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Sample records for eastern pacific ocean

  1. Oceanic upwelling and productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, P.C.; Philbrick, V.; Chavez, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    An oceanographic survey of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean in August-November 1990 found a productive, nutrient-rich, moderately high-chlorophyll surface layer in two oceanic upwelling regions: the equatorial divergence, especially east of the Galapagos, and the countercurrent divergence out to 105 degree W, > 1,000 km west of the Costa Rica Dome. Although NO 3 is not depleted in upwelling regions, relationships among nutrient concentrations and temperature in 1986-1988 data from the same area show that NO 3 is the first macronutrient to be depleted in adjacent, less-productive regions. A three-dimensional, two-layer box model of NO 3 flux within and into the euphotic zone gives estimated rates of new production that are ∼29% of measured rates of 14 C phytoplankton production. Persistence of excess NO 3 in the euphotic zone exceeds 1 yr under high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll conditions off the equator where weak upwelling, or downwelling, occurs. These results indicate substantial control or limitation of NO 3 utilization and productivity in nutrient-rich oceanic regions of the eastern tropical Pacific

  2. Reflection of equatorial Kelvin waves at eastern ocean boundaries Part II: Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of viscosity, non linearities, incident wave period and realistic eastern coastline geometry on energy fluxes are investigated using a shallow water model with a spatial resolution of 1/4 degree in both meridional and zonal directions. Equatorial and mid-latitude responses are considered. It is found that (1 the influence of the coastline geometry and the incident wave period is more important for the westward energy flux than for the poleward flux, and (2 the effect of the inclination of the eastern ocean boundary on the poleward energy flux, for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, decline as the period of the incident wave increases. Furthermore, the model simulations suggest that the poleward energy fluxes from meridional boundaries give plausible results for motions of seasonal and annual periods. For comparatively shorter periods, a realistic coastline geometry has to be included for more accurate results. It is recommended that any numerical model involving the reflection of baroclinic Rossby waves (of intraseasonal, seasonal or annual periods on the eastern Pacific or Atlantic Oceans, should consider the effect of the coastline geometry in order to improve the accuracy of the results.Key words. Oceanography: general (climate and interannual variability; equatorial oceanography. Oceanography: physical (eastern boundary currents.

  3. Tropical Cyclone Exposure for U.S. waters within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin, 1900-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent modeled, historical exposure of U.S. offshore and coastal waters to tropical cyclone activity within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin. BOEM Outer...

  4. New Hexactinellid Sponge Chaunoplectella megapora sp. nov. (Lyssacinosida: Leucopsacidae) from Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Yuan; Lu, Bo; Wang, Dexiang

    2018-01-23

    The new Hexactinellid sponge Chaunoplectella megapora sp. nov. reported in this study was collected from the COMRA contract area, the western part of Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) in the eastern Pacific Ocean at a depth of 5258 m. This sponge's extraordinary multiporous body with the presence of unique codonhexasters, sigmatocomes, toothed discohexasters and hemidiscohexasters, as well as stellate disocohexasters, characterizes it as a new species in the genus Chaunoplectella. This report presents the first record of family Leucopsacidae at this site in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  5. Genetic species identification and population structure of Halophila (Hydrocharitaceae) from the Western Pacific to the Eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vy X; Detcharoen, Matsapume; Tuntiprapas, Piyalap; Soe-Htun, U; Sidik, Japar B; Harah, Muta Z; Prathep, Anchana; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-04-30

    The Indo-Pacific region has the largest number of seagrass species worldwide and this region is considered as the origin of the Hydrocharitaceae. Halophila ovalis and its closely-related species belonging to the Hydrocharitaceae are well-known as a complex taxonomic challenge mainly due to their high morphological plasticity. The relationship of genetic differentiation and geographic barriers of H. ovalis radiation was not much studied in this region. Are there misidentifications between H. ovalis and its closely related species? Does any taxonomic uncertainty among different populations of H. ovalis persist? Is there any genetic differentiation among populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean, which are separated by the Thai-Malay peninsula? Genetic markers can be used to characterize and identify individuals or species and will be used to answer these questions. Phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region based on materials collected from 17 populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed that some specimens identified as H. ovalis belonged to the H. major clade, also supported by morphological data. Evolutionary divergence between the two clades is between 0.033 and 0.038, much higher than the evolutionary divergence among H. ovalis populations. Eight haplotypes were found; none of the haplotypes from the Western Pacific is found in India and vice versa. Analysis of genetic diversity based on microsatellite analysis revealed that the genetic diversity in the Western Pacific is higher than in the Eastern Indian Ocean. The unrooted neighbor-joining tree among 14 populations from the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed six groups. The Mantel test results revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations. Results from band-based and allele frequency-based approaches from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed that all

  6. Siderophore-based microbial adaptations to iron scarcity across the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Rene M.; Mende, Daniel R.; Hawco, Nicholas J.; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Saito, Mak A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity. Phylogenetic analysis of amphibactin biosynthetic genes suggests that the ability to produce amphibactins has transferred horizontally across multiple Gammaproteobacteria, potentially driven by pressures to compete for iron. In coastal and oligotrophic regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean, amphibactins were replaced with lower concentrations (1-2 pM) of hydrophilic ferrioxamine siderophores. Our results suggest that organic ligand composition changes across the surface ocean in response to environmental pressures. Hydrophilic siderophores are predominantly found across regions of the ocean where iron is not expected to be the limiting nutrient for the microbial community at large. However, in regions with intense competition for iron, some microbes optimize iron acquisition by producing siderophores that minimize diffusive losses to the environment. These siderophores affect iron bioavailability and thus may be an important component of the marine iron cycle.

  7. Circulation, eddies, oxygen, and nutrient changes in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeschel, R.; Stramma, L.; Weller, R. A.; Fischer, T.

    2015-06-01

    A large subsurface oxygen deficiency zone is located in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean (ETSP). The large-scale circulation in the eastern equatorial Pacific and off the coast of Peru in November/December 2012 shows the influence of the equatorial current system, the eastern boundary currents, and the northern reaches of the subtropical gyre. In November 2012 the equatorial undercurrent (EUC) is centered at 250 m depth, deeper than in earlier observations. In December 2012, the equatorial water is transported southeastward near the shelf in the Peru-Chile undercurrent (PCUC) with a mean transport of 1.4 Sv. In the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), the flow is overlaid with strong eddy activity on the poleward side of the OMZ. Floats with parking depth at 400 m show fast westward flow in the mid-depth equatorial channel and sluggish flow in the OMZ. Floats with oxygen sensors clearly show the passage of eddies with oxygen anomalies. The long-term float observations in the upper ocean lead to a net community production estimate at about 18° S of up to 16.7 mmol C m-3 yr-1 extrapolated to an annual rate and 7.7 mmol C m-3 yr-1 for the time period below the mixed layer. Oxygen differences between repeated ship sections are influenced by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), by the phase of El Niño, by seasonal changes, and by eddies, and hence have to be interpreted with care. At and south of the Equator the decrease in oxygen in the upper ocean since 1976 is related to an increase in nitrate, phosphate, and in part silicate.

  8. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Hugh J; De Roy, Emma M; Leung, Brian; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  9. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J MacIsaac

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  10. Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, Rosalino; Schneider, Wolfgang; Garcés-Vargas, José; Bravo, Luis; Lange, Carina

    2009-07-01

    Recent hydrographic measurements within the eastern South Pacific (1999-2001) were combined with vertically high-resolution data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, high-resolution profiles and bottle casts from the World Ocean Database 2001, and the World Ocean Atlas 2001 in order to evaluate the vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone (oxygen minimum zone to be 9.82±3.60×10 6 km 2 and 2.18±0.66×10 6 km 3, respectively. The oxygen minimum zone is thickest (>600 m) off Peru between 5 and 13°S and to about 1000 km offshore. Its upper boundary is shallowest (zone in some places. Offshore, the thickness and meridional extent of the oxygen minimum zone decrease until it finally vanishes at 140°W between 2° and 8°S. Moving southward along the coast of South America, the zonal extension of the oxygen minimum zone gradually diminishes from 3000 km (15°S) to 1200 km (20°S) and then to 25 km (30°S); only a thin band is detected at ˜37°S off Concepción, Chile. Simultaneously, the oxygen minimum zone's maximum thickness decreases from 300 m (20°S) to less than 50 m (south of 30°S). The spatial distribution of Ekman suction velocity and oxygen minimum zone thickness correlate well, especially in the core. Off Chile, the eastern South Pacific Intermediate Water mass introduces increased vertical stability into the upper water column, complicating ventilation of the oxygen minimum zone from above. In addition, oxygen-enriched Antarctic Intermediate Water clashes with the oxygen minimum zone at around 30°S, causing a pronounced sub-surface oxygen front. The new estimates of vertical and horizontal oxygen minimum zone distribution in the eastern South Pacific complement the global quantification of naturally hypoxic continental margins by Helly and Levin [2004. Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins. Deep-Sea Research I 51, 1159-1168] and provide new baseline data useful for studies on the

  11. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Notes on the Reproductive Biology of Female Salmon Sharks in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Little information has previously been published on the reproductive biology of the salmon shark in the Eastern North Pacific ocean. This data set incorporates basic...

  12. Biogeochemical linkage between atmosphere and ocean in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: Results from the EqPOS research cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, H.; Inai, Y.; Aoki, S.; Honda, H.; Omori, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Iwata, T.; Ueda, S.; Miura, K.; Uematsu, M.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean is a unique oceanic region from several biogeochemical points of view. It is a remote open ocean with relatively high marine biological activity, which would result in limited influence of human activity but enhanced effect of marine natural processes on atmospheric composition. It is also characterized as high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) ocean, in which availability of trace metals such as iron and zinc limits marine primary production and thus atmospheric deposition of these trace elements to the ocean surface is expected to play an important role in regulating marine primary production and defining unique microbial community. High sea surface temperature in the region generates strong vertical air convection which efficiently brings tropospheric atmospheric composition into stratosphere. In this unique eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, EqPOS (Equatorial Pacific Ocean and Stratospheric/Tropospheric Atmospheric Study) research cruise was organized as a part of SOLAS Japan activity to understand biogeochemical ocean-atmospheric interaction in the region. Coordinated atmospheric, oceanic, and marine biological observations including sampling/characterization of thin air-sea interfacial layer (sea surface microlayer: SML) and launching large stratospheric air sampling balloons were carried out on-board R/V Hakuho Maru starting from 29 January for 39 days. Biogeochemically important trace/long-lived gases such as CO2, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and some volatile organic carbons (VOCs) both in the atmosphere and seawater were continuously monitored and their air-sea fluxes were also observed using gradient and eddy-covariance techniques. Atmospheric gas measurement of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO, H2, Ar and isotopic composition of selected gases were further extended to stratospheric air by balloon-born sampling in addition to a vertical profiling of O3, CO2, and H2O with sounding sondes. Physical and chemical properties of marine

  13. Characteristics of regional aerosols: Southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Gouri

    Atmospheric aerosols impact the quality of our life in many direct and indirect ways. Inhalation of aerosols can have harmful effects on human health. Aerosols also have climatic impacts by absorbing or scattering solar radiation, or more indirectly through their interactions with clouds. Despite a better understanding of several relevant aerosol properties and processes in the past years, they remain the largest uncertainty in the estimate of global radiative forcing. The uncertainties arise because although aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere they are highly variable in space, time and their physicochemical properties. This makes in-situ measurements of aerosols vital in our effort towards reducing uncertainties in the estimate of global radiative forcing due to aerosols. This study is an effort to characterize atmospheric aerosols at a regional scale, in southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean, based on ground and airborne observations of aerosols. Metals and metalloids in particles with aerodynamic diameter (Dp) smaller than 2.5 μm are found to be ubiquitous in southern Arizona. The major sources of the elements considered in the study are identified to be crustal dust, smelting/mining activities and fuel combustion. The spatial and temporal variability in the mass concentrations of these elements depend both on the source strength and meteorological conditions. Aircraft measurements of aerosol and cloud properties collected during various field campaigns over the eastern Pacific Ocean are used to study the sources of nitrate in stratocumulus cloud water and the relevant processes. The major sources of nitrate in cloud water in the region are emissions from ships and wildfires. Different pathways for nitrate to enter cloud water and the role of meteorology in these processes are examined. Observations of microphysical properties of ambient aerosols in ship plumes are examined. The study shows that there is an enhancement in the number

  14. Oceanic Channel of the IOD-ENSO teleconnection over the Indo-Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xia; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Tengfei; Xu, Peng

    2017-04-01

    The lag correlations of observations and model simulated data that participate the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5) are used to study the precursory teleconnection between the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the Pacific ENSO one year later through the Indonesian seas. The results suggest that Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) play an important role in the IOD-ENSO teleconnection. Numerical simulations using a hierarchy of ocean models and climate coupled models have shown that the interannual sea level depressions in the southeastern Indian Ocean during IOD force enhanced ITF to transport warm water of the Pacific warm pool to the Indian Ocean, producing cold subsurface temperature anomalies, which propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific and induce significant coupled ocean-atmosphere evolution. The teleconnection is found to have decadal variability. Similar decadal variability has also been identified in the historical simulations of the CMIP5 models. The dynamics of the inter-basin teleconnection during the positive phases of the decadal variability are diagnosed to be the interannual variations of the ITF associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). During the negative phases, the thermocline in the eastern equatorial Pacific is anomalously deeper so that the sea surface temperature anomalies in the cold tongue are not sensitive to the thermocline depth changes. The IOD-ENSO teleconnection is found not affected significantly by the anthropogenic forcing.

  15. Recycled iron fuels new production in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, Patrick A; Sigman, Daniel M; Mackey, Katherine R M

    2017-10-24

    Nitrate persists in eastern equatorial Pacific surface waters because phytoplankton growth fueled by nitrate (new production) is limited by iron. Nitrate isotope measurements provide a new constraint on the controls of surface nitrate concentration in this region and allow us to quantify the degree and temporal variability of nitrate consumption. Here we show that nitrate consumption in these waters cannot be fueled solely by the external supply of iron to these waters, which occurs by upwelling and dust deposition. Rather, a substantial fraction of nitrate consumption must be supported by the recycling of iron within surface waters. Given plausible iron recycling rates, seasonal variability in nitrate concentration on and off the equator can be explained by upwelling rate, with slower upwelling allowing for more cycles of iron regeneration and uptake. The efficiency of iron recycling in the equatorial Pacific implies the evolution of ecosystem-level mechanisms for retaining iron in surface ocean settings where it limits productivity.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability in nutrients and carbon uptake during 2004 and 2005 in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, A. P.; Chai, F.

    2012-01-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific plays a great role in the global carbon budget due to its enhanced biological productivity linked to the equatorial upwelling. However, as confirmed by the Equatorial Biocomplexity cruises in 2004 and 2005, nutrient upwelling supply varies strongly, partly due...... and intraseasonal time scales. Here, high resolution Pacific ROMS-CoSiNE (Regional Ocean Modeling System-Carbon, Silicon, Nitrogen Ecosystem) model results were evaluated with in situ and remote sensing data. The results of model-data comparison revealed a good agreement in domain-average hydrographic....... In order to fully resolve the complexity of biological and physical interactions in the eastern equatorial Pacific, we recommended improving CoSiNE and other models by introducing more phytoplankton groups, variable Redfield and carbon to chlorophyll ratios, as well as resolving the Fe-Si co...

  17. Millennial-scale iron fertilization of the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 100,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveley, Matthew R.; Marcantonio, Franco; Wisler, Marilyn M.; Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Schmidt, Matthew W.; Lyle, Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean plays a crucial role in global climate, as it is a substantial source of CO2 to the atmosphere and accounts for a significant portion of global new export productivity. Here we present a 100,000-year sediment core from the eastern equatorial Pacific, and reconstruct dust flux, export productivity and bottom-water oxygenation using excess-230Th-derived fluxes of 232Th and barium, and authigenic uranium concentrations, respectively. We find that during the last glacial period (71,000 to 41,000 years ago), increased delivery of dust to the eastern equatorial Pacific was coeval with North Atlantic Heinrich stadial events. Millennial-scale pulses of increased dust flux coincided with episodes of heightened biological productivity, suggesting that dissolution of dust released iron that promoted ocean fertilization. We also find that periods of low atmospheric CO2 concentrations were associated with suboxic conditions and increased storage of respired carbon in the deep eastern equatorial Pacific. Increases in CO2 concentrations during the deglaciation are coincident with increases in deep Pacific and Southern Ocean water oxygenation levels. We suggest that deep-ocean ventilation was a primary control on CO2 outgassing in this region, with superimposed pulses of high productivity providing a negative feedback.

  18. Three Dinophyceae from Clipperton Island lagoon (eastern Pacific Ocean), including a description of Peridiniopsis cristata var. tubulifera var. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Coute, Alain; Perrette, Catherine; Chomerat, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Clipperton Island is a small French coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean, which has been rarely investigated because of its remote location and difficult access. There is little scientific information on this ecosystem and only a few microalgae have been reported from the lagoon. To date, only one dinoflagellate taxon, Peridiniopsis cristata, is known to inhabit the lagoon. During an expedition in 2005 to study the lagoon and the surrounding oceanic waters of Clipperton Island, a further ...

  19. Air-sea interaction in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, L. J.; Steranka, J.; Holub, R. J.; Hansen, J.; Godshall, F. A.; Prabhakara, C.

    1972-01-01

    Charts of 3-month sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean were produced for the period 1949 to 1970. The anomalies along the United States and South American west coasts and in the eastern tropical Pacific appeared to be oscillating in phase during this period. Similarly, the satellite-derived cloudiness for each of four quadrants of the Pacific Ocean (130 deg E to 100 deg W, 30 deg N to 25 deg S) appeared to be oscillating in phase. In addition, a global tropical cloudiness oscillation from 30 deg N to 30 deg S was noted from 1965 to 1970, by using monthly satellite television nephanalyses. The SST anomalies were found to have a good degree of correlation both positive and negative with the following monthly geophysical parameters: (1) satellite-derived cloudiness, (2) strength of the North and South Pacific semipermanent anticyclones, (3) tropical Pacific island rainfall, and (4) Darwin surface pressure. Several strong direct local and crossequatorial relationships were noted. In particular, the high degree of correlation between the tropical island rainfall and the SST anomalies (r = +0.93) permitted the derivation of SST's for the tropical Pacific back to 1905. The close occurrence of cold tropical SST and North Pacific 700-mb positive height anomalies with central United States drought conditions was noted.

  20. No gene flow across the Eastern Pacific Barrier in the reef-building coral Porites lobata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Iliana B; Boulay, Jennifer N; Polato, Nicholas R; Hellberg, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    The expanse of deep water between the central Pacific islands and the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific is regarded as the world's most potent marine biogeographic barrier. During recurrent climatic fluctuations (ENSO, El Niño Southern Oscillation), however, changes in water temperature and the speed and direction of currents become favourable for trans-oceanic dispersal of larvae from central Pacific to marginal eastern Pacific reefs. Here, we investigate the population connectivity of the reef-building coral Porites lobata across the Eastern Pacific Barrier (EPB). Patterns of recent gene flow in samples (n = 1173) from the central Pacific and the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) were analysed with 12 microsatellite loci. Results indicated that P. lobata from the ETP are strongly isolated from those in the central Pacific and Hawaii (F(ct) ' = 0.509; P Clipperton Atoll, an oceanic island on the eastern side of the EPB, grouped with the central Pacific. Within the central Pacific, Hawaiian populations were strongly isolated from three co-occurring clusters found throughout the remainder of the central Pacific. No further substructure was evident in the ETP. Changes in oceanographic conditions during ENSO over the past several thousand years thus appear insufficient to support larval deliveries from the central Pacific to the ETP or strong postsettlement selection acts on ETP settlers from the central Pacific. Recovery of P. lobata populations in the frequently disturbed ETP thus must depend on local larval sources. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. A satellite view of the sources and interannual variability of free tropospheric PAN over the eastern Pacific Ocean during summer and its timeline for trend detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Fischer, E. V.; Payne, V.; Walker, T. W.; Worden, J. R.; Jiang, Z.; Kulawik, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is the most important reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2) in the troposphere and plays a significant role in the redistribution of NOx to remote regions. There is strong evidence that PAN decomposition in specific plumes of Asian origin subsiding over the eastern Pacific Ocean can lead to significant ozone (O3) enhancements in the troposphere. Thus quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of PAN over the eastern Pacific Ocean is an important part of understanding the O3 budget upwind of the North American airshed. Here we present observations of PAN from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) over the eastern Pacific for July 2006-2010. We focus our analysis on July because prior work based on in situ observations has primarily addressed the transpacific transport of PAN in spring. Plumes containing elevated PAN are present almost every day in the month of July, and we show that elevated PAN observed in July has multiple sources, including fires in Siberia, anthropogenic and lightning sources in eastern China, and re-circulated pollution from the continental U.S. We provide examples of each type of source using both HYPLIT trajectories and a GEOS-Chem adjoint sensitivity analysis. Based on the variability observed in the TES PAN retrievals over this region, we predict it would be faster to detect a trend of a given magnitude in PAN using satellite observations over the eastern Pacific Ocean region rather than surface in situ observations at one site, and that a trend of a given magnitude would be more quickly detected in summer than spring.

  2. Mechanism of seasonal eddy kinetic energy variability in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minyang; Du, Yan; Qiu, Bo; Cheng, Xuhua; Luo, Yiyong; Chen, Xiao; Feng, Ming

    2017-04-01

    Enhanced mesoscale eddy activities or tropical instability waves (TIWs) exist along the northern front of the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. In this study, we investigate seasonal variability of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) over this region and its associated dynamic mechanism using a global, eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM) simulation, the equatorial mooring data, and satellite altimeter observations. The seasonal-varying enhanced EKE signals are found to expand westward from 100°W in June to 180°W in December between 0°N and 6°N. This westward expansion in EKE is closely connected to the barotropically-baroclinically unstable zonal flows that are in thermal-wind balance with the seasonal-varying thermocline trough along 4°N. By adopting an 1½-layer reduced-gravity model, we confirm that the seasonal perturbation of the thermocline trough is dominated by the anticyclonic wind stress curl forcing, which develops due to southerly winds along 4°N from June to December.

  3. The Evolution of Deep Ocean Chemistry and Respired Carbon in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Over the Last Deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Maria; Calvo, Eva; Skinner, Luke; Pelejero, Carles; Evans, David; Müller, Wolfgang; Povea, Patricia; Cacho, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    It has been shown that the deep Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) region was poorly ventilated during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) relative to Holocene values. This finding suggests a more efficient biological pump, which indirectly supports the idea of increased carbon storage in the deep ocean contributing to lower atmospheric CO2 during the last glacial. However, proxies related to respired carbon are needed in order to directly test this proposition. Here we present Cibicides wuellerstorfi B/Ca ratios from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1240 measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) as a proxy for deep water carbonate saturation state (Δ[CO32-], and therefore [CO32-]), along with δ13C measurements. In addition, the U/Ca ratio in foraminiferal coatings has been analyzed as an indicator of oxygenation changes. Our results show lower [CO32-], δ13C, and [O2] values during the LGM, which would be consistent with higher respired carbon levels in the deep EEP driven, at least in part, by reduced deep water ventilation. However, the difference between LGM and Holocene [CO32-] observed at our site is relatively small, in accordance with other records from across the Pacific, suggesting that a "counteracting" mechanism, such as seafloor carbonate dissolution, also played a role. If so, this mechanism would have increased average ocean alkalinity, allowing even more atmospheric CO2 to be "sequestered" by the ocean. Therefore, the deep Pacific Ocean very likely stored a significant amount of atmospheric CO2 during the LGM, specifically due to a more efficient biological carbon pump and also an increase in average ocean alkalinity.

  4. Anthropogenic CO2 distribution in the North Pacific ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C [National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1993-06-01

    This paper discusses the penetration depth of anthropogenic CO2 in the North Pacific Ocean based on carbonate data in the literature. The carbonate data in the literature were used to supplement the tracer data showing oceanic mixing features for waters formed in the last 140 years. The deepest penetration over 2,000m was found in the northwest North Pacific. On the other hand, the shallowest penetration to less than 400m was found in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Consequently, it was suggested that penetration depth of anthropogenic CO2 has been controlled by such factors as deep water formation in the Northwest Pacific, upwelling in the equatorial Pacific, and vertical mixing in the western boundary areas. It was revealed that these results are in harmony well with results implied from tritium, C-14, and freons distributions. The total inventory of excess carbon in the North Pacific was 14.7[plus minus]4[times]10[sup 15]g around 1980. 48 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the

  6. Indo-Pacific echinoids in the tropical eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H. A.; Kessing, B. D.; Wellington, G. M.; Graybeal, A.

    1996-06-01

    The existing literature reports that only one species of Indo-Pacific echinoid ( Echinometra oblonga), occurs in the eastern Pacific. In this study we confirm the presence of this species at Islas Revillagigedo and also report the presence of two species of Echinothrix (a genus hitherto unknown outside the Indo-Pacific) at Isla del Coco and at Clipperton Island. We also present evidence from isozymes and from mitochondrial DNA sequences indicating that at least one individual of Diadema at Clipperton may belong to a maternal lineage characteristic of the west Pacific species D. savignyi. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the observed populations of Indo-Pacific echinoid species are recent arrivals to the eastern Pacific, as opposed to the view that they are relicts of Tethyan pan-tropical distributions. Echinothrix diadema, in particular, may have arrived at Isla del Coco during the 1982-1983 El Nifio. In addition to Indo-Pacific species, Clipperton, Isla del Coco and the Revillagigedos contain a complement of eastern Pacific echinoids. The echinoid faunas of these islands should, therefore, be regarded as mixtures of two biogeographic provinces. Though none of the Indo-Pacific species are known to have reached the coast of the American mainland, their presence at the offshore islands of the eastern Pacific suggests that, for some echinoids, the East Pacific Barrier is not as formidable an obstacle to migration as was previously thought.

  7. Northerly surface winds over the eastern North Pacific Ocean in spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S.V.; Cayan, D.R.; Graham, N.E.; Georgakakos, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent spring and summer northerly surface winds are the defining climatological feature of the western coast of North America, especially south of the Oregon coast. Northerly surface winds are important for upwelling and a vast array of other biological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes. Intermittence in northerly coastal surface wind is characterized and wind events are quantitatively defined using coastal buoy data south of Cape Mendocino on the northern California coast. The defined wind events are then used as a basis for composites in order to explain the spatial evolution of various atmospheric and oceanic processes. Wind events involve large-scale changes in the three-dimensional atmospheric circulation including the eastern North Pacific subtropical anticyclone and southeast trade winds. Composites of QSCAT satellite scatterometer wind estimates from 1999 to 2005 based on a single coastal buoy indicate that wind events typically last 72-96 h and result in anomalies in surface wind and Ekman pumping that extend over 1000 kin from the west coast of North America. It may be useful to consider ocean circulation and dependent ecosystem dynamics and the distribution of temperature, moisture, and aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer in the context of wind events defined herein. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Pleurolucina from the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans: a new intertidal species from Curaçao with unusual shell microstructure (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Glover

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new shallow water species of the lucinid bivalve Pleurolucina is described from Curaçao in the southern Caribbean Sea and compared with known species of the genus from the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Although confused with the Floridian species P. leucocyma, it is most similar to the eastern Pacific P. undata. As in all studied lucinids, the new species possesses symbiotic bacteria housed in the ctenidia. The shell microstructure is unusual with repeated and intercalated conchiolin layers that have sublayers of ‘tulip-shaped’ calcareous spherules. Predatory drillings by naticid gastropods frequently terminate at the conchiolin layers.

  9. Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stramski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We have examined several approaches for estimating the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon, POC, from optical measurements of spectral remote-sensing reflectance, Rrs(λ, using field data collected in tropical and subtropical waters of the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans. These approaches include a direct empirical relationship between POC and the blue-to-green band ratio of reflectance, RrsB/Rrs(555, and two-step algorithms that consist of relationships linking reflectance to an inherent optical property IOP (beam attenuation or backscattering coefficient and POC to the IOP. We considered two-step empirical algorithms that exclusively include pairs of empirical relationships and two-step hybrid algorithms that consist of semianalytical models and empirical relationships. The surface POC in our data set ranges from about 10 mg m−3 within the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre to 270 mg m−3 in the Chilean upwelling area, and ancillary data suggest a considerable variation in the characteristics of particulate assemblages in the investigated waters. The POC algorithm based on the direct relationship between POC and RrsB/Rrs(555 promises reasonably good performance in the vast areas of the open ocean covering different provinces from hyperoligotrophic and oligotrophic waters within subtropical gyres to eutrophic coastal upwelling regimes characteristic of eastern ocean boundaries. The best error statistics were found for power function fits to the data of POC vs. Rrs(443/Rrs(555 and POC vs. Rrs(490/Rrs(555. For our data set that includes over 50 data pairs, these relationships are characterized by the mean normalized bias of about 2% and the normalized root mean square error of about 20%. We

  10. Examination of the 13 February 2001 Eastern Pacific Maritime Cyclogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Touchton, Marc

    2002-01-01

    .... The models did not properly forecast this system due to weak cold air advection over the Eastern Pacific Ocean and due to blending the subpolar and subtropical jets into a single feature. Data assimilation is suspected to have played a role in the mishandling of these key features.

  11. The Impacts of Daily Surface Forcing in the Upper Ocean over Tropical Pacific: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, C.-H.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Li, Xiaofan; Lau, William K.-M.; Laszlo, Istvan; Pinker, Rachel T.

    2001-01-01

    Tropical Pacific Ocean is an important region that affects global climate. How the ocean responds to the atmospheric surface forcing (surface radiative, heat and momentum fluxes) is a major topic in oceanographic research community. The ocean becomes warm when more heat flux puts into the ocean. The monthly mean forcing has been used in the past years since daily forcing was unavailable due to the lack of observations. The daily forcing is now available from the satellite measurements. This study investigates the response of the upper ocean over tropical Pacific to the daily atmospheric surface forcing. The ocean surface heat budgets are calculated to determine the important processes for the oceanic response. The differences of oceanic responses between the eastern and western Pacific are intensively discussed.

  12. 137Cs, 239+24Pu and 24Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng Jian; Wang Zhongliang

    2006-01-01

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The 137 Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The 137 Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m -3 in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m -3 in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of 137 Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of 137 Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of 137 Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr -1 in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr -1 in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr -1 in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. 239+24 Pu activities and 24 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The 24 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199 ± 0.026 to 0.248 ± 0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher 24 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratios

  13. A review of the razorfishes (Perciformes: Labridae) of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, B C; Wellington, G M; Caldow, C

    2001-07-01

    Several new species of the razorfish genus Xyrichtys have been discovered recently in the tropical eastern Pacific region. The taxonomy of this group of fishes is not clear, since juveniles, females, and males often have different color patterns and morphologies, and some species descriptions are incomplete. We review the members of this genus in this region based on our recent collections and describe the juvenile, initial, and terminal phase color patterns of the Cape razorfish, Xyrichtys mundiceps. We question the validity of Xyrichtys perlas, which appears to represent the initial phase of X. mundiceps. We conclude that six species of Xyrichtys are present in the tropical eastern Pacific, including one undescribed species we have collected from the Galapagos Islands and one uncollected new species from the Revillagigedos Islands. Xyrichtys mundiceps is found in Baja California and in Panama Xyrichtys pavo is a large species found throughout the Indo-Pacific and eastern Pacific. Xyrichtys victori is a colorful species native to the Galapagos and Cocos Islands, and Xyrichtys wellingtoni is apparently endemic to Clipperton Atoll. The undescribed species is known only from the Galapagos Islands and has a dark-colored juvenile with extended first dorsal fin rays that are not separated from the remainder of the fin. The terminal phase of this species is unknown. We present keys to the known juvenile and initial phase stages of five species. In addition, we document the allometric growth of the head of razorfishes and show that the head shape of small individuals of Xyrichtys razorfishes is no different from that of the razorfish genus Novaculichthys, and therefore we suggest caution in using this character to distinguish these genera.

  14. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-02-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m 3 . In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

  15. Climate variability and predictability associated with the Indo-Pacific Oceanic Channel Dynamics in the CCSM4 Coupled System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Xu, Peng; Xu, Tengfei

    2017-01-01

    An experiment using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4), a participant of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5), is analyzed to assess the skills of this model in simulating and predicting the climate variabilities associated with the oceanic channel dynamics across the Indo-Pacific Oceans. The results of these analyses suggest that the model is able to reproduce the observed lag correlation between the oceanic anomalies in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean and those in the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean at a time lag of 1 year. This success may be largely attributed to the successful simulation of the interannual variations of the Indonesian Throughflow, which carries the anomalies of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) into the western equatorial Pacific Ocean to produce subsurface temperature anomalies, which in turn propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific to generate ENSO. This connection is termed the "oceanic channel dynamics" and is shown to be consistent with the observational analyses. However, the model simulates a weaker connection between the IOD and the interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow transport than found in the observations. In addition, the model overestimates the westerly wind anomalies in the western-central equatorial Pacific in the year following the IOD, which forces unrealistic upwelling Rossby waves in the western equatorial Pacific and downwelling Kelvin waves in the east. This assessment suggests that the CCSM4 coupled climate system has underestimated the oceanic channel dynamics and overestimated the atmospheric bridge processes.

  16. Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature influences on failed consecutive rainy seasons over eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall over eastern Africa (10°S–10°N; 35°E–50°E) is bimodal, with seasonal maxima during the "long rains" of March–April–May (MAM) and the "short rains" of October–November–December (OND). Below average precipitation during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa can have devastating long-term impacts on water availability and agriculture. Here, we examine the forcing of drought during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa by Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The forcing of eastern Africa precipitation and circulation by SSTs is tested using ten ensemble simulations of a global weather forecast model forced by 1950–2010 observed global SSTs. Since the 1980s, Indo-Pacific SSTs have forced more frequent droughts spanning consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa. The increased frequency of dry conditions is linked to warming SSTs over the Indo-west Pacific and to a lesser degree to Pacific Decadal Variability. During MAM, long-term warming of tropical west Pacific SSTs from 1950–2010 has forced statistically significant precipitation reductions over eastern Africa. The warming west Pacific SSTs have forced changes in the regional lower tropospheric circulation by weakening the Somali Jet, which has reduced moisture and rainfall over the Horn of Africa. During OND, reductions in precipitation over recent decades are oftentimes overshadowed by strong year-to-year precipitation variability forced by the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation.

  17. [Trophic niche partitioning of pelagic sharks in Central Eastern Pacific inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun Kai; Gao, Xiao di; Wang, Lin Yu; Fang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    As the apex predators of the open ocean ecosystems, pelagic sharks play important roles in stabilizing the marine food web through top-down control. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the feeding ecology. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios can be used to trace food source and evaluate the trophic position of marine organisms. In this study, the isotope values of 130 pelagic sharks from 8 species in Central Eastern Pacific were analyzed and their trophic position and niche were calculated to compare the intra/inter-specific resource partitioning in the Central Eastern Pacific ecosystem. The results exhibited significant differences in both carbon and nitrogen isotope values among the shark species. The trophic levels ranged from 4.3 to 5.4 in the Central Eastern Pacific shark community. The trophic niche of blue sharks and shortfin mako sharks showed no overlap with the other shark species, exhibiting unique ecological roles in the open ocean food web. These data highlighted the diverse roles among pelagic sharks, supporting previous findings that this species is not trophically redundant and the trophic niche of pelagic sharks can not be simply replaced by those of other top predator species.

  18. CTD and Water Chemistry data of the Eastern Pacific Redox Experiment of May - June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000833)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Eastern Pacific Redox Experiment (EPREX) took place 24 May to 28 June 2000 on the R/V Roger Revelle. The first station was at the Hawaii Ocean Time Series...

  19. Seasonal Climatologies and Variability of Eastern Tropical Pacific Surface Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Paul C.

    1992-01-01

    Interannual variability caused by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP) is analogous to seasonal variability of comparable magnitude. Climatological spatial patterns and seasonal variability of physical variables that may affect the ETP ecosystem are presented and discussed. Surface temperature, surface salinity, mixed layer depth, thermocline depth, thermocline strength, and surface dynamic height were derived from bathythermograph, hydrocast, and...

  20. Biogeochemical characteristics of a long-lived anticyclonic eddy in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo D'Ottone, Marcela; Bravo, Luis; Ramos, Marcel; Pizarro, Oscar; Karstensen, Johannes; Gallegos, Mauricio; Correa-Ramirez, Marco; Silva, Nelson; Farias, Laura; Karp-Boss, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of the circulation in the eastern South Pacific (ESP) Ocean, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from the productive shelves to the open ocean. Some of these eddies exhibit subsurface hypoxic or suboxic conditions and may serve as important hotspots for nitrogen loss, but little is known about oxygen consumption rates and nitrogen transformation processes associated with these eddies. In the austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a suboxic ( 0.5 µM), suggesting that active denitrification occurred in this water mass. Using satellite altimetry, we were able to track the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W). Field studies conducted in Chilean shelf waters close to the time of eddy formation provided estimates of initial O2 and N2O concentrations of the ESSW source water in the eddy. By the time of its offshore sighting, concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eddy were lower than concentrations in surrounding water and "source water" on the shelf, indicating that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L-1 d-1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L-1 d-1. These results show that mesoscale eddies affect open-ocean biogeochemistry in the ESP not only by transporting physical and chemical properties from the coast to the ocean interior but also during advection, local biological consumption of oxygen within an eddy further generates conditions favorable to denitrification and loss of fixed nitrogen from the system.

  1. Drought reconstruction in eastern Hulun Buir steppe, China and its linkages to the sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Bao, Guang; Bao, Ming; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Lizhi; Ge, Yuxiang; Bao, Wurigen; Tian, Heng

    2016-01-01

    A tree-ring width chronology covering the period 1780-2013 AD was developed from Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica for the eastern Hulun Buir steppe, a region located on the edge of the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Climate-growth response analysis revealed drought stress to be the primary limiting factor for tree growth. Therefore, the mean February-July standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was reconstructed over the period 1819-2013, where the reconstruction could account for 32.8% of the variance in the instrumental record over the calibration period 1953-2011. Comparison with other tree-ring-based moisture sequences from nearby areas confirmed a high degree of confidence in our reconstruction. Severe drought intervals since the late 1970s in our study area consisted with the weakening East Asian summer monsoon, which modulating regional moisture conditions in semi-arid zone over northern China. Drought variations in the study area significantly correlated with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Pacific Ocean, suggesting a possible connection of regional hydroclimatic variations to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The potential influence associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was primarily analyzed.

  2. Predicting bycatch hotspots for endangered leatherback turtles on longlines in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, John H; Morreale, Stephen J; Paladino, Frank V; Shillinger, George L; Benson, Scott R; Eckert, Scott A; Bailey, Helen; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrián; Bograd, Steven J; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Dutton, Peter H; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Block, Barbara A; Spotila, James R

    2014-02-22

    Fisheries bycatch is a critical source of mortality for rapidly declining populations of leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea. We integrated use-intensity distributions for 135 satellite-tracked adult turtles with longline fishing effort to estimate predicted bycatch risk over space and time in the Pacific Ocean. Areas of predicted bycatch risk did not overlap for eastern and western Pacific nesting populations, warranting their consideration as distinct management units with respect to fisheries bycatch. For western Pacific nesting populations, we identified several areas of high risk in the north and central Pacific, but greatest risk was adjacent to primary nesting beaches in tropical seas of Indo-Pacific islands, largely confined to several exclusive economic zones under the jurisdiction of national authorities. For eastern Pacific nesting populations, we identified moderate risk associated with migrations to nesting beaches, but the greatest risk was in the South Pacific Gyre, a broad pelagic zone outside national waters where management is currently lacking and may prove difficult to implement. Efforts should focus on these predicted hotspots to develop more targeted management approaches to alleviate leatherback bycatch.

  3. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  4. Physical, Chemical, and Biological CTD and Bottle data from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in Eastern Tropical South Pacific Ocean near Peru/Chile from 2013-06-24 to 2013-07-22 (NCEI Accession 0128141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains data from R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer cruise NBP 1305 to the eastern tropical south pacific oxygen deficient zone. The objective of the cruise was...

  5. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Eastern Pacific region and Hawaii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastida-Zavala, J. Rolando; Hove, ten Harry A.

    2003-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the Hydroides species (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Eastern Pacific Ocean is presented. Twentyone taxa are described, of which two are widespread (H. diramphus Mörch, 1863 and H. elegans (Haswell, 1883)) and four are Amphiamerican (H. alatalateralis (Jones, 1962), H.

  6. Modeling the inorganic bromine partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer over the eastern and western Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Navarro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry burden arising from the degradation of brominated very short-lived organic substances (VSLorg and its partitioning between reactive and reservoir species is needed for a comprehensive assessment of the ozone depletion potential of brominated trace gases. Here we present modeled inorganic bromine abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause based on aircraft observations of VSLorg from two campaigns of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX 2013, carried out over the eastern Pacific, and ATTREX 2014, carried out over the western Pacific and chemistry-climate simulations (along ATTREX flight tracks using the specific meteorology prevailing. Using the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-Chem we model that BrO and Br are the daytime dominant species. Integrated across all ATTREX flights, BrO represents ∼ 43 and 48 % of daytime Bry abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The results also show zones where Br / BrO > 1 depending on the solar zenith angle (SZA, ozone concentration, and temperature. On the other hand, BrCl and BrONO2 were found to be the dominant nighttime species with ∼  61 and 56 % of abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The western-to-eastern differences in the partitioning of inorganic bromine are explained by different abundances of ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, total inorganic chlorine (Cly, and the efficiency of heterogeneous reactions of bromine reservoirs (mostly BrONO2 and HBr occurring on ice crystals.

  7. Physical, chemical and biological CTD and bottle data from R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN278 in eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean from March 19 to April 20, 2012 (NODC Accession 0109846)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains data from R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN278 to the eastern tropical north pacific oxygen deficient zone. The objective of the cruise was to...

  8. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Coleman, Richard R.

    2016-04-08

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occupies reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d = 0.006 – 0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographical barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST = 0.066 – 0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7 Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4 Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7 – 0.9 Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypthosis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition.

  9. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Coleman, Richard R.; Eble, Jeffrey A.; DiBattista, Joseph; Rocha, Luiz A.; Randall, John E.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occupies reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d = 0.006 – 0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographical barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST = 0.066 – 0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7 Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4 Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7 – 0.9 Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypthosis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition.

  10. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Richard R; Eble, Jeffrey A; DiBattista, Joseph D; Rocha, Luiz A; Randall, John E; Berumen, Michael L; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occurs on reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d=0.006-0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographic barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST=0.066-0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7-0.9Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypothesis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition. We recommend P.d. diacanthus and P.d. flavescens for the Pacific and Indian Ocean/Red Sea forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fadry Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  12. AFSC/NMML: Shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale stock from central California, 1967 - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 26 years from...

  13. Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, Joseph A; Sedwick, Peter N; German, Christopher R; Jenkins, William J; Moffett, James W; Sohst, Bettina M; Tagliabue, Alessandro

    2015-07-09

    Hydrothermal venting along mid-ocean ridges exerts an important control on the chemical composition of sea water by serving as a major source or sink for a number of trace elements in the ocean. Of these, iron has received considerable attention because of its role as an essential and often limiting nutrient for primary production in regions of the ocean that are of critical importance for the global carbon cycle. It has been thought that most of the dissolved iron discharged by hydrothermal vents is lost from solution close to ridge-axis sources and is thus of limited importance for ocean biogeochemistry. This long-standing view is challenged by recent studies which suggest that stabilization of hydrothermal dissolved iron may facilitate its long-range oceanic transport. Such transport has been subsequently inferred from spatially limited oceanographic observations. Here we report data from the US GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) that demonstrate lateral transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron, manganese, and aluminium from the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) several thousand kilometres westward across the South Pacific Ocean. Dissolved iron exhibits nearly conservative (that is, no loss from solution during transport and mixing) behaviour in this hydrothermal plume, implying a greater longevity in the deep ocean than previously assumed. Based on our observations, we estimate a global hydrothermal dissolved iron input of three to four gigamoles per year to the ocean interior, which is more than fourfold higher than previous estimates. Complementary simulations with a global-scale ocean biogeochemical model suggest that the observed transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron requires some means of physicochemical stabilization and indicate that hydrothermally derived iron sustains a large fraction of Southern Ocean export production.

  14. Biological nitrogen fixation in the oxygen-minimum region of the eastern tropical North Pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Amal; Chang, Bonnie X; Widner, Brittany; Bernhardt, Peter; Mulholland, Margaret R; Ward, Bess B

    2017-10-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was investigated above and within the oxygen-depleted waters of the oxygen-minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean. BNF rates were estimated using an isotope tracer method that overcame the uncertainty of the conventional bubble method by directly measuring the tracer enrichment during the incubations. Highest rates of BNF (~4 nM day -1 ) occurred in coastal surface waters and lowest detectable rates (~0.2 nM day -1 ) were found in the anoxic region of offshore stations. BNF was not detectable in most samples from oxygen-depleted waters. The composition of the N 2 -fixing assemblage was investigated by sequencing of nifH genes. The diazotrophic assemblage in surface waters contained mainly Proteobacterial sequences (Cluster I nifH), while both Proteobacterial sequences and sequences with high identities to those of anaerobic microbes characterized as Clusters III and IV type nifH sequences were found in the anoxic waters. Our results indicate modest input of N through BNF in oxygen-depleted zones mainly due to the activity of proteobacterial diazotrophs.

  15. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Pelagic Thresher Shark (Alopias pelagicus) in the Pacific Ocean: Evidence for Two Evolutionarily Significant Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Diego; Hyde, John; Caballero, Susana

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern about shark overexploitation in the last decade, especially for open ocean shark species, where there is a paucity of data about their life histories and population dynamics. Little is known regarding the population structure of the pelagic thresher shark, Alopias pelagicus. Though an earlier study using mtDNA control region data, showed evidence for differences between eastern and western Pacific populations, the study was hampered by low sample size and sparse geographic coverage, particularly a lack of samples from the central Pacific. Here, we present the population structure of Alopias pelagicus analyzing 351 samples from six different locations across the Pacific Ocean. Using data from mitochondrial DNA COI sequences and seven microsatellite loci we found evidence of strong population differentiation between western and eastern Pacific populations and evidence for reciprocally monophyly for organelle haplotypes and significant divergence of allele frequencies at nuclear loci, suggesting the existence of two Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESU) in the Pacific Ocean. Interestingly, the population in Hawaii appears to be composed of both ESUs in what seems to be clear sympatry with reproductive isolation. These results may indicate the existence of a new cryptic species in the Pacific Ocean. The presence of these distinct ESUs highlights the need for revised management plans for this highly exploited shark throughout its range. PMID:25337814

  16. Recent Transport History of Fukushima Radioactivity in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John N; Rossi, Vincent; Buesseler, Ken O; Cullen, Jay T; Cornett, Jack; Nelson, Richard; Macdonald, Alison M; Robert, Marie; Kellogg, Jonathan

    2017-09-19

    The large inventory of radioactivity released during the March, 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident in Japan spread rapidly across the North Pacific Ocean and was first observed at the westernmost station on Line P, an oceanographic sampling line extending 1500 km westward of British Columbia (BC), Canada in June 2012. Here, time series measurements of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in seawater on Line P and on the CLIVAR-P16N 152°W line reveal the recent transport history of the Fukushima radioactivity tracer plume through the northeast Pacific Ocean. During 2013 and 2014 the Fukushima plume spread onto the Canadian continental shelf and by 2015 and early 2016 it reached 137 Cs values of 6-8 Bq/m 3 in surface water along Line P. Ocean circulation model simulations that are consistent with the time series measurements of Fukushima 137 Cs indicate that the 2015-2016 results represent maximum tracer levels on Line P and that they will begin to decline in 2017-2018. The current elevated Fukushima 137 Cs levels in seawater in the eastern North Pacific are equivalent to fallout background levels of 137 Cs that prevailed during the 1970s and do not represent a radiological threat to human health or the environment.

  17. The IOD-ENSO precursory teleconnection over the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean: dynamics and long-term trends under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Hu, Xiaoyue; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Xia; Masumoto, Yukio; Han, Weiqing

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of the teleconnection between the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in the tropical Indian Ocean and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific Ocean at the time lag of one year are investigated using lag correlations between the oceanic anomalies in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean in fall and those in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean in the following winter-fall seasons in the observations and in high-resolution global ocean model simulations. The lag correlations suggest that the IOD-forced interannual transport anomalies of the Indonesian Throughflow generate thermocline anomalies in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, which propagate to the east to induce ocean-atmosphere coupled evolution leading to ENSO. In comparison, lag correlations between the surface zonal wind anomalies over the western equatorial Pacific in fall and the Indo-Pacific oceanic anomalies at time lags longer than a season are all insignificant, suggesting the short memory of the atmospheric bridge. A linear continuously stratified model is used to investigate the dynamics of the oceanic connection between the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. The experiments suggest that interannual equatorial Kelvin waves from the Indian Ocean propagate into the equatorial Pacific Ocean through the Makassar Strait and the eastern Indonesian seas with a penetration rate of about 10%-15% depending on the baroclinic modes. The IOD-ENSO teleconnection is found to get stronger in the past century or so. Diagnoses of the CMIP5 model simulations suggest that the increased teleconnection is associated with decreased Indonesian Throughflow transports in the recent century, which is found sensitive to the global warming forcing.

  18. Population structure and phylogeography reveal pathways of colonization by a migratory marine reptile (Chelonia mydas) in the central and eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Peter H; Jensen, Michael P; Frey, Amy; LaCasella, Erin; Balazs, George H; Zárate, Patricia; Chassin-Noria, Omar; Sarti-Martinez, Adriana Laura; Velez, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Climate, behavior, ecology, and oceanography shape patterns of biodiversity in marine faunas in the absence of obvious geographic barriers. Marine turtles are an example of highly migratory creatures with deep evolutionary lineages and complex life histories that span both terrestrial and marine environments. Previous studies have focused on the deep isolation of evolutionary lineages (>3 mya) through vicariance; however, little attention has been given to the pathways of colonization of the eastern Pacific and the processes that have shaped diversity within the most recent evolutionary time. We sequenced 770 bp of the mtDNA control region to examine the stock structure and phylogeography of 545 green turtles from eight different rookeries in the central and eastern Pacific. We found significant differentiation between the geographically separated nesting populations and identified five distinct stocks (F ST = 0.08-0.44, P eastern Pacific Chelonia mydas form a monophyletic group containing 3 subclades, with Hawaii more closely related to the eastern Pacific than western Pacific populations. The split between sampled central/eastern and western Pacific haplotypes was estimated at around 0.34 mya, suggesting that the Pacific region west of Hawaii has been a more formidable barrier to gene flow in C. mydas than the East Pacific Barrier. Our results suggest that the eastern Pacific was colonized from the western Pacific via the Central North Pacific and that the Revillagigedos Islands provided a stepping-stone for radiation of green turtles from the Hawaiian Archipelago to the eastern Pacific. Our results fit with a broader paradigm that has been described for marine biodiversity, where oceanic islands, such as Hawaii and Revillagigedo, rather than being peripheral evolutionary "graveyards", serve as sources and recipients of diversity and provide a mechanism for further radiation.

  19. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  20. The IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean expedition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) started in 1995 a five-year project 'Research on World-wide Marine Radioactivity', generously supported by the Government of Japan. In the framework of the project, IAEA-MEL conducted the 'IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean Expedition' to the NW Pacific Ocean from 21 October to 20 November, 1997. The objectives of the expedition were to provide new data on the current marine radioactivity in order to compare them with data sets obtained during national and international surveys at sites used for radioactive waste dumping or nuclear bomb testing in the NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas

  1. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  2. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  3. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-15

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: 1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; 2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; 3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and 4) the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  4. Oxygen distribution and aerobic respiration in the north and south eastern tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiano, Laura; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Dalsgaard, Tage

    2014-01-01

    was generally below the detection limit (few nmol L-1) in the core of both OMZs, suggesting the presence of vast volumes of functionally anoxic waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Oxygen was often not detectable in the deep secondary chlorophyll maximum found at some locations, but other secondary maxima...

  5. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  6. Dinitrogen Fixation Within and Adjacent to Oxygen Deficient Waters of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widner, B.; Mulholland, M. R.; Bernhardt, P. W.; Chang, B. X.; Jayakumar, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent work suggests that planktonic diazotrophs are geographically more widely distributed than previously thought including relatively warm (14-23oC) aphotic oxygenated pelagic waters and in aphotic waters within oxygen deficient zones. Because the volume of aphotic water in the ocean is large and may increase in the future, if dinitrogen (N2) fixation is widely occurring at sub-euphotic depths, this could result in a dramatic upward revision of global nitrogen (N) inputs via this process. N2 fixation rates were measured during a cruise in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific using stable isotope tracer techniques that account for slow gas dissolution. Results are compared with light, nutrient, and oxygen gradients (and necessarily temperature gradients). In addition, rates of N2 fixation made in vertical profiles within and above oxygen deficient waters are compared with those measured in vertical profiles adjacent to oxygen deficient waters. Results suggest that while rates of N2 fixation were measurable in deeper anoxic waters, volumetric N2 fixation rates were higher in surface waters.

  7. Puffins reveal contrasting relationships between forage fish and ocean climate in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydeman, William J.; Piatt, John F.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Garcia-Reyes, Marisol; Hatch, Scott A.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Slater, Leslie; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Rojek, Nora A.; Zador, Stephani G.; Renner, Heather M.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term studies of predator food habits (i.e., ‘predator-based sampling’) are useful for identifying patterns of spatial and temporal variability of forage nekton in marine ecosystems. We investigated temporal changes in forage fish availability and relationships to ocean climate by analyzing diet composition of three puffin species (horned puffin Fratercula corniculata, tufted puffin Fratercula cirrhata, and rhinoceros auklet Cerorhinca monocerata) from five sites in the North Pacific from 1978–2012. Dominant forage species included squids and hexagrammids in the western Aleutians, gadids and Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes personatus) in the eastern Aleutians and western Gulf of Alaska (GoA), and sand lance and capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the northern and eastern GoA. Interannual fluctuations in forage availability dominated variability in the western Aleutians, whereas lower-frequency shifts in forage fish availability dominated elsewhere. We produced regional multivariate indicators of sand lance, capelin, and age-0 gadid availability by combining data across species and sites using Principal Component Analysis, and related these indices to environmental factors including sea level pressure (SPL), winds, and sea surface temperature (SST). There was coherence in the availability of sand lance and capelin across the study area. Sand lance availability increased linearly with environmental conditions leading to warmer ocean temperatures, whereas capelin availability increased in a non-linear manner when environmental changes led to lower ocean temperatures. Long-term studies of puffin diet composition appear to be a promising tool for understanding the availability of these difficult-to-survey forage nekton in remote regions of the North Pacific.

  8. Indo-Pacific sea level variability during recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, G.; Tsujino, H.; Nakano, H.; Urakawa, S. L.; Sakamoto, K.

    2016-12-01

    Decadal variability of sea level in the Indo-Pacific region is investigated using a historical OGCM simulation. The OGCM driven by the atmospheric forcing removing long-term trends clearly exhibits decadal sea level variability in the Pacific Ocean, which is associated with eastern tropical Pacific thermal anomalies. During the period of 1977-1987, the sea level anomalies are positive in the eastern equatorial Pacific and show deviations from a north-south symmetric distribution, with strongly negative anomalies in the western tropical South Pacific. During the period of 1996-2006, in contrast, the sea level anomalies are negative in the eastern equatorial Pacific and show a nearly north-south symmetric pattern, with positive anomalies in both hemispheres. Concurrently, sea level anomalies in the south-eastern Indian Ocean vary with those in the western tropical Pacific. These sea level variations are closely related to large-scale wind fields. Indo-Pacific sea level distributions are basically determined by wind anomalies over the equatorial region as well as wind stress curl anomalies over the off-equatorial region.

  9. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  10. Training on Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones for Latin American students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, L. M.; Raga, G. B.

    2009-05-01

    Tropical cyclones are one of the most impressive atmospheric phenomena and their development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins has potential to affect several Latin-American and Caribbean countries, where human resources are limited. As part of an international research project, we are offering short courses based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from various countries in Latin America. Key aspects are tropical cyclone formation and evolution, with particular emphasis on their development off the west coast of Mexico. Our approach includes lectures on tropical cyclone climatology and formation, dynamic and thermodynamic models, air-sea interaction and oceanic response, ocean waves and coastal impacts as well as variability and climate-related predictions. In particular, we use a best-track dataset issued by the United States National Hurricane Center and satellite observations to analyze convective patterns for the period 1970-2006. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are analyzed in more detail; this includes systems that developed during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 seasons. Additionally, we have organized a human-dimensions symposium to discuss socio-economic issues that are associated with the landfall of tropical cyclones. This includes coastal zone impact and flooding, the link between cyclones and water resources, the flow of weather and climate information from scientists to policy- makers, the role of emergency managers and decision makers, impact over health issues and the viewpoint of the insurance industry.

  11. Delta Oxygen-18 and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from KNORR in Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 0862-01-01 to 2009-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0142201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tropical Pacific Ocean dynamics during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA) are poorly characterized due to lack of evidence from the eastern...

  12. Phylogeography of Indo-Pacific reef fishes: sister wrassesCoris gaimardandC. cuvieriin the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Ahti, Pauliina A.; Coleman, Richard R.; DiBattista, Joseph; Berumen, Michael L.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to resolve the evolutionary history, biogeographical barriers and population histories for sister species of wrasses, the African Coris (Coris cuvieri) in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, and the Yellowtail Coris (Coris gaimard) in the Pacific Ocean. Glacial sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene have shaped the evolutionary trajectories of Indo-Pacific marine fauna, primarily by creating barriers between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Here, we evaluate the influence of these episodic glacial barriers on sister species C. cuvieri and C. gaimard. Location: Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean. Methods: Sequences from mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and nuclear introns gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and ribosomal S7 protein were analysed in 426 individuals from across the range of both species. Median-joining networks, analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian estimates of the time since most recent common ancestor were used to resolve recent population history and connectivity. Results: Cytochrome oxidase c subunit I haplotypes showed a divergence of 0.97% between species, and nuclear alleles were shared between species. No population structure was detected between the Indian Ocean and Red Sea. The strongest signal of population structure was in C. gaimard between the Hawaiian biogeographical province and other Pacific locations (COI ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.040-0.173, P < 0.006; S7 ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.046, P < 0.001; GnRH ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.022, P < 0.005). Time to most recent common ancestor is c. 2.12 Ma for C. cuvieri and 1.76 Ma for C. gaimard. Main conclusions: We demonstrate an Indian-Pacific divergence of c. 2 Myr and high contemporary gene flow between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, mediated in part by the long pelagic larval stage. The discovery of hybrids at Christmas Island indicates that Indian and Pacific lineages have come into secondary contact after allopatric isolation. Subspecies

  13. Phylogeography of Indo-Pacific reef fishes: sister wrassesCoris gaimardandC. cuvieriin the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Ahti, Pauliina A.

    2016-02-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to resolve the evolutionary history, biogeographical barriers and population histories for sister species of wrasses, the African Coris (Coris cuvieri) in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, and the Yellowtail Coris (Coris gaimard) in the Pacific Ocean. Glacial sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene have shaped the evolutionary trajectories of Indo-Pacific marine fauna, primarily by creating barriers between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Here, we evaluate the influence of these episodic glacial barriers on sister species C. cuvieri and C. gaimard. Location: Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean. Methods: Sequences from mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and nuclear introns gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and ribosomal S7 protein were analysed in 426 individuals from across the range of both species. Median-joining networks, analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian estimates of the time since most recent common ancestor were used to resolve recent population history and connectivity. Results: Cytochrome oxidase c subunit I haplotypes showed a divergence of 0.97% between species, and nuclear alleles were shared between species. No population structure was detected between the Indian Ocean and Red Sea. The strongest signal of population structure was in C. gaimard between the Hawaiian biogeographical province and other Pacific locations (COI ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.040-0.173, P < 0.006; S7 ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.046, P < 0.001; GnRH ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.022, P < 0.005). Time to most recent common ancestor is c. 2.12 Ma for C. cuvieri and 1.76 Ma for C. gaimard. Main conclusions: We demonstrate an Indian-Pacific divergence of c. 2 Myr and high contemporary gene flow between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, mediated in part by the long pelagic larval stage. The discovery of hybrids at Christmas Island indicates that Indian and Pacific lineages have come into secondary contact after allopatric isolation. Subspecies

  14. Role of sea surface wind stress forcing on transport between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.

    Using an Indian-Pacific Ocean Circulation Model (IPOM) a simulation study on the Transports of between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean such as Indonesian Through flow (ITF) has been done. IPOM covered the area 25°E-70°W, 35°S-60°N. There are 31 levels in the vertical with 22 levels upper 400m in it. The horizontal resolution is 1/3° lat x 1.5° lon between 10°S and 10°N. The coastline and ocean topography of IPOM is prepared from Scripps topography data on 1x1°grid. Forcing IPOM with monthly observational wind stress in 1990-1999 the interannual variation of sea temperature has been reproduced well, not only on El Nino in the Pacific but also on Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Therefore, the oceanic circulations in the tropical ocean are reasonable. The analyses of the oceanic circulations from the simulations suggest that the transport southward through Makassar Strait is the primary route of thermocline water masses from the North Pacific to the Indonesian sea. The transport westward through Bali-Western Australian Transect (BWAT, at 117.5E) can be thought as the final output of ITF through the archipelago to Indian Ocean. The transport westward through BWAT is in 8-12S above 150m, its core centered near surface 10S, which looks like a jet. The westward velocity is more than 50 cm/s. The transport shows significant seasonal and interannual variations. The maximum is in Jul-Oct, minimum in Jan-Mar. These results are consistent with some observation basically. The correlation analyses indict that the variations of transport westward is related with the southeasterly anomaly in the east tropical Indian ocean. The transport variation lags wind anomaly about 3 months. The correlation coefficient is more than 0.6. The transport is strong during IOD, for example in 1994 and 1997. The variations are also related with the northwesterly anomaly in the center equatorial Pacific and the easterly in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The transport is strong in most ENSO

  15. DELP Symposium: Tectonics of eastern Asia and western Pacific Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Asia and the western Pacific make up a broad region of active plate tectonic interaction. The area is a natural laboratory for studying the processes involved in the origin and evolution of volcanic island arcs, marginal basins, accretionary prisims, oceanic trenches, accreted terranes, ophiolite emplacement, and intracontinental deformation. Many of our working concepts of plate tectonics and intraplate deformation were developed in this region, even though details of the geology and geophysics there must be considered of a reconnaissance nature.During the past few years researchers have accumulated a vast amount of new and detailed information and have developed a better understanding of the processes that have shaped the tectonic elements in this region. To bring together scientists from many disciplines and to present the wide range of new data and ideas that offer a broader perspective on the interrelations of geological, geochemical, geophysical and geodetic studies, the symposium Tectonics of Eastern Asia and Western Pacific Continental Margin was held December 13-16, 1988, at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan, under the auspicies of DELP (Dynamics and Evolution of the Lithosphere Project).

  16. 16,000 Years of Tropical Eastern Ocean Climate Variability Recorded in a Speleothem From Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, J. B.; Abram, N.; Hantoro, W. S.; Rifai, H.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Heslop, D.; Troitzsch, U.; Eggins, S.

    2015-12-01

    Holocene climate variability in the Indo-Pacific has largely been inferred from sediment cores primarily from the central and eastern Warm Pool region. A limited number of speleothem oxygen-isotope records have provided decadally-resolved time-series of past rainfall variability over the central Indo-Pacific Warm Pool region, however no records currently exist for the Indian Ocean sector of the IPWP. Here we present the first continuous, high-resolution (~15year) speleothem record from the eastern tropical Indian Ocean, collected from central western Sumatra, Indonesia. Petrographic and geochemical analysis reveals that the sample is primarily composed of aragonite but is punctuated by intervals of primary calcite growth. In addition to Raman spectroscopy, trace element analysis by laser ablation ICP-MS reveals strongly antiphased behaviour between magnesium and strontium, attributed to the strong preference of those elements for the calcite and aragonite lattices, respectively. This relationship is utilized to develop a quantitative correction for the stable isotope fractionation offset between the two calcium carbonate polymorphs identified in the speleothem. The corrected oxygen isotope record shows a rapid transition from drier conditions during the Younger Dryas (YD) into a wetter Holocene, similar in timing and pattern to that recorded in Dongge Cave, China. This is strikingly different from other IPWP speleothem records, which show no YD or a wetter YD, suggesting that different mechanisms may be controlling rainfall amount in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. These disparate responses are further explored through proxy-model comparison.

  17. Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-10

    The enhanced central and eastern Pacific SST warming and the associated ocean processes under global warming are investigated using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2). The tropical SST warming pattern in the coupled CESM can be faithfully reproduced by the POP2 forced with surface fluxes computed using the aerodynamic bulk formula. By prescribing the wind stress and/or wind speed through the bulk formula, the effects of wind stress change and/or the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback are isolated and their linearity is evaluated in this ocean-alone setting. Result shows that, although the weakening of the equatorial easterlies contributes positively to the El Niño-like SST warming, 80% of which can be simulated by the POP2 without considering the effects of wind change in both mechanical and thermodynamic fluxes. This result points to the importance of the air-sea thermal interaction and the relative feebleness of the ocean dynamical process in the El Niño-like equatorial Pacific SST response to global warming. On the other hand, the wind stress change is found to play a dominant role in the oceanic response in the tropical Pacific, accounting for most of the changes in the equatorial ocean current system and thermal structures, including the weakening of the surface westward currents, the enhancement of the near-surface stratification and the shoaling of the equatorial thermocline. Interestingly, greenhouse gas warming in the absence of wind stress change and WES feedback also contributes substantially to the changes at the subsurface equatorial Pacific. Further, this warming impact can be largely replicated by an idealized ocean experiment forced by a uniform surface heat flux, whereby, arguably, a purest form of oceanic dynamical thermostat is revealed.

  18. Climate Variability and Phytoplankton in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (pphytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Nina events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  19. 75 FR 68756 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... petition to designate the Eastern North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a... Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following address: http://www.nmfs...

  20. Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Hurrell, James W.

    1994-03-01

    Considerable evidence has emerged of a substantial decade-long change in the north Pacific atmosphere and ocean lasting from about 1976 to 1988. Observed significant changes in the atmospheric circulation throughout the troposphere revealed a deeper and eastward shifted Aleutian low pressure system in the winter half year which advected warmer and moister air along the west coast of North America and into Alaska and colder air over the north Pacific. Consequently, there were increases in temperatures and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the west coast of North America and Alaska but decreases in SSTs over the central north Pacific, as well as changes in coastal rainfall and streamflow, and decreases in sea ice in the Bering Sea. Associated changes occurred in the surface wind stress, and, by inference, in the Sverdrup transport in the north Pacific Ocean. Changes in the monthly mean flow were accompanied by a southward shift in the storm tracks and associated synoptic eddy activity and in the surface ocean sensible and latent heat fluxes. In addition to the changes in the physical environment, the deeper Aleutian low increased the nutrient supply as seen through increases in total chlorophyll in the water column, phytoplankton and zooplankton. These changes, along with the altered ocean currents and temperatures, changed the migration patterns and increased the stock of many fish species. A north Pacific (NP) index is defined to measure the decadal variations, and the temporal variability of the index is explored on daily, annual, interannual and decadal time scales. The dominant atmosphere-ocean relation in the north Pacific is one where atmospheric changes lead SSTs by one to two months. However, strong ties are revealed with events in the tropical Pacific, with changes in tropical Pacific SSTs leading SSTs in the north Pacific by three months. Changes in the storm tracks in the north Pacific help to reinforce and maintain the anomalous circulation in the

  1. Variability in the origins and pathways of Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Xuerong; Sen Gupta, Alex; Van Sebille, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) transports water originating from a number of distinct source regions, eastward across the Pacific Ocean. It is responsible for supplying nutrients to the productive eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Of particular importance is the transport of iron by the

  2. Investigations of (Delta)14C, (delta)13C, and (delta)15N in vertebrae of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Coale, K H

    2006-06-08

    The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) has a complex life history that is characterized by large scale movements and a highly variable diet. Estimates of age and growth for the white shark from the eastern North Pacific Ocean indicate they have a slow growth rate and a relatively high longevity. Age, growth, and longevity estimates useful for stock assessment and fishery models, however, require some form of validation. By counting vertebral growth band pairs, ages can be estimated, but because not all sharks deposit annual growth bands and many are not easily discernable, it is necessary to validate growth band periodicity with an independent method. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) age validation uses the discrete {sup 14}C signal produced from thermonuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s that is retained in skeletal structures as a time-specific marker. Growth band pairs in vertebrae, estimated as annual and spanning the 1930s to 1990s, were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of {sup 14}C age validation for a wide-ranging species with a complex life history and to use stable isotope measurements in vertebrae as a means of resolving complexity introduced into the {sup 14}C chronology by ontogenetic shifts in diet and habitat. Stable isotopes provided useful trophic position information; however, validation of age estimates was confounded by what may have been some combination of the dietary source of carbon to the vertebrae, large-scale movement patterns, and steep {sup 14}C gradients with depth in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.

  3. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  4. Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño: role of southeast tropical Indian Ocean warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zesheng; Du, Yan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Chunzai

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of southeast tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) sea surface temperature (SST) warming on Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño by using observations and model experiments. The results show that the SETIO SST warming in spring 2016 enhanced local convection and forced a "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern in the lower troposphere. The "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean consists of anomalous westerly flow south of the equator and anomalous easterly flow north of the equator. The anomalous easterly flow then extended eastward into the western North Pacific (WNP) and facilitates the development or the maintenance of an anomalous anticyclone over the South China Sea (SCS). Correspondingly, the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal, the SCS and the WNP suffered less rainfall. Such precipitation features and the associated "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern shifted northward about five latitudes in summer 2016. Additionally, the SETIO warming can induce local meridional circulation anomalies, which directly affect Indo-Pacific climate. Numerical model experiments further confirm that the SETIO SST warming plays an important role in modulating Indo-Pacific climate.

  5. Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño: role of southeast tropical Indian Ocean warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zesheng; Du, Yan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Chunzai

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of southeast tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) sea surface temperature (SST) warming on Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño by using observations and model experiments. The results show that the SETIO SST warming in spring 2016 enhanced local convection and forced a "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern in the lower troposphere. The "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean consists of anomalous westerly flow south of the equator and anomalous easterly flow north of the equator. The anomalous easterly flow then extended eastward into the western North Pacific (WNP) and facilitates the development or the maintenance of an anomalous anticyclone over the South China Sea (SCS). Correspondingly, the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal, the SCS and the WNP suffered less rainfall. Such precipitation features and the associated "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern shifted northward about five latitudes in summer 2016. Additionally, the SETIO warming can induce local meridional circulation anomalies, which directly affect Indo-Pacific climate. Numerical model experiments further confirm that the SETIO SST warming plays an important role in modulating Indo-Pacific climate.

  6. Impact of effective ocean optical properties on the Pacific subtropical cell: a CGCM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, G.; Tsujino, H.; Ishizaki, H.; Nakano, H.; Hirabara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The choice of ocean radiant scheme is important for modeling the upper ocean. According to the ocean-only simulation (Yamanaka et al., 2012), introduction of the chlorophyll-a dependent ocean radiant scheme results in the decreased mixed layer depth (MLD), the enhanced subtropical cell (STC), and the cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST). They also found that the enhanced STC results from the velocity profile change associated with the decreased Ekman boundary layer. However, the impact is not well understood when the air-sea feedback process is at work. This study examines the impact of the effective ocean optical properties on the Pacific mean fields, especially focusing on the STC, using a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The CGCM we employed is the Meteorological Research Institute Earth System Model (MRI-ESM1). The atmospheric model is TL159L48, and the ocean model has a horizontal resolution of 1 x 0.5 deg. with 51 levels in vertical. Experimental design basically follows the CMIP5 protocol. Two experiments (CTL and SLR runs) are performed to investigate the impact of the effective ocean optical properties. In the CTL run, a conventional ocean radiant heating scheme (Paul and Simpson, 1977) is used, whereas a new ocean radiant heating scheme is used in the SLR run, where the satellite-derived chlorophyll-a distribution is taken into consideration based on Morel and Antoine (1994) as well as the effect of the varying solar angle (Ishizaki and Yamanaka, 2010). Each experiment is integrated during the period from 1985 to 2005. It is found that introduction of the new ocean radiant scheme (SLR run) changes the long-term mean wind pattern in the Pacific: easterly winds are strengthened in the equatorial Pacific, but weakened in the off-equatorial region. In the tropical Pacific, the enhanced equatorial upwelling cools the equatorial SST and the MLD becomes shallower. This is similar to the ocean-only simulation, but is more

  7. Wind Forcing of the Pacific Ocean Using Scatterometer Wind Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathryn A.

    1999-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research was an understanding of the wind-forced ocean circulation, particularly for the Pacific Ocean. To determine the ocean's response to the winds, we first needed to generate accurate maps of wind stress. For the ocean's response to wind stress we examined the sea surface height (SSH) both from altimeters and from numerical models for the Pacific Ocean.

  8. Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability during 2014 and 2015 and associated Indo-Pacific upper ocean temperature patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakatkar, Rashmi; Gnanaseelan, C.; Chowdary, J. S.; Parekh, Anant; Deepa, J. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, factors responsible for the deficit Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall in 2014 and 2015 and the ability of Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology-Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (IITM-GODAS) in representing the oceanic features are examined. IITM-GODAS has been used to provide initial conditions for seasonal forecast in India during 2014 and 2015. The years 2014 and 2015 witnessed deficit ISM rainfall but were evolved from two entirely different preconditions over Pacific. This raises concern over the present understanding of the role of Pacific Ocean on ISM variability. Analysis reveals that the mechanisms associated with the rainfall deficit over the Indian Subcontinent are different in the two years. It is found that remote forcing in summer of 2015 due to El Niño is mostly responsible for the deficit monsoon rainfall through changes in Walker circulation and large-scale subsidence. In the case of the summer of 2014, both local circulation with anomalous anticyclone over central India and intrusion of mid-latitude dry winds from north have contributed for the deficit rainfall. In addition to the above, Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) sea surface temperature (SST) and remote forcing from Pacific Ocean also modulated the ISM rainfall. It is observed that Pacific SST warming has extended westward in 2014, making it a basin scale warming unlike the strong El Niño year 2015. The eastern equatorial Indian Ocean is anomalously warmer than west in summer of 2014, and vice versa in 2015. These differences in SST in both tropical Pacific and TIO have considerable impact on ISM rainfall in 2014 and 2015. The study reveals that initializing coupled forecast models with proper upper ocean temperature over the Indo-Pacific is therefore essential for improved model forecast. It is important to note that the IITM-GODAS which assimilates only array for real-time geostrophic oceanography (ARGO) temperature and salinity profiles could capture most of the

  9. Atmosphere-Ocean Variations in the Indo-Pacific Sector during ENSO Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ngar-Cheung; Nath, Mary Jo

    2003-01-01

    The influences of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on air-sea interaction in the Indian-western Pacific (IWP) Oceans have been investigated using a general circulation model. Observed monthly sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the deep tropical eastern/central Pacific (DTEP) have been inserted in the lower boundary of this model through the 1950-99 period. At all maritime grid points outside of DTEP, the model atmosphere has been coupled with an oceanic mixed layer model with variable depth. Altogether 16 independent model runs have been conducted.Composite analysis of selected ENSO episodes illustrates that the prescribed SST anomalies in DTEP affect the surface atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns in IWP through displacements of the near-equatorial Walker circulation and generation of Rossby wave modes in the subtropics. Such atmospheric responses modulate the surface fluxes as well as the oceanic mixed layer depth, and thereby establish a well-defined SST anomaly pattern in the IWP sector several months after the peak in ENSO forcing in DTEP. In most parts of the IWP region, the net SST tendency induced by atmospheric changes has the same polarity as the local composite SST anomaly, thus indicating that the atmospheric forcing acts to reinforce the underlying SST signal.By analyzing the output from a suite of auxiliary experiments, it is demonstrated that the SST perturbations in IWP (which are primarily generated by ENSO-related atmospheric changes) can, in turn, exert notable influences on the atmospheric conditions over that region. This feedback mechanism also plays an important role in the eastward migration of the subtropical anticyclones over the western Pacific in both hemispheres.

  10. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Distributional patterns of 0-group Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the eastern Bering Sea under variable recruitment and thermal conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that analyzed the late summer distribution of juvenile Pacific cod in the eastern Bering Sea for 6 cohorts (2004-2009), based on catches...

  11. Thorium content in bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, E.G.; Lisitsyn, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of 232 Th distribution study in different substance-genetic types of bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans. Th content determination has been carried out by the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Th distribution maps in the surface layer of bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans are drawn. It is noted that Indian ocean sediments are much richer with Th moreover Th distribution in different types of sediments is very non-uniform. Non-uniformity of Th distribution in different types of Pacific ocean sediments is considerably less than that of Indian ocean and exceeds it only in red oozes

  12. Numerical simulation on the southern flood and northern drought in summer 2014 over Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lianlian; He, Shengping; Li, Fei; Ma, Jiehua; Wang, Huijun

    2017-12-01

    In summer 2014, Eastern China suffered a typical "southern flood and northern drought" anomalous climate. Observational analyses indicated that the anomalous vertical motion, East Asian subtropical westerly jet stream, and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) played important roles in the formation of such precipitation anomaly. Furthermore, using the climate model (IAP-AGCM-4.1) perturbed by simultaneous observed sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in global scale and four different regions (North Pacific, Indian Ocean, North Atlantic, and Equatorial Pacific), this study investigated the potential contribution of ocean to such "southern flood and northern drought" over Eastern China in summer 2014. The simulations forced by global-scale SSTAs or North Pacific SSTAs displayed the most similarity to the observed "southern flood and northern drought" over Eastern China. It was revealed that the global-scale and North Pacific SSTAs influenced the rainfall over Eastern China via modulating the EASM. The related simulations successfully reproduced the associated atmospheric circulation anomalies. The experiment driven by Indian Ocean SSTAs could also reproduce the similar precipitation anomaly pattern and suggested that the Indian Ocean exerted pronounced influence on the North Pacific Subtropical High. Additionally, the simulations forced by SSTAs in the North Atlantic and Equatorial Pacific successfully reproduced the northern drought but failed to capture the southern flood. The simulations suggested that precipitation anomaly over Eastern China in summer 2014 was a comprehensive effect of global SSTAs and the dominant contribution to the "southern flood and northern drought" pattern came from the North Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  13. Shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale stock from central California conducted from 1967-12-18 to 2007-02-22 (NCEI Accession 0138007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 26 years from...

  14. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Publisher Correction: Recycled iron fuels new production in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, Patrick A; Sigman, Daniel M; Mackey, Katherine R M

    2017-12-05

    The original version of this Article contained errors in Fig. 2b and Table 2. In Fig. 2b, the white circle labels were incorrectly positioned as they referred to scenarios that were used in an earlier version of the Article. In Table 2, the following three sentences were removed from the legend 'The last two calculations are discussed in the "Methods". The first assumes that all dissolved plus the ≈0.3 nmol kg -1 of particulate iron (measured in the eastern equatorial Pacific 30 ) is bioavailable. The last calculation assumes EUC dissolved iron concentrations from 140° W'. These errors have now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

  16. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang Zhongliang

    2007-01-01

    The 137 Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by γ spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137 Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m -3 over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137 Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137 Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137 Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400 ± 30 Bq m -2 to 560 ± 30 Bq m -2 during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137 Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850 ± 70 Bq m -2 in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270 ± 90 Bq m -2 in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137 Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137 Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9 ± 0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1 ± 0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137 Cs deposition density in 10 o latitude by 10 deg. longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137 Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137 Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137 Cs from

  17. Persistence of deeply sourced iron in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Tristan J; Williams, Helen M; Hein, James R; Saito, Mak A; Burton, Kevin W; Halliday, Alex N; Nielsen, Sune G

    2015-02-03

    Biological carbon fixation is limited by the supply of Fe in vast regions of the global ocean. Dissolved Fe in seawater is primarily sourced from continental mineral dust, submarine hydrothermalism, and sediment dissolution along continental margins. However, the relative contributions of these three sources to the Fe budget of the open ocean remains contentious. By exploiting the Fe stable isotopic fingerprints of these sources, it is possible to trace distinct Fe pools through marine environments, and through time using sedimentary records. We present a reconstruction of deep-sea Fe isotopic compositions from a Pacific Fe-Mn crust spanning the past 76 My. We find that there have been large and systematic changes in the Fe isotopic composition of seawater over the Cenozoic that reflect the influence of several, distinct Fe sources to the central Pacific Ocean. Given that deeply sourced Fe from hydrothermalism and marginal sediment dissolution exhibit the largest Fe isotopic variations in modern oceanic settings, the record requires that these deep Fe sources have exerted a major control over the Fe inventory of the Pacific for the past 76 My. The persistence of deeply sourced Fe in the Pacific Ocean illustrates that multiple sources contribute to the total Fe budget of the ocean and highlights the importance of oceanic circulation in determining if deeply sourced Fe is ever ventilated at the surface.

  18. ''Numerical simulation of passive tracer dispersion in the pacific ocean from Mururoa atoll (French Polynesia)''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancher, J.; Lazar, A.; Maes, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    In order to evaluate, on a Tropical South Pacific scale over 10 years, the consequences of an hypothetic radionuclide releases to the ocean from French Nuclear test sites, a series of numerical simulations was carried out. Tracer advection and diffusion terms were computed by a dispersion model without taking into account radioactive decay and biological interactions. Ocean dynamics and turbulent mixing coefficients were derived from a Ocean General circulation Model using annual average climatological fields. A punctual release with unit activity concentration throughout the depth showed the existence of two major directions of propagation from Mururoa atoll: one toward the Eastern Pacific when releases originated from 100-150 meters or less, and the other Westward if release depth is greater. The maximum concentrations which may possibly reach the continental South Pacific coastline originated from released points located in the 350 meters depth zone. Another experiment showed that an punctual release yields higher concentrations than the continuous release of an equivalent quantity over 10 years; two punctual releases were carried out at the characteristic depth of 5 m and 364 m: maximum concentrations decrease by factors of 10 000 and 1000 over ten years. A comparison is made with the surface release study of Ribbe and Tomczak (1990), despite a significant discrepancy in propagation direction, the order of magnitude for concentrations is comparable. (author)

  19. Isotopic composition of nitrate in the central Arabian Sea and eastern tropical North Pacific: A tracer for mixing and nitrogen cycles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Brandes, J.A.; Devol, A.H.; Yoshinari, T.; Jayakumar, D.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Trench. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Cali- fornia, Los Angeles. -. AND I. R. KAPLAN. 1975. Isotopic fractionation of dissolved nitrate during denitrification in the eastern tropical North Pa- cific. Mar. Chem. 3: 271-299. CODISPOTI, L. A., AND J. P....-K. 1979. Geochemistry of inorganic nitrogen compounds in two marine environments: The Santa Barbara basin and the ocean off Peru. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of California, Los Angeles. -, AND I. R. KAPLAN. 1989. The eastern tropical Pacific as a source of 15N...

  20. Recent Progresses in Impacts of Indo-Western Pacific Ocean on East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Some progresses in impacts of Western Pacific Ocean (WPO) on East Asian monsoon and stratosphere climate are reviewed from the following aspects. (1) Impact of the IPOD (a cross-basin dipole pattern of SSTA variability between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean) on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM).The IPOD exhibits a considerable correlation with the EASM. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (2) TheIndo-Western Pacific convection oscillation (IPCO),which is an out-of-phase fluctuation in convection anomalies between the north Indian Ocean and the western North Pacific region,is closely related to the EASM.Negative IPCO phases, which exhibit an enhanced convection over the north Indian Ocean and a suppressed convection over the western North Pacific, favor a weakened EASM and an increase of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley with the joint actions of the stronger than normal Ural and Okhotsk blocking highs and the subtropical western Pacific high, and vice versa.(3) Asymmetric influence of the two types of ENSO on summer rainfall in China. The two types of ENSO have asymmetric impacts on summer rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley. The relation between summer rainfall over this valley and the cold tongue (CT) El Niño is significantly positive, while the relation with the CT La Niña is not significant. The negative phase of the warm pool (WP) ENSO has a significant positive influence, whereas no significant relation with the positive phase. They indicated that this asymmetric response of the EASM is likely to be linked to the different spatial patterns of the two types of ENSO.(4) Linkage between recent winter precipitation increase in the middle-lower Yangtze River valley (MLY) since the late 1970s andwarming in the

  1. ENSO signals on sea-surface salinity in the eastern tropical pacific ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    types collected in the tropical Pacific are analyzed to assess the regional impacts of past (1972-1996 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO events. Focus is made on the regional changes in sea-surface temperature and salinity. Commercial vessels were recently equipped with automated thermosalinographs which allows to monitor the location of salinity front along the Panama-Tahiti line, separating the Panama Gulf from the South Pacific water masses. The latitudinal change of the salinity front is well correlated with the latitudinal change of the ITCZ. Salinity distribution gives additional information on El-Niño development. How future real time SSS data might provide interesting information on the development of ENSO phenomenon in the eastern tropical Pacific area will be discussed.

  2. Role of the meridional dipole of SSTA and associated cross-equatorial flow in the tropical eastern Pacific in terminating the 2014 El Niño development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Lin; Hong, Chi-Cherng; Li, Tim; Chen, Cheng-Ta; Wang, Lu

    2018-03-01

    In the boreal spring of 2014, the oceanic and atmospheric conditions were favorable for an El Niño's development. It was predicted that in 2014, a super El Niño or at least a regular El Niño with normal magnitude, would initiate. However, the growth rate of the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the equatorial eastern Pacific suddenly declined in the boreal summer. The physical processes responsible for the termination of the 2014 El Niño were addressed in this study. We hypothesized that a meridional dipole of SSTA, characterized by a pronounced warm SSTA over the eastern North Pacific (ENP) and cold SSTA over the eastern South Pacific (ESP), played a crucial role in blocking the 2014 El Niño's development. The observational analysis revealed that the meridional dipole of SSTA and the relevant anomalous cross-equatorial flow in the tropical eastern Pacific, induced anomalous westward ({u^' }0) currents in the equatorial eastern Pacific, leading to negative anomalous zonal advection term (- {u^' }partial \\overline T /partial xpartial \\overline T /partial znegative SSTA tendency in the boreal summer, and thus killed off the budding 2014 El Niño. The idealized numerical experiments further confirmed that the 2014 El Niño's development could be suppressed by the meridional dipole of SSTA, and both the ENP pole and ESP pole make a contribution.

  3. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Wittenberg, A.

    2009-08-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly sensitive to the concentration and distribution of ocean chlorophyll. Setting the near-oligotrophic regions to contain optically pure water warms the mean state and suppresses variability in the western tropical Pacific. Doing the same above the shadow zones of the tropical Pacific also warms the mean state but enhances the variability. It is shown that increasing penetration can both deepen the pycnocline (which tends to damp El Niño) while shifting the mean circulation so that the wind response to temperature changes is altered. Depending on what region is involved this change in the wind stress can either strengthen or weaken ENSO variability.

  4. Temperature correlations between the eastern equatorial Pacific and Antarctica over the past 230,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutavas, Athanasios

    2018-03-01

    Tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) warmed and cooled in step with the Pleistocene ice age cycles, but the mechanisms are not known. It is assumed that the answer must involve radiative forcing by CO2 but SST reconstructions have been too sparse for a conclusive test. Here I present a 230,000-yr tropical SST stack from the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) using two new Mg/Ca reconstructions combined with three earlier ones. The EEP stack shows persistent covariation with Antarctic temperature on orbital and millennial timescales indicating tight coupling between the two regions. This coupling however cannot be explained solely by CO2 forcing because in at least one important case, the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e-5d glacial inception, both regions cooled ∼5-6.5 thousand years before CO2 decreased. More likely, their covariation was due to advection of Antarctic climate signals to the EEP by the ocean. To explain the MIS 5e-5d event and glacial inception in general the hypothesis is advanced that the cooling signal spreads globally from the Northern Hemisphere with an active ocean circulation - first from the North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean with a colder North Atlantic Deep Water, and then to the Indian and Pacific Oceans with cooler Antarctic deep and intermediate waters.

  5. The Role of the Indian Ocean Sector for Prediction of the Coupled Indo-Pacific System: Impact of Atmospheric Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackert, E. C.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Carton, J.; Murtugudde, R.; Arkin, P.; Evans, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Indian Ocean (IO) dynamics impact ENSO predictability by influencing wind and precipitation anomalies in the Pacific. To test if the upstream influence of the IO improves ENSO validation statistics, a combination of forced ocean, atmosphere, and coupled models are utilized. In one experiment, the full tropical Indo-Pacific region atmosphere is forced by observed interannual SST anomalies. In the other, the IO is forced by climatological SST. Differences between these two forced atmospheric model experiments spotlight a much richer wind response pattern in the Pacific than previous studies that used idealized forcing and simple linear atmospheric models. Weak westerlies are found near the equator similar to earlier literature. However, at initialization strong easterlies between 30 deg. S to 10 deg. S and 0 deg. N to 25 deg. N and equatorial convergence of the meridional winds across the entire Pacific are unique findings from this paper. The large-scale equatorial divergence west of the dateline and northeasterly-to-northwesterly cross-equatorial flow converging on the equator east of the dateline in the Pacific are generated from interannual IO SST coupling. In addition, off-equatorial downwelling curl impacts large-scale oceanic waves (i.e., Rossby waves reflect as western boundary Kelvin waves). After 3 months, these downwelling equatorial Kelvin waves propagate across the Pacific and strengthen the NINO3 SST. Eventually Bjerknes feedbacks take hold in the eastern Pacific which allows this warm anomaly to grow. Coupled forecasts for NINO3 SST anomalies for 1993-2014 demonstrate that including interannual IO forcing significantly improves predictions for 3-9 month lead times.

  6. The role of the Indian Ocean sector for prediction of the coupled Indo-Pacific system: Impact of atmospheric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackert, E. C.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Carton, J.; Murtugudde, R.; Arkin, P.; Evans, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Indian Ocean (IO) dynamics impact ENSO predictability by influencing wind and precipitation anomalies in the Pacific. To test if the upstream influence of the IO improves ENSO validation statistics, a combination of forced ocean, atmosphere, and coupled models are utilized. In one experiment, the full tropical Indo-Pacific region atmosphere is forced by observed interannual SST anomalies. In the other, the IO is forced by climatological SST. Differences between these two forced atmospheric model experiments spotlight a much richer wind response pattern in the Pacific than previous studies that used idealized forcing and simple linear atmospheric models. Weak westerlies are found near the equator similar to earlier literature. However, at initialization strong easterlies between 30°S-10°S and 0°N-25°N and equatorial convergence of the meridional winds across the entire Pacific are unique findings from this paper. The large-scale equatorial divergence west of the dateline and northeasterly-to-northwesterly cross-equatorial flow converging on the equator east of the dateline in the Pacific are generated from interannual IO SST coupling. In addition, off-equatorial downwelling curl impacts large-scale oceanic waves (i.e., Rossby waves reflect as western boundary Kelvin waves). After 3 months, these downwelling equatorial Kelvin waves propagate across the Pacific and strengthen the NINO3 SST. Eventually Bjerknes feedbacks take hold in the eastern Pacific which allows this warm anomaly to grow. Coupled forecasts for NINO3 SST anomalies for 1993-2014 demonstrate that including interannual IO forcing significantly improves predictions for 3-9 month lead times.

  7. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    OpenAIRE

    W. Anderson; A. Gnanadesikan; A. Wittenberg

    2009-01-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly se...

  8. Distribution and Magnitude of Dinitrogen Fixation in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Oxygen Deficient Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, C.; Mulholland, M. R.; Widner, B.; Bernhardt, P. W.; Macías Tapia, A.; Jayakumar, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean (ETNP) hosts one of the world's three major open ocean oxygen deficient zones (ODZs). Hotspots for fixed nitrogen (N) loss processes, ODZs have classically been discounted as areas of significant dinitrogen (N2) fixation, the microbe-mediated reduction of N2 to ammonium (NH4+), which has historically been ascribed primarily to euphotic, nutrient-deplete tropical waters. Challenging this paradigm, active expression of nifH (the dinitrogen reductase structural gene) has recently been documented in the ETNP, Eastern Tropical South Pacific, and Arabian Sea ODZs, implying a closer coupling of fixed nitrogen input and loss processes than previously thought. Here, we report rates of N­2 fixation measured in the ETNP ODZ along vertical gradients of oxygen, light, and dissolved N concentrations. Detailed vertical profiles of N2 fixation rates and dissolved N concentrations made within the ODZ were compared with similar profiles from oxic waters outside the ODZ. In addition, different organic carbon sources were investigated as potential rate-limiting factors for N2 fixation in sub-euphotic waters. By establishing the magnitude and distribution of N­2 fixation in the ETNP ODZ, this study contributes to current understanding of N cycling in anoxic and aphotic waters, and serves to elucidate nuances in the global N budget, enabling more accurate biogeochemical modeling. Understanding these processes in present day ODZs is crucial for predicting how ongoing anthropogenic intensification of coastal ODZs will alter biogeochemical cycles in the future.

  9. The Transport of Close-In Fallout Plutonium in the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Tracing the Water Mass Movement Using {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu Atom Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Han [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Gi-Hoon; Suk, Moon-Sik [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gastaud, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory (Monaco); La Rosa, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ionizing Radiation Division, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Kim, Chul-Soo [Environmental Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Wyse, E. [New Brunswick Laboratory Argonne, IL (United States); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-07-15

    {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater and surface sediment collected from the northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean from 1992 to 1997 were determined using ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In whole water columns, the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu were higher than the global fallout ratio (0.18). It is noted that the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/2{sup 39}Pu in the seawater increase with depth. Such elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios indicate that the close-in fallout plutonium isotopes originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPGs) due to the U.S. tests are prevailing in the seawater in the NW Pacific Ocean. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the surface sediment from the NW Pacific Ocean varied with the sampling locations. As a consequence, this study will provide the information that the water mass along with the current plays a key role in driving the distribution of Pu and in transporting Pu from the PPGs to the far eastern marginal sea in the NW Pacific Ocean. (author)

  10. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Anderson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly sensitive to the concentration and distribution of ocean chlorophyll. Setting the near-oligotrophic regions to contain optically pure water warms the mean state and suppresses variability in the western tropical Pacific. Doing the same above the shadow zones of the tropical Pacific also warms the mean state but enhances the variability. It is shown that increasing penetration can both deepen the pycnocline (which tends to damp El Niño while shifting the mean circulation so that the wind response to temperature changes is altered. Depending on what region is involved this change in the wind stress can either strengthen or weaken ENSO variability.

  11. Deglacial Millennial-scale Calcium Carbonate Spikes in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamoto, M. O.; Timmermann, A.; Harada, N.; Okazaki, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous paleoproxy records from the subarctic Pacific Ocean show two very pronounced deglacial peaks in calcium carbonate content for the Heinrich 1/ Bolling-Allerod (H1-BA) transition (at 14 ka) and for the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition (at 11 ka). Focusing on the H1-BA transition, some model simulations capture the North Pacific shift from ventilated to stratified conditions and from cooling to warming conditions via oceanic and atmospheric connections between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. To test the impact of these physical scenarios (variations in ocean stratification and temperature during the H1-BA transition) on calcite production or preservation, we conduct a series of idealized experiments using the Earth System Model Intermediate Complexity LOVECLIM. The variations in North Pacific Ocean stratification by anomalous freshwater forcing show low calcite productivity in associated with the subsurface nutrient decline. On the other hand, the rapid H1-BA warming of the North Pacific Ocean induced by anomalous heat forcing in turn increases calcite productivity due to the temperature-dependent growth rate of phytoplankton. These results suggest the possibility that the millennial-scale calcium carbonate peaks are the result of surface biogeochemical responses to the climate transition, not by the deep circulation response.

  12. Regulation of phytoplankton carbon to chlorophyll ratio by light, nutrients and temperature in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean: a basin-scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Wang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex effects of light, nutrients and temperature lead to a variable carbon to chlorophyll (C:Chl ratio in phytoplankton cells. Using field data collected in the Equatorial Pacific, we derived a new dynamic model with a non-steady C:Chl ratio as a function of irradiance, nitrate, iron, and temperature. The dynamic model is implemented into a basin-scale ocean circulation-biogeochemistry model and tested in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. The model reproduces well the general features of phytoplankton dynamics in this region. For instance, the simulated deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM is much deeper in the western warm pool (~100 m than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (~50 m. The model also shows the ability to reproduce chlorophyll, including not only the zonal, meridional and vertical variations, but also the interannual variability. This modeling study demonstrates that combination of nitrate and iron regulates the spatial and temporal variations in the phytoplankton C:Chl ratio in the Equatorial Pacific. Sensitivity simulations suggest that nitrate is mainly responsible for the high C:Chl ratio in the western warm pool while iron is responsible for the frontal features in the C:Chl ratio between the warm pool and the upwelling region. In addition, iron plays a dominant role in regulating the spatial and temporal variations of the C:Chl ratio in the Central and Eastern Equatorial Pacific. While temperature has a relatively small effect on the C:Chl ratio, light is primarily responsible for the vertical decrease of phytoplankton C:Chl ratio in the euphotic zone.

  13. Influences of two types of El Niño event on the Northwest Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean SST anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Wu, Qigang; Wu, Zepeng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the HadISST1 and NCEP datasets, we investigated the influences of the central Pacific El Niño event (CP-EL) and eastern Pacific El Niño event (EP-EL) on the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies of the Tropical Indian Ocean. Considering the remote effect of Indian Ocean warming, we also discussed the anticyclone anomalies over the Northwest Pacific, which is very important for the South China precipitation and East Asian climate. Results show that during the El Niño developing year of EP-EL, cold SST anomalies appear and intensify in the east of tropical Indian Ocean. At the end of that autumn, all the cold SST anomaly events lead to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events. Basin uniform warm SST anomalies exist in the Indian Ocean in the whole summer of EL decaying year for both CP-and EP-ELs. However, considering the statistical significance, more significant warm SST anomalies only appear in the North Indian Ocean among the June and August of EP-EL decaying year. For further research, EP-EL accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (EPI-EL) and CP El Niño accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (CPI-EL) events are classified. With the remote effects of Indian Ocean SST anomalies, the EPI-and CPI-ELs contribute quite differently to the Northwest Pacific. For the EPI-EL developing year, large-scale warm SST anomalies arise in the North Indian Ocean in May, and persist to the autumn of the El Niño decaying year. However, for the CPI-EL, weak warm SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean maintain to the El Niño decaying spring. Because of these different SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean, distinct zonal SST gradient, atmospheric anticyclone and precipitation anomalies emerge over the Northwest Pacific in the El Niño decaying years. Specifically, the large-scale North Indian Ocean warm SST anomalies during the EPI-EL decaying years, can persist to summer and force anomalous updrafts and rainfall over the North Indian Ocean. The atmospheric

  14. New eastern Pacific Ocean record of the rare deep-water fish, Psychrolutes phrictus (Scorpaeniformes: Psychrolutidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre-Villaseñor, Hugo; Cruz-Acevedo, Edgar; Salas-Singh, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Psychrolutes phrictus is a benthic deep sea fish known from the eastern North Pacific. On 30 March 2008, a specimen of the blob sculpin P. phrictus (297 mm LT) was caught off the Guerrero coast, Mexico (17°45′24″N, 101°59′04″W). The blob sculpin was taken at a depth of 1,100 m within a temperature range of 3.88-4.25 °C, where hypoxic (0.57-0.39 mg/l) conditions prevailed; the specimen was captured over a muddy bottom using a benthic sledge. Representatives of this species had never ...

  15. Evaluation of tropical Pacific observing systems using NCEP and GFDL ocean data assimilation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Wen, Caihong; Yang, Xiaosong; Behringer, David; Kumar, Arun; Vecchi, Gabriel; Rosati, Anthony; Gudgel, Rich

    2017-08-01

    The TAO/TRITON array is the cornerstone of the tropical Pacific and ENSO observing system. Motivated by the recent rapid decline of the TAO/TRITON array, the potential utility of TAO/TRITON was assessed for ENSO monitoring and prediction. The analysis focused on the period when observations from Argo floats were also available. We coordinated observing system experiments (OSEs) using the global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory for the period 2004-2011. Four OSE simulations were conducted with inclusion of different subsets of in situ profiles: all profiles (XBT, moorings, Argo), all except the moorings, all except the Argo and no profiles. For evaluation of the OSE simulations, we examined the mean bias, standard deviation difference, root-mean-square difference (RMSD) and anomaly correlation against observations and objective analyses. Without assimilation of in situ observations, both GODAS and ECDA had large mean biases and RMSD in all variables. Assimilation of all in situ data significantly reduced mean biases and RMSD in all variables except zonal current at the equator. For GODAS, the mooring data is critical in constraining temperature in the eastern and northwestern tropical Pacific, while for ECDA both the mooring and Argo data is needed in constraining temperature in the western tropical Pacific. The Argo data is critical in constraining temperature in off-equatorial regions for both GODAS and ECDA. For constraining salinity, sea surface height and surface current analysis, the influence of Argo data was more pronounced. In addition, the salinity data from the TRITON buoys played an important role in constraining salinity in the western Pacific. GODAS was more sensitive to withholding Argo data in off-equatorial regions than ECDA because it relied on local observations to correct model biases and

  16. Coherent tropical Indo-Pacific interannual climate variability

    OpenAIRE

    Wieners, C.E.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.; Ridderinkhof, W.; von der Heydt, A.S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    A multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) applied simultaneously to tropical sea surface temperature (SST), zonal wind, and burstiness (zonal wind variability) reveals three significant oscillatory modes. They all show a strong ENSO signal in the eastern Pacific Ocean (PO) but also a substantial SST signal in the western Indian Ocean (IO). A correlation-based analysis shows that the western IO signal contains linearly independent information on ENSO. Of the three Indo-Pacific ENSO mode...

  17. Changes in upwelling and surface productivity in the Eastern Pacific during Terminations I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Z.; De Bar, M.; Stolwijk, D.; Schneider, R. R.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Schouten, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Eastern Pacific coastal system is characterized by intense upwelling and consequently by an enhanced surface primary productivity. Combination of this high organic matter flux with sluggish bottom water ventilation results in one of the most pronounced oxygen minimum zones reaching from offshore California in the North to offshore Chile in the South. As a result of this process, the region is particularly interesting in view of nutrient and carbon cycling as well as ecosystem dynamics. The dynamics of the upwelling and oxygen concentrations are closely related to climatic conditions. Therefore, paleo-reconstructions of different settings are crucial in order to improve our understanding of the response of these nutrient-rich, oxygen-deficient, environments in relation to the recent global ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation. In this study, we present downcore results from three different sites in the Eastern Pacific: offshore California (IODP site 1012), Peru (M77/2-52-2) and Chile (IODP site 1234). We applied different biomarkers as proxies to decipher changes in phytoplankton community composition, including the upwelling index based on long chain diols, and other common productivity indicators such as bulk organic carbon, carbonate and biogenic opal. In addition, application of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of total organic carbon and benthic foraminifera complement our multiproxy approach. Herewith we aim to compare at least two glacial-interglacial transitions with different magnitudes of deglacial warming along the Eastern Pacific upwelling systems at different latitudes. The data presented will cover the last 160 ka BP offshore California and Chile, and 30 ka BP offshore Peru enabling comparison between glacial Terminations I and II.

  18. The bomb 14C transient in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Keith B.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Cane, Mark A.; Naik, Naomi H.

    2000-04-01

    A modeling study of the bomb 14C transient is presented for the Pacific Ocean. A primitive equation ocean circulation model has been configured for a high-resolution domain that accounts for the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Four separate runs were performed: (1) seasonal forcing with 20 Sv of ITF transport, (2) seasonal forcing with 10 Sv of ITF transport, (3) seasonal forcing with no ITF transport, and (4) interannual forcing with 15 Sv of ITF transport. This study has two main objectives. First, it is intended to describe the time evolution of the bomb 14C transient. This serves as a tool with which one can identify the physical processes controlling the evolving bomb 14C distribution in the Pacific thermocline and thus provides an interpretive framework for the database of Δ14C measurements in the Pacific. Second, transient tracers are applied to the physical oceanographic problem of intergyre exchange. This is of importance in furthering our understanding of the potential role of the upper Pacific Ocean in climate variability. We use bomb 14C as a dye tracer of intergyre exchange between the subtropical gyres and the equatorial upwelling regions of the equatorial Pacific. Observations show that while the atmospheric Δ14C signal peaked in the early to mid-1960s, the Δ14C levels in the surface water waters of the subtropical gyres peaked near 1970, and the Δ14C of surface waters in the equatorial Pacific continued to rise through the 1980s. It is shown that the model exhibits skill in representing the large-scale observed features observed for the bomb 14C transient in the Pacific Ocean. The model successfully captures the basin-scale inventories of bomb 14C in the tropics as well as in the extratropics of the North Pacific. For the equatorial Pacific this is attributed to the model's high meridional resolution. The discrepancies in the three-dimensional distribution of bomb 14C between the model and data are discussed within the context of the dynamical

  19. E/V Nautilus Detection of Isolated Features in the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Newly Discovered Calderas and Methane Seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineault, N.; Irish, O.; Lubetkin, M.

    2016-02-01

    The E/V Nautilus mapped over 80,000 km2 of the seafloor in the Gulf of Mexico and Eastern Pacific Ocean during its 2015 expedition. The Nautilus used its Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system to map the seafloor prior to remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives, both for scientific purposes (site selection) and navigational safety. The Nautilus also routinely maps during transits to identify previously un-mapped or unresolved seafloor features. During its transit from the Galapagos Islands to the California Borderland, the Nautilus mapped 44,695 km2 of seafloor. Isolated features on the seafloor and in the water-column, such as calderas and methane seeps, were detected during this data collection effort. Operating at a frequency of 30 kHz in waters ranging from 1000-5500 m, we discovered caldera features off the coast of Central America. Since seamounts are known hotspots of biodiversity, locating new ones may enrich our understanding of seamounts as "stepping stones" for species distribution and ocean current pathways. Satellite altimetry datasets prior to this data either did not discern these calderas or recognized the presence of a bathymetric high without great detail. This new multibeam bathymetry data, gridded at 50 m, gives a precise look at these seamounts that range in elevation from 350 to 1400 m from abyssal depth. The largest of the calderas is circular in shape and is 10,000 m in length and 5,000 m in width, with a distinct circular depression at the center of its highest point, 1,400 m above the surrounding abyssal depth. In the California Borderland region, located between San Diego and Los Angeles, four new seeps were discovered in water depths from 400-1,020 m. ROV exploration of these seeps revealed vent communities. Altogether, these discoveries reinforce how little we know about the global ocean, indicate the presence of isolated deep-sea ecosystems that support biologically diverse communities, and will impact our understanding of seafloor habitat.

  20. An ecosystem services perspective for the oceanic eastern tropical Pacific: commercial fisheries, carbon storage, recreational fishing, and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer Lynn Martin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ocean provides ecosystem services (ES that support humanity. Traditional single-issue management largely failed to protect the full suite of ES. Ecosystem-based management (EBM promotes resilient social-ecological systems that provide ES. To implement EBM, an ES approach is useful: 1 characterize major ES provided (magnitude, geographic extent, monetary value, trends, and stakeholders, 2 identify trade-offs, 3 determine desired outcomes, and 4 manage anthropogenic activities accordingly. Here we apply the ES approach (steps 1-2 to an open ocean ecosystem, the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP, an area of 21 million km2 that includes waters of 12 nations and the oceanic commons, using 35 years (1975-2010 of fisheries and economic data, and 20 years (1986-2006 of ship-based survey data. We examined commercial fisheries, carbon storage, biodiversity, and recreational fishing as the major provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ES, respectively. Average catch value (using U.S. import prices for fish for the 10 most commercially fished species was $2.7 billion yr-1. The value of carbon export to the deep ocean was $12.9 billion yr-1 (using average European carbon market prices. For two fisheries-depleted dolphin populations, the potential value of rebuilding carbon stores was $1.6 million (cumulative; for exploited fish stocks it was also $1.6 million (an estimated reduction of 544,000 mt. Sport fishing expenditures totaled $1.2 billion yr-1, from studies of three popular destinations. These initial, conservative estimates do not represent a complete summary of ETP ES values. We produced species richness maps for cetaceans, seabirds, and ichthyoplankton, and a sightings density map for marine turtles. Over 1/3 of cetacean, seabird, and marine turtle species occur in the ETP, and diversity (or density hotspots are widespread. This study fills several gaps in the assessment of marine and coastal ES by focusing on an oceanic habitat

  1. Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean

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    Y. Huot

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The particulate scattering, bp, and backscattering, bbp, coefficients are determined by the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the scattering of light within the water column. For the remote observation of ocean color, bbp along with the total absorption coefficient govern the amount and spectral qualities of light leaving the sea surface. However, for the construction and validation of ocean color models measurements of bbp are still lacking, especially at low chlorophyll a concentrations ([Chl]. Here, we examine the relationships between spectral bbp and bp vs. [Chl] along an 8000 km transect crossing the Case 1 waters of the eastern South Pacific Gyre. In these waters, over the entire range of [Chl] encountered (~0.02–2 mg m3, both bbp and bp can be related to [Chl] by power functions (i.e. bp or bbp=α[Chl]β. Regression analyses are carried out to provide the parameters α and β for several wavelengths throughout the visible for both bbp and bp. When applied to the data, these functions retrieve the same fraction of variability in bbp and bp (coefficients of determination between 0.82 and 0.88. The bbp coefficient fall within the bounds of previous measurements at intermediate and high [Chl] recently published. Its dependence on [Chl] below ~0.1 mg m−3 is described for the first time with in situ data. The backscattering ratio (i.e. bbp/bp with values near 0.01 for all stations appears to be spectrally neutral and not significantly dependent on [Chl]. These results should foster the

  2. Mesoscale cyclogenesis over the western north Pacific Ocean during TPARC

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    Christopher A. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of mesoscale marine cyclogenesis over the subtropics of the Western Pacific Ocean are investigated. Each case occurred during the THORPEX Pacific Asia Regional Campaign and Tropical Cyclone Structure (TCS-08 field phases in 2008. Each cyclone developed from remnants of disturbances that earlier showed potential for tropical cyclogenesis within the tropics. Two of the cyclones produced gale-force surface winds, and one, designated as a tropical cyclone, resulted in a significant coastal storm over eastern Japan. Development was initiated by a burst of organized mesoscale convection that consolidated and intensified the surface cyclonic circulation over a period of 12–24 h. Upper-tropospheric potential vorticity anomalies modulated the vertical wind shear that, in turn, influenced the periods of cyclone intensification and weakening. Weak baroclinicity associated with vertical shear was also deemed important in organizing mesoscale ascent and the convection outbreaks. The remnant tropical disturbances contributed exceptional water vapour content to higher latitudes that led to strong diabatic heating, and the tropical remnants contributed vorticity that was the seed of the development in the subtropics. Predictability of these events more than three days in advance appears to be minimal.

  3. The Effect of ENSO on Phytoplankton Composition in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (p less than 0.01) with the Multivariate El Nino Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). In the North Central Pacific, MEI and chlorophyll were significantly (pphytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Ni a events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  4. Long-term variabilities of meridional geostrophic volumn transport in North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Yuan, D.; Dewar, W. K.

    2016-02-01

    The meridional geostrophic volumn transport (MGVT) by the ocean plays a very important role in the climatic water mass and heat balance because of its large heat capacity which enables the oceans to store the large amount of radiation received in the summer and to release it in winter. Better understanding of the role of the oceans in climate variability is essential to assess the likely range of future climate fluctuations. In the last century the North Pacific Ocean experienced considerable climate variability, especially on decadal time scale. Some studies have shown that the North Pacific Ocean is the origin of North Pacific multidecadal variability (Latif and Barnett, 1994; Barnett et al., 1999). These fluctuations were associated with large anomalies in sea level, temperature, storminess and rainfall, the heat transport and other extremes are changing as well. If the MGVT of the ocean is well-determined, it can be used as a test of the validity of numerical, global climate models. In this paper, we investigate the long-term variability of the MGVT in North Pacific ocean based on 55 years long global ocean heat and salt content data (Levitus et al., 2012). Very clear inter-decadal variations can be seen in tropical , subtropical and subpolar regions of North Pacific Ocean. There are very consistent variations between the MGVT anomalies and the inter-decadal pacific oscillation (IPO) index in the tropical gyre with cold phase of IPO corresponding to negative MGVT anomalies and warm phase corresponding to positive MGVT anomalies. The subtropical gyre shows more complex variations, and the subpolar gyre shows a negative MGVT anomaly before late 1970's and a positive anomaly after that time. The geostrophic velocities of North Pacific Ocean show significantly different anomalies during the two IPO cold phases of 1955-1976 and 1999 to present, which suggests a different mechanism of the two cold phases. The long term variations of Sverdrup transport compares well

  5. Impact of El Niño Variability on Oceanic Phytoplankton

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    Marie-Fanny Racault

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic phytoplankton respond rapidly to a complex spectrum of climate-driven perturbations, confounding attempts to isolate the principal causes of observed changes. A dominant mode of variability in the Earth-climate system is that generated by the El Niño phenomenon. Marked variations are observed in the centroid of anomalous warming in the Equatorial Pacific under El Niño, associated with quite different alterations in environmental and biological properties. Here, using observational and reanalysis datasets, we differentiate the regional physical forcing mechanisms, and compile a global atlas of associated impacts on oceanic phytoplankton caused by two extreme types of El Niño. We find robust evidence that during Eastern Pacific (EP and Central Pacific (CP types of El Niño, impacts on phytoplankton can be felt everywhere, but tend to be greatest in the tropics and subtropics, encompassing up to 67% of the total affected areas, with the remaining 33% being areas located in high-latitudes. Our analysis also highlights considerable and sometimes opposing regional effects. During EP El Niño, we estimate decreases of −56 TgC/y in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, and −82 TgC/y in the western Indian Ocean, and increase of +13 TgC/y in eastern Indian Ocean, whereas during CP El Niño, we estimate decreases −68 TgC/y in the tropical western Pacific Ocean and −10 TgC/y in the central Atlantic Ocean. We advocate that analysis of the dominant mechanisms forcing the biophysical under El Niño variability may provide a useful guide to improve our understanding of projected changes in the marine ecosystem in a warming climate and support development of adaptation and mitigation plans.

  6. Robustness of observation-based decadal sea level variability in the Indo-Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidheesh, A. G.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.; Meyssignac, B.; Hamlington, B.; de Boyer Montegut, C.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the consistency of Indo-Pacific decadal sea level variability in 10 gridded, observation-based sea level products for the 1960-2010 period. Decadal sea level variations are robust in the Pacific, with more than 50% of variance explained by decadal modulation of two flavors of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (classical ENSO and Modoki). Amplitude of decadal sea level variability is weaker in the Indian Ocean than in the Pacific. All data sets indicate a transmission of decadal sea level signals from the western Pacific to the northwest Australian coast through the Indonesian throughflow. The southern tropical Indian Ocean sea level variability is associated with decadal modulations of ENSO in reconstructions but not in reanalyses or in situ data set. The Pacific-independent Indian Ocean decadal sea level variability is not robust but tends to be maximum in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. The inconsistency of Indian Ocean decadal variability across the sea level products calls for caution in making definitive conclusions on decadal sea level variability in this basin.

  7. Spatial variation of the zooplankton community in the western tropical Pacific Ocean during the summer of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing; Wang, Xiaocheng; Dai, Luping; Tao, Zhencheng; Ji, Peng

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the zooplankton community in the western tropical Pacific Ocean is poor compared to that of the communities in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. The zooplankton composition, abundance, biomass and community structure in the western Pacific Ocean were studied based on data collected during a synoptic cruise (August-September 2014). Four zooplankton communities were determined via cluster analysis, and these four clusters were mainly spatially related to four different currents: the Luzon Current (LC), Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC), North Equatorial Current (NEC) and North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). The estimated mean abundance and biomass of the zooplankton for the whole surveyed area were 146.7±178.1 ind/m3 and 36.9±40.3 mg/m3, respectively. The zooplankton abundance was dominated by small copepods, such as Clausocalanus furcatus, C. pergens, Oncaea mediterranea and Oithona plumifera. The zooplankton abundance and biomass values were lowest in the STCC region and highest in the NECC region. BEST analysis based on surface environmental factors showed that chlorophyll a (chl a), pH, temperature and salinity were the environmental variables that best explained the distribution pattern of the zooplankton community (pw=0.372). The zooplankton abundance was higher south of the salinity front at 16°N, in accordance with the relatively higher nutrient and chl a levels. Maximum zooplankton biomass was found in regions on the periphery of the cyclonic Mindanao Eddy (ME) and anticyclonic Halmahera Eddy (HE).

  8. Genetic Population Structure of the Coral Reef Sea Star Linckia laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean and Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otwoma, Levy Michael; Kochzius, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The coral reef sea star Linckia laevigata is common on shallow water coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific. Its large geographic distribution and comprehensive data from previous studies makes it suitable to examine genetic differentiation and connectivity over large geographical scales. Based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene this study investigates the genetic population structure and connectivity of L. laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) and compares it to previous studies in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA). A total of 138 samples were collected from nine locations in the WIO. AMOVA revealed a low but significant ΦST-value of 0.024 for the WIO populations. In the hierarchical AMOVA, the following grouping rejected the hypothesis of panmixia: (1) Kenya (Watamu, Mombasa, Diani) and Tanzanian Island populations (Misali and Jambiani) and (2) the rest of the WIO sites (mainland Tanzania and Madagascar; ΦCT = 0.03). The genetic population structure was stronger and more significant (ΦST = 0.13) in the comparative analysis of WIO and IMPA populations. Three clades were identified in the haplotype network. The strong genetic differentiation (ΦCT = 0.199, P Indo-West Pacific populations of L. laevigata can be grouped into four biogeographic regions: (1) WIO (2) Eastern Indian Ocean (3) IMPA and (4) Western Pacific. The findings of this study support the existence of a genetic break in the Indo-West Pacific consistent with the effect of lowered sea level during the Pleistocene, which limited gene flow between the Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  9. Artificial Radionuclides Database in the Pacific Ocean: HAM Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Aoyama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The database “Historical Artificial Radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean and its Marginal Seas”, or HAM database, has been created. The database includes 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu concentration data from the seawater of the Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas with some measurements from the sea surface to the bottom. The data in the HAM database were collected from about 90 literature citations, which include published papers; annual reports by the Hydrographic Department, Maritime Safety Agency, Japan; and unpublished data provided by individuals. The data of concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu have been accumulating since 1957–1998. The present HAM database includes 7737 records for 137Cs concentration data, 3972 records for 90Sr concentration data, and 2666 records for 239,240Pu concentration data. The spatial variation of sampling stations in the HAM database is heterogeneous, namely, more than 80% of the data for each radionuclide is from the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, while a relatively small portion of data is from the South Pacific. This HAM database will allow us to use these radionuclides as significant chemical tracers for oceanographic study as well as the assessment of environmental affects of anthropogenic radionuclides for these 5 decades. Furthermore, these radionuclides can be used to verify the oceanic general circulation models in the time scale of several decades.

  10. Marine biodiversity of an Eastern Tropical Pacific oceanic island, Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

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    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco (also known as Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific; it is part of the largest national park of Costa Rica and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The island has been visited since the 16th Century due to its abundance of freshwater and wood. Marine biodiversity studies of the island started in the late 19th Century, with an intense period of research in the 1930’s, and again from the mid 1990’s to the present. The information is scattered and, in some cases, in old publications that are difficult to access. Here I have compiled published records of the marine organisms of the island. At least 1688 species are recorded, with the gastropods (383 species, bony fishes (354 spp. and crustaceans (at least 263 spp. being the most species-rich groups; 45 species are endemic to Isla del Coco National Park (2.7% of the total. The number of species per kilometer of coastline and by square kilometer of seabed shallower than 200m deep are the highest recorded in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Although the marine biodiversity of Isla del Coco is relatively well known, there are regions that need more exploration, for example, the south side, the pelagic environments, and deeper waters. Also, several groups of organisms, such as the flatworms, nematodes, nemerteans, and gelatinous zooplankton, have been observed around the Island but have been poorly studied or not at all.La Isla del Coco es una isla oceánica en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; es parte del Parque Nacional más grande de Costa Rica y es un sitio de Patrimonio Mundial. La isla ha sido visitada desde el Siglo XVI por su abundancia de agua dulce y árboles. Estudios de biodiversidad marina de la isla empezaron a finales del Siglo XIX, con un intenso período de investigación en la década de 1930, y de nuevo desde mediados de la década de 1990 al presente. La información sobre organismos marinos se encuentra dispersa y en algunos casos en publicaciones

  11. A novel widespread cryptic species and phylogeographic patterns within several giant clam species (Cardiidae: Tridacna) from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsken, Thomas; Keyse, Jude; Liggins, Libby; Penny, Shane; Treml, Eric A; Riginos, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Giant clams (genus Tridacna) are iconic coral reef animals of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, easily recognizable by their massive shells and vibrantly colored mantle tissue. Most Tridacna species are listed by CITES and the IUCN Redlist, as their populations have been extensively harvested and depleted in many regions. Here, we survey Tridacna crocea and Tridacna maxima from the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans for mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (ITS) sequence variation and consolidate these data with previous published results using phylogenetic analyses. We find deep intraspecific differentiation within both T. crocea and T. maxima. In T. crocea we describe a previously undocumented phylogeographic division to the east of Cenderawasih Bay (northwest New Guinea), whereas for T. maxima the previously described, distinctive lineage of Cenderawasih Bay can be seen to also typify western Pacific populations. Furthermore, we find an undescribed, monophyletic group that is evolutionarily distinct from named Tridacna species at both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This cryptic taxon is geographically widespread with a range extent that minimally includes much of the central Indo-Pacific region. Our results reinforce the emerging paradigm that cryptic species are common among marine invertebrates, even for conspicuous and culturally significant taxa. Additionally, our results add to identified locations of genetic differentiation across the central Indo-Pacific and highlight how phylogeographic patterns may differ even between closely related and co-distributed species.

  12. Widespread functional anoxia in the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamdrup, Bo; Dalsgaard, Tage; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) as found in the Eastern Pacific and Indian Ocean are biogeochemical hot spots with a disproportionately large role in the marine nitrogen cycle, and they are important components of the highly productive ecosystems in which they occur. Although the oxygen-depleted waters have been known for a century, oxygen levels inside them are not well constrained and the regulation of their anaerobic processes by oxygen is poorly understood. We deployed highly sensitive STOX oxygen sensors with a detection limit of 10 nmol kg-1 in combination with conventional hydrographic oxygen sensors along a cruise track transecting the Eastern South Pacific OMZ from South to North along the coast of Chile and Peru. Oxygen was below the detection limit throughout the ˜200 m thick OMZ core in most casts with STOX sensors. The only exception was an offshore location off Peru where oxygen was 10-50 nmol kg-1 in the core, likely as the result of a transient intrusion. Oxygen was also not detected in the OMZ core in further casts with conventional sensors, which had a detection limit of 90 nmol kg-1 after STOX-based zero calibration. Our measurements tighten the constraints on typical oxygen concentrations in the inner part of the OMZ by at least an order of magnitude relative to previous reports. Nitrite only accumulated when oxygen was depleted below 50 nmol kg-1, which indicates that nitrogen cycling is much more sensitive to oxygen than previously estimated. We argue that extreme oxygen depletion to low nanomalar or even picomolar concentrations is a normal condition in the South Pacific OMZ, and suggest that the OMZ core is in fact functionally anoxic over wide regions for extended periods. Our results further indicate that oxygen dynamics in the low nanomolar range play an important role in OMZ biogeochemistry.

  13. Lowermost mantle anisotropy near the eastern edge of the Pacific LLSVP: constraints from SKS-SKKS splitting intensity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Long, Maureen D.; Creasy, Neala; Wagner, Lara; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando; Minaya, Estela

    2017-08-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been documented in many portions of the lowermost mantle, with particularly strong anisotropy thought to be present along the edges of large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). The region surrounding the Pacific LLSVP, however, has not yet been studied extensively in terms of its anisotropic structure. In this study, we use seismic data from southern Peru, northern Bolivia and Easter Island to probe lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath the eastern Pacific Ocean, mostly relying on data from the Peru Lithosphere and Slab Experiment and Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography experiments. Differential shear wave splitting measurements from phases that have similar ray paths in the upper mantle but different ray paths in the lowermost mantle, such as SKS and SKKS, are used to constrain anisotropy in D″. We measured splitting for 215 same station-event SKS-SKKS pairs that sample the eastern Pacific LLSVP at the base of the mantle. We used measurements of splitting intensity(SI), a measure of the amount of energy on the transverse component, to objectively and quantitatively analyse any discrepancies between SKS and SKKS phases. While the overall splitting signal is dominated by the upper-mantle anisotropy, a minority of SKS-SKKS pairs (∼10 per cent) exhibit strongly discrepant splitting between the phases (i.e. the waveforms require a difference in SI of at least 0.4), indicating a likely contribution from lowermost mantle anisotropy. In order to enhance lower mantle signals, we also stacked waveforms within individual subregions and applied a waveform differencing technique to isolate the signal from the lowermost mantle. Our stacking procedure yields evidence for substantial splitting due to lowermost mantle anisotropy only for a specific region that likely straddles the edge of Pacific LLSVP. Our observations are consistent with the localization of deformation and anisotropy near the eastern boundary of the Pacific LLSVP

  14. CCSM3 simulation of pacific multi-decadal climate variability: the role of subpolar North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Y; Liu, Z

    2008-01-01

    Previous analyses of the CCSM3 standard integration have revealed pronounced multidecadal variability in the Pacific climate system. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the physical mechanism underlying the Pacific multidecadal variability (PMV) using specifically designed sensitivity experiments. A novel mechanism is advanced, characterized by a crucial role of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. The multidecadal signal in ocean temperature and salinity fields is found to originate from the subsurface of the subpolar North Pacific, as result of the wave adjustment to the preceding basin-scale wind curl forcing. The multidecadal signal then ascends to the surface and is amplified through local temperature/salinity convective feedback. Along the southward Oyashio current, the anomaly travels to the Kuroshio Extension (KOE) region and is further intensified through a similar convective feedback in addition to the wind-evaporation-sea surface temperature feedback. The temperature anomaly in the KOE is able to feed back to the large-scale atmospheric circulation, inducing wind curl anomaly over the subpolar region, which in turn generates anomalous oceanic circulation and causes temperature/salinty variability in the subpolar subsurface. Thereby, a closed loop of PMV is established, in the form of a subpolar delayed oscillator

  15. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerovecki, Ivana [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; McClean, Julie [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Koracin, Darko [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States). Division of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-11-14

    The overall objective of this study was to improve the representation of regional ocean circulation in the North Pacific by using high resolution atmospheric forcing that accurately represents mesoscale processes in ocean-atmosphere regional (North Pacific) model configuration. The goal was to assess the importance of accurate representation of mesoscale processes in the atmosphere and the ocean on large scale circulation. This is an important question, as mesoscale processes in the atmosphere which are resolved by the high resolution mesoscale atmospheric models such as Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), are absent in commonly used atmospheric forcing such as CORE forcing, employed in e.g. the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  16. Boundary scavenging in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Lao, Y.; Broecker, W.S.; Trumbore, S.E.; Hofmann, H.J.; Wolfli, W.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of U, Th, 231 Pa and 10 Be were measured in Holocene sediments from two cores collected off the west coast of South America, two cores from the East Pacific Rise, two from the equatorial Pacific and one from the south Pacific central gyre. Our results, together with data from 5 cores reported in the literature, show that boundary scavenging plays a major role in the removal of 10 Be from the Pacific Ocean. Deposition rates of 10 Be at three margin sites are more than an order of magnitude greater than at sites of red clay accumulation in the deep central Pacific. Deposition of 231 Pa is 4 to 5-fold greater at the margin sites. The residence time of 10 Be with respect to chemical scavenging, defined as its inventory in the water column divided by its rate of removal to the sediments, varies regionally from >1000 years at the red-clay sites in the deep central Pacific to ∝100 years at the margin sites. Different factors control boundary scavenging of Pa and Be. For example, scavenging of 231 Pa is enhanced by metal-oxide coatings of particles, whereas this seems to have little influence on the scavenging of 10 Be. (orig.)

  17. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Concentration and Community in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, C. S.; Gregg, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    Climate events such as El Nino have been shown to have an effect on the biology of our ocean. Because of the lack of data, we still have very little knowledge about the spatial and temporal effect these climate events may have on biological marine systems. In this study, we used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) to assess the interannual variability in phytoplankton community in the Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005. In the North Central and Equatorial Pacific Ocean, changes in the Multivariate El Nino Index were associated with changes in phytoplankton composition. The model identified an increase in diatoms of approx.33 % in the equatorial Pacific in 1999 during a La Nina event. This increase in diatoms coincided with a decrease of approx.11 % in cyanobacteria concentration. The inverse relationship between cyanobacteria and diatoms concentration was significant (pphytoplankton groups known to lead to contrasting food chain at a spatial and temporal resolution unachievable when relying solely on in-situ observations.

  18. Effects of ocean initial perturbation on developing phase of ENSO in a coupled seasonal prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Kumar, Arun; Wang, Wanqiu

    2018-03-01

    Coupled prediction systems for seasonal and inter-annual variability in the tropical Pacific are initialized from ocean analyses. In ocean initial states, small scale perturbations are inevitably smoothed or distorted by the observational limits and data assimilation procedures, which tends to induce potential ocean initial errors for the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction. Here, the evolution and effects of ocean initial errors from the small scale perturbation on the developing phase of ENSO are investigated by an ensemble of coupled model predictions. Results show that the ocean initial errors at the thermocline in the western tropical Pacific grow rapidly to project on the first mode of equatorial Kelvin wave and propagate to the east along the thermocline. In boreal spring when the surface buoyancy flux weakens in the eastern tropical Pacific, the subsurface errors influence sea surface temperature variability and would account for the seasonal dependence of prediction skill in the NINO3 region. It is concluded that the ENSO prediction in the eastern tropical Pacific after boreal spring can be improved by increasing the observational accuracy of subsurface ocean initial states in the western tropical Pacific.

  19. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Kremenetskaia, Antonina; Mah, Christopher L; Mooi, Rich; O'Hara, Tim; Pawson, David L; Roux, Michel; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite being the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. In order to predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to these research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, the megafauna within the UKSRL exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal echinoderm megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 62 distinct morphospecies (13 Asteroidea, 5 Crinoidea, 9 Echinoidea, 29 Holothuroidea and 6 Ophiuroidea) identified mostly by imagery but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  20. Rare earth elements in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baar, H.J.W. de; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.; Bruland, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The first profiles of Pr, Tb, Ho, Tm and Lu in the Pacific Ocean, as well as profiles of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Yb are reported. Concentrations of REE (except Ce) in the deep water are two to three times higher than those observed in the deep Atlantic Ocean. Surface water concentrations are typically lower than in the Atlantic Ocean, especially for the heavier elements Ho,Tm,Yb and Lu. Cerium is strongly depleted in the Pacific water column, but less so in the oxygen minimum zone. The distribution of the REE group is consistent with two simultaneous processes: (1) cycling similar to that of opal and calcium carbonate, and (2) adsorptive scavenging by settling particles and possibly by uptake at ocean boundaries. However, the first process can probably not be sustained by the low REE contents of shells, unless additional adsorption on surfaces is invoked. The second process, adsorptive scavenging, largely controls the oceanic distribution and typical seawater pattern of the rare earths. (author)

  1. Estimate of radiocaesium derived FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-04-01

    134Cs and 137Cs (radiocaesium) were released to the North Pacific Ocean by direct discharge and atmospheric deposition released from the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident in 2011. After the FNPP1 accident, measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs were conducted by many researches. However, those results are only snapshots in order to interpret the distribution and transport of the released radiocaesium on a basin scale. It is recognized that estimation of the total amount of released 134Cs and 137Cs is necessary to assess the radioecological impacts of their release on the environment. It was reported that the inventory of 134Cs or 137Cs on the North Pacific Ocean after the FNPP1 accident was 15.2-18.3 PBq based on the observations (Aoyama et al., 2016a), 15.3±1.6 PBq by OI analysis (Inomata et al., 2016), 16.1±1.64 PBq by global ocean model (Tsubono et al., 2016). These suggest that more than 75 % of the atmospheric-released radiocaesium (15.2-20.4 PBq; Aoyama et al., 2016a) were deposited on the North Pacific Ocean. The radiocaesium from the atmospheric fallout and direct discharge were expected to mixing as well as diluting near the coastal region and transported eastward across the North Pacific Ocean in the surface layer. Furthermore, radicaesium were rapidly mixed and penetrated into the subsurface water in the North Pacific Ocean in winter. It was revealed that these radiocaesium existed in the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b; Kaeriyama et al., 2016) and Central Mode Water (CMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b), suggesting that mode water formation and subduction are efficient pathway for the transport of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium into the ocean interior within 1-year timescale. Kaeriyama et al. (2016) estimated the total amount of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium in the STMW was 4.2 ± 1.1 PBq in October-November 2012. However, there is no estimation of the amount of radiocaesium in the CMW. Therefore, it is impossible to discuss

  2. Optically-derived estimates of phytoplankton size class and taxonomic group biomass in the Eastern Subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Rosengard, Sarah Z.; Burt, William; Peña, M. Angelica; Nemcek, Nina; Zeng, Tao; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2018-06-01

    We evaluate several algorithms for the estimation of phytoplankton size class (PSC) and functional type (PFT) biomass from ship-based optical measurements in the Subarctic Northeast Pacific Ocean. Using underway measurements of particulate absorption and backscatter in surface waters, we derived estimates of PSC/PFT based on chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl-a), particulate absorption spectra and the wavelength dependence of particulate backscatter. Optically-derived [Chl-a] and phytoplankton absorption measurements were validated against discrete calibration samples, while the derived PSC/PFT estimates were validated using size-fractionated Chl-a measurements and HPLC analysis of diagnostic photosynthetic pigments (DPA). Our results showflo that PSC/PFT algorithms based on [Chl-a] and particulate absorption spectra performed significantly better than the backscatter slope approach. These two more successful algorithms yielded estimates of phytoplankton size classes that agreed well with HPLC-derived DPA estimates (RMSE = 12.9%, and 16.6%, respectively) across a range of hydrographic and productivity regimes. Moreover, the [Chl-a] algorithm produced PSC estimates that agreed well with size-fractionated [Chl-a] measurements, and estimates of the biomass of specific phytoplankton groups that were consistent with values derived from HPLC. Based on these results, we suggest that simple [Chl-a] measurements should be more fully exploited to improve the classification of phytoplankton assemblages in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

  3. Climate-forced variability of suboxia and associated N-loses in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Gruber, N.; Long, M. C.; Vogt, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) hosts two of the world's three Oxygen Deficient Zones (ODZs), large bodies of suboxic water that are subject to high rates of water column denitrification. In the mean, these two ODZs are responsible for about 15 to 40% of all fixed N loss in the ocean, but little is known about how this loss varies in time. Here, we use a hindcast simulation with the ocean component of the NCAR Community Earth System Model over the period 1960 to 2009 to show that Pacific ODZ structures and their associated rates of N-loss are subject to strong climate forced variability and change. In particular, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives large interannual variations in the rate of water column denitrification such that mature La Niña conditions exhibit peak denitrification rates that are up to 70% higher than the mean rates, and vice versa during El Niños. At the same time, we simulate large decadal trends in the rate of Pacific N-loss, which decreases by 10 Tg y-1 from the 1960s to the 1980s and subsequently increases by 30 Tg y-1 towards 2009. We demonstrate that this large variability is the result of wind-driven changes in circulation and isopycnal structure concurrently modifying the thermocline distribution of O2 and organic matter export. Finally, we show that the decadal trends in denitrification are recorded by the isotopic signature of particulate organic nitrogen in the ETP but that the interpretation of the signals is non trivial, reflecting both physical and biogeochemical changes as well as contamination by atmospheric pollutants.

  4. Genetic Population Structure of the Coral Reef Sea Star Linckia laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean and Indo-West Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Michael Otwoma

    Full Text Available The coral reef sea star Linckia laevigata is common on shallow water coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific. Its large geographic distribution and comprehensive data from previous studies makes it suitable to examine genetic differentiation and connectivity over large geographical scales. Based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene this study investigates the genetic population structure and connectivity of L. laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO and compares it to previous studies in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA. A total of 138 samples were collected from nine locations in the WIO. AMOVA revealed a low but significant ΦST-value of 0.024 for the WIO populations. In the hierarchical AMOVA, the following grouping rejected the hypothesis of panmixia: (1 Kenya (Watamu, Mombasa, Diani and Tanzanian Island populations (Misali and Jambiani and (2 the rest of the WIO sites (mainland Tanzania and Madagascar; ΦCT = 0.03. The genetic population structure was stronger and more significant (ΦST = 0.13 in the comparative analysis of WIO and IMPA populations. Three clades were identified in the haplotype network. The strong genetic differentiation (ΦCT = 0.199, P < 0.001 suggests that Indo-West Pacific populations of L. laevigata can be grouped into four biogeographic regions: (1 WIO (2 Eastern Indian Ocean (3 IMPA and (4 Western Pacific. The findings of this study support the existence of a genetic break in the Indo-West Pacific consistent with the effect of lowered sea level during the Pleistocene, which limited gene flow between the Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  5. Ocean climate coupling in the tropical Pacific Ocean over the past fifty years: implications and feedbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiujun; Murtugudde, Ragu; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The tropical Pacific plays an important role in climate because of its significant air-sea exchanges of heat, freshwater, and carbon dioxide (C02), and because of its direct linkage to climate variability. There are two dominant modes of climate variability in the Tropics: the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). There has been strong evidence of ENSO and PDO impacts on tropical Pacific physics and biogeochemistry, including heat content, ocean circulation (McPhaden and Zhang 2002), and carbon fluxes (Feely ef al. 2006; Wang ef al. 2006). In this study, we apply a basin-scale ocean circulation-ecosystem-carbon model (Wang ef al. 2006) to study the responses of the tropical Pacific ecosystem, biogeochemistry and carbon cycle to climate forcing over the past 50 years. The model produces strong spatial and temporal variability in surface nutrient concentration, phytoplankton biomass, carbon uptake, and sea-to-air C02 flux, which are largely associated with the ENSO phenomenon. In particular, the size of the tropical Pacific C02 source is large during the ENSO cold phase but small during the ENSO warm phase. There are significant decadal variations in tropical Pacific carbon fluxes, reflecting physical and biogeochemical changes associated with the 1977 and 1997/98 PDO shifts. The 1977 regime shift caused 1 0 C warming in sea surface temperature and -50% reduction in surface iron concentration in the Niho3.4 area, leading to decreased biological activity. While there is a large decrease in phytoplankton growth and biomass, reduction in carbon uptake is smaller than expected, due to phytoplankton photoadaption, which increases the carbon to chlorophyll ratio in the upper euphotic zone and enhances sub-surface production. Photoadaption also results in clearer water near the surface, leading to less heating near the ocean surface and allowing more solar radiation to penetrate the subsurface. Our studies

  6. Isolation by distance and vicariance drive genetic structure of a coral reef fish in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planes, S; Fauvelot, C

    2002-02-01

    We studied the genetic diversity of a coral reef fish species to investigate the origin of the differentiation. A total of 727 Acanthurus triostegus collected from 15 locations throughout the Pacific were analyzed for 20 polymorphic loci. The genetic structure showed limited internal disequilibrium within each population; 3.7% of the loci showed significant Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, mostly associated with Adh*, and we subsequently removed this locus from further analysis of geographic pattern. The genetic structure of A. triostegus throughout the tropical Pacific Ocean revealed a strong geographic pattern. Overall, there was significant population differentiation (multilocus F(ST) = 0.199), which was geographically structured according to bootstraps of neighbor-joining analysis on Nei's unbiased genetic distances and AMOVA analysis. The genetic structure revealed five geographic groups in the Pacific Ocean: western Pacific (Guam, Philippines, Palau, and Great Barrier Reef); central Pacific (Solomons, New Caledonia, and Fiji); and three groups made up of the eastern populations, namely Hawaiian Archipelago (north), Marquesas (equatorial), and southern French Polynesia (south) that incorporates Clipperton Island located in the northeastern Pacific. In addition, heterozygosity values were found to be geographically structured with higher values grouped within Polynesian and Clipperton populations, which exhibited lower population size. Finally, the genetic differentiation (F(ST)) was significantly correlated with geographic distance when populations from the Hawaiian and Marquesas archipelagos were separated from all the other locations. These results show that patterns of differentiation vary within the same species according to the spatial scale, with one group probably issued from vicariance, whereas the other followed a pattern of isolation by distance. The geographic pattern for A. triostegus emphasizes the diversity of the evolutionary processes that lead

  7. Indicators of Marine Pollution in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya M; Takada, Hideshige

    2017-08-01

    The complex nature of ocean pollution underscores the utility in identifying and characterizing a limited number of "indicators" that enables scientists and managers to track trends over space and time. This paper introduces a special issue on indicators of marine pollution in the North Pacific Ocean and builds on a scientific session that was held at the North Pacific Marine Science Organization. The special issue highlights studies using a variety of indicators to provide insight into the identification of legacy and emerging contaminants, the ranking of priority pollutants from various sources, and the effects of contaminants on ecosystem health in the North Pacific Ocean. Examples include the use of mussels to illustrate spatial and temporal trends of a number of contaminants following the 2011 tsunami in Japan, the use of molecular marker (linear alkylbenzenes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) profiles to identify pollution sources, and the use of plastic resin pellets to illustrate spatial trends of petroleum pollution around the world. Stable isotopes were used to strengthen the utility of the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) as an indicator of marine pollution. Examples also demonstrate the development and application of biomarker approaches, including gene transcripts, oxidative stress, estradiol, hatchability, and respiration and swimming behavior abnormalities, as a function of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, sulfur-diesel, Pinghu crude oil, galaxolide and antifouling biocides. We provide a brief review of indicators of marine pollution, identify research gaps, and summarize key findings from the articles published within the issue. This special issue represents the first compilation of research pertaining to marine pollution indicators in the North Pacific Ocean and provides guidance to inform mitigation and monitoring efforts of contaminants in the region.

  8. Carbonate preservation during the 'mystery interval' in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.; Naidu, P.D.

    maximum is a feature noted across the world oceans and considered to signify carbonate preservation, although it is missing from many sediment cores from the eastern equatorial Pacific, tropical Atlantic and subtropical Indian Ocean The carbonate...

  9. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse M; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±8.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1) standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±7.32 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±45.6 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±13.9 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  10. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Wilson

    Full Text Available Community respiration (CR of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3 d(-1±8.0 mmol m(-3 d(-1 standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3 d(-1±7.32 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between 10°N and 10°S and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3 d(-1±45.6 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3 d(-1±13.9 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between 156°E and the Australian coast. We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  11. Seasonal to Interannual Variability of Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimates in the Pacific Ocean Associated with ENSO from 1998 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Hou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on a widely used satellite precipitation product (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis 3B43, we analyzed the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation over the Pacific Ocean for 1998–2014 at seasonal and interannual timescales, separately, using the conventional empirical orthogonal function (EOF and investigated the seasonal patterns associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO cycles using season-reliant empirical orthogonal function (SEOF analysis. Lagged correlation analysis was also applied to derive the lead/lag correlations of the first two SEOF modes for precipitation with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and two types of El Niño, i.e., central Pacific (CP El Niño and eastern Pacific (EP El Niño. We found that: (1 The first two seasonal EOF modes for precipitation represent the annual cycle of precipitation variations for the Pacific Ocean and the first interannual EOF mode shows the spatiotemporal variability associated with ENSO; (2 The first SEOF mode for precipitation is simultaneously associated with the development of El Niño and most likely coincides with CP El Niño. The second SEOF mode lagged behind ENSO by one year and is associated with post-El Niño years. PDO modulates precipitation variability significantly only when ENSO occurs by strengthening and prolonging the impacts of ENSO; (3 Seasonally evolving patterns of the first two SEOF modes represent the consecutive precipitation patterns associated with the entire development of EP El Niño and the following recovery year. The most significant variation occurs over the tropical Pacific, especially in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ; (4 Dry conditions in the western basin of the warm pool and wet conditions along the ITCZ and SPCZ bands during the mature phase of El Niño are associated with warm sea surface temperatures in the central tropical Pacific, and a subtropical anticyclone dominating

  12. A novel widespread cryptic species and phylogeographic patterns within several giant clam species (Cardiidae: Tridacna from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Huelsken

    Full Text Available Giant clams (genus Tridacna are iconic coral reef animals of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, easily recognizable by their massive shells and vibrantly colored mantle tissue. Most Tridacna species are listed by CITES and the IUCN Redlist, as their populations have been extensively harvested and depleted in many regions. Here, we survey Tridacna crocea and Tridacna maxima from the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans for mitochondrial (COI and 16S and nuclear (ITS sequence variation and consolidate these data with previous published results using phylogenetic analyses. We find deep intraspecific differentiation within both T. crocea and T. maxima. In T. crocea we describe a previously undocumented phylogeographic division to the east of Cenderawasih Bay (northwest New Guinea, whereas for T. maxima the previously described, distinctive lineage of Cenderawasih Bay can be seen to also typify western Pacific populations. Furthermore, we find an undescribed, monophyletic group that is evolutionarily distinct from named Tridacna species at both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This cryptic taxon is geographically widespread with a range extent that minimally includes much of the central Indo-Pacific region. Our results reinforce the emerging paradigm that cryptic species are common among marine invertebrates, even for conspicuous and culturally significant taxa. Additionally, our results add to identified locations of genetic differentiation across the central Indo-Pacific and highlight how phylogeographic patterns may differ even between closely related and co-distributed species.

  13. A Southern Ocean trigger for Northwest Pacific ventilation during the Holocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, S. F.; Uchida, M.

    2014-02-01

    Holocene ocean circulation is poorly understood due to sparsity of dateable marine archives with submillennial-scale resolution. Here we present a record of mid-depth water radiocarbon contents in the Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean over the last 12.000 years, which shows remarkable millennial-scale variations relative to changes in atmospheric radiocarbon inventory. Apparent decoupling of these variations from regional ventilation and mixing processes leads us to the suggestion that the mid-depth NW Pacific may have responded to changes in Southern Ocean overturning forced by latitudinal displacements of the southern westerly winds. By inference, a tendency of in-phase related North Atlantic and Southern Ocean overturning would argue against the development of a steady bipolar seesaw regime during the Holocene.

  14. Biodiversity and Habitat Characteristics of the Bycatch Assemblages in Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs and School Sets in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Lezama-Ochoa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined diversity and habitat characteristics for bycatch assemblages in two different types of fishing (drifting fish aggregating devices sets and sets made on school of tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean (20°S–30°N and 70°–150°W between 2005 and 2011 using biodiversity metrics and Generalized Additive Models. Bycatch information was based on data collected by onboard observers covering more than 80% of the purse seine fishing trips. Our results suggest that diversity and habitat characteristics of the bycatch assemblages differ depending of the fishing mode. Thus, diversity was mostly explained by area and set type; being higher in fish aggregating devices (FAD sets than School sets. Concretely, diversity seems to be directly related with the equatorial upwelling and the front system in FAD sets and with the Costa Rica Dome and the coastal upwelling of Panama induced by wind jets in School sets. Among environmental variables, temperature and chlorophyll were the most important predictors to describe the diversity of the bycatch assemblages. This work has investigated multiple indicators related to the bycatch assemblages and their habitat, which could be helpful for the development of an Ecosystem Approach to Fishery Management (EAFM.

  15. Association of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) with thermo-biological frontal systems of the eastern tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John P; Green, Jonathan R; Espinoza, Eduardo; Hearn, Alex R

    2017-01-01

    Satellite tracking of 27 whale sharks in the eastern tropical Pacific, examined in relation to environmental data, indicates preferential occupancy of thermo-biological frontal systems. In these systems, thermal gradients are caused by wind-forced circulation and mixing, and biological gradients are caused by associated nutrient enrichment and enhanced primary productivity. Two of the frontal systems result from upwelling, driven by divergence in the current systems along the equator and the west coast of South America; the third results from wind jet dynamics off Central America. All whale sharks were tagged near Darwin Island, Galápagos, within the equatorial Pacific upwelling system. Occupancy of frontal habitat is pronounced in synoptic patterns of shark locations in relation to serpentine, temporally varying thermal fronts across a zonal expanse > 4000 km. 80% of shark positions in northern equatorial upwelling habitat and 100% of positions in eastern boundary upwelling habitat were located within the upwelling front. Analysis of equatorial shark locations relative to thermal gradients reveals occupancy of a transition point in environmental stability. Equatorial subsurface tag data show residence in shallow, warm (>22°C) water 94% of the time. Surface zonal current speeds for all equatorial tracking explain only 16% of the variance in shark zonal movement speeds, indicating that passive drifting is not a primary determinant of movement patterns. Movement from equatorial to eastern boundary frontal zones occurred during boreal winter, when equatorial upwelling weakens seasonally. Off Peru sharks tracked upwelling frontal positions within ~100-350 km from the coast. Off Central America, the largest tagged shark (12.8 m TL) occupied an oceanic front along the periphery of the Panama wind jet. Seasonal movement from waning equatorial upwelling to productive eastern boundary habitat is consistent with underlying trophic dynamics. Persistent shallow residence in

  16. Atmospheric Mercury Deposition to a Remote Islet in the Subtropical Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, G.; Lin, N.

    2013-12-01

    Thirty-four weekly rainwater samples were collected in 2009 at Pengjiayu, a remote islet in the subtropical Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean with an area of 1.14 km^2, to study the distribution of rainwater mercury (Hg) concentrations and associated wet deposition fluxes. This is the first study concerning wet Hg deposition to the subtropical NW Pacific Ocean downwind of the East Asian continent, which is the major source region for Hg emissions worldwide. Sample Hg concentrations ranged from 2.25 to 22.33 ng L^-1, with a volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of 8.85 ng L^-1. The annual wet Hg deposition flux was 10.18 μg m^-2, about 2.5 times the fluxes measured at sites on the Pacific coast of the USA, supporting the hypothesis that deposition is higher in the western than in the eastern Pacific. Seasonal VWM concentrations were 7.23, 11.58, 7.82, and 9.84 ng L^-1, whereas seasonal wet deposition fluxes were 2.14, 3.45, 2.38, and 2.21 μg m^-2, for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Higher summer wet Hg deposition was a function of both higher rainwater Hg concentration and greater rainfall. The seasonal pattern of rainwater Hg concentrations was the opposite of the general seasonal pattern of the East Asian air pollutant export. Since there is no significant anthropogenic Hg emission source on the islet of Pengjiayu, the observed high summertime rainwater Hg concentration hints at the importance of Hg(0) oxidation and/or scavenging of upper-altitude reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) by deep convection. Direct anthropogenic RGM emissions from the East Asian continent may not contribute significantly to the rainwater Hg concentrations, but anthropogenic Hg(0) emissions could be transported to the upper troposphere or marine boundary layer where they can be oxidized to produce RGM, which will then be effectively scavenged by cloud water and rainwater.

  17. Environmental variability and chum salmon production at the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suam; Kang, Sukyung; Kim, Ju Kyoung; Bang, Minkyoung

    2017-12-01

    Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, are distributed widely in the North Pacific Ocean, and about 76% of chum salmon were caught from Russian, Japanese, and Korean waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean during the last 20 years. Although it has been speculated that the recent increase in salmon production was aided by not only the enhancement program that targeted chum salmon but also by favorable ocean conditions since the early 1990s, the ecological processes for determining the yield of salmon have not been clearly delineated. To investigate the relationship between yield and the controlling factors for ocean survival of chum salmon, a time-series of climate indices, seawater temperature, and prey availability in the northwestern Pacific including Korean waters were analyzed using some statistical tools. The results of cross-correlation function (CCF) analysis and cumulative sum (CuSum) of anomalies indicated that there were significant environmental changes in the North Pacific during the last century, and each regional stock of chum salmon responded to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) differently: for Russian stock, the correlations between PDO index and catch were significantly negative with a time-lag of 0 and 1 years; for Japanese stock, significantly positive with a timelag of 0-2 years; and for Korean stock, positive but no significant correlation. The results of statistical analyses with Korean chum salmon also revealed that a coastal seawater temperature over 14°C and the return rate of spawning adults to the natal river produced a significant negative correlation.

  18. First record of the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae from the Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López-Garro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, is one of the most common Indo-Pacific reef sharks. On April 29, 2012, a juvenile male blacktip reef shark measuring 89 cm total length (TL, was incidentally caught during a research expedition in Chatham Bay, Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, located in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. This is the first record of the species from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, and from the Tropical Eastern Pacific.

  19. Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Burek, Kathy A.; Hammond, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals. PMID:19523293

  20. The invasive snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei in the Tropical Eastern Pacific, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Armando Sánchez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carijoa riisei (Octocorallia: Cnidaria, a western Atlantic species, has been reported in the Pacific as an invasive species for nearly forty years. C. riisei has been recently observed overgrowing native octocorals at several rocky-coral littorals in the Colombian Tropical Eastern Pacific-(TEP. C. riisei has inhabited these reefs for at least 15 years but the aggressive overgrowth on other octocorals have been noted until recently. Here, we surveyed for the first time the distribution and inter-specific aggression by C. riisei in both coastal and oceanic areas colonized in the Colombian TEP (Malpelo, Gorgona and Cabo Corrientes, including preliminary multiyear surveys during 2007-2013. We observed community-wide octocoral mortalities (including local extinction of some Muricea spp. and a steady occurrence of competing and overgrowing Pacifigorgia seafans and Leptogorgia seawhips. In Gorgona Island, at two different sites, over 87% (n=77 tagged colonies of octocorals (Pacifigorgia spp. and Leptogorgia alba died as a result of C. riisei interaction and/or overgrowth between 2011 and 2013. C. riisei overgrows octocorals with an estimate at linear growth rate of about 1cm m-1. The aggressive overgrowth of this species in TEP deserves more attention and regular monitoring programs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1: 199-207. Epub 2014 February 01.

  1. Warm Water Pools of the Western Caribbean and Eastern Tropical Pacific: Their Influence on Intraseasonal Rainfall Regimes and Tropical Storm Activity in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A. V.; Englehart, P. J.

    2007-05-01

    A dipole in tropical cyclone development between the Caribbean and the eastern tropical Pacific will be examined relative to its affect on southern Mexican rainfall. With the change over in the AMO and PDO in 1994 and 1998, respectively, tropical storm genesis has been increasing in the Caribbean while declining in the tropical east Pacific. This dipole in tropical cyclone development appears to be related to changes in the pre storm season heat content of the two ocean basins (data Scripps Institution of Oceanography). Preliminary work indicates that if the Caribbean is warmer than the Pacific by late May the dipole will be accentuated with a pronounced decrease in tropical storms in the east Pacific with an early and prolonged season in the Caribbean. In recent years there appears to have been an increase in the intensity and duration of midsummer drought (Canicula) in Mexico associated with changes in the PDO and AMO. These long term ocean oscillations appear to control the dipole in the strength of the Caribbean and East Pacific warm pools. Mid summer drought is a normal occurrence in much of Mexico and Central America, but the intensified droughts of the recent period have stressed the agricultural community of the region. Based on preliminary work, it appears that the recent increased frequency of midsummer drought can be linked to a shift in the warmest pool from the East Pacific to the Caribbean.

  2. AFSC/NMML: North Pacific Right Whale Photo-ID Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The eastern population of the North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica) is the most endangered stock of whales in the world, with recent abundance estimates...

  3. Phylogeography of Ophioblennius: the role of ocean currents and geography in reef fish evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, A; Robertson, D R; Stepien, C A; Wirtz, P; Bowen, B W

    2001-03-01

    Many tropical reef fishes are divided into Atlantic and East Pacific taxa, placing similar species in two very different biogeographic regimes. The tropical Atlantic is a closed ocean basin with relatively stable currents, whereas the East Pacific is an open basin with unstable oceanic circulation. To assess how evolutionary processes are influenced by these differences in oceanography and geography, we analyze a 630-bp region of mitochondrial cytochrome b from 171 individuals in the blenniid genus Ophioblennius. Our results demonstrate deep genetic structuring in the Atlantic species, O. atlanticus, corresponding to recognized biogeographic provinces, with divergences of d = 5.2-12.7% among the Caribbean, Brazilian, St. Helena/Ascension Island, Gulf of Guinea, and Azores/Cape Verde regions. The Atlantic phylogeny is consistent with Pliocene dispersal from the western to eastern Atlantic, and the depth of these separations (along with prior morphological comparisons) may indicate previously unrecognized species. The eastern Pacific species, O. steindachneri, is characterized by markedly less structure than O. atlanticus, with shallow mitochondrial DNA lineages (dmax = 2.7%) and haplotype frequency shifts between locations in the Sea of Cortez, Pacific Panama, Clipperton Island, and the Galapagos Islands. No concordance between genetic structure and biogeographic provinces was found for O. steincdachneri. We attribute the phylogeographic pattern in O. atlanticus to dispersal during the reorganization of Atlantic circulation patterns that accompanied the shoaling of the Isthmus of Panama. The low degree of structure in the eastern Pacific is probably due to unstable circulation and linkage to the larger Pacific Ocean basin. The contrast in genetic signatures between Atlantic and eastern Pacific blennies demonstrates how differences in geology and oceanography have influenced evolutionary radiations within each region.

  4. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  5. Nd isotopic structure of the Pacific Ocean 70-30 Ma and numerical evidence for vigorous ocean circulation and ocean heat transport in a greenhouse world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deborah J.; Korty, Robert; Huber, Matthew; Schubert, Jessica A.; Haines, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The oceanic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a crucial component of the climate system, impacting heat and nutrient transport, and global carbon cycling. Past greenhouse climate intervals present a paradox because their weak equator-to-pole temperature gradients imply a weaker MOC, yet increased poleward oceanic heat transport appears to be required to maintain these weak gradients. To investigate the mode of MOC that operated during the early Cenozoic, we compare new Nd isotope data with Nd tracer-enabled numerical ocean circulation and coupled climate model simulations. Assimilation of new Nd isotope data from South Pacific Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program Sites 323, 463, 596, 865, and 869 with previously published data confirm the hypothesized MOC characterized by vigorous sinking in the South and North Pacific 70 to 30 Ma. Compilation of all Pacific Nd isotope data indicates vigorous, distinct, and separate overturning circulations in each basin until 40 Ma. Simulations consistently reproduce South Pacific and North Pacific deep convection over a broad range of conditions, but cases using strong deep ocean vertical mixing produced the best data-model match. Strong mixing, potentially resulting from enhanced abyssal tidal dissipation, greater interaction of wind-driven internal wave activity with submarine plateaus, or higher than modern values of the geothermal heat flux enable models to achieve enhanced MOC circulation rates with resulting Nd isotope distributions consistent with the proxy data. The consequent poleward heat transport may resolve the paradox of warmer worlds with reduced temperature gradients.

  6. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1979-01-20 to 1984-04-26 (NODC Accession 8500007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 26, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  7. Multiple nutrient stresses at intersecting Pacific Ocean biomes detected by protein biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mak A; McIlvin, Matthew R; Moran, Dawn M; Goepfert, Tyler J; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Post, Anton F; Lamborg, Carl H

    2014-09-05

    Marine primary productivity is strongly influenced by the scarcity of required nutrients, yet our understanding of these nutrient limitations is informed by experimental observations with sparse geographical coverage and methodological limitations. We developed a quantitative proteomic method to directly assess nutrient stress in high-light ecotypes of the abundant cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus across a meridional transect in the central Pacific Ocean. Multiple peptide biomarkers detected widespread and overlapping regions of nutritional stress for nitrogen and phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and iron in the equatorial Pacific. Quantitative protein analyses demonstrated simultaneous stress for these nutrients at biome interfaces. This application of proteomic biomarkers to diagnose ocean metabolism demonstrated Prochlorococcus actively and simultaneously deploying multiple biochemical strategies for low-nutrient conditions in the oceans. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1979-01-20 to 1984-04-01 (NODC Accession 8700077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  9. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1990-04-30 to 1991-05-15 (NODC Accession 9400005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from April 30, 1990 to May 15, 1991. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  10. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1986-05-28 to 1987-05-11 (NODC Accession 8900168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from 28 May 1986 to 01 May 1983. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  11. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koracin, Darko; Cerovecki, Ivana; Vellore, Ramesh; Mejia, John; Hatchett, Benjamin; McCord, Travis; McLean, Julie; Dorman, Clive

    2013-04-11

    Executive summary The main objective of the study was to investigate atmospheric and ocean interaction processes in the western Pacific and, in particular, effects of significant ocean heat loss in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions on the lower and upper atmosphere. It is yet to be determined how significant are these processes are on climate scales. The understanding of these processes led us also to development of the methodology of coupling the Weather and Research Forecasting model with the Parallel Ocean Program model for western Pacific regional weather and climate simulations. We tested NCAR-developed research software Coupler 7 for coupling of the WRF and POP models and assessed its usability for regional-scale applications. We completed test simulations using the Coupler 7 framework, but implemented a standard WRF model code with options for both one- and two-way mode coupling. This type of coupling will allow us to seamlessly incorporate new WRF updates and versions in the future. We also performed a long-term WRF simulation (15 years) covering the entire North Pacific as well as high-resolution simulations of a case study which included extreme ocean heat losses in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions. Since the extreme ocean heat loss occurs during winter cold air outbreaks (CAO), we simulated and analyzed a case study of a severe CAO event in January 2000 in detail. We found that the ocean heat loss induced by CAOs is amplified by additional advection from mesocyclones forming on the southern part of the Japan Sea. Large scale synoptic patterns with anomalously strong anticyclone over Siberia and Mongolia, deep Aleutian Low, and the Pacific subtropical ridge are a crucial setup for the CAO. It was found that the onset of the CAO is related to the breaking of atmospheric Rossby waves and vertical transport of vorticity that facilitates meridional advection. The study also indicates that intrinsic parameterization of the surface fluxes

  12. Water temperature, salinity, and other data from CTD taken from the RV Sikuliaq in the Pacific Ocean between San Diego, California and Manzanillo, Mexico from 2016-12-21 to 2017-01-13 (NCEI Accession 0164968)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains data from R/V Sikuliaq cruise SKQ201617S to the eastern tropical north pacific oxygen deficient zone. The objective of the cruise was to study...

  13. Seasonal Variability of Aragonite Saturation State in the North Pacific Ocean Predicted by Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Park, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal variation of aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) in the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) was investigated, using multiple linear regression (MLR) models produced from the PACIFICA (Pacific Ocean interior carbon) dataset. Data within depth ranges of 50-1200m were used to derive MLR models, and three parameters (potential temperature, nitrate, and apparent oxygen utilization (AOU)) were chosen as predictor variables because these parameters are associated with vertical mixing, DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) removal and release which all affect Ωarag in water column directly or indirectly. The PACIFICA dataset was divided into 5° × 5° grids, and a MLR model was produced in each grid, giving total 145 independent MLR models over the NPO. Mean RMSE (root mean square error) and r2 (coefficient of determination) of all derived MLR models were approximately 0.09 and 0.96, respectively. Then the obtained MLR coefficients for each of predictor variables and an intercept were interpolated over the study area, thereby making possible to allocate MLR coefficients to data-sparse ocean regions. Predictability from the interpolated coefficients was evaluated using Hawaiian time-series data, and as a result mean residual between measured and predicted Ωarag values was approximately 0.08, which is less than the mean RMSE of our MLR models. The interpolated MLR coefficients were combined with seasonal climatology of World Ocean Atlas 2013 (1° × 1°) to produce seasonal Ωarag distributions over various depths. Large seasonal variability in Ωarag was manifested in the mid-latitude Western NPO (24-40°N, 130-180°E) and low-latitude Eastern NPO (0-12°N, 115-150°W). In the Western NPO, seasonal fluctuations of water column stratification appeared to be responsible for the seasonal variation in Ωarag (~ 0.5 at 50 m) because it closely followed temperature variations in a layer of 0-75 m. In contrast, remineralization of organic matter was the main cause for the seasonal

  14. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  15. Decadal Variability of Total Alkalinity in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. N.; Carter, B. R.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.; Dickson, A. G.; Feely, R. A.; Mathis, J. T.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Talley, L. D.

    2016-02-01

    Recent observations of acidification-driven shoaling of the calcium carbonate saturation horizon in the North Pacific have prompted new interest in carbonate cycling in this region, particularly related to impacts on biogenic calcification at the surface layer. Some estimates project that the impacts of OA on alkalinity cycling are beginning to emerge. Here, we present total alkalinity concentrations along a meridional transect of the North Pacific (WOCE, CLIVAR, and US GO-SHIP line P16N; 152 °W) over a period of three decades. The largest source of variability in alkalinity concentrations is related to North Pacific circulation, particularly in the surface mixed layer. Precise normalization of these data reveal some small spatial and temporal variability in the background. We explore these decadal trends in the context of decadal oscillations, ocean biogeochemical cycles, and global change processes such as ocean acidification.

  16. Zoogeography of Elasmobranchs in the Colombian Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Navia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to investigate zoogeographical patterns of the marine elasmobranch species of Colombia, species richness of the Pacific and Caribbean and their subareas (Coastal Pacific, Oceanic Pacific, Coastal Caribbean, Oceanic Caribbean was analyzed. The areas shared 10 families, 10 genera and 16 species of sharks, and eight families, three genera and four species of batoids. Carcharhinidae had the highest contribution to shark richness, whereas Rajidae and Urotrygonidae had the greatest contribution to batoid richness in the Caribbean and Pacific, respectively. Most elasmobranchs were associated with benthic and coastal habitats. The similarity analysis allowed the identification of five groups of families, which characterize the elasmobranch richness in both areas. Beta diversity indicated that most species turnover occurred between the Coastal Pacific and the two Caribbean subareas. The difference in species richness and composition between areas may be due to vicariant events such as the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. It is unlikely that the Colombian elasmobranch diversity originated from a single colonization event. Local diversification/speciation, dispersal from the non-tropical regions of the Americas, a Pacific dispersion and an Atlantic dispersion are origin possibilities without any of them excluding the others.

  17. Seasonal variations in the aragonite saturation state in the upper open-ocean waters of the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Geun-Ha; Kim, Dongseon; Lee, Kitack; Feely, Richard A.; Millero, Frank J.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variability of the aragonite saturation state (ΩAR) in the upper (50 m and 100 m depths) North Pacific Ocean (NPO) was investigated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The MLR algorithm derived from a high-quality carbon data set accurately predicted the ΩAR of evaluation data sets (three time series stations and P02 section) with acceptable uncertainty (<0.1 ΩAR). The algorithm was combined with seasonal climatology data, and the estimated ΩAR varied in the range of 0.4-0.6 in the midlatitude western NPO, with the largest variation found for the tropical eastern NPO. These marked variations were largely controlled by seasonal changes in vertical mixing and thermocline depth, both of which determine the degree of entrainment of CO2-rich corrosive waters from deeper depths. Our MLR-based subsurface ΩAR climatology is complementary to surface climatology based on pCO2 measurements.

  18. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  19. Eastern South Pacific water mass geometry during the last glacial-interglacial transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pol-Holz, R.; Reyes, D.; Mohtadi, M.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern South Pacific is characterized today by a complex thermocline structure where large salinity and oxygen changes as a function of depth coexist. Surface waters from tropical origin float on top of subantarctic fresher water (the so-called 'shallow salinity minimum of the eastern south Pacific'), which in turn, flow above aged equatorial and deeper recently ventilated Antarctic Intermediate waters. Little is known however about the water mass geometry changes that could have occurred during the last glacial maximum boundary conditions (about 20,000 years before the present), despite this information being critical for the assessment of potential mechanisms that have been proposed as explanations for the deglacial onset of low oxygen conditions in the area and the atmospheric CO2 increase during the same time. Here we present benthic and planktonic foraminifera stable isotope and radiocarbon data from a set of sediment cores from the Chilean continental margin covering a large -yet still limited- geographical area and depth range. Sedimentations rates were relatively high (>10 cm/kyr) precluding major caveats from bioturbation in all of our archives. The distribution of δ13C of ΣCO2 shows the presence of a very depleted (δ13C < -1‰ V-PDB) water mass overlaying more recently ventilated waters at intermediate depths as indicated by thermocline foraminifer dwellers being more depleted in 13C than the benthic species. The origin of this depleted end-member is probably upwelling from the Southern Ocean as expressed by the radiocarbon content and the large reservoir effect associated with the last glacial maximum and the beginning of the deglaciation along the margin. Our data suggest that the Tropical waters that today bath the lower latitude cores was displaced by surface waters of southern origin and therefore in line with the evidence of a latitudinal shift of the frontal systems.

  20. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PACIFIC, ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEMS FOR CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  1. Hydrovolcanic activity in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Does nature mimic laboratory experiments?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Gupta, S.M.; Charan, S.N; Mukherjee, A.D.

    of Kilauea Iki, Hawaii (Heiken and Lofgren, 197 l), basaltic hydromagmatic ash (Heiken, 1972; Wohletz, 1983), basaltic microspherules from the eastern Pacific Ocean (#l 1, Table 2; Melson et al., 1988) and the basaltic microlapilli from the Pacific Ocean.... Craters, calderas and hyaloclastites on young Pacific seamounts. J. Geophys. Res. 89, 8371-8390. Blanchard, M.B., Brownlee, D.E., Bunch, T.E., Hodge, P.W.. Kyte, F.T., 1980. Meteoroid ablation spheres from deep-sea sediments. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett...

  2. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (EMA-BASIS) Zooplankton data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  3. Teleconnections of the tropical Atlantic to the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. A review of recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Chunzai [NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., Miami, FL (United States); Kucharski, Fred; Barimalala, Rondrotiana [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Earth System Physics, Section Trieste (Italy); Bracco, Annalisa [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia, Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Recent studies found that tropical Atlantic variability may affect the climate in both the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean basins, possibly modulating the Indian summer monsoon and Pacific ENSO events. A warm tropical Atlantic Ocean forces a Gill-Matsuno-type quadrupole response with a low-level anticyclone located over India that weakens the Indian monsoon circulation, and vice versa for a cold tropical Atlantic Ocean. The tropical Atlantic Ocean can also induce changes in the Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs). especially along the coast of Africa and in the western side of the Indian basin. Additionally, it can influence the tropical Pacific Ocean via an atmospheric teleconnection that is associated with the Atlantic Walker circulation. Although the Pacific El Nino does not contemporaneously correlate with the Atlantic Nino, anomalous warming or cooling of the two equatorial oceans can form an inter-basin SST gradient that induces surface zonal wind anomalies over equatorial South America and other regions in both ocean basins. The zonal wind anomalies act as a bridge linking the two ocean basins, and in turn reinforce the inter-basin SST gradient through the atmospheric Walker circulation and oceanic processes. Thus, a positive feedback seems to exist for climate variability of the tropical Pacific-Atlantic Oceans and atmospheric system, in which the inter-basin SST gradient is coupled to the overlying atmospheric wind. (orig.)

  4. Evidence of Enhanced Respired Carbon in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Deep-Waters over the last 30,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umling, N. E.; Thunell, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid decreases in glacial deep water reservoir ages have been observed in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP; this study), North Pacific (Rae et al., 2014), Southwest Pacific (Sikes et al., 2016), and North Atlantic (Skinner et al., 2013). It has been hypothesized that release of a deep ocean 14C-depleted, respired-carbon reservoir to the surface ocean and atmosphere is the most likely mechanism for the observed increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations recorded in ice cores during the last glacial-interglacial transition (Broecker and Barker, 2007). This study examines whether oxygenation, organic carbon flux, and carbonate chemistry in the EEP deep-waters reflect an increase in respired carbon associated with recorded 14C-depletions using isotopic and trace element records from three Panama Basin cores (2,650-3,200 m water-depth). An increase in glacial deep-water respired carbon storage would result in a shift of DIC speciation towards lower carbonate ion concentrations along with deoxygenation of bottom waters. Specifically, we use the boron to calcium (B/Ca) and uranium to calcium (U/Ca) ratios of the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi to reconstruct deep-water carbonate ion concentration (Yu and Elderfield, 2007; Raizsch et al., 2011). Additionally, bottom water oxygenation is estimated from the difference in δ13C of benthic foraminifera living in pore waters at the anoxic boundary and of those living in bottom water (Δ δ13C; Hoogakker et al., 2015, 2016), while carbon flux was assessed from the U/Ca and Cd/Ca of foraminiferal authigenic coatings.

  5. Analysis of longitudinal variations in North Pacific alkalinity to improve predictive algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Claudia H.; Tyrrell, Toby; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2016-10-01

    The causes of natural variation in alkalinity in the North Pacific surface ocean need to be investigated to understand the carbon cycle and to improve predictive algorithms. We used GLODAPv2 to test hypotheses on the causes of three longitudinal phenomena in Alk*, a tracer of calcium carbonate cycling. These phenomena are (a) an increase from east to west between 45°N and 55°N, (b) an increase from west to east between 25°N and 40°N, and (c) a minor increase from west to east in the equatorial upwelling region. Between 45°N and 55°N, Alk* is higher on the western than on the eastern side, and this is associated with denser isopycnals with higher Alk* lying at shallower depths. Between 25°N and 40°N, upwelling along the North American continental shelf causes higher Alk* in the east. Along the equator, a strong east-west trend was not observed, even though the upwelling on the eastern side of the basin is more intense, because the water brought to the surface is not high in Alk*. We created two algorithms to predict alkalinity, one for the entire Pacific Ocean north of 30°S and one for the eastern margin. The Pacific Ocean algorithm is more accurate than the commonly used algorithm published by Lee et al. (2006), of similar accuracy to the best previously published algorithm by Sasse et al. (2013), and is less biased with longitude than other algorithms in the subpolar North Pacific. Our eastern margin algorithm is more accurate than previously published algorithms.

  6. Extremes in East African hydroclimate and links to Indo-Pacific variability on interannual to decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; Kulüke, Marco; Tierney, Jessica E.

    2018-04-01

    East African hydroclimate exhibits considerable variability across a range of timescales, with implications for its population that depends on the region's two rainy seasons. Recent work demonstrated that current state-of-the-art climate models consistently underestimate the long rains in boreal spring over the Horn of Africa while overestimating the short rains in autumn. This inability to represent the seasonal cycle makes it problematic for climate models to project changes in East African precipitation. Here we consider whether this bias also has implications for understanding interannual and decadal variability in the East African long and short rains. Using a consistent framework with an unforced multi-century global coupled climate model simulation, the role of Indo-Pacific variability for East African rainfall is compared across timescales and related to observations. The dominant driver of East African rainfall anomalies critically depends on the timescale under consideration: Interannual variations in East African hydroclimate coincide with significant sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies across the Indo-Pacific, including those associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the eastern Pacific, and are linked to changes in the Walker circulation, regional winds and vertical velocities over East Africa. Prolonged drought/pluvial periods in contrast exhibit anomalous SST predominantly in the Indian Ocean and Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) region, while eastern Pacific anomalies are insignificant. We assessed dominant frequencies in Indo-Pacific SST and found the eastern equatorial Pacific dominated by higher-frequency variability in the ENSO band, while the tropical Indian Ocean and IPWP exhibit lower-frequency variability beyond 10 years. This is consistent with the different contribution to regional precipitation anomalies for the eastern Pacific versus Indian Ocean and IPWP on interannual and decadal timescales, respectively. In the model

  7. Assessment of the tropical Indo-Pacific climate in the SINTEX CGCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Delecluse

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A new coupled GCM (SINTEX has been developed. The model is formed by the atmosphere model ECHAM-4 and the ocean model ORCA. The atmospheric and oceanic components are coupled through OASIS. The domain is global and no flux correction is applied. In this study, we describe the ability of the coupled model to simulate the main features of the observed climate and its dominant modes of variability in the tropical Indo-Pacific. Three long experiments have been performed with different horizontal resolution of the atmospheric component in order to assess a possible impact of the atmosphere model resolution onto the simulated climate. Overall, the mean state is captured reasonably well, though the simulated SST tends to be too warm in the tropical Eastern Pacific and there is a model tendency to produce a double ITCZ. The model gives also a realistic representation of the temperature structure at the equator in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The slope and the structure of the equatorial thermocline are well reproduced. Compared to the observations, the simulated annual cycle appears to be underestimated in the eastern equatorial Pacific, whereas a too pronounced seasonal variation is found in the Central Pacific. The main basic features of the interannual variability in the tropical Indo-Pacific region are reasonably well reproduced by the model. In the Indian Ocean, the characteristics of the simulated interannual variability are very similar to the results found from the observations. In the Pacific, the modelled ENSO variability appears to be slightly weaker and the simulated period a bit shorter than in the observations. Our results suggest that, both the simulated mean state and interannual variability are generally improved when the horizontal resolution of the atmospheric mode component is increased.

  8. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein...

  9. Inter and Intra Basin Scale Transport of {sup 137}Cs in the Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, M. [Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Fukasawa, M.; Kawano, T. [Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka (Japan); Hamajima, Y. [Low-Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Nomi (Japan); Hirose, K. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Chiyoda-ku (Japan); Nakano, H. [Oceanographic Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Povinec, P. P. [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A. [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, and Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Tsumune, D. [Environmental Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The anthropogenic radionuclides, such as ''1''3''7Cs, ''9''0Sr, and some of the transuranic nuclides, are important tracers of transport and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. {sup 137}Cs, a major fission product present in a dissolved form in seawater, is a good tracer of oceanic circulation on a time scale of several decades. In the Pacific Ocean, 7 cruises were conducted and the 3-D distribution of {sup 137}Cs concentration in the 2000's was observed. Two types of ocean general circulation models were also used to conduct hindcasts of the {sup 137}Cs concentration. Both results allowed the drawing of a detailed picture of the {sup 137}Cs 3-D structure. The deposition of {sup 137}Cs mainly occurred in the northern subtropical gyre of the North Pacific Ocean and was later transported into the ocean interior, and a core structure of {sup 137}Cs was found along the Central Mode Water. After crossing the Equator, {sup 137}Cs spreads to the South Pacific through the Ekman transports at the surface. (author)

  10. Current meter and other data collected using current meter casts from R/V RESEARCHER and R/V CALANUS in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean as part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean Circulation Study (EPOCS) and Subtropical Atlantic Current Study (STACS), 23 March 1983 - 19 November 1986 (NODC Accession 8700226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and other data were collected using current meter casts from R/V RESEARCHER and R/V CALANUS in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean from March 23, 1983 to...

  11. A new Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several groups of copepods that are teleost parasites, the siphonostomatoid family Caligidae is by far the most widespread and diverse. With more than 108 nominal species, the caligid genus Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann is one of the most speciose. There are no reports of this genus in Costa Rican waters. A new species of Lepeophtheirus is herein described based on female specimens collected from plankton samples in waters off Bahía Wafer, isla del Coco, an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The new species, L. alvaroi sp. nov., has some affinities with other congeners bearing a relatively short abdomen, a wider than long genital complex and a 3-segmented exopod of leg 4. it differs from most of these species by the presence of an unbranched maxillular process and by the relative lengths of the terminal claws of leg 4, with two equally long elements. it is most closely related to two other Eastern Pacific species: L. dissimulatus Wilson, 1905 and L. clarionensis Shiino, 1959. it differs from these species by the proportions and shape of the genital complex, the shape of the sternal furca, the relative length of the maxillar segments, the absence of a pectiniform process on the distal maxillar segment, the length of leg 4 and the armature of leg 5. The new species represents the first Lepeophtheirus described from Costa Rican waters of the Pacific. The low diversity of this genus in this tropi- cal region is explained by its tendency to prefer hosts from temperate latitudes. Until further evidence is found, the host of this Lepeophtheirus species remains unknown.

  12. Sea level variability in the eastern tropical Pacific as observed by TOPEX and Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Benjamin S.; Carton, James A.; Holl, Lydia J.

    1994-01-01

    Sea surface height measurements from the TOPEX altimeter and dynamic height from Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TOGA TAO) moorings are used to explore sea level variability in the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Afetr the annual harmonic is removed, there are two distinct bands of variability: one band is centered at 5 deg N to 7 deg N and extends from 165 deg W to 110 deg W, and the other band is centered at 10 deg N to 12 deg N and extends from 120 deg W to the coast of Central America. The correspondence between the two independent observation data sets at 5 deg N is excellent with correlations of about 90%. The variability at 5 deg-7 deg N is identified as instability waves formed just south of the North Equatorial Countercurrent during the months of July and March. Wave amplitudes are largest in the range of longitudes 160 deg-140 deg W, where they can exceed 10 cm. The waves disappear when the equatorial current system weakens, during the months of March and May. The variability at 11 deg N in 1993 has the form of anticyclone eddies. These eddies propagate westward at a speed of about 17 cm/s, consistent with the dispersion characteristics of free Rossby waves. The eddies are shown to have their origin near the coast of central America during northern fall and winter. Their formation seems to result from intense wind bursts across the Gulfs of Tehuantepec and Papagayo which generate strong anticyclonic ocean eddies. The disappearance of the eddies in the summer of 1993 coincidences with the seasonal intensification of equatorial currents. Thus the variability at 11 deg N has very little overlap in time with the variability at 5 deg N.

  13. Egg capsules of the dusky catshark Bythaelurus canescens (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae) from the south-eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, F; Bustamante, C; Oddone, M C; Hernández, S; Lamilla, J

    2010-09-01

    The external morphology of the egg capsule of Bythaelurus canescens and its fixation to the substratum are described. Bythaelurus canescens egg capsules are typically vase-shaped, dorso-ventrally flattened, pale yellow in colour when fresh and covered by 12-15 longitudinal ridges. The anterior border of the capsule is straight, whereas the posterior border is semicircular. Two horns bearing long, coiled tendrils arise from the anterior and posterior ends of the capsule. The presence of longitudinal ridges and long coiled tendrils at both anterior and posterior ends of the capsule readily distinguish these egg capsules from those of other chondrichthyans occurring in the south-east Pacific Ocean. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Physical and meteorological data from the seventy moorings of the Tropical Atmosphere/Ocean (TAO) Project in the Tropical Pacific Ocean, 1979-2002 (NODC Accession 0000727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and meteorological data were collected in the Tropical Pacific Ocean from 29 January 1979 to 03 November 2001. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine...

  15. Modeling of extreme freshwater outflow from the north-eastern Japanese river basins to western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troselj, Josko; Sayama, Takahiro; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Sasaki, Toshiharu; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Takara, Kaoru; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Kuroki, Ryusuke; Yamagata, Toshio; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of accurate extreme discharge input in hydrological and oceanographic combined modeling by introducing two extreme typhoon events. We investigated the effects of extreme freshwater outflow events from river mouths on sea surface salinity distribution (SSS) in the coastal zone of the north-eastern Japan. Previous studies have used observed discharge at the river mouth, as well as seasonally averaged inter-annual, annual, monthly or daily simulated data. Here, we reproduced the hourly peak discharge during two typhoon events for a targeted set of nine rivers and compared their impact on SSS in the coastal zone based on observed, climatological and simulated freshwater outflows in conjunction with verification of the results using satellite remote-sensing data. We created a set of hourly simulated freshwater outflow data from nine first-class Japanese river basins flowing to the western Pacific Ocean for the two targeted typhoon events (Chataan and Roke) and used it with the integrated hydrological (CDRMV3.1.1) and oceanographic (JCOPE-T) model, to compare the case using climatological mean monthly discharges as freshwater input from rivers with the case using our hydrological model simulated discharges. By using the CDRMV model optimized with the SCE-UA method, we successfully reproduced hindcasts for peak discharges of extreme typhoon events at the river mouths and could consider multiple river basin locations. Modeled SSS results were verified by comparison with Chlorophyll-a distribution, observed by satellite remote sensing. The projection of SSS in the coastal zone became more realistic than without including extreme freshwater outflow. These results suggest that our hydrological models with optimized model parameters calibrated to the Typhoon Roke and Chataan cases can be successfully used to predict runoff values from other extreme precipitation events with similar physical characteristics. Proper simulation of extreme

  16. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific).

  17. Interhemispheric leakage of isotopically heavy nitrate in the eastern tropical Pacific during the last glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichevin, Laetitia E.; Ganeshram, Raja S.; Francavilla, Stephen; Arellano-Torres, Elsa; Pedersen, Tom F.; Beaufort, Luc

    2010-02-01

    We present new high-resolution N isotope records from the Gulf of Tehuantepec and the Nicaragua Basin spanning the last 50-70 ka. The Tehuantepec site is situated within the core of the north subtropical denitrification zone while the Nicaragua site is at the southern boundary. The δ15N record from Nicaragua shows an “Antarctic” timing similar to denitrification changes observed off Peru-Chile but is radically different from the northern records. We attribute this to the leakage of isotopically heavy nitrate from the South Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) into the Nicaragua Basin. The Nicaragua record leads the other eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP) records by about 1000 years because denitrification peaks in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) before denitrification starts to increase in the Northern Hemisphere OMZ, i.e., during warming episodes in Antarctica. We find that the influence of the heavy nitrate leakage from the ETSP is still noticeable, although attenuated, in the Gulf of Tehuantepec record, particularly at the end of the Heinrich events, and tends to alter the recording of millennial timescale denitrification changes in the ETNP. This implies (1) that sedimentary δ15N records from the southern parts of the ETNP cannot be used straightforwardly as a proxy for local denitrification and (2) that denitrification history in the ETNP, like in the Arabian Sea, is synchronous with Greenland temperature changes. These observations reinforce the conclusion that on millennial timescales during the last ice age, denitrification in the ETNP is strongly influenced by climatic variations that originated in the high-latitude North Atlantic region, while commensurate changes in Southern Ocean hydrography more directly, and slightly earlier, affected oxygen concentrations in the ETSP. Furthermore, the δ15N records imply ongoing physical communication across the equator in the shallow subsurface continuously over the last 50-70 ka.

  18. Observations of carbon dioxide in the surface waters of the Eastern North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea from 21 July 1968 to 03 September 1968 (NODC Accession 7100114)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Measurements of the equilibrium concentration of carbon dioxide in the air and surface waters of the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea are presented....

  19. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-08-13 to 1991-09-01 (NODC Accession 0115591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115591 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  20. How ocean color can steer Pacific tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Emanuel, Kerry; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Anderson, Whit G.; Hallberg, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Because ocean color alters the absorption of sunlight, it can produce changes in sea surface temperatures with further impacts on atmospheric circulation. These changes can project onto fields previously recognized to alter the distribution of tropical cyclones. If the North Pacific subtropical gyre contained no absorbing and scattering materials, the result would be to reduce subtropical cyclone activity in the subtropical Northwest Pacific by 2/3, while concentrating cyclone tracks along the equator. Predicting tropical cyclone activity using coupled models may thus require consideration of the details of how heat moves into the upper thermocline as well as biogeochemical cycling.

  1. Variability in the correlation between Asian dust storms and chlorophyll a concentration from the North to Equatorial Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Chun Tan

    Full Text Available A long-term record of Asian dust storms showed seven high-occurrence-frequency centers in China. The intrusion of Asian dust into the downwind seas, including the China seas, the Sea of Japan, the subarctic North Pacific, the North Pacific subtropical gyre, and the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific, has been shown to add nutrients to ocean ecosystems and enhance their biological activities. To explore the relationship between the transported dust from various sources to the six seas and oceanic biological activities with different nutrient conditions, the correlation between monthly chlorophyll a concentration in each sea and monthly dust storm occurrence frequencies reaching the sea during 1997-2007 was examined in this study. No correlations were observed between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in the 50 m China seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the correlation coefficients were in the range 0.32-0.57. The correlation coefficients for the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific were relatively low (<0.36. These correlation coefficients were further interpreted in terms of the geographical distributions of dust sources, the transport pathways, the dust deposition, the nutrient conditions of oceans, and the probability of dust storms reaching the seas.

  2. Mortalities of Eastern and Pacific oyster Larvae caused by the pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A; Needleman, David S; Church, Karlee M; Häse, Claudia C

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a well-known coral pathogen, has recently been shown to elicit mortality in fish and shellfish. Several strains of V. coralliilyticus, such as ATCC 19105 and Pacific isolates RE22 and RE98, were misidentified as V. tubiashii until recently. We compared the mortalities caused by two V. tubiashii and four V. coralliilyticus strains in Eastern and Pacific oyster larvae. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of V. coralliilyticus in Eastern oysters (defined here as the dose required to kill 50% of the population in 6 days) ranged from 1.1 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml seawater; strains RE98 and RE22 were the most virulent. This study shows that V. coralliilyticus causes mortality in Eastern oyster larvae. Results for Pacific oysters were similar, with LD50s between 1.2 × 10(4) and 4.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml. Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19106 and ATCC 19109 were highly infectious toward Eastern oyster larvae but were essentially nonpathogenic toward healthy Pacific oyster larvae at dosages of ≥1.1 × 10(4) CFU/ml. These data, coupled with the fact that several isolates originally thought to be V. tubiashii are actually V. coralliilyticus, suggest that V. coralliilyticus has been a more significant pathogen for larval bivalve shellfish than V. tubiashii, particularly on the U.S. West Coast, contributing to substantial hatchery-associated morbidity and mortality in recent years. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Geochemical investigations of sea water and manganese nodules in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncal, R.Z.

    1976-01-01

    Surface water, deep water, and pore water samples from the central Pacific Ocean were investigated for their Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu contents. The data were interpreted with the aid of thermodynamic calculations in order to gain new knowledge on the heavy water compounds possibly contained in the water. The relationships between the elements Co, Ni, and Cu and the Mn and Fe phases were determined with the aid of chemical and mineralogical investigations of typical Mu and Fe hydroxides and manganese nodules from the same region of the Pacific Ocean. (orig.) [de

  4. Potential impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-Western Pacific on the variability of typhoon landfall on the China coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Sheng; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Dongxiao; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The landfall activity of typhoons (TYs) along the coast of China during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variation during 1965-2010. We identify three sub-periods of TY landfall activity in JAS along the China coast in this period, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (Period I) and 1998-2010 (Period III), and less during 1982-1995 (Period II). We find that the interdecadal variation might be related to the combined effects of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase changes and sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and Western Pacific (IO-WP). During the negative PDO phase in Periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP), inducing easterly flow in its northern part, which favors TY landfall along the eastern China coast. Warm SST anomalies over the tropical IO-WP during Period III induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP through both the Gill-pattern response to the warm SST in the tropical IO and the anomalous meridional circulation induced by the warm SST in the tropical WNP. As a result, the northern South China Sea and WNP (10°-20° N) are dominated by southeasterly flow, which favors TYs making landfall on both the southern and eastern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TYs making landfall along the China coast during Period III than during Period I, which shows cool SST anomalies in the tropical IO-WP.

  5. Subtropical Low Cloud Responses to Central and Eastern Pacific El Nino Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, A. D.; Bennartz, R.; Jiang, J. H.; Kato, S.; Olson, W. S.; Pinker, R. T.; Su, H.; Taylor, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern Pacific El Niño event in 2006-2007 and the central Pacific El Niño event during 2009-2010 exhibit opposite responses in the top of atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative effects. These responses are driven by differences in large-scale circulation that result in significant low cloud anomalies in the subtropical southeastern Pacific. Both the vertical profile of cloud fraction and cloud water content are reduced during the eastern Pacific El Niño; however, the shift in the distribution of cloud characteristics and the physical processes underlying these changes need further analysis. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) Clouds and Radiation Working Group will use a synthesis of NEWS data products, A-Train satellite measurements, reanalysis, and modeling approaches to further explore the differences in the low cloud response to changes in the large-scale forcing, as well as try to understand the physical mechanism driving the observed changes in the low clouds for the 2006/07 and 2009/10 distinct El Niño events. The distributions of cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties over the southeast Pacific will first be compared for these two events using a combination of MODIS, CloudSat/CALIPSO, and CERES data. Satellite and reanalysis estimates of changes in the vertical temperature and moisture profiles, lower tropospheric stability, winds, and surface heat fluxes are then used to identify the drivers for observed differences in the clouds and TOA radiative effects.

  6. Absolute migration of Pacific basin mid-ocean ridges since 85 Ma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mid-ocean ridges are major physiographic features that dominate the world seafloor. Their absolute motion and tectonics are recorded in magnetic lineations they created. The absolute migration of mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific basin since 85 Ma and their tectonic implications was investigated in this work and the results ...

  7. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  8. Role of upper ocean parameters in the genesis, intensification and tracks of cyclones over the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maneesha, K.; Sadhuram, Y.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    of high heat potential (>90 kj/cm2) in the western Gulf of Mexico (Goni et al. 2003, 2009; Shay et al. 2000). Further, Hurricanes Igor (tropical Atlantic) and Celia (Eastern North Pacific), Typhoon Megi (Western North Pacific) and Cyclone Phet (Arabian Sea... 2009/10 in the Gulf of Mexico and the southwestern Pacific Ocean, while there was an increase in the western Pacific Ocean, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. All the above studies emphasize the importance of the UOHC in the genesis and intensification...

  9. Changes in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Thermocline Structure across the Last Deglaciation: Evidence from the Carnegie Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaubke, R.; Schmidt, M. W.; Warner, L.; Hertzberg, J. E.; Marcantonio, F.; Bianchi, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) is an important climatological region given its influence in the modulation of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The current climatic mean state of the EEP is characterized by cool sea surface temperatures (SST) and a strong, shallow thermocline. Nevertheless, there remains significant uncertainty about past changes in tropical Pacific climate and how ENSO variability relates to the millennial-scale climate events of the last deglaciation. Here, we will present 21 kyrs of Mg/Ca paleotemperature data from the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber and the thermocline-dwelling foraminifera Neogloboquadrina dutertrei collected from piston core MV1014-02-17JC (00° 10.83'S, 85° 52.00'W; 2846 m depth) on the Carnegie Ridge. Initial results reveal a 1.3°C warming of the surface ocean from the early-Holocene until 6 kyrs, a trend present in other EEP SST reconstructions (Pena et al., 2008; Timmerman et al., 2014; Lea et al., 2000). The surface ocean subsequently cools from 6 kyrs and reaches present-day temperatures by 3.5 kyrs. The subsurface reveals a nearly monotonic cooling of 1.8°C from 10.8 kyrs to the present day, which suggest a gradual shoaling of the thermocline across the Holocene. Furthermore, an increase in the vertical temperature gradient occurs from the late- to mid-Holocene, with the sharpest temperature difference centered at 6 kyrs, coincident with the mid-Holocene peak in SSTs. Taken together, these data suggest a gradual shoaling of the thermocline across the Holocene, with the variations in SST primarily governing the intensity of the vertical temperature gradient. Future work includes extending this record back to the last glacial maximum (LGM) to assess tropical Pacific mean state change across the abrupt climate events that characterized the last deglaciation.

  10. Comparaison of last centuries variability in the eastern and central Pacific reconstructed from massive coral geochemical tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Melanie; Corrège, Thierry; Cole, Julie; Le Cornec, Florence; Edwards, Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Charlier, Karine

    2014-05-01

    The tropical Pacific is under the influence of different climate modes (from the seasonal to the decadal scale) and, through teleconnections, affects the global climate. At the seasonal scale the latitudinal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) drive the hydrological dynamic of the tropical zone. The tropical Pacific is also a place of strong and variable zonal gradients due to the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) at the interannual scale. A good amount of data is available in the western and the central part of the Pacific to reconstruct climatic parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) while there is a striking lack of data in the eastern part. To better estimate the zonal gradients in the tropical Pacific and the different climatic processes in the last two centuries, we present geochemical results (Sr/Ca and δ18O) obtained from aragonitic coral skeletons (Porites genus) from Clipperton atoll (10° N, 109° W) and the Marquesas Islands (10° S, 140° W). Clipperton being the only atoll located in the northern part of the ITCZ latitudinal migration area, information about eastern Pacific hydrological cycle and advection can be obtained. On the other hand, the precise chronology of the Clipperton coral and the comparaison with the records from the Marquesas Islands allows us to calculate SST gradients between the eastern and central Pacific. We will discuss about the recent theory of an El Niño-like condition triggered by a slowdown of the equatorial Walker circulation under global warming. We will also discuss about the evolution (frequency and intensity) of the two differents 'flavours' of El Niño (e.g. the canonical eastern El Niño and the central El Niño Modoki) through the 20thcentury. Indeed the canonical El Niño is characterised by a maximum SST anomaly in the eastern Pacific while the El Niño Modoki is characterised by a maximum SST anomaly persisting in the central Pacific. A

  11. Geographical Distribution and Sources of Nutrients in Atmospheric Aerosol Over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Pacific Ocean, the world's largest (occupying about 30% of the Earth's total surface area) has several distinguishing biogeochemical features. In the western Pacific, dust particles originating from arid and semi-arid regions in Asia and Australia are transported to the north and south, respectively. Biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia are exported to the tropical Pacific, and anthropogenic substances flowing out of Asia and Eurasia spread both regionally and globally. Over high primary productive areas such as the subarctic North Pacific, the equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean, biogenic gasses are released to the atmosphere and transported to other areas. These processes may affect cloud and rainfall patterns, air quality, and the radiative balance of downwind regions. The deposition of atmospheric aerosols containing iron and other essential nutrients is important for biogeochemical cycles in the oceans because this source of nutrients helps sustain primary production and affects food-web structure; these effects in turn influence the chemical properties of marine atmosphere. From an atmospheric chemistry standpoint, sea-salt aerosols produced by strong winds and marine biogenic gases emitted from highly productive waters affect the physicochemical characteristics of marine aerosols. As phytoplankton populations are patchy and atmospheric processes sporadic, the interactions between atmospheric chemical constituents and marine biota vary for different regions as well as seasonally and over longer timescales. To address these and other emerging issues, and more generally to better understand the important biogeochemical processes and interactions occurring over the open oceans, more long-term recurrent research cruises with standardized atmospheric shipboard measurements will be needed in the future.

  12. Vicariance biogeography of the open-ocean Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian N.

    The first cladogram to treat oceanic water masses as distinct geographic units presents a ‘hydrotectonic’ history of Pacific surface water masses. It is used to test the idea that the oceanographic subdivision of the surface waters of the Pacific Basin into separate water masses shaped pelagic biogeographic patterns in much the same way that the tectonic fragmentation of Pangea influenced biogeographic patterns on land. The historical water-mass relationships depicted by the surface water-mass cladogram resemble modern pelagic biogeographic regions. The prediction that the cladistic phylogenies of monophyletic groups having allopatric taxa in three or more surface water masses will be consistent with the topology of the surface water-mass cladogram is met by the pelagic fish genera Stomias and Evermanella.

  13. Upper ocean circulation modulation by phytoplankton concentration in the Equatorial Pacific and the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Sammarco, P.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; AjoyKumar, A.; Frouin, R.

    gradient in the upper ocean. This strengthens the geostrophically balanced westward currents in both side of the equatorial wave-guide (within 5 degree bands). Once these currents reach the western Pacific coast, they feed the Equatorial undercurrent (EUC...

  14. Investigating bomb radiocarbon transport in the southern Pacific Ocean with otolith radiocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, G. L.; Fallon, S. J.; Izzo, C.; Wood, R.; Gillanders, B. M.

    2015-08-01

    To explore the transport of carbon into water masses from the surface ocean to depths of ∼ 1000 m in the southwest Pacific Ocean, we generated time series of radiocarbon (Δ14C) from fish otoliths. Otoliths (carbonate earstones) from long-lived fish provide an indirect method to examine the "bomb pulse" of radiocarbon that originated in the 1950s and 1960s, allowing identification of changes to distributions of 14C that has entered and mixed within the ocean. We micro-sampled ocean perch (Helicolenus barathri) otoliths, collected at ∼ 400- 500 m in the Tasman Sea, to obtain measurements of Δ14C for those depths. We compared our ocean perch Δ14C series to published otolith-based marine surface water Δ14C values (Australasian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) and nannygai (Centroberyx affinis)) and to published deep-water values (800-1000 m; orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)) from the southwest Pacific to establish a mid-water Δ14C series. The otolith bomb 14C results from these different depths were consistent with previous water mass results in the upper 1500 m of the southwest Pacific Ocean (e.g. World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Geochemical Ocean Sections Study). A comparison between the initial Δ14C bomb pulse rise at 400-500 m suggested a ventilation lag of 5 to 10 yr, whereas a comparison of the surface and depths of 800-1000 m detailed a 10 to 20 yr lag in the time history of radiocarbon invasion at this depth. Pre-bomb reservoir ages derived from otolith 14C located in Tasman Sea thermocline waters were ∼ 530 yr, while reservoir ages estimated for Tasman Antarctic intermediate water were ∼ 730 yr.

  15. Tropical Pacific Climate, Carbon, and Ocean Biogeochemical Response to the Central American Seaway in a GFDL Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentman, L. T.; Dunne, J. P.; Stouffer, R. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Broccoli, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    sedimentation and preservation in the Caribbean and eastern equatorial Pacific, consistent with paleoclimate proxy data. The air-sea CO2 flux into the ocean decreases with the narrow seaway, thereby increasing atmospheric pCO2 concentrations by at least 236 ppm compared with present-day, with implications for warming during the Pliocene.

  16. An Ocean Biology-induced Negative Feedback on ENSO in the Tropical Pacific Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Biological conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean (e.g., phytoplankton biomass) are strongly regulated by physical changes associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The existence and variation of phytoplankton biomass, in turn, act to modulate the vertical penetration of the incoming sunlight in the upper ocean, presenting an ocean biology-induced heating (OBH) effect on the climate system. Previously, a penetration depth of solar radiation in the upper ocean (Hp) is defined to describe the related bio-climate connections. Parameterized in terms of its relationship with the sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific, an empirical model for interannual Hp variability has been derived from remotely sensed ocean color data, which is incorporated into a hybrid coupled model (HCM) to represent OBH effects. In this paper, various HCM experiments are performed to demonstrate the bio-feedback onto ENSO, including a climatological Hp run (in which Hp is prescribed as seasonally varying only), interannual Hp runs (with different intensities of interannually varying OBH effects), and a run in which the sign of the OBH effect is artificially reversed. Significant modulating impacts on interannual variability are found in the HCM, characterized by a negative feedback between ocean biology and the climate system in the tropical Pacific: the stronger the OBH feedback, the weaker the interannual variability. Processes involved in the feedback are analyzed; it is illustrated that the SST is modulated indirectly by ocean dynamical processes induced by OBH. The significance and implication of the OBH effects are discussed for their roles in ENSO variability and model biases in the tropical Pacific.

  17. Sensitivity of equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean watermasses to the position of the Indonesian Throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Keith B.; Latif, Mojib; Legutke, Stephanie

    2000-09-01

    The sensitivity of the thermal structure of the equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean pycnoclines to a model's representation of the Indonesian Straits connecting the two basins is investigated. Two integrations are performed using the global HOPE ocean model. The initial conditions and surface forcing for both cases are identical; the only difference between the runs is that one has an opening for the Indonesian Straits which spans the equator on the Pacific side, and the other has an opening which lies fully north of the equator. The resulting sensitivity throughout much of the upper ocean is greater than 0.5°C for both the equatorial Indian and Pacific. A realistic simulation of net Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) transport (measured in Sverdrups) is not sufficient for an adequate simulation of equatorial watermasses. The ITF must also contain a realistic admixture of northern and southern Pacific source water.

  18. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... States, Vanuatu, and Venezuela. Bolivia and the Cook Islands are cooperating non-members. International... Pacific bluefin mortality. In addition, the Department of the Interior, Office of Environmental Policy and...

  19. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from Pacific cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from 250 recaptured (624 released) depth and temperature recording archival (data storage) tags attached to Pacific cod off Kodiak Island and in the eastern...

  20. The Impacts of Amazon Deforestation on Pacific Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Leah

    Pacific climate, numerical experiments were performed using the CESM. Amazon deforestation was studied in an idealized world where a single continent was covered in forest and then, in a separate simulation, covered in grassland. Four different sets of simulations were carried out: 1) the baseline idealized set-up with prescribed SST, 2) another with an Andes-like mountain range, 3) a simulation with a slab ocean model rather than prescribed SST, and 4) a simulation repeated with the standard Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) replaced by the Superparameterized version (SP-CAM). The continent in these simulations was compared to the Amazon, and the ocean to the west of the continent was compared to the eastern Pacific. All of the simulations showed a strong warming of around 3-4°C over the continent going from forest to grassland. A notable decrease in precipitation over land of about 1-3 mm day-1 and increase to the west of the continent of about 1-2 mm day-1 was also observed in most of the simulations. The simulations with the slab ocean model showed enhanced precipitation changes with a corresponding decrease of 2-4 mm day-1 over land and increase of 3-5 mm day-1 west of the continent. Simulations that used the SP-CAM showed very small changes in precipitation, which was likely due to the decreased spin-up time allowed for these simulations. The decrease in the surface roughness and reduction in the evapotranspiration for the simulations with grassland contributed to these changes in surface temperature and precipitation. The conversion of forest to grassland in our experiments imply that deforestation can lead to weakening of the Walker circulation by weakening easterly surface winds and westerly upper tropospheric winds. These findings suggest that large-scale Amazon deforestation is capable of enhancing El Nino conditions.

  1. Is the core top modern? Observations from the eastern equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekik, Figen; Anderson, Robert

    2018-04-01

    A compilation of ages from 67 core tops in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) does not display an easily discernible regional pattern. The ages range from 790 to over 15,000 years. The youngest core tops with the highest sediment focusing factors are located in the Panama Basin. There are weak but statistically significant inverse relationships between core top age and age-model based mass accumulation rates, bioturbation depth, linear sedimentation rate and sediment focusing factors. However, we found no statistically significant relationship between core top age and calcite dissolution in sediments or 230Th-normalized mass accumulation rates. We found evidence suggesting that greater amount of sediment focusing helps to preserve the carbonate fraction of the sediment where focusing is taking place. When focusing factors are plotted against percent calcite dissolved, we observe a strong inverse relationship, and core tops younger than 4500 years tend to occur where focusing factors are high and percent calcite dissolved values are low. Using labile organic carbon fluxes to estimate bioturbation depth in the sediments results in the observation that where bioturbation depth is shallow (<4 cm), the core top age has a strong, inverse relationship with sediment accumulation rate. We used the Globorotalia menardii Fragmentation Index (MFI) as an indicator of percent calcite dissolved in deep sea sediments. There is a distinct pattern to core top calcite dissolution in the EEP which delineates bands of high surface ocean productivity as well as the clear increase in dissolution downward on the flanks of the East Pacific Rise.

  2. Attribution of the variability of typhoon landfalls in China coasts to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Chen, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, D.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The typhoon (TY) landfall activity along China coasts during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variations during 1965-2010. Three typical episodes for TY landfall activities in JAS along the China coasts during 1965-2010 can be identified, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (period I) and 1998-2010 (period III), and less during 1982-1995 (period II). We found that the interdcadal variations might be related to the combined effects of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase change and the sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific (IO-WP). During negative PDO phase of periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP) inducing easterly flow at its north, favoring TY landfall along eastern China coast. Due to Gill-pattern responses, warm SST anomalies over tropical IO-WP induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP, with southeasterly wind dominating in the northern SCS and WNP (10o-20o N), which favors TY reaching along southern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TY landfall during period III than that of period I, which shows SST cooling in tropical IO-WP.

  3. Detecting the progression of ocean acidification from the saturation state of CaCO3 in the subtropical South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Ken-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Progression of ocean acidification in the subtropical South Pacific was investigated by using high-quality data from trans-Pacific zonal section at 17°S (World Ocean Circulation Experiment section P21) collected in 1994 and 2009. During this 15 year period, the CaCO3 saturation state of seawater with respect to calcite (Ωcal) and aragonite (Ωarg) in the upper water column (Pacific Ocean.

  4. Temperature Data From AUSTRALIA STAR and Other Platforms From Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean From 19860929 to 19890106 (NODC Accession 8900196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data from Australia Star and other ships from Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from September 29, 1986 to January 6, 1989. The data were collected by...

  5. Effect of climate-ocean changes on the abundance of Pacific saury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yeong; Suh, Young Sang

    2013-01-01

    Effects of ocean climate changes on the population structure and abundance of Pacific saury (Cololabis sira) were investigated on the basis of climate indices, sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, catch and body size information from the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) region (Yellow Sea, East China Sea and East/Japan Sea) during the period 1950-2010. It is suggested that oceanic regime shifts in the early 1970s, late 1980s and late 1990s occurred in the TWC region in winter, but the regime shifts in the mid-1970s and in the late 1980s were not evident in the spring SST anomaly series. The abundance and body size of Pacific saury fluctuated in association with the winter oceanic changes in the TWC region. The catch rates and abundance of large size saury were far bellow average during their northward migrations in the TWC region in the years with abnormally cool winters (e.g., 1963, 1970, 1977, 1981-1989 and 2006) and above average in the years with warm winters. These patterns demonstrate decadal-scale variations together with large inter-annual fluctuations in the structure and abundance of Pacific saury in association with the climatic-oceanic changes. These results, along with an alternation of dominant pelagic fish species, indicate the status of the saury population in the TWC region is in good condition, similar to that in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Current (KOC) region during the warm regime after the late 1980s climate regime shift.

  6. Multidecadal-scale adjustment of the ocean mixed layer heat budget in the tropics: examining ocean reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K.; Sun, Xiaoming

    2018-03-01

    Distributions of ocean mixed layer temperature trends and trends in the net heat flux from the atmosphere differ, indicating the important role of the transport of heat within the ocean for determining temperature trends. Annual-mean, linear trends in the components of the tropical ocean mixed layer heat budget for 1980-2015 are diagnosed in 4 ocean reanalyses to improve our physical understanding of multidecadal-scale SST trends. The well-known temperature trend in the tropical Pacific, with cooling in the east and warming in the west, is reproduced in each reanalysis with high statistical significance. Cooling in the east is associated with negative trends in the net heat flux from the atmosphere and enhanced equatorial upwelling related to a strengthening of the subtropical cells. Negative trends in the net heat flux also occur in the western tropical Pacific, but advective warming associated with a strengthening and shoaling of the equatorial undercurrent overwhelms these negative trends. The strengthening of the equatorial undercurrent is consistent with enhanced easterly wind stress, which is applied to the ocean reanalyses, and differential sea level trends that enhance the negative zonal height gradient across the Pacific. The Pacific North Equatorial countercurrent is also strengthening in all 4 reanalyses in association with a strengthening of the sea level trough at 10°N in the central and eastern Pacific. All 4 ocean reanalyses produce warming of 0.1-0.3 K/decade in the North Atlantic with statistical significance levels ranging from below 90-99%. The Atlantic is similar to the Pacific in having the equatorial undercurrent strengthening, but indications of shoaling are less consistent in the reanalyses and the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the Atlantic is not strengthening. Large-scale ocean mixed layer warming trends in the Indian Ocean in the reanalyses are interrupted by some regional cooling close to the equator. Net surface heat flux trends

  7. Characterizations of wet mercury deposition to a remote islet (Pengjiayu) in the subtropical Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2013-10-01

    Thirty-four weekly rainwater samples were collected in 2009 at Pengjiayu, a remote islet in the subtropical Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean, to study the distribution of rainwater mercury (Hg) concentrations and associated wet deposition fluxes. This is the first study concerning wet Hg deposition to the subtropical NW Pacific Ocean downwind of the East Asian continent, which is the major source region for Hg emissions worldwide. Sample Hg concentrations ranged from 2.25 to 22.33 ng L-1, with a volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of 8.85 ng L-1. The annual wet Hg deposition flux was 10.18 μg m-2, about 2.5 times the fluxes measured at sites on the Pacific coast of the USA, supporting the hypothesis that deposition is higher in the western than in the eastern Pacific. Seasonal VWM concentrations were 7.23, 11.58, 7.82, and 9.84 ng L-1, whereas seasonal wet deposition fluxes were 2.14, 3.45, 2.38, and 2.21 μg m-2, for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Higher summer wet Hg deposition was a function of both higher rainwater Hg concentration and greater rainfall. The seasonal pattern of rainwater Hg concentrations was the opposite of the general seasonal pattern of the East Asian air pollutant export. Since there is no significant anthropogenic Hg emission source on the islet of Pengjiayu, the observed high summertime rainwater Hg concentration hints at the importance of Hg0 oxidation and/or scavenging of upper-altitude reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) by deep convection. Direct anthropogenic RGM emissions from the East Asian continent may not contribute significantly to the rainwater Hg concentrations, but anthropogenic Hg0 emissions could be transported to the upper troposphere or marine boundary layer (MBL) where they can be oxidized to produce RGM, which will then be effectively scavenged by cloud water and rainwater.

  8. Thoughts on Multi-sphere Study in the Indo-Pacific Convergent Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.

    2016-12-01

    Interactions of the ocean with other components of the earth system, such as atmosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere are the front and hotspot of the ocean and earth sciences. In the Indonesian Archipelago and adjacent western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans, both the upper oceanic circulation and lower atmospheric circulation convergent and consequently enhance the fresh water and heat fluxes, affecting the East Asian and global climate. This region is considered as the world's center of marine bio-diversity and sediment discharge, as well as the collision center of the Eurasian, Indian and Pacific plates. Why and how the energy and material of multiple spheres convergent toward the region are important scientific issues on the front of earth system science and marine sciences, and need to be investigated through international cooperation.

  9. Analysis of longitudinal variations in North Pacific alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Tyrrell, T.; Achterberg, E. P.

    2016-02-01

    Carbon measurements in the ocean lack the coverage of physical measurements, so approximate alkalinity is predicted where data is unavailable. Surface alkalinity in the North Pacific is poorly characterised by predictive algorithms. Understanding the processes affecting alkalinity in this area can improve the equations. We investigated the causes of regional variations in alkalinity using GLODAPv2. We tested different hypotheses for the causes of three longitudinal phenomena in surface ocean values of Alk*, a tracer of calcium carbonate cycling. These phenomena are: (a) an increase in Alk* from east to west at 50°N, (b) an increase in Alk* from west to east at 30°N, and (c) a lack of a strong increase in Alk* from west to east in the equatorial upwelling area. We found that the most likely cause of higher Alk* on the western side of the subpolar North Pacific (at 50°N) is that denser isopycnals with higher Alk* lie at shallower depths on the western side than the eastern side. At 30°N, the main cause of higher Alk* on the eastern side of the basin is upwelling along the continental shelf of southwestern North America. Along the equator, our analyses suggest that the absence of a strong east-west trend is because the more intense upwelling on the eastern side of the basin does not, under normal conditions, lead to strong elevation of Alk*. However, surface Alk* is more strongly elevated in the eastern Equatorial Pacific during negative phases of the El-Nino-Southern Oscillation, probably because the upwelled water comes from greater depth at these times.

  10. The tropospheric biennial oscillation defined by a biennial mode of sea surface temperature and its impact on the atmospheric circulation and precipitation in the tropical eastern Indo-western Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinju; Kim, Kwang-Yul

    2016-10-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of anomalous atmospheric circulation and precipitation over the Indo-Pacific region are analyzed in conjunction with the Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation as represented by the biennial mode of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). The biennial components of key variables are identified independently of other variability via CSEOF analysis. Then, its impact on the Asian-Australian monsoon is examined. The biennial mode exhibits a seasonally distinctive atmospheric response over the tropical eastern Indo-western Pacific (EIWP) region (90°-150°E, 20°S-20°N). In boreal summer, local meridional circulation is a distinguishing characteristic over the tropical EIWP region, whereas a meridionally expanded branch of intensified zonal circulation develops in austral summer. Temporally varying evolution and distinct timing of SSTA phase transition in the Indian and Pacific Oceans is considered a main factor for this variation of circulation in the tropical EIWP region. The impact of the biennial mode is not the same between the two seasons, with different impacts over ocean areas in Asian monsoon and Australian monsoon regions.

  11. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  12. REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF SEA-SURFACE-TEMPERATURE PATTERNS FOR THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEA WATER, *SURFACE TEMPERATURE, *OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA, PACIFIC OCEAN, REGRESSION ANALYSIS , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, UNDERWATER EQUIPMENT, DETECTION, UNDERWATER COMMUNICATIONS, DISTRIBUTION, THERMAL PROPERTIES, COMPUTERS.

  13. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: northwest Atlantic through eastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas B Rusch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The world's oceans contain a complex mixture of micro-organisms that are for the most part, uncharacterized both genetically and biochemically. We report here a metagenomic study of the marine planktonic microbiota in which surface (mostly marine water samples were analyzed as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition. These samples, collected across a several-thousand km transect from the North Atlantic through the Panama Canal and ending in the South Pacific yielded an extensive dataset consisting of 7.7 million sequencing reads (6.3 billion bp. Though a few major microbial clades dominate the planktonic marine niche, the dataset contains great diversity with 85% of the assembled sequence and 57% of the unassembled data being unique at a 98% sequence identity cutoff. Using the metadata associated with each sample and sequencing library, we developed new comparative genomic and assembly methods. One comparative genomic method, termed "fragment recruitment," addressed questions of genome structure, evolution, and taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity, as well as the biochemical diversity of genes and gene families. A second method, termed "extreme assembly," made possible the assembly and reconstruction of large segments of abundant but clearly nonclonal organisms. Within all abundant populations analyzed, we found extensive intra-ribotype diversity in several forms: (1 extensive sequence variation within orthologous regions throughout a given genome; despite coverage of individual ribotypes approaching 500-fold, most individual sequencing reads are unique; (2 numerous changes in gene content some with direct adaptive implications; and (3 hypervariable genomic islands that are too variable to assemble. The intra-ribotype diversity is organized into genetically isolated populations that have overlapping but independent distributions, implying distinct environmental preference. We present novel methods for measuring the genomic

  14. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (Oceanography data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-29 to 1997-12-25 (NODC Accession 0112363)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112363 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  16. Notoraja martinezi sp. nov., a new species of deepwater skate and the first record of the genus Notoraja Ishiyama, 1958 (Rajiformes: Arhynchobatidae) from the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Francisco J; Ebert, David A; Long, Douglas J

    2016-04-05

    A new arhynchobatid skate, Notoraja martinezi, sp. nov., is described from four specimens collected from the eastern Central Pacific from Costa Rica to Ecuador and between depths of 1256-1472 m. The new species is placed in the genus Notoraja based on the long and flexible rostrum and its proportionally long tail with respect to total length. This species is distinct from its congeners in the Western Pacific by the straight margins of its rostrum, long anterior lobes of pelvic fins, and its abundant and very well developed caudal thorns.

  17. Range extension and morphological characterization of rhodolith-forming species (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from shallow water in the Mexican South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-García, Edith Concepción; Rosas-Alquicira, Edgar Francisco

    2014-12-01

    Living rhodolith beds are widely distributed along the Eastern Pacific ocean. Despite their widespread distribution, little is known about the rhodolith-forming species from shallow water in the Mexican South Pacific. Many taxonomic and morphological studies about rhodoliths have been carried out in the Gulf of California, where the forming species belong to the Hapalidiaceae and Corallinaceae families. This paper is the first report on the occurrence of the rhodolith-forming Hapalidiaceae species Lithothamnion muelleri and Phymatolithon repandum at three sites in the Mexican South Pacific. The branch density, maximum length and sphericity were measured for each determined species. Rhodoliths were distributed between 4 and 6 m depth, but differences in the branch density between species and sites were not found. Finally, the present record of L. muelleri fills the gap in the species distribution along the Eastern Pacific ocean, while the record of P. repandum is the first of the species in the region.

  18. The leading mode of observed and CMIP5 ENSO-residual sea surface temperatures and associated changes in Indo-Pacific climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Hoell. Andrew,

    2015-01-01

    SSTs in the western Pacific Ocean have tracked closely with CMIP5 simulations despite recent hiatus cooling in the eastern Pacific. This paper quantifies these similarities and associated circulation and precipitation variations using the first global 1900–2012 ENSO-residual empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of 35 variables: observed SSTs; 28 CMIP5 SST simulations; Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) 25-, 70-, and 171-m ocean temperatures and sea surface heights (SSHs); and Twentieth Century Reanalysis, version 2 (20CRv2), surface winds and precipitation.

  19. The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, M.; Dowe, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoecological records of palm decline, extirpation and extinction are explored from the oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean. Despite the severe reduction of faunal diversity coincidental with human colonisation of these previously uninhabited oceanic islands, relatively few plant extinctions have been recorded. At low taxonomic levels, recent faunal extinctions on oceanic islands are concentrated in larger bodied representatives of certain genera and families. Fossil and historic records of plant extinction show a similar trend with high representation of the palm family, Arecaceae. Late Holocene decline of palm pollen types is demonstrated from most islands where there are palaeoecological records including the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Rapanui. A strong correspondence between human impact and palm decline is measured from palynological proxies including increased concentrations of charcoal particles and pollen from cultivated plants and invasive weeds. Late Holocene extinctions or extirpations are recorded across all five of the Arecaceae subfamilies of the oceanic Pacific islands. These are most common for the genus Pritchardia but also many sedis fossil palm types were recorded representing groups lacking diagnostic morphological characters.

  20. Main Introduction Way of Indo-Pacific and Red Sea Originated Benthic Foraminifers to the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin MERİÇ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the alien foraminifers recorded in the eastern Mediterranean are Indo-Pacific originated and entered the Mediterranean via Suez Canal. In this study, current literature on the alien benthic foraminiferal fauna of the eastern Mediterranean was reviewed and the main dispersal pathways are determined. Distribution patterns of the alien species suggests that most of the species are introduced via Suez Canal and expand their range of distributions in a counter-clockwise manner by the general surface currents of the eastern Mediterranean. However, not all, but some of the species have also been dispersed westwards along the North African coast and reached central Mediterranean. Locally abundant records of Euthymonacha polita (Chapman, Coscinospira acicularis (Batsch and Amphistegina lobifera in the Aegean Sea indicates that Suez Canal may not be the only vector for the Indo-Pacific species to enter eastern Mediterranean and submarine springs help these thermophilic species to form establish populations in cool waters of the northern Aegean and the Sea of Marmara

  1. Biogenic origin of polymetallic nodules from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Eastern Pacific Ocean: electron microscopic and EDX evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-01-01

    Polymetallic/ferromanganese nodules (Mn-nodules) have been assigned a huge economic potential since they contain considerable concentrations of manganese, copper, nickel, iron, and cobalt. It has been assumed that they are formed by, besides hydrogenous, nonbiogenic processes, biogenic processes based on metabolic processes driven by microorganisms. In the present study, we applied the techniques of digital optical microscopy and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy to search for microorganisms in Mn-nodules. They were collected from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and are composed of Mn (23.9%), Cu (0.69%), Ni (1.02%), Fe (10.9%), and Co (0.29%). These Mn-nodules, between 2.3 and 4.8 cm, show a distinct lamination; they are composed of small-sized micronodules, 100 to 450 microm in size, which are bound together by an interstitial whitish material. In the micronodules, a dense accumulation of microorganisms/bacteria could be visualized. Only two morphotypes exist: (1) round-shaped cocci and (2) elongated rods. The cocci (diameter: approximately 3.5 microm) are arranged in bead-like chains, while the rods (approximately 2 x 0.4 microm) are arranged either as palisades or in a linear row. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses showed that the areas rich in microorganisms/bacteria are also rich in Mn, while in regions where no microorganisms are found, the element Si is dominant. We suggest that growth of the Mn-nodules starts with the formation of "micronodules." The formation of micronodules is assumed to be mediated by microorganisms. After accretion of biogenic and additional nonbiogenic minerals, the micronodules assemble to large nodules on the sea floor through additional inclusion of nonbiogenic material.

  2. The Southern Oscillation, Hypoxia, and the Eastern Pacific Tuna Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D.; Kiefer, D.; Lam, C. H.; Harrison, D. P.; Armstrong, E. M.; Hinton, M.; Luo, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Pacific tuna fishery, which is one of the world's major fisheries, covers thousands of square kilometers. The vessels of this fishery are registered in more than 30 nations and largely target bigeye (Thunnus obesus), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and yellowfin (T. albacores) tuna. In both the Pelagic Habitat Analysis Module project, which is sponsored by NASA, and the Fishscape project, which is sponsored by NSF, we have attempted to define the habitat of the three species by matching a 50 year time series on fish catch and effort with oceanographic information obtained from satellite imagery and from a global circulation model. The fishery time series, which was provided by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, provided spatial maps of catch and effort at monthly time steps; the satellite imagery of the region consisted of sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and height from GHRSST, SEAWiFS, and AVISO products, and the modeled flow field at selected depths was output from ECCO-92 simulations from 1992 to present. All information was integrated and analyzed within the EASy marine geographic information system. This GIS will also provides a home for the Fishscape spatial simulation model of the coupled dynamics of the ocean, fish, fleets, and markets. This model will then be applied to an assessment of the potential ecological and economic impacts of climate change, technological advances in fleet operations, and increases in fuel costs. We have determined by application of EOF analysis that the ECCO-2 simulation of sea surface height fits well with that of AVISO imagery; thus, if driven properly by predictions of future air-sea exchange, the model should provide good estimates of circulation patterns. We have also found that strong El Nino events lead to strong recruitment of all three species and strong La Nina events lead to weak recruitment. Finally, we have found that the general spatial distribution of the Eastern Pacific fishing grounds

  3. Clipperton Atoll (eastern Pacific): oceanography, geomorphology, reef-building coral ecology and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. W.; Veron, J. E. N.; Wellington, G. M.

    1996-06-01

    Coral reef geomorphology and community composition were investigated in the tropical northeastern Pacific during April 1994. Three areas were surveyed in the Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico), and an intensive study was conducted on Clipperton Atoll (1,300 km SW of Acapulco), including macro-scale surface circulation, sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, geomorphology, coral community structure, zonation, and biogeography. Satellite-tracked drifter buoys from 1979 1993 demonstrated complex patterns of surface circulation with dominantly easterly flow (North Equatorial Counter Current, NECC), but also westerly currents (South Equatorial Current, SEC) that could transport propagules to Clipperton from both central and eastern Pacific regions. The northernmost latitude reached by the NECC is not influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, but easterly flow velocity evidently is accelerated at such times. Maximum NECC flow rates indicate that the eastern Pacific barrier can be bridged in 60 to 120 days. SST anomalies at Clipperton occur during ENSO events and were greater at Clipperton in 1987 than during 1982 1983. Shallow (15 18 m)and deep (50 58 m) terraces are present around most of Clipperton, probably representing Modern and late Pleistocene sea level stands. Although Clipperton is a well developed atoll with high coral cover, the reef-building fauna is depauperate, consisting of only 7 species of scleractinian corals belonging to the genera Pocillopora, Porites, Pavona and Leptoseris, and 1 species of hydrocoral in the genus Millepora. The identities of the one Pocilpopora species and one of the two Porites species are still unknown. Two of the remaining scleractinians ( Pavona minuta, Leptoseris scabra) and the hydrocoral ( Millepora exaesa), all formerly known from central and western Pacific localities, represent new eastern Pacific records. Scleractinian corals predominate (10 100% cover) over insular shelf depths of 8 to 60m, and crustose

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-12-08 to 2002-01-19 (NODC Accession 0113547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113547 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-12-08 to 2002-01-19 (NODC Accession 0112347)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112347 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean...

  6. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (TSG-thermosalinigraph data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  7. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal... regulations. (1) No vessels may anchor, moor, or navigate in anchorages A, B, C, or D except: (i) Vessels...

  8. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection. PMID:26838053

  9. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-02-03

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection.

  10. Comparative Study on the Electrical Properties of the Oceanic Mantle Beneath the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, H.

    2013-12-01

    We have been conducting long-term seafloor electromagnetic (EM) observations at two sites in the northwest Pacific since 2001. The older site was established at the deep seafloor (~5600m) on the northwest Pacific basin (Site NWP), while the new one was installed on the west Philippine basin (Site WPB) in 2006 at the slightly deeper (~5700m) seafloor. The ages of the oceanic basins at those sites are approximately 129 Ma for Site NWP (Shipboard Scientific Party of ODP Leg 191, 2000) and 49 Ma for Site WPB (Salisbury et al., 2006), respectively. The EM instruments deployed at those sites are seafloor EM stations (SFEMS; Toh et al., 2004 and 2006) and capable of measuring vector EM fields at the seafloor for as long as one year or more with other physical quantities such as the instruments' attitude, orientation and temperature. One of the objectives of the seafloor long-term EM observations by SFEMSs is to make a comparative study of the oceanic mantle with and without influence of the so-called 'stagnant slabs' in terms of their electrical conductivity. It is anticipated that the mantle transition zone under the influence of the stagnant slab has a higher electrical conductivity because the transition zone there could be wetter than that in the absence of the stagnant slab. In this context, the mantle transition zone beneath Site WPB can be said to have influence by the stagnant slab, while that beneath Site NWP does not. It, therefore, is basically possible to estimate how much water is present in each transition zone by comparison of the electrical conductivity profiles of the two. The one-dimensional electrical profile beneath Site NWP has been derived so far using the magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth sounding (GDS) methods with significant jumps in the electrical property at 410 and 660km discontinuities. The jumps are approximately factors of 10 and 2, respectively (Ichiki et al., 2009). Here we show a profile beneath Site WPB using both MT and GDS

  11. The Pleistocene Eastern Equatorial Pacific: Insights from a New Carnegie Platform Stratigraphic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwizd, S.; Lea, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Renewed interest in a classic Eastern Equatorial Pacific paleoceanographic site at 3° 35.85' S, 83° 57.79' W, previous site of cores V19-29 and TR163-31, prompted a re-coring in 2009 using the recently developed CDH giant piston coring system on cruise KNR195-5. Giant piston core CDH-36 (3225 m depth, 42.61 m length) nearly triples the length of previous cores at this site. When spliced together with companion multicore MC-34A (0.36 m length), these two cores generate continuous stratigraphy throughout most of the middle Pleistocene, and include recognized stratigraphic tie points ash layer "L" (Ninkovich and Shackleton, 1975) and the extinction of pink G. ruber. A new age model utilizing Bayesian analysis of 17 N. dutertrei radiocarbon dates in MC-34A and the top 3.4 m of CDH-36, and alignment of a new CDH-36 δ18O record with the LR04 benthic stack (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005), demonstrates that this new "Carnegie Platform" (CP) record extends from 0 to 720 ka (MIS 18), tripling the timescale of previous studies, with an average sedimentation rate of 7 cm/kyr. The CP C. wuellerstorfi δ18O and δ13C records reveal strong consistencies in timing and extent of glacial and interglacial episodes with previously studied regional records. Coarse fraction percentage (%CF) ([coarse fraction/bulk dry sample] * 100) is also evaluated throughout the CP core in order to qualitatively assess dissolution cycles. The CP %CF dataset primarily records Pleistocene dissolution cycles, yet exhibits variability representative of potential local bathymetric and hydrographic effects. The timing of %CF cyclicity is consistent with processes which affect basin-wide calcium carbonate dissolution cycles, including changes in terrestrial carbon input to the oceans and changes in water mass ventilation (Shackleton, 1977; Toggweiler et al., 2006; Sexton and Barker, 2012). Establishing the stratigraphy of the CP record provides the first step towards a more thorough and extended analysis of

  12. 77 FR 73969 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... overfishing of the stock. DATES: Comments must be submitted in writing by January 11, 2013. A public hearing... effort quotas are an important step for reducing the overfishing of bluefin tuna. In 2011, NMFS determined overfishing is occurring on Pacific bluefin tuna based on stock assessment results of the...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-12-17 to 2003-02-14 (NODC Accession 0113608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113608 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  14. Anomalous summer climate in China influenced by the tropical Indo-Pacific Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Hengyi; Wu, Guoxiong; Liu, Yimin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Behera, Swadhin K. [Application Laboratory, JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan); Yamagata, Toshio [Application Laboratory, JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan); Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Possible influences of three coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomena in the Indo-Pacific Oceans, El Nino, El Nino Modoki and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), on summer climate in China are studied based on data analysis for the summers of 1951-2007. Partial correlation/regression analysis is used to find the influence paths through the related anomalous mid- and low-level tropospheric circulations over the oceanic region and East Eurasia, including the western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM). Among the three phenomena, El Nino Modoki has the strongest relationship with the WNPSM. When two or three phenomena coexist with either positive or negative phase, the influences exerted by one phenomenon on summer climate in different regions of China may be enhanced or weakened by other phenomena. In 1994 when both El Nino Modoki and IOD are prominent without El Nino, a strong WNPSM is associated with severe flooding in southern China and severe drought in the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). The 500 hPa high systems over China are responsible for heat waves in most parts of China. In 1983 when a strong negative phase of El Nino Modoki is accompanied by moderate El Nino and IOD, a weak WNPSM is associated with severe flooding in the YRV and severe drought in southern China. The 500 hPa low systems over China are responsible for the cold summer in the YRV and northeastern China. For rainfall, the influence path seems largely through the low-level tropospheric circulations including the WNPSM. For temperature, the influence path seems largely through the mid-level tropospheric circulations over East Eurasia/western North Pacific Ocean. (orig.)

  15. Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean as a potential resource for rare-earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kitamura, Kenichi; Ohta, Junichiro; Toda, Ryuichi; Nakashima, Takuya; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2011-08-01

    World demand for rare-earth elements and the metal yttrium--which are crucial for novel electronic equipment and green-energy technologies--is increasing rapidly. Several types of seafloor sediment harbour high concentrations of these elements. However, seafloor sediments have not been regarded as a rare-earth element and yttrium resource, because data on the spatial distribution of these deposits are insufficient. Here, we report measurements of the elemental composition of over 2,000 seafloor sediments, sampled at depth intervals of around one metre, at 78 sites that cover a large part of the Pacific Ocean. We show that deep-sea mud contains high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium at numerous sites throughout the eastern South and central North Pacific. We estimate that an area of just one square kilometre, surrounding one of the sampling sites, could provide one-fifth of the current annual world consumption of these elements. Uptake of rare-earth elements and yttrium by mineral phases such as hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite seems to be responsible for their high concentration. We show that rare-earth elements and yttrium are readily recovered from the mud by simple acid leaching, and suggest that deep-sea mud constitutes a highly promising huge resource for these elements.

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-15 to 2008-02-23 (NODC Accession 0109903)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109903 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  17. Deep ocean communities impacted by changing climate over 24 y in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth L; Ruhl, Henry A; Kahru, Mati; Huffard, Christine L; Sherman, Alana D

    2013-12-03

    The deep ocean, covering a vast expanse of the globe, relies almost exclusively on a food supply originating from primary production in surface waters. With well-documented warming of oceanic surface waters and conflicting reports of increasing and decreasing primary production trends, questions persist about how such changes impact deep ocean communities. A 24-y time-series study of sinking particulate organic carbon (food) supply and its utilization by the benthic community was conducted in the abyssal northeast Pacific (~4,000-m depth). Here we show that previous findings of food deficits are now punctuated by large episodic surpluses of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor, which meet utilization. Changing surface ocean conditions are translated to the deep ocean, where decadal peaks in supply, remineralization, and sequestration of organic carbon have broad implications for global carbon budget projections.

  18. PIXE analysis of marine environmental samples from the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Shitashima, Kiminori; Tsubota, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Aerosol samples from the western North Pacific Ocean are collected during a cruise of R/V Hakuhomaru from Japan to Hawaii and they are analyzed by PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Concentrations of radon daughters are measured with CR-39 track detectors mounted on the impactor to estimate the transport time of air mass from the Asian Continent. Distributions of particulate element concentrations clearly demonstrate the influence of the westerlies. Strong correlations are observed between fine sulphur concentrations and those of heavy metals such as Fe and Zn. Vertical profiles of heavy metal elements contained in marine particulates are also investigated at a trench in the Pacific Ocean and basins in the Japan Sea. Particulate element concentrations determined by PIXE agree well with those determined by chemical analysis of filtered/total water. Remarkable changes in depth profiles of particulate manganese are observed at the trench, which suggest horizontal transport of marine particulates from the trench wall. (N.K.)

  19. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  20. Temporal variability of neustonic ichthyoplankton assemblages of the eastern Pacific warm pool: Can community structure be linked to climate variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio Vilchis, L.; Ballance, Lisa T.; Watson, William

    2009-01-01

    Considerable evidence exists, showing an accelerated warming trend on earth during the past 40-50 years, attributed mainly to anthropogenic factors. Much of this excess heat is stored in the world's oceans, likely resulting in increased environmental variability felt by marine ecosystems. The long-term effects of this phenomenon on oceanic tropical ecosystems are largely unknown, and our understanding of its effects could be facilitated by long-term studies of how species compositions change with time. Ichthyoplankton, in particular, can integrate physical, environmental and ecological factors making them excellent model taxa to address this question. While on eight (1987-1990, 1992 and 1998-2000) NOAA Fisheries cruises to the eastern Pacific warm pool, we characterized the thermal and phytoplankton pigment structure of the water column, as well as the neustonic ichthyoplankton community using CTD casts and Manta (surface) net tows. Over the 13-year period, 852 CTD and Manta tow stations were completed. We divided the study area into three regions based on regional oceanography, thermocline depth and productivity, as well as a longitudinal gradient in species composition among stations. We then analyzed temporal trends of ichthyoplankton species composition within each region by pooling stations by region and year and making pairwise comparisons of community similarity between all combinations of the eight cruises within each region. We also identified environment-specific species assemblages and station groupings using hierarchical clustering and non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS). Our analyses revealed a longitudinal gradient in community structure and temporal stability of ichthyoplankton species composition. Over the 13 years ichthyoplankton assemblages in the two westernmost regions varied less than in the eastern region. MDS and cluster analyses identified five ichthyoplankton assemblages that corresponded to oceanographic habitats and a gradient in

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1994-01-26 to 1994-04-27 (NODC Accession 0115152)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115152 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific...

  2. Using Genome-Wide SNPs to Detect Structure in High-Diversity and Low-Divergence Populations of Severely Impacted Eastern Tropical Pacific Spinner (Stenella longirostris And Pantropical Spotted Dolphins (S. attenuata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Steven Leslie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of spinner (Stenella longirostris and pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata died since the 1960’s as bycatch in tuna nets in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite three decades of protection, they show little-to-no sign of recovery (although recent fisheries-independent abundance estimates are not available. In efforts to establish biologically meaningful management boundaries for recovery, endemic subspecies and multiple stocks have been proposed. However, genetic differentiation among most of these units has been difficult to identify, possibly due to low statistical power stemming from large historical abundances, ongoing gene flow, and recent divergence. We tested for genetic structure at multiple hierarchical levels by analyzing the largest dataset to date brought to bear on these questions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were collected from nuclear DNA regions associated with the restriction enzyme site PstI from 72 spinner dolphins and 58 pantropical spotted dolphins using genotype-by-sequencing (GBS. Our results support the current subspecies for both species and indicate stock-level separation for Tres Marias spinner dolphins and the two offshore pantropical spotted dolphin stocks in this area. Although bycatch has been reduced a small fraction of pre-protection levels, incidental mortality continues to impact these populations. Our results are important for the ongoing management and recovery of these highly-impacted pelagic dolphins in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.

  3. Role of atmosphere-ocean interactions in supermodeling the tropical Pacific climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mao-Lin; Keenlyside, Noel; Bhatt, Bhuwan C.; Duane, Gregory S.

    2017-12-01

    The supermodel strategy interactively combines several models to outperform the individual models comprising it. A key advantage of the approach is that nonlinear improvements can be achieved, in contrast to the linear weighted combination of individual unconnected models. This property is found in a climate supermodel constructed by coupling two versions of an atmospheric model differing only in their convection scheme to a single ocean model. The ocean model receives a weighted combination of the momentum and heat fluxes. Optimal weights can produce a supermodel with a basic state similar to observations: a single Intertropical Convergence zone (ITCZ), with a western Pacific warm pool and an equatorial cold tongue. This is in stark contrast to the erroneous double ITCZ pattern simulated by both of the two stand-alone coupled models. By varying weights, we develop a conceptual scheme to explain how combining the momentum fluxes of the two different atmospheric models affects equatorial upwelling and surface wind feedback so as to give a realistic basic state in the tropical Pacific. In particular, we propose a mechanism based on the competing influences of equatorial zonal wind and off-equatorial wind stress curl in driving equatorial upwelling in the coupled models. Our results show how nonlinear ocean-atmosphere interaction is essential in combining these two effects to build different sea surface temperature structures, some of which are realistic. They also provide some insight into observed and modelled tropical Pacific climate.

  4. SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-Ocean Regional Study: THE NORTH ATLANTIC EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the ocean process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North Atlantic and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.

  5. Oceanic control of Northeast Pacific hurricane activity at interannual timescales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Ruby Leung, L; Yoon, Jin-ho

    2013-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is not the only oceanic parameter that can play a key role in the interannual variability of Northeast Pacific hurricane activity. Using several observational data sets and the statistical technique of multiple linear regression analysis, we show that, along with SST, the thermocline depth (TD) plays an important role in hurricane activity at interannual timescales in this basin. Based on the parameter that dominates, the ocean basin can be divided into two sub-regions. In the Southern sub-region, which includes the hurricane main development area, interannual variability of the upper-ocean heat content (OHC) is primarily controlled by TD variations. Consequently, the interannual variability in the hurricane power dissipation index (PDI), which is a measure of the intensity of hurricane activity, is driven by that of the TD. On the other hand, in the Northern sub-region, SST exerts the major control over the OHC variability and, in turn, the PDI. Our study suggests that both SST and TD have a significant influence on the Northeast Pacific hurricane activity at interannual timescales and that their respective roles are more clearly delineated when sub-regions along an approximate north–south demarcation are considered rather than the basin as a whole. (letter)

  6. Natural ocean acidification at Papagayo upwelling system (north Pacific Costa Rica): implications for reef development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Stuhldreier, Ines; Cortés, Jorge; Jiménez, Carlos; Morales, Álvaro; Wild, Christian; Rixen, Tim

    2018-04-01

    Numerous experiments have shown that ocean acidification impedes coral calcification, but knowledge about in situ reef ecosystem response to ocean acidification is still scarce. Bahía Culebra, situated at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is a location naturally exposed to acidic conditions due to the Papagayo seasonal upwelling. We measured pH and pCO2 in situ during two non-upwelling seasons (June 2012, May-June 2013), with a high temporal resolution of every 15 and 30 min, respectively, using two Submersible Autonomous Moored Instruments (SAMI-pH, SAMI-CO2). These results were compared with published data from the 2009 upwelling season. Findings revealed that the carbonate system in Bahía Culebra shows a high temporal variability. Incoming offshore waters drive intra- and interseasonal changes. Lowest pH (7.8) and highest pCO2 (658.3 µatm) values measured during a cold-water intrusion event in the non-upwelling season were similar to those minimum values reported from upwelling season (pH = 7.8, pCO2 = 643.5 µatm), unveiling that natural acidification also occurs sporadically in the non-upwelling season. This affects the interaction of photosynthesis, respiration, calcification and carbonate dissolution and the resulting diel cycle of pH and pCO2 in the reefs of Bahía Culebra. During the non-upwelling season, the aragonite saturation state (Ωa) rises to values of > 3.3 and during the upwelling season falls below 2.5. The Ωa threshold values for coral growth were derived from the correlation between measured Ωa and coral linear extension rates which were obtained from the literature and suggest that future ocean acidification will threaten the continued growth of reefs in Bahía Culebra. These data contribute to building a better understanding of the carbonate system dynamics and coral reefs' key response (e.g., coral growth) to natural low-pH conditions, in upwelling areas in the eastern tropical Pacific and beyond.

  7. Oceanographic and marine meteorological observations in the Northwest Pacific ocean during 1998 (NODC Accession 0000070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, plankton, and nutrients data were collected using buoy and CTD casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 22 January 1998 to...

  8. Surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Indian rainfall

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    The time variation of the monthly mean surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean during 1982-1987 has been studied in relation to summer monsoon rainfall over India The ENSO events of 1982 and 1987 were related to a significant reduction...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-11-17 to 2004-12-09 (NODC Accession 0112263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112263 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-02-16 to 2007-03-26 (NODC Accession 0112269)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112269 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-10-06 to 1993-04-13 (NODC Accession 0115156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115156 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-08-31 to 1991-10-01 (NODC Accession 0115174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115174 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-24 (NODC Accession 0108082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108082 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  14. Intraseasonal meridional current variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ogata, T.; Sasaki, H.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Masumoto, Y.

    . [2007] demonstrate the possibility of the air-sea interac- tion in the eastern Indian Ocean at the intraseasonal time- scale by analyzing observed and simulated data. Recent studies also reveal that multiscale air-sea interactions be- tween intraseasonal...

  15. Anthropogenic {sup 129}I in the North Pacific, Bering and Chukchi Seas, and Arctic Ocean in 2012–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, H., E-mail: hnagai@chs.nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Hasegawa, A. [Graduate School of Integrated Basic Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Yamagata, T. [Department of Chemistry, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Kumamoto, Y.; Nishino, S. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Kanagawa 237-0061 (Japan); Matsuzaki, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Most of anthropogenic {sup 129}I in marine environment are due to discharge from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (U.K.) and La Hague (France) for past few decades. The discharge raised {sup 129}I concentration in seawaters in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans to more than 10{sup 9} atoms L{sup −1}, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that in other region. Recently, in March 2011, a large quantity of {sup 129}I was released into the western North Pacific due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. To evaluate the influence of these events, we have measured {sup 129}I concentration in seawaters in the northern North Pacific Ocean, Bering and Chukchi Seas, and Arctic Ocean in 2012–2013. The {sup 129}I concentrations were 1.0–1.8 × 10{sup 7} atoms L{sup −1} in the surface waters in the vicinity of 47°N 150°E–130°W North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea (<74°N), which are equal to or lower than the {sup 129}I concentration level in surface water in the North Pacific Ocean before the F1NPP accident. The vertical profiles in the North Pacific were almost same as that observed in the western North Pacific before the F1NPP accident. The {sup 129}I distribution in seawater in the North Pacific to the Chukchi Sea revealed no significant increase of {sup 129}I concentration caused by the F1NPP accident. The {sup 129}I concentrations were 13–14 × 10{sup 7} atoms L{sup −1} in surface waters and 80 × 10{sup 7} atoms L{sup −1} at depths of 300 and 800 m in the Arctic Ocean.

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-09-06 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 0000193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0000193 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  17. Difference in the influence of Indo-Pacific Ocean heat content on South Asian Summer Monsoon intensity before and after 1976/1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yujie; Feng, Junqiao; Hu, Dunxin

    2016-05-01

    Monthly ocean temperature from ORAS4 datasets and atmospheric data from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I/II were used to analyze the relationship between the intensity of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) and upper ocean heat content (HC) in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. The monsoon was differentiated into a Southwest Asian Summer Monsoon (SWASM) (2.5°-20°N, 35°-70°E) and Southeast Asian Summer Monsoon (SEASM) (2.5°-20°N, 70°-110°E). Results show that before the 1976/77 climate shift, the SWASM was strongly related to HC in the southern Indian Ocean and tropical Pacific Ocean. The southern Indian Ocean affected SWASM by altering the pressure gradient between southern Africa and the northern Indian Ocean and by enhancing the Somali cross-equatorial flow. The tropical Pacific impacted the SWASM through the remote forcing of ENSO. After the 1976/77 shift, there was a close relationship between equatorial central Pacific HC and the SEASM. However, before that shift, their relationship was weak.

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1981-11-21 to 1983-11-20 (NODC Accession 8500258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean from November 21, 1981 to November 20, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  19. STOMACH CONTENT OF THREE TUNA SPECIES IN THE EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Setyadji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habit of tuna in Indian Ocean has been described around Sri Lanka, Indian Waters, Andaman Sea, western Indian Ocean (Seychelles Islands, western equatorial Indian Ocean whereas the tunas feeding habit study in Eastern Indian Oceanis merely in existence. The purpose of this study is to investigate the stomach content of three tuna species (bigeye tuna, yellowfin tuna, and skipjack tuna, apex predator in the southern part of Eastern Indian Ocean. The study was conducted in March – April, 2010 on the basis of catches of commercial tuna longline vessel based in Port of Benoa. A total of 53 individual fishes were collected, consisting of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus, yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores, and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis. Stomach specimens were collected and analyzed.Analysis was conducted on the basis of index of preponderance method. The diet of the three tuna species showed fishes as the main diet (56–82%, followed by cephalopods (squids as the complementary diet (0–8%, and crustaceans (shrimps as the additional diet (2–4%. Fish prey composed of 6 families i.e. Alepisauridae, Bramidae, Carangidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae, and Scombridae.

  20. The response of the North Pacific Decadal Variability to strong tropical volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Otteraa, Odd Helge [Uni Bjerknes Centre, Uni Research, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Gao, Yongqi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Wang, Huijun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Climate Change Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    In this study, the effects of volcanic forcing on North Pacific climate variability, on interannual to decadal time scales, are examined using climate model simulations covering the last 600 years. The model used is the Bergen Climate Model, a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. It is found that natural external forcings, such as tropical strong volcanic eruptions (SVEs) and variations in total solar irradiance, play an important role in regulating North Pacific Decadal Variability (NPDV). In response to tropical SVEs the lower stratospheric pole-to-equator temperature gradient is enhanced. The North polar vortex is strengthened, which forces a significant positive Arctic Oscillation. At the same time, dipole zonal wind anomalies associated with strong polar vortex propagate downward from the lower stratosphere. Through positive feedbacks in the troposphere, the surface westerly winds across the central North Pacific are significantly weakened, and positive sea level pressure anomalies are formed in the North Pacific. This anomalous surface circulation results in changes in the net heat fluxes and the oceanic advection across the North Pacific. As a result of this, warm water converges in the subtropical western North Pacific, where the surface waters in addition are heated by significantly reduced latent and sensible heat fluxes from the ocean. In the eastern and high-latitude North Pacific the ocean loses more heat, and large-scale decreases in sea surface temperatures are found. The overall response of this chain of events is that the North Pacific enters a negative phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and this negative phase of the PDO is maintained for several years. It is thus concluded that the volcanic forcing plays a key role in the phasing of the PDO. The model results furthermore highlight the important role of troposphere-stratosphere coupling, tropical-extratropical teleconnections and extratropical ocean

  1. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Zhang, Yuhong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Ningning; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-11-02

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004-2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate.

  2. Oceanic, Latitudinal, and Sex-Specific Variation in Demography of a Tropical Deepwater Snapper across the Indo-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J. Williams

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deepwater tropical fisheries provide an important source of income and protein to Pacific and Indian Ocean coastal communities who are highly dependent on fish for food security. The development of quantitative assessments and management strategies for these deepwater fisheries has been hindered by insufficient biological and fisheries data. We examine the age-specific demography of the pygmy ruby snapper Etelis carbunculus, an important target species in tropical deepwater fisheries, across 90° of longitude and 20° of latitude in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Our results show that growth of E. carbunculus varies significantly between oceans and sexes and across latitudes in both oceans. Estimates of natural and fishing mortality were similar between oceans, but higher for females than males in both oceans. Evidence of greater fishing pressure on females than males is likely due to the larger size-at-age of females compared to males, assuming that selectivity of the fishing gear is related directly to fish size. Sex ratios were significantly female biased in both oceans despite this species being gonochoristic, and maturity schedules were similar between sexes in the Pacific Ocean. This species exhibits a protracted spawning season from mid-spring to autumn (i.e., October to May in the Pacific Ocean. These results represent the first estimates of age-specific demographic parameters for E. carbunculus, and provide the foundation for the development of the first species-specific assessment models and harvest strategies for the species. Future stock assessment models for E. carbunculus should consider sex-specific demographic parameters and spatial variation in demography. Our results reveal substantial differences in biology between E. carbunculus and the giant ruby snapper E. sp., a cryptic congeneric species, and thus contribute to greater clarity in managing fisheries that are dependent on these two species. Furthermore, the improved

  3. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  4. WAVE DIRECTION and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM From North Pacific Ocean and Others from 19810817 to 19940323 (NODC Accession 9400105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains Wave Energy (wave height and wave period) Data from Hawaiian coast collected over 13 years in North Pacific Ocean, NE Pacific (limit-180)....

  5. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal Protection Act... whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a depleted stock under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and... report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following address: http...

  6. Redefining Maritime Security Threats in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Arjun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This occasional paper analyzes the general security issues and trends relating to maritime trafficking of radiological and nuclear material using small vessels, minor ports, and unchecked areas of coastline existing in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region today. By the Eastern Indian Ocean Region is meant the area starting from the tip of the Indian peninsula in the west to the Straits of Malacca in the east. It lays focus on the potential sources of nuclear or radiological material that may be trafficked here. It further undertakes a study of the terrorist groups active in the region as well as the multinational or national interdiction organizations that have been created to counter maritime threats. It also seeks to discern the various technologies for detecting materials of concern available in the area. Finally, it ascertains possible methods and technologies to improve the maritime security system in the region.

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-09-23 to 1994-10-30 (NCEI Accession 0157463)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157463 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2000-12-27 to 2001-02-08 (NODC Accession 0112353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112353 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-11-05 to 1994-11-29 (NCEI Accession 0157470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157470 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  10. Preliminary study on the characteristics of aerosols over the western pacific ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhaohui; Liu Pingsheng; Liu Shijie; Yao Ying; Feng Guohua

    1996-01-01

    Marine aerosol from the western Pacific were collected by two types of samplers during a cruise from Nanhai of China through the west of Philippines to the equatorial and to the north-eastern of Solomon Archipelago. Collected samples were analyzed by PIXE. The data gave aerosol characteristics over the western Pacific, including concentrations, enrichments and mass size distributions of detected elements, and possible sources of these elements were specially researched. The result indicates that Al, Si and Fe were associated with soil particles; Cl, Br, K, Ca and S showed characteristics of the sea-salt origin; and Cu, Zn, and Pb were due to pollution from long-range transport of continental aerosol. We have also made comparison with data obtained in earlier studies over other regions of the Pacific. (author)

  11. Pacific Ocean buoy temperature date - TAO/TRITON database & National Buoy Data Center database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pacific Ocean buoy temperature data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Carbone, F., M. Landis, C.N. Gencarelli, A. Naccarato, F. Sprovieri,...

  12. Paleoclimate of Quaternary Costa Rica: Analysis of Sediment from ODP Site 1242 in the Eastern Tropical Pacific to Explore the Behavior of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and Oceanic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, C. R.; Joseph, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of grain size, magnetic fabric, and terrigenous mass accumulation rates (MAR) on oceanic sediment can provide insights into climatic conditions present at or near the time of deposition by helping to delineate changes in rainfall and oceanic circulation intensities. The fairly homogenous hemipelagic nannofossil clays and clayey nannofossil oozes collected in the upper portion of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1242 provide a 1.4 million year sediment record from the Cocos Ridge, in relatively shallow waters of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, off the coast of present day Central and South America. Information about shifts in rainfall and oceanic circulation provided by this study may be helpful in understanding changes in the location and behavior of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and/or other climatic factors, in this area during the Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs. Approximately 130 paired side-by-side samples were selected at approximately evenly spaced intervals throughout the uppermost 190 mcd of the core. To obtain terrigenous grain size and MARs, one set of sediment samples was subject to a five-step chemical extraction process to dissolve any oxy-hydroxy coatings, remove the biogenic carbonate and silicate components, and sieve out grains larger than 63 µm. The pre- and post-extraction weights were compared to calculate a terrigenous weight percent (%) from which the terrigenous MAR values were then calculated, with the use of linear sediment rates and dry bulk density measurements determined from shipboard ODP 1242 analyses. Magnetic fabric, or anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), was analyzed on a KLY4S-Kappabridge using the second set of samples taken in pmag cubes. Terrigenous MAR values range between 3.1 and 10.9 g/cm2/kyr, while P' (AMS) values range between 1.004 and 1.04 SI. A distinctive trend is noted in both factors, with both exhibiting relatively high initial values that then decrease from the beginning of the

  13. Temperature profile data from BATHYTHERMOGRAPH (XBT) in the Pacific Ocean: 19860927 to 19870201 (NODC Accession 8700086)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the MONTE SARMIENTO and PACPRINCESS in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 27 September 1986 to...

  14. Reconstructed droughts for the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past 568 years and its linkages to the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Keyan [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental Systems (MOE), Lanzhou (China); Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, New York, NY (United States); Gou, Xiaohua; Chen, Fahu; Yang, Tao [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental Systems (MOE), Lanzhou (China); Li, Jinbao; D' Arrigo, Rosanne; Cook, Edward; Davi, Nicole [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-09-15

    We present a Palmer Drought Severity Index reconstruction (r=0.61, P<0.01) from 1440 to 2007 for the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, based on tree rings of the forest fir (Abies forrestii). Persistent decadal dry intervals were found in the 1440s-1460s, 1560s-1580s, 1700s, 1770s, 1810s, 1860s and 1980s, and the extreme wet epochs were the 1480s-1490s, 1510s-1520s, 1590s, 1610s-1630s, 1720s-1730s, 1800s, 1830s, 1870s, 1930s, 1950s and after the 1990s. Comparisons of our record with those identified in other moisture related reconstructions for nearby regions showed that our reconstructed droughts were relatively consistent with those found in other regions of Indochina, suggesting similar drought regimes. Spectral peaks of 2.3-5.5 years may be indicative of ENSO activity, as also suggested by negative correlations with SSTs in the eastern equatorial and southeastern Pacific Ocean. Significant multidecadal spectral peaks of 29.2-40.9 and 56.8-60.2 years were identified. As indicated by the spatial correlation patterns, the decadal-scale variability may be linked to SST variations in the northern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. (orig.)

  15. The eastern Pacific species of Bathygobius (Perciformes: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P J; Stefanni, S

    2001-07-01

    The circumtropical gobiid genus Bathygobius Bleeker is defined and three Eastern Pacific species are redescribed, with first dorsal fin pattern and postorbital blotches being shown to be additional characters of diagnostic value. Two mainland species are recognised, the Mexican-Panamanian B. ramosus Ginsburg 1947 and the Panamanian B. andrei (Sauvage 1880). B. ramosus is now reported from Clarión Island, Revillagigedos, and also from Cocos Island. Meristic variation of ramosus is tabulated for local populations and PCA analysis of their morphometry suggests regional differentiation in this species, with Tres Marias and Revillagigedos populations clustering away from mainland and Montuosa material. An insular species, B. lineatus (Jenyns 1842) from the Galapagos is defined, with B. arundelii (Garman 1899) from Clipperton Island and B. l. lupinus Ginsburg 1947 from Lobos de Afuera, off Peru, placed as nominal subspecies of lineatus. This species resembles the Indo-west Pacific B. fuscus and Atlantic basin B. soporator more closely than it does ramosus and andrei and may be the product of transpacific dispersal. A similar origin for B. ramosus is discussed but it seems more likely that both B. ramosus and B. andrei have Caribbean sister species.

  16. Ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuefeng; Fuchsman, Clara A.; Jayakumar, Amal; Oleynik, Sergey; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Devol, Allan H.; Ward, Bess B.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrification plays a key role in the marine nitrogen (N) cycle, including in oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are hot spots for denitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Recent evidence suggests that nitrification links the source (remineralized organic matter) and sink (denitrification and anammox) of fixed N directly in the steep oxycline in the OMZs. We performed shipboard incubations with 15N tracers to characterize the depth distribution of nitrification in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP). Additional experiments were conducted to investigate photoinhibition. Allylthiourea (ATU) was used to distinguish the contribution of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidation. The abundance of archaeal and β-proteobacterial ammonia monooxygenase gene subunit A (amoA) was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The rates of ammonia and nitrite oxidation showed distinct subsurface maxima, with the latter slightly deeper than the former. The ammonia oxidation maximum coincided with the primary nitrite concentration maximum, archaeal amoA gene maximum, and the subsurface nitrous oxide maximum. Negligible rates of ammonia oxidation were found at anoxic depths, where high rates of nitrite oxidation were measured. Archaeal amoA gene abundance was generally 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than bacterial amoA gene abundance, and inhibition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria with 10 μM ATU did not affect ammonia oxidation rates, indicating the dominance of archaea in ammonia oxidation. These results depict highly dynamic activities of ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the oxycline of the ETNP OMZ.

  17. Land-Sourced Pollution with an Emphasis on Domestic Sewage: Lessons from the Caribbean and Implications for Coastal Development on Indian Ocean and Pacific Coral Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre DeGeorges

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses land-sourced pollution with an emphasis on domestic sewage in the Caribbean in relation to similar issues in the Indian Ocean and Pacific. Starting on a large-scale in the 1980s, tropical Atlantic coastlines of Florida and Caribbean islands were over-developed to the point that traditional sewage treatment and disposal were inadequate to protect fragile coral reefs from eutrophication by land-sourced nutrient pollution. This pollution caused both ecological and public health problems. Coral reefs were smothered by macro-algae and died, becoming rapidly transformed into weedy algal lawns, which resulted in beach erosion, and loss of habitat that added to fisheries collapse previously caused by over-fishing. Barbados was one of the first countries to recognize this problem and to begin implementation of effective solutions. Eastern Africa, the Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands, and South East Asia, are now starting to develop their coastlines for ecotourism, like the Caribbean was in the 1970s. Tourism is an important and increasing component of the economies of most tropical coastal areas. There are important lessons to be learned from this Caribbean experience for coastal zone planners, developers, engineers, coastal communities and decision makers in other parts of the world to assure that history does not repeat itself. Coral reef die-off from land-sourced pollution has been eclipsed as an issue since the ocean warming events of 1998, linked to global warming. Addressing ocean warming will take considerable international cooperation, but much of the land-sourced pollution issue, especially sewage, can be dealt with on a watershed by watershed basis by Indian Ocean and Pacific countries. Failure to solve this critical issue can adversely impact both coral reef and public health with dire economic consequences, and will prevent coral reef recovery from extreme high temperature events. Sewage treatment, disposal options

  18. Integrative approach revises the frequently misidentified species of Sardinella (Clupeidae) of the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, N; Rinkevich, B; Goren, M

    2016-11-01

    To deal with the difficulties of species differentiation and delimitation among the commercially important sardines from the genus Sardinella, an integrative approach was adopted, incorporating traditional taxonomy with four DNA markers (coI, cytb, 16s and nuclear rag2). Combining these methodologies has enabled a thorough re-description of three of the most common species of Sardinella of the Indo-west Pacific Ocean: white sardinella Sardinella albella, fringescale sardinella Sardinella fimbriata and the goldstripe sardinella Sardinella gibbosa, as well as a description of a new species, Gon's sardinella Sardinella goni, from the island of Boracay, Philippines. In addition, extensive widespread sampling of S. gibbosa reveals a significant genetic separation between the populations from the western Indian Ocean and the west Pacific Ocean, despite no supporting morphological differentiation. An updated morphological key of the species of Sardinella of the Indo-west Pacific Ocean is also provided in order to minimize future misidentifications within these economically important taxa. Finally, the genetic and morphological variabilities within and between the investigated species are used to discuss their biogeographical distribution and possible processes of speciation. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Ctenophora, Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grischenko, Andrei V; Leitner, Astrid B; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Voight, Janet R; Wicksten, Mary K; Young, Craig M; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite having been the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. To predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to ABYSSLINE research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (as well as several other pieces of equipment), the megafauna within the UK Seabed Resources Ltd exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal annelid, arthropod, bryozoan, chordate, ctenophore and molluscan megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 55 distinct morphospecies (8 Annelida, 12 Arthropoda, 4 Bryozoa, 22 Chordata, 5 Ctenophora, and 4 Mollusca) identified mostly by morphology but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  20. Investigating behaviour and population dynamics of striped marlin (Kajikia audax from the southwest Pacific Ocean with satellite tags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Sippel

    Full Text Available Behaviour and distribution of striped marlin within the southwest Pacific Ocean were investigated using electronic tagging data collected from 2005-2008. A continuous-time correlated random-walk Kalman filter was used to integrate double-tagging data exhibiting variable error structures into movement trajectories composed of regular time-steps. This state-space trajectory integration approach improved longitude and latitude error distributions by 38.5 km and 22.2 km respectively. Using these trajectories as inputs, a behavioural classification model was developed to infer when, and where, 'transiting' and 'area-restricted' (ARB pseudo-behavioural states occurred. ARB tended to occur at shallower depths (108 ± 49 m than did transiting behaviours (127 ± 57 m. A 16 day post-release period of diminished ARB activity suggests that patterns of behaviour were affected by the capture and/or tagging events, implying that tagged animals may exhibit atypical behaviour upon release. The striped marlin in this study dove deeper and spent greater time at ≥ 200 m depth than those in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. As marlin reached tropical latitudes (20-21 °S they consistently reversed directions, increased swimming speed and shifted to transiting behaviour. Reversals in the tropics also coincided with increases in swimming depth, including increased time ≥ 250 m. Our research provides enhanced understanding of the behavioural ecology of striped marlin. This has implications for the effectiveness of spatially explicit population models and we demonstrate the need to consider geographic variation when standardizing CPUE by depth, and provide data to inform natural and recreational fishing mortality parameters.

  1. Temperature profile data collected using XBT from the KANA KEOKI from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 1979-02-06 to 1980-06-14 (NODC Accession 8100518)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, depth, and other data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KANA KEOKI in the Pacific Ocean from February 6, 1979 to June 14, 1980....

  2. Estimates of Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures During the Pliocene From Carbonate 'Clumped Isotope' Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, N.; Tripati, A.; Eiler, J.

    2007-12-01

    The early Pliocene (5 to 3 Ma) was an interval in Earth history that was globally warmer than the present; thus, study of the details of Pliocene climate can provide insights into the dynamics of warm climates. There are two competing models of the temperature structure of the tropical Pacific upper-ocean during the early Pliocene: the dynamical 'ocean thermostat' model [1,2] and the 'El Padre' (or permanent 'El Nino') model [3], each of which predict zonal temperature gradients and mean conditions in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP), and which differ markedly from one another in these predictions. The dynamical 'ocean thermostat' model predicts an increased temperature contrast between the Western Equatorial Pacific (WEP) and EEP, enhanced thermocline tilt and intensified upwelling under warmer conditions. In contrast, the 'El Padre' model postulates a collapse of the zonal temperature gradient, reduced thermocline tilt and a reduction in upwelling and/or warmer temperatures of upwelled waters. Existing reconstructions of tropical temperatures produce WEP sea surface temperatures which agree with each other, but yield very different results in the EEP [4,5]. We have reconstructed EEP sea surface temperatures at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 847 using a few samples spanning key intervals of the last 6 million years using carbonate clumped isotope thermometer [6,7,8]. This technique is based on the temperature dependence of the abundances of 13C-18O bonds in carbonate minerals. Initial measurements of planktonic foraminifera and coccoliths from ODP Site 847 indicate cool EEP sea surface temperatures, supporting models of Pliocene climate that have enhanced zonal temperature gradients, relative to modern. Analyses of Globigerinoides sacculifer (with sac) from sediments indicate calcification temperatures of 20.3°C ± 0.1°C and seawater δ18O values of -0.8‰ ± 0.1‰ from ~6.1 to 5.1 million years ago. Measurements of a mixed coccolith assemblage from the

  3. The air-sea exchange of mercury in the low latitude Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert P.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Bowman, Katlin L.; Swarr, Gretchen J.; Shelley, Rachel U.

    2017-04-01

    Air-sea exchange is an important component of the global mercury (Hg) cycle as it mediates the rate of increase in ocean Hg, and therefore the rate of change in levels of methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic and bioaccumulative form of Hg in seafood and the driver of human health concerns. Gas evasion of elemental Hg (Hg0) from the ocean is an important sink for ocean Hg with previous studies suggesting that evasion is not uniform across ocean basins. To understand further the factors controlling Hg0 evasion, and its relationship to atmospheric Hg deposition, we made measurements of dissolved Hg0 (DHg0) in surface waters, along with measurements of Hg in precipitation and on aerosols, and Hg0 in marine air, during two GEOTRACES cruises; GP16 in the equatorial South Pacific and GA03 in the North Atlantic. We contrast the concentrations and estimated evasion fluxes of Hg0 during these cruises, and the factors influencing this exchange. Concentrations of DHg0 and fluxes were lower during the GP16 cruise than during the GA03 cruise, and likely reflect the lower atmospheric deposition in the South Pacific. An examination of Hg/Al ratios for aerosols from the cruises suggests that they were anthropogenically-enriched relative to crustal material, although to a lesser degree for the South Pacific than the aerosols over the North Atlantic. Both regions appear to be net sources of Hg0 to the atmosphere (evasion>deposition) and the reasons for this are discussed. Overall, the studies reported here provide further clarification on the factors controlling evasion of Hg0 from the ocean surface, and the role of anthropogenic inputs in influencing ocean Hg concentrations.

  4. The magnapinnidae, a newly discovered family of oceanic Squid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A peculiar squid paralarva from Hawaiian waters was described by Young (1991, Bull. mar. Sci. 49(1–2): 162–185), but it could not be assigned to any known family. Two larger juvenile specimens have now been obtained, one collected near the surface in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the other rehydrated from a dried ...

  5. The Evolution of Indian and Pacific Ocean Denitrification and Nitrogen Dynamcs since the Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, A. C.; Carney, C.; Rosenthal, Y.; Holbourn, A.; Kulhanek, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    The feedbacks between geochemical cycles and physical climate change are poorly understood; however, there has been tremendous progress in developing coupled models to help predict the direction and strength of these feedbacks. As such, there is a need for more data to validate and test these models. To this end, the nitrogen (N) cycle, and its links to the biological pump and to climate, is an active area of paleoceanographic research. Using N isotope records, Robinson et al. (2014) showed that pelagic denitrification in the Indian and Pacific Oceans intensified as climate cooled and subsurface ventilation decreased since the Pliocene. They pointed out that a more ventilated warm Pliocene contrasts with glacial-interglacial patterns wherein more ventilation occurs during cold phases, indicating that different mechanisms may occur at different timescales. Our objective is to better understand the nature of the feedbacks between the oceanic N cycle and climate by focusing on the large dynamic range of conditions that occurred during and since the Miocene. We used new cores drilled during IODP Expedition 363 to generate bulk sediment N isotope records at three western tropical Pacific sites (U1486, U1488, U1490) and one southeastern tropical Indian Ocean site (U1482). We find that the N isotope trends since the Pliocene are in agreement with previous studies showing increasing denitrification as climate cooled. In the Miocene, the Indian Ocean record shows no long-term N isotope trend whereas the Pacific Ocean records show a trend that is roughly coupled to changes in global climate suggesting that pelagic denitrification in the Pacific was strongly influenced by greater ventilation during global warmth. However, there are notable deviations from this coupling during several intervals in the Miocene, and there are site-to-site differences in trends. These deviations and differences can be explained by changes in tropical productivity (e.g., late Miocene biogenic

  6. Population trends in Pacific Oceanic sharks and the utility of regulations on shark finning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Shelley C; Harley, Shelton J; Hoyle, Simon D; Rice, Joel S

    2013-02-01

    Accurate assessment of shark population status is essential for conservation but is often constrained by limited and unreliable data. To provide a basis for improved management of shark resources, we analyzed a long-term record of species-specific catches, sizes, and sexes of sharks collected by onboard observers in the western and central Pacific Ocean from 1995 to 2010. Using generalized linear models, we estimated population-status indicators on the basis of catch rate and biological indicators of fishing pressure on the basis of median size to identify trends for blue (Prionace glauca), mako (Isurus spp.), oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus), and silky (Carcharhinus falciformis) sharks. Standardized catch rates of longline fleets declined significantly for blue sharks in the North Pacific (by 5% per year [CI 2% to 8%]), for mako sharks in the North Pacific (by 7% per year [CI 3% to 11%]), and for oceanic whitetip sharks in tropical waters (by 17% per year [CI 14% to 20%]). Median lengths of silky and oceanic whitetip sharks decreased significantly in their core habitat, and almost all sampled silky sharks were immature. Our results are consistent with results of analyses of similar data sets. Combined, these results and evidence of targeted fishing for sharks in some regional fisheries heighten concerns for sustainable utilization, particularly for oceanic whitetip and North Pacific blue sharks. Regional regulations that prohibit shark finning (removal of fins and discarding of the carcass) were enacted in 2007 and are in many cases the only form of control on shark catches. However, there is little evidence of a reduction of finning in longline fisheries. In addition, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks are more frequently retained than finned, which suggests that even full implementation of and adherence to a finning prohibition may not substantially reduce mortality rates for these species. We argue that finning prohibitions divert attention from

  7. Visualizing the Food-Web Effects of Fishing for Tunas in the Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson T. Hinke

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We use food-web models to develop visualizations to compare and evaluate the interactions of tuna fisheries with their supporting food webs in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP and the central north Pacific (CNP Oceans. In the ETP and CNP models, individual fisheries use slightly different food webs that are defined by the assemblage of targeted tuna species. Distinct energy pathways are required to support different tuna species and, consequently, the specific fisheries that target different tuna assemblages. These simulations suggest that catches of tunas, sharks, and billfishes have lowered the biomass of the upper trophic levels in both systems, whereas increases in intermediate and lower trophic level animals have accompanied the decline of top predators. Trade-offs between fishing and predation mortality rates that occur when multiple fisheries interact with their respective food webs may lead to smaller changes in biomass than if only the effect of a single fishery is considered. Historical simulations and hypothetical management scenarios further demonstrate that the effects of longline and purse seine fisheries have been strongest in upper trophic levels, but that lower trophic levels may respond more strongly to purse-seine fisheries. The apex predator guild has responded most strongly to longlining. Simulations of alternative management strategies that attempt to rebuild shark and billfish populations in each ecosystem reveal that (1 changes in longlining more effectively recover top predator populations than do changes in purse seining and (2 restrictions on both shallow-set longline gear and shark finning may do more to recover top predators than do simple reductions in fishing effort.

  8. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 22 February to 1975-05-27 (NODC Accession 7800703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using STD/CTD casts from MOANA WAVE in the Pacific Ocean from February 22, 1975 to May 27, 1975. Data were...

  9. A dipole pattern in the Indian and Pacific oceans and its relationship with the East Asian summer monsoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jiayu; Feng, Juan; Li, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates a robust relationship between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean dipole (IPOD) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using observational datasets and sensitivity tests from the Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The IPOD, which is a significant pattern of boreal summer SSTA in the Indian and Pacific oceans characterized by positive (negative) sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the North Pacific and negative (positive) SSTA in the IPWP, appears around May, intensifies in the following months, and weakens in September. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with the axis of the WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (letter)

  10. A westward extension of the warm pool leads to a westward extension of the Walker circulation, drying eastern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.P.; Funk, Chris [University of California, Santa Barbara, Geography Department, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Observations and simulations link anthropogenic greenhouse and aerosol emissions with rapidly increasing Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Over the past 60 years, the Indian Ocean warmed two to three times faster than the central tropical Pacific, extending the tropical warm pool to the west by {proportional_to}40 longitude (>4,000 km). This propensity toward rapid warming in the Indian Ocean has been the dominant mode of interannual variability among SSTs throughout the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans (55 E-140 W) since at least 1948, explaining more variance than anomalies associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the atmosphere, the primary mode of variability has been a corresponding trend toward greatly increased convection and precipitation over the tropical Indian Ocean. The temperature and rainfall increases in this region have produced a westward extension of the western, ascending branch of the atmospheric Walker circulation. Diabatic heating due to increased mid-tropospheric water vapor condensation elicits a westward atmospheric response that sends an easterly flow of dry air aloft toward eastern Africa. In recent decades (1980-2009), this response has suppressed convection over tropical eastern Africa, decreasing precipitation during the 'long-rains' season of March-June. This trend toward drought contrasts with projections of increased rainfall in eastern Africa and more 'El Nino-like' conditions globally by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Increased Indian Ocean SSTs appear likely to continue to strongly modulate the Warm Pool circulation, reducing precipitation in eastern Africa, regardless of whether the projected trend in ENSO is realized. These results have important food security implications, informing agricultural development, environmental conservation, and water resource planning. (orig.)

  11. Numerical simulation of passive tracer dispersion in the pacific ocean from Mururoa atoll (French Polynesia); Etude numerique de la dispersion d`un traceur dans le pacifique sud depuis l`atoll de Mururoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancher, J.; Lazar, A.; Maes, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    In order to evaluate, on a Tropical South Pacific scale over 10 years, the consequences of an hypothetic radionuclide releases to the ocean from French Nuclear test sites, a series of numerical simulations was carried out. Tracer advection and diffusion terms were computed by a dispersion model without taking into account radioactive decay and biological interactions. Ocean dynamics and turbulent mixing coefficients were derived from a Ocean General circulation Model using annual average climatological fields. A punctual release with unit activity concentration throughout the depth showed the existence of two major directions of propagation from Mururoa atoll: one toward the Eastern Pacific when releases originated from 100-150 meters or less, and the other Westward if release depth is greater. The maximum concentrations which may possibly reach the continental South Pacific coastline originated from released points located in the 350 meters depth zone. Another experiment showed that an punctual release yields higher concentrations than the continuous release of an equivalent quantity over 10 years; two punctual releases were carried out at the characteristic depth of 5 m and 364 m: maximum concentrations decrease by factors of 10 000 and 1000 over ten years. A comparison is made with the surface release study of Ribbe and Tomczak (1990), despite a significant discrepancy in propagation direction, the order of magnitude for concentrations is comparable. (author).

  12. Aerosol deposition velocities on the Pacific and Atlantic oceans calculated from 7Be measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.; Silker, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be were measured in Pacific and Atlantic ocean water for past several years to determine the deposition velocity of aerosol particles on the ocean surface. Beryllium-7 is produced at a relatively constant rate in the atmosphere by spallation reactions of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen. Immediately after its formation 7 Be becomes attached to aerosol particles, and therefore can serve as tracers of the subsequent behavior of these particles. Isopleths of 7 Be surface water concentration, 7 Be inventory in the ocean, and deposition velocity have been prepared for the Pacific Ocean from 30 0 S to 60 0 N and for the Atlantic Ocean from 10 0 N to 55 0 N. The concentrations, inventories and deposition velocities tended to be higher in regions where precipitation was high, and generally increased with latitude. The average flux of 7 Be across the ocean surface was calculated to be 0.027 atoms cm -2 sec -1 which is probably not significantly greater than the worldwide average 7 Be flux across land and ocean surfaces of 0.022 atoms cm -2 sec -1 calculated by Lal and Peters. The average deposition velocity was calculated to be 0.80 cm sec -1 . This value may be 10 to 30% too low, since it was calculated using atmospheric 7 Be concentrations which were measured at continental stations. Measurements of atmospheric 7 Be concentrations at ocean stations suggest that the concentrations at the continental stations averaged 10 to 30% higher than the concentrations over the ocean

  13. Aerosol deposition velocities on the Pacific and Atlantic oceans calculated from 7Be measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.; Silker, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be have been measured in Pacific and Atlantic ocean water for the past several years to determine the deposition velocity of aerosol particles on the ocean surface. 7 Be is produced at a relatively constant rate in the atmosphere by spallation reactions of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen. Immediately after its formation 7 Be becomes attached to aerosol particles, and therefore can serve as tracers of the subsequent behavior of these particles. Isopleths of 7 Be surface water concentrations, 7 Be inventory in the ocean, and deposition velocity have been prepared for the Pacific Ocean from 30 0 S to 60 0 N and for the Atlantic Ocean from 10 0 N to 55 0 N. The concentrations, inventories and deposition velocities tended to be higher in regions where precipitation was high, and generally increased with latitude. The average flux of 7 Be across the ocean surface was calculated to be 0.027 atoms cm -2 s -1 which is probably not significantly greater than the worldwide average 7 Be flux across land and ocean surfaces of 0.022 atoms cm -2 s -1 calculated by Lal and Peters. The average deposition velocity was calculated to be 0.80 cm s -1 . This value may be 10-50% too low, since it was calculated using atmospheric 7 Be concentrations which were measured at continental stations. Measurements of atmospheric 7 Be concentrations at ocean stations suggest that the concentrations at the continental stations averaged 10-50% higher than the concentrations over the ocean. (orig.)

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-10-08 to 2007-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108123 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  15. Ocean water temperature from data loggers from the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux (JGOFS), the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999 (NODC Accession 9900212)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean water temperature data were collected from data loggers attached to the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999. Data...

  16. Physical and meteorological delayed-mode full-resolution data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the Equatorial Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array of moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific. Moorings within the array measure surface meteorological and upper-ocean...

  17. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE and Other Data from WECOMA and Other Platforms From NE Pacific (limit-180) from 19930607 to 19930920 (NODC Accession 9500100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in NE Pacific (limit-180) as part of Eastern Boundary Currents Accelerated Research...

  18. Wind and temperature data from current meter in the TOGA - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS), 28 May 1994 to 21 March 1995 (NODC Accession 9800041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and temperature data were collected using current meter in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from May 28, 1994 to March 21, 1995. Data were submitted...

  19. Habitat filtering of bacterioplankton communities above polymetallic nodule fields and sediments in the Clarion-Clipperton zone of the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Maillot, Brianne M; Smith, Craig R; Church, Matthew J

    2018-04-01

    Deep-sea mining of commercially valuable polymetallic nodule fields will generate a seabed sediment plume into the water column. Yet, the response of bacterioplankton communities, critical in regulating energy and matter fluxes in marine ecosystems, to such disturbances is unknown. Metacommunity theory, traditionally used in general ecology for macroorganisms, offers mechanistic understanding on the relative role of spatial differences compared with local environmental conditions (habitat filtering) for community assembly. We examined bacterioplankton metacommunities using 16S rRNA amplicons from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the eastern Pacific Ocean and in global ocean transect samples to determine sensitivity of these assemblages to environmental perturbations. Habitat filtering was the main assembly mechanism of bacterioplankton community composition in the epi- and mesopelagic waters of the CCZ and the Tara Oceans transect. Bathy- and abyssopelagic bacterioplankton assemblages were mainly assembled by undetermined metacommunity types or neutral and dispersal-driven patch-dynamics for the CCZ and the Malaspina transect. Environmental disturbances may alter the structure of upper-ocean microbial assemblages, with potentially even more substantial, yet unknown, impact on deep-sea communities. Predicting such responses in bacterioplankton assemblage dynamics can improve our understanding of microbially-mediated regulation of ecosystem services in the abyssal seabed likely to be exploited by future deep-sea mining operations. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The seasonal variation of radon concentration in the atmosphere of Chichi-jima island in the pacific ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Katsuhiro

    2008-01-01

    We continuously measured the radon concentration from April 2001 to December 2004 in Chichi-jima Is. We expect that the radon concentration at Chichi-jima Is. would be influenced only by the air mass transported through the long distance. The hourly values had very large variations, ranging from 0.2 to 6.0 Bqm -3 . No diurnal periodicity was found in the variation of the radon concentration. We found that the monthly averages of the radon concentration had a clear long term pattern, showing the highest in the winter and the lowest in the summer. To analyze the radon long time variation, an arriving air mass is grouped into five sectors according to the backward trajectory. Sector I is the sea areas surrounding Chichi-jima Is. Sector II including Philippines, Indonesia and the southeast Asia is spread the southwestern Pacific Ocean from Chichi-jima Is. and sector V is spread the northeastern way to the southeast. Sector III includes China, Mongolia, Korea and the western Japan region and sector IV two regions of the eastern Siberia and the eastern Japan. The radon long time variation showed a high positive correlation between the number of arrivals of the continental air mass, while strong negative correlation between the maritime air mass. (author)

  1. Collaborative Oceanographic Research Opportunities with Schmidt Ocean Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykov, V.

    2014-12-01

    Schmidt Ocean Institute (http://www.schmidtocean.org/) was founded by Dr. Eric Schmidt and Wendy Schmidt in 2009 to support frontier oceanographic research and exploration to expand the understanding of the world's oceans through technological advancement, intelligent, data-rich observation and analysis, and open sharing of information. Schmidt Ocean Institute operates a state-of-the-art globally capable research vessel Falkor (http://www.schmidtocean.org/story/show/47). After two years of scientific operations in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Eastern and Central Pacific, R/V Falkor is now preparing to support research in the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Oceans in 2015 and 2016. As part of the long term research program development for Schmidt Ocean Institute, we aim to identify initiatives and projects that demonstrate strong alignment with our strategic interests. We focus on scientific opportunities that highlight effective use of innovative technologies to better understand the oceans, such as, for example, research enabled with remotely operated and autonomous vehicles, acoustics, in-situ sensing, telepresence, etc. Our technology-first approach to ocean science gave rise to infrastructure development initiatives, such as the development of a new full ocean depth Hybrid Remotely Operated Vehicle, new 6000m scientific Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, live HD video streaming from the ship to YouTube, shipboard high performance supercomputing, etc. We also support projects focusing on oceanographic technology research and development onboard R/V Falkor. We provide our collaborators with access to all of R/V Falkor's facilities and instrumentation in exchange for a commitment to make the resulting scientific data openly available to the international oceanographic community. This presentation aims to expand awareness about the interests and capabilities of Schmidt Ocean Institute and R/V Falkor among our scientific audiences and further

  2. Natural ocean acidification at Papagayo upwelling system (north Pacific Costa Rica: implications for reef development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez-Noguera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experiments have shown that ocean acidification impedes coral calcification, but knowledge about in situ reef ecosystem response to ocean acidification is still scarce. Bahía Culebra, situated at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is a location naturally exposed to acidic conditions due to the Papagayo seasonal upwelling. We measured pH and pCO2 in situ during two non-upwelling seasons (June 2012, May–June 2013, with a high temporal resolution of every 15 and 30 min, respectively, using two Submersible Autonomous Moored Instruments (SAMI-pH, SAMI-CO2. These results were compared with published data from the 2009 upwelling season. Findings revealed that the carbonate system in Bahía Culebra shows a high temporal variability. Incoming offshore waters drive intra- and interseasonal changes. Lowest pH (7.8 and highest pCO2 (658.3 µatm values measured during a cold-water intrusion event in the non-upwelling season were similar to those minimum values reported from upwelling season (pH  =  7.8, pCO2  =  643.5 µatm, unveiling that natural acidification also occurs sporadically in the non-upwelling season. This affects the interaction of photosynthesis, respiration, calcification and carbonate dissolution and the resulting diel cycle of pH and pCO2 in the reefs of Bahía Culebra. During the non-upwelling season, the aragonite saturation state (Ωa rises to values of  >  3.3 and during the upwelling season falls below 2.5. The Ωa threshold values for coral growth were derived from the correlation between measured Ωa and coral linear extension rates which were obtained from the literature and suggest that future ocean acidification will threaten the continued growth of reefs in Bahía Culebra. These data contribute to building a better understanding of the carbonate system dynamics and coral reefs' key response (e.g., coral growth to natural low-pH conditions, in upwelling areas in the eastern tropical

  3. Mercury in tunas and blue marlin in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevnick, Paul E; Brooks, Barbara A

    2017-05-01

    Models and data from the North Pacific Ocean indicate that mercury concentrations in water and biota are increasing in response to (global or hemispheric) anthropogenic mercury releases. In the present study, we provide an updated record of mercury in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) caught near Hawaii that confirms an earlier conclusion that mercury concentrations in these fish are increasing at a rate similar to that observed in waters shallower than 1000 m. We also compiled and reanalyzed data from bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) caught near Hawaii in the 1970s and 2000s. Increases in mercury concentrations in bigeye tuna are consistent with the trend found in yellowfin tuna, in both timing and magnitude. The data available for blue marlin do not allow for a fair comparison among years, because mercury concentrations differ between sexes for this species, and sex was identified (or reported) in only 3 of 7 studies. Also, mercury concentrations in blue marlin may be insensitive to modest changes in mercury exposure, because this species appears to have the ability to detoxify mercury. The North Pacific Ocean is a region of both relatively high rates of atmospheric mercury deposition and capture fisheries production. Other data sets that allow temporal comparisons in mercury concentrations, such as pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in Alaskan waters and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) off the US Pacific coast, should be explored further, to aid in understanding human health and ecological risks and to develop additional baseline knowledge for assessing changes in a region expected to respond strongly to reductions in anthropogenic mercury emissions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1365-1374. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  4. PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Ono, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the Southern Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from southern oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs

  5. Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigment in a mixed layer isopycnal ocean general circulation model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Ishizaka, J.; Muneyama, K.; Frouin, R.

    The influence of phytoplankton on the upper ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in the equatorial Pacific is investigated using an isopycnal ocean general circulation model (OPYC) coupled with a mixed layer model and remotely sensed chlorophyll...

  6. Seasonal variation of marine organic aerosols in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, P.; Kawamura, K.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the marine boundary layer during five marine cruises in the northern Pacific Ocean from October 1996 to July 1997. Organic molecular compositions of the marine aerosols were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Higher concentrations of levoglucosan and its isomers, the biomass-burning tracers, were observed in the coastal regions than those in the central north Pacific. Seasonal trends of biomass burning tracers were found to be higher in fall-winter-spring than in summer, suggesting an enhanced influence of continental aerosols to the marine atmosphere during cold seasons when the westerlies prevail. However, the atmospheric levels of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers from the photooxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes were higher in warm seasons than cold seasons, which are in accordance with the enhanced emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in summer. Stable C isotope ratios of total carbon (δ13CTC) in the marine aerosols ranged from -28.5‰ to -23.6‰ (mean -26.4‰), suggesting an important input of terrestrial/continental aerosol particles. Stable N isotope ratios (2.6‰ to 12.9‰, mean 7.1‰) were found to be higher in the coastal regions than those in the open oceans, suggesting an enhanced emission of marine aerosols in the open oceans. The fluorescence properties of the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the marine aerosols conform the importance of marine emitted organics in the open ocean, especially during the high biological activity periods.

  7. Decadal changes in the aragonite and calcite saturation state of the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, Richard A.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Byrne, Robert H.; Millero, Frank J.; Dickson, Andrew G.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Murata, Akihiko; Miller, Lisa A.; Greeley, Dana

    2012-09-01

    Based on measurements from the WOCE/JGOFS global CO2 survey, the CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program and the Canadian Line P survey, we have observed an average decrease of 0.34% yr-1 in the saturation state of surface seawater in the Pacific Ocean with respect to aragonite and calcite. The upward migrations of the aragonite and calcite saturation horizons, averaging about 1 to 2 m yr-1, are the direct result of the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans and regional changes in circulation and biogeochemical processes. The shoaling of the saturation horizon is regionally variable, with more rapid shoaling in the South Pacific where there is a larger uptake of anthropogenic CO2. In some locations, particularly in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and in the California Current, the decadal changes in circulation can be the dominant factor in controlling the migration of the saturation horizon. If CO2 emissions continue as projected over the rest of this century, the resulting changes in the marine carbonate system would mean that many coral reef systems in the Pacific would no longer be able to sustain a sufficiently high rate of calcification to maintain the viability of these ecosystems as a whole, and these changes perhaps could seriously impact the thousands of marine species that depend on them for survival.

  8. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the DANT and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 1975-02-06 to 1975-07-28 (NODC Accession 7700894)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, depth, and other data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from DANT and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from February 6, 1975 to...

  9. Simulation of heat storages and associated heat budgets in the Pacific Ocean: 2. Interdecadal timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auad, Guillermo; Miller, Arthur J.; White, Warren B.

    1998-11-01

    We use a primitive equation isopycnal model of the Pacific Ocean to simulate and diagnose the anomalous heat balance on interdecadal timescales associated with heat storage changes observed from 1970-1988 in the expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data set. Given the smallness of the interdecadal signals compared to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal, the agreement between model and observations is remarkably good. The total anomalous heat balance is made up of two parts, the diabatic part (from the model temperature equation) and the adiabatic part (from the model mass conservation equation) due to thermocline heave. We therefore describe our analysis of both the total and diabatic anomalous heat balances in four areas of the tropical and subtropical North Pacific Ocean in the upper 400 m. The interdecadal total (diabatic plus adiabatic) heat balance in the North Pacific Ocean is characterized by a complicated interplay of different physical processes, especially revealed in basin-scale averages of the heat budget components that have comparable amounts of variance. In smaller subregions, simpler balances hold. For example, in the western equatorial Pacific (area 1) the total heat content tendency term is nearly zero, so that a simple balance exists between surface heat flux, vertical heat transport, and horizontal mixing. In the western subtropical Pacific the total heat content tendency balances the three-dimensional divergence of the heat flux. We speculate that this complexity is indicative of multiple physical mechanisms involved in the generation of North Pacific interdecadal variability. The diabatic heat balance north of 24°N, a region of special interest to The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), can be simplified to a balance between the tendency term, surface heat flux, and meridional advection, the last term dominated by anomalous advection of mean temperature gradients. For the western equatorial region the diabatic heat content

  10. Development of the North Pacific Ocean model for the assessment of the distribution of the radioactive materials. Improvement for formation of the North Pacific intermediate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tsumune, Daisuke; Bryan, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive materials such as 137 Cs were released to the North Pacific Ocean (NP) through the major pathway; direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition, after the accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami. The behavior of the materials in the NP has been paid great attention after the accident. The North Pacific Model for the calculation of the distribution of radionuclides has been developed using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model domain is NP with an eddy-resolving grid. A series of numerical experiments conducted by models suggests that the computational diffusivity caused by the advection scheme and the topography roughness are critical in representing the separation of Kuroshio, the Kuroshio Extension, the mixed-water region between Kuroshio Extension and Oyashio front and the formation of the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). The model requires the forth order scheme in the tracer advection and the smoothing of topography for these problems. Moreover the tidal mixing process around the straits in the North Pacific Ocean and the sea ice play important roles to reproduce the formation of lon salinity around the NPIW as well as the isopycnal mixing process represented by an eddy-resolving model. (author)

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1990-02-22 to 1990-04-16 (NODC Accession 0000183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0000183 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Pacific Ocean, South...

  12. Influence of CDOM and particle composition on ocean color of the Eastern New Caledonia Lagoon during the CALIOPE cruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy, Cécile; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Tedetti, Marc; Martias, Chloe; Murakami, Hiroshi; Doxaran, David; Lantoine, Francois; Rodier, Martine; Favareto, Luciane; Kampel, Milton; Goutx, Madeleine; Frouin, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Ocean color of tropical lagoons is dependent on bathymetry and bottom type, as well as input of coastal living and mineral particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The New Caledonia lagoon lies in the Southwestern Tropical Pacific around 21° 30'S and 166° 30'E, with a great marine biodiversity in UNESCO Heritage coral reefs, benthic sea grass, and benthic communities. They are largely connected to the open ocean in the southern and eastern parts, but only by narrow passes in the southwest part. The trophic state is linked to spatial variations in flushing times. High run offs due to rain carrying abundant chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particle loads may greatly impact the functioning of ecosystems while rivers and sewage effluents may induce localized impacts. Two oceanographic cruises (CALIOPE 1 in 2011 and CALIOPE 2 in 2014) were carried out off the Eastern Coast of New Caledonia during a calm dry period and during high winds, respectively. Multi- and hyper-spectral marine reflectance was measured with a SIMBADA instrument and a TRIOS radiometer system, together with inherent optical properties (total and CDOM absorption coefficients with a PSICAM, in situ absorption and scattering with an AC9, backscattering with a Hydroscat-6). Fluorescence of CDOM (EEM/PARAFAC) was measured on collected 0.2 μm filtered samples. In 2014, Satlantic and FieldSpec hyper-spectral radiometers were available for in-water profiling of upwelling radiance and downwelling irradiance and above-water reflectance measurements, respectively. Inherent and apparent optical data from the two cruises are compared and used to estimate ocean color algorithms performance and evaluate a Linear Matrix Inversion method, providing tools for remote sensing on this highly under-sampled coastal region of New Caledonia.

  13. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the FLIP and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 30 January to 1974-02-14 (NODC Accession 8100433)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, sigma-T and salinity profile data were collected using STD/CTD casts from FLIP and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from January 30, 1974 to...

  14. Scales of spatial heterogeneity of plastic marine debris in the northeast pacific ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam C Goldstein

    Full Text Available Plastic debris has been documented in many marine ecosystems, including remote coastlines, the water column, the deep sea, and subtropical gyres. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG, colloquially called the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch," has been an area of particular scientific and public concern. However, quantitative assessments of the extent and variability of plastic in the NPSG have been limited. Here, we quantify the distribution, abundance, and size of plastic in a subset of the eastern Pacific (approximately 20-40°N, 120-155°W over multiple spatial scales. Samples were collected in Summer 2009 using surface and subsurface plankton net tows and quantitative visual observations, and Fall 2010 using surface net tows only. We documented widespread, though spatially variable, plastic pollution in this portion of the NPSG and adjacent waters. The overall median microplastic numerical concentration in Summer 2009 was 0.448 particles m(-2 and in Fall 2010 was 0.021 particles m(-2, but plastic concentrations were highly variable over the submesoscale (10 s of km. Size-frequency spectra were skewed towards small particles, with the most abundant particles having a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.01 cm(2. Most microplastic was found on the sea surface, with the highest densities detected in low-wind conditions. The numerical majority of objects were small particles collected with nets, but the majority of debris surface area was found in large objects assessed visually. Our ability to detect high-plastic areas varied with methodology, as stations with substantial microplastic did not necessarily also contain large visually observable objects. A power analysis of our data suggests that high variability of surface microplastic will make future changes in abundance difficult to detect without substantial sampling effort. Our findings suggest that assessment and monitoring of oceanic plastic debris must account for high spatial

  15. Seasonal cooling and blooming in tropical oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Alan

    1993-11-01

    The relative importance of tropical pelagic algal blooms in not yet fully appreciated and the way they are induced not well understood. The tropical Atlantic supports pelagic blooms together equivalent to the North Atlantic spring bloom. These blooms are driven by thermocline tilting, curl of wind stress and eddy upwelling as the ocean responds to intensified basin-scale winds in boreal summer. The dimensions of the Pacific Ocean are such that seasonal thermocline tilting does not occur, and nutrient conditions are such that tilting might not induce bloom, in any case. Divergence at the equator is a separate process that strengthens the Atlantic bloom, is more prominent in the eastern Pacific, and in the Indian Ocean induces a bloom only in the western part of the ocean. Where western jet currents are retroflected from the coast off Somalia and Brazil, eddy upwelling induces prominent blooms. In the eastward flow of the northern equatorial countercurrents, positive wind curl stress induces Ekman pumping and the induction of algal blooms aligned with the currents. Some apparent algal bloom, such as that seen frequently in CZCS images westwards from Senegal, must be due to interference from airborne dust.

  16. New constraints on the sources and behavior of neodymium and hafnium in seawater from Pacific Ocean ferromanganese crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Flierdt, T.; Frank, M.; Lee, D.-C.; Halliday, A.N.; Reynolds, B.C.; Hein, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of dissolved Hf in the marine environment is not well understood due to the lack of direct seawater measurements of Hf isotopes and the limited number of Hf isotope time-series obtained from ferromanganese crusts. In order to place better constraints on input sources and develop further applications, a combined Nd-Hf isotope time-series study of five Pacific ferromanganese crusts was carried out. The samples cover the past 38 Myr and their locations range from sites at the margin of the ocean to remote areas, sites from previously unstudied North and South Pacific areas, and water depths corresponding to deep and bottom waters. For most of the samples a broad coupling of Nd and Hf isotopes is observed. In the Equatorial Pacific ENd and EHf both decrease with water depth. Similarly, ENd and EHf both increase from the South to the North Pacific. These data indicate that the Hf isotopic composition is, in general terms, a suitable tracer for ocean circulation, since inflow and progressive admixture of bottom water is clearly identifiable. The time-series data indicate that inputs and outputs have been balanced throughout much of the late Cenozoic. A simple box model can constrain the relative importance of potential input sources to the North Pacific. Assuming steady state, the model implies significant contributions of radiogenic Nd and Hf from young circum-Pacific arcs and a subordinate role of dust inputs from the Asian continent for the dissolved Nd and Hf budget of the North Pacific. Some changes in ocean circulation that are clearly recognizable in Nd isotopes do not appear to be reflected by Hf isotopic compositions. At two locations within the Pacific Ocean a decoupling of Nd and Hf isotopes is found, indicating limited potential for Hf isotopes as a stand-alone oceanographic tracer and providing evidence of additional local processes that govern the Hf isotopic composition of deep water masses. In the case of the Southwest Pacific there is

  17. Radium 226 in the deep north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhein, M.

    1986-01-01

    With reference to the distribution of radium-226 in the western equatorial and north-eastern deep Atlantic Ocean it was possible to establish structures in the correlations of radium-226 to its chemical homologue Ba and dissolved SiO 2 . An 11-box model of the deep Atlantic Ocean was used to obtain information on the size of the radium-226 and Ba sources. The soil source derives mainly from the dissolution of barite. For the first time, an evaluation of the radium-226 flow resulting from the dissolution of particulate matter is presented. The box model and the radium-226 concentrations measured put down the value as 23-46·10 -21 mol/m 2 s. (DG) [de

  18. Indian Ocean dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anoop, T.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Glejin, J.; Amrutha, M.M.

    –378, 2016 www.ocean-sci.net/12/369/2016/ doi:10.5194/os-12-369-2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Indian Ocean Dipole modulated wave climate of eastern Arabian Sea T. R. Anoop1, V. Sanil Kumar1, P. R. Shanas1,2, J. Glejin1, and M. M. Amrutha1... are available on the website of the Japanese Agency of Marine–Earth Science and Technology (www.jamstec.go.jp). The tropical IO displays strong inter-annual climate vari- ability associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the IOD (Murtugudde et...

  19. Eastern Gulf of Mexico April 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Apr_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  20. Eastern Gulf of Mexico November 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Nov_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  1. Eastern Gulf of Mexico February 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Feb_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  2. Eastern Gulf of Mexico March 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Mar_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  3. Eastern Gulf of Mexico May 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_May_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  4. Eastern Gulf of Mexico August 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Aug_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  5. Eastern Gulf of Mexico October 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Oct_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  6. Eastern Gulf of Mexico September 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Sep_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  7. Eastern Gulf of Mexico June 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Jun_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  8. Eastern Gulf of Mexico July 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Jul_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  9. Eastern Gulf of Mexico December 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Dec_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  10. Eastern Gulf of Mexico January 1997 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_Jan_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  11. Tracing the Ventilation Pathways of the Deep North Pacific Ocean Using Lagrangian Particles and Eulerian Tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, H.A.M.S.; Primeau, F.W.; Deleersnijder, E.L.C.; Heemink, A.W.

    2017-01-01

    Lagrangian forward and backward models are introduced into a coarse-grid ocean global circulation model to trace the ventilation routes of the deep North Pacific Ocean. The random walk aspect in the Lagrangian model is dictated by a rotated isopycnal diffusivity tensor in the circulation model,

  12. Melting of the Patagonian Ice Sheet and deglacial perturbations of the nitrogen cycle in the eastern South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Dezileau, Laurent; Kaiser, Jérôme; Lamy, Frank; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2006-02-01

    We report the last glacial-interglacial transition of marine denitrification off northern Chile based on sedimentary nitrogen isotopes. Our results show a relatively early, large and abrupt transition from low to high denitrification regimes consistent with recently-reported data from off Peru. The deglaciation is characterized by millennial-scale adjustments of the oxygen minimum zone that mimic the atmospheric temperature record from Antarctica. We also show that the sharp denitrification onset was not caused by an increase in local primary productivity, nor by ventilation changes occurring in the Southern Ocean, as previously proposed. We found that the magnitude and timing of the deglacial denitrification changes are in close agreement with the fresh-water pulses that resulted from the melting of the Patagonian Ice Sheet. We consequently attribute the deglacial onset of marine denitrification in the area to a collapse of the thermocline ventilation occurred at the mid-latitude subduction region of the eastern South Pacific.

  13. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration claim, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Adrian G; Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Smith, Craig R; O'Hara, Tim; Mah, Christopher L; Dahlgren, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal benthic Echinodermata collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration claim 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. Morphological and genetic data are presented for 17 species (4 Asteroidea, 4 Crinoidea, 2 Holothuroidea and 7 Ophiuroidea) identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data. No taxa matched previously published genetic sequences, but 8 taxa could be assigned to previously-described species based on morphology, although here we have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  14. Continental basalts record the crust-mantle interaction in oceanic subduction channel: A geochemical case study from eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2017-09-01

    the crustal metasomatism through melt-peridotite reaction at the slab-mantle interface in oceanic subduction channels. Continental basalts of Mesozoic to Cenozoic ages from eastern China are used as a case example to illustrate the above petrogenetic mechanism. Subduction of the paleo-Pacific oceanic slab beneath the eastern edge of Eurasian continent in the Early Mesozoic would have transferred the crustal signatures into the mantle sources of these basalts. This process would be associated with rollback of the subducting slab at that time, whereas the partial melting of metasomatites takes place mainly in the Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic to produce the continental basalts. Therefore, OIB-like continental basalts are also the product of subduction-zone magmatism though they occur in intraplate settings.

  15. First record of the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae from the Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López-Garro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, is one of the most common Indo-Pacific reef sharks. On April 29, 2012, a juvenile male blacktip reef shark measuring 89 cm total length (TL, was incidentally caught during a research expedition in Chatham Bay, Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, located in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. This is the first record of the species from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, and from the Tropical Eastern Pacific.El tiburón punta negra de arrecife, Carcharhinus melanopterus, es uno de los tiburones de arrecife más comunes del Indo-Pacífico. Durante una expedición científica al Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, Pacífico Tropical Oriental, un tiburón punta negra de arrecife fue capturado en Bahía Chatham, Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, el 29 de abril 2012. El espécimen capturado era un macho juvenil de 89 cm. Este es el primer informe de esta especie para el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica y para el Pacífico Tropical Oriental.

  16. Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to the North Pacific Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Adler, Robert F.; Pierce, Harold F.

    2000-10-01

    Tropical cyclone monthly rainfall amounts are estimated from passive microwave satellite observations for an 11-yr period. These satellite-derived rainfall amounts are used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and interannual distribution of the North Pacific Ocean total rainfall during June-November when tropical cyclones are most important.To estimate these tropical cyclone rainfall amounts, mean monthly rain rates are derived from passive microwave satellite observations within 444-km radius of the center of those North Pacific tropical cyclones that reached storm stage and greater. These rain-rate observations are converted to monthly rainfall amounts and then compared with those for nontropical cyclone systems.The main results of this study indicate that 1) tropical cyclones contribute 7% of the rainfall to the entire domain of the North Pacific during the tropical cyclone season and 12%, 3%, and 4% when the study area is limited to, respectively, the western, central, and eastern third of the ocean; 2) the maximum tropical cyclone rainfall is poleward (5°-10° latitude depending on longitude) of the maximum nontropical cyclone rainfall; 3) tropical cyclones contribute a maximum of 30% northeast of the Philippine Islands and 40% off the lower Baja California coast; 4) in the western North Pacific, the tropical cyclone rainfall lags the total rainfall by approximately two months and shows seasonal latitudinal variation following the Intertropical Convergence Zone; and 5) in general, tropical cyclone rainfall is enhanced during the El Niño years by warm SSTs in the eastern North Pacific and by the monsoon trough in the western and central North Pacific.

  17. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Helena; Taylor, John D; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Todt, Christiane; Ikebe, Chiho; Rabone, Muriel; Glover, Adrian G

    2017-01-01

    We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ' cf ' as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  18. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Wiklund

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ, central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL polymetallic-nodule exploration area ‘UK-1’ in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ‘cf’ as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  19. Relationship of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation intensity over the tropical western North Pacific to tropical Indo-Pacific SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renguang; Cao, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The present study contrasts interannual variations in the intensity of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) over the tropical western North Pacific and their factors. A pronounced difference is found in the relationship of the two ISOs to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The 10-20-day ISO intensity is enhanced during El Niño developing summer, whereas the 30-60-day ISO intensity is enhanced during La Niña decaying summer. The above different relationship is interpreted as follows. The equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies modify vertical wind shear, lower-level moisture, and vertical motion in a southeast-northwest oriented band from the equatorial western Pacific to the tropical western North Pacific where the 10-20-day ISOs originate and propagate. These background field changes modulate the amplitude of 10-20-day ISOs. Preceding equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies induce SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean in summer, which in turn modify vertical wind shear and vertical motion over the tropical western North Pacific. The modified background fields influence the amplitude of the 30-60-day ISOs when they reach the tropical western North Pacific from the equatorial region. A feedback of ISO intensity on local SST change is identified in the tropical western North Pacific likely due to a net effect of ISOs on surface heat flux anomalies. This feedback is more prominent from the 10-20-day than the 30-60-day ISO intensity change.

  20. Diet Composition and Trophic Ecology of Northeast Pacific Ocean Sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarro, Joseph J; Carlisle, Aaron B; Smith, Wade D; Cortés, Enric

    Although there is a general perception of sharks as large pelagic, apex predators, most sharks are smaller, meso- and upper-trophic level predators that are associated with the seafloor. Among 73 shark species documented in the eastern North Pacific (ENP), less than half reach maximum lengths >200cm, and 78% occur in demersal or benthic regions of the continental shelf or slope. Most small (≤200cm) species (e.g., houndsharks) and demersal, nearshore juveniles of larger species (e.g., requiem sharks) consume small teleosts and decapod crustaceans, whereas large species in pelagic coastal and oceanic environments feed on large teleosts and squids. Several large, pelagic apex predator species occur in the ENP, but the largest species (i.e., Basking Shark, Whale Shark) consume zooplankton or small nekton. Size-based dietary variability is substantial for many species, and segregation of juvenile and adult foraging habitats also is common (e.g., Horn Shark, Shortfin Mako). Temporal dietary differences are most pronounced for temperate, nearshore species with wide size ranges, and least pronounced for smaller species in extreme latitudes and deep-water regions. Sympatric sharks often occupy various trophic positions, with resource overlap differing by space and time and some sharks serving as prey to other species. Most coastal species remain in the same general region over time and feed opportunistically on variable prey inputs (e.g., season migrations, spawning, or recruitment events), whereas pelagic, oceanic species actively seek hot spots of prey abundance that are spatiotemporally variable. The influence of sharks on ecosystem structure and regulation has been downplayed compared to that of large teleosts species with higher per capita consumption rates (e.g., tunas, billfishes). However, sharks also exert indirect influences on prey populations by causing behavioural changes that may result in restricted ranges and reduced fitness. Except for food web modelling

  1. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-04 to 2011-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0143947)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143947 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-16 to 2008-01-27 (NCEI Accession 0143932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143932 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  3. Population structure and connectivity of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across the Indo-Pacific Ocean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Bonnie J.; Williams, Samuel M.; Otway, Nicholas M.

    2017-01-01

    Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring (FST > 0.14, p....001) between all Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population. A lack of differentiation between tiger sharks sampled in Hawaii and other...... Indo-Pacific locations identified herein is in contrast to an earlier global tiger shark nDNA study. The results of our power analysis provide evidence to suggest that the larger sample sizes used here negated any weak population subdivision observed previously. These results further highlight the need...

  4. Repeated Storage of Respired Carbon in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Over the Last Three Glacial Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobel, A. W.; McManus, J. F.; Anderson, R. F.; Winckler, G.

    2017-12-01

    As the largest reservoir of carbon actively exchanging with the atmosphere on glacial-interglacial timescales, the deep ocean has been implicated as the likely location of carbon dioxide sequestration during Pleistocene glaciations. Despite strong theoretical underpinnings for this expectation, it has been challenging to identify unequivocal evidence for respired carbon storage in the paleoceanographic record. Data on the rate of ocean ventilation derived from paired planktonic-benthic foraminifera radiocarbon ages conflict across the equatorial Pacific, and different proxy reconstructions contradict one another about the depth and origin of the watermass containing the respired carbon. Because any change in the storage of respiratory carbon must be accompanied by corresponding changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations, proxy data reflecting bottom water oxygenation are of value in addressing these apparent inconsistencies. We present new records of the redox sensitive metal uranium from the central equatorial Pacific to qualitatively identify intervals associated with respiratory carbon storage over the past 350 kyr. Our data reveal periods of deep ocean authigenic uranium deposition in association with each of the last three glacial maxima. Equatorial Pacific export productivity data show intervals with abundant authigenic uranium are not associated with local productivity increases, indicating episodic precipitation of authigenic uranium does not directly reflect increases in situ microbial respiration, but rather occurs in response to basin-wide decreases in deep water oxygen concentrations. We combine our new data with previously published results to propose a picture of glacial carbon storage and equatorial Pacific watermass structure that is internally consistent. We conclude that respired carbon storage in the Pacific was a persistent feature of Pleistocene glaciations.

  5. 3He and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Jamous, D.; Mantisi, F.; Memery, L.; Universite Paris 6

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of 3 He across the Southern Ocean is depicted on the basis of a meridional section between Antarctica and South Africa measured during the INDIGO-3 survey (1988). A core of δ 3 He values above 10% is observed south of the Polar Front, associated with very low CFC concentrations. This 3 He enriched layer is documented from the GEOSECS and INDIGO 3 He data in the Southern Ocean. It is found at a density level around θ σ =27.8 in all the waters close to Antarctica (i.e. south of 50 degS). Its zonal distribution suggests that it is likely that it originates from the central/eastern Pacific. Hence, it provides an indication of the deep Pacific waters in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which are not easily detectable from the standard hydrographic parameters. (author). 19 refs.; 8 figs

  6. Status of the eastern Pacific agujon needlefish Tylosurus pacificus (Steindachner, 1876) (Beloniformes: Belonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collettte, B B; Banford, H M

    2001-07-01

    Tylosurus pacificus (Steindachner, 1876) is confirmed to have full species rank based on: 1) sympatry with T. acus melanotus at Isla Gorgona and in Panamá; 2) level of morphological differentiation in numbers of vertebrae, dorsal and anal fin rays; and 3) level of mtDNA differentiation. The eastern Pacific agujon needlefish is found from the Gulf of California, Mexico, to Peru, including the Galápagos Islands.

  7. Northern fulmars as biological monitors of trends of plastic pollution in the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; O'Hara, Patrick D; Kleine, Lydia; Bowes, Victoria; Wilson, Laurie K; Barry, Karen L

    2012-09-01

    Marine plastic debris is a global issue, which highlights the need for internationally standardized methods of monitoring plastic pollution. The stomach contents of beached northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) have proven a cost-effective biomonitor in Europe. However, recent information on northern fulmar plastic ingestion is lacking in the North Pacific. We quantified the stomach contents of 67 fulmars from beaches in the eastern North Pacific in 2009-2010 and found that 92.5% of fulmars had ingested an average of 36.8 pieces, or 0.385 g of plastic. Plastic ingestion in these fulmars is among the highest recorded globally. Compared to earlier studies in the North Pacific, our findings indicate an increase in plastic ingestion over the past 40 years. This study substantiates the use of northern fulmar as biomonitors of plastic pollution in the North Pacific and suggests that the high levels of plastic pollution in this region warrant further monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. AIR PRESSURE and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From North Pacific Ocean from 19920701 to 19921231 (NODC Accession 9300026)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains bathythermograph physical profile data in the TESAC format collected in North Pacific Ocean. TESAC format parameters include country code,...

  9. Bomb-test 90Sr in Pacific and Indian Ocean surface water as recorded by banded corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toggweiler, J.R.; Trumbore, S.

    1985-01-01

    We report here measurements of bomb-test 90 Sr activity in the CaCO 3 skeletons of banded head forming corals collected from nine locations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. Density variations in skeletal carbonate demarcate annual growth bands and allow one to section individual years. Measurements of 90 Sr activity in the annual bands reconstruct the activity of the water in which the coral grew. Our oldest records date to the early years of the nuclear era and record not only fallout deposition from the major U.S. and Soviet tests of 1958-1962, but also the huge, and largely unappreciated, localized inputs from the U.S. tests at Eniwetok and Bikini atolls during 1952-1958. In the 1960's the 90 Sr activity in Indian Ocean surface water was twice as high as activity levels in the South Pacific at comparable latitudes. We suggest that substantial amounts of northern hemisphere fallout moved west and south into the Indian Ocean via passages through the Indonesian archipelago. Equatorial Pacific 90 Sr levels have remained relatively constant from the mid 1960's through the end of 1970's in spite of 90 Sr decay, reflecting a large-scale transfer of water between the temperate and tropical North Pacific. Activity levels at Fanning Is. (4 0 N, 160 0 W) appear to vary in conjunction with the 3-4 year El Nino cycle. (orig.)

  10. Vertical distributions of particulate plutonium in the western North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Ayako; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2007-01-01

    We examined the vertical distributions of 239+240 Pu activity and 240 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratio in particles collected by large volume water in-situ pump in the western North Pacific Ocean (off Rokkasho, Japan). This is the first information of vertical distribution of plutonium activity and Plutonium atom ratio in small particle (1-70 μm) and large particle (>70 μm). (author)

  11. Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific Ocean before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M.; Zheng, J.; Aono, T.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides such as Pu-239 (half-life: 24100 yr), Pu-240 (half-life: 6560 yr) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 yr) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. In the North Pacific Ocean, two distinct sources of Pu isotopes can be identified; i.e., the global stratospheric fallout and close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater and marine sediment samples collected in the western North Pacific before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station will provide useful background data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The atom ratios of Pu-240/Pu-239 in water columns from the Yamato and Tsushima Basins in the Japan Sea were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18; however, there were no temporal variation of atom ratios during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the Japan Sea. The total Pu-239+240 inventories in the whole water columns were approximately doubled during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the two basins. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 in surface water from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific Ocean, was 0.224 and showed no notable variation from the surface to the bottom with the mean atom ratio being 0.234. The atom ratios for the Pacific coast, near the Rokkasho nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, were approximately the same as the 0.224 ratio obtained from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific margin. The atom ratios in the surficial sediments from Sagami Bay ranged from 0.229 to 0.247. The mean atom ratio in the sediment columns in the East China Sea ranged from 0.248 for the Changjiang estuary to 0.268 for the shelf edge. The observed atom ratios were significantly higher than the mean

  12. Oceanic migration behaviour of tropical Pacific eels from Vanuatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schabetsberger, R; Økland, F; Aarestrup, K

    2013-01-01

    Information on oceanic migrations and spawning areas of tropical Pacific freshwater eels (genus Anguilla) is very limited. Lake Letas and its single outflowing river, Mbe Solomul on Gaua Island, Vanuatu, were surveyed for large migrating individuals. Twenty-four Anguilla marmorata (87 to 142 cm),...... impact of the lunar cycle on the upper limit of migration depths was found in A. marmorata (full moon: 230 m, new moon: 170 m). These behaviours may be explained as a trade-off between predator avoidance and the necessity to maintain a sufficiently high metabolism for migration....

  13. A new yeti crab phylogeny: Vent origins with indications of regional extinction in the East Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roterman, Christopher Nicolai; Lee, Won-Kyung; Liu, Xinming; Lin, Rongcheng; Li, Xinzheng; Won, Yong-Jin

    2018-01-01

    The recent discovery of two new species of kiwaid squat lobsters on hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean and in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean has prompted a re-analysis of Kiwaid biogeographical history. Using a larger alignment with more fossil calibrated nodes than previously, we consider the precise relationship between Kiwaidae, Chirostylidae and Eumunididae within Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) to be still unresolved at present. Additionally, the placement of both new species within a new "Bristly" clade along with the seep-associated Kiwa puravida is most parsimoniously interpreted as supporting a vent origin for the family, rather than a seep-to-vent progression. Fossil-calibrated divergence analysis indicates an origin for the clade around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the eastern Pacific ~33-38 Ma, coincident with a lowering of bottom temperatures and increased ventilation in the Pacific deep sea. Likewise, the mid-Miocene (~10-16 Ma) rapid radiation of the new Bristly clade also coincides with a similar cooling event in the tropical East Pacific. The distribution, diversity, tree topology and divergence timing of Kiwaidae in the East Pacific is most consistent with a pattern of extinctions, recolonisations and radiations along fast-spreading ridges in this region and may have been punctuated by large-scale fluctuations in deep-water ventilation and temperature during the Cenozoic; further affecting the viability of Kiwaidae populations along portions of mid-ocean ridge.

  14. Unstable relationships between tree ring δ18O and climate variables over southwestern China: possible impacts from increasing central Pacific SSTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Wenling; Liu, Xiaohong; Hou, Shugui; Zeng, Xiaomin; Sun, Weizhen; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yu; Xu, Guobao; Ren, Jiawen

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential influence of central and eastern Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on the unstable relationship between earlywood δ18O and climatic factors in the southwestern China from 1902 to 2005. The results show that the strength of the climate signals recorded in the earlywood δ18O series has declined since the late 1970s. This reduction in signal strength may have been caused by the changes in the local hydroclimate, which is associated with the increasing SSTs in the central Pacific Ocean over recent decades. Alongside these increasing SSTs in the central Pacific, southwestern China has experienced more droughts, as well as more severe droughts through the late spring and early summer during the central Pacific (CP) El Niño years than during the eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño years in recent decades. This increased drought frequency may have weakened the response of earlywood δ18O to climate variables.

  15. Rare earth element concentrations and Nd isotopes in the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandel, C.; Delattre, H.; Grenier, M.; Pradoux, C.; Lacan, F.

    2013-02-01

    vertical profiles of rare earth element concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions have been measured in the remote southeast Pacific Ocean. The three stations represent contrasting environments: the oligotrophic center of the gyre (station GYR), the "transition zone" east of the South Tropical Front (station EGY), and the Peru-Chile upwelling marked by a pronounced oxygen minimum (station UPX). Rare earth concentrations display nutrient like vertical profiles except at UPX where surface waters are enriched. At this station Nd isotopic compositions are clearly more radiogenic than in the open ocean, suggesting that boundary exchange process is releasing lithogenic rare earth element from the volcanic Andes. Unexpected radiogenic values (ɛNd reaching -3.7) are also observed at 2000 m at station GYR in the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water that commonly have ɛNd values around -6. Exchange processes related to hydrothermal activity are suspected to produce this increase in ɛNd in the vicinity of the East Pacific Rise. These results provide some guidance for higher resolution studies planned in this region by the international GEOTRACES program.

  16. Projected wave conditions in the Eastern North Pacific under the influence of two CMIP5 climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christie; Barnard, Patrick; Ruggiero, Peter; van Ormondt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hindcast and 21st century winds, simulated by General Circulation Models (GCMs), were used to drive global- and regional-scale spectral wind-wave generation models in the Pacific Ocean Basin to assess future wave conditions along the margins of the North American west coast and Hawaiian Islands. Three-hourly winds simulated by four separate GCMs were used to generate an ensemble of wave conditions for a recent historical time-period (1976–2005) and projections for the mid and latter parts of the 21st century under two radiative forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), as defined by the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) experiments. Comparisons of results from historical simulations with wave buoy and ERA-Interim wave reanalysis data indicate acceptable model performance of wave heights, periods, and directions, giving credence to generating projections. Mean and extreme wave heights are projected to decrease along much of the North American west coast. Extreme wave heights are projected to decrease south of ∼50°N and increase to the north, whereas extreme wave periods are projected to mostly increase. Incident wave directions associated with extreme wave heights are projected to rotate clockwise at the eastern end of the Aleutian Islands and counterclockwise offshore of Southern California. Local spatial patterns of the changing wave climate are similar under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, but stronger magnitudes of change are projected under RCP 8.5. Findings of this study are similar to previous work using CMIP3 GCMs that indicates decreasing mean and extreme wave conditions in the Eastern North Pacific, but differ from other studies with respect to magnitude and local patterns of change. This study contributes toward a larger ensemble of global and regional climate projections needed to better assess uncertainty of potential future wave climate change, and provides model boundary conditions for assessing the impacts of

  17. Nitrogen and Triple Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Atmospheric Particulate Nitrate over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamezaki, Kazuki; Hattori, Shohei; Iwamoto, Yoko; Ishino, Sakiko; Furutani, Hiroshi; Miki, Yusuke; Miura, Kazuhiko; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-04-01

    Nitrate plays a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle. Atmospheric nitrate (NO3- and HNO3) are produced by reaction precursor as NOx (NO and NO2) emitted by combustion, biomass burning, lightning, and soil emission, with atmospheric oxidants like ozone (O3), hydroxyl radical (OH), peroxy radical and halogen oxides. Recently, industrial activity lead to increases in the concentrations of nitrogen species (NOx and NHy) throughout the environment. Because of the increase of the amount of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, the oceanic biogeochemical cycle are changed (Galloway et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2011). However, the sources and formation pathways of atmospheric nitrate are still uncertain over the Pacific Ocean because the long-term observation is limited. Stable isotope analysis is useful tool to gain information of sources, sinks and formation pathways. The nitrogen stable isotopic composition (δ15N) of atmospheric particulate NO3- can be used to posses information of its nitrogen sources (Elliott et al., 2007). Triple oxygen isotopic compositions (Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 ×δ18O) of atmospheric particulate NO3- can be used as tracer of the relative importance of mass-independent oxygen bearing species (e.g. O3, BrO; Δ17O ≠ 0 ‰) and mass-dependent oxygen bearing species (e.g. OH radical; Δ17O ≈ 0 ‰) through the formation processes from NOx to NO3- in the atmosphere (Michalski et al., 2003; Thiemens, 2006). Here, we present the isotopic compositions of atmospheric particulate NO3- samples collected over the Pacific Ocean from 40˚ S to 68˚ N. We observed significantly low δ15N values for atmospheric particulate NO3- on equatorial Pacific Ocean during both cruises. Although the data is limited, combination analysis of δ15N and Δ17O values for atmospheric particulate NO3- showed the possibility of the main nitrogen source of atmospheric particulate NO3- on equatorial Pacific Ocean is ammonia oxidation in troposphere. Furthermore, the Δ17O values

  18. Impact of air pollution on deposition of mineral dust: Implications for ocean productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S.; Horrowitz, L. W.; Levy, H.; Moxim, W. J.

    2003-12-01

    Atmospheric dust aerosols originating from arid regions are simulated in an atmospheric global chemical transport model. Based on model results and observations of dust oncentration, we hypothesize that Asian dust over the North Pacific is mostly hydrophilic and removed efficiently by both ice and droplet nucleation processes. By contrast, African dust over the tropical Atlantic is mostly hydrophobic and removed by ice, but not droplet, nucleation. We suggest that Asian dust is transformed into hydrophilic aerosols by chemical reactions with air pollutants over East Asia, which produce high levels of readily soluble materials on the surface of dust particles. A model of chemical aging will be presented for the hygroscopic transformation of mineral dust in the atmosphere. The model predicts that evolving air pollution in East Asia could have caused an increase of dust deposition to the coastal oceans off Asia and a decrease by as much as 50 percent in the eastern North Pacific. Insofar as iron from dust deposition fuels diatom blooms in the North Pacific Ocean, this decrease could have potential consequences on ocean biology.

  19. Indian Ocean and Indian summer monsoon: relationships without ENSO in ocean-atmosphere coupled simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crétat, Julien; Terray, Pascal; Masson, Sébastien; Sooraj, K. P.; Roxy, Mathew Koll

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between the Indian Ocean and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and their respective influence over the Indo-Western North Pacific (WNP) region are examined in the absence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in two partially decoupled global experiments. ENSO is removed by nudging the tropical Pacific simulated sea surface temperature (SST) toward SST climatology from either observations or a fully coupled control run. The control reasonably captures the observed relationships between ENSO, ISM and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Despite weaker amplitude, IODs do exist in the absence of ENSO and are triggered by a boreal spring ocean-atmosphere coupled mode over the South-East Indian Ocean similar to that found in the presence of ENSO. These pure IODs significantly affect the tropical Indian Ocean throughout boreal summer, inducing a significant modulation of both the local Walker and Hadley cells. This meridional circulation is masked in the presence of ENSO. However, these pure IODs do not significantly influence the Indian subcontinent rainfall despite overestimated SST variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean compared to observations. On the other hand, they promote a late summer cross-equatorial quadrupole rainfall pattern linking the tropical Indian Ocean with the WNP, inducing important zonal shifts of the Walker circulation despite the absence of ENSO. Surprisingly, the interannual ISM rainfall variability is barely modified and the Indian Ocean does not force the monsoon circulation when ENSO is removed. On the contrary, the monsoon circulation significantly forces the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal SSTs, while its connection with the western tropical Indian Ocean is clearly driven by ENSO in our numerical framework. Convection and diabatic heating associated with above-normal ISM induce a strong response over the WNP, even in the absence of ENSO, favoring moisture convergence over India.

  20. Indo-Pacific hydroclimate over the past millennium and links with global climate variabilty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M. L.; Drysdale, R.; Kimbrough, A. K.; Hua, Q.; Johnson, K. R.; Gagan, M. K.; Cole, J. E.; Cook, B. I.; Zhao, J. X.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Hantoro, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    records from the central-eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and western Indian Ocean, and eastern Australia), and thus, the tropical Pacific may have played a critical role in amplifying the radiative-forced global cooling already underway.

  1. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  2. Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole C Monnahan

    Full Text Available Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus were exploited extensively around the world and remain endangered. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP population. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches. We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP. The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114 from 1905-1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42% of all catches in the North Pacific. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180. The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. The results of this study provide information for future studies investigating the recovery of these populations and the impact of continuing and future sources of anthropogenic

  3. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE, LARGE-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION, AND CONVECTION OVER THE TROPICAL INDIAN AND PACIFIC OCEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orbita Roswintiarti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the quantitative estimates of the effect of large-scale circulations on the sea surface temperature (SST-tropical convection relationship and the effect of SST on the large-scale circulation-convection relationship over the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans are presented. Although convection tends to maximize at warm SSTs, increased deep convection is also determined by the divergence (DIV associated with large-scale circulation. An analysis of the relationship between SST and deep convection shows that under subsidence and clear conditions, there is a decrease in convection or increase in Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR at a maximum rate of 3.4 Wm-2 °C-1. In the SST range of 25°C to 29.5°C, a large increase in deep convection (decrease in OLR occurs in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. The OLR reduction is found to be a strong function of the large-scale circulation in the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. Under a weak large-scale circulation, the rate of OLR reduction is about    -3.5 Wm-2 °C-1 to -8.1 Wm-2 °C-1. Under the influence of strong rising motions, the rate can increase to about -12.5 Wm-2 °C-1 for the same SST range. The overall relationship between large-scale circulation and deep convection is nearly linear. A maximum rate of OLR reduction with respect to DIV is -6.1 Wm-2 (10-6 s-1 in the western Pacific Ocean. It is also found that the DIV-OLR relationship is less dependent on SST. For example, the rate of OLR reduction over the western Pacific Ocean for 26°C < SST £ 27°C is -4.2 Wm-2 (10-6 s-1, while that for 28°C < SST £ 29°C is  -5.1 Wm-2 (10-6 s-1. These results are expected to have a great importance for climate feedback mechanisms associated with clouds and SST and for climate predictability.

  4. Mesozooplankton respiration and community structure in a seamount region of the eastern South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Leissing; Escribano, Ruben; Morales, Carmen E.; Hormazabal, Samuel; Medellín-Mora, Johanna

    2018-05-01

    Seamounts in the Juan Fernandez Ridge, as well as in other seamount regions in the eastern South Pacific and in the world oceans, remain poorly studied ecosystems in terms of structure and functioning. Here, community respiration by epipelagic mesozooplankton in three seamounts of the Juan Fernandez Ridge, including the O`Higgins Seamount close to the coastal upwelling zone and two oceanic seamounts near the Juan Fernandez Archipelago ( 33°S-78°W), was assessed. Oxygen consumption by mixed assemblages was estimated using continuous measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration under controlled temperature during onboard, short-term incubations (2-4 h). Mesozooplankton composition was analyzed with a ZooScan device and expressed in terms of community normalized size spectra, and taxa and size diversity (Shannon-Wiener index). Carbon-specific community respiration rates in the upper 100 m layer were in the range of 0.3-1.9 mg O2 m-2 d-1, indicating that up to 3.1% of the mesozooplankton biomass can be respired on a daily basis. The mesozooplankton community was dominated by small-size copepods but the proportions of small copepods, large copepods, and gelatinous zooplankton (mostly salps) changed between the seamounts, in association with modifications in taxa composition, size diversity, and the slope of the size spectrum. Community respiration was significantly correlated to these community descriptors, suggesting the composition of the pelagic community has a direct impact on the total amount of respired-C. Connectivity between the coastal upwelling zone and the Juan Fernandez Ridge region mediated by mesoscale activity, interacting with the seamounts, is suggested as a most important process in controlling zooplankton community structure and in turn community metabolism.

  5. Sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.; Estes, James A.; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990).At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of kelp

  6. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    OpenAIRE

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low latitude regimes especially east of the dateline where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high nutrient low chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited in part by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Paci...

  7. Predictable patterns of the Asian and Indo-Pacific summer precipitation in the NCEP CFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jianyin [CMA Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Yang, Song; Kumar, Arun [NOAA/NWS/NCEP Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Hu, Zeng-Zhen [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua [George Mason University, Department of Climate Dynamics, Fairfax, VA (United States); Zhang, Zuqiang [CMA National Climate Center, Beijing (China)

    2009-06-15

    The predictable patterns of the Asian and Indo-Pacific summer precipitation in the NCEP climate forecast system (CFS) are depicted by applying a maximized signal-to-noise empirical orthogonal function analysis. The CFS captures the two most dominant modes of observed climate patterns. The first most dominant mode is characterized by the climate features of the onset years of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with strong precipitation signals over the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans, Southeast Asia, and tropical Asian monsoon regions including the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The second most dominant mode is characterized by the climate features of the decay years of ENSO, with weakening signals over the western-central Pacific and strengthening signals over the Indian Ocean. The CFS is capable of predicting the most dominant modes several months in advance. It is also highly skillful in capturing the air-sea interaction processes associated with the precipitation features, as demonstrated in sea surface temperature and wind patterns. (orig.)

  8. Impact of Preferred Eddy Tracks on Transport and Mixing in the Eastern South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmadani, A.; Donoso, D.; Auger, P. A.; Chaigneau, A.

    2017-12-01

    Mesoscale eddies, which play a fundamental role in the transport of mass, heat, nutrients, and biota across the oceans, have been suggested to propagate preferently along specific tracks. These preferred pathways, also called eddy trains, are near-zonal due to westward drift of individual vortices, and tend to be polarized (ie alternatively dominated by anticyclonic/cyclonic eddies), coinciding with the recently discovered latent striations (quasi-zonal mesoscale jet-like features). While significant effort has been made to understand the dynamics of striations and their interplay with mesoscale eddies, the impact of repeated eddy tracks on physical (temperature, salinity), biogeochemical (oxygen, carbon, nutrients) and other tracers (e.g. chlorophyll, marine debris) has received little attention. Here we report on the results of numerical modeling experiments that simulate the impact of preferred eddy tracks on the transport and mixing of water particles in the Eastern South Pacific off Chile. A 30-year interannual simulation of the oceanic circulation in this region has been performed over 1984-2013 with the ROMS (Regional Oceanic Modeling System) at an eddy-resolving resolution (10 km). Objective tracking of mesoscale coherent vortices is obtained using automated methods, allowing to compute the contribution of eddies to the ocean circulation. Preferred eddy tracks are further isolated from the more random eddies, by comparing the distances between individual tracks and the striated pattern in long-term mean eddy polarity with a least-squares approach. The remaining non-eddying flow may also be decomposed into time-mean and anomalous circulation, and/or small- and large-scale circulation. Neutrally-buoyant Lagrangian floats are then released uniformly into the various flow components as well as the total flow, and tracked forward in time with the ARIANE software. The dispersion patterns of water particles are used to estimate the respective contributions of

  9. The Last Frontier: Catch Records of White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Heather M.; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F.; Wintner, Sabine P.; Fordham, Sonja V.; Fisk, Aaron T.; Hussey, Nigel E.

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126–602 cm total length (TL) and 16–2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated

  10. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Christiansen

    Full Text Available White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8, Republic of Korea (22, Japan (129, China (32, Taiwan (45, Philippines (1 and Vietnam (3. Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam. Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113. Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases to near term (140 cm TL embryos. On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10 and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated

  11. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Heather M; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F; Wintner, Sabine P; Fordham, Sonja V; Fisk, Aaron T; Hussey, Nigel E

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL) and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated research to

  12. Multidecadal trends in the nesting phenology of Pacific and Atlantic leatherback turtles are associated with population demography

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Nathan J.; Valentine, Sara E.; Santidrián Tomillo, Pilar; Saba, Vincent S.; Spotila, James R.; Paladino, Frank V.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms influencing phenology can provide insights into the adaptability of species to climate change. Here, we investigated the factors influencing multidecadal trends in the nesting phenology of the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea at Playa Grande, Costa Rica, in the eastern Pacific Ocean and at Sandy Point, US Virgin Islands, in the western Atlantic Ocean. Between 1993 and 2013, the median nesting date (MND) at Playa Grande occurred later, at a rate of ~0.3 d yr-...

  13. SEDIMENT PROPERTIES and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM and Other Platforms From North Pacific Ocean from 19881030 to 19911024 (NODC Accession 9300040)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains data collected in North Pacific Ocean from Hawaiian Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project for years 1, 2 and 3 as part of Joint Global Ocean Flux...

  14. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  15. Distal transport of dissolved hydrothermal iron in the deep South Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N; Boyle, Edward A; Jenkins, William J

    2014-11-25

    Until recently, hydrothermal vents were not considered to be an important source to the marine dissolved Fe (dFe) inventory because hydrothermal Fe was believed to precipitate quantitatively near the vent site. Based on recent abyssal dFe enrichments near hydrothermal vents, however, the leaky vent hypothesis [Toner BM, et al. (2012) Oceanography 25(1):209-212] argues that some hydrothermal Fe persists in the dissolved phase and contributes a significant flux of dFe to the global ocean. We show here the first, to our knowledge, dFe (Pacific Ocean, where dFe of 1.0-1.5 nmol/kg near 2,000 m depth (0.4-0.9 nmol/kg above typical deep-sea dFe concentrations) was determined to be hydrothermally derived based on its correlation with primordial (3)He and dissolved Mn (dFe:(3)He of 0.9-2.7 × 10(6)). Given the known sites of hydrothermal venting in these regions, this dFe must have been transported thousands of kilometers away from its vent site to reach our sampling stations. Additionally, changes in the size partitioning of the hydrothermal dFe between soluble (Pacific Rise only leaks 0.02-1% of total Fe vented into the abyssal Pacific, this dFe persists thousands of kilometers away from the vent source with sufficient magnitude that hydrothermal vents can have far-field effects on global dFe distributions and inventories (≥3% of global aerosol dFe input).

  16. Physical and chemical data collected from bottle casts in the Pacific Ocean and the Southern Oceans from ALBA and other platforms from 18 November 1962 to 04 May 1990 (NODC Accession 0000413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in the Pacific Ocean and the Southern Oceans from ALBA, LIRA, TAMGA and other platforms from 18 November...

  17. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  18. Soundscapes from a Tropical Eastern Pacific reef and a Caribbean Sea reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaterman, E.; Rice, A. N.; Mann, D. A.; Paris, C. B.

    2013-06-01

    Underwater soundscapes vary due to the abiotic and biological components of the habitat. We quantitatively characterized the acoustic environments of two coral reef habitats, one in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Panama) and one in the Caribbean (Florida Keys), over 2-day recording durations in July 2011. We examined the frequency distribution, temporal variability, and biological patterns of sound production and found clear differences. The Pacific reef exhibited clear biological patterns and high temporal variability, such as the onset of snapping shrimp noise at night, as well as a 400-Hz daytime band likely produced by damselfish. In contrast, the Caribbean reef had high sound levels in the lowest frequencies, but lacked clear temporal patterns. We suggest that acoustic measures are an important element to include in reef monitoring programs, as the acoustic environment plays an important role in the ecology of reef organisms at multiple life-history stages.

  19. Physical, chemical, and other data collected using meteorological sensors, secchi disk, and bottle casts from the Pacific Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project from 18 June 1976 to 14 June 1977 (NODC Accession 8100434)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, and other data were collected using meteorological sensors, secchi disk, and bottle casts in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from the...

  20. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  1. Population structure and connectivity of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across the Indo-Pacific Ocean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bonnie J; Williams, Samuel M; Otway, Nicholas M; Nielsen, Einar E; Maher, Safia L; Bennett, Mike B; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2017-07-01

    Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark ( Galeocerdo cuvier ) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring ( F ST  > 0.14, p  Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population. A lack of differentiation between tiger sharks sampled in Hawaii and other Indo-Pacific locations identified herein is in contrast to an earlier global tiger shark nDNA study. The results of our power analysis provide evidence to suggest that the larger sample sizes used here negated any weak population subdivision observed previously. These results further highlight the need for cross-jurisdictional efforts to manage the sustainable exploitation of large migratory sharks like G. cuvier .

  2. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Samuel D.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; DiBattista, Joseph D.; Newman, Stephen J.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-12-01

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor.

  3. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    KAUST Repository

    Payet, Samuel D.

    2016-08-05

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  4. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    KAUST Repository

    Payet, Samuel D.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; DiBattista, Joseph; Newman, Stephen J.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  5. The Teleconnection of the Tropical Atlantic to Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures on Inter-Annual to Centennial Time Scales: A Review of Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kucharski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the teleconnections from the tropical Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific region from inter-annual to centennial time scales will be reviewed. Identified teleconnections and hypotheses on mechanisms at work are reviewed and further explored in a century-long pacemaker coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation ensemble. There is a substantial impact of the tropical Atlantic on the Pacific region at inter-annual time scales. An Atlantic Niño (Niña event leads to rising (sinking motion in the Atlantic region, which is compensated by sinking (rising motion in the central-western Pacific. The sinking (rising motion in the central-western Pacific induces easterly (westerly surface wind anomalies just to the west, which alter the thermocline. These perturbations propagate eastward as upwelling (downwelling Kelvin-waves, where they increase the probability for a La Niña (El Niño event. Moreover, tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies are also able to lead La Niña/El Niño development. At multidecadal time scales, a positive (negative Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation leads to a cooling (warming of the eastern Pacific and a warming (cooling of the western Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The physical mechanism for this impact is similar to that at inter-annual time scales. At centennial time scales, the Atlantic warming induces a substantial reduction of the eastern Pacific warming even under CO2 increase and to a strong subsurface cooling.

  6. 10Be/230Th ratios as proxy for particle flux in the equatorial Pacific ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Fleisher, M.Q.; Kubik, P.W.; Suter, M.

    1997-01-01

    Particulate 10 Be/ 230 Th ratios collected by sediment traps in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean exhibit a positive correlation with particle flux, but little or no correlation with particle composition. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs

  7. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE and Other Data from MOANA WAVE and Other Platforms From North Pacific Ocean from 19900103 to 19901220 (NODC Accession 9300148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Depth, Salinity, dissolved Oxygen (CTD); and Ocean chemistry data collected in North Pacific Ocean between January 3, 1990 and December 20, 1990 during...

  8. Temperature profile and other data collected from XBT casts in Indian Ocean and N / S Pacific Ocean from ICEBIRD and other platforms from 02 January 1993 to 01 January 1994 (NODC Accession 9400207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using XBT casts from ICEBIRD and other platforms in Indian Ocean and North / South Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  9. Iron stress in the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean : evidence from enrichment bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Klaas; van Leeuwe, M.A.; de Jong, J.T.M.; Nolting, R.F.; Witte, H.J; van Ooyen, J; Swagerman, M.J W; Kloosterhuis, H; de Baar, H.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of iron on phytoplankton physiology in a scarcely investigated part of the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean was studied during an expedition aboard RV 'Polarstern'. Physiological effects of iron enrichments were studied during short-term bottle experiments (72 h) in high-nutrient,

  10. Late Pliocene Depositional History and Paleoclimate Reconstructions of the Southwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, B.; Patterson, M. O.; Pietras, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drift deposits off the eastern margin of New Zealand are important archives for the paleoclimate and paleoceanographic history of the southwest Pacific. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1123 is located on the North Chatham rise drift just North of the westerly wind driven Subtropical Front (STF) and provides a record of near continuous sediment deposition since the Miocene along the southwest Pacific deep western boundary current (DWBC). While the Miocene and Late Pleistocene portion of this record have been well studied, the Late Pliocene record is less well developed. Southern Ocean geological records demonstrate that Late Pliocene cooling is the transient time bracketing the warmer than present Early Pliocene and bipolar glaciation at 2.7 Ma. A newly developed, robust, and astronomically tuned long-term record of benthic δ13C from ODP Site 1123 spanning the Early to Late Pliocene implies a reduction in Southern Ocean ventilation and lowering of preformed values from waters sourced along the Antarctic margin during the Late Pliocene. Thus, Late Pliocene Southern Hemisphere cooling and sea ice expansion may have drastically reduced outgassing and increased the burial of heat into the deep ocean. South Atlantic records off the west coast of Africa demonstrate an increase in the flux of iron to the open ocean during this time potentially enhancing surface ocean productivity and providing an additional cooling mechanism. Currently, atmospheric transport of dust to the Southern Ocean is dominated by persistent mid-latitude circumpolar westerly winds; this is particularly relevant for dust sourced from New Zealand. The Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene uplift of the North Island axial ranges and South Island southern alps potentially provided a greater amount of not only sediment to the deep ocean, but also wind blow dust to the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. We will present a detailed high-resolution sedimentological study on the development of the Chatham

  11. Impacts of the Tropical Pacific Cold Tongue Mode on ENSO Diversity Under Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Wenjun; Chen, Quanliang; Feng, Juan; Zheng, Fei; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Xin

    2017-11-01

    The causes of ENSO diversity, although being of great interest in recent research, do not have a consistent explanation. This study provides a possible mechanism focused on the background change of the tropical Pacific as a response to global warming. The second empirical orthogonal function mode of the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical Pacific, namely the cold tongue mode (CTM), represents the background change of the tropical Pacific under global warming. Using composite analysis with surface observations and subsurface ocean assimilation data sets, we find ENSO spatial structure diversity is closely associated with the CTM. A positive CTM tends to cool the SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific and warm the SST outside, as well as widen (narrow) zonal and meridional scales for El Niño (La Niña), and vice versa. Particularly in the positive CTM phase, the air-sea action center of El Niño moves west, resembling the spatial pattern of CP-El Niño. This westward shift of center is related to the weakened Bjerknes feedback (BF) intensity by the CTM. By suppressing the SSTA growth of El Niño in the eastern equatorial Pacific, the CTM contributes to more frequent occurrence of CP-El Niño under global warming.

  12. Uranium deposits of the Asian sector of Pacific ocean ore belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskij, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Brief description of three basic types of uranium ore deposits in the Asian sector of the Pacific Ocean ore belt, namely uranium-molybdenum vein deposits in the continental volcanic depressions, proper uranium-molybdenum vein deposits in the mesozoic granites and gold-brannerite deposits of the rejuvenated early-proterosoic fractures is given. Schemes of various deposits are presented, petrological and isotope data (K-Ar method) are considered and petro- and oregenesis are analyzed. refs., 9 figs

  13. Food-web inferences of stable isotope spatial patterns in copepods and yellowfin tuna in the pelagic eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Robert J.; Popp, Brian N.; Graham, Brittany S.; López-Ibarra, Gladis A.; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E.; Bocanegra-Castillo, Noemi; Wallsgrove, Natalie J.; Gier, Elizabeth; Alatorre-Ramírez, Vanessa; Ballance, Lisa T.; Fry, Brian

    2010-07-01

    Evaluating the impacts of climate and fishing on oceanic ecosystems requires an improved understanding of the trophodynamics of pelagic food webs. Our approach was to examine broad-scale spatial relationships among the stable N isotope values of copepods and yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares), and to quantify yellowfin tuna trophic status in the food web based on stable-isotope and stomach-contents analyses. Using a generalized additive model fitted to abundance-weighted-average δ 15N values of several omnivorous copepod species, we examined isotopic spatial relationships among yellowfin tuna and copepods. We found a broad-scale, uniform gradient in δ 15N values of copepods increasing from south to north in a region encompassing the eastern Pacific warm pool and parts of several current systems. Over the same region, a similar trend was observed for the δ 15N values in the white muscle of yellowfin tuna caught by the purse-seine fishery, implying limited movement behavior. Assuming the omnivorous copepods represent a proxy for the δ 15N values at the base of the food web, the isotopic difference between these two taxa, “ ΔYFT-COP,” was interpreted as a trophic-position offset. Yellowfin tuna trophic-position estimates based on their bulk δ 15N values were not significantly different than independent estimates based on stomach contents, but are sensitive to errors in the trophic enrichment factor and the trophic position of copepods. An apparent inshore-offshore, east to west gradient in yellowfin tuna trophic position was corroborated using compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids conducted on a subset of samples. The gradient was not explained by the distribution of yellowfin tuna of different sizes, by seasonal variability at the base of the food web, or by known ambit distances (i.e. movements). Yellowfin tuna stomach contents did not show a regular inshore-offshore gradient in trophic position during 2003-2005, but the trophic

  14. Intermediate and deep water mass distribution in the Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum inferred from oxygen and carbon stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herguera, J. C.; Herbert, T.; Kashgarian, M.; Charles, C.

    2010-05-01

    Intermediate ocean circulation changes during the last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the North Pacific have been linked with Northern Hemisphere climate through air-sea interactions, although the extent and the source of the variability of the processes forcing these changes are still not well resolved. The ventilated volumes and ages in the upper wind driven layer are related to the wind stress curl and surface buoyancy fluxes at mid to high latitudes in the North Pacific. In contrast, the deeper thermohaline layers are more effectively ventilated by direct atmosphere-sea exchange during convective formation of Subantarctic Mode Waters (SAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW) in the Southern Ocean, the precursors of Pacific Intermediate Waters (PIW) in the North Pacific. Results reported here show a fundamental change in the carbon isotopic gradient between intermediate and deep waters during the LGM in the eastern North Pacific indicating a deepening of nutrient and carbon rich waters. These observations suggest changes in the source and nature of intermediate waters of Southern Ocean origin that feed PIW and enhanced ventilation processes in the North Pacific, further affecting paleoproductivity and export patters in this basin. Furthermore, oxygen isotopic results indicate these changes may have been accomplished in part by changes in circulation affecting the intermediate depths during the LGM.

  15. Tectonostratigraphic terranes of the frontier circum-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.G.; Jones, D.L.; Schermer, E.R.

    1983-03-01

    Many major exploration frontiers around the Pacific are in regions where complex geologic relations reflect plate-tectonic processes, crustal mobility, and accretion of exotic terranes. The destruction of the proto-Pacific ocean (Panthalassa) involved accretion of terranes to cratonal regions such as Gondwana and Laurasia. Terranes in southwestern New Zealand and eastern Antarctica were also probably accreted during the Paleozoic. The southern margin of Siberia, extending into China, underwent a protracted period of accretion from the late Precambrian through the early Mesozoic. Mid-Paleozoic accretion is reflected in the Innuitian foldbelt of the Arctic Ocean, the Black Clastic unit of the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Antler orogeny of the western US cordillera. The Mesozoic breakup of Pangaea and the acceleration of subduction aided in the rifting and dispersal of terranes from equatorial paleolatitudes. Fragments of these terranes now compose much of the continental margins of the Pacific basin, including New Zealand, Indochina, southern China, southeast Siberia, the North American cordillera, and South America. Some terranes are presently being further fragmented by post-accretionary dispersion processes such as strike-slip faulting in western North America and Japan. Although the character and distribution of terranes in the western US are fairly well documented, details are needed for other terranes around the Pacific basin. Interpretation of structure and stratigraphy at depth will be aided by more data on the timing of accretion and the nature of deformation associated with accretion and dispersion. Such data are needed for further define specific exploration targets in the circum-Pacific region.

  16. Radiochemical determination of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in waters of the Pacific Ocean and its neighboring seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, G.S.; Kandinskii, P.A.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Petrov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Depending on the salinity of the water, two versions of strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentration from water samples are presented. Cesium-137 was concentrated by precipitating sparingly soluble mixed hexacyanoferrates (II), and strontium-90 by precipitating carbonates together with calcium. A scheme has been given for radiochemical analysis of the concentrates. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 contents in the waters of the Pacific Ocean and its neighboring seas have been determined by the radiochemical method described. The levels of radionuclide content in the water and atmospheric precipitations have been shown to be inter-related. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 contents in the surface water of the northwestern Pacific were found to be much lower in 1980 than in the early seventies. The area of technogenic radioactive pollution was found to persist in the region of the Columbia mouth into the Pacific Ocean

  17. Nutrient limitation of primary productivity in the Southeast Pacific (BIOSOPE cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bonnet

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient involved in a variety of biological processes in the ocean, including photosynthesis, respiration and dinitrogen fixation. Atmospheric deposition of aerosols is recognized as the main source of iron for the surface ocean. In high nutrient, low chlorophyll areas, it is now clearly established that iron limits phytoplankton productivity but its biogeochemical role in low nutrient, low chlorophyll environments has been poorly studied. We investigated this question in the unexplored southeast Pacific, arguably the most oligotrophic area of the global ocean. Situated far from any continental aerosol source, the atmospheric iron flux to this province is amongst the lowest of the world ocean. Here we report that, despite low dissolved iron concentrations (~0.1 nmol l−1 across the whole gyre (3 stations located in the center and at the western and the eastern edges, primary productivity are only limited by iron availability at the border of the gyre, but not in the center. The seasonal stability of the gyre has apparently allowed for the development of populations acclimated to these extreme oligotrophic conditions. Moreover, despite clear evidence of nitrogen limitation in the central gyre, we were unable to measure dinitrogen fixation in our experiments, even after iron and/or phosphate additions, and cyanobacterial nif H gene abundances were extremely low compared to the North Pacific Gyre. The South Pacific gyre is therefore unique with respect to the physiological status of its phytoplankton populations.

  18. Diversity and population structure of Marine Group A bacteria in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Allers, Elke; Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Howes, Charles G; Beneze, Erica; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Marine Group A (MGA) is a candidate phylum of Bacteria that is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean. Despite being prevalent, the structural and functional properties of MGA populations remain poorly constrained. Here, we quantified MGA diversity and population structure in relation to nutrients and O2 concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean using a combination of catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and ...

  19. The first report of a microdiverse anammox bacteria community in waters of Colombian Pacific, a transition area between prominent oxygen minimum zones of the eastern tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, M; Molina, V; Rodríguez-Rubio, E; Ulloa, O

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizers contribute to the removal of fixed nitrogen in oxygen-deficient marine ecosystems such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we surveyed for the first time the occurrence and diversity of anammox bacteria in the Colombian Pacific, a transition area between the prominent South and North Pacific OMZs. Anammox bacteria were detected in the coastal and oceanic areas of the Colombian Pacific in low oxygen (Chile and Arabian Sea) within Candidatus ‘Scalindua spp’. Moreover, some anammox bacteria OTUs shared a low similarity with environmental phylotypes (86–94%). Our results indicated that a microdiverse anammox community inhabits the Colombian Pacific, generating new questions about the ecological and biogeochemical differences influencing its community structure.

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-11-28 to 2011-02-05 (NODC Accession 0108155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108155 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  1. Carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected via time series monitoring from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1998-06-22 to 2004-11-23 (NODC Accession 0100079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100079 includes chemical, time series and underway - surface data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  2. The Pacific Equatorial Age Transect, IODP Expeditions 320 and 321: Building a 50-Million-Year-Long Environmental Record of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusali Gamage

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In March 2009, the R/V JOIDES Resolution returned to operations after its extended refit and began with a drilling program ideally suited to its drilling strengths, the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT, IODP Exp 320/321; Fig. 1A. The PEAT drilling program was developed to understand how a major oceanic region evolved over the Cenozoic Era(65–0 Ma and how it interacted with global climate. It specifically targeted the interval between 52 Ma and 0 Ma and drilled a series of sites that originated on the paleoequator. These sites have since been moved to the northwest by plate tectonics.The equatorial Pacific is an important target for paleocean ographic study because it is a significant ‘cog’ in the Earth’s climate machine, representing roughly half of the total tropical oceans that in turn represent roughly half of the total global ocean area. Prior drilling in both the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP outlined the changes that have occurred through the Cenozoic (e.g., van Andel et al., 1975; Pisias et al., 1995. Not only did the earlier work fail to cover sufficient timeintervals but also many of the sites were cored with ‘first-generation’ scientific drilling technology with incomplete and disturbed sediment recovery and thus cannot be used for detailed studies.

  3. Antitropical distribution and evolution in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Antitropical distributions of continental shelf, Indo-West Pacific species are probably not due to transgression of the tropics during the glacial periods, isothermic submergence, island integration, rising Neogene temperatures, or the Mesozoic dispersal of fragments from a Pacific continental mass. Characteristics of common antitropical patterns, plus information from systematic works on a variety on a variety of animal and plant groups, indicate that the long discarded "relict theory" of Theel (1885) appears to best fit the evidence, for it provides a mechanism whereby antitropical distribution may be brought about. The relict theory is compatible with the concept that the East Indies part of the Indo-West Pacific has been functioning as a center of evolutionary origin. It suggests that antitropical and associated disjunct patterns are produced as an older species, that has spread out to occupy a broad range, loses ground and gradually becomes supplanted by a younger species that had subsequently evolved in the East Indies. As this process goes on, the older species becomes restricted to a few isolated localities on the fringe of its original range. These isolates are often found to the north and south of the equatorial region but may include relict populations at the western edge of the Indian Ocean.

  4. Population genetic structure in Atlantic and Pacific Ocean common murres (Uria aalge): Natural replicate tests of post-Pleistocene evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Pocock, J. A.; Taylor, S.A.; Birt, T.P.; Damus, M.; Piatt, John F.; Warheit, K.I.; Friesen, Vicki L.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence population differentiation in temperate taxa can be difficult because the signatures of both historic and contemporary demographics are often reflected in population genetic patterns. Fortunately, analyses based on coalescent theory can help untangle the relative influence of these historic and contemporary factors. Common murres (Uria aalge) are vagile seabirds that breed in the boreal and low arctic waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Previous analyses revealed that Atlantic and Pacific populations are genetically distinct; however, less is known about population genetic structure within ocean basins. We employed the mitochondrial control region, four microsatellite loci and four intron loci to investigate population genetic structure throughout the range of common murres. As in previous studies, we found that Atlantic and Pacific populations diverged during the Pleistocene and do not currently exchange migrants. Therefore, Atlantic and Pacific murre populations can be used as natural replicates to test mechanisms of population differentiation. While we found little population genetic structure within the Pacific, we detected significant east-west structuring among Atlantic colonies. The degree that population genetic structure reflected contemporary population demographics also differed between ocean basins. Specifically, while the low levels of population differentiation in the Pacific are at least partially due to high levels of contemporary gene flow, the east-west structuring of populations within the Atlantic appears to be the result of historic fragmentation of populations rather than restricted contemporary gene flow. The contrasting results in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans highlight the necessity of carefully considering multilocus nonequilibrium population genetic approaches when reconstructing the demographic history of temperate Northern Hemisphere taxa. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  5. Changes in Pacific Absolute Plate Motion and Formation of Oceanic Flood Basalt Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, L. W.; Wessel, P.

    2006-12-01

    The origin of the large oceanic flood basalt plateaus that are prominent features of the central western Pacific Basin remains unclear. Major changes in Pacific Absolute Plate Motion (APM) have been identified as occurring at 145, 125, 96, and 47 Ma. Formation of the Shatsky Rise (~145 Ma), the Ontong Java Plateau (122+ Ma), the Southern Hess Rise (95±5 Ma), and the Louisiade Plateau (~48 Ma) appear to coincide with these changes. A smaller, but still prominent change in Pacific APM also occurred at 110 Ma when the Northern Hess Rise formed. Although these concurrent events may simply be chance occurrences, initiation of plate tectonic reorganizations upon arrival of mantle plume heads also was proposed by Ratcliff et al. (1998), who suggested that the mantle plume head delivery of hot material to produce flood basalts also had the potential to trigger reorganizations of plate motions. It should be noted, however, that Pacific Rim subduction zone development also coincides with these APM changes, and that the actual cause and effect of each change in APM has yet to be clearly established. Here we present a modified Pacific APM model that uses several older seamount chains (Musicians, Ratak-Gilbert-Ellice, the Wake trails, and the Liliuokalani trails) to constrain the oldest Pacific plate motion using the hybrid technique of Wessel et al (2006).

  6. Fukushima-derived radiocesium in the northwestern Pacific Ocean in February 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi; Aoyama, Michio

    2013-01-01

    We measured radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in seawaters collected at stations in the northwestern Pacific Ocean in February 2012. Activity concentration of Fukushima-derived radiocesium was highest in the transition area between the subarctic and subtropical regions, which was due to the direct discharge. The direct discharged radiocesium was transported southwardly across the Kuroshio Extension along isopycnal mixing. More than 80% of the Fukushima-derived radiocesium at stations both in the transition area and subtropical region was derived from the direct discharge. - Highlights: • Fukushima-derived radiocesium was found in the northwestern Pacific in February 2012. • The highest activity concentration in the transition area was due to the direct discharge. • Direct discharged radiocesium was conveyed southwardly across the Kuroshio Current. • More than 80% of Fukushima-derived radiocesium was derived from the direct discharge

  7. Authigenic Uranium in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Loveley, M. R.; Ibrahim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Authigenic U concentrations have been used as an indicator of redox state in marine sediments. Soluble U(VI) in porewaters is reduced to insoluble U(IV) under suboxic conditions setting up a diffusion gradient through which U in bottom waters is supplied to reducing sediments. Researchers have used sedimentary redox enrichment of U as a tool to identify past redox changes, which may be caused by changes in organic carbon rain rates and/or bottom water oxygen levels. Differentiating between these two explanations is important, as the former is tied to the use of authigenic U as a paleoproductivity proxy. We examined sediments from 4 sediment cores retrieved from two different localities in the Panama Basin in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Two cores were retrieved from the northern Panama basin at the Cocos Ridge, (4JC at 5° 44.7'N 85° 45.5' W, 1730 m depth; 8JC at 6° 14.0'N 86° 2.6' W, 1993 m depth), and two were retrieved from the south at the Carnegie Ridge, (11JC at 0° 41.6'S 85° 20.0' W, 2452 m depth; 17JC at 0° 10.8'S 85° 52.0' W, 2846 m depth). Using 230Th systematics and seismic profiling at each of the sites, we've identified significant sediment winnowing (4JC and 11JC) and focusing (8JC and 17JC). At all sites, we believe that changes in age-model-derived sand (i.e., >63µm) mass accumulation rates (MAR) best represent changes in rain rates. Glacial rain rates are higher than those in the Holocene by a factor of 2-3 at both sites. Peak Mn levels (>1%), the brown-to-green color transition (which likely represents the oxic/post-oxic boundary), and peak U concentrations all appear in the same order with increasing depth down core. At the Carnegie sites, where MARs are greater than those at the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 4 ppm) occur during the mid- to late Holocene at depths of 10-15 cm. At the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 12 ppm) occur lower in the sediment column (25-30 cm) during the late glacial. The decrease

  8. Distribution and sources of dissolved black carbon in surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, and the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Motohiro; Ajioka, Taku; Yamashita, Youhei

    2017-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon, also called black carbon (BC), is an important component in the global carbon cycle. BC produced by biomass burning or fossil fuel combustion is transported to oceans by the atmosphere or rivers. However, environmental dynamics (i.e., major sources and sinks) of BC in marine environments have not been well documented. In this study, dissolved BC (DBC) collected from surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, and the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific were analyzed using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method. The DBC concentration and the ratio of B5CA and B6CA to all BPCAs (an index of the DBC condensation degree) ranged from 4.8 to 15.5 µg-C L-1 and from 0.20 to 0.43, respectively, in surface waters of the Chukchi/Bering Seas and the North Pacific Ocean. The concentration and condensation degree of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas were higher and more variable than those in the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which implies that the major factors controlling DBC distribution were different in these marine provinces. In the Chukchi/Bering Seas, the DBC concentration was negatively correlated to salinity but positively correlated to chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) quantity and total dissolved lignin phenol concentration estimated by CDOM parameters. These correlations indicated that the possible major source of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas was Arctic rivers. However, in the North Pacific, where riverine inputs are negligible for most sampling sites, DBC was possibly derived from the atmosphere. Although spectral slopes of CDOM at 275-295 nm (an index of the photodegradation degree of CDOM) differed widely between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, the concentration and condensation degrees of DBC were similar between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which suggests that photodegradation was not the only major factor controlling DBC distribution. Therefore, DBC distributions of the

  9. Ecological patterns, distribution and population structure of Prionace glauca (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae) in the tropical-subtropical transition zone of the north-eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögler, Rodolfo; Beier, Emilio; Ortega-García, Sofía; Santana-Hernández, Heriberto; Valdez-Flores, J Javier

    2012-02-01

    Regional ecological patterns, distribution and population structure of Prionace glauca were analyzed based on samples collected on-board two long-line fleets operating in oceanic waters (1994-96/2000-02) and in coastal oceanic waters (2003-2009) of the eastern tropical Pacific off México. Generalized additive models were applied to catch per unit of effort data to evaluate the effect of spatial, temporal and environmental factors on the horizontal distribution of the life stages (juvenile, adult) and the sexes at the estimated depth of catch. The presence of breeding areas was explored. The population structure was characterized by the presence of juveniles' aggregations and pregnant females towards coastal waters and the presence of adult males' aggregations towards oceanic waters. The species exhibited horizontal segregation by sex-size and vertical segregation by sex. Distribution of the sex-size groups at oceanic waters was seasonally affected by the latitude; however, at coastal oceanic waters mainly females were influenced by the longitude. Latitudinal changes on the horizontal distribution were coupled to the seasonal forward and backward of water masses through the study area. Adult males showed positive relationship with high temperatures and high-salinities waters (17.0°-20.0 °C; 34.2-34.4) although they were also detected in low-salinities waters. The distribution of juvenile males mainly occurred beyond low temperatures and low-salinities waters (14.0°-15.0 °C; 33.6-34.1), suggesting a wide tolerance of adult males to explore subartic and subtropical waters. At oceanic areas, adult females were aggregated towards latitudes ecological key region to the reproductive cycle of P. glauca. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Eastern Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 135oW-120oW (eastern...

  11. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from BROOKE using BT and XBT casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 03 October 1975 to 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 8900225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the BROOKE in the North Pacific Ocean and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  12. Deep circulation in the Indian and Pacific Oceans and its implication for the dumping of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    The complexity of ocean transport processes has meant that the limits for the dumping of low-activity radioactive wastes have had to be based on very simplified models of the oceans. This report discusses the models used to determine dumping limits and contrasts them with the known ocean circulation patterns. The deep circulations of the Indian and Pacific Oceans are reviewed to provide a basis for estimating the possible destinations and likely transit times for dissolved material released at the ocean floor

  13. Atmospheric correction using near-infrared bands for satellite ocean color data processing in the turbid western Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Lide

    2012-01-16

    A regional near-infrared (NIR) ocean normalized water-leaving radiance (nL(w)(λ)) model is proposed for atmospheric correction for ocean color data processing in the western Pacific region, including the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. Our motivation for this work is to derive ocean color products in the highly turbid western Pacific region using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard South Korean Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). GOCI has eight spectral bands from 412 to 865 nm but does not have shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands that are needed for satellite ocean color remote sensing in the turbid ocean region. Based on a regional empirical relationship between the NIR nL(w)(λ) and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (K(d)(490)), which is derived from the long-term measurements with the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, an iterative scheme with the NIR-based atmospheric correction algorithm has been developed. Results from MODIS-Aqua measurements show that ocean color products in the region derived from the new proposed NIR-corrected atmospheric correction algorithm match well with those from the SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm. Thus, the proposed new atmospheric correction method provides an alternative for ocean color data processing for GOCI (and other ocean color satellite sensors without SWIR bands) in the turbid ocean regions of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea, although the SWIR-based atmospheric correction approach is still much preferred. The proposed atmospheric correction methodology can also be applied to other turbid coastal regions.

  14. Deepwater carbonate ion concentrations in the western tropical Pacific since 250 ka: Evidence for oceanic carbon storage and global climate influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bingbin; Li, Tiegang; Xiong, Zhifang; Algeo, Thomas J.; Chang, Fengming

    2017-04-01

    We present new "size-normalized weight" (SNW)-Δ[CO32-] core-top calibrations for three planktonic foraminiferal species and assess their reliability as a paleo-alkalinity proxy. SNWs of Globigerina sacculifer and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei can be used to reconstruct past deep Pacific [CO32-], whereas SNWs of Pulleniatina obliquiloculata are controlled by additional environmental factors. Based on this methodological advance, we reconstruct SNW-based deepwater [CO32-] for core WP7 from the western tropical Pacific since 250 ka. Secular variation in the SNW proxy documents little change in deep Pacific [CO32-] between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene. Further back in time, deepwater [CO32-] shows long-term increases from marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e to MIS 3 and from early MIS 7 to late MIS 6, consistent with the "coral reef hypothesis" that the deep Pacific Ocean carbonate system responded to declining shelf carbonate production during these two intervals. During deglaciations, we have evidence of [CO32-] peaks coincident with Terminations 2 and 3, which suggests that a breakdown of oceanic vertical stratification drove a net transfer of CO2 from the ocean to the atmosphere, causing spikes in carbonate preservation (i.e., the "deglacial ventilation hypothesis"). During MIS 4, a transient decline in SNW-based [CO32-], along with other reported [CO32-] and/or dissolution records, implies that increased deep-ocean carbon storage resulted in a global carbonate dissolution event. These findings provide new insights into the role of the deep Pacific in the global carbon cycle during the late Quaternary.

  15. Prediction of the fate of radioactive material in the South Pacific Ocean using a global high-resolution ocean model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazell, Douglas R.; England, Matthew H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the release of radioactive contaminants from Moruroa Atoll in a global high-resolution off-line model. The spread of tracer is studied in a series of simulations with varying release depths and time-scales, and into ocean velocity fields corresponding to long-term annual mean, seasonal, and interannually varying scenarios. In the instantaneous surface release scenarios we find that the incorporation of a seasonal cycle greatly influences tracer advection, with maximum concentrations still found within the French Polynesia region after 10 years. In contrast, the maximum trace is located in the southeast Pacific when long-term annual mean fields are used. This emphasizes the importance of the seasonal cycle in models of pollution dispersion on large scales. We further find that during an El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event reduced currents in the region of Moruroa Atoll result in increased concentrations of radioactive material in French Polynesia, as direct flushing from the source is reduced. In terms of the sensitivity to tracer release time-rates, we find that a gradual input results in maximum concentrations in the near vicinity of French Polynesia. This contrasts the instantaneous-release scenarios, which see maximum concentrations and tracer spread across much of the South Pacific Ocean. For example, in as little as seven years radioactive contamination can reach the east coast of Australia diluted by only a factor of 1000 of the initial concentration. A comparison of results is made with previous studies. Overall, we find much higher concentrations of radionuclides in the South Pacific than has previously been predicted using coarser-resolution models

  16. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froellje, Henning

    2016-08-09

    Ocean circulation and cycling of trace elements within the oceanic water column is of great significance for modern and past climates. The global overturning circulation is responsible for the distribution of water masses, heat and particulate and dissolved compounds, while biological and chemical processes, such as primary productivity or particle scavenging, control the cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the ocean, and ultimately influence the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon. Rare earth elements (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes are widely used as tracers for lithogenic element fluxes and modern and past ocean circulation and water mass mixing. The use of Nd isotopes in paleoceanographic investigations is based on the precise knowledge of processes involved in REE cycling and of the modern oceanic Nd isotope distribution. The Pacific is the largest of the world oceans, but it is highly underrepresented in present-day and past seawater Nd isotope and REE investigations compared to the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, Nd isotopes and REEs are analysed in North Pacific seawater (chapter 2) and sediment samples from the South Pacific (chapters 3-5) to contribute to a better understanding of sources and cycling of REEs and Nd isotopes in present-day seawater and to investigate past water mass mixing and circulation changes during the last glacial termination and throughout the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Neodymium isotopes in seawater and sedimentary archives (fossil fish teeth and debris, foraminifera, ferromanganese oxides, lithogenic particles) were analysed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), and REE concentrations were analysed using isotope dilution ICP-MS. Results from combined analysis of REEs, and Nd and radium isotopes from North Pacific seawater (coastal seawaters of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu and seawater from the offshore Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA) show a clear influence of the

  17. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froellje, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Ocean circulation and cycling of trace elements within the oceanic water column is of great significance for modern and past climates. The global overturning circulation is responsible for the distribution of water masses, heat and particulate and dissolved compounds, while biological and chemical processes, such as primary productivity or particle scavenging, control the cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the ocean, and ultimately influence the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon. Rare earth elements (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes are widely used as tracers for lithogenic element fluxes and modern and past ocean circulation and water mass mixing. The use of Nd isotopes in paleoceanographic investigations is based on the precise knowledge of processes involved in REE cycling and of the modern oceanic Nd isotope distribution. The Pacific is the largest of the world oceans, but it is highly underrepresented in present-day and past seawater Nd isotope and REE investigations compared to the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, Nd isotopes and REEs are analysed in North Pacific seawater (chapter 2) and sediment samples from the South Pacific (chapters 3-5) to contribute to a better understanding of sources and cycling of REEs and Nd isotopes in present-day seawater and to investigate past water mass mixing and circulation changes during the last glacial termination and throughout the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Neodymium isotopes in seawater and sedimentary archives (fossil fish teeth and debris, foraminifera, ferromanganese oxides, lithogenic particles) were analysed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), and REE concentrations were analysed using isotope dilution ICP-MS. Results from combined analysis of REEs, and Nd and radium isotopes from North Pacific seawater (coastal seawaters of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu and seawater from the offshore Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA) show a clear influence of the

  18. Nutrients, temperature, and salinity from bottle cats in the North Pacific Ocean by the Pacific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography from 27 August 1950 to 17 November 1997 (NODC Accession 0000843)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients, temperature, and salinity data were collected using bottle casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 27 August 1950 to 17 November 1997. Data were submitted...

  19. First record in the Tropical Eastern Pacific of the exotic species Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta, Serpulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Bastida Zavala

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exotic Indo-West-Pacific species, Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta, Serpulidae is recorded for the first time in the Tropical Eastern Pacific from two sites in La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, a coastal lagoon in the Pacific south of Mexico. The means of dispersal of this serpulid species still remains unclear, as the nearest port (Puerto Chiapas is 70 km to the south, and there are no port installations or shrimp cultures in the lagoon. The record of this serpulid species, apparently widely distributed in this coastal lagoon, has implications regarding possible effects on the brackish-water ecosystem, since the invasion event very well may have occurred several years ago. It is recommended that an exhaustive study be carried out in the coastal lagoons of Chiapas to evaluate the real distribution and the effects of this invasive species on the ecosystem. A complete description, including photographs and drawings, is provided.

  20. Transport process of Pu isotope in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masatoshi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, 036-8564, Aomori (Japan); Zheng, Jian [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Significant quantities of Pu isotopes have been released into the marine environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Most radionuclides globally dispersed in atmospheric nuclear weapons testing were released into the environment during the 1950's and 1960's. In the western North Pacific Ocean, the principal source can be further distinguished as two distinct sources of Pu: close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands and global stratospheric fallout. Since the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is characteristic for the Pu emission source, information on Pu isotopic signature is very useful to better understand the transport process in the oceans and to identify the sources of Pu. The mean atom ratio of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu from the global stratospheric fallout is 0.180 ±0.014 based on soil sample data, whereas that from close-in tropospheric fallout from the PPG is 0.33 - 0.36. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater samples collected in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean will provide important and useful data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The objectives of this study were to measure the {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater from the Sea of Okhotsk, Japan Sea, South China Sea and Sulu Sea and to discuss the transport process of Pu. Large-volume seawater samples (250 L each) were collected from the surface to the bottom in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise. The {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. In

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING_TAO165E0N in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-02-23 to 2013-02-03 (NODC Accession 0113238)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0113238 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING_TAO165E0N in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1998-12-29 to 1999-02-01 (NODC Accession 0112349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112349 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and...

  3. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  4. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE and Other Data from ALPHA HELIX From North Pacific Ocean and Others from 19931016 to 19931103 (NODC Accession 9400051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Data was collected from Ship ALPHA HELIX cruise...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-03 (NODC Accession 0110379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110379 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  6. Structure of the oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle north of the Gloria Fault in the eastern mid-Atlantic by receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Katrin; Krüger, Frank; Dahm, Torsten; Lange, Dietrich

    2017-10-01

    Receiver functions (RF) have been used for several decades to study structures beneath seismic stations. Although most available stations are deployed on shore, the number of ocean bottom station (OBS) experiments has increased in recent years. Almost all OBSs have to deal with higher noise levels and a limited deployment time (˜1 year), resulting in a small number of usable records of teleseismic earthquakes. Here we use OBSs deployed as midaperture array in the deep ocean (4.5-5.5 km water depth) of the eastern mid-Atlantic. We use evaluation criteria for OBS data and beamforming to enhance the quality of the RFs. Although some stations show reverberations caused by sedimentary cover, we are able to identify the Moho signal, indicating a normal thickness (5-8 km) of oceanic crust. Observations at single stations with thin sediments (300-400 m) indicate that a probable sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) might exist at a depth of ˜70-80 km which is in line with LAB depth estimates for similar lithospheric ages in the Pacific. The mantle discontinuities at ˜410 km and ˜660 km are clearly identifiable. Their delay times are in agreement with PREM. Overall the usage of beam-formed earthquake recordings for OBS RF analysis is an excellent way to increase the signal quality and the number of usable events.

  7. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Hoell, Andrew; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Blade, Ileana; Liebmann, Brant; Roberts, Jason B.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers support disaster risk reduction while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, we explore the dominant modes of East African rainfall variability, links between these modes and sea surface temperatures, and a simple index-based monitoring-prediction system suitable for drought early warning.

  8. Ocean floor sediment as a repository barrier: comparative diffusion data for selected radionuclides in sediments from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, F.; Sabau, C.; Friedman, A.; Fried, S.

    1986-01-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients for selected radionuclides have been measured in ocean floor sediments to provide data for the assessment of barrier effectiveness in subseabed repositories for nuclear waste. The sediments tested include illite-rich and smectite-rich red clays from the mid plate gyre region of the Pacific Ocean, reducing sediment from the continental shelf of the northwest coast of North America, and Atlantic Ocean sediments from the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain and the Great Meteor East region. Results show extremely small effective diffusion coefficients with values less than 10 -14 m 2 s -1 for plutonium, americium, curium, thorium, and tin. Radionuclides with high diffusion coefficients of approximately 10 -10 m 2 s - include the anionic species pertechnetate, TcO 4 - , iodide, I - , and selenite, SO 3 -2 . Uranyl(VI) and neptunyl(V) ions, which are stable in solution, have diffusion coefficients around 10 -12 m 2 s -1 . The diffusion behavior of most radionuclides is similar in the oxygenated Pacific sediments and in the anoxic sediments from the Atlantic. An exception is neptunium, which is immobilized by Great Meteor East sediment, but has high mobility in Southern Nares Abyssal Plain sediment. Under stagnant conditions a 30 m thick sediment layer forms an effective geologic barrier isolating radionuclides in a subseabed repository from the biosphere

  9. Ocean floor sediment as a repository barrier: comparative diffusion data for selected radionuclides in sediments from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, F.; Sabau, C.; Friedman, A.; Fried, S.

    1985-01-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients for selected radionuclides have been measured in ocean floor sediments to provide data for the assessment of barrier effectiveness in subseabed repositories for nuclear waste. The sediments tested include illite-rich and smectite-rich red clays from the mid-plate gyre region of the Pacific Ocean, reducing sediment from the continental shelf of the northwest coast of North America, and Atlantic Ocean sediments from the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain and the Great Meteor East region. Results show extremely small effective diffusion coefficients with values less than 10 -14 m 2 s -1 for plutonium, americium, curium, thorium, and tin. Radionuclides with high diffusion coefficients of approximately 10 -10 m 2 s -1 include the anionic species pertechnetate, TcO 4 - , iodide, I - , and selenite, SeO 3 -2 . Uranyl(VI) and neptunyl(V) ions, which are stable in solution, have diffusion coefficients around 10 -12 m 2 s -1 . The diffusion behavior of most radionuclides is similar in the oxygenated Pacific sediments and in the anoxic sediments from the Atlantic. An exception is neptunium, which is immobilized by Great Meteor East sediment, but has high mobility in Southern Nares Abyssal Plain sediment. Under stagnant conditions a 30 m thick sediment layer forms an effective geologic barrier isolating radionuclides in a subseabed repository from the biosphere. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-07-06 to 2010-08-22 (NODC Accession 0109921)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109921 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1999-11-21 to 1999-12-27 (NODC Accession 0112351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112351 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-10-01 to 2002-11-27 (NODC Accession 0115283)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115283 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-01-07 to 2002-02-16 (NODC Accession 0112354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112354 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1997-09-12 to 1997-11-07 (NODC Accession 0115286)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115286 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1998-09-16 to 1998-11-13 (NODC Accession 0115280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115280 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2000-09-20 to 2000-11-04 (NODC Accession 0115288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115288 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  17. Introduction to "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Borrero, Jose C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-12-01

    With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012", we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami continues; here we present 12 papers related to this event. Three papers report on detailed field survey results and updated analyses of the wave dynamics based on these surveys. Two papers explore the effects of the Tohoku tsunami on the coast of Russia. Three papers discuss the tsunami source mechanism, and four papers deal with tsunami hydrodynamics in the far field or over the wider Pacific basin. In addition, a series of five papers presents studies of four new tsunami and earthquake events occurring over this time period. This includes tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, Japan and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, we present four new papers on tsunami science, including discussions on tsunami event duration, tsunami wave amplitude, tsunami energy and tsunami recurrence.

  18. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2015-12-17 to 2016-01-13 (NCEI Accession 0157011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157011 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1992-11-01 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 0115024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115024 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  20. Eastern Gulf of Mexico, February 1996 to June 1997 Average Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_AVG_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  1. Impacts of Pacific SSTs on California Winter Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, B.; Kafatos, M.

    2017-12-01

    Consecutive below-normal precipitation years and resulted multi-year droughts are critical issues as the recent 2012-2015 drought of California caused tremendous socio-economic damages. However, studies on the causes of the multi-year droughts lack. In this study, focusing on the three multi-year droughts (1999-2002, 2007-2009, and 2012-2015) in California during the last two decades, we investigated the atmospheric and oceanic characteristics of the three drought events for winter (December-February, DJF) in order to understand large-scale circulations that are responsible for initiation, maintenance, and termination of the droughts. It was found that abnormally developed upper-tropospheric ridges over the North Pacific are primarily responsible for precipitation deficits and then droughts. These ridges developed when negative sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTs) including La Niña events are pervasive in the tropical Pacific. After 3 or 4 years, the droughts ended under the opposite conditions; upper-tropospheric troughs in the North Pacific with El Niño events in the tropics. Results of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis for the 41-year (1974/75-2014/15) 500 hPa geopotential height in DJF revealed that, during the drought periods, the positive phases of the first and second EOF mode (EOF1+ and EOF2+, respectively) were active one by one, positioning upper-tropospheric ridges over the North Pacific. While EOF1+ is associated with cold tropical central Pacific and negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), EOF2+ is associated with the tropical east-west SST dipole pattern (i.e., warm western tropical Pacific and cool eastern tropical Pacific near the southern Peru). Based on these results, we developed a regression model for winter precipitation. While dominant SST factors differ by decades, for the recent two decades (1994/1995-2014/2015), 56% variability of DJF precipitation is explained by the tropical east-west SST dipole pattern and PDO (NINO3

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and Calcium collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1979-04-01 to 1982-06-30 (NODC Accession 0000180)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0000180 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  3. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Dekker, D.; Kaiser, G.; Shepherd, P.C.F.; Ogden, L.E.; Rickards, K.; Lank, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative

  4. Dependence of oil and gas formation on lithogenesis features in the Pacific Ocean tectonic zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlin, Y K

    1981-01-01

    The clearly pronounced climate and tectonic factors have a primary influence on lithogenesis in the Pacific Ocean zone. At the same time, both the eastern and western parts of the zone have their own specific features, primarily in a tectonic respect. This leaves its imprint on the nature of the lithogenesis processes. The main condi- tions are analyzed for sediment genesis in both halves of the zone. The conducted analysis demonstrates that the processes of oil and gas formation are linked to the change in the geosyncline development and nature of sediment genesis and subsequent lithogenesis. It is expedient to make a prediction of oil and gas content with regard for the fact of the stage of development at which a certain sedimentary basin is. The formation composition of deposits of a certain group of basins makes it possible to predict which kind of hydrocarbons will dominate in them and in which section, since each formation is unique in relation to the generation of hydrocarbons and time of development. Both the stage of development and the formation complexes must be con- sidered in classifying and predicting the sedimentary basins. Development and refine- mend of the oil and gas-genetic criteria of different types of masses is a task of the new trend, formational naphthidogeny.

  5. Seasonal Variation of Diurnal Cycle of Rainfall in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Pednekar, S.; Katsumata, M.; Antony, M.K.; Kuroda, Y.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    The diurnal cycle of rainfall over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean is studied for the period 23rd October 2001 to 31st October 2003 using the hourly data from the Triton buoy positioned at 1.5°S and 90°E. An analysis of the active and weak...

  6. Spatial δ18Osw-SSS relationship across the western tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. M.; Conroy, J. L.; Wyman, A.; Read, D.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic hydroclimate processes across the western tropical Pacific lead to strong spatial and temporal variability in δ18Osw and sea-surface salinity (SSS) across the western Pacific. Corals in this region have therefore provided key information about past SSS variability, as δ18Osw contributes strongly to coral δ18O across this region. However, uncertainties in the δ18Osw-SSS relationship across space and time often limit quantitative SSS reconstructions from such coral records. Recent work demonstrates considerable variability in the δ18Osw-SSS relationship across the Pacific, which may lead to over- or under-estimation of the contribution of SSS to coral δ18O, particularly across the western tropical Pacific (Conroy et al. 2017). Here we assess the spatial δ18Osw-SSS relationship across the dynamic western tropical Pacific, capitalizing on a transit between Subic Bay, Philippines and Townsville, Australia aboard the International Ocean Discovery program's JOIDES Resolution. Water samples and weather conditions were collected 3 times daily (6:00, 12:00, 18:00) en route, resulting in a network of 47 samples spaced at semi-regular 130-260 km intervals across the western Pacific from 14°N to 18°S. The route also crossed near long-term δ18Osw monitoring sites at Papua New Guinea and Palau (Conroy et al. 2017), allowing us to compare the spatial and temporal δ18Osw-SSS relationships at these sites and test the space-for-time assumption. We present the δ18Osw-SSS relationship across this region, compare the relationship across space and time, and discuss the implications of our results for SSS reconstructions from coral δ18O.

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the JOHN V. VICKERS in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-08-16 to 1992-10-21 (NODC Accession 0115003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115003 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JOHN V. VICKERS in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  8. Fluvial fingerprints in northeast Pacific sediments: Unravelling terrestrial-ocean climate linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlaningham, S. J.; Duncan, R.; Pisias, N.

    2004-12-01

    As the earth's climate history becomes better understood, it becomes clear that the terrestrial and oceanic systems interact in complex ways. This is seen in core sites offshore the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of North America. A correlation can be seen in oceanic biostratigraphic assemblages and down-core changes in terrestrial pollen types. However, it is difficult to determine whether this relationship is the result of a coupled migration of terrestrial vegetation and oceanic fauna on millennial timescales or the result of changes in ocean circulation patterns that create more complex pollen pathways to the core sites. This research begins to unravel the answers to this problem by examining down-core changes in sediment provenance on millennial timescales. Preliminary data characterize sediment of 24 rivers from ten geologic provinces between latitudes 36° N - 47° N. Through clay mineralogy, major and trace element geochemistry and Ar-Ar "province" ages, ten of the 24 rivers can be uniquely identified, while six of the ten geologic provinces can be uniquely constrained geochemically. With further Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic analyses, we hope to constrain the non-unique sediment sources. We will also be presenting initial down-core geochemical results from cores EW 9504-17PC and EW9504-13PC, offshore southern Oregon and central California, respectively.

  9. Green sturgeon distribution in the Pacific Ocean estimated from modeled oceanographic features and migration behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, David D; Lindley, Steven T; Wells, Brian K; Chai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green sturgeon by modeling species-environment relationships using oceanographic and migration behavior covariates with maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) of species geographic distributions. The primary concentration of green sturgeon was estimated from approximately 41-51.5° N latitude in the coastal waters of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays from 36-37° N latitude. Unsuitably cold water temperatures in the far north and energetic efficiencies associated with prevailing water currents may provide the best explanation for the range-wide marine distribution of green sturgeon. Independent trawl records, fisheries observer records, and tagging studies corroborated our findings. However, our model also delineated patchily distributed habitat south of Monterey Bay, though there are few records of green sturgeon from this region. Green sturgeon are likely influenced by countervailing pressures governing their dispersal. They are behaviorally directed to revisit natal freshwater spawning rivers and persistent overwintering grounds in coastal marine habitats, yet they are likely physiologically bounded by abiotic and biotic environmental features. Impacts of human activities on green sturgeon or their habitat in coastal waters, such as bottom-disturbing trawl fisheries, may be minimized through marine spatial planning that makes use of high-quality species distribution information.

  10. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory: Analysis of Shadow Zone Arrivals and Acoustic Propagation in Numerical Ocean Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dushaw, Brian

    2009-01-01

    ... depth of the receiver lies well below the depths of the predicted cusps. Several models for the temperature and salinity in the North Pacific Ocean were obtained and processed to enable simulations of acoustic propagation for comparison to the observations...

  11. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: Ecological corridor rather than barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Douglas, David C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Gottschalck, J.C.; Warnock, N.; McCaffery, B.J.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117-11680km (10153??1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008-7390km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8??1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  12. Analogous nutrient limitations in unicellular diazotrophs and Prochlorococcus in the South Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisander, Pia H; Zhang, Ruifeng; Boyle, Edward A; Hewson, Ian; Montoya, Joseph P; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2012-04-01

    Growth limitation of phytoplankton and unicellular nitrogen (N(2)) fixers (diazotrophs) were investigated in the oligotrophic Western South Pacific Ocean. Based on change in abundances of nifH or 23S rRNA gene copies during nutrient-enrichment experiments, the factors limiting net growth of the unicellular diazotrophs UCYN-A (Group A), Crocosphaera watsonii, γ-Proteobacterium 24774A11, and the non-diazotrophic picocyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, varied within the region. At the westernmost stations, numbers were enhanced by organic carbon added as simple sugars, a combination of iron and an organic chelator, or iron added with phosphate. At stations nearest the equator, the nutrient-limiting growth was not apparent. Maximum net growth rates for UCYN-A, C. watsonii and γ-24774A11 were 0.19, 0.61 and 0.52 d(-1), respectively, which are the first known empirical growth rates reported for the uncultivated UCYN-A and the γ-24774A11. The addition of N enhanced total phytoplankton biomass up to 5-fold, and the non-N(2)-fixing Synechococcus was among the groups that responded favorably to N addition. Nitrogen was the major nutrient-limiting phytoplankton biomass in the Western South Pacific Ocean, while availability of organic carbon or iron and organic chelator appear to limit abundances of unicellular diazotrophs. Lack of phytoplankton response to nutrient additions in the Pacific warm pool waters suggests diazotroph growth in this area is controlled by different factors than in the higher latitudes, which may partially explain previously observed variability in community composition in the region.

  13. Late quaternary palaeo-oceanography and palaeo-climatology from sediment cores of the eastern Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagels, U.; Koehler, S.

    1991-01-01

    Box cores recovered along a N-S transect in the Eurasian Basin allow the establishment of a time scale for the Late Quaternary history of the Arctic Ocean, based on stable oxygen isotope stratigraphy and AMS 14 C dating of planktonic foraminifers (N. pachyderma I.c.). This high resolution stratigraphy, in combination with sedimentological investigations (e.g. coarse fraction analysis, carbonate content, productivity of foraminifers), was carried out to reconstruct the glacial and inter-glacial Arctic Ocean palaeo-environment The sediment cores, which can be correlated throughout the sampling area in the Eastern Arctic Ocean, were dated as representing oxygen isotope stages 1 to 4/5. The sedimentation rates varied between a few mm/ka in glacials and approximately one cm/ka during the Holocene. The sediments allow a detailed sedimentological description of the depositional regime and the palaeo-oceanography of the Eastern Arctic Ocean. Changing ratios of biogenic and lithogenic components in the sediments reflect variations in the oceanographic circulation pattern in the Eurasian Basin during the Late Quaternary. Carbonate content (1-9wt.%), productivity of foraminifers (high in interglacial, low in glacial stages) and the terrigenous components are in good correlation with glacial and inter-glacial climatic fluctuations

  14. Extent and impact of Cretaceous magmatism on the formation and evolution of Jurassic oceanic crust in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H.; Lizarralde, D.; Tominaga, M.; Hart, L.; Tivey, M.; Swift, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-channel seismic (MCS) images and wide-angle sonobuoy data acquired during a 2011 cruise on the R/V Thomas G. Thompson (TN272) show widespread emplacement of igneous sills and broadly thickened oceanic Layer 2 through hundreds of kilometers of oceanic crust in one of the oldest ocean basins in the western Pacific, a region known as the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). Oceanic crust from the JQZ has grown through at least two main magmatic phases: It was formed by mid-ocean ridge processes in the Jurassic (at ~170 Ma), and then it was added to by a substantial Cretaceous magmatic event (at ~75-125 Ma). The scale of Cretaceous magmatism is exemplified by massive seafloor features such as the Ontong Java Plateau, Mid-Pacific Mountains, Marshall-Gilbert Islands, Marcus-Wake Seamount Chain, and numerous guyots, seamounts, and volcaniclastic flows observed throughout the region. We use seismic data to image heavily intruded and modified oceanic crust along an 800-km-long transect through the JQZ in order to examine how processes of secondary crustal growth - including magmatic emplacement, transport, and distribution - are expressed in the structure of modified oceanic crust. We also model gravity anomalies to constrain crustal thickness and depth to the Moho. Our observations suggest that western Pacific crust was modified via the following modes of emplacement: (a) extrusive seafloor flows that may or may not have grown into seamounts, (b) seamounts formed through intrusive diking that pushed older sediments aside during their formation, and (c) igneous sills that intruded sediments at varying depths. Emplacement modes (a) and (b) tend to imply a focused, pipe-like mechanism for melt transport through the lithosphere. Such a mechanism does not explain the observed broadly distributed intrusive emplacement of mode (c) however, which may entail successive sill emplacement between igneous basement and sediments thickening oceanic Layer 2 along ~400 km of our seismic line

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-11-28 to 2013-01-04 (NCEI Accession 0143950)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143950 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  16. Dimethylsulphide (DMS emissions from the western Pacific Ocean: a potential marine source for stratospheric sulphur?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Marandino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface and atmospheric measurements of dimethylsulphide (DMS were performed during the TransBrom cruise in the western Pacific Ocean between Japan and Australia in October 2009. Air–sea DMS fluxes were computed between 0 and 30 μmol m−2 d−1, which are in agreement with those computed by the current climatology, and peak emissions of marine DMS into the atmosphere were found during the occurrence of tropical storm systems. Atmospheric variability in DMS, however, did not follow that of the computed fluxes and was more related to atmospheric transport processes. The computed emissions were used as input fields for the Lagrangian dispersion model FLEXPART, which was set up with actual meteorological fields from ERA-Interim data and different chemical lifetimes of DMS. A comparison with aircraft in situ data from the adjacent HIPPO2 campaign revealed an overall good agreement between modelled versus observed DMS profiles over the tropical western Pacific Ocean. Based on observed DMS emissions and meteorological fields along the cruise track, the model projected that up to 30 g S per month in the form of DMS, emitted from an area of 6 × 104 m2, can be transported above 17 km. This surprisingly large DMS entrainment into the stratosphere is disproportionate to the regional extent of the area of emissions and mainly due to the high convective activity in this region as simulated by the transport model. Thus, if DMS can cross the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, we suggest that the considerably larger area of the tropical western Pacific Ocean can be a source of sulphur to the stratosphere, which has not been considered as yet.

  17. Factors limiting heterotrophic bacterial production in the southern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Van Wambeke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of potential factors limiting bacterial growth was investigated along vertical and longitudinal gradients across the South Eastern Pacific Gyre. The effects of glucose, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate additions on heterotrophic bacterial production (using leucine technique were studied in parallel in unfiltered seawater samples incubated under natural daily irradiance. The enrichments realized on the subsurface showed three types of responses. From 141° W (Marquesas plateau to approx 125° W, bacteria were not bottom-up controlled, as confirmed by the huge potential of growth in non-enriched seawater (median of enhancement factor×39 in 24 h. Within the Gyre (125° W–95° W, nitrogen alone stimulated leucine incorporation rates (median×4.2, but rapidly labile carbon (glucose became a second limiting factor (median×37 when the two elements were added. Finally from the border of the gyre to the Chilean upwelling (95° W–73° W, labile carbon was the only factor stimulating heterotrophic bacterial production. Interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial communities and the direct versus indirect effect of iron and macronutrients on bacterial production were also investigated in four selected sites: two sites on the vicinity of the Marquesas plateau, the centre of the gyre and the Eastern border of the gyre. Both phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were limited by availability of nitrogen within the gyre, but not by iron. Iron limited phytoplankton at Marquesas plateau and at the eastern border of the gyre. However 48 h enrichment experiments were not sufficient to show any clear limitation of heterotrophic bacteria within Marquesas plateau and showed a limitation of these organisms by labile carbon in the eastern border of the Gyre.

  18. Dynamical diagnostics of the SST annual cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific: part I a linear coupled framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2018-03-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific has a pronounced westward propagating SST annual cycle resulting from ocean-atmosphere interactions with equatorial semiannual solar forcing and off-equatorial annual solar forcing conveyed to the equator. In this two-part paper, a simple linear coupled framework is proposed to quantify the internal dynamics and external forcing for a better understanding of the linear part of the dynamics annual cycle. It is shown that an essential internal dynamical factor is the SST damping rate which measures the coupled stability in a similar way as the Bjerknes instability index for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. It comprises three major negative terms (dynamic damping due to the Ekman pumping feedback, mean circulation advection, and thermodynamic feedback) and two positive terms (thermocline feedback and zonal advection). Another dynamical factor is the westward-propagation speed that is mainly determined by the thermodynamic feedback, the Ekman pumping feedback, and the mean circulation. The external forcing is measured by the annual and semiannual forcing factors. These linear internal and external factors, which can be estimated from data, determine the amplitude of the annual cycle.

  19. Zooplankton biomass data from net tows from the South Pacific Ocean from 27 January 1967 to 26 November 1967 (NODC Accession 9500090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass data were collected from net tows from the South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected by the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) from 27...

  20. Atmospheric transport of continentally derived organic material to the central Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagosian, R B; Peltzer, E T

    1986-01-01

    The organic geochemistry component of the Sea-Air Exchange Program was designed to determine the terrestrial and marine sources and to search for atmospheric transformation processes of oceanic aerosols from the major wind regimes of the Pacific Ocean. At Enewetak Atoll the distributions of the individual lipid compounds in aerosols require that there be a significant vascular plant source, almost certainly from Eurasia. Lipids associated with wind-eroded soil dust can reasonably account for all of the lipid classes detected in terms of expected concentrations and distributions and of the correlations with Al and /sup 210/Pb. The temporal variability observed for the C/sub 20/ aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acid salts and wax esters in aerosols observed at Enewetak is most likely due to the seasonality of dust storm activity in China and the seasonal changes in the large-scale wind fields over the Pacific. Atmospheric transformations and annual fluxes to the ocean of the lipid class compounds described above have been determined by using rainfall, aerosol and gas phase lipid concentration data. These data and previously reported aerosol data were used to estimate air-sea fluxes on an annual basis at Enewetak. Rain was determined to be the major mechanism. An empirical /sup 210/Pb-rain volume relation was developed, extended to organic compounds and used to provide more realistic annual flux estimates. Analysis of the scavenging ratios shows that the very low vapor pressure compounds expected to be in microcrystalline particles have rainout-washout behavior very similar to that found at Enewetak for clays. However, the lighter compounds show very high washout factor values that can be rationalized on the basis of their volatility.