep groundwater, phylum Chloroflexi, class Clostridia, and candidate division OD1 were the major taxa with one phylotype in Euryarchaeota. Less-abundant phylotypes include several minor members from other candidate divisions and one phylotype that was an outlier of candidate division OP3. In the springs fed by the mixture of deep and shallow groundwater, organisms close to the Hydrogenophaga within Betaproteobacteria dominated and coexisted with the deep groundwater community members. The shallow groundwater community thus appears to be similar to those described in other terrestrial serpentinizing sites, whereas the deep community is distinctly different from any other previously described terrestrial serpentinizing community. These unique communities have the potential to yield important insights into the development and survival of life in these early-earth analog environments.

  16. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of the Condensed Tannins from Alaska Cedar Inner Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Rosales-Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and antioxidant activity of condensed tannins isolated from Alaska Cedar inner bark have been investigated. Oligomers of flavan-3-ol were purified by column chromatography (Sephadex LH-20 and analyzed by 13CNMR and MALDI-TOF MS spectrometries. Their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS free radicals scavenging, ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system (β-CLAMS assays. Results showed that the condensed tannins consents of both homogeneous and heterogeneous oligomers of procyanidins (catechin/epicatechin and prodelphinidins (gallocatechin/ epigallocatechin flavan-3-ol units; and oligomers from trimmers to heptamers with dominant interflavan linkages B-type as it is most common in proanthocyanidins. Condensed tannins showed significant ntioxidant activity as the median inhibition capacity IC 50 is comparable to the catechin control response. Alaska Cedar inner bark oligomers show high antioxidant capacity, evaluated by both methods based on electron transfer mechanisms and hydrogen atom transfer reactions. This bark may be considered as a new source of natural antioxidants for nutraceutical ingredients.

  17. Cleaning oil refining drainage waters out of emulsified oil products with thermic treated cedar nut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatanova, P. A.; Adeeva, L. N.

    2017-08-01

    It was elaborated the ability of the sorbent produced by thermic treatment of cedar nut shell to destruct model and real first kind (direct) emulsions in static and dynamic conditions. In static conditions optimal ratio sorbent-emulsion with the original concentration of oil products 800 mg/l was in the range of 2.0 g per 100 ml of emulsion which corresponds to the level of treatment 94.9%. The time of emulsion destruction was 40 minutes. This sorbent is highly active in dynamic processes of oil-contaminated water treatment, the level of treatment 96.0% is being achieved. Full dynamic sorptive capacity of the sorbent is 0.85 g/g. Sorbent based on the thermic treated cedar nut shell can be elaborated as sorptive filter element of local treatment facilities of oil refining and petrochemical processes. After the treatment with this sorbent of drainage waters of oil refinery in dynamic conditions the concentration of oil products became less than mpc on oil products for waste waters coming to biological treatment.

  18. Detection of wood discoloration in a canker fungus-inoculated Japanese cedar by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Aoki, Y.; Yamato, M.; Komatsu, M.; Kusumoto, D.; Suzuki, K.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NRG) was applied to trace the development of discolored tissue in the wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) after being infected with a canker fungus. Japanese cedar seedlings were wound inoculated with a virulent and avirulent isolate of a canker fungus, Guignardia cryptomeriae. Three, 7, 13 and 22 days after the inoculation, the seedlings were irradiated with thermal neutrons. The image on the X-ray film showed that the whiteness in the image corresponded to the water content in the sample. Discolored tissue and surrounding dry zones induced by the fungal inoculation were detected as dark areas, indicating water deficiency with a high resolution. Through image analysis, the dry zones were detected as early as 3 days after inoculation. Neutron images also showed the difference in the size of water deficient parts due to the tissue damage among the treatments. The neutron beam dose used in this experiment had no effect on the growth rate of the fungus on a medium, showing that NRG is an effective method for pathological research of trees. (author)

  19. Estimation of Throughfall and Stemflow Bacterial Flux in a Subtropical Oak-Cedar Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Thais B.; Pound, Preston; Whitetree, Ansley; Moore, L. Dean; Van Stan, John T.

    2018-02-01

    Transport pathways of microbes between ecosystem spheres (atmosphere, phyllosphere, and pedosphere) represent major fluxes in nutrient cycles and have the potential to affect microbially mediated biogeochemical processes. Novel data on bacterial fluxes from the phyllosphere to the pedosphere during rainfall via throughfall (rain dripping from/through the canopy) and stemflow (rain funneled down tree stems) are reported. Bacterial concentrations were quantified using flow cytometry and validated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays in rainfall samples from an oak-cedar forest in coastal Georgia (southeastern U.S.). Bacteria concentrations (cells mL-1) and storm-normalized fluxes (cells m-2 h-1, cells m-2 mm-1) were greater for cedar versus oak. Total bacterial flux was 1.5 × 1016 cells ha-1 yr-1. These previously unexamined bacterial fluxes are interpreted in the context of major elemental pools and fluxes in forests and could represent inoculum-level sources of bacteria (if alive), and organic matter and inorganic solute inputs (if lysed) to soils.

  20. Yellow-Cedar, Callitropsis (Chamaecyparis) nootkatensis, Secondary Metabolites, Biological Activities, and Chemical Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Joseph J; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P

    2018-05-01

    Yellow-cedar, Callitropsis nootkatensis, is prevalent in coastal forests of southeast Alaska, western Canada, and inland forests along the Cascades to northern California, USA. These trees have few microbial or animal pests, attributable in part to the distinct groups of biologically active secondary metabolites their tissues store for chemical defense. Here we summarize the new yellow-cedar compounds identified and their biological activities, plus new or expanded activities for tissues, extracts, essential oils and previously known compounds since the last review more than 40 years ago. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the most abundant compounds in foliage, while heartwood contains substantial quantities of oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with one or more tropolones. Diterpenes occur in foliage and bark, whereas condensed tannins have been isolated from inner bark. Biological activities expressed by one or more compounds in these groups include fungicide, bactericide, sporicide, acaricide, insecticide, general cytotoxicity, antioxidant and human anticancer. The diversity of organisms impacted by whole tissues, essential oils, extracts, or individual compounds now encompasses ticks, fleas, termites, ants, mosquitoes, bacteria, a water mold, fungi and browsing animals. Nootkatone, is a heartwood component with sufficient activity against arthropods to warrant research focused toward potential development as a commercial repellent and biopesticide for ticks, mosquitoes and possibly other arthropods that vector human and animal pathogens.

  1. Growth and quality of australian cedar saplings originated from different multiclonal minigarden systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forestry researchers often evaluate minicutting vegetative propagation of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata as a viable technique for this species. However, the adoption of minigarden systems for commercial propagation still requires viability and quality testing of saplings produced after multiple harvests. In the present work, we evaluate survival, growth, and quality of Australian cedar saplings grown from minicuttings originating from multiple harvests of ministumps planted in gutter or tube systems. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial treatment structure (two minigarden systems and four minicutting harvests. For the gutter system, six minicutting harvests were performed 50, 86, 115, 149, 177 and 212 days after planting ministumps, whereas for the tube system, four harvests were performed 115, 149, 177 and 212 days after planting ministumps. At the end of each sapling production cycle (105 days after each minicutting harvest, saplings were evaluated for survival, foliar area, dry mass of aerial parts, number and length of adventitious roots, dry mass of the root system, height to diameter ratio, ratio between the dry mass of aerial parts and dry mass of root system, and Dickson’s Quality Index. Sapling survival was not affected by minigarden system, except for a reduction observed in fourth cycle saplings from the tube system. Sapling quality was also similar between systems. However, sapling growth potential decreased with production cycle, indicating that ministumps lose vigor with multiple harvests.

  2. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J. Karchesy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2, and eremophil-1(10,11-dien-13-ol (3. The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3 was established by synthesis from valencene (6. Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5 and valencene-13-aldehyde (4, respectively.

  3. Biologically important eremophilane sesquiterpenes from alaska cedar heartwood essential oil and their semi-synthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J

    2011-06-08

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2), and eremophil-1(10),11-dien-13-ol (3). The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S) configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3) was established by synthesis from valencene (6). Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5) and valencene-13-aldehyde (4), respectively.

  4. The value of Web-based library services at Cedars-Sinai Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halub, L P

    1999-07-01

    Cedars-Sinai Medical Library/Information Center has maintained Web-based services since 1995 on the Cedars-Sinai Health System network. In that time, the librarians have found the provision of Web-based services to be a very worthwhile endeavor. Library users value the services that they access from their desktops because the services save time. They also appreciate being able to access services at their convenience, without restriction by the library's hours of operation. The library values its Web site because it brings increased visibility within the health system, and it enables library staff to expand services when budget restrictions have forced reduced hours of operation. In creating and maintaining the information center Web site, the librarians have learned the following lessons: consider the design carefully; offer what services you can, but weigh the advantages of providing the services against the time required to maintain them; make the content as accessible as possible; promote your Web site; and make friends in other departments, especially information services.

  5. Red Sirius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynov, D Ya

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changed its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries.

  6. The role of windstorm exposure and yellow cedar decline on landslide susceptibility in southeast Alaskan temperate rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Buma; Adelaide C. Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between ecological disturbances have the potential to alter other disturbances and their associated regimes, such as the likelihood, severity, and extent of events. The influence of exposure to wind and yellow cedar decline on the landslide regime of Alaskan temperate rainforests was explored using presence-only modeling techniques. The wind regime was...

  7. Shifting climate, altered niche, and a dynamic conservation strategy for yellow-cedar in the North Pacific coastal rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Paul G. Schaberg; Dustin T. Wittwer; Colin S. Shanley

    2012-01-01

    The extensive mortality of yellow-cedar along more than 1000 kilometers of the northern Pacific coast of North America serves as a leading example of climate effects on a forest tree species. In this article, we document our approaches to resolving the causes of tree death, which we explain as a cascade of interacting topographic, forest-structure, and microclimate...

  8. 75 FR 53321 - Prospective Grant of a Co-Exclusive License: Natural Plant Extracts From Incense Cedar as Pest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Grant of a Co-Exclusive License: Natural Plant Extracts From Incense Cedar as Pest Control Agents and...,629,387, ``Compounds for Pest Control and Methods for Their Use,'' issued December 8, 2009; and U.S. Pat. No. 7,129,271, ``Compounds for Pest Control and Methods for Their Use,'' issued October 31, 2006...

  9. "Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F.": School Districts Must Pay for Nursing Services under the IDEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    In "Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garrett F." (1999), the U.S. Supreme Court decided that continuous nursing constitutes a "related service" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The case involved a 16-year-old who has been paralyzed since early childhood. Cost per student could be $20,000 to…

  10. Oral Administration of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 Reduces Cedar Pollen Antigen-Induced Peritoneal Eosinophilia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Sashihara

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated that the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppresses eosinophilia via the modulation of Th1/Th2 balance. These observations suggested that heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 might potentially ameliorate the increased number of eosinophils in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  11. 75 FR 55344 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Cedar City Field Office, Utah, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Cedar City Field Office. This notice announces the beginning of the...-Beaver-Garfield-Antimony RMP (1986) and Pinyon Management Framework Plan (1983). DATES: This notice...

  12. Biometric-based estimation of net ecosystem production in a mature Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation beneath a flux tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Yuichiro; Lee, Na-Yeon M; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Shizu, Yoko; Saitoh, Taku M; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Quantification of carbon budgets and cycling in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations is essential for understanding forest functions in Japan because these plantations occupy about 20% of the total forested area. We conducted a biometric estimate of net ecosystem production (NEP) in a mature Japanese cedar plantation beneath a flux tower over a 4-year period. Net primary production (NPP) was 7.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) and consisted mainly of tree biomass increment and aboveground litter production. Respiration was calculated as 6.8 (soil) and 3.3 (root) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Thus, NEP in the plantation was 4.3 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). In agreement with the tower-based flux findings, this result suggests that the Japanese cedar plantation was a strong carbon sink. The biometric-based NEP was higher among most other types of Japanese forests studied. Carbon sequestration in the mature plantation was characterized by a larger increment in tree biomass and lower mortality than in natural forests. Land-use change from natural forest to Japanese cedar plantation might, therefore, stimulate carbon sequestration and change the carbon allocation of NPP from an increment in coarse woody debris to an increase in tree biomass.

  13. Naturally occurrence of Sr and Ca in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ko, S.; Yoshida, K.

    2000-01-01

    Distribution profiles of Sr and Ca occurring naturally in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) were determined using PIXE. The average concentration of Sr was around 7.5 ppm and the average Ca concentration was about 540 ppm. (author)

  14. Genetic characteristics of red foxes In northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A Green; Benjamin N Sacks; Leonard J Erickson; Keith B Aubry

    2017-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes macroura), once common in the Blue Mountains ecoregion of northeastern Oregon, was considered rare in eastern Oregon by the 1930s and thought to be extirpated by the 1960s, when putatively new Red Fox populations began to appear. Although the new foxes were long presumed to be nonnative (originating from...

  15. Yield and ultrasonic modulus of elasticity of red maple veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Steven Verhey; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Brian K. Brashaw; Crystal L. Pilon; Xiping Wang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the potential for using red maple sawlogs to manufacture laminated veneer lumber (LVL). The primary objective was to determine the yield of ultrasonically graded veneer from red maple logs. A sample of 48 logs was obtained from six Eastern and Lake States in the United States. The logs were visually graded and shipped to a plywood...

  16. Distribution of 90Sr in the tree rings of a Japanese cedar exposed to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Nagai, M.; Aoki, T.; Nagatomo, T.; Okada, N.

    2006-01-01

    Cedar sample was collected at the black rain area in Nagasaki city. A clear peak of 90 Sr/Sr was observed in the 1924-1925 rings. To investigate the mobility of Sr in a cedar tree stem, strontium chloride solution was injected into a living tree, and the distribution profiles of Sr in the stem at 8 months later were determined. The strontium moves radially through the sapwood of a cedar stem but that it almost stops at the heartwood. It was concluded that the peak in the 1924-1925 rings was due to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. (author)

  17. Geochemistry and geobiology of a present-day serpentinization site in California: The Cedars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Penny L.; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Johnson, Orion J.; Suzuki, Shino; Rietze, Amanda; Sessions, Alex L.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    2013-05-01

    Ultra-basic (pH 11-12) reducing (-656 to -585 mV) groundwater springs discharging from serpentinized peridotite of The Cedars, CA, were investigated for their geochemistry and geobiology. The spring waters investigated were of meteoric origin; however, geochemical modeling suggests that there were two sources of groundwater, a shallow source with sufficient contact with The Cedars' peridotite body to be altered geochemically by serpentinization, and a deeper groundwater source that not only flows through the peridotite body but was also in contact with the marine sediments of the Franciscan Subduction Complex (FSC) below the peridotite body. We propose that the groundwater discharging from lower elevations (GPS1 and CS1) reflect the geochemistry of the deeper groundwater in contact with FSC, while groundwaters discharging from springs at higher elevations (NS1 and BSC) were a mixture of the shallow peridotite-only groundwater and the deeper groundwater that has been in contact with the FSC. Cell densities of suspended microbes within these waters were extremely low. In the NS1 and BSC spring fluids, cell densities ranged from 102 to 103 cells/ml, while suspended cells at GPS were lower than 10 cells/mL. However, glass slides incubated in the BSC and GPS1 springs for 2-3 weeks were colonized by cells with densities ranging from 106 to 107 cells/cm2 attached to their surfaces. All of the springs were very low (⩽1 μM) in several essential elements and electron acceptors (e.g. nitrate/ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) required for (microbial) growth, which is not uncommon at sites of continental serpentinization. Gases rich in N2, H2, and CH4 were exsolving from the springs. The stable carbon isotope value (δ13CCH4 = -68 ± 0.6‰) and the CH4/C2+ (>103) of methane and other gaseous hydrocarbons exsolving from NS1 were typical of microbially sourced methane, whereas the isotope values and the CH4/C2+ of BSC and CS1 springs were more enriched in 13C and had CH4/C2

  18. Fine root dynamics in moso bamboo and Japanese cedar forest by scanner method in central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Po-Hsuan; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    is to characterize the temporal and spatial variation of fine root dynamics in moso bamboo forests in central Taiwan by using scanner method with 6 acrylic boxes. Other the other hand, this study compared the result with those of adjacent Japanese cedar forests with 8 acrylic boxes. Consequently, we found the fine root production rate and decomposition rate of the bamboo forest are higher than cedar forest. Also, the timing of first observation of new roots was earlier in bamboo forest than cedar forest. This study also examined differences of temporal patterns among measurement locations based on long-term data after box installation.

  19. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T; Cresswell, Alan J; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, Stewart P H T; Hou, Xiaolin; Kinch, Helen; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, David W C; Zhang, Luyuan

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ 14 C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14 C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year(s). The elevated 129 I and 134,137 Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134 Cs/ 137 Cs and 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic and elemental fractionation during translocation. However, fractionation between radioiodine and radiocesium is significant during transportation from the source.

  20. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Xu; Cresswell, A.J.; Cook, G.T.; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Kinch, Helen; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, D.W.C.; Xiaolin Hou; Luyuan Zhang; Xi'an AMS Center, SKLLQG, CAS, Xi'an

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ 14 C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14 C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year(s). The elevated 129 I and 134,137 Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134 Cs/ 137 Cs and 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic and elemental fractionation during translocation. However, fractionation between radioiodine and radiocesium is significant during transportation from the source. (author)

  1. Dinosaur tracks from the Cedar Mountain Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Arches National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G.; White, Diane K.; Kirkland, James I.; Santucci, Vincent L.

    2004-01-01

    The seventh and largest known dinosaur tracksite from the Cedar Mountain Formation is reported from two important stratigraphic levels in the Ruby Ranch Member within the boundaries of Arches National Park. Previous reports of sites with a few isolated tracks are of limited utility in indicating the fauna represented by track makers. The Arches site reveals evidence of several theropod morphotypes, including a possible match for the coelurosaur Nedcolbertia and an apparently didactyl Utahraptor-like dromeosaurid. Sauropod tracks indicate a wide-gauge morphotype (cf. Brontopodus). Ornithischian tracks suggest the presence of an iguandontid-like ornithopod and a large ankylosaur. Dinosaur track diversity is high in comparison with other early Cretaceous vertebrate ichnofaunas, and it correlates well with faunal lists derived from skeletal remains, thus providing a convincing census of the known fauna.

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in sap flux density in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trees, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Han; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Kume, Tomonori

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow measurement method is a technique widely used for measuring forest transpiration. However, variations in sap flow distribution can make accurately estimating individual tree-scale transpiration difficult. Significant spatial variations in sap flow across the sapwood within tree have been reported in many studies. In contrast, few studies have discussed azimuthal variations in sap flow, and even fewer have examined their seasonal change characteristics. This study was undertaken to clarify within-tree special and temporal variations in sap flow, and to propose an appropriate design for individual-tree scale transpiration estimates for Japanese cedar trees. The measurement was conducted in a Japanese cedar plantation located in Central Taiwan. Spatial distribution of sap flux density through the sapwood cross-section was measured using Granier's thermal dissipation technique. Sensors were installed at 1.3 m high on the east, west, north and south sides of the stem at 0-2 cm in 8 trees, and at 2-4 cm in the 6 larger trees. We found, in radial profile analysis, that sap flux densities measured at the depth of 2-4 cm were 50 % in average of those measured at depth of 0-2 cm. In azimuthal profile analysis, we found significant azimuthal variations in sap flux density. In one individual tree, the ratio of sap flux density on one aspect to another could be approximately 40-190 %, with no dependency on directions. Both radial and azimuthal profiles in most sample trees were fairly consistent throughout the measurement period. We concluded that radial and azimuthal variations in sap flow across sapwood might introduce significant errors in individual tree-scale transpiration estimations based on single point sap flow measurement, and seasonal change of within-tree spatial variations in sap flow could have insignificant impacts on accuracy of long-term individual tree-scale transpiration estimates. Keywords: transpiration, sap flow measurement, scaling up, sap flow

  3. Individual taper models for natural cedar and Taurus fir mixed stands of Bucak Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the performance of different types of taper equations for predicting tree diameters at specific heights and total stem volumes for mixed stands of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Carr.. We used data from mixed stands containing a total of 131 cedar and 124 Taurus fir trees. We evaluated six commonly used and well-known forestry taper functions developed by a variety of researchers (Biging (1984, Zakrzewski (1999, Muhairwe (1999, Fang et al. (2000, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004. To address problems related to autocorrelation and multicollinearity in the hierarchical data associated with the construction of taper models, we used appropriate statistical procedures for the model fitting. We compared model performances based on the analysis of three goodness-of-fit statistics and found the compatible segmented model of Fang et al. (2000 to be superior in describing the stem profile and stem volume of both tree species in mixed stands. The equation used by Zakrzewski (1999 exhibited the poorest fitting results of the three taper equations. In general, we found segmented taper equations to provide more accurate predictions than variable-form models for both tree species. Results from the non-linear extra sum of squares method indicate that stem tapers differ among tree species in mixed stands. Therefore, a different taper function should be used for each tree species in mixed stands in the Bucak district. Using individual-specific taper equations yields more robust estimations and, therefore, will enhance the prediction accuracy of diameters at different heights and volumes in mixed stands.

  4. Variation of radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen in the Okutama area since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruoka, H.; Inoue, K.; Sakano, Y.; Hamada, M.; Shimizu, H.; Fukushi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to releases of radionuclides in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) has been incorporated into large varieties of plant species and soil types. There is a possibility that radiocesium taken into plants is being diffused by pollen. Radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen have been measured in Ome City, located in the Okutama area of metropolitan Tokyo, for the past 3 y. In this research, the variation of radiocesium concentrations was analysed by comparing data from 2011 to 2014. Air dose rates at 1 m above the ground surface in Ome City from 2011 to 2014 showed no significant difference. Concentration of 137 Cs contained in the cedar pollen in 2012 was about half that in 2011. Between 2012 and 2014, the concentration decreased by approximately one-fifth, which was similar to the result of a press release distributed by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. (authors)

  5. Yellow-cedar in vitro clonal production and evaluation of propagules for reforestation. FRDA research memo No. 211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Technical note describing a project that was part of an ongoing effort to develop micropropagation techniques on an operation scale and to investigate their possible use in producing genetically improved stock for planting. The project developed a commercially viable process that uses organogenic micropropagation to produce yellow-cedar stock for operational reforestation; evaluated the techniques for developing genetically improved clones; and established demonstration plots of mircopropagules.

  6. Molecular cloning and immunochemical characterization of a novel major Japanese cedar pollen allergen belonging to the aspartic protease family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Ragaa Nour; Kawamoto, Seiji; Aki, Tsunehiro; Shimada, Yayoi; Rikimaru, Satoshi; Onishi, Nobukazu; Babiker, Elfadil Elfadl; Oiso, Isao; Hashimoto, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Takaharu; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen is a major cause of seasonal pollinosis in Japan. Protease activity in the pollen grains may trigger pro-allergic responses but no such proteases have yet been identified as pollen allergens. We report the molecular cloning and immunochemical characterization of a novel C. japonica pollen allergen belonging to the aspartic protease family. We focused on the C. japonica pollen allergen spot No. 63 (CPA63, 47.5% IgE binding frequency) on our 2-dimensional IgE immunoblot map. The internal amino acid sequences were determined using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Full-length cpa63 cDNA was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. Recombinant CPA63 (r-CPA63) was expressed using the baculovirus-insect cell culture system and its IgE binding capacity was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proteolytic activity of r-CPA63 was also assessed using a putative mature enzyme produced upon autolysis. cpa63 cDNA encoded a 472 amino acid polypeptide showing about 40% sequence identity to members of the plant atypical aspartic protease family. ELISA showed that r-CPA63 was recognized by IgE antibodies in the serum of 58% (18/31) of Japanese cedar pollinosis patients. We also demonstrated an aspartic protease-like enzyme activity of the putative mature r-CPA63. We have identified the first plant aspartic protease allergen from Japanese cedar pollen. The availability of the CPA63 sequence and its recombinant allergen production system are useful not only for pharmaceutical applications but also for further examination of the role of protease activity in the pathogenesis of cedar pollinosis. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in pollen of Atlas cedar: first steps towards a new palaeoecological proxy for Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Benjamin; Fletcher, William; Ryan, Peter; Grant, Helen; Ilmen, Rachid

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide information on climate and the environmental conditions at different growth stages of the plant, both past and present. Carbon isotope discrimination in plant tissue is already well understood, and can be used as a drought stress indicator for semi-arid regions. Stable carbon isotope ratios measured directly on pollen provides the potential for the development of long-term environmental proxies (spanning thousands of years), as pollen is well preserved in the environment. Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica Endl. Manetti ex Carrière), is an ideal test case to develop a pollen stable carbon isotope proxy. The tree grows across a wide altitudinal and climatic range and is extremely sensitive to moisture availability. The pollen is abundant, and easily identifiable to the species level in pollen analysis because different cedar species are geographically confined to different regions of the world. In 2015 we sampled 76 individual cedar trees across latitudinal, altitudinal and environmental gradients, highly focused on the Middle Atlas region of Morocco, with 25 additional samples from botanical gardens across Europe and the US to extend these gradients. Here, we report new stable carbon isotope data from pollen, leaf and stem wood from these samples with a view to assessing and quantifying species-specific fractionation effects associated with pollen production. The isotopic response of individual trees at local and wider geographical scales to altitude and climatic conditions is presented. This research forms part of an ongoing PhD project working to develop and calibrate a modern carbon isotope proxy in Atlas cedar pollen, which can ultimately be applied to fossil sequences and complement existing multi-proxy records (e.g. pollen analysis in lake sediments, tree-rings).

  8. Comparison of the evapotranspiration and its components before and after thinning in Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Makiko; Xiang, Yang; Matsuda, Hiroki; Saito, Takami; Sun, Haotian; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Kasahara, Tamao; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Water source area of Japan is often covered by forest, and 40 % of forest cover is coniferous plantation. Thinning has become a major tool in the management of plantation in recent years, but its effects on water cycle and its components are yet to be evaluated well. In this study, we investigated the changes in evapotranspiration and its components, including stand transpiration and canopy interception loss, after thinning in 50 years old Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress plantation at Yayama experimental catchment in Fukuoka, Japan. We established study plot in each Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress stand. Sap flow measurement was conducted for evaluating stand transpiration in each plot. Through fall and stem flow were also monitored to estimate canopy interception loss. The experiments were conducted over two years. During the measurements, 50 % of trees were thinned randomly in entire catchment, which has an area of 2.98 ha. Stem density was changed from 3945 to 1977 trees per ha after thinning. The reduction of daily stand transpiration in the studied Japanese cedar and cypress stands after thinning were 31.6 % and 48.2 % under the same condition of microclimate, respectively. These values were comparable to the changes in total sapwood area, 34.2 % and 44.5 %, and sap flow density did not change after thinning. It implies that sapwood area is a primary determinant of stand transpiration. Canopy interception ratios were 27 % and 26 % for Japanese cedar and cypress before thinning, and the ratios decreased to 24 % and 21 % after thinning, respectively. Thus, we obtained the changes in annual evapotranspiration and its components at catchment scale by using observation and models. The changes in partitioning of evapotranspiration is also discussed. The evapotranspiration before and after thinning were also compared to water balance data in this study site.

  9. Acute aquatic toxicity of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duringer, Jennifer M; Swan, Laurence R; Walker, Douglas B; Craig, A Morrie

    2010-11-01

    Recently, interest has developed for using essential oils from Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood in commercial products such as pest repellents and cosmetics. In order to gauge the relative toxicological risk that these oils pose to freshwater and marine organisms, the acute aquatic toxicity of these oils was evaluated using OPPTS guidelines to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. For western juniper foliage oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward D. magna or O. mykiss, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). For toxicity to S. capricornutum using algal cell density, the 72 and 96 h EC50 value was 1.7 mg/L and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.63 mg/L. For Port Orford cedar heartwood oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward O. mykiss or S. capricornutum, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). The 48-h D. magna EC50 value was 1.9 mg/L; the NOEC values for algal cell density were 1.25 mg/L (72 h) and 0.63 mg/L (96 h). In summary, this study shows that western juniper foliage and Port Orford cedar heartwood oils demonstrate little to no risk to aquatic organisms.

  10. Spectrum of allergens for Japanese cedar pollinosis and impact of component-resolved diagnosis on allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fujimura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan is associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, as well as significant loss of productivity among the workforce in early spring, thus representing a serious social problem. Furthermore, the prevalence is increasing, and has risen by more than 10% in this decade. Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were identified as the major allergens in Japanese cedar pollen (JCP, and in 2004, the existence of other major and minor allergens were revealed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Allergenome analysis identified a chitinase, a lipid transfer protein, a serine protease, and an aspartic protease as novel IgE-reactive allergens in patients with JCP allergy. Thaumatin-like protein (Cry j 3 was shown to be homologous to Jun a 3, a major allergen from mountain cedar pollen. Isoflavone reductase-like protein was also characterized in a study of a JCP cDNA library. The characterization of component allergens is required to clarify the sensitizer or cross-reactive elicitor allergens for component-resolved diagnosis (CRD. Increasing evidence from numerous clinical trials indicates that CRD can be used to design effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the eight characterized JCP allergens and discuss the impact of CRD and characterization of novel allergens on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  11. Inferring the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring {sup 137}Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: kanasashi.tsutomu@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takenaka, Chisato [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sugiura, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 765-1 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    fallout of FDNPP. • Japanese cedar leaves and male cones were good indicators for this evaluation. • A higher proportion of ionic {sup 137}Cs was found distributed along eastern Fukushima. • Variations in the ionic ratio of {sup 137}Cs affect its translocation in Japanese cedar. • High uncertainties were found in the calculated values in some sampling sites.

  12. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro; Watanabe, Mirai; Koshikawa, Masami K.; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Takenaka, Akio; Watanabe, Keiji; Hayashi, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted 137 Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of 137 Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of 137 Cs and the concentration ratios of 137 Cs to 133 Cs ( 137 Cs/ 133 Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20–40% of foliar 137 Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60–80% adhered to the leaf surface. The 137 Cs/ 133 Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of 137 Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the 137 Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar 137 Cs/ 133 Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal 137 Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained 137 Cs, and their 137 Cs/ 133 Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of 137 Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout. - Highlights: • 137 Cs was absorbed into cedar leaves from the leaf surface. • 137 Cs in new leaves of cedar trees was mainly supplied by

  13. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Mirai, E-mail: watanabe.mirai@nies.go.jp [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Koshikawa, Masami K.; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Takenaka, Akio [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Keiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted {sup 137}Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of {sup 137}Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and the concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs to {sup 133}Cs ({sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20–40% of foliar {sup 137}Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60–80% adhered to the leaf surface. The {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of {sup 137}Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the {sup 137}Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal {sup 137}Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained {sup 137}Cs, and their {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of {sup 137}Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout. - Highlights: • {sup 137}Cs was absorbed into cedar leaves

  14. Unusual metabolic diversity of hyperalkaliphilic microbial communities associated with subterranean serpentinization at The Cedars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shino; Ishii, Shun'ichi; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Rietze, Amanda; Tenney, Aaron; Morrill, Penny L; Inagaki, Fumio; Kuenen, J Gijs; Nealson, Kenneth H

    2017-11-01

    Water from The Cedars springs that discharge from serpentinized ultramafic rocks feature highly basic (pH=~12), highly reducing (E h serpentinizing system, was dominated by several bacterial taxa from the phyla OD1 ('Parcubacteria') and Chloroflexi. Members of the GPS1 community had, for the most part, the smallest genomes reported for their respective taxa, and encoded only archaeal (A-type) ATP synthases or no ATP synthases at all. Furthermore, none of the members encoded respiration-related genes and some of the members also did not encode key biosynthesis-related genes. In contrast, BS5, fed by shallow water, appears to have a community driven by hydrogen metabolism and was dominated by a diverse group of Proteobacteria similar to those seen in many terrestrial serpentinization sites. Our findings indicated that the harsh ultrabasic geological setting supported unexpectedly diverse microbial metabolic strategies and that the deep-water-fed springs supported a community that was remarkable in its unusual metagenomic and genomic constitution.

  15. Fertility variation in two populations of taurus cedar (cedrus libani rich.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozel, H.B.; Bilir, N.

    2016-01-01

    Fertility variation, measured as half-sib family coefficient, based on number of one, two and three years cones were investigated in plantation population (PP), and a natural population (NP) of Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani Rich.) sampled from southern part of Turkey. Fertility variation was higher in PP than NP for one, two and three years. It was the highest in PP for one year cones (2.34), while it was lowest in NP for three years cones (1.73) as shown in Table 2. The effective number of parents were 21.8 (38.4% of census number) for one year cones, 25.7 (47.9% of census number) for two years cones and 29.8 (52.6% of census number) for three cones in PP. On the other hand the effective number of parents were 28.3 (43.4% of census number) for one year cones, 32.8 (51.6% of census number) for two years cones and 36.4 (58.9% of census number) for three years cones in NP. Diameter at breast height and tree crown area had positive and significant (p<0.05) effective on cone production, while effects of tree height and tree age were not significant (NS) on that (Table 3). There were also positive and significant (p<0.05) correlation between years in cone production. (author)

  16. Soil microbial community profiles and functional diversity in limestone cedar glades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Dzantor, E. Kudjo; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Rock outcrop ecosystems, such as limestone cedar glades (LCGs), are known for their rare and endemic plant species adapted to high levels of abiotic stress. Soils in LCGs are thin (< 25 cm), soil-moisture conditions fluctuate seasonally between xeric and saturated, and summer soil temperatures commonly exceed 48 °C. The effects of these stressors on soil microbial communities (SMC) remain largely unstudied, despite the importance of SMC-plant interactions in regulating the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. SMC profiles and functional diversity were characterized in LCGs using community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and plate-dilution frequency assays (PDFA). Most-probable number (MPN) estimates and microbial substrate-utilization diversity (H) were positively related to soil thickness, soil organic matter (OM), soil water content, and vegetation density, and were diminished in alkaline soil relative to circumneutral soil. Soil nitrate showed no relationship to SMCs, suggesting lack of N-limitation. Canonical correlation analysis indicated strong correlations between microbial CLPP patterns and several physical and chemical properties of soil, primarily temperature at the ground surface and at 4-cm depth, and secondarily soil-water content, enabling differentiation by season. Thus, it was demonstrated that several well-described abiotic determinants of plant community structure in this ecosystem are also reflected in SMC profiles.

  17. Microbial nitrification in throughfall of a Japanese cedar associated with archaea from the tree canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Keiji; Kohzu, Ayato; Suda, Wataru; Yamamura, Shigeki; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Takenaka, Akio; Koshikawa, Masami Kanao; Hayashi, Seiji; Watanabe, Mirai

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the nitrification potential of phyllospheric microbes, we incubated throughfall samples collected under the canopies of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and analyzed the transformation of inorganic nitrogen in the samples. Nitrate concentration increased in the unfiltered throughfall after 4 weeks of incubation, but remained nearly constant in the filtered samples (pore size: 0.2 and 0.4 µm). In the unfiltered samples, δ(18)O and δ(15)N values of nitrate decreased during incubation. In addition, archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes, which participate in the oxidation of ammonia, were found in the throughfall samples, although betaproteobacterial amoA genes were not detected. The amoA genes recovered from the leaf surface of C. japonica were also from archaea. Conversely, nitrate production, decreased isotope ratios of nitrate, and the presence of amoA genes was not observed in rainfall samples collected from an open area. Thus, the microbial nitrification that occurred in the incubated throughfall is likely due to ammonia-oxidizing archaea that were washed off the tree canopy by precipitation.

  18. Growth response of Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani) plantations to thinning intensity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Serdar; Catal, Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the growth response of 25 yr old Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) plantation to thinnings of different intensities in Isparta in western Turkey. The thinning intensity was measured by using the residual basal area (%) as parameter. In spring of 2005, three treatments were tested; light, moderate and heavy thinning with respectively 10, 25 and 35% of basal area removed. The statistical design of the experiment was a randomized incomplete block with two blocks and three treatments. Variables such as diameter at breast height (diameter) and height were measured. Growth rate ratios of diameter in moderately thinned and heavily thinned stands were 1.02 and 1.03, respectively. Basal area growth rates in moderately thinned and heavily thinned plots were 0.93 and 1.05, respectively. The largest values for the mean tree were observed with the heaviest thinning treatment. Absolute diameter increment was positively correlated with initial diameter in all plots. Relative diameter growth was negatively correlated with initial diameter. Growth rate interpretations were supported by analysis of variance using Duncan's test of range multiple. The results obtained show significant differences between treatments for tree height growth, for the two inventories carried out (2005, 2008). However diameter basal area and volume were no found between treatments for tree.

  19. Antibiofilm and Antihyphal Activities of Cedar Leaf Essential Oil, Camphor, and Fenchone Derivatives against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans can form biofilms composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal elements, and C. albicans cells in the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. The present study describes the chemical composition, antibiofilm, and antihyphal activities of cedar leaf essential oil (CLEO, which was found to possess remarkable antibiofilm activity against C. albicans but not to affect its planktonic cell growth. Nineteen components were identified in CLEO by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and phenolics were the main constituents. Of these, camphor, fenchone, fenchyl alcohol, α-thujone, and borneol significantly reduced C. albicans biofilm formation. Notably, treatments with CLEO, camphor, or fenchyl alcohol at 0.01% clearly inhibited hyphal formation, and this inhibition appeared to be largely responsible for their antibiofilm effects. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that camphor and fenchyl alcohol downregulated some hypha-specific and biofilm related genes (ECE1, ECE2, RBT1, and EED1. Furthermore, camphor and fenchyl alcohol reduced C. albicans virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model. These results demonstrate CLEO, camphor, and fenchyl alcohol might be useful for controlling C. albicans infections.

  20. Communist heritage tourism and red tourism : concepts, development and problems

    OpenAIRE

    Caraba, Cosmin Ciprian

    2011-01-01

    "Communist heritage tourism and red tourism: concepts, development and problems. The second part of the 20th century has been marked by the competition between capitalism and communism. The “Autumn of Nations” put an end to the Eastern Bloc, but each former communist country in Central and Eastern Europe still possesses heritage sites reminding of the communist period. These heritage sites are turning into major tourist attractions, being sought by western tourists. Halfway around the worl...

  1. Growth Response of Northern White-Cedar (Thuja occidentalis to Natural Disturbances and Partial Cuts in Mixedwood Stands of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Ruel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis is a species of high commercial and ecological value, the abundance of which has been declining since the middle of the 19th century. Very little information regarding its silviculture in mixedwood stands is currently available, even though a significant portion of wood resources comes from these stands. The present study is a retrospective analysis of white-cedar growth in partially harvested mixedwood stands of western Quebec, Canada. Eight stands distributed across two regions were analyzed. Dendrochronological approaches examined long-term diameter growth for sample white-cedar trees and stems of associated species. These approaches were used to reconstruct stand characteristics at the time of harvesting, together with local harvesting intensity. The study demonstrated white-cedar’s capacity to maintain good growth for long periods of time and at large tree sizes. Accession to the upper canopy positions occurs through repeated episodes of suppression/release, most of which seem to be associated with spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana outbreaks. White-cedar response to partial harvesting varies with tree size, residual basal area and species composition. Growth response was generally stronger for small trees, even though large trees still maintained the best diameter growth. Growth of white-cedar was negatively affected by an increase in softwood proportion in basal area. Growth responses to harvesting could be sustained for a period of 20 years.

  2. Fish market surveys indicate unsustainable elasmobranch fisheries in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    ), information on any aspects of these fisheries are very limited. Here we document the structure, composition and biological characteristics of eastern Red Sea elasmobranch fisheries based on genetic identification and market survey data over an intensive two

  3. Observations of the thermal environment on Red Sea platform reefs: a heat budget analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, K. A.; Lentz, S. J.; Pineda, J.; Farrar, J. T.; Starczak, V. R.; Churchill, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrographic measurements were collected on nine offshore reef platforms in the eastern Red Sea shelf region, north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The data were analyzed for spatial and temporal patterns of temperature variation, and a simple heat budget

  4. Assessing changes in biomass, productivity, and C and N stores following Juniperus virginiana forest expansion into tallgrass prairie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, M. D.; Blair, J. M.; Johnson, L. C. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); McKane, R. B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in plant productivity and above-ground plant biomass associated with red cedar forest expansion into areas formerly dominated by tallgrass prairie. Regionally appropriate allometric biomass regression equations were developed for the nondestructive estimation of red cedar biomass in eastern Kansas, followed by quantification of the carbon and nitrogen content of selected biomass components. The equations were applied, along with measurements of leaf litter production, to selected local stands of mature closed-canopy red cedars to estimate above-ground biomass, standing stocks of carbon and nitrogen and annual above-ground net primary productivity. Above-ground plant biomass for these red cedar-dominated sites ranged from 114,100 kg/ha for the youngest stand to 210,700 kg/ha for the oldest. Annual above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) ranged from 7,250 to 10,440 kg/ha/yr for the oldest and younger red cedar stands respectively. The ANPP in comparable tallgrass prairie sites in this region averages 3,690 k/ha/yr, indicating a large increase in carbon uptake and above-ground storage as a result of the change from prairie to red cedar forests. Comparing these results with similar published data from other sites led to the conclusion that the widespread change from tallgrass to red cedars across the woodland-prairie ecotone has important consequences for regional carbon storage.37 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 reduces cedar pollen antigen-induced peritoneal eosinophilia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashihara, Toshihiro; Ikegami, Shuji; Sueki, Natsuko; Yamaji, Taketo; Kino, Kohsuke; Taketomo, Naoki; Gotoh, Minoru; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2008-12-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 strongly stimulates the production of interleukin (IL)-12 (p70) by innate immune cells. Thus, it is expected to ameliorate allergic diseases. We investigated whether the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppressed eosinophilia in cedar pollen antigen-challenged mice. BALB/c mice sensitized with Japanese cedar pollen extract were intraperitoneally challenged with the same extract. The mice were orally given heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 at doses of 0.5, 1, or 2mg/day throughout the experimental period (21 d). After 24 hours of the challenge, the eosinophil number and cytokine levels in the peritoneal lavage fluid and the serum antigen-specific IgG levels were determined. On administering varying amounts of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809, the number of eosinophils among the total number of cells was significantly reduced in all groups. In addition, the eosinophil number significantly decreased, and the eosinophil-suppression rate significantly increased by 44% in the 2-mg group. Although the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G2a and IgG1 levels were not affected, the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio increased significantly in the 2-mg group compared with that of the control group. Furthermore, the administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 resulted in the induction of IL-2 and reduction in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels in peritoneal lavage fluid. We demonstrated that the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppresses eosinophilia via the modulation of Th1/Th2 balance. These observations suggested that heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 might potentially ameliorate the increased number of eosinophils in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  6. Identification of novel putative causative genes and genetic marker for male sterility in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D.Don).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Kentaro; Hirao, Tomonori; Tsubomura, Miyoko; Tamura, Miho; Kurita, Manabu; Nose, Mine; Hanaoka, So; Takahashi, Makoto; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2018-04-23

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) is an important tree for Japanese forestry. Male-sterile marker development in Japanese cedar would facilitate selection of male-sterile plus trees, addressing the widespread social problem of pollinosis and facilitating the identification of heterozygotes, which are useful for breeding. This study used next-generation sequencing for single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery in libraries constructed from several organs, including male-sterile and male-fertile strobili. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms obtained were used to construct a high-density linkage map, which enabled identification of a locus on linkage group 9 strongly correlated with male-sterile trait. Expressed sequence tags corresponding to 11 marker loci from 5 isotigs were associated with this locus within 33.4-34.5 cM. These marker loci explained 100% of the phenotypic variation. Several homologs of these sequences are associated with male sterility in rice or Arabidopsis, including a pre-mRNA splicing factor, a DEAD-box protein, a glycosyl hydrolase, and a galactosyltransferase. These proteins are thus candidates for the causal male-sterile gene at the ms-1 locus. After we used a SNaPshot assay to develop markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS), we tested F 2 progeny between male-sterile and wild-type plus trees to validate the markers and extrapolated the testing to a larger plus-tree population. We found that two developed from one of the candidates for the causal gene were suitable for MAS. More than half of the ESTs and SNPs we collected were new, enlarging the genomic basis for genetic research on Japanese cedar. We developed two SNP markers aimed at MAS that distinguished individuals carrying the male-sterile trait with 100% accuracy, as well as individuals heterozygous at the male-sterile locus, even outside the mapping population. These markers should enable practical MAS for conifer breeding.

  7. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  8. Developing Dynamic Field Theory Architectures for Embodied Cognitive Systems with cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomp, Oliver; Richter, Mathis; Zibner, Stephan K U; Schöner, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Embodied artificial cognitive systems, such as autonomous robots or intelligent observers, connect cognitive processes to sensory and effector systems in real time. Prime candidates for such embodied intelligence are neurally inspired architectures. While components such as forward neural networks are well established, designing pervasively autonomous neural architectures remains a challenge. This includes the problem of tuning the parameters of such architectures so that they deliver specified functionality under variable environmental conditions and retain these functions as the architectures are expanded. The scaling and autonomy problems are solved, in part, by dynamic field theory (DFT), a theoretical framework for the neural grounding of sensorimotor and cognitive processes. In this paper, we address how to efficiently build DFT architectures that control embodied agents and how to tune their parameters so that the desired cognitive functions emerge while such agents are situated in real environments. In DFT architectures, dynamic neural fields or nodes are assigned dynamic regimes, that is, attractor states and their instabilities, from which cognitive function emerges. Tuning thus amounts to determining values of the dynamic parameters for which the components of a DFT architecture are in the specified dynamic regime under the appropriate environmental conditions. The process of tuning is facilitated by the software framework cedar , which provides a graphical interface to build and execute DFT architectures. It enables to change dynamic parameters online and visualize the activation states of any component while the agent is receiving sensory inputs in real time. Using a simple example, we take the reader through the workflow of conceiving of DFT architectures, implementing them on embodied agents, tuning their parameters, and assessing performance while the system is coupled to real sensory inputs.

  9. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  10. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  11. Radioactive and stable cesium isotope distributions and dynamics in Japanese cedar forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Takase, Tsugiko; Hinton, Thomas G; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Konoplev, Alexei; Goto, Azusa; Yokoyama, Aya; Keitoku, Koji

    2018-06-01

    Dynamics of the Fukushima-derived radiocesium and distribution of the natural stable isotope 133 Cs in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) forest ecosystems were studied during 2014-2016. For the experimental site in Yamakiya, Fukushima Prefecture, we present the redistribution of radiocesium among ecosystem compartments during the entire observation period, while the results obtained at another two experimental site were used to demonstrate similarity of the main trends in the Japanese forest ecosystems. Our observations at the Yamakiya site revealed significant redistribution of radiocesium between the ecosystem compartments during 2014-2016. During this same period radionuclide inventories in the aboveground tree biomass were relatively stable, however, radiocesium in forest litter decreased from 20 ± 11% of the total deposition in 2014 to 4.6 ± 2.7% in 2016. Radiocesium in the soil profile accumulated in the 5-cm topsoil layers. In 2016, more than 80% of the total radionuclide deposition in the ecosystem resided in the 5-cm topsoil layer. The radiocesium distribution between the aboveground biomass compartments at Yamakiya during 2014-2016 was gradually approaching a quasi-equilibrium distribution with stable cesium. Strong correlations of radioactive and stable cesium isotope concentrations in all compartments of the ecosystem have not been reached yet. However, in some compartments the correlation is already strong. An increase of radiocesium concentrations in young foliage in 2016, compared to 2015, and an increase in 2015-2016 of the 137 Cs/ 133 Cs concentration ratio in the biomass compartments with strong correlations indicate an increase in root uptake of radiocesium from the soil profile. Mass balance of the radionuclide inventories, and accounting for radiocesium fluxes in litterfall, throughfall and stemflow, enabled a rough estimate of the annual radiocesium root uptake flux as 2 ± 1% of the total inventory in the ecosystem

  12. Hydrologic and atrazine simulation of the Cedar Creek Watershed using the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, M; Heathman, G C; Norton, L D; Engel, B

    2007-01-01

    One of the major factors contributing to surface water contamination in agricultural areas is the use of pesticides. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a hydrologic model capable of simulating the fate and transport of pesticides in an agricultural watershed. The SWAT model was used in this study to estimate stream flow and atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) losses to surface water in the Cedar Creek Watershed (CCW) within the St. Joseph River Basin in northeastern Indiana. Model calibration and validation periods consisted of five and two year periods, respectively. The National Agricultural Statistics Survey (NASS) 2001 land cover classification and the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database were used as model input data layers. Data from the St. Joseph River Watershed Initiative and the Soil and Water Conservation Districts of Allen, Dekalb, and Noble counties were used to represent agricultural practices in the watershed which included the type of crops grown, tillage practices, fertilizer, and pesticide application rates. Model results were evaluated based on efficiency coefficient values, standard statistical measures, and visual inspection of the measured and simulated hydrographs. The Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients (E(NS)) for monthly and daily stream flow calibration and validation ranged from 0.51 to 0.66. The E(NS) values for atrazine calibration and validation ranged from 0.43 to 0.59. All E(NS) values were within the range of acceptable model performance standards. The results of this study indicate that the model is an effective tool in capturing the dynamics of stream flow and atrazine concentrations on a large-scale agricultural watershed in the midwestern USA.

  13. Developing dynamic field theory architectures for embodied cognitive systems with cedar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lomp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Embodied artificial cognitive systems such as autonomous robots or intelligent observers connect cognitive processes to sensory and effector systems in real time. Prime candidates for such embodied intelligence are neurally inspired architectures. While components such as forward neural networks are well established, designing pervasively autonomous neural architectures remains a challenge. This includes the problem of tuning the parameters of such architectures so that they deliver specified functionality under variable environmental conditions and retain these functions as the architectures are expanded. The scaling and autonomy problems are solved, in part, by dynamic field theory (DFT, a theoretical framework for the neural grounding of sensorimotor and cognitive processes. In this paper, we address how to efficiently build DFT architectures that control embodied agents and how to tune their parameters so that the desired cognitive functions emerge while such agents are situated in real environments. In DFT architectures, dynamic neural fields or nodes are assigned dynamic regimes, that is, attractor states and their instabilities, from which cognitive function emerges. Tuning thus amounts to determining values of the dynamic parameters for which the components of a DFT architecture are in the specified dynamic regime under the appropriate environmental conditions. The process of tuning is facilitated by the software framework cedar, which provides a graphical interface to build and execute DFT architectures. It enables to change dynamic parameters online and visualize the activation states of any component while the agent is receiving sensory inputs in real-time. Using a simple example, we take the reader through the workflow of conceiving of DFT architectures, implementing them on embodied agents, tuning their parameters, and assessing performance while the system is coupled to real sensory inputs.

  14. Recreational Boat Harbor, Cedar River, Michigan. Revisions to General Design Memorandum Number 1 and Environmental Impact Statement. Supplement Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    26, Tuesday, February 6, 1979. 16. Personal communication with Jim Harter, J.W. Wells State Park Director. 17. Fassett, N.C.; A Manual of Acuatic ...Harbor, Cedar River, Michigan. Pgs. G-37 - q-54. i~ A- A measure of a .h- calact’ a tion to neutrajz hrc-ge, .ons navinc a p. of more than 7. Acuatic ...and ship navigation. Navi- gation aids are often placed on the outermost end of Corps breakwaters and piers. Nekton - Swimming aquatic insects and fish

  15. Efficacy and mode of action of an immunomodulator herbal preparation containing Echinacea, wild indigo, and white cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüstenberg, P; Henneicke-von Zepelin, H H; Köhler, G; Stammwitz, U

    1999-01-01

    Using the example of an allopathic herbal combined preparation containing Echinacea root, wild indigo root, and white cedar leaf tips (Echinaceae radix + Baptisiae tinctoriae radix + Thujae occidentalis herba = Esberitox N), the efficacy and mode of action of a phytoimmunomodulator, or immune system enhancer, is described. Efficacy of the immunomodulator has been demonstrated in studies of acute viral respiratory tract infections and infections requiring antibiotic therapy. In a recent study compliant to GCP, the therapeutic superiority of the herbal immunomodulator over placebo was confirmed as statistically significant and clinically relevant. The present overview describes a model of the antigen-independent mode of action of phytoimmunomodulation ("immunobalancing").

  16. Gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  17. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz

    1998-01-01

    While examining red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity contents in eastern Texas, the authors observed cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans). The tree surface around an active red-cockaded woodpecker cavity is coated with sticky resin which flows from resin wells created by the woodpecker. The southern flying squirrel...

  19. Climatology of sea breezes along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit; Abualnaja, Yasser; Al-Subhi, Abdullah M.; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Nellikkattu Thody, Manoj; Sturman, Andrew P.

    2018-01-01

    and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are used to investigate the climatology of sea breezes over the eastern side of the Red Sea region. Results show existence of separate sea breeze systems along different segments of the Red Sea coastline. Based on the physical

  20. Cold tolerance and photosystem function in a montane red spruce population: physiological relationships with foliar carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.G. Shaberg; G.R. Strimbeck; G.J. Hawley; D.H. DeHayes; J.B. Shane; P.F. Murakami; T.D. Perkins; J.R. Donnelly; B.L. Wong

    2000-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing in northern montane forests of eastern North America appears to be distinctive with respect to at least two aspects of winter physiology. First, red spruce attains only a modest level of midwinter cold tolerance compared to other north temperate conifers and appears barely capable of avoiding freezing injury at...

  1. Behaviour of Red-necked Spurfowl Pternistis afer in the Boknes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The social behaviour of marked Red-necked Spurfowls Pternistis afer was studied at Boknes and Cannon Rock coastal resorts near Alexandria in the Eastern Cape province between January 2001 and June 2008. Red-necked Spurfowls form breeding pairs. Courtship displays contribute to pair formation, but are also ...

  2. First record red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1785 in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt Gürlek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A single male specimen of red lionfish Pterois volitans was recorded for the first time in 13 May 2016 from the Iskenderun Bay, North-eastern Mediterranean, Turkey. The present paper also reports the first record of the red lionfish P. volitans along the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. breeding Red-and-yellow Barbets Trachyphonus erythrocephalus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Table 1), but it was not possible to ascertain whether it was always the exact same pair breeding. Table 1. Breeding activity of Red-and-yellow Barbets from a single nest in south- eastern Sudan in 2005. Date. Brood No. Nesting activity. Fledging date. No. of Fledglings. Observed post-fledging. 11 Feb. 1 feeding young.

  4. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Late Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, typical of the North American Red River fauna, are found sporadically in the BOrglum River Formation of the Centrum SO area, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The geographical distribution of this characteristic brachiopod fauna......) to younger strata exclusively yielding specimens of H.gigas. As H.gigas occurs in the upper part of the Cape Calhoun Formation in Washington Land, it indicates that the upper boundary of the Cape Calhoun Formation is considerably younger than previous estimates, reaching into the uppermost Katian (middle...... (Richmondian), it possesses a strong provincial signal during the later Ordovician. The new occurrences indicate that this fauna extended to the north-eastern margin of the Laurentian Craton. It lived in close association with cosmopolitan faunal elements that may have been the earliest sign of the succeeding...

  5. Ongoing decline of shark populations in the Eastern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    compared to other reef systems around the world. Catch per unit effort values of BRUVs on Sudanese reefs on the contrary were within the range of estimates from various locations where sharks are considered common. We argue that decades of heavy fishing

  6. Communist heritage tourism and red tourism: concepts, development and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSMIN CIPRIAN CARABA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the 20th century has been marked by the competition between capitalism and communism. The “Autumn of Nations” put an end to the Eastern Bloc, but each former communist country in Central and Eastern Europe still possesses heritage sites reminding of the communist period. These heritage sites are turning into major tourist attractions, being sought by western tourists. Halfway around the world the Chinese Communist Party is trying to develop Red Tourism, a specific type of cultural tourism, based on heritage sites of the Chinese communist revolution. While the two tourism types use communist heritage as primary resource there are several differences between them. The study compares European communist heritage tourism with Chinese “Red Tourism”, analyzing their emergence, development and the problems they face, especially regarding heritage interpretation. This paper will try to provide a theoretical base for studying communist heritage tourism in former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

  7. Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Pollinosis in Jeju, Korea: Is It Increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaechun; Lee, Keun Hwa; Lee, Hye Sook; Hong, Sung Chul; Kim, Jeong Hong

    2015-05-01

    Jeju is an island in South Korea located in a temperate climate zone. The Japanese cedar tree (JC) has become the dominant tree species while used widely to provide a windbreak for the tangerine orchard industry. An increase in pollen counts precedes atopic sensitization to pollen and pollinosis, but JC pollinosis in Jeju has never been studied. We investigated JC pollen counts, sensitization to JC pollen, and JC pollinosis. Participants were recruited among schoolchildren residing in Jeju City, the northern region (NR) and Seogwipo City, the southern region (SR) of the island. The JC pollen counts were monitored. Sensitization rates to common aeroallergens were evaluated by skin prick tests. Symptoms of pollinosis were surveyed. Among 1,225 schoolchildren (49.6% boys, median age 13 years), 566 (46.2%) were atopic. The rate of sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (35.8%) was highest, followed by D. farinae (26.2%), and JC pollen (17.6%). In the SR, 156 children (23.8%) were sensitized to JC pollen; this rate was significantly higher than that in the NR (59 children, 10.4%, P<0.001). A significant increment in the sensitization rate for JC pollen with increasing school level was observed only in the SR. JC pollen season in the SR started earlier and lasted longer than that in the NR. JC pollen season in Jeju was defined as extending from late January to mid-April. The prevalence of JC pollinosis was estimated to be 8.5%. The prevalence differed significantly between the NR and SR (5.3% vs 11.3%, P<0.001), mainly due to the difference in sensitization rates. JC pollen is the major outdoor allergen for early spring pollinosis in Jeju. JC pollen season is from late January to mid-April. Warmer weather during the flowering season scatters more JC pollen in the atmosphere, resulting in a higher sensitization rate in atopic individuals and, consequently, making JC pollinosis more prevalent.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION OF TOOTHPASTE BASED ON THE CEDAR ESSENTIAL OIL FOR PREVENTING TRUE ORAL PATHOLOGIC HALITOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Ulitovsky

    2017-01-01

    to the index determination of the deodorant effect by Ulitovsky S. B. By the end of the study, the indicators in the main group were higher than in control group almost in 2 times. With the aim of identifying the most effective means of hygiene for the prevention of halitosis, we evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the prophylactic toothpaste with Cedar essential oil, silver ions, aminoftorid, Savory oil and leaves of the Saro tree. It showed the most pronounced activity against such test cultures as Ps. aeruginosa, B. cereus and C. albicans. The finding indicates high antiglycation effect and deodorant qualities of the examined prophylactic toothpaste.

  9. Evaluating elevated levels of crown dieback among northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) trees in Maine and Michigan: a summary of evaluation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna Randolph; William A. Bechtold; Randall S. Morin; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of crown condition data for the 2006 national technical report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, exposed clusters of phase 3 plots (by the Forest Inventory and Analysis [FIA] Program of the Forest Service) with northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) crown dieback...

  10. LEBANON AFTER THE CEDAR REVOLUTION/ARE KNUDSEN AND MICHAEL KERR (eds; LEBANON: A HISTORY, 600--2011/by WILLIAM HARRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Salameh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available LEBANON AFTER THE CEDAR REVOLUTION, ARE KNUDSEN AND MICHAEL KERR (eds; London: C. Hurst & Company, 2012. 323 pp. $29.95. LEBANON: A HISTORY, 600--2011, WILLIAM HARRIS; Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. 360 pp. $34.95.

  11. Identifying core habitat and connectivity for focal species in the interior cedar-hemlock forest of North America to complete a conservation area design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance Craighead; Baden Cross

    2007-01-01

    To identify the remaining areas of the Interior Cedar- Hemlock Forest of North America and prioritize them for conservation planning, the Craighead Environmental Research Institute has developed a 2-scale method for mapping critical habitat utilizing 1) a broad-scale model to identify important regional locations as the basis for a Conservation Area Design (CAD), and 2...

  12. Effectiveness of Cedar Oil Products for Preventing Host Use by Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a Modified Small-Bolt Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Strom; L. M. Roton

    2011-01-01

    Insecticide products based on cedar oil are readily available, but evaluations against pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are lacking. In the southeastern U.S., the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm, is the major bark beetle pest for which tree protectants are applied. However, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) are more consistently...

  13. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-01-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  14. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  15. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  16. Final Environmental Assessment for Aircraft Maintenance Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    lies within the Southern Mixed Forest Province that is typically characterized by forests of broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf evergreen trees ...virginiana), pin oak (Q. palustris), and southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora). Small tree and shrub species include the eastern red cedar, eastern ...this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington

  17. Paleoclimate Signals and Temperature Reconstructions for the Northeastern United States using Atlantic White Cedar Tree-Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, J. K.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Pederson, N.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution paleoclimate records of the Common Era are essential for improving detection and attribution of internal and forced climate system responses. The densely populated northeastern United States is at risk from impending climate shifts as well as sea level rise. Here we present a new network of annually resolved proxy data from Atlantic white cedar trees throughout the northeastern United States. Ring width variability reflects winter through summer temperatures at inland sites north of New Jersey. Climate signals embedded in the full network are evaluated for their potential to provide reconstructions of both temperature and drought variability. We demonstrate skillful climate reconstructions for the last several centuries and the potential to use subfossil samples to extend these records over the Common Era. Our tree-ring network provides the long-term context at multidecadal and centennial time scales for the large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes that influence the climate of the region.

  18. Y-Chromosome Markers for the Red Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Halie M; Stutchman, Jeremy T; Bastounes, Estelle R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Trut, Lyudmila N; Sacks, Benjamin N; Kukekova, Anna V

    2017-09-01

    The de novo assembly of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) genome has facilitated the development of genomic tools for the species. Efforts to identify the population history of red foxes in North America have previously been limited by a lack of information about the red fox Y-chromosome sequence. However, a megabase of red fox Y-chromosome sequence was recently identified over 2 scaffolds in the reference genome. Here, these scaffolds were scanned for repeated motifs, revealing 194 likely microsatellites. Twenty-three of these loci were selected for primer development and, after testing, produced a panel of 11 novel markers that were analyzed alongside 2 markers previously developed for the red fox from dog Y-chromosome sequence. The markers were genotyped in 76 male red foxes from 4 populations: 7 foxes from Newfoundland (eastern Canada), 12 from Maryland (eastern United States), and 9 from the island of Great Britain, as well as 48 foxes of known North American origin maintained on an experimental farm in Novosibirsk, Russia. The full marker panel revealed 22 haplotypes among these red foxes, whereas the 2 previously known markers alone would have identified only 10 haplotypes. The haplotypes from the 4 populations clustered primarily by continent, but unidirectional gene flow from Great Britain and farm populations may influence haplotype diversity in the Maryland population. The development of new markers has increased the resolution at which red fox Y-chromosome diversity can be analyzed and provides insight into the contribution of males to red fox population diversity and patterns of phylogeography. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Water-soluble low-molecular-weight -(1, 3–1, 6 D-Glucan inhibit cedar pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Jippo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and food allergies has increased in several countries. Mast cells have critical roles in various biologic processes related to allergic diseases. Mast cells express the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin (Ig E on their surface. The interaction of multivalent antigens with surface-bound IgE causes the secretion of granule-stored mediators, as well as the de novosynthesis of cytokines. Those mediators and cytokines proceed the allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of water-soluble, low-molecular-weight -(1, 3–1, 6 D-glucan isolated from Aureobasidium pullulans 1A1 strain black yeast (LMW--glucan on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions. We reported that LMW--glucan dose-dependently inhibited the degranulation of mast cells. Furthermore, we found that orally administered LMW--glucan inhibited the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA reaction in mice. Here, we examined if LMW--glucan had effects on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Findings: In a clinical study, a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in 65 subjects (aged 2262 was performed. This study was undertaken 3 weeks before and until the end of the cedar pollen season. During the study, all subjects consumed one bottle of placebo or LMW--glucan daily and all subjects were required to record allergic symptoms in a diary. The LMW--glucan group had a significantly lower prevalence of sneezing, nose-blowing, tears, and hindrance to the activities of daily living than the placebo group. Conclusions: These results suggested that LMW--glucan could be an effective treatment for allergic diseases

  20. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  1. Regional variation in diets of breeding Red-shouldered hawks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We collected data on breeding season diet composition of Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) in south Texas and compared these data, and those reported from studies elsewhere to examine large scale spatial variation in prey use in eastern North America. Red-shouldered Hawk diets aligned into two significantly different groups, which appear to correlate with latitude. The diets of Red-shouldered Hawks in group 1, which are of more northern latitudes, had significantly more mammalian prey and significantly less amphibian prey than those in group 2, which are at more southerly latitudes. Our meta-analysis demonstrated the dietary flexibility of Red-shouldered Hawks, which likely accounts for their broad distribution by exploiting regional variations in taxon-specific prey availability.

  2. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP...... essentially replicated the main weaknesses of the European Neighbourhood Policy, by offering too little incentive and support to the partners, rendering both conditionality and soft power ineffective as tools for milieu shaping. In promoting the EaP as a policy of soft power, the EU has once again forgotten...

  3. Entrepreneurial orientation of eastern white pine primary producers and secondary manufacturers: A regional phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2011-01-01

    Eastern white pine (EWP) and red pine make up nearly 8.5 percent of the total sawtimber volume in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Lake States regions. The majority of white pine growing stock is found in the Mid-Atlantic and Lake State regions; however, the center of eastern white pine production and markets is in New England. EWP is produced in both hardwood...

  4. Current cat ownership may be associated with the lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis in schoolchildren in Himeji, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Fumitake; Nakatani, Yuji; Terada, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Ikeuchi, Haruki; Hayakawa, Akira; Konohana, Atsuo; Oota, Kenji; Nishio, Hisahide

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between current pet ownership, passive smoking, and allergic diseases among the Japanese children. From 1995 to 2001, we distributed the Japanese edition of the questionnaire of the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD) to survey allergic diseases among 35,552 6-yr-old children at primary school in the city of Himeji, Japan. We analyzed the data by multiple logistic regression and calculated adjusted odds ratios for environmental factors, including passive smoking and pet (dog and/or cat) ownership. There were no significant relationships between the prevalence of asthma and current pet ownership and passive smoking. However, current cat ownership was related to a significantly lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.93], allergic rhinitis (aOR: 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.75). Strikingly, passive smoking was also related to a significantly lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis (aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.88). Current cat ownership was associated with a lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis. In addition, passive smoking was also associated with a lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis and Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  5. Modelling the Seasonal Overturning Circulation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2015-04-01

    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using 50-year, high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. For the winter overturning circulation, the climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation.

  6. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  7. The tropical cedar tree (Cedrela fissilis Vell., Meliaceae) homolog of the Arabidopsis LEAFY gene is expressed in reproductive tissues and can complement Arabidopsis leafy mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2006-01-01

    A homolog of FLORICAULA/LEAFY, CfLFY (for Cedrela fissilis LFY), was isolated from tropical cedar. The main stages of the reproductive development in C. fissilis were documented by scanning electron microscopy and the expression patterns of CfLFY were studied during the differentiation of the floral meristems. Furthermore, the biological role of the CfLFY gene was assessed using transgenic Arabidopsis plants. CfLFY showed a high degree of similarity to other plant homologs of FLO/LFY. Southern analysis showed that CfLFY is a single-copy gene in the tropical cedar genome. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization results showed that CfLFY was expressed in the reproductive buds during the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, as well as in floral meristems and floral organs but was excluded from the vegetative apex and leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis lfy26 mutant lines expressing the CfLFY coding region, under the control of the LFY promoter, showed restored wild-type phenotype. Taken together, our results suggest that CfLFY is a FLO/LFY homolog probably involved in the control of tropical cedar reproductive development.

  8. First record of the blackfin coral goby, Paragobiodon lacunicolus (Kendall and Goldsborough, 1911), from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Alpermann, Tilman J.

    2013-09-13

    Three specimens of the blackfin coral goby, Paragobiodon lacunicolus, were collected in 2010 and 2011 at different locations of the eastern Red Sea along the coast of Saudi Arabia. Reexamination of 14 museum specimens from Eritrea also confirmed the presence of the species for the western Red Sea. This represents the first published report of P. lacunicolus from the Red Sea. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. First record of the blackfin coral goby, Paragobiodon lacunicolus (Kendall and Goldsborough, 1911), from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Alpermann, Tilman J.; Mee, J. K L; Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Three specimens of the blackfin coral goby, Paragobiodon lacunicolus, were collected in 2010 and 2011 at different locations of the eastern Red Sea along the coast of Saudi Arabia. Reexamination of 14 museum specimens from Eritrea also confirmed the presence of the species for the western Red Sea. This represents the first published report of P. lacunicolus from the Red Sea. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  11. Eastern Baltic Sea Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig

    2016-01-01

    Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016).......Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016)....

  12. Simulation of daily streamflows at gaged and ungaged locations within the Cedar River Basin, Iowa, using a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study to examine techniques for estimation of daily streamflows using hydrological models and statistical methods. This report focuses on the use of a hydrologic model, the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, to estimate daily streamflows at gaged and ungaged locations. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System is a modular, physically based, distributed-parameter modeling system developed to evaluate the impacts of various combinations of precipitation, climate, and land use on surface-water runoff and general basin hydrology. The Cedar River Basin was selected to construct a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model that simulates the period from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. The calibration period was from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2004, and the validation periods were from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010 and January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. A Geographic Information System tool was used to delineate the Cedar River Basin and subbasins for the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and to derive parameters based on the physical geographical features. Calibration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model was completed using a U.S. Geological Survey calibration software tool. The main objective of the calibration was to match the daily streamflow simulated by the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model with streamflow measured at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gages. The Cedar River Basin daily streamflow model performed with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranged from 0.82 to 0.33 during the calibration period, and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranged from 0.77 to -0.04 during the validation period. The Cedar River Basin model is meeting the criteria of greater than 0.50 Nash-Sutcliffe and is a good fit for streamflow conditions for the calibration period at all but one location, Austin, Minnesota

  13. Astrophysics of Red Supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2017-12-01

    'Astrophysics of Red Supergiants' is the first book of its kind devoted to our current knowledge of red supergiant stars, a key evolutionary phase that is critical to our larger understanding of massive stars. It provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental physical properties of red supergiants, their evolution, and their extragalactic and cosmological applications. It serves as a reference for researchers from a broad range of fields (including stellar astrophysics, supernovae, and high-redshift galaxies) who are interested in red supergiants as extreme stages of stellar evolution, dust producers, supernova progenitors, extragalactic metallicity indicators, members of massive binaries and mergers, or simply as compelling objects in their own right. The book is accessible to a range of experience levels, from graduate students up to senior researchers.

  14. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  15. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data....... With the availability of RED-ML, it is now possible to conveniently make RNA editing a routine analysis of RNA-seq. We believe this can greatly benefit the RNA editing research community and has profound impact to accelerate our understanding of this intriguing posttranscriptional modification process....

  16. Eastern Europe's market role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, trade in nuclear fuel between market economy countries and those with planned economies was limited. The exception to this was in the enrichment market across Western Europe during the 1970s. Most of the nuclear generating plants in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe are light water reactors needing enriched uranium. Under the fuel supply agreements with Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has provided all of the regions' enrichment services, and therefore it has developed the only enrichment facilities. Techsnabexport (TENEX), the USSR foreign trade organization for the nuclear fuel cycle, first appeared in the early 1970s. It was as an alternative supplier to the US government, which had a monopoly in the West regarding enrichment. In 1986 the USSR entered and soon dominated the spot market for enrichment. Political changes in Eastern Europe at the end of 1989 and throughout 1990 opened the nuclear fuel market even wider. In 1990 the USSR began allowing exports of concentrates, as well as enriched product, and a free flow of trade to the Western market is now developing for both enrichment and uranium. (author)

  17. Seasonal variation in the atmospheric deposition of inorganic constituents and canopy interactions in a Japanese cedar forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sase, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Akiomi; Sato, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyasu; Nakata, Makoto; Totsuka, Tsumugu

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal changes in throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) chemistry and the canopy interactions of K + and N compounds were studied in a Japanese cedar forest near the Sea of Japan. The fluxes of most ions, including non-sea-salt SO 4 2- , from TF, SF, and rainfall showed distinct seasonal trends, increasing from autumn to winter, owing to the seasonal west wind, while the fluxes of NH 4 + and K + ions from TF + SF might have a large effect of canopy interactions. The contact angle (CA) of water droplets on leaves decreased with leaf aging, suggesting that surface wettability increases with leaf age. The K + concentration in TF was negatively correlated with the CA of 1-year-old leaves, while the NH 4 + concentration was positively correlated with the CA. The net fluxes of NH 4 + and NO 3 - from TF were positively correlated with the CA. The increase in wettability may accelerate leaching of K + or uptake of NH 4 + . - Leaf surface properties may contribute to the ion transport process of the forest canopy

  18. [Prediction of the total Japanese cedar pollen counts based on male flower-setting conditions of standard trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuta, Atsushi; Ukai, Kotaro; Sakakura, Yasuo; Tani, Hideshi; Matsuda, Fukiko; Yang, Tian-qun; Majima, Yuichi

    2002-07-01

    We made a prediction of the Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen counts at Tsu city based on male flower-setting conditions of standard trees. The 69 standard trees from 23 kinds of clones, planted at Mie Prefecture Science and Technology Promotion Center (Hakusan, Mie) in 1964, were selected. Male flower-setting conditions for 276 faces (69 trees x 4 points of the compass) were scored from 0 to 3. The average of scores and total pollen counts from 1988 to 2000 was analyzed. As the results, the average scores from standard trees and total pollen counts except two mass pollen-scattered years in 1995 and 2000 had a positive correlation (r = 0.914) by linear function. On the mass pollen-scattered years, pollen counts were influenced from the previous year. Therefore, the score of the present year minus that of the previous year were used for analysis. The average scores from male flower-setting conditions and pollen counts had a strong positive correlation (r = 0.994) when positive scores by taking account of the previous year were analyzed. We conclude that prediction of pollen counts are possible based on the male flower-setting conditions of standard trees.

  19. Changes in the distribution of radiocesium in the wood of Japanese cedar trees from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hideki; Hirano, Yurika; Igei, Shigemitsu; Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hirohisa

    2016-09-01

    The changes in the distribution of (137)Cs in the wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trunks within three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNP) accident in 2011 were investigated. Thirteen trees were felled to collect samples at 6 forests in 2 regions of the Fukushima prefecture. The radial distribution of (137)Cs in the wood was measured at different heights. Profiles of (137)Cs distribution in the wood changed considerably from 2011 to 2013, and the process of (137)Cs distribution change in the wood was clarified. From 2011 to 2012, the active transportation from sapwood to heartwood and the radial diffusion in heartwood proceeded quickly, and the radial (137)Cs distribution differed according to the vertical positon of trees. From 2012 to 2013, the vertical diffusion of (137)Cs from the treetop to the ground, probably caused by the gradient of (137)Cs concentration in the trunk, was observed. Eventually, the radial (137)Cs distributions were nearly identical at any vertical positions in 2013. Our results suggested that the active transportation from sapwood to heartwood and the vertical and radial diffusion in heartwood proceeded according to the vertical position of the tree and (137)Cs distribution in the wood approached the equilibrium state within three years after the accident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Echinococcus multilocularis: An Emerging Pathogen in Hungary and Central Eastern Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sréter, Tamás; Széll, Zoltán; Egyed, Zsuzsa

    2003-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, is reported for the first time in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary. This parasite may be spreading eastward because the population of foxes has increased because of human interventions, and this spread may result in the emergence of alveolar echinococcosis in Central Eastern Europe. PMID:12643838

  1. Gauging proximities: an inquiry into a possible nexus between Middle Eastern and Western painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emir-Sayers, E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the boundaries between the Middle Eastern Miniature tradition and 20th-century Western philosophy of art. Orhan Pamuk's novel, My Name is Red, provides the initial inspiration for such a project. In order to investigate possible proximities between Middle

  2. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  3. Efficacy of oral immunotherapy with a rice-based edible vaccine containing hypoallergenic Japanese cedar pollen allergens for treatment of established allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ken; Ishida, Waka; Harada, Yosuke; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that prophylactic oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic modified antigens suppressed the development of allergic conjunctivitis induced by Japanese cedar pollen. We have now investigated the efficacy of oral immunotherapy with such transgenic rice for established allergic conjunctivitis in mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with two intraperitoneal injections of Japanese cedar pollen in alum, challenged with pollen in eyedrops, and then fed for 16 days with transgenic rice seeds expressing modified Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 or with nontransgenic rice seeds as a control. They were then challenged twice with pollen in eyedrops, with clinical signs being evaluated at 15 min after the first challenge and the eyes, blood, spleen, and lymph nodes being isolated at 24 h after the second challenge. The number of eosinophils in the conjunctiva and the clinical score for conjunctivitis were both significantly lower in mice fed the transgenic rice than in those fed nontransgenic rice. Oral vaccination with transgenic rice seeds also resulted in a significant increase in the production of IFN-γ by splenocytes, whereas it had no effect on the number of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in the spleen or submandibular or mesenteric lymph nodes. Oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic allergens ameliorated allergic conjunctivitis in the established setting. Such a rice-based edible vaccine is potentially both safe and effective for oral immunotherapy in individuals with allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Energy in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The present energy market in Central and Eastern Europe differs strongly from the energy situation in open market economies. Compared to the European Communities, the energy market in Central and eastern Europe is characterized by its high energy intensity, high quantity of imported oil and gas from a one country (the ex-Soviet Union), the dominant role of solid fossil fuels in some countries, and environmental pollution. Expected future developments are the reduction of the energy intensity and the total energy consumption, the reduction of the industrial energy consumption, the reduction of the solid fossil fuels as well as the geographic distribution of energy import. The restructuring of the energy industry has been started by introducing a market orientated policy including privatisation and the promotion of the free play of price-making forces, accompanied by relatively small-scale investments. Recent data indicate a decrease of energy consumption due to the economic decline and the shut-down of companies in the heavy industries. (A.S.) 4 figs. 5 tabs

  6. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  7. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiping; Liu Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L; Young, Claudia J

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area. (letter)

  8. HLA class II association with Type I allergy to house dust mite and Japanese cedar pollen in Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Sadanaga

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the incidence of the association of HLA class II phenotype and specific IgE responsiveness against house dust mite (HDM and/or Japanese cedar pollen (Jc in 176 patients with allergic rhinitis, with or without bronchial asthma, and 107 nonallergic subjects. Specific IgE antibody titration against the purified allergens Der f1 and Der f2 from HDM, and against Cry J1 and Cry J2 from Jc, was performed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and radioimmunoassay (RIA in sera from all subjects. HLA class II oligotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO method on the DRB1*, DQA1*, DQB1* and DPB1* alleles using peripheral blood cells. The high IgE responders ≥ class 4 to the purified allergens were identified by using the IgE antibody reference concentration obtained by ELISA, RIA and routine IgE CAP RAST. Compared to the controls, the patients with both rhinitis and asthma showed significantly higher frequencies of DRB1* 0901, DQB1* 0303, and DPB1* 0401 alleles. High IgE responsiveness to HDM was associated with DRB1* 1101, 0901, DQB1* 0303, and DPB1*0401 alleles. The patients with anti-Der f1 IgE antibody concentration exceeding 72.2 ng/mL showed significantly elevated frequencies for DQB1*0401 and DPB1*0401 alleles, and those with anti Der f2 IgE antibody concentration exceeding 46.2 ng/mL showed significantly elevated frequencies for DPB1*0401 and 0901 alleles. High IgE responsiveness to Jc with Cry j1 and Cryj2was associated with the DRB1* 1201 alleles.

  9. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Young, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area.

  10. The importance of delineating networks by activity type in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Stefanie; Iyer, Swami; Killingback, Timothy; Connor, Richard; Brault, Solange

    2015-03-01

    Network analysis has proved to be a valuable tool for studying the behavioural patterns of complex social animals. Often such studies either do not distinguish between different behavioural states of the organisms or simply focus attention on a single behavioural state to the exclusion of all others. In either of these approaches it is impossible to ascertain how the behavioural patterns of individuals depend on the type of activity they are engaged in. Here we report on a network-based analysis of the behavioural associations in a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida. We consider three distinct behavioural states-socializing, travelling and foraging-and analyse the association networks corresponding to each activity. Moreover, in constructing the different activity networks we do not simply record a spatial association between two individuals as being either present or absent, but rather quantify the degree of any association, thus allowing us to construct weighted networks describing each activity. The results of these weighted activity networks indicate that networks can reveal detailed patterns of bottlenose dolphins at the population level; dolphins socialize in large groups with preferential associations; travel in small groups with preferential associates; and spread out to forage in very small, weakly connected groups. There is some overlap in the socialize and travel networks but little overlap between the forage and other networks. This indicates that the social bonds maintained in other activities are less important as they forage on dispersed, solitary prey. The overall network, not sorted by activity, does not accurately represent any of these patterns.

  11. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  12. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  13. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HOME RANGE AND HABITAT USE OF SUBURBAN RED-SHOULDERED HAWKS IN SOUTHWESTERN OHIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suburban habitats may provide different resources and different challenges to raptors than do more traditional, rural habitats. Suburban red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) of the eastern subspecies have been little studied. We measured the home ranges and habitat use of 11 su...

  15. Preliminary studies on the utilisation of Berea Red Sands for sub-base and base construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bergh, AO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Berea Red sands occur in abundance on the eastern seaboard of KwaZulu-Natal and Mozambique. The material is of Aeolian origin and is seldom used as base and sub-base material in the region, even on lightly trafficked roads. The main reasons...

  16. Indicators of Population Viabllity in Red Spruce, Picea rubens. I. Reproductive Traits and Fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Mosseler; J.E. Major; J.D. Simpson; B. Daigle; K. Lange; Y.S. Park; K.H Johnsen; O.P. Rajora

    2000-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) has experienced a substantial decline across most of its range in eastern North America over the past centmy and probably also in the disjunct Ontario populations where it now occurs only in small isolated stands. Measurements of cone and seed traits from natural populations were used as indicators of the...

  17. Breeding success in a Red Bishop ( Euplectes orix ) colony in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data are presented on breeding success of Red Bishops (Euplectes orix) collected over four breeding seasons at a colony in the Addo Elephant National Park, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Overall hatching and fledging success were 53.8% and 26.0% of all eggs laid, respectively, and the overall mean number of fledglings ...

  18. Advance reproduction and other stand characteristics in Pennsylvania and French stands of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; Marc D. Abrams; Todd W. Bowersox

    1993-01-01

    The frequent scarcity of northern red oak (NRO) advance reproduction raises questions about its regeneration potential under prevailing stand conditions in eastern North America. In contrast, NRO plantations in France typically contain abundant advance reproduction. The purpose of this study was to document stand conditions in Pennsylvania (PA) and southwestern France...

  19. Red-cockaded woodpecker nestling provisioning and reproduction in two different pine habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    We obtained nestling provisioning and rcpntductive data from 24 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) groups occupying two different pine habitats-longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and a mixture of loblolly (P. taeda) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata)--in eastern Texas during 1990 and 1901....

  20. Influence of habitat and number of nestlings on partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; D. Brent Burt; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) was studied during 2 breeding seasons in eastern Texas. The timing of partial brood loss, group size, number of initial nestlings, number of birds fledged, and habitat characteristics of the group's cavity-tree cluster were examined for 37 woodpecker groups in loblolly- (

  1. Critical fluid extraction of Juniperus virginiana L. and bioactivity of extracts against subterranean termites and wood-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. J. Eller; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green; S.L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is an abundant renewable resource and represents a vast potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. Both the wood and needles from J. virginiana were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) as well as ethanol (EtOH) and the yields determined.Woodblocks were...

  2. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  3. Middle Eastern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  4. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  5. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  6. Use of novel compounds for pest control: insecticidal and acaricidal activity of essential oil components from heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella, Nicholas A; Dolan, Marc C; Karchesy, Joseph J; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Montenieri, John A; Maupin, Gary O

    2005-05-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the activity of 15 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., against Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild), and Aedes aegypti (L.) adults. Four of the compounds from the essential oil have been identified as monoterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpene derivatives from valencene and nootkatone, and one as a sesquiterpene outside the eremophilane parent group. Carvacrol was the only monoterpene that demonstrated biocidal activity against ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes with LC50 values after 24 h of 0.0068, 0.0059, and 0.0051% (wt:vol), respectively. Nootkatone from Alaska yellow cedar was the most effective of the eremophilane sesquiterpenes against ticks (LC50 = 0.0029%), whereas the nootkatone grapefruit extract exhibited the greatest biocidal activity against fleas (LC50 = 0.0029%). Mosquitoes were most susceptible to one of the derivatives of valencene, valencene-13-aldehyde (LC50 = 0.0024%), after 24 h. Bioassays to determine residual activity of the most effective products were conducted at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after initial treatment. Residual LC50 values for nootkatone did not differ significantly at 4 wk posttreatment from the observations made at the initial 24-h treatment. The ability of these natural products to kill arthropods at relatively low concentrations represents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of disease vectors.

  7. Red Dawn: Characterizing Iron Oxide Minerals in Atmospheric Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauk, K.; Ottenfeld, C. F.; Reynolds, R. L.; Goldstein, H.; Cattle, S.; Berquo, T. S.; Moskowitz, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric dust is comprised of many components including small amounts of iron oxide minerals. Although the iron oxides make up a small weight percent of the bulk dust, they are important because of their roles in ocean fertilization, controls on climate, and as a potential health hazard to humans. Here we report on the iron oxide mineralogy in dust from a large dust storm, dubbed Red Dawn, which engulfed eastern Australia along a 3000 km front on 23 September 2009. Red Dawn originated from the lower Lake Eyre Basin of South Australia, western New South Wales (NSW) and southwestern Queensland and was the worst dust storm to have hit the city of Sydney in more than 60 years. Dust samples were collected from various locations across eastern Australia (Lake Cowal, Orange, Hornsby, Sydney) following the Red Dawn event. Our dust collection provides a good opportunity to study the physical and mineralogical properties of iron oxides from Red Dawn using a combination of reflectance spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy (MB), and magnetic measurements. Magnetization measurements from 20-400 K reveal that magnetite/maghemite, hematite and goethite are present in all samples with magnetite occurring in trace amounts (effects (d< 100 nm). Finally, we compared reflectance with a magnetic parameter (hard isothermal remanent magnetization, HIRM) for ferric oxide abundance to assess the degree to which ferric oxide in these samples might absorb solar radiation. In samples for which both parameters were obtained, HIRM and average reflectance over the visible wavelengths are correlated as a group (r2=0.24). These results indicate that the ferric oxide minerals in Red Dawn dust absorb solar radiation. Much of this ferric oxide occurs likely as grain coatings of nanohematite and nanogoethite, thereby providing high surface area to enhance absorption of solar radiation.

  8. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Larry J.; Bower, Amy S.; Köhl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model's winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow.

  9. Red giants seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  10. Multiplicar la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnología comunicacional nos ha conducido precipitadamente a una existencia completamente nueva. En la carrera por crear una sociedad sustentable, una "red de redes mundiales" de computadoras personales que puedan ofrecer la primera esperanza real de acelerar ampliamente las comunicaciones. Las redes computacionales no solo sirven como un sistema de comunicación interactivo, rápido sino también como una herramienta de investigación de poderes insospechados.

  11. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  12. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  13. Changes of mercury contamination in red-crowned cranes, Grus japonensis, in East Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Tagami, Yukari; Kudo, Moe; Miura, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Erika; Matsumoto, Fumio; Koga, Kimiya; Uebayashi, Akiko; Shimura, Ryoji; Inoue, Masako; Momose, Kunikazu; Masatomi, Hiroyuki; Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo; Subramanian, Annamalai

    2012-07-01

    Red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) are native to eastern Hokkaido (island population), in contrast to the mainland, which migrates between the Amur River basin and eastern China-Korea peninsula. During the 1990s we found that Red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido were highly contaminated with mercury: however, the source was unknown. We investigated the time trend of mercury contamination in Red-crowned cranes. Total mercury levels in the livers and kidneys from cranes dead in the 2000s were lower than those dead in the 1990s. Feather is a major pathway of mercury excretion for many bird species and is used as an indicator of blood mercury level during feather growth. As internal organs from the specimens collected before 1988 were not available, we analyzed the flight feather shavings from stuffed Red-crowned cranes dead in 1959-1987 and found that the mercury level of feathers from cranes dead in the 1960s and 1970s was not more than those from the cranes dead in the 2000s. These results suggest that mercury contamination in Red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido decreased temporally during the 1990s-2000s. This indicates the possible occurrence of some mercury pollution in Red-crowned cranes' habitat in this region in the 1990s or before.

  14. RedNemo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkan, Ferhat; Erten, Cesim

    2017-01-01

    is their erroneous nature; they contain false-positive interactions and usually many more false-negatives. Recently, several computational methods have been proposed for network reconstruction based on topology, where given an input PPI network the goal is to reconstruct the network by identifying false...... material including source code, useful scripts, experimental data and the results are available at http://webprs.khas.edu.tr/∼cesim/Red Nemo. tar.gz CONTACT: cesim@khas.edu.tr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online....

  15. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  16. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  17. New Observations of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water Intrusion into the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, A.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The three-layer exchange flow between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean during summer is characterized by a thick, northward intrusion of relatively cold, low-salinity and low in dissolved oxygen (Water (GAIW), sandwiched between two thin layers of outflow water. The flux of GAIW into the Red Sea is important in the heat, freshwater and nutrient budgets of the Red Sea, but the structure and pathways of the intrusion are not well-known due to a paucity of hydrographic and direct velocity observations. A research cruise was executed at the eastern side of the Red Sea during September-October 2011 to conduct the first large-scale survey of the intrusion. This mission is part of a series of expeditions in the Red Sea designed to investigate the seasonal Red Sea circulation. Surprisingly, the GAIW intrusion was observed to stretch nearly the entire length of the Red Sea (~1500 km) as a narrow eastern boundary current with subsurface velocity maximum of 0.1-0.3 m/s in the depth range 50-100 m. The intruding layer is weakly stratified compared to the background, possibly an indication of strong vertical mixing as it flows through the strait. Some GAIW was observed to enter deep channels in a coral reef bank (Farasan Banks) located in the southeastern Red Sea, and to enter the Red Sea interior, the latter possibly due to interactions between the boundary current and mesoscale eddies. The pathways and erosion of the GAIW intrusion will likely have major implications for the spatial distribution of biological productivity.

  18. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes . The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  19. Red - take a closer look.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L Buechner

    Full Text Available Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure or approach of reward (e.g., mating depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers' attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation.

  20. Listening to Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinazo Mtshemla

    Full Text Available Following a distinction John Mowitt draws between hearing (and phonics, and listening (and sonics, this article argues that the dominant notion of listening to sound was determined by the disciplinary framework of South African history and by the deployment of a cinematic documentary apparatus, both of which have served to disable the act of listening. The conditions of this hearing, and a deafness to a reduced or bracketed listening (Chion via Schaeffer that would enable us to think the post in post-apartheid differently, is thus at the centre of our concerns here. We stage a series of screenings of expected possible soundtracks for Simon Gush's film and installation Red, simultaneously tracking the ways that sound - and particularly music and dialogue - can be shown to hold a certain way of thinking both the political history of South Africa and the politics of South African history. We conclude by listening more closely to hiss and murmur in the soundtrack to Red and suggest this has major implications for considering ways of thinking and knowing.

  1. Establishing trees on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bussières

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Four major tree-planting trials on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada were surveyed in 2002, in order to evaluate the potential use of trees in rehabilitation following horticultural peat extraction. At one of the sites, an experiment to determine the appropriate fertilisation rate for trees planted on cut-over peatlands was also conducted over several years. Tree performance was assessed by measuring survival, total height and annual growth of red maple (Acer rubrum L., tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi Koch., black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. and hybrid poplar (Populus spp.. Establishment and growth of tamarack and black spruce in cut-over peatlands showed good potential when compared to performance in conventional forestry plantations. Red maple and jack pine gave poor productivity but promising survival, whilst hybrid poplar plantings failed. Adding nutrients was essential for growth but dosages above 122.5 g of 3.4N-8.3P-24.2K per tree gave no further improvement. Therefore, several different tree species can be planted to reclaim cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada, so long as the appropriate species are chosen and nutrients are provided.

  2. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longbine, David F

    2008-01-01

    .... Key aspects of the Army red teaming definition are its emphasis on independent thinking, challenging organizational thinking, incorporating alternative perspectives, and incorporating alternative analysis...

  3. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  4. Effects of red-backed salamanders on ecosystem functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Hocking

    Full Text Available Ecosystems provide a vast array of services for human societies, but understanding how various organisms contribute to the functions that maintain these services remains an important ecological challenge. Predators can affect ecosystem functions through a combination of top-down trophic cascades and bottom-up effects on nutrient dynamics. As the most abundant vertebrate predator in many eastern US forests, woodland salamanders (Plethodon spp. likely affect ecosystems functions. We examined the effects of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus on a variety of forest ecosystem functions using a combined approach of large-scale salamander removals (314-m(2 plots and small-scale enclosures (2 m(2 where we explicitly manipulated salamander density (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 m(-2. In these experiments, we measured the rates of litter and wood decomposition, potential nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, acorn germination, and foliar insect damage on red oak seedlings. Across both experimental venues, we found no significant effect of red-backed salamanders on any of the ecosystem functions. We also found no effect of salamanders on intraguild predator abundance (carabid beetles, centipedes, spiders. Our study adds to the already conflicting evidence on effects of red-backed salamander and other amphibians on terrestrial ecosystem functions. It appears likely that the impact of terrestrial amphibians on ecosystem functions is context dependent. Future research would benefit from explicitly examining terrestrial amphibian effects on ecosystem functions under a variety of environmental conditions and in different forest types.

  5. Effects of red-backed salamanders on ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Daniel J; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems provide a vast array of services for human societies, but understanding how various organisms contribute to the functions that maintain these services remains an important ecological challenge. Predators can affect ecosystem functions through a combination of top-down trophic cascades and bottom-up effects on nutrient dynamics. As the most abundant vertebrate predator in many eastern US forests, woodland salamanders (Plethodon spp.) likely affect ecosystems functions. We examined the effects of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) on a variety of forest ecosystem functions using a combined approach of large-scale salamander removals (314-m(2) plots) and small-scale enclosures (2 m(2)) where we explicitly manipulated salamander density (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 m(-2)). In these experiments, we measured the rates of litter and wood decomposition, potential nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, acorn germination, and foliar insect damage on red oak seedlings. Across both experimental venues, we found no significant effect of red-backed salamanders on any of the ecosystem functions. We also found no effect of salamanders on intraguild predator abundance (carabid beetles, centipedes, spiders). Our study adds to the already conflicting evidence on effects of red-backed salamander and other amphibians on terrestrial ecosystem functions. It appears likely that the impact of terrestrial amphibians on ecosystem functions is context dependent. Future research would benefit from explicitly examining terrestrial amphibian effects on ecosystem functions under a variety of environmental conditions and in different forest types.

  6. CEDAR counter (internal part)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Here on the mounting bench. The counter is a differential Cerenkov, corrected for chromaticity, able to differentiate pions from kaons up to 350 GeV. Counters of this type were used in all SPS hadron beams.

  7. Cedar Hill Tower Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A meteorological data system was designed, assembled, and installed to obtain, on a continuous basis, wind and temperature information at 12 levels on a television...

  8. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 45. Graeme KA. Toxic plant ingestions. ... eds. Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 65. Meehan TJ. Approach to the ...

  9. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic study of Japanese cedar bark - the variation in chemical states of iron due to influence of human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Motoyuki; Kobayashi, Takaaki; Singh, T.B.; Tsurumi, Makoto; Ichikuni, Masami

    1992-01-01

    Chemical states of iron have been investigated by 57 Fe Moessbauer technique for the barks of Japanese cedar collected from urban and mountainous area of Japan. The Moessbauer spectra of all outer bark samples show two overlapping doublets and one sextet ascribable to paramagnetic ferrous, paramagnetic ferric and magnetic iron, respectively, whereas an inner bark sample consists only of the two doublets. The bark sample from urban area shows the higher relative amount of magnetic component and the smaller ferrous to ferric ratio. These features of iron species in the bark sample indicate that the bark sample can supply a more effective indicator of human activities than airborne particles collected directly by evaluation with an air sampler. (orig.)

  10. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  11. Changes in heartwood chemistry of dead yellow-cedar trees that remain standing for 80 years or more in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Rick G; Hennon, Paul E; Huso, Manuela; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2005-11-01

    We measured the concentrations of extractable bioactive compounds in heartwood of live yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) trees and five classes of standing snags (1-5, averaging 4, 14, 26, 51, and 81 years-since-death, respectively) to determine how the concentrations changed in the slowly deteriorating snags. Three individuals from each of these six condition classes were sampled at four sites spanning a 260-km distance across southeast Alaska, and the influence of geographic location on heartwood chemistry was evaluated. Cores of heartwood were collected at breast height and cut into consecutive 5-cm segments starting at the pith. Each segment was extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by gas chromatography. Concentrations of carvacrol, nootkatene, nootkatol, nootkatone, nootkatin, and total extractives (a sum of 16 compounds) for the inner (0-5 cm from pith), middle (5-10 cm from pith), and surface (outer 1.1-6.0 cm of heartwood) segments from each core were compared within each tree condition class and within segments across condition classes. Heartwood of class 1 and 2 snags had the same chemical composition as live trees. The first concentration changes begin to appear in class 3 snags, which coincides with greater heartwood exposure to the external environment as decaying sapwood sloughs away, after losing the protective outer bark. Within core segments, the concentrations of all compounds, except nootkatene, decrease between snag classes 2 and 5, resulting in the heartwood of class 5 snags having the lowest quantities of bioactive compounds, although not different from the amounts in class 4 snags. This decline in chemical defense is consistent with heartwood of class 5 snags being less decay-resistant than heartwood of live trees, as observed by others. The unique heartwood chemistry of yellow cedar and the slow way it is altered after death allow dead trees to remain standing for up to a century with a profound impact on the ecology of forests

  12. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  13. The Evolution of Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, T.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.; Hua, Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Indian plate has been colliding with Eurasian plate since 50Ma years ago, resulting in the Tethys extinction, crust shortening and Tibetan plateau uplift. But it is still a debate how the Tibetan Plateau material escaped. This study tries to invert the distributions of dispersion phase velocity and anisotropy in Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) based on the seismic data. We focused on the seven sub-blocks around EHS region. Sub-block "EHS" represents EHS corner with high velocity anomalies, significantly compressed in the axle and strike directions. Sub-blocks "LSD", "QTB" and "SP-GZB" are located at its northern areas with compressions also, and connected with low-velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Sub-block "ICB" is located at its southern area with low velocity anomaly, and connected with Tengchong volcano. Sub-blocks "SYDB" and "YZB" are located at its eastern areas with high velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Our results demonstrated that significant azimuthal anisotropy of crust (t£30s) and upper mantle (30s£t£60s). Crustal anisotropy indicates the orogenic belt matched well with the direction of fast propagation, and upper mantle anisotropy represents the lattic-preferred orientation (LPO) of mantle minerals (e.g. olivine and basalt), indicating the features of subducting Indian plate. Besides, Red River fault is a dextral strike fault, controlling the crustal and mantle migration. There is a narrow zone to be the channel flow of Tibetan crustal materials escaping toward Yunnan area. The evolution of EHS seems constrained by gravity isostatic mechanism. Keywords: Tibetan Plateau; Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis; Red River fault; crustal flow; surface wave; anisotropy

  14. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  15. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Science Policy Research Unit)

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this article is that of illustrating the experience of the use of nuclear power in Eastern Europe in order to estimate the degree of adequacy or inadequacy of COMECON's nuclear technology. The author examines four areas of interest concerning: the feasibility of new orders for nuclear plants in Eastern Europe; the pros and cons of completing half-built nuclear power plants; current policy towards existing nuclear power plants; and a review of the available evidence on the operating performance of plants in Eastern Europe. The common belief that the nuclear power experience had by old COMECON countries is uniformly bad does not seem to be fully supported by the limited evidence available. In the author's opinion, the prospects for a successful nuclear power industry in these countries depends on a series on interdependent factors among which, human skills hold a prominent position.

  16. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... in the area.   The municipalities acknowledge the articulation of the city region and the initiated planning process.  However, the municipalities might see the arena as means to lobby for infrastructure investments in Eastern Jutland, as it is doubtful whether the municipalities will feel encouraged to enter...... a process, which is aiming at increasing the national regulation within their territory.    The result might very well be that the discussion about future infrastructure investments is not linked to discussions about future urban development in Eastern Jutland.  These aspects raises serious questions about...

  17. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  18. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  19. Volume tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  20. On the record of Red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel,1843 (Osteichthyes: Sparidae in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Dulcic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available One specimen of red seabream Pagrus major, 44.9 cm total length, was caught in the eastern middle Adriatic (Island Molat, Cape Bonaster by long-line hook at a depth of about 20 m on a hard rocky bottom on 25 September 2004. It is the first record of this species in the Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean area.

  1. ICT4RED 12 - Component implementation framework: A conceptual framework for integrating mobile technology into resource-constrained rural schools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ICT for Rural Education Development (ICT4RED) is a large-scale pilot that is testing the use of tablets in 26 deep rural schools in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The aim is to develop a replicable framework that will enable evidence...

  2. Nutritional and organoleptic quality of Beni-Guil lamb meat breeding in eastern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Belhaj, Kamal; Mansouri, Farid; Sindic, Marianne; Boukharta, M; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Abid, M; Serghini; Elamrani, A

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays in Morocco, 98% of red meat production is ensured by cattles, sheeps and goast. The eastern Morocco represents one of the main sheep farming areas, characterized by the specificity of its production systems. So it is well known by the quality of the sheep meat produced. The Beni-Guil breed is a dominate breed in this breeding area, labeled Protected Geographical Indication (PIG). Thus, it’s an important protein source for the population in this geographical site and highly appreciate...

  3. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most...

  4. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  6. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  7. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  8. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Climatology of sea breezes along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit

    2018-04-25

    Long-term near-surface observations from five coastal stations, high-resolution model data from Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and high-resolution daily sea surface temperature (SST) from National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are used to investigate the climatology of sea breezes over the eastern side of the Red Sea region. Results show existence of separate sea breeze systems along different segments of the Red Sea coastline. Based on the physical character and synoptic influences, sea breezes in the Red Sea are broadly divided into three regions: the north and the middle Red Sea (NMRS), the Red Sea convergence zone (RSCZ) and the southern Red Sea (SRS) regions. On average, sea breezes developed on 67% of days of the 10-year study period. Although sea breezes occur almost all year, this mesoscale phenomenon is most frequent from May to October (78% of the total sea breeze days). The sea breeze frequency increases from north to south (equatorwards), and sea breeze characteristics appear to vary both temporally and spatially. In addition to land-sea thermal differential, coastline shape, latitude and topography, the prevailing northwesterly at NMRS region, the convergence of northwesterly and southeasterly wind system at RSCZ region and the northeast and southwest monsoon at SRS region play an important role in defining the sea breeze characteristics over the Red Sea.

  10. Is the Red Wolf a Listable Unit Under the US Endangered Species Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waples, Robin S; Kays, Roland; Fredrickson, Richard J; Pacifici, Krishna; Mills, L Scott

    2018-06-08

    Defining units that can be afforded legal protection is a crucial, albeit challenging, step in conservation planning. As we illustrate with a case study of the red wolf (Canis rufus) from the southeastern United States, this step is especially complex when the evolutionary history of the focal taxon is uncertain. The US Endangered Species Act (ESA) allows listing of species, subspecies, or Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of vertebrates. Red wolves were listed as an endangered species in 1973, and their status remains precarious. However, some recent genetic studies suggest that red wolves are part of a small wolf species (C. lycaon) specialized for heavily forested habitats of eastern North America, whereas other authors suggest that red wolves arose, perhaps within the last ~400 years, through hybridization between gray wolves (C. lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans). Using published genetic, morphological, behavioral, and ecological data, we evaluated whether each evolutionary hypothesis would lead to a listable unit for red wolves. Although the potential hybrid origin of red wolves, combined with abundant evidence for recent hybridization with coyotes, raises questions about status as a separate species or subspecies, we conclude that under any proposed evolutionary scenario red wolves meet both criteria to be considered a DPS: they are discrete compared with other conspecific populations, and they are Significant to the taxon to which they belong. As population-level units can qualify for legal protection under endangered-species legislation in many countries throughout the world, this general approach could potentially be applied more broadly.

  11. Using diets of Canis breeding pairs to assess resource partitioning between sympatric red wolves and coyotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Ashley, Annaliese K.; Dellinger, Justin A.; Gittleman, John L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Foraging behaviors of red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are complex and their ability to form congeneric breeding pairs and hybridize further complicates our understanding of factors influencing their diets. Through scat analysis, we assessed prey selection of red wolf, coyote, and congeneric breeding pairs formed by red wolves and coyotes, and found that all 3 had similar diets. However, red wolf and congeneric pairs consumed more white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) than coyote pairs. Coyotes forming breeding pairs with red wolves had 12% more white-tailed deer in their diet than conspecifics paired with coyotes. Contrary to many studies on coyotes in the southeastern United States, we found coyotes in eastern North Carolina to be primarily carnivorous with increased consumption of deer during winter. Although prey selection was generally similar among the 3 groups, differences in diet among different breeding pairs were strongly associated with body mass. Larger breeding pairs consumed more white-tailed deer, and fewer rabbits (Sylvilagus spp.) and other small mammals. Partitioning of food resources by sympatric red wolves and coyotes is likely via differences in the proportions of similar prey consumed, rather than differences in types of prey exploited. Consequently, our results suggest coexistence of red wolves and coyotes in the southeastern United States may not be possible because there are limited opportunities for niche partitioning to reduce competitive interactions.

  12. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Space Use and Habitat Selection by Resident and Transient Red Wolves (Canis rufus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Hinton

    Full Text Available Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans. Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence. During 2009-2011, we used global positioning system (GPS radio-telemetry to quantify space use and 3rd-order habitat selection for resident and transient red wolves on the Albemarle Peninsula of eastern North Carolina. The Albemarle Peninsula was a predominantly agricultural landscape in which red wolves maintained spatially stable home ranges that varied between 25 km2 and 190 km2. Conversely, transient red wolves did not maintain home ranges and traversed areas between 122 km2 and 681 km2. Space use by transient red wolves was not spatially stable and exhibited shifting patterns until residency was achieved by individual wolves. Habitat selection was similar between resident and transient red wolves in which agricultural habitats were selected over forested habitats. However, transients showed stronger selection for edges and roads than resident red wolves. Behaviors of transient wolves are rarely reported in studies of space use and habitat selection because of technological limitations to observed extensive space use and because they do not contribute reproductively to populations. Transients in our study comprised displaced red wolves and younger dispersers that competed for limited space and mating opportunities. Therefore, our results suggest that transiency is likely an important life-history strategy for red wolves that

  14. Space use and habitat selection by resident and transient red wolves (Canis rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Proctor, Christine; Kelly, Marcella J.; van Manen, Frank T.; Vaughan, Michael R.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans). Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence. During 2009–2011, we used global positioning system (GPS) radio-telemetry to quantify space use and 3rd-order habitat selection for resident and transient red wolves on the Albemarle Peninsula of eastern North Carolina. The Albemarle Peninsula was a predominantly agricultural landscape in which red wolves maintained spatially stable home ranges that varied between 25 km2 and 190 km2. Conversely, transient red wolves did not maintain home ranges and traversed areas between 122 km2 and 681 km2. Space use by transient red wolves was not spatially stable and exhibited shifting patterns until residency was achieved by individual wolves. Habitat selection was similar between resident and transient red wolves in which agricultural habitats were selected over forested habitats. However, transients showed stronger selection for edges and roads than resident red wolves. Behaviors of transient wolves are rarely reported in studies of space use and habitat selection because of technological limitations to observed extensive space use and because they do not contribute reproductively to populations. Transients in our study comprised displaced red wolves and younger dispersers that competed for limited space and mating opportunities. Therefore, our results suggest that transiency is likely an important life-history strategy for red wolves that facilitates

  15. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  16. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  17. Water quality assessment of the Eastern Iowa Basins: Basic water chemistry of rivers and streams, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kimberlee K.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began data-collection activities in the Eastern Iowa Basins study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in September 1995 with the purpose of determining the status and trends in water quality of water from the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins. From March 1996 through September 1998, monthly surface-water samples were collected from 11 sites on the study's rivers and streams representing three distinct physiographic regions, the Des Moines Lobe, the Iowan Surface, the Southern Iowa Drift Plain, and one subregion, the Iowan Karst. These water samples were analyzed for basic water chemistry, including, but not limited to the following cations: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and silica; anions: chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and bicarbonate; and two metals - iron and maganese. Although none of the concentrations of the constituents exceeded health advisories or drinking-water regulations, extremely high or low concentrations could potentially affect aquatic life. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium are essential elements for both plant and animal life; manganese is an essential element in plant metabolism; and silica is important in the growth of diatom algae. Calcium had the largest median concentration of 61 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of the cations, and the largest maximum concentration of 100 mg/L. Bicarbonate had the largest median concentration of 210 mg/L of the anions, and the largest maximum concentration of 400 mg/L.

  18. Y-chromosome evidence supports widespread signatures of three-species Canis hybridization in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Paul J; Rutledge, Linda Y; Wheeldon, Tyler J; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N

    2012-09-01

    There has been considerable discussion on the origin of the red wolf and eastern wolf and their evolution independent of the gray wolf. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and a Y-chromosome intron sequence in combination with Y-chromosome microsatellites from wolves and coyotes within the range of extensive wolf-coyote hybridization, that is, eastern North America. The detection of divergent Y-chromosome haplotypes in the historic range of the eastern wolf is concordant with earlier mtDNA findings, and the absence of these haplotypes in western coyotes supports the existence of the North American evolved eastern wolf (Canis lycaon). Having haplotypes observed exclusively in eastern North America as a result of insufficient sampling in the historic range of the coyote or that these lineages subsequently went extinct in western geographies is unlikely given that eastern-specific mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplotypes represent lineages divergent from those observed in extant western coyotes. By combining Y-chromosome and mtDNA distributional patterns, we identified hybrid genomes of eastern wolf, coyote, gray wolf, and potentially dog origin in Canis populations of central and eastern North America. The natural contemporary eastern Canis populations represent an important example of widespread introgression resulting in hybrid genomes across the original C. lycaon range that appears to be facilitated by the eastern wolf acting as a conduit for hybridization. Applying conventional taxonomic nomenclature and species-based conservation initiatives, particularly in human-modified landscapes, may be counterproductive to the effective management of these hybrids and fails to consider their evolutionary potential.

  19. Acetylation of wood components and fourier transform infra-red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the reactivity of wood components with acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate was studied. It was found that the reactivity of wood components was virgin wood flour > holocellulose >> a-cellulose. Acetylation of Turkish pine or cedar wood flour with acetic anhydride was significantly improved in the presence of ...

  20. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  1. Diet and nutrient balance of red panda in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Saroj; Coogan, Sean C. P.; Aryal, Achyut; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-10-01

    We identified the winter plant species consumed by red panda in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve of eastern Nepal and compared this to the early-summer diet which was determined previously by Panthi et al. (2012). In addition, we estimated the proximate nutritional content of the leaves identified in red panda diet for both seasons, and we used nutritional geometry to explore macronutrient balance of leaves from the two different sampling periods. We identified six different plants in winter scats, which were the same as found in the previously determined early-summer diet. Arundinaria spp. bamboos were the main species found (82.1 % relative frequency), followed by Acer spp. (6.3 %), Betula utilis (4.6 %), Quercus semicarpifolia (3.7 %), Berberis spp. (1.3 %), and lichens (1.0 %), leaving 2.0 % unidentified. Geometric analysis suggested that the macronutrient balance of seasonal diets were similar in nutrient balance to the most frequently consumed Arundinaria spp. Differences in macronutrient balance may indicate seasonal nutrient preferences, such as increased carbohydrate intake in winter for thermogenesis, and increased protein and lipid intake in early summer to support reproduction and lactation; however, these differences may also indicate differences in resource availability. Habitat conserved for red panda in the region should include sufficient Arundinaria spp. as well as lesser consumed plants which may serve as complimentary foods.

  2. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  3. The Cedar Project: Historical trauma, sexual abuse and HIV risk among young Aboriginal people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the Cedar Project Partnership; Pearce, Margo E.; Christian, Wayne M.; Patterson, Katharina; Norris, Kat; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Craib, Kevin J.P.; Schechter, Martin T.; Spittal, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent Indigenist scholarship has situated high rates of traumatic life experiences, including sexual abuse, among Indigenous peoples of North America within the larger context of their status as colonized peoples. Sexual abuse has been linked to many negative health outcomes including mental, sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities. There is a paucity of research in Canada addressing the relationship between antecedent sexual abuse and negative health outcomes among Aboriginal people including elevated risk of HIV infection. The primary objectives of this study were to determine factors associated with sexual abuse among participants of the Cedar Project, a cohort of young Aboriginal people between the ages of 14 and 30 years who use injection and non-injection drugs in two urban centres in British Columbia, Canada; and to locate findings through a lens of historical and intergenerational trauma. We utilized post-colonial perspectives in research design, problem formulation and the interpretation of results. Multivariate modeling was used to determine the extent to which a history of sexual abuse was predictive of negative health outcomes and vulnerability to HIV infection. Of the 543 eligible participants, 48% reported ever having experienced sexual abuse; 69% of sexually abused participants were female. The median age of first sexual abuse was 6 years for both female and male participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and factors of historical trauma, sexually abused participants were more likely to have ever been on the streets for more than three nights, to have ever self-harmed, to have suicide ideation, to have attempted suicide, to have a diagnosis of mental illness, to have been in the emergency department within the previous 6 months, to have had over 20 lifetime sexual partners, to have ever been paid for sex and to have ever overdosed. The prevalence and consequences of sexual abuse among Cedar Project participants are of grave concern

  4. Reconstruction of paleo-inlet dynamics using sedimentologic analyses, geomorphic features, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages: former ephemeral inlets of Cedar Island, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, R.; Wood, E. T.

    2017-12-01

    Cedar Island, VA is a low-profile, washover-dominated barrier island that has breached at least three times in the past sixty years. Cedar Island Inlet, a former wave-dominated tidal inlet, was open for the following time periods: 1) 1956-1962, 2) 1992-1997, and 3) 1998-2007. Air photos, satellite imagery, and geomorphic features (i.e., relict flood tidal deltas, recurved-spit ridges) record the spatial and temporal extent of the three ephemeral inlets. Based on three sediment vibracores, benthic foraminiferal and sedimentologic analyses offer high resolution insights of inlet dynamics and lifecycle evolution. Four foraminiferal biofacies are completely dominated by Elphidium excavatum (54-100%) and contain unique assemblages of accessory species based on cluster analyses: tidal inlet floor (low abundance estuarine and shelf species; 23% Haynesina germanica); flood tidal delta/inlet fill (high abundance estuarine and shelf species; 2% Buccella frigida, 2% Ammonia parkinsoniana, and 2% Haynesina germanica); high-energy inlet fill (low abundance, low diversity shelf species; 9% Elphidium gunteri); and washover/beach/aeolian (low abundance, predominantly shelf species; 3% Buccella frigida and 3% Ammonia parkinsoniana). The estuarine biofacies is barren of all foraminifera. Grain size trends indicate a first order coarsening-upward succession with second order coarsening- and fining-upwards packages in inlet throat deposits, while a first order fining-upward succession is observed in flood tidal delta deposits with two second order coarsening-upward packages in the proximal flood tidal delta. Contrary to typical wave-dominated tidal inlets that open, migrate laterally in the direction of net longshore transport, and close, the 1998-2007 tidal inlet, and possibly the 1956-1962 inlet, migrated laterally and rotated, whereas the 1992-1997 inlet remained stationary and did not rotate. In the vicinity of the vibracores, preserved deposits are attributed to the 1956-1962 and

  5. The Cedar Project: high incidence of HCV infections in a longitudinal study of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spittal Patricia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with HCV incidence among young Aboriginal people in Canada are still not well understood. We sought to estimate time to HCV infection and the relative hazard of risk factors associated HCV infection among young Aboriginal people who use injection drugs in two Canadian cities. Methods The Cedar Project is a prospective cohort study involving young Aboriginal people in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, who use illicit drugs. Participants’ venous blood samples were drawn and tested for HCV antibodies. Analysis was restricted to participants who use used injection drugs at enrolment or any of follow up visit. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent predictors of time to HCV seroconversion. Results In total, 45 out of 148 participants seroconverted over the study period. Incidence of HCV infection was 26.3 per 100 person-years (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 16.3, 46.1 among participants who reported using injection drugs for two years or less, 14.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 7.7, 28.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for between two and five years, and 5.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 2.6,10.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for over five years. Independent associations with HCV seroconversion were involvement in sex work in the last six months (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.42 compared to no involvement, having been using injection drugs for less than two years (AHR: 4.14; 95% CI: 1.91, 8.94 and for between two and five years (AHR: 2.12; 95%CI: 0.94, 4.77 compared to over five years, daily cocaine injection in the last six months (AHR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.51, 4.05 compared to less than daily, and sharing intravenous needles in the last six months (AHR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.47, 4.49 compared to not sharing. Conclusions This study contributes to the limited body of research addressing HCV infection among

  6. Central and eastern European activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Florida State University/Technical University of Budapest environmental research center, Center for Hungarian/American Environmental Research, Studies and Exchanges (CHAERSE), provides a resource base for information and technologies that is used to address near- and long-term environmental problems within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in Central and Eastern Europe. The CHAERSE is used as a technology transfer conduit for environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) problems and solutions. The International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) used the CHAERSE as one source of information for the identification of international ER/WM technologies being developed in Central and Eastern Europe. This was accomplished by matching high-priority problems in that region to high-priority problems in the DOE Complex; conducting symposia, meetings and workshops with international environmental experts; and identifying innovative technologies

  7. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyses the operating experience of nuclear power plants in Eastern and Western Europe, the former Soviet Union and the United States to investigate differences in the effects of learning, technical change and the effect of recent political developments. The performance of Soviet-designed reactors compares favourably with Western reactors on the standard performance measures. However, learning curve estimates reveal a disturbing trend: the former Soviet Union and all countries in Eastern Europe experience increasing unplanned losses as plants age, whereas all Western countries reduce their unplanned losses. A similar ''forgetting'' phenomenon is observable for plant availability and there is some evidence that the recent political and economic reorganization have exacerbated this trend. (Author)

  8. Cretaceous sedimentation in the outer Eastern Carpathians: Implications for the facies model reconstruction of the Moldavide Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roban, R. D.; Krézsek, C.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.

    2017-06-01

    The mid Cretaceous is characterized by high eustatic sea-levels with widespread oxic conditions that made possible the occurrence of globally correlated Oceanic Red Beds. However, very often, these eustatic signals have been overprinted by local tectonics, which in turn resulted in Lower Cretaceous closed and anoxic basins, as in the Eastern Carpathians. There, the black shale to red bed transition occurs in the latest Albian up to the early Cenomanian. Although earlier studies discussed the large-scale basin configuration, no detailed petrography and sedimentology study has been performed in the Eastern Carpathians. This paper describes the Hauterivian to Turonian lithofacies and interprets the depositional settings based on their sedimentological features. The studied sections crop out only in tectonic half windows of the Eastern Carpathians, part of the Vrancea Nappe. The lithofacies comprises black shales interbedded with siderites and sandstones, calcarenites, marls, radiolarites and red shales. The siliciclastic muddy lithofacies in general reflects accumulation by suspension settling of pelagites and hemipelagites in anoxic (black shale) to dysoxic (dark gray and gray to green shales) and oxic (red shales) conditions. The radiolarites alternate with siliceous shales and are considered as evidence of climate changes. The sandstones represent mostly low and high-density turbidite currents in deep-marine lobes, as well as channel/levee systems. The source area is an eastern one, e.g., the Eastern Carpathians Foreland, given the abundance of low grade metamorphic clasts. The Hauterivian - lower Albian sediments are interpreted as deep-marine, linear and multiple sourced mud dominated systems deposited in a mainly anoxic to dysoxic basin. The anoxic conditions existed in the early to late Albian, but sedimentation changed to a higher energy mud/sand-dominated submarine channels and levees. This coarsening upwards tendency is interpreted as the effect of the

  9. Museology History of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia D. Firer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the aspects of the establishment of the first museums and libraries in Eastern Siberia. The author considers the role of the museum in development of culture and public education in Minusinsk, Yeniseysk, notes the valuable contribution of the activities of merchants and intelligentsia to the museum business, as well as the reflection of the present and past of museums in Siberia.

  10. Eastern Africa Coastal Forest Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Younge, A.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...

  11. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  12. Silvical characteristics of red maple (Acer rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik; Harry W. Yawney

    1961-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is also known as Carolina red maple, scarlet maple, soft maple, swamp maple, water maple, and white maple. Taxonomists recognize several varieties of red maple. The most common is Drummond red maple (Acer rubrum var. drummondii (Hook, & Arn.) Sarg.).

  13. Sarmatian Burials Near the Astanino Village in the Eastern Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropotov Viktor Valeryevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains the materials of two Sarmatian burials that had been studied in 1966-1967 years by the Kerch expedition of Institute of Archeology of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the chief of expedition – A.M. Leskov in the Astanino village in the Eastern Crimea. These burials had been made on small depth in embankments of barrows of the bronze epoch, therefore it is not possible to track contours of funeral constructions. The dead were laid on their backs, heads turned to the North and the North-West. The utensils buried in the same tombs included two ceramic gray-clay pelikes, two gray-clay bowls, a red-gloss vessel, a red-clay pottery, a set of glass and cornelian beads, and the Egyptian faience beads. These things allow to exactly date the investigated complexes within the second half of the 1st century BC – the beginnings of the 1st century AD. The main distinctive characteristics of Early-Sarmatian burials of Northern Pontic region consist in the use of already existing barrows for burial places, orientations of the dead in the Northern sector, the insignificant depth of burials. Therefore published monuments should be also referred to them. A small number of such complexes with their distribution on the quite big territory between the Don and Dnepr rivers testify to the low density of the nomadic population at that time. The antique sources of the end of the 2nd – 1st centuries BC mention the presence of Roxolani in the given region. The described complexes supplement our poor knowledge of Sarmatian antiquities of the Eastern Crimea and specify the direct contacts of nomads of Northern Pontic region to the antique centers, in immediate proximity from which they had been located.

  14. Red to Mediterranean Sea bioinvasion: natural drift through the Suez Canal, or anthropogenic transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Sigal; Abelson, Avigdor; Mokady, Ofer; Geffen, Eli

    2004-08-01

    The biota of the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea has experienced dramatic changes in the last decades, in part as a result of the massive invasion of Red Sea species. The mechanism generally hypothesized for the 'Red-to-Med' invasion is that of natural dispersal through the Suez Canal. To date, however, this hypothesis has not been tested. This study examines the mode of invasion, using as a model the mussel Brachidontes pharaonis, an acclaimed 'Lessepsian migrant' that thrives along the eastern Mediterranean coast. Our findings reveal two distinct lineages of haplotypes, and five possible explanations are discussed for this observation. We show that the genetic exchange among the Mediterranean, Gulf of Suez and the northern Red Sea is sufficiently large to counteract the build up of sequential genetic structure. Nevertheless, these basins are rich in unique haplotypes of unknown origin. We propose that it is historic secondary contact, an ongoing anthropogenic transport or both processes, that participate in driving the population dynamics of B. pharaonis in the Mediterranean and northern Red Sea. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

  15. Concentrated Protein Body Product Derived from Rice Endosperm as an Oral Tolerogen for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy—A New Mucosal Vaccine Formulation against Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Watanabe, Nobumasa; Kitamura, Noriko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Ogo, Yuko; Hayashi, Shimpei; Yang, Lijun; Ohta, Masaru; Thet Tin, Wai Wai; Sekikawa, Kenji; Takano, Makoto; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Hiroi, Takachika; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I) from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1) and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation. PMID:25774686

  16. Census Cities experiment in urban change detection. [mapping of land use changes in San Francisco, Washington D.C., Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. R. (Principal Investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mapping of 1970 and 1972 land use from high-flight photography has been completed for all test sites: San Francisco, Washington, Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac. Area analysis of 1970 and 1972 land use has been completed for each of the mandatory urban areas. All 44 sections of the 1970 land use maps of the San Francisco test site have been officially released through USGS Open File at 1:62,500. Five thousand copies of the Washington one-sheet color 1970 land use map, census tract map, and point line identification map are being printed by USGS Publication Division. ERTS-1 imagery for each of the eight test sites is being received and analyzed. Color infrared photo enlargements at 1:100,000 of ERTS-1 MSS images of Phoenix taken on October 16, 1972 and May 2, 1973 are being analyzed to determine to what level land use and land use changes can be identified and to what extent the ERTS-1 imagery can be used in updating the 1970 aircraft photo-derived land use data base. Work is proceeding on the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery by computer manipulation of ERTS-1 MSS data in digital format. ERTS-1 CCT maps at 1:24,000 are being analyzed for two dates over Washington and Phoenix. Anniversary tape sets have been received at Purdue LARS for some additional urban test sites.

  17. Yaku-cedar tells cosmic outbursts in ancient times. Anomalies of cosmic ray intensity in AD 774-775 and AD 993-994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Fusa; Masuda, Kimiaki

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of cosmogenic nuclides, which are radioisotopes produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, provide important information regarding extraterrestrial high-energy events. We present 14 C measurements in annual rings of Japanese cedar trees with 1- and 2-year resolutions, and a finding of two sudden increases of 14 C content by significant amount from AD 774 to 775 and AD 993 to 994. The short-term increases of radioactive nuclide production were also found in tree rings of Europe and Antarctic ice core. This strongly indicates that the anomalies were not due to local terrestrial events, but triggered by cosmic outbursts that affected the whole planet. Several conjectures have been made upon the origin of the events, e.g. nearby supernovae (∼200 pc), Galactic short gamma-ray bursts, and violent solar mass ejections like SPEs (solar proton events) or super flares. We investigated energetics and the frequencies of occurrence of the phenomena, and demonstrate that SPE is likely to be the origin of the two 14 C increase events. Astrophysical significances and impact to modern human society are also discussed. (author)

  18. Characterization of sulfur deposition over the period of industrialization in Japan using sulfur isotope ratio in Japanese cedar tree rings taken from stumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takuya; Tayasu, Ichiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-07-01

    We characterized the sulfur deposition history over the period of industrialization in Japan based on the sulfur isotope ratio (δ(34)S) in tree rings of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) stumps. We analyzed and compared δ(34)S values in the rings from two types of disk samples from 170-year-old stumps that had been cut 5 years earlier (older forest stand) and from 40-year-old living trees (younger forest stand) in order to confirm the validity of using stump disks for δ(34)S analysis. No differences in δ(34)S values by age were found between the sample types, indicating that stump disks can be used for δ(34)S analysis. The δ(34)S profile in tree rings was significantly correlated with anthropogenic SO2 emissions in Japan (r = -0.76, p tree rings serve as a record of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. In addition, the values did not change largely from pre-industrialization to the 1940s (+4.2 to +6.1‰). The values before the 1940s are expected to reflect the background sulfur conditions in Japan and, thus, disks containing rings formed before the 1940s contain information about the natural environmental sulfur, which is useful for biogeochemical studies.

  19. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhya Wakasa

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.

  20. Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Aerial Parts as a Source of Bioactive Phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Hang; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-08-01

    The bark and stems of red maple (Acer rubrum) are reported to contain bioactive phenolics but its aerial parts, namely, flowers and leaves, remain largely unexplored. This is unfortunate considering that various parts of the red maple were used for traditional medicinal purposes by the indigenous peoples of eastern North America, where this species is found. Herein, we report the identification of twenty-five (1-25) phenolics, including two new galloyl derivatives (1 and 2), from red maple flowers and leaves. Of these, ten compounds (1-10), including the new compounds, were isolated and identified by NMR and HRESIMS data while the remaining fifteen compounds (11-25) were identified by HPLC-DAD analyses (by comparison with chemical standards). The isolates (1-10), along with the clinical drug, acarbose, were evaluated for their alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activities.

  1. CIS/Eastern countries. A curtain raising on eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Slowly and laboriously a new russian petroleum industry is setting in. To illustrate this new scenery, statistical data and maps, giving the production and consumption rates are presented. Two big companies (Shell and B.P.) stand for the privatization of Rosneft, the russian petroleum group. The legal and financial petroleum aspects of Russian are changing but very slowly, attracting the western companies around the petroleum industry. But this interest remains careful. The european bank of investment (BEI) decided to take a financial share in the eastern energy. (A.L.B.)

  2. Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Alexander R; Badola, Hemant K; Dhyani, Pitamber P; Rana, Santosh K

    2017-03-29

    Biocultural knowledge provides valuable insight into ecological processes, and can guide conservation practitioners in local contexts. In many regions, however, such knowledge is underutilized due to its often-fragmented record in disparate sources. In this article, we review and apply ethnobiological knowledge to biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas. Using Sikkim, India as a case study, we: (i) traced the history and trends of ethnobiological documentation; (ii) identified priority species and habitat types; and, (iii) analyzed within and among community differences pertaining to species use and management. Our results revealed that Sikkim is a biocultural hotspot, where six ethnic communities and 1128 species engage in biocultural relationships. Since the mid-1800s, the number of ethnobiological publications from Sikkim has exponentially increased; however, our results also indicate that much of this knowledge is both unwritten and partitioned within an aging, gendered, and caste or ethnic group-specific stratum of society. Reviewed species were primarily wild or wild cultivated, native to subtropical and temperate forests, and pend IUCN Red List of Threatened Species assessment. Our results demonstrate the value of engaging local knowledge holders as active participants in conservation, and suggest the need for further ethnobiological research in the Eastern Himalayas. Our interdisciplinary approach, which included rank indices and geospatial modelling, can help integrate diverse datasets into evidence-based policy.

  3. Ecological traits and environmental affinity explain Red Sea fish introduction into the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmaker, Jonathan; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel

    2013-05-01

    Alien species are considered one of the prime threats to biodiversity, driving major changes in ecosystem structure and function. Identifying the traits associated with alien introduction has been largely restricted to comparing indigenous and alien species or comparing alien species that differ in abundance or impact. However, a more complete understanding may emerge when the entire pool of potential alien species is used as a control, information that is rarely available. In the eastern Mediterranean, the marine environment is undergoing an unparalleled species composition transformation, as a flood of aliens have entered from the Red Sea following the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. In this study, we compile data on species traits, geographical distribution, and environmental affinity of the entire pool of reef-associated fish species in the Red Sea and more generally across the Indo-Pacific. We use this extensive data to identify the prime characteristics separating Red Sea species that have become alien in the Mediterranean from those that have not. We find that alien species occupy a larger range of environments in their native ranges, explaining their ability to colonize the seasonal Mediterranean. Red Sea species that naturally experience high maximum temperatures in their native range have a high probability of becoming alien. Thus, contrary to predictions of an accelerating number of aliens following increased water temperatures, hotter summers in this region may prevent the establishment of many alien species. We further find that ecological trait diversity of alien species is substantially more evenly spaced and more divergent than random samples from the pool of Red Sea species, pointing at additional processes, such as competition, promoting ecological diversity among alien species. We use these results to provide a first quantitative ranking of the potential of Red Sea species to become established in the eastern Mediterranean. © 2012 Blackwell

  4. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500Kred edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  5. Cultural Clues to the Middle Eastern Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Orin D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Cultural patterns and characteristics of Middle Eastern students indicate their adaptability ease or difficulty in American society. Manners, paternalistic patterns, religion, and social relationships are discussed. (LBH)

  6. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  7. Red de senderos universitarios inteligentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra-Berrocal, I.J.; Romero, J.; Pérez, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: El Proyecto de red de senderos universitarios inteligentes UR se inspira en tres realidades, la red de senderos europeos ya existentes y su importancia en el fomento de la actividad deportiva y los hábitos saludables, la creciente importancia de la implantación, intercambio y difusión de políticas y planes de acción en materia de sostenibilidad ambiental en el ámbito universitario europeo, y por último, el uso y desarrollo de infraestructuras y aplicaciones, cada vez más impresc...

  8. Seguridad en una red universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal España, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Las redes de comunicaciones son muy importantes para las empresas. Se solicita una red de altas prestaciones que pueda llevar muchos sistemas sobre ella (cámaras de seguridad, video, voz, datos, SCADA, wifi). Ahora también necesitamos que la red sea segura. Cuando hablamos de seguridad no solo nos referimos a evitar ataques o virus, también hablamos de cómo puede afectarnos el incendio de un centro de proceso de datos. Basándonos en la ISO 27001:2013 daremos las principales pau...

  9. Re-membering Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    -Soviet states into the “Eurovision” has been represented and discussed in Britain and Denmark, two countries with their own complex and complicated relationship to "Europe". Taking the cue from a growing scholarly production that argues for the importance of pop culture in the construction of social...... for analysing (political) memory. It then discusses the ways that the “Eastern enlargement” of the Contest in the 1990s triggered discussions of borders and belonging in both a historical and contemporary perspective. Finally the paper zooms in on British and Danish debates of three post-Soviet states; Estonia...

  10. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...

  11. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED

  12. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  13. 25 CFR 309.12 - What are examples of basketry that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to, birchbark, black ash, brown ash, red cedar, yellow cedar, alder, vine maple, willow, palmetto..., willow burden baskets, honeysuckle sewing baskets, black ash picnic baskets, cedar capes and dresses... containers, baleen baskets, rye grass dance fans, brown ash strawberry baskets, sumac wedding baskets, cedar...

  14. Project finance in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A dysfunctional system of commercial, legal, and financial institutions is the primary problem facing the energy sectors in Eastern Europe. Generally, a major systemic transformation is well underway in the area and is already showing signs of success. The empty promise of export credit financing exerts a significant negative influence on this reform process. The discipline of project finance provides the best, if not the only, basis for financing the modernization of the Eastern European energy sector. An example is given of the Cracow Environmental Project, a modernization project. The power plant is a combined heat and power facility with 460 MW of electric capacity and 1450 MW of thermal energy capacity. Located near the center of Cracow, the plant burns hard coal and provides more than seventy percent of the central district heat consumed in the city. The scope of proposed improvements has changed from the addition of capacity to a combination of modernization and environmental retrofit of the existing plant. The total estimated cost of the improvements program is 150 million dollars. The project consists of three major elements. First, it has proposed and is in the process of restructuring the ownership of the power plant. Second, it is engaged in a major restructuring of the commercial arrangements that govern the operation of the plant. Finally, it is in the late stages of selecting an engineering, procurement, and construction consortium with which it will contract to design and make major improvements to the existing plant

  15. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H

    1994-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  16. Shear-controlled evolution of the Red Sea: pull apart model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, J.; Rihm, R.

    1991-11-01

    Results of seismic and other geophysical investigations suggest that strike-slip processes controlled the break-up of the Arabian plate from Africa and initiated the Red Sea Rift. Early oceanisation was facilitated by nucleation of pull apart basins and massive intrusives. The evolution of the Red Sea has gone through different stages. It was a zone of structural weakness already during the Pan-African orogeny approximately 600 Ma. A major reactivation, however, that gradually led to the present-day configuration was initiated during the late Oligocene with intense magmatic activity and the development of a continental rift. Wrench faulting played a key role in the early evolution of the Red Sea, as it shaped most of its western flank as a sharp plate boundary and resulted in the generation and rapid oceanisation of linearly arranged pull apart basins. Spatial distribution of these basins reflects the geometry of the strike-slip zone, which was controlled by pre-existing fault systems like the Najd Shear System, the Central African Fault Zone or the Onib-Hamisana and Baraka suture zones. Strike-slip motion along the latter zones of weakness influenced mainly the Egyptian and Sudanese coastal areas. Arabia was therefore separated from Africa by oceanisation in those regions, where pull apart basins developed. They were still connected in the in-between segments by stretched continental crust. With Arabia as the "moving" and Africa as the "stable" plate the eastern Red Sea flank was formed by pure shear through stretching, thinning and diffuse extension. As a consequence, the eastern and western flanks of the Red Sea are asymmetrical. The acceleration of the movement of Arabia in early/middle Miocene could no longer be accommodated by the opening in the Gulf of Suez and consequently the Dead Sea strike-slip fault developed approximately 14 Ma ago. Since plate motion was still oblique to the major structural trends, the pull apart evolution on the western flank

  17. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  18. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  19. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring alternatives. The purpose of this monograph is to examine historical and...Planning and Orders Production, introduces red team principles into the army problem solving method.14 Additionally, TRADOC staffed and funded the...organization, incorporating alternative perspectives in an attempt to eliminate cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring

  20. The red-blue conundrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Mikkel Johansen

    2017-01-01

    Plants from the Rubiaceae family (Rubia, Galium, and Asperula) are often grouped together as madder because they have been used for dyeing red since at least the Bronze Age. The English plant name madder can be traced through the Germanic language all the way back to Proto-Indo-European (PIE), as...

  1. 76 FR 28210 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties will meet...: Julia Faith Rivera, RAC Program Manager, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee, Apache...

  2. 76 FR 41755 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties Resource... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Julia Faith Rivera, RAC Program Manager, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource...

  3. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  4. Babesia microti infection, eastern Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Marcela E Perez; Ender, Peter T; Smith, Erin M; Jahre, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Babesia microti has not been well-described in eastern Pennsylvania, USA, despite the vector of this organism being prevalent. We report 3 cases of babesiosis in eastern Pennsylvania in persons without recent travel outside the region or history of blood transfusions, suggesting emergence of this infection.

  5. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual journal published by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa (OSSREA). Since the publication of its maiden ... Emerging regions in Ethiopia: are they catching up with the rest of Ethiopia? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  6. tive conflict resolution mechanism in eastern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Ethiopia: The case of the Ittu ... The study was conducted in eastern Ethiopia where the Somali and ... Zigale Tamir Tenaw is assistant professor in the Department of Gender and Development ..... regional state in collaboration with the local people – aggravate the already ..... Resource Based Conflict Network,.

  7. Azimuthal and radial variations in sap flux density and effects on stand-scale transpiration estimates in a Japanese cedar forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Yoshinori; Tsuruta, Kenji; Ogura, Akira; Noto, Fumikazu; Komatsu, Hikaru; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    2013-05-01

    Understanding radial and azimuthal variation, and tree-to-tree variation, in sap flux density (Fd) as sources of uncertainty is important for estimating transpiration using sap flow techniques. In a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) forest, Fd was measured at several depths and aspects for 18 trees, using heat dissipation (Granier-type) sensors. We observed considerable azimuthal variation in Fd. The coefficient of variation (CV) calculated from Fd at a depth of 0-20 mm (Fd1) and Fd at a depth of 20-40 mm (Fd2) ranged from 6.7 to 37.6% (mean = 28.3%) and from 19.6 to 62.5% (mean = 34.6%) for the -azimuthal directions. Fd at the north aspect averaged for nine trees, for which azimuthal measurements were made, was -obviously smaller than Fd at the other three aspects (i.e., west, south and east) averaged for the nine trees. Fd1 averaged for the nine trees was significantly larger than Fd2 averaged for the nine trees. The error for stand-scale transpiration (E) estimates caused by ignoring the azimuthal variation was larger than that caused by ignoring the radial variation. The error caused by ignoring tree-to-tree variation was larger than that caused by ignoring both radial and azimuthal variations. Thus, tree-to-tree variation in Fd would be more important than both radial and azimuthal variations in Fd for E estimation. However, Fd for each tree should not be measured at a consistent aspect but should be measured at various aspects to make accurate E estimates and to avoid a risk of error caused by the relationship of Fd to aspect.

  8. Analytical approaches to the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak). Data are limited but nevertheless clearly establish the critical importance of sample preparation and pre-treatment in the analysis. For example, drying methods invariably reduce the recovery of biophenols and this is illustrated by data for birch leaves where flavonoid glycosides were determined as 12.3 +/- 0.44 mg g(-1) in fresh leaves but 9.7 +/- 0.35 mg g(-1) in air-dried samples (data expressed as dry weight). Diverse sample handling procedures have been employed for recovery of biophenols. The range of biophenols and diversity of sample types precludes general procedural recommendations. Caution is necessary in selecting appropriate procedures as the high reactivity of these compounds complicates their analysis. Moreover, our experience suggests that their reactivity is very dependent on the matrix. The actual measurement is less contentious and high performance separation methods particularly liquid chromatography dominate analyses whilst coupled techniques involving electrospray ionization are becoming routine particularly for qualitative applications. Quantitative data are still the exception and are summarized for representative species that dominate the forest canopy of various habitats. Reported concentrations for simple phenols range from trace level (<0.1 microg g(-1)) to in excess of 500 microg g(-1) depending on a range of factors. Plant tissue is one of these variables but various biotic and abiotic processes such as stress are also important considerations.

  9. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore

  10. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  11. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  12. Speciation and Mobility of Some Heavy Metals in the Coastal Sediments of Jeddah, Eastern Red Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, Mohamed A.; Basaham, Ali S.

    2004-01-01

    Total and potentially mobile fractions of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb were analyzed in 28 sediment samples collected from the coastal area of Jeddah. Sampling sites were selected from the coastal area of Jeddah. Sampling sites were selected to represent heavily sewage polluted areas and areas far from the effect of direct sewage dumping. Total concentrations reflected the degree of contamination and were particularly high in the confined environments. Concentrations in the mud fraction (<63um) were 3 to 6 times higher than that in the sand fraction. The repartition of elements between the exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable and residual fraction either as a constituent of the detrital material and/or trapped in the form of insoluble sulphides. Dominance of the exchangeable fraction characterized the speciation of Mn. Mobilization of Mn under reducing conditions and its readsorption on the particle surface is a probable explanation. Cu and Zn appear to have comparable distribution between the different fractions, however, Cu seems preferntially associated with the oxidizable fractions while reducing Zn was slightly more important than the other forms. Pb was particularly distributed between the oxidizable and the exchangeable fraction. Residual Pb participation was very low and sometimes totally absent. The interest behind the use of speciation schemes is that it permits the distinction between the fraction of the element that could be released into the water when the physico-chemical conditions are modified and the part that is permanently or quasi permanently fixed in the sediments. Most of the Fe was found held in the residual unavailable form while most of Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb were distributed between the environmentally unstable, exchangeable, oxidizable and reducible fractions. Therefore, these elements are supposed to have greater mobility and may, under particular conditions, greatly influence the environmental characteristics. (author)

  13. Book review: Behavioral ecology of the eastern red-backed salamander: 50 years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan; Mitchell, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the British Ecological Society, Sutherland et al. (2013) identified 100 questions of fundamental significance in “pure” (i.e., not applied) ecology. A somewhat unexpected outcome of these authors’ exercise was the realization that, after 100 years of comprehensive, intensive scientific research, there remained “profound knowledge

  14. 77 FR 51966 - Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee...

  15. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    Full Text Available This issue of Kronos is dedicated to Terry Flynn, assistant curator at the Ann Bryant Art Gallery, who was instrumental in the successful installing of 'Red Assembly' there in 2015. Friend, colleague, artist and inspiration. Hamba Kahle. The work that emerged from the encounter with Red, an art installation by Simon Gush and his collaborators, in the workshop 'Red Assembly', held in East London in August 2015, is assembled here in Kronos, the journal of southern African histories based at the University of the Western Cape, and previously in parallax, the cultural studies journal based at the University of Leeds published in May 2016. What is presented there and here is not simply more work, work that follows, or even additional works. Rather, it is the work that arises as a response to a question that structured our entire project: does Red, now also installed in these two journals, have the potential to call the discourse of history into question? This article responds to this question through several pairings: theft - gift; copy - rights; time - history; kronos - chronos. Here we identify a reversal in this installation of the gift into the commodity, and another with regard to conventional historical narratives which privilege the search for sources and origins. A difference between (the historian's search for origination and (the artist's originality becomes visible in a conversation between and over the historic and the artistic that does not simply try to rescue History by means of the work of art. It is in this sense that we invite the displacements, detours, and paths made possible through Simon Gush's Red, the 'Red Assembly' workshop and the work/gift of installation and parallaxing. To gesture beyond 'histories' is the provocation to which art is neither cause nor effect. Thinking with the work of art, that is, grasping thought in the working of art, has extended the sense of history's limit and the way the limit of history is

  16. Ozone modelling in Eastern Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.; Kromp-Kolb, H. [Univ. of Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Winiwater, W. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Baumann, R.; Spangl, W. [Federal Environmental Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    High ozone concentrations are frequently observed in Eastern Austria, often exceeding local as well as international health standards, both for short-term as well as for long-term exposures. The maximum concentrations are produced in urban plumes, e.g. of the city of Vienna, whereas regional-scale transport and production of ozone is more important for the long-term concentrations. The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) is an Austrian research initiative to model photochemical processes on a regional as well as on a local scale with a Lagrangian model to better understand the mechanisms leading to the high ozone concentrations and to develop abatement strategies. Up to now, focus has been on the regional scale. Aircraft, tethered balloon, tetroon and intensified ground measurements are carried out to validate the model. Although the major measurement campaign will be held in summer 1995, first results from a measurement campaign in summer 1994 are already available

  17. Physical Mechanisms Routing Nutrients in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zarokanellos, Nikolaos

    2017-10-06

    Mesoscale eddies and boundary currents play a key role in the upper layer circulation of the Red Sea. This study assesses the physical and biochemical characteristics of an eastern boundary current (EBC) and recurrent eddies in the central Red Sea (CRS) using a combination of in situ and satellite observations. Hydrographic surveys in November 2013 (autumn) and in April 2014 (spring) in the CRS (22.15 − 24.1°N) included a total of 39 and 27 CTD stations, respectively. In addition, high-resolution hydrographic data were acquired in spring 2014 with a towed undulating vehicle (ScanFish). In situ measurements of salinity, temperature, chlorophyll fluorescence, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and dissolved nitrate: phosphorous ratios reveal distinct water mass characteristics for the two periods. An EBC, observed in the upper 150 m of the water column during autumn, transported low-salinity and warm water from the south toward the CRS. Patches of the low-salinity water of southern origin tended to contain relatively high concentrations of chlorophyll and CDOM. The prominent dynamic feature observed in spring was a cyclonic/anticyclonic eddy pair. The cyclonic eddy was responsible for an upward nutrient flux into the euphotic zone. Higher chlorophyll and CDOM concentrations, and concomitant lower nitrate:phosphorous ratios indicate the influence of the EBC in the CRS at the end of the stratified summer period.

  18. Physical Mechanisms Routing Nutrients in the Central Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarokanellos, Nikolaos D.; Kürten, Benjamin; Churchill, James H.; Roder, Cornelia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Abualnaja, Yasser; Jones, Burton H.

    2017-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies and boundary currents play a key role in the upper layer circulation of the Red Sea. This study assesses the physical and biochemical characteristics of an eastern boundary current (EBC) and recurrent eddies in the central Red Sea (CRS) using a combination of in situ and satellite observations. Hydrographic surveys in November 2013 (autumn) and in April 2014 (spring) in the CRS (22.15°N-24.1°N) included a total of 39 and 27 CTD stations, respectively. In addition, high-resolution hydrographic data were acquired in spring 2014 with a towed undulating vehicle (ScanFish). In situ measurements of salinity, temperature, chlorophyll fluorescence, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and dissolved nitrate: phosphorous ratios reveal distinct water mass characteristics for the two periods. An EBC, observed in the upper 150 m of the water column during autumn, transported low-salinity and warm water from the south toward the CRS. Patches of the low-salinity water of southern origin tended to contain relatively high concentrations of chlorophyll and CDOM. The prominent dynamic feature observed in spring was a cyclonic/anticyclonic eddy pair. The cyclonic eddy was responsible for an upward nutrient flux into the euphotic zone. Higher chlorophyll and CDOM concentrations, and concomitant lower nitrate:phosphorous ratios indicate the influence of the EBC in the CRS at the end of the stratified summer period.

  19. Fish market surveys indicate unsustainable elasmobranch fisheries in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Elasmobranch populations worldwide are severely threatened due to overexploited and unregulated fisheries. Despite the fact that sharks and rays are captured in fisheries operating along the Red Sea coast of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), information on any aspects of these fisheries are very limited. Here we document the structure, composition and biological characteristics of eastern Red Sea elasmobranch fisheries based on genetic identification and market survey data over an intensive two-year sampling period at the biggest Red Sea fish market in the KSA (Jeddah). Market surveys conducted two times per month between 2011 and 2013 revealed that 24 previously confirmed elasmobranch species for the Red Sea were landed by fishers and offered for sale. Genetic identification revealed two potentially undescribed guitarfish species as well as four batoid species not formerly reported from the Red Sea. Five coastal carcharhinid species dominated the landings-. Carcharhinus sorrah, C. amblyrhynchos, C. falciformis, C. limbatus, Rhizoprionodon acutus, together comprising 73% numerically of the total catch. Targeted shark fisheries reportedly exist in shark nursery areas. Most elasmobranchs outside of these areas were reportedly landed as bycatch. Most strikingly, the large majority of landed elasmobranchs were immature males or females below their reported size of sexual maturity, which suggests potential for both growth and recruitment overfishing and emphasizes the urgent need to implement region-specific management and conservation strategies to avoid the loss of these critical predators.

  20. Red alder: a state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    In March 23-25, 2005, an international symposium on red alder was held at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, WA. The symposium was entitled "Red alder: A State of Knowledge" and brought together regional experts to critically examine the economic, ecological and social values of red alder. The primary goal of the symposium...

  1. Red and green fluorescence from oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Krom, B.P.; Janus, M.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis.

  2. Regional Hydrological Cycle over the Red Sea in ERA-Interim

    KAUST Repository

    Zolina, Olga

    2016-09-30

    The major sources of atmospheric moisture over the Red Sea are analyzed using ERA-Interim for the 1979-2013 period. The vertical structure of moisture transports across the coastlines has been computed separately for the western and eastern coasts of the Red Sea. The vertical structure of the moisture transport from the Red Sea to the continents is dominated by a breeze-like circulation in the near-surface layer and the Arabian high above 850 hPa. The lower-layer, breeze-like circulation is acting to export the moisture to the northwest of Africa and to the Arabian Peninsula and contributes about 80% of the moisture exports from the Red Sea, dominating over the transport in the upper layer, where the moisture is advected to the Arabian Peninsula in the northern part of the sea and to the African continent in the southern part. Integrated moisture divergence over the Red Sea decreased from the early 1980s to 1997 and then increased until the 2010s. Associated changes in the moisture export were provided primarily by the increasing intensity of the breeze-associated transports. The transports above the boundary layer, while being strong across the western and the eastern coasts, have a smaller effect on the net moisture export. The interannual variability of the moisture export in the near-surface layer was found to be closely correlated with the variability in sea surface temperature, especially in summer. Implications of the observed changes in the moisture advection for the hydrological cycle of the Middle East are discussed.

  3. Atmospheric Forcing of the Winter Air–Sea Heat Fluxes over the Northern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.; Abualnaja, Yasser; Josey, Simon A.; Bower, Amy; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Kontoyiannis, Harilaos; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the atmospheric circulation on the winter air–sea heat fluxes over the northern Red Sea is investigated during the period 1985–2011. The analysis based on daily heat flux values reveals that most of the net surface heat exchange variability depends on the behavior of the turbulent components of the surface flux (the sum of the latent and sensible heat). The large-scale composite sea level pressure (SLP) maps corresponding to turbulent flux minima and maxima show distinct atmospheric circulation patterns associated with each case. In general, extreme heat loss (with turbulent flux lower than −400 W m−2) over the northern Red Sea is observed when anticyclonic conditions prevail over an area extending from the Mediterranean Sea to eastern Asia along with a recession of the equatorial African lows system. Subcenters of high pressure associated with this pattern generate the required steep SLP gradient that enhances the wind magnitude and transfers cold and dry air masses from higher latitudes. Conversely, turbulent flux maxima (heat loss minimization with values from −100 to −50 W m−2) are associated with prevailing low pressures over the eastern Mediterranean and an extended equatorial African low that reaches the southern part of the Red Sea. In this case, a smooth SLP field over the northern Red Sea results in weak winds over the area that in turn reduce the surface heat loss. At the same time, southerlies blowing along the main axis of the Red Sea transfer warm and humid air northward, favoring heat flux maxima.

  4. Regional Hydrological Cycle over the Red Sea in ERA-Interim

    KAUST Repository

    Zolina, Olga; Dufour, Ambroise; Gulev, Sergey K.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2016-01-01

    The major sources of atmospheric moisture over the Red Sea are analyzed using ERA-Interim for the 1979-2013 period. The vertical structure of moisture transports across the coastlines has been computed separately for the western and eastern coasts of the Red Sea. The vertical structure of the moisture transport from the Red Sea to the continents is dominated by a breeze-like circulation in the near-surface layer and the Arabian high above 850 hPa. The lower-layer, breeze-like circulation is acting to export the moisture to the northwest of Africa and to the Arabian Peninsula and contributes about 80% of the moisture exports from the Red Sea, dominating over the transport in the upper layer, where the moisture is advected to the Arabian Peninsula in the northern part of the sea and to the African continent in the southern part. Integrated moisture divergence over the Red Sea decreased from the early 1980s to 1997 and then increased until the 2010s. Associated changes in the moisture export were provided primarily by the increasing intensity of the breeze-associated transports. The transports above the boundary layer, while being strong across the western and the eastern coasts, have a smaller effect on the net moisture export. The interannual variability of the moisture export in the near-surface layer was found to be closely correlated with the variability in sea surface temperature, especially in summer. Implications of the observed changes in the moisture advection for the hydrological cycle of the Middle East are discussed.

  5. Atmospheric Forcing of the Winter Air–Sea Heat Fluxes over the Northern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.

    2013-03-01

    The influence of the atmospheric circulation on the winter air–sea heat fluxes over the northern Red Sea is investigated during the period 1985–2011. The analysis based on daily heat flux values reveals that most of the net surface heat exchange variability depends on the behavior of the turbulent components of the surface flux (the sum of the latent and sensible heat). The large-scale composite sea level pressure (SLP) maps corresponding to turbulent flux minima and maxima show distinct atmospheric circulation patterns associated with each case. In general, extreme heat loss (with turbulent flux lower than −400 W m−2) over the northern Red Sea is observed when anticyclonic conditions prevail over an area extending from the Mediterranean Sea to eastern Asia along with a recession of the equatorial African lows system. Subcenters of high pressure associated with this pattern generate the required steep SLP gradient that enhances the wind magnitude and transfers cold and dry air masses from higher latitudes. Conversely, turbulent flux maxima (heat loss minimization with values from −100 to −50 W m−2) are associated with prevailing low pressures over the eastern Mediterranean and an extended equatorial African low that reaches the southern part of the Red Sea. In this case, a smooth SLP field over the northern Red Sea results in weak winds over the area that in turn reduce the surface heat loss. At the same time, southerlies blowing along the main axis of the Red Sea transfer warm and humid air northward, favoring heat flux maxima.

  6. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets.......AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  7. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  8. Resveratrol: Chemoprevention with red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Arısan, Elif Damla; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2007-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, western diet has disadvantages because of cancer prevalence more than Mediterranean or Asia people who consume more vegetables and fruits. Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) which is highly found in grapes, berries has received attention for its potential chemopreventive and antitumor effects in experimental systems. Because of high resveratrol content, researchers noted that red wine has multidimensional benefits for ...

  9. Saurida lessepsianus a new species of lizardfish (Pisces: Synodontidae) from the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea, with a key to Saurida species in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Barry C; Golani, Daniel; Tikochinski, Yaron

    2015-05-12

    Saurida lessepsianus n. sp., a lizardfish (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) from the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea, previously misidentified as S. undosquamis (Richardson) and more recently as S. macrolepis Tanaka, is described as a new species. It is characterised by the following combination of characters: dorsal fin with 11-12 rays; pectoral fins with 13-15 rays; lateral-line scales 47-51; transverse scale rows above lateral line 4½, below lateral line 5½; pectoral fins moderately long (extending to between just before or just beyond a line from origin of pelvic fins to origin of dorsal fin); 2 rows of teeth on outer palatines; 0-2 teeth on vomer; tongue with 3-6 rows of teeth posteriorly; caudal peduncle slightly compressed (depth a little more than width); upper margin of caudal fin with row of 3-8 (usually 6 or 7) small black spots; stomach pale grey to blackish anteriorly; intestine whitish. The species is common in the Red Sea and as a result of Lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal, it is now widely distributed in the eastern Mediterranean. The taxonomic status of two other Red Sea nominal species, Saurus badimottah Rüppell [= Saurida tumbil (Bloch)] and Saurida sinaitica Dollfus in Gruvel (a nomen nudum), is clarified. A key is provided for the species of Saurida in the Red Sea.

  10. Red king crab’s bycatch in demersal fishing in the South-Eeastern part of the Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stes Aleksej Vladimirovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the data of the red king crab by-catch in demersal fishing in the South-Eastern part of the Barents Sea, including those in the areas forbidden to trawling are presented. The impact of the catch of demersal fish on the distribution of the king crab is analyzed. It was shown that intensive fishing contributes to the growth of crabs’ density, possibly, they are attracted by the wastes of fish factories.

  11. Ferns and flowering plants of Klaserie Private Nature Reserve, eastern Transvaal: an annotated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zambatis

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available An annotated checklist of the plant taxa of the Klaserie Private Nature Reserve, eastern Transvaal Lowveld, is presented. Of the 618 infrageneric taxa recorded, six are pteridophytes and the remainder angiosperms. Of these, 161 are monocotyledons and 451 dicotyledons. Five of the latter are currently listed in the Red Data List of the Transvaal, two of which are first records for the Transvaal Lowveld. The vegetation of the reserve shows strong affinities with the Savanna Biome, and to a lesser degree, with the Grassland Biome.

  12. Mesquite Risk Mapping and Assessment in Tokar Delta-Eastern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Suliman, Mahgoub; NAWATA, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Buho; Karamalla, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    Tokar Delta is a name given to a small delta of approximately 161,000 hectares situated in the southern area of the Red Sea in Eastern Sudan. Beginning of 1980, mesquite species (Prosopis chilensis & Prosopis juliflora) were introduced to Tokar area to be planted as a shelterbelt for the city Tokar, but after while; it spread out to the delta area and became an invasive plant to the agricultural lands and along Khor Barak banks. Nowadays mesquite covers more than half of the delta area, decre...

  13. Riparian Vegetation, Natural Succession, and the Challenge of Maintaining Bare Sandbar Nesting Habitat for Least Terns and Piping Plovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    and eastern red cedar will become established through avian-dispersed seed. As soon as shrubs/ trees reach a height where they serve as perches for...effects of such disposal may be negligible compared to the annual load of allocthonous material provided to rivers by deciduous trees . If complete...Fowells, H.A. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agricultural Handbook No. 271. Washington , DC: U.S. Dept. Agriculture. Friedman

  14. Location and Description of Transects for Ecological Studies in Floodplain Forests of the Lower Suwannee River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Level Datum of 1929. Horizontal datum: In this report, horizontal coordinate information is referenced to the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27...ileopa Ilex opaca Ait. var. opaca American holly junsil Juniperus silicicola (Small) Bailey 1 southern red cedar liqsty Liquidambar styraciflua L...swamp gum nyssyl Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.1 blackgum ostvir Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch eastern hophornbeam perpal Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg

  15. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P foxes than hens of late nesting species. Predation rate indices were expanded to estimate total numbers of ducks taken by fox families during the denning season. Estimated numbers of dabbling ducks taken annually by individual fox families in 2 physiographic regions comprising the intensive study area ranged from 16.1 to 65.9. Predation was highest during wet years and lowest during dry years and averaged lower, but was more variable, in the region where tillage was greatest and wetland water levels were least stable. Predation in the intensive study area averaged 2.97 adult dabbling ducks/ km2/year and represented an estimated average annual loss of 13.5% of hen and 4.5% of drake

  16. The gravity field of the Red Sea and East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Jannis; Henke, Christian H.; Egloff, Frank; Akamaluk, Thomas

    1991-11-01

    terminates abruptly at about 20 km off the coastline, followed by an oceanic crust of early Miocene age that was produced in pull-apart basins. By contrast, the eastern side of the Red Sea trough offshore Saudi Arabia is floored by stretched continental crust that extends far into the sea. Seafloor spreading and the generation of oceanic crust in organized spreading centres are limited to the median troughs off Sudan and the northern part of Ethiopia and commenced approx. 5 m.y. BP. They are absent in the northern Red Sea, where crustal fracturing occurs only in pull-apart basins of Dead Sea-Aqaba orientation distributed in en-echelon pattern.

  17. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  18. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  19. Calculation of temperature distribution and rheological properties of the lithosphere along geotransect in the Red Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dérerová, Jana; Kohút, Igor; Radwan, Anwar H.; Bielik, Miroslav

    2017-12-01

    The temperature model of the lithosphere along profile passing through the Red Sea region has been derived using 2D integrated geophysical modelling method. Using the extrapolation of failure criteria, lithology and calculated temperature distribution, we have constructed the rheological model of the lithosphere in the area. We have calculated the strength distribution in the lithosphere and constructed the strength envelopes for both compressional and extensional regimes. The obtained results indicate that the strength steadily decreases from the Western desert through the Eastern desert towards the Red Sea where it reaches its minimum for both compressional and extensional regime. Maximum strength can be observed in the Western desert where the largest strength reaches values of about 250-300 MPa within the upper crust on the boundary between upper and lower crust. In the Eastern desert we observe slightly decreased strength with max values about 200-250 MPa within upper crust within 15 km with compression being dominant. These results suggest mostly rigid deformation in the region or Western and Eastern desert. In the Red Sea, the strength rapidly decreases to its minimum suggesting ductile processes as a result of higher temperatures.

  20. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  1. A new species of squat lobster of the genus Munida (Galatheoidea, Munididae) from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Macpherson, E.

    2017-08-30

    During a deep-water expedition to the Red Sea in 2013, an unusual specimen of squat lobster belonging to the genus Munida was collected off Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, at a depth of 320 m. This specimen is unique in having the pterygostomial flap visible from the dorsal side, the feature linking it to two eastern Pacific species, M. bapensis Hendrickx, 2000 and M. macrobrachia Hendrickx, 2003. The new species (M. tuerkayi) is readily distinguished from the eastern Pacific species by having the gastric region with numerous instead of less numerous spines, by having sternite 7 with three distinct carinae on each side, and by having the antennular basal article with two distal spines subequal instead of different in size. Munida tuerkayi was found associated with live colonies of the scleractinian coral Eguchipsammia fistula (Alcock, 1902).

  2. Tree Nonstructural Carbohydrate Reserves Across Eastern US Temperate Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, J.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the roles, importance, and dynamics of tree non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) is currently an active area of research. The question of how the relationships between NSCs, growth, and mortality can be used to develop more accurate projections of forest dynamics is central to this research. To begin to address this question, we have asked an even more fundamental question: How much are trees allocating carbon to storage, in the form of NSCs, versus new growth? Ecological theory predicts that there should be trade-offs between different plant life history strategies provided that there are the carbon mass-balance constraints to enforce these trade-offs. Current data on tree NSCs lack the spatial and taxonomic extent required to properly address this question. Therefore, we established a network of forest inventory plots at ten sites across the eastern US and measured growth in adult trees using increment cores and repeat measures of diameter at breast height (DBH). Increment cores were also used to measure sapwood NSCs. We hypothesized that across the eastern US, shade tolerant species, e.g. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) have the largest NSC reserves and that shade intolerant species have the lowest reserves. We also hypothesized that NSC reserves increase with temperature and precipitation, as with growth, and that within species NSC reserves increase with growth rate. Initial analyses of tree NSCs indicates that trees of intermediate shade tolerance, e.g. Red Oak (Quercus rubra) have the highest concentrations of sapwood NSCs, and among the highest growth rates. Across the entire study region, NSC concentrations are positively correlated with tree size and growth rate. Within species, NSC concentrations are also positively correlated with growth rate. Across functional groups healthy individuals have significantly higher sapwood NSC concentrations than visibly stressed individuals. There are also significantly lower NSC concentrations in sapwood of

  3. 78 FR 43874 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-514-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On July 2, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern) filed... natural gas facilities no longer in service. As described more fully in the Application, Texas Eastern...

  4. 76 FR 7833 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 25, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above... TEAM 2012 Project. Specifically, Texas Eastern requests: (i) Authorization under NGA sections 7(b) and...

  5. Transcultural Memory in Eastern European Migrant Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortner, Jessica

    of the major processes that circulate memories across cultural and national borderlines. This paper will investigate the circulation of memories in Eastern Europe migrant-literature that since 2000 has become an increasingly influential literary tendency in Germany. Articulating an eastern perspective...... consciously follow the mission to “enlighten and inform Western readers about their eastern neighbours” (Haines 2008). Causing an “eastern enlargement” of German literature (Bürger-Koftis 2008), the wave of migrant authors broadens Germany’s cultural memory by supplementing it with “new” memories. Furthermore......The “transcultural turn” of memory studies focuses on the fluid and dynamic aspects of cultural memory. This paper is concerned with the traveling of memories along the paths of migration. As migrants carry along “collective images and narratives of the past” (Erll 2011), migration is one...

  6. Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogubazghi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Member countries of the Eastern and Southern Africa Seismologica Working Group are listed. The presentation also gives the objectives, activities, date of birth and sponsors of the said ESARSWG. Areas of possible cooperation with CTBTO are indicated

  7. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  8. Eastern countries - WIN activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela

    1998-01-01

    Women can play this important role in informing people about nuclear energy. WIN is a world-wide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application who want to devote their time to public information. The main goal of the WIN is to establish an objective and effective communication with the public through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. The membership includes women working in medicine and health care, in regulatory authorities, in industry and as independent researches at Universities. They want to contribute to objectively informing the public by making presentation, discussing and giving information materials on subjects such as; radiation, radioactivity and health effects medical applications nuclear energy nuclear power plants and their safety nuclear and environment uranium mining radiation protection energy sustainable development WIN is also open to men, supporting the goals of WIN. The intention of this paper was to underline the main aspects which reflect WIN activity in some Eastern and Central countries. There are common features and also specific elements for each country. But the goal is the same: to assure an effective and a real information of the public related to the nuclear field

  9. The Cedar Project: resilience in the face of HIV vulnerability within a cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use drugs in three Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Margo E; Jongbloed, Kate A; Richardson, Chris G; Henderson, Earl W; Pooyak, Sherri D; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Christian, Wunuxtsin M; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2015-10-29

    Indigenous scholars have long argued that it is critical for researchers to identify factors related to cultural connectedness that may protect against HIV and hepatitis C infection and buffer the effects of historical and lifetime trauma among young Indigenous peoples. To our knowledge, no previous epidemiological studies have explored the effect of historical and lifetime traumas, cultural connectedness, and risk factors on resilience among young, urban Indigenous people who use drugs. This study explored risk and protective factors associated with resilience among participants of the Cedar Project, a cohort study involving young Indigenous peoples who use illicit drugs in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. We utilized the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale to measure resilience, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to measure childhood maltreatment, and the Symptom-Checklist 90-Revised to measure psychological distress among study participants. Multivariate linear mixed effects models (LME) estimated the effect of study variables on mean change in resilience scores between 2011-2012. Among 191 participants, 92 % had experienced any form of childhood maltreatment, 48 % had a parent who attended residential school, and 71 % had been in foster care. The overall mean resilience score was 62.04, with no differences between the young men and women (p = 0.871). Adjusted factors associated with higher mean resilience scores included having grown up in a family that often/always lived by traditional culture (B = 7.70, p = 0.004) and had often/always spoken their traditional language at home (B = 10.52, p resilience scores. Adjusted factors associated with diminished mean resilience scores included severe childhood emotional neglect (B = -13.34, p = 0.001), smoking crack daily (B = -5.42, p = 0.044), having been sexual assaulted (B =  14.42, p = 0.041), and blackout drinking (B = -6.19, p = 0.027). Young people in this study have faced multiple complex challenges to

  10. Reference Range of Functional Data of Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT by Quantitative Gated SPECT of Cedars-Sinai and 4D-MSPECT of Michigan University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Various programs have been developed for gating of myocardial perfusion SPECT. Among the those program, the most popular program is the Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS)? developed by Cedars-Sinai hospital and most recently released program is 4D-MSPECT? developed by university of Michigan. It is important to know the reference range of the functional data of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT because it is necessary to determine abnormality of individual patient and echocardiographic data is different from those of gated SPECT. Tc-99m MIBI gated myocardial perfusion SPECT image was reconstructed by dual head gamma camera (Siemens, BCAM, esoft) as routine procedure and analyzed using QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? program. All patients (M: F=9: 18, Age 69{+-}9 yrs) showed normal myocardial perfusion. The patients with following characteristics were excluded: previous angina or MI history, ECG change with Q wave or ST-T change, diabetes melitius, hypercholesterolemia, typical chest pain, hypertension and cardiomyopathy. Pre-test likelihood of all patients was low. (1) In stress gated SPECT by QGS?, EDV was 73{+-}25 ml, ESV 25{+-}14 ml, EF 67{+-}11 % and area of first frame of gating 106.4{+-}21cm{sup 2}. In rest gated SPECT, EDV was 76{+-}26 ml, ESV 27{+-}15 ml, EF 66{+-}12 and area of first frame of gating 108{+-}20cm{sup 2}. (2) In stress gated SPECT by 4D-MSPECT?, EDV was 76{+-}28 ml, ESV 23{+-}16 ml, EF 72{+-}11 %, mass 115{+-}24 g and ungated volume 42{+-}15 ml. In rest gated SPECT, EDV was 75{+-}27 ml, ESV 23{+-}12 ml, EF 71{+-}9%, mass 113{+-}25g and ungate dvolume 42{+-}15 ml, (3) s-EDV, s-EF, r-ESV and r-EF were significantly different between QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? (each p=0.016, p<0.001. p=0.003 and p=0.001). We determined the normal reference range of functional parameters by QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? program to diagnose individually the abnormality of patients. And the reference ranges have to adopted to be patients by each specific gating program.

  11. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.

  12. Red giants: then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  13. The energy question in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    In a first part, this book describes the energetic schemes, energy consumption and centralized economy in Eastern Europe countries. In the second part, the relationships between energy supply and macro-economic disequilibria in USSR is studied: Petroleum and power generation are chosen as example. In the third part, the book shows the energetic stakes in Central and Eastern Europe: the end of the exchange model (imports, exports) and the energetic schemes facing economical reforms

  14. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Buffalo weavers Bubalornis in eastern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    further commented that a very confusing feature was that despite its original name “albirostris” the bill of intermedius may be any colour from black to white, coral-red, crimson or yellow-brown. In the lower Omo River region of southern Ethiopia, both white-billed and red- billed birds are reported to occur together but whether ...

  16. Iridotomy with red krypton laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassur, Y; David, R; Rosenblatt, I; Marmour, U

    1986-01-01

    Iridotomy with red krypton laser instead of blue-green argon laser was performed on 68 eyes with various types of angle-closure glaucoma. Patent iridotomy was obtained in all the eyes, mostly in one working session. In eight eyes secondary closure by pigment needed reopening with a few applications at the iridotomy site. There were no immediate or late complications of importance, the main advantage of the technique being the avoidance of the corneal epithelial and endothelial burns which commonly occur during argon laser iridotomy, particularly when the anterior chamber is shallow. PMID:3964628

  17. 75 FR 68397 - DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-DeQueen and Eastern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Eastern Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--DeQueen and Eastern Railroad Company DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC (DQE), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from DeQueen and Eastern Railroad Company and to operate approximately 47 miles of...

  18. Red is Romantic, but Only for Feminine Females: Sexual Dimorphism Moderates Red Effect on Sexual Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  19. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  20. Initiation of a comparative metagenomic study of the Red Sea and Pacific Ocean marine microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-03-26

    The marine microbiome is a fundamental component of the biosphere. Its bacteria are abundant and play critical roles within the ocean environment. The majority of this important group of bacteria are genetically uncharacterized. Relatively few species have been studied in the laboratory. However, by applying metagenomic analyses to marine microbial populations, genomic ‘snapshots’ may be taken and from appropriate time series experiments their dynamics established. As a key component of the CBRC Centre Research Program (2014-2020), we are initiating a comparative study of the Red Sea and North Eastern Japanese coast and bay complexes. These environments differ in physical characteristics significantly. The Red Sea exhibits consistently high salinity, temperature and insolation characteristics, whereas the Japanese waters are less saline, cooler and receive lower insolation. Here, we present initial data and analytical pipelines for Phase 1 of our collaborative research program.

  1. Initiation of a comparative metagenomic study of the Red Sea and Pacific Ocean marine microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Gojobori, Takashi; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Alam, Intikhab; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Watabe, Shugo; Ikeo, Kazuho; Mori, Takahisa; Archer, John A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The marine microbiome is a fundamental component of the biosphere. Its bacteria are abundant and play critical roles within the ocean environment. The majority of this important group of bacteria are genetically uncharacterized. Relatively few species have been studied in the laboratory. However, by applying metagenomic analyses to marine microbial populations, genomic ‘snapshots’ may be taken and from appropriate time series experiments their dynamics established. As a key component of the CBRC Centre Research Program (2014-2020), we are initiating a comparative study of the Red Sea and North Eastern Japanese coast and bay complexes. These environments differ in physical characteristics significantly. The Red Sea exhibits consistently high salinity, temperature and insolation characteristics, whereas the Japanese waters are less saline, cooler and receive lower insolation. Here, we present initial data and analytical pipelines for Phase 1 of our collaborative research program.

  2. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  3. The major tectonic boundaries of the Northern Red Sea rift, Egypt derived from geophysical data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salah; Pamukçu, Oya; Brimich, Ladislav

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we have attempted to map the plate boundary between Arabia and Africa at the Northern Red Sea rift region including the Suez rift, Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform and southeastern Mediterranean region by using gravity data analysis. In the boundary analysis method which was used; low-pass filtered gravity anomalies of the Northern Red Sea rift region were computed. Different crustal types and thicknesses, sediment thicknesses and different heat flow anomalies were evaluated. According to the results, there are six subzones (crustal blocks) separated from each other by tectonic plate boundaries and/or lineaments. It seems that these tectonic boundaries reveal complex structural lineaments, which are mostly influenced by a predominant set of NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending lineaments bordering the Red Sea and Suez rift regions. On the other side, the E-W and N-S to NNE-SSW trended lineaments bordering the South-eastern Mediterranean, Northern Sinai and Aqaba-Dead Sea transform regions, respectively. The analysis of the low pass filtered Bouguer anomaly maps reveals that the positive regional anomaly over both the Red Sea rift and South-eastern Mediterranean basin subzones are considered to be caused by the high density of the oceanic crust and/or the anomalous upper mantle structures beneath these regions whereas, the broad medium anomalies along the western half of Central Sinai with the Suez rift and the Eastern Desert subzones are attributed to low-density sediments of the Suez rift and/or the thick upper continental crustal thickness below these zones. There are observable negative anomalies over the Northern Arabia subzone, particularly in the areas covered by Cenozoic volcanics. These negative anomalies may be attributed to both the low densities of the surface volcanics and/or to a very thick upper continental crust. On the contrary, the negative anomaly which belongs to the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform zone is due to crustal thickening

  4. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  5. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  6. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  7. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  8. Monsoon-driven variability in the southern Red Sea and the exchange with the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofianos, S. S.; Papadopoulos, V. P.; Abualnaja, Y.; Nenes, A.; Hoteit, I.

    2016-02-01

    Although progress has been achieved in describing and understanding the mean state and seasonal cycle of the Red Sea dynamics, their interannual variability is not yet well evaluated and explained. The thermohaline characteristics and the circulation patterns present strong variability at various time scales and are affected by the strong and variable atmospheric forcing and the exchange with the Indian Ocean and the gulfs located at the northern end of the basin. Sea surface temperature time-series, derived from satellite observations, show considerable trends and interannual variations. The spatial variability pattern is very diverse, especially in the north-south direction. The southern part of the Red Sea is significantly influenced by the Indian Monsoon variability that affects the sea surface temperature through the surface fluxes and the circulation patterns. This variability has also a strong impact on the lateral fluxes and the exchange with the Indian Ocean through the strait of Bab el Mandeb. During summer, there is a reversal of the surface flow and an intermediate intrusion of a relatively cold and fresh water mass. This water originates from the Gulf of Aden (the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water - GAIW), is identified in the southern part of the basin and spreads northward along the eastern Red Sea boundary to approximately 24°N and carried across the Red Sea by basin-size eddies. The GAIW intrusion plays an important role in the heat and freshwater budget of the southern Red Sea, especially in summer, impacting the thermohaline characteristics of the region. It is a permanent feature of the summer exchange flow but it exhibits significant variation from year to year. The intrusion is controlled by a monsoon-driven pressure gradient in the two ends of the strait and thus monsoon interannual variability can laterally impose its signal to the southern Red Sea thermohaline patterns.

  9. Red Orange: Experimental Models and Epidemiological Evidence of Its Benefits on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy, California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  10. Red orange: experimental models and epidemiological evidence of its benefits on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Nolfo, Francesca; Calabrese, Giorgio; Buscemi, Silvio; Drago, Filippo; Veronesi, Umberto; Scuderi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood) orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy), California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins) are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  11. IAEA/WHO postal dose audits for radiotherapy hospitals in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Vatnitsky, S.; Shortt, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA/WHO TLD programme has been in operation for 34 years. In this period the calibration of approximately 5200 high-energy photon beams in over 1300 radiotherapy hospitals in 115 countries worldwide was checked. Of these, 18% of the audits were performed in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. There are large contrasts in the region; while the results are very good for most countries, a few countries struggle with basic problems in dosimetry. The hospitals operating radiotherapy services without qualified medical physicists or dosimetry equipment have poorer results than those properly equipped and staffed. Only about 2/3 of TLD audit participants in Eastern Europe have the appropriate dosimetry equipment. To achieve consistency of the audit results within Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, strengthening of radiotherapy infrastructure in a few countries would be necessary. (authors)

  12. Environmental contamination in the K eban Mining District, Eastern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolucek, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present research is focused on the contribution of base-metal mining to heavy metal contamination of the environment. Mining wastes and unworked ore-mineral concentrations present in the Keban region (eastern Turkey) are the main sources of environmental contamination in the area via leaching of the potentially toxic elements. Total-element concentrations of several different sampling media, such as sediment, waters and plants were measured. Analyses of metal and metalloid concentrations of sediment samples indicate high As, F, Mo and Zn contents, which decrease exponentially with distance from the mine and mineralized zones, mainly due to dilution by water and barren material. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ta in the water samples are higher than the average natural background values for these heavy metals. The most significant components of water samples under study are (>1 mg/1) Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn and S and (1 mg/1) Ba, Fe and Mo; these samples are also enriched in some toxic elements such as As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Sb. Red algae have a higher capacity for absorption of Cr, Cu, Mn,Ni, Pb and S, whereas green algae are enriched in Co, Hg, La, Se and V. However, the highest heavy-metal and toxic element contents are found in moss collected at the mine adit. (author)

  13. Portunoid crabs as indicators of the Red Sea fauna history and endemism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, Vassily; Türkay, Michael; Brösing, Andreas; Al-Aidaroos, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Peculiar environmental conditions and "turbulent" geological history make the Red Sea a laboratory of evolution and a significant area for understanding adaptation processes. To interpret the results of this basin-scale evolutionary experiment revised inventories of taxonomic diversity of particular groups of marine biota are essential. As one of the first results of the Red Sea Biodiversity Survey (RSBS) in the years 2011 - 2012 along the coast of Saudi Arabia (http://www.redseabiodiversity.org/) and examination of earlier collections and literature a revised species list is provided for the portunoid (swimming) crabs (Crustacea Decapoda Portunoidea). This superfamily is one of the most species rich and has one of the broadest habitat scopes among Brachyura in the global scale. The present assessment results in 54 shallow water species (including 2 recorded for the first time in the Red Sea during RSBS), 2 deep water species and 1 semipelagic species Charybdis smithii. Doubtful literature records of another 7 shallow water species remain unconfirmed. Among reliably recorded shallow water species 58 % belong to widespread Indo-West-Pacific (IWP) species, 13% are the species restricted to the western Indian Ocean, 11 % are endemics of the Arabian region (occurring also either in the western Gulf of Aden or along the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, or in both areas) which are usually vicariant to the widespread IWP species, 11% are taxa that are similar to the species occurring elsewhere in the IWP but have morphological peculiarities and probably deserve a specific or subspecific status. Finally 4% of species (Thalamita murinae and Liocarcinus subcorrugatus) appear to be endemic for the Red Sea and show remarkable disjunctions from most closely related species. Carcinus sp. (probably C. aestuarii) is an introduced (but not established) species in the northern Red Sea. The deep water fauna of the Red Sea is unique because it lives in the warm (20.5-21.5 ° C

  14. Experience in implementing projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichard, A.; Bauer, I.; Rieck, R.; Ziehm, R.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers the present projects and activities in Eastern Europe of Nukem Technologies GmbH. The company's East European business began in 1973 in the field of uranium trading. After difficult negotiations in the period of the ''cold war'' it became possible to enter into an agreement with the Soviet foreign trade organization, Techsnabexport, about purchases of uranium for Western nuclear power plants. In the course of Nukem's realignment in the late 1980s, the focus was shifted more and more to the possibility of exporting into other countries the technologies developed and proven in Germany. This included countries in Eastern Europe. The situation changed abruptly with the political opening of Eastern Europe. A large potential market opened to Nukem as a supplier of technologies and plants for waste treatment and, later, the wider area of decommissioning. The partners in Eastern Europe were interested in proven, modern solutions. The ensuing success was also due to the fact that Nukem, in the early nineties, hired specialists from the new German federal states who had studied in the Soviet Union and were familiar with Russian technology, language, and culture. Soliciting analogous projects in the countries of Eastern Europe other than the former Soviet Union was begun in a parallel process. Very soon it turned out that also the interim storage of spent fuel elements constituted a potential market. (orig.)

  15. Towards an Excursion Flora for Austria and all the Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred A. Fischer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This is on the one hand an announcement of the two-volume Fourth Edition of the Excursion Flora for Austria expanded by also including the remaining parts of the Eastern Alps (chapter 1, and on the other hand a rough survey of the flora of the Eastern Alps in connection with the main vegetation types (chapter 2. The geographical scope includes, besides Austria, the entire Eastern Alps from the Rhine valley in E Switzerland (Grisons to the Vipava valley in SW Slovenia. Volume 1 mainly contains comprehensive introductory chapters like introductions to plant morphology, taxonomy, and nomenclature, as well as a sketch of ecomorphology and habitat ecology, a survey of vegetation types (phytosociology and floristic peculiarities of the different natural regions, a rough history of floristic research, a detailed glossary including the meaning of epithets, etc., and drawings of several plant species characteristic of the flora covered. The structure of the keys concentrated in volume 2 is explained: besides the descriptive traits, they include for each taxon comprehensive ecological and plant geographical data, as well as information about Red Lists of the countries involved, plant uses, and taxonomical problems. Genus names are given not only in German, but also in the Romansh (Rumantsch Grischun, Italian, and Slovenian languages. In chapter 2, some important chorotypes including endemics are characterised, and an overview of floristic diversity (lists of exemplary taxa in accordance with the main and most characteristic vegetation types is presented.

  16. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  17. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related

  18. When red means go : non-normative effects of red under sensation seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, R.; Demmers, J.; van Dolen, W.M.; Weinberg, C.B.

    Although previous research has identified red as the color of compliance, the current work proposes that this effect of red may not hold under high sensation-seeking propensity conditions. It is argued that the color red has the capability to induce arousal, which in turn has been shown to enhance a

  19. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  20. Bold colors in a cryptic lineage: do Eastern Indigo Snakes exhibit color dimorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M; Guyer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences.