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Sample records for eastern north china

  1. Triassic magmatism and its relation to decratonization in the eastern North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Lithospheric removal and destruction of the North China Craton have been hotly discussed recently. It has been confirmed that the timing of a strong lithospheric removal took place in Late Mesozoic; however, little is known about when the lithospheric removal was initiated and how the Late Permian to Early Triassic deep subduction of Yangtze continental crust affected the cratonic destruction. This paper presents an overview on the temporal and spatial framework and geochemical characteristics of the Triassic intrusive rocks in the eastern North China Craton and use these data to trace their sources and petrogenetic processes, in order to constrain the tectonic setting in which they evolved. It is concluded that the destruction of the North China Craton was initiated in the Late Triassic and induced by delamination of the thickened continental crust by deep subduction of Yangtze continental crust and continent-continent collision. This suggests that the subduction of the continental crust and continent-continent collision are possibly interpreted as the inducement of Late Mesozoic decratonization of the North China Craton.

  2. Triassic magmatism and its relation to decratonization in the eastern North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG JinHui; WU FuYuan

    2009-01-01

    Lithospheric removal and destruction of the North China Craton have been hotly discussed recently.It has been confirmed that the timing of a strong lithospheric removal took place in Late Mesozoic;however,little is known about when the lithospheric removal was initiated and how the Late Permian to Early Triassic deep subduction of Yangtze continental crust affected the cratonic destruction.This paper presents an overview on the temporal and spatial framework and geochemical characteristics of the Triassic intrusive rocks in the eastern North China Craton and use these data to trace their sources and petrogenetic processes,in order to constrain the tectonic setting in which they evolved.It is concluded that the destruction of the North China Craton was initiated in the Late Triassic and induced by delamination of the thickened continental crust by deep subduction of Yangtze continental crust and continent-continent collision.This suggests that the subduction of the continental crust and continent-continent collision are possibly interpreted as the inducement of Late Mesozoic decratonization of the North China Craton.

  3. Location of the Suture Zone between the South and North China Blocks in Eastern Dabie Orogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Laili; Wu Weiping; Chu Dongru

    2005-01-01

    The Dabie Mountains are a collisional orogen between the South and North China blocks. The rock assemblages, isotopic dating and tectonic relationship of the tectonic-petrologic units in the eastern Dabie orogen indicate that the orogen is mainly composed of the different-grades metamorphic basement with minor low-grade metamorphic cover. No ophiolitic southern margin of the North China block were found there, suggesting that they belong to the northern margin of the South China block. The boundary between the tectonic-petrologic units is generally an extensional shear zone developed in the exhumation process of the ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks. In the northern part of the Dabie Mountains, the extensional-thrust and nappe structure represent the products of extensional tectonism. That is, there is no key tectonic boundary to indicate the occurrence of the suture zone there. Therefore, neither the Shuihou-Wuhe shear zone, nor the Mozitan-Xiaotian fault, is the suture zone between the South and North China blocks. The zone is believed to be at the front area of the Xinyang-Shucheng fault, covered by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits within the Hefei basin.

  4. A revisit to the Higo terrane, Kyushu, Japan: The eastern extension of the North China-South China collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kenshi; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Miyazaki, Kazuhiro; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Fukuyama, Mayuko

    2017-08-01

    The Higo and Manotani high-T metamorphic rocks belong to the Higo terrane, central Kyushu, Japan. This terrane has been suggested as the eastern extension of the North China-South China collision zone based mainly on the similar petrological and geochronological data to the north Dabie high-grade rocks. In this study, detrital zircon U-Pb dating for the Higo metamorphic rocks yielded a maximum depositional age of 197 Ma with a prominent component at 193-284 Ma (62-95%) and a subsidiary peak at 1847-1875 Ma (19-28%); whereas for the Manotani metamorphic rocks, the maximum depositional age is 263 Ma with a prominent component at 263-304 Ma (98%). These results suggest that the protoliths of the Higo and Manotani metamorphic rocks might be equivalent to those of the early-middle Jurassic Chizu and late Triassic Suo high-P metamorphic rocks, southwest Japan, respectively. The absence of middle Neoproterozoic detrital zircon (c. 700-825 Ma) is incompatible with a proposition that the proto-Japan might have been located close to the South China craton, where Permian-Jurassic sedimentary rocks contain a significant amount of middle Neoproterozoic detrital zircon. The zircon provenance of the Higo terrane, as well as of the Chizu and Suo belts, could therefore be the North China craton, suggesting that the Suo metamorphic rocks, including the Manotani metamorphic rocks, have formed at the subduction plate boundary in the east, which changed into the contemporaneous North China-South China collision plate boundary in the west, likely passing through the Korean Peninsula. The transformation of the Chizu and Suo metamorphic rocks to the Higo and Manotani metamorphic rocks can be accounted for by the oceanward advance of the volcanic arc during trench retreating. The Cretaceous high-T metamorphism and related igneous intrusions of the Higo terrane would be regarded as the initial phase of the Ryoke event.

  5. Earthquake-controlling Processes of Detachment Zones in Eastern North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Aiqun; NIU Shuyin; SHAO Ji'an; HOU Quanlin; ZHANG Jianzhen

    2004-01-01

    The basin-and-range area in eastern North China is known for frequent occurrence of earthquakes, their great magnitudes and heavy losses thereby incurred. Seismic studies in the past usually emphasized the intersections,inflexions and branches of the faults. However, the intensities of many great earthquakes in this area do not show linear distribution, and the epicenters are horizontally dispersed at certain depths instead of along the strike of faults. Based on the sub-mantle plume studies made by authors in the past decade, it is thought that there exists an uplifted sub-mantle plume under the fault depression area in North China. The uplifting and intrusion of mantle materials caused the upper crust to be faulted, while low-velocity and high-velocity layers are alternatively distributed in the middle crust under the influence of the mantle and the lower crust. The middle and lower crust materials were detached from the top of the submantle plume to the surroundings while the sub-mantle plume materials were detached outward. When the detached middle and lower crust come to the boundary of fault basins in the upper crust, they will be obstructed by the orogenic zone and the detachment will go slower. The shearing between them will cause the stress to accumulate and release alternatively, so that earthquakes occurred frequently in the areas of sub-mantle plume and its surroundings.

  6. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  7. Inorganic nitrogen wet deposition: Evidence from the North-South Transect of Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, X; Yu, G; He, N; Jia, B; Zhou, M; Wang, C; Zhang, J; Zhao, G; Wang, S; Liu, Y; Yan, J

    2015-09-01

    We examined the spatio-temporal variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition in eight typical forest ecosystems of Eastern China for three consecutive years. DIN deposition exhibited an increasing gradient from north to south, with N-NH4(+) as the predominant contributor. DIN deposition in precipitation changed after interaction with the forest canopy, and serious ecological perturbations are expected in this region. DIN deposition presented seasonal fluctuations, which might be ascribed to agricultural activity, fossil-fuel combustion and environmental factors (i.e., wind direction, soil temperature). Notably, N fertilizer use (FN), energy consumption (E), and precipitation (P) jointly explained 84.3% of the spatial variation in DIN deposition, of which FN (27.2%) was the most important, followed by E (24.8%), and finally P (9.3%). The findings demonstrate that DIN deposition is regulated by precipitation mainly via anthropogenic N emissions, and this analysis provides decision-makers a novel view for N pollution abatement.

  8. WATER QUALITY MODELING AND POLLUTION CONTROL FOR THE EASTERN ROUTE OF SOUTH TO NORTH WATER TRANSFER PROJECT IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; WANG Yan-ying; WANG Pei-fang

    2006-01-01

    South to North Water Transfer Project in China is the largest project over centuries to solve the water shortage problem in vast areas of northern China. It comprises of three routes: the eastern, central and western route and this study mainly focused on the eastern route. As water quality is the key factor for the eastern route, this paper examined the main factors influencing water quality of the main route south of the Yellow River, by investigating the point source, non-point source (diffusive source) and internal source pollutions along the main eastern route and in its drainage basins, and assessing the current water quality in the waterways. According to the complicated and combined systems of rivers and lakes in this route, one-dimensional water quantity and quality model for rivers and two-dimensional model for lakes were developed to simulate the hydrodynamic and pollutant transport processes. The numerical method and model algorithm were described. The values of model parameters were estimated by using field-monitoring data along the main route and the inverse modeling technique. Established models were employed to predict the degradations of CODMn and NH4+-N in the main stream, under the conditions of current pollution loads and different hydrologic conditions. Schemes were present for controlling total quantities of pollutants from point source and non-point source along the main route to secure water quality for the eastern route.

  9. The Tianjin geothermal field (north-eastern China): Water chemistry and possible reservoir permeability reduction phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, Angelo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Orlando, Andrea [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Borrini, Daniele; Tassi, Franco [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Vaselli, Orlando [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Huertas, Antonio Delgado [Estacion Experimental de Zaidin (CSIC), Prof. Albareda 1, 18008 Granada (Spain); Yang, Jincheng; Cheng, Wanquing [Aode Renewable Energy Research Institute, 90 Weijin South Road, Nankai District, 300381 Tianjin (China); Tedesco, Dario [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Institute of Environmental Geology and Geo Engineering (CNR), Piazzale A. Moro 5, Roma 00100 (Italy); Poreda, Robert [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Rochester, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Injection of spent (cooled) thermal fluids began in the Tianjin geothermal district, north-eastern China, at the end of the 1990s. Well injectivities declined after 3-4 years because of self-sealing processes that reduced reservoir permeability. The study focuses on the factors that may have caused the observed decrease in permeability, using chemical and isotopic data on fluids (water and gas) and mineral phases collected from production and injection wells. The results of data processing and interpretation indicate that (1) it is very unlikely that calcite and silica precipitation is taking place in the reservoir; (2) the Fe- and Zn-rich mineral phases (e.g. sulfides, hydroxides and silicates) show positive saturation indexes; (3) SEM and XRD analyses of filtered material reveal that the latter mineral phases are common; (4) visual observation of casings and surface installations, and of corrosion products, suggests that a poor quality steel was used in their manufacture; (5) significant quantities of solids (e.g. quartz and feldspar crystals) are carried by the geothermal fluid; (6) seasonal changes in fluid composition lead to a reduction in casing corrosion during the summer. It was concluded that the decrease in injectivity in the Tianjin wells is caused only in part by the oxidation of casings, downhole pumps, and surface installations, triggered by free oxygen in the injected fluids; the utilization of better quality steels should drastically reduce this type of corrosion. Self-sealing of pores and fractures by reservoir formation solids and by the Fe-corrosion products suspended in the injected fluids seems to be a more important phenomenon, whose effect could be greatly reduced by installing filtering devices at all sites. (author)

  10. Boron isotopes reveal multiple metasomatic events in the mantle beneath the eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Zhou; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Wei, Gang-Jian; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2016-12-01

    Linkages inferred between the geochemical heterogeneity of the mantle beneath eastern Eurasia and the stagnant Pacific slab documented geophysically in its mantle transition zone are as yet not clearly characterized. In this paper we report new elemental and isotopic data for boron (B) on a suite of well-characterized Cenozoic basalts (alkali basalts, basanites and nephelinites), with ocean island basalt (OIB)-like trace element signatures from western Shandong of the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Correlations between major elements (e.g., FeOT versus SiO2), trace elements (e.g., CeN/PbN versus BaN/ThN) and radiogenic isotopes (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb versus 87Sr/86Sr) suggest these basalts are derived via the mixing of melts from two mantle components: a fluid mobile element (FME; such as Ba, K, Pb and Sr) enriched component, which is most evident in the alkali basalts, and a FME depleted mantle component that is more evident in the basanites and nephelinites. The alkali basalts in this study have lower B concentrations (1.4-2.2 μg/g) but higher δ11B (-4.9 to -1.4) values than the basanites and nephelinites (B = 2.1-5.0 μg/g; δ11B = -6.9 to -3.9), and all the samples have nearly constant B/Nb ratios between 0.03 and 0.07, similar to the observed range in B/Nb for intraplate lavas. Our high-SiO2 samples have higher δ11B than that of our low SiO2 samples, indicating that the B isotopic differences among our samples do not result from the addition of a continental crustal component in the mantle source, or direct crustal assimilation during the eruption process. The positive B versus Nb correlation suggests the B isotopic compositions of the western Shandong basalts primarily reflect the pre-eruptive compositions of their mantle sources. Correlations among B, Nd and Sr isotope signatures of the western Shandong basalts differ from those among basalts from plume settings (e.g., Azores and Hawaii), and are inconsistent with models suggesting single-step metasomatic

  11. Evolution of the mantle beneath the eastern North China Craton during the Cenozoic: Linking geochemical and geophysical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yan; Xu, Yi-Gang; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Whattam, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent discoveries related to the geochemistry of Cenozoic basalts and the geophysics of the deep mantle beneath eastern Eurasia make it possible to place constraints on the relationship between the seismic tomography of subcontinental mantle domains and their geochemical heterogeneities. Basalts with ocean island basalt-like trace elements erupted during (56-23 Ma) and after (≤23 Ma) rifting of the eastern North China Craton (NCC) show evidence for the mixing of an isotopically depleted source and an EMI (Enriched mantle type I) pyroxenitic mantle. NCC rifting-stage basalts exhibit anomalously low MgO and Fe2O3T and high SiO2 and Al2O3, as well as low Dy/Yb and Y/Yb and high ɛHf at a given ɛNd, as compared to the postrifting basalts. Temporal compositional variations and their association with basin subsidence indicate that heterogeneity in the eastern NCC asthenospheric mantle is the primary driver for intraplate magmatism in this region. The specific magmatic sources shifted in terms of depth, related to lithospheric thinning and thickening in the eastern NCC. The NCC EMI mantle domain most likely developed due to ancient events, is persistent through time, and is not related to dehydration of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Based on the chemical signatures of postrifting basalts, contributions from the Pacific slab are likely to be carbonatite rich. Mantle metasomatism by carbonatite melts from the Pacific slab and the interaction of these melts at shallower depths with EMI pyroxenitic mantle domains to trigger melting are contributors to the observed low P wave velocity zone beneath eastern Eurasia.

  12. Cenozoic lithospheric evolution of the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton: Constraint from tectono-thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiongying; He, Lijuan; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Linyou

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the lithosphere beneath the eastern North China Craton (NCC) had been thinned before the Cenozoic. A 2D multi-phase extension model, in which the initial crustal and lithospheric thicknesses are variable, is presented to reconstruct the initial thicknesses of the crust and lithosphere in the early Cenozoic and to further investigate the lithospheric evolution beneath the eastern NCC through the Cenozoic. We conduct thermal modeling along three profiles from east to west in the Bohai Bay Basin, which is the center of the lithospheric destruction and thinning of the NCC. Using multiple constraints, such as tectonic subsidence, the present-day heat flow and the Moho depth, we determine the initial crustal and lithospheric thicknesses of the Bohai Bay Basin before the Cenozoic rift to be 33-36 km and 80-105 km, respectively. The model results show that the most rapid lithospheric thinning during the Cenozoic occurred in the middle Eocene for most depressions, and the thinning activity ceased at the end of the Oligocene, reaching a minimum lithospheric thickness of 53-74 km, followed by a thermal relaxation phase. Combined with previous studies, we infer that the lithosphere beneath the eastern NCC experienced two stages of alternating thinning and thickening: notable thinning in the Early Cretaceous and Paleogene, and thickening in the Late Cretaceous and late Cenozoic. We believe that thermo-chemical erosion, together with extension, was probably the major mechanism of the significant lithospheric removal during the Mesozoic, whereas the Cenozoic lithospheric thinning was mainly dominated by tectonic extension in the eastern NCC; lithospheric thickening was generally a result of thermal cooling.

  13. Habitat evaluation of wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and conservation priority setting in north-eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofeng, Luan; Yi, Qu; Diqiang, Li; Shirong, Liu; Xiulei, Wang; Bo, Wu; Chunquan, Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is one of the world's most endangered species. Recently, habitat fragmentation, food scarcity and human hunting have drastically reduced the population size and distribution areas of Amur tigers in the wild, leaving them on the verge of extinction. Presently, they are only found in the north-eastern part of China. In this study, we developed a reference framework using methods and technologies of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), GAP analysis and Natural Break (Jenks) classification to evaluate the habitat and to set the conservation priorities for Amur tigers in eastern areas of Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces of northeast China. We proposed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) incorporating 7 factors covering natural conditions and human disturbance. Based on the HSI values, the suitability was classified into five levels from the most to not suitable. Finally, according to results of GAP analysis, we identified six conservation priorities and designed a conservation landscape incorporating four new nature reserves, enlarging two existing ones, and creating four linkages for Amur tigers in northeast China. The case study showed that the core habitats (the most suitable and highly suitable habitats) identified for Amur tigers covered 35,547 km(2), accounting for approximately 26.71% of the total study area (1,33,093 km(2)). However, existing nature reserves protected only (7124 km(2) or) 20.04% of the identified core habitats. Thus, enlargement of current reserves is necessary and urgent for the tiger's conservation and restoration. Moreover, the establishment of wildlife corridors linking core habitats will provide an efficient reserve network for tiger conservation to maintain the evolutionary potential of Amur tigers facing environmental changes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Big insights from tiny peridotites: Evidence for persistence of Precambrian lithosphere beneath the eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingao; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Walker, Richard J.; Xu, Wen-liang; Gao, Shan; Wu, Fu-yuan

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the eastern North China Craton (NCC) lost its ancient lithospheric mantle root during the Phanerozoic. The temporal sequence, spatial extent, and cause of the lithospheric thinning, however, continue to be debated. Here we report olivine compositions, whole-rock Re-Os isotopic systematics, and platinum-group element abundances of small ( 92) lithospheric mantle is largely absent. Osmium isotopic data suggest the Wudi peridotites experienced melt depletion primarily during the Paleoproterozoic (~ 1.8 Ga), although an Archean Os model age for one xenolith indicates incorporation of a minor component of Archean lithospheric mantle. These data suggest that a previously unrecognized Paleoproterozoic orogenic event removed and replaced the original Archean lithospheric mantle beneath the sedimentary basin at the southern edge of the Bohai Sea. By contrast, the Fuxin peridotites, entrained in Cretaceous basalts that crop out along the northern edge of the eastern NCC, document the coexistence of both ancient (≥ 2.3 Ga) and modern lithospheric mantle components. Here, the original Late Archean-Early Paleoproterozoic lithospheric mantle was, at least partially, removed and replaced prior to 100 Ma. Combined with literature data, our results show that removal of the original Archean lithosphere occurred within Proterozoic collisional orogens, and that replacement of Precambrian lithosphere during the Mesozoic may have been spatially associated with the collisional boundaries and the strike-slip Tan-Lu fault, as well as the onset of Paleo-Pacific plate subduction.

  15. Hf isotopes of the 3.8 Ga zircons in eastern Hebei Province, China: Implications for early crustal evolution of the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fuyuan; YANG Jinhui; LIU Xiaoming; LI Tiesheng; XIE Liewen; YANG Yueheng

    2005-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the fuchsite quartzite in eastern Hebei Province was derived from weathering and erosion of the 3.6-3.8 Ga granitic rocks. In-situ zircon Hf analyses show that the Lu-Hf isotopic system remained closed during later thermal disturbances. Zircons with concordant ages have Hf isotopic model ages of about 3.8 Ga, suggesting a recycling of this ancient crust. The ~3.8 Ga zircons have similar Hf isotopic compositions to those of chondrite, indicating that their source rocks (granitic rocks) were derived from partial melting of the juvenile crust which originated from a mantle without significant crust-mantle differentiation. Therefore, it is proposed that there was no large-scale crustal growth before ~3.8 Ga in eastern Hebei Province. Considering zircon Hf isotopic data from other areas, it is concluded that the most ancient crust in the North China Craton probably formed at about 4.0 Ga, and the possibility to find crust older than 4.0 Ga is very limited.

  16. Did the Paleo-Asian Ocean between North China Block and Mongolia Block exist during the late Paleozoic? First paleomagnetic evidence from central-eastern Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Guanzhong; Choulet, Flavien

    2013-05-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the North China Block (NCB) and the Mongolia Block (MOB) is a contentious issue, and geodynamic models remain speculative. In an effort to puzzle out this controversy, a paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Silurian to Permian formations in central-eastern Inner Mongolia (China). More than 680 sedimentary and volcanic samples were collected from 86 sites. We have established titanium-poor magnetite and hematite as the principal magnetic carriers. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility measurements demonstrate negligible deformation of the majority of study rocks with sedimentary fabrics. From primary magnetizations, a Late Devonian and a Permian pole are calculated for Inner Mongolia Block (IMB) at λ = 46.8°N, φ = 349.1°E, dp = 14.6°, dm = 27.3° with N = 3 and λ = 48.7°N, φ = 3.7°E, dp = 5.2°, dm = 9.1° with N = 6, respectively. Two stages of secondary magnetization are also identified probably due to Early Permian and Early Cretaceous magmatic events. As preliminary results, the comparison of our new paleomagnetic poles with available data from NCB, MOB, and Siberia indicates that (1) the paleolatitudes of IMB, NCB, and MOB are consistent between Late Devonian and Permian, suggesting pre-Late Devonian closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and further evaluation of these three blocks as a single entity and (2) post-Permian intracontinental deformation was significant and characterized by block rotations, which are due to strike-slip faulting within the welded NCB-IMB-MOB block.

  17. Petrogenesis of the middle Jurassic appinite and coeval granitoids in the Eastern Hebei area of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenbo; Jiang, Neng; Xu, Xiyang; Hu, Jun; Zong, Keqing

    2017-05-01

    An integrated study of zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopic compositions, whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry was conducted on three lithologically diverse middle Jurassic plutons from the Eastern Hebei area of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to reveal both their petrogenesis and possible tectonic affinity. The three plutons have consistent magmatic zircon U-Pb ages from 167 ± 1 Ma to 173 ± 1 Ma. The Nianziyu pluton has typical characteristics of appinite with low SiO2 (43.7-52.6%), high Ca, Mg, Fe and H2O contents. It possesses subduction-related trace element patterns, enriched Nd-Hf isotopic signatures as well as elevated zircon δ18O values (6.2-7.2‰), arguing for an enriched mantle source metasomatized by fluids related to subduction. The Shuihutong monzogranites have high silica (SiO2 = 75.4-75.9%) and alkali contents, low Ca contents and striking negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies. Samples from the pluton have more evolved Nd-Hf isotopic values and are considered to be most likely derived from anatexis of ancient lower continental crust. Hybridization between mantle- and ancient lower crust-derived magmas is proposed for the mafic microgranular enclave-bearing Baijiadian granitoids, which are characterized by variable εNd (t) and εHf(t) values. Integrated with the regional geologic history, we suggest that the formation of the three middle Jurassic plutons were related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate beneath the NCC. Their petrogenetic differences reflect complex magmatic processes in subduction settings involving melting of multiple sources, possible partly facilitated by fluid metasomatism and water-rich magma injection, accompanied with various degrees of magma mixing. The appearance of middle Jurassic appinitic rocks leads us to propose that the NCC destruction and lithosphere thinning were facilitated and controlled by the weakening of the lithospheric mantle after hydration because of the subduction of the

  18. Interdecadal component variation characteristics in heavy winter snow intensity in North-Eastern China and its response to sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Yu; Fang, Yi-He; Luo, Yong; Wang, Ji

    2016-11-01

    Based on daily precipitation data from 208 weather stations, monthly NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, and sea surface temperature data reconstructed by NOAA between 1961 and 2012, the heavy winter snow intensity in North-Eastern China was defined; its spatiotemporal variation characteristics were analyzed; the physical mechanisms of the relations between key sea surface temperature (SST) regions and heavy winter snow intensity were studied. Results showed that, in terms of temporal variation characteristics: heavy winter snow intensity in North-Eastern China has been rising, with obvious interdecadal variations during the study interval. In terms of spatial variation characteristics: the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of the interdecadal component in heavy winter snow intensity showed consistent anomaly characteristics throughout the region; the second mode exhibited opposite variation characteristics between the south and north; and the third mode exhibited opposite variation characteristics between the northwest and southeast. In terms of physical mechanisms underlying the effects of SST on heavy winter snow intensity, the key SST region of the first EOF mode was the Oyashio, the interdecadal component of the autumn Oyashio SST was abnormally high, which corresponded to a higher winter 500 hPa height field in the northern section of the North Pacific. This condition led to a blocking situation and was associated with a weaker East Asian winter monsoon (EAMW), which resulted in a stronger interdecadal component of heavy winter snow intensity and vice versa. The second mode was closely related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO): the interdecadal component of the autumn PDO was abnormal, which induced the teleconnection pattern of the winter Pacific-North America (PNA) pattern. The PNA pattern may have been related to the second EOF mode through its association with the Mongolian high.

  19. Tectonic setting of the Helong Block: Implications for the northern boundary of the eastern North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanbin; WU Fuyuan; ZHAI Mingguo; LU Xiaoping

    2005-01-01

    LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Bailiping granitic pluton was emplaced during Late Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous (285―116 Ma) by four distinct magmatic episodes, arguing against the previous thought that the Bailiping granites were emplaced during Archean, Proterozoic or Early Paleozoic. It is suggested that the so-called Archean Jinchengdong granite-greenstone belt, mainly composed of Bailiping granites, should be broken down. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the Bailiping granites are similar to those of the Phanerozoic granites in the Xing'an-Mongolian orogenic belt, suggesting that their parental magmas were mainly derived from a juvenile crust with some contamination of ancient crustal materials during magma rising and/or emplacement. Therefore, the basement of the Helong Block is similar to that in the northern Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt, but different from that of the North China Craton. It is proposed that the Archean Jinchengdong complex in this area is probably an exotic slice from the North China Craton, which indicates that the Fu'erhe-Gudonghe Fault, located in northern part of the Helong area, is not the boundary between the North China Craton and the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt. The possible boundary should be located further southward more than 50 km and near the Baitoushan volcano.

  20. Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with two amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin protein, detected from vaccinated carnivores in North-Eastern China in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Hailing; Bai, Xue; Martella, Vito; Hu, Bo; Sun, Yangang; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hao; Xu, Shujuan; Shao, Xiqun; Wu, Wei; Yan, Xijun

    2014-04-01

    A total of 16 strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected from vaccinated minks, foxes, and raccoon dogs in four provinces in North-Eastern China between the end of 2011 and 2013. Upon sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene and comparison with wild-type CDV from different species in the same geographical areas, two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 10 CDV strains, which led to amino acid changes at positions 542 (isoleucine to asparagine) and 549 (tyrosine to histidine) of the haemagglutinin protein coding sequence. The change at residue 542 generated a potentially novel N-glycosylation site. Masking of antigenic epitopes by sugar moieties might represent a mechanism for evasion of virus neutralising antibodies and reduced protection by vaccination.

  1. [The variability of vegetation beginning date of greenness period in spring in the north-south transect of eastern China based on NOAA NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Liu, Shi-rong; Sun, Peng-sen; Guo, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Lian-di

    2010-10-01

    NDVI based on NOAA/AVHRR from 1982 to 2003 are used to monitor variable rules for the growing season in spring of vegetation in the north-south transect of eastern China (NSTEC). The following, mainly, are included: (1) The changing speed of greenness period in spring of most regions in NSTEC is slow and correlation with the year is not distinct; (2) The regions in which greenness period in spring distinctly change mainly presented an advance; (3) The regions in which inter-annual fluctuation of greenness period in spring is over 10 days were found in 3 kinds of areas: the area covered with agricultural vegetation types; the areas covered with evergreen vegetation types; the areas covered with steppe vegetation types; (4) changes of vegetation greenness period in spring have spatio-temporal patterns.

  2. Metamorphism of the northern Liaoning Complex: Implications for the tectonic evolution of Neoarchean basement of the Eastern Block, North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Kuen Wu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the areas where typical late Archean crust is exposed in the Eastern Block of the North China Craton, the northern Laioning Complex consists principally of tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG gneisses, massive granitoids and supracrustal rocks. The supracrustal rocks, named the Qingyuan Group, consist of interbedded amphibolite, hornblende granulite, biotite granulite and BIF. Petrological evidence indicates that the amphibolites experienced the early prograde (M1, peak (M2 and post-peak (M3 metamorphism. The early prograde assemblage (M1 is preserved as mineral inclusions, represented by actinotite + hornblende + plagioclase + epidote + quartz + sphene, within garnet porphyroblasts. The peak assemblage (M2 is indicated by garnet + clinopyroxene + hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite, which occur as major mineral phases in the rock. The post-peak assemblage (M3 is characterized by the garnet + quartz symplectite. The P–T pseudosections in the NCFMASHTO system constructed by using THERMOCALC define the P–T conditions of M1, M2 and M3 at 490–550 °C/<4.5 kbar, 780–810 °C/7.65–8.40 kbar and 630–670 °C/8.15–9.40 kbar, respectively. As a result, an anticlockwise P–T path involving isobaric cooling is inferred for the metamorphic evolution of the amphibolites. Such a P–T path suggests that the late Archean metamorphism of the northern Liaoning Complex was related to the intrusion and underplating of mantle-derived magmas. The underplating of voluminous mantle-derived magmas leading to metamorphism with an anticlockwise P–T path involving isobaric cooling may have occurred in continental magmatic arc regions, above hot spots driven by mantle plumes, or in continental rift environments. A mantle plume model is favored because this model can reasonably interpret many other geological features of late Archean basement rocks from the northern Liaoning Complex in the Eastern Block of

  3. Risk factors associated with slide positivity among febrile patients in a conflict zone of north-eastern Myanmar along the China-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nana; Parker, Daniel M; Yang, Zhaoqing; Fan, Qi; Zhou, Guofa; Ai, Guoping; Duan, Jianhua; Lee, Ming-chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Matthews, Stephen A; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Ying

    2013-10-10

    Malaria within the Greater Mekong sub-region is extremely heterogeneous. While China and Thailand have been relatively successful in controlling malaria, Myanmar continues to see high prevalence. Coupled with the recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border, this makes Myanmar an important focus of malaria within the overall region. However, accurate epidemiological data from Myanmar have been lacking, in part because of ongoing and emerging conflicts between the government and various ethnic groups. Here the results are reported from a risk analysis of malaria slide positivity in a conflict zone along the China-Myanmar border. Surveys were conducted in 13 clinics and hospitals around Laiza City, Myanmar between April 2011 and October 2012. Demographic, occupational and educational information, as well as malaria infection history, were collected. Logistic models were used to assess risk factors for slide positivity. Age patterns in Plasmodium vivax infections were younger than those with Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, males were more likely than females to have falciparum infections. Patients who reported having been infected with malaria during the previous year were much more likely to have a current vivax infection. During the second year of the study, falciparum infections among soldiers increased signficiantly. These results fill some knowledge gaps with regard to risk factors associated with malaria slide positivity in this conflict region of north-eastern Myanmar. Since epidemiological studies in this region have been rare or non-existent, studies such as the current are crucial for understanding the dynamic nature of malaria in this extremely heterogeneous epidemiological landscape.

  4. Patterns and driving factors of WUE and NUE in natural forest ecosystems along the North-South Transect of Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Wenping; REN Shujie; YU Guirui; FANG Huajun; JIANG Chunming; ZHANG Mi

    2011-01-01

    From July 2008 to August 2008,72 leaf samples from 22 species and 81 soil samples in the nine natural forest ecosystems were collected,from north to south along the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC).Based on these samples,we studied the geographical distribution patterns of vegetable water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE),and analyzed their relationship with environmental factors.The vegetable WUE and NUE were calculated through the measurement of foliar δ 13C and C/N of predominant species,respectively.The results showed:(1) vegetable WUE,ranging from 2.13 to 28.67 mg C g-1 H2O,increased linearly from south to north in the representative forest ecosystems along the NSTEC,while vegetable NUE showed an opposite trend,increasing from north to south,ranging from 12.92 to 29.60 g C g-1 N.(2) Vegetable WUE and NUE were dominantly driven by climate and significantly affected by soil nutrient factors.Based on multiple stepwise regression analysis,mean annual temperature,soil phosphorus concentration,and soil nitrogen concentration were responding for 75.5% of the variations of WUE (p<0.001).While,mean annual precipitation and soil phosphorus concentration could explain 65.7% of the change in vegetable NUE (p<0.001).Moreover,vegetable WUE and NUE would also be seriously inf1uenced by atmospheric nitrogen deposition in nitrogen saturated ecosystems.(3)There was a significant trade-off relationship between vegetable WUE and NUE in the typical forest ecosystems along the NSTEC (p<0.001),indicating a balanced strategy for vegetation in resource utilization in natural forest ecosystems along the NSTEC.This study suggests that global change would impact the resource use efficiency of forest ecosystems.However,vegetation could adapt to those changes by increasing the use efficiency of shortage resource while decreasing the relatively ample one.But extreme impacts,such as heavy nitrogen deposition,would break this trade-off mechanism and

  5. Major tectonic units of the North China Craton and their Paleoproterozoic assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The basement of the North China Craton can be divided into the Eastern and Western Blocks and the Central Zone (Trans-North China Orogen). The West Block formed by the amalgamation of the Ordos Block in the south and the Yinshan Block in the north 1.9-2.0 Ga ago. In 1.8-1.9 Ga, the Eastern and Western Blocks were amalgamated along the Central Zone to form the North China Craton.

  6. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  7. A Neoarchean subduction recorded by the Eastern Hebei Precambrian basement, North China Craton: Geochemical fingerprints from metavolcanic rocks of the Saheqiao-Shangying-Qinglong supracrustal belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongrong; Liu, Shuwen; Bai, Xiang; Wang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The Saheqiao-Shangying-Qinglong supracrustal belt (SSQB) in the northern Eastern Hebei Precambrian basement (EHPB) is located in the northern margin of the Eastern Block (EB) of the North China Craton (NCC). The Shangying terrane constitutes the middle segment of the SSQB and contains primarily metamorphic volcanics and plutonic tonalitic gneisses. The metamorphic volcanics mainly consist of pyroxene plagioclase amphibolites, garnet plagioclase amphibolites, biotite plagioclase amphibole gneisses, and amphibole plagioclase gneisses. Zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic analyses reveal that the metavolcanic rocks from the Shangying terrane crystallized at ∼2506-2613 Ma with TDM (Hf) values of ∼2541-2944 Ma. These metamorphic volcanic rocks are subdivided into four groups based on their lithological and chemical features. Group I consists chiefly of tholeiites that are characterized by slightly light rare earth element (LREE) depleted patterns and flat multi-element spider diagrams, which are similar to back-arc basin basalt (BABB)-like rocks and were derived from the partial melting of the depleted mantle. The tholeiites in Group II have slightly fractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns without Nb anomalies, exhibit an affinity to Nb-enriched basalt (NEB)-like rocks, and were produced by the partial melting of HFSE-enriched mantle peridotites. Group III is composed of slightly LREE-enriched tholeiites with negative Nb-Ta anomalies that resemble island arc tholeiites. Group IV comprises calc-alkaline basalts and andesites with highly enriched LREEs and evident Nb, Ta and Ti depletions that are geochemically similar to the products of island arcs. The island arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline basalt-andesites originated from the partial melting of sub-arc mantle peridotites that were previously metasomatized by slab-derived fluids/melts with the fractional crystallization of ferromagnesian minerals. Collectively, the BABB-like rocks, the NEBs, arc tholeiites and calc

  8. Summer extreme precipitation in eastern China: mechanisms and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Yongjie; Singh, Vijay P.; Luo, Ming; Xie, Zhenghui

    2017-04-01

    changes and the related mechanisms are of great significance for regional management of water resources and agricultural irrigation. In this study, the impacts of western north Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) on precipitation changes in eastern China and the underling processes are investigated. The results indicate that the strength and location of WNPSH are in close relations with the changes of summer precipitation in eastern China, and their influences vary across both space and time. In particular, WNPSH exerts remarkable impacts on precipitation in June and July in Jiang-Huai region and precipitation in June in South China such as the Pearl River basin. The inter-annual variations of WNPSH exhibits significant correlations with water vapor flux in East Asia and, and the variations of the location and direction of west flank of WNPSH is well corroborated that influences of East Asia summer monsoon on precipitation in eastern China. The westward extension of WNPSH tends to move the East Asian summer monsoon west and thus increasing water vapor flux in East Asia, which greatly benefits the occurrence of Meiyu regimes in Jiang-huai region. Besides, analysis results also show that the westward extension of WNPSH drives tropical cyclones sourthwards so as to increase the occurrence of extreme precipitation in South China. This study helps to bridge the knowledge gap in the relationship between WNPSH, tropical cyclones, summer precipitation events in eastern China.

  9. Seismic anisotropy of upper mantle in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the polarization analysis of teleseismic SKS waveform data recorded at 65 seismic stations which respectively involved in the permanent and temporary broadband seismograph networks deployed in eastern China, the SKS fast-wave direction and the delay time between the fast and slow shear waves at each station were determined by use of SC method and the stacking analysis method, and then the image of upper mantle anisotropy in eastern China was acquired. In the study region, from south to north, the fast-wave polarization directions are basically EW in South China, gradually clockwise rotate to NWW-SEE in North China, then to NW-SE in Northeast China. The delay time falls into the interval [0.41 s, 1.52 s]. Anisotropic characteristics in eastern China indicate that the upper mantle anisotropy is possibly caused by both the collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates and the subduction from the Pacific and Philippine Sea Plates to the Eurasian Plate. The collision between two plates made the crust of western China thickening and uplifting and the material eastwards extruding, and then caused the upper mantle flow eastwards and southeastwards. The subduction of Pacific Plate and Philippine Sea Plate has resulted in the lithosphere and the asthenosphere deformation in eastern China, and made the alignment of upper mantle peridotite lattice parallel to the deformation direction. The fast-wave polarization direction is consistent with the direction of lithosphere extension and the GPS velocity direction, implying that the crust-upper mantle deformation is possibly a vertically coherent deformation.

  10. Seismic anisotropy of upper mantle in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG LiJun; WANG ChunYong; Ding ZhiFeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the polarization analysis of teleseismic SKS waveform data recorded at 65 seismic stations which respectively involved in the permanent and temporary broadband seismograph networks de-ployed in eastern China,the SKS fast-wave direction and the delay time between the fast and slow shear waves at each station were determined by use of SC method and the stacking analysis method,and then the image of upper mantle anisotropy in eastern China was acquired.In the study region,from south to north,the fast-wave polarization directions are basically EW in South China,gradually clock-wise rotate to NWW-SEE in North China,then to NW-SE in Northeast China.The delay time falls into the Interval [0.41 s,1.52 s].Anisotropic characteristics in eastern China indicate that the upper mantle anisotropy is possibly caused by both the collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates and the subduction from the Pacific and Philippine Sea Plates to the Eurasian Plate.The collision between two plates made the crust of western China thickening and uplifting and the material eastwards extruding,and then caused the upper mantle flow eastwards and southeastwards.The subduction of Pacific Plate and Philippine Sea Plate has resulted in the lithosphere and the asthenosphere deformation in eastern China,and made the alignment of upper mantle peridotite lattice parallel to the deformation direction.The fast-wave polarization direction is consistent with the direction of lithosphere extension and the GPS velocity direction,implying that the crust-upper mantle deformation is possibly a vertically co-herent deformation.

  11. Problems and prospects in North Eastern Coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, A.K.; Jha, M.N.

    1989-02-01

    North eastern region, very well known as land of seven sisters, comprises of the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. Some of the minerals like oil and coal are concealed in this region in dense forests and difficult terrain. North Eastern Coalfields being directly administered by Coal India Ltd. is responsible for exploitation of coal in this region. At present all the working mines are situated in the State of Assam only. One Simsong UG project will be started this year in the State of Meghalaya and coal deposits of Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh are likely to be worked in Eighth Five Year Plan. In the remaining three States, i.e. Mizoram, Manipur and Tripura no occurrence of coal deposit has been found so far. 6 tabs.

  12. Addressing wind integration issues in north eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-27

    Wind energy has been growing rapidly in the north eastern region of North America in response to an increasing focus on security of supply issues and greater public concern over climate change. The purpose of this report was to address the issues associated with wind integration in the north east by evaluating issues that inhibit the transmission of wind; identifying actions that will improve the integration of wind; and profiling processes that could facilitate the uptake of wind. Specifically, the report sought to identify wind integration issues that may arise in the north east region in the next 5 to 10 year period. The report provided an overview of the north east and its wind resource, including an overview of the north east electricity market; wind energy overview; and intermittent wind farms. The global experience of wind integration to date was also presented. This included long-term wind vision; wind resource data set; multi-integration studies; upgrading and expanding transmissions systems; balancing area size; forecasting; geographical diversity; increasing system flexibility; and whole sale markets. A north east wind integration seminar was also highlighted. It was concluded that large scale wind could produce sufficient revenues to pay for the addition of substantial transmission with added benefits to the loads. 37 refs., 17 figs., 2 appendices.

  13. Decadal variability in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Rhein, Monika; Roessler, Achim; Denker, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the subpolar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the subtropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. We examine the decadal variability in the eastern North Atlantic based on Argo data from 2000-2015 and have constructed time series for four water masses (Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), Intermediate Water (IW), upper Labrador Sea Water (uLSW) and deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW)) at selected locations along the Northwest European shelf. Data from the Rockall Trough and the Iceland Basin are chosen to represent advective pathways in the subpolar gyre at two major branches of the North Atlantic Current towards the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. Temporal variability of subtropical waters transported northward along the eastern boundary is studied at Goban Spur around 48°N. The Argo data are extended in time with long-term hydrographic observations such as the Extended Ellet Line data and other climatological sources in the region. For the study of transport fluctuations time series from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) program (2012-2015) and predecessor programs have been used. These programs have monitored the subpolar gyre in the western basin and provide time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). First results show that the temperatures and salinities remained at high levels for the upper waters (SPMW and IW) until 2010 and have been decreasing since

  14. Parabolic dunes in north-eastern Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, O; Bezerra, L J C; Herrmann, H J; Maia, L P

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present measurements of vegetation cover over parabolic dunes with different degree of activation along the north-eastern Brazilian coast. We are able to extend the local values of the vegetation cover density to the whole dune by correlating measurements with the gray-scale levels of a high resolution satellite image of the dune field. The empirical vegetation distribution is finally used to validate the results of a recent continuous model of dune motion coupling sand erosion and vegetation growth.

  15. Contrasting geochemistry of the Cretaceous volcanic suites in Shandong province and its implications for the Mesozoic lower crust delamination in the eastern North China craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wen-Li; Duan, Rui-Chun; Xie, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Qing; Zhang, Jun-Bo; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Hong-Mei

    2009-12-01

    The Qingshan volcanic sequences occur in the Mengyin and Jiaozhou basins, west and east of the Tan-Lu fault zone, respectively, were formed at 128 ± 2 and 106 - 98 Ma. Lithologically the Mengyin succession comprises unimodal andesite (53 - 65 wt.% SiO 2), whereas the Jiaozhou succession consists of bimodal andesite (56-59 wt.% SiO 2) and rhyolite (69-77 wt.% SiO 2). High-Mg (Mg# >60) and low-Mg (Mg# andesitic suites are recognized in the Mengyin volcanic rocks. They show tholeiitic and calc-alkaline trends, respectively. Though the two suites share common trace element features of LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, higher incompatible element contents in the high-Mg andesite relative to the low-Mg andesite rule out their genetic connection by magmatic differentiation. Similarly, the Jiaozhou andesites also possess higher incompatible element contents compared to their interbedded rhyolites, suggesting their distinct source rocks. The Qingshan mafic volcanic suites are characterized by radiogenic Sr and unradiogenic Nd isotopic compositions, of which the Mengyin high-Mg andesitic rocks display the lowest ɛ Nd(t) and highest initial Sr ratio. By contrast, the Jiaozhou rhyolites possess a positive correlation between Sr-Nd isotopes and relatively unradiogenic Sr isotopic ratios. The Qingshan mafic rocks exhibit geochemical characteristics distinct from those of mantle peridotite- or pyroxenite-derived melt as well as from Fangcheng basalts, the only basalts documented in the Cretaceous volcanic suites in Shandong province. They are inferred to be crust-derived melts. However, a clear decreasing trend in ACNK with Mg# increasing and the elevated MgO, Cr and Ni contents relative to basalt-derived melts indicate assimilation with mantle peridotite during their pristine magmatic evolution. Such a two-step process can be best explained by the Archean lower crust delamination of the North China craton with a ~35% partial melting followed by a variable extent of

  16. New interpretation of the deep mantle structure beneath eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengfei; Liu, Shaofeng; Lin, Chengfa; Yao, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Recent study of high resolution seismic tomography presents a large mass of high velocity abnormality beneath eastern China near the phase change depth, expanding more than 1600km-wide in East-west cross-section across the North China plate. This structure high is generally believed to be the subducted slab of Pacific plate beneath the Eurasia continent, while its origin and dynamic effect on the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of eastern China remain to be controversial. We developed a subduction-driven geodynamic mantle convection model that honors a set of global plate reconstruction data since 230Ma to help understand the formation and evolution of mantle structure beneath eastern China. The assimilation of plate kinematics, continuous evolving plate margin, asymmetric subduction zone, and paleo seafloor age data enables the spatial and temporal consistency between the geologic data and the mantle convection model, and guarantees the conservation of the buoyancy flux across the lithosphere and subducted slabs. Our model achieved a first order approximation between predictions and the observed data. Interestingly, the model suggests that the slab material stagnated above discontinuity didn't form until 15Ma, much later than previous expected, and the fast abnormality in the mid-mantle further west in the tomographic image is interpreted to be the remnants of the Mesozoic Izanagi subduction. Moreover, detailed analysis suggests that the accelerated subduction of Philippine Sea plate beneath Eurasia plate along the Ryukyu Trench and Nankai Trough since 15Ma may largely contribute to extending feature above 670km discontinuity. The long distance expansion of the slab material in the East-west direction may be an illusion caused by the approximate spatial perpendicularity between the cross-section and the subduction direction of the Philippine Sea plate. Our model emphasizes the necessity of the re-examination on the geophysical observation and its tectonic and

  17. Quantifying the Anthropogenic Footprint in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunlei; Dou, Youjun

    2016-04-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one of the most focuses in urban climate study. The parameterization of the anthropogenic heat (AH) is crucial important in UHI study, but universal method to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH is lacking now. This paper uses the NOAA DMSP/OLS nighttime light data to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH. Two experiments were designed and performed to quantify the influences of the AH to land surface temperature (LST) in eastern China and 24 big cities. The annual mean heating caused by AH is up to 1 K in eastern China. This paper uses the relative LST differences rather than the absolute LST differences between the control run and contrast run of common land model (CoLM) to find the drivers. The heating effect of the anthropogenic footprint has less influence on relatively warm and wet cities.

  18. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qing Liu; Hong-Wei Kuang; Nan Peng; Huan Xu; Peng Zhang; Neng-Sheng Wang; Wei An

    2015-01-01

    In North China, the Mesozoic terrestrial basins, sedimentary palaeogeography and tectonic settings involved ifve evolutionary stages:(1) the Early-Middle Triassic, (2) the Late Triassic to Early-Middle Jurassic, (3) the Late Jurassic to early Early Cretaceous, (4) the middle-late Early Cretaceous and (5) the Late Cretaceous. The regional punctuated tectonic events occurred during these evolutionary stages. During the Early-Middle Triassic (stage 1), the Xingmeng Orogenic Belt (XMOB, i.e., east-ern part of Central Asia Orogenic Belt, CAOB) of the northern North China was settled in the transition of tectonic environment from syn-orogenic compression to post-orogenic extension with intensive uplifting. It is a main provenance in the uniifed Ordos-North China Basin.The united continental plate of China and the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu Orogenic Belt formed due to convergence and collision between the North China Plate and the Yangtze Plate along two suture zones of the Mianlue and the Shangdan in the terminal Middle Triassic. During the Late Triassic to the Early-Middle Jurassic (stage 2), the Late Triassic maifc or alkaline rocks and intrusions occurred on the northern and southern margins of North China Craton (NCC) and XMOB, implying that intensiifed extension happened all over the North China (early phase of stage 2). Additionally, in the late phase of stage 2, the basic volcanic-iflling faulted basins were widely distributed in the northeastern North China during the Early-Middle Jurassic, including a series of small-to medium-sized basins with coal-bearing strata and some volcanic rocks in other areas of North China, which was the result of subduction of the Palaeo-Paciifc Plate during the Early-Middle Jurassic. An active continental margin with accretionary complex developed in the eastern Heilongjiang of China, Japan and the Far East of Russia at that time. However, in the end of the Early-Middle Jurassic, because of the Yan-shanian orogeny characterized by

  19. Protolith ages and timing of peak and retrograde metamorphism of the high-pressure granulites in the Shandong Peninsula, eastern North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghua Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure (HP granulites widely occur as enclaves within tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG gneisses of the Early Precambrian metamorphic basement in the Shandong Peninsula, southeast part of the North China Craton (NCC. Based on cathodoluminescence (CL, laser Raman spectroscopy and in-situ U-Pb dating, we characterize the zircons from the HP granulites and group them into three main types: inherited (magmatic zircon, HP metamorphic zircon and retrograde zircon. The inherited zircons with clear or weakly defined magmatic zoning contain inclusions of apatites, and 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2915–2890 Ma and 2763–2510 Ma, correlating with two magmatic events in the Archaean basement. The homogeneous HP metamorphic zircons contain index minerals of high-pressure metamorphism including garnet, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, rutile and apatite, and yield 207Pb/206Pb ages between 1900 and 1850 Ma, marking the timing of peak HP granulite facies metamorphism. The retrograde zircons contain inclusions of orthopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, apatite and amphibole, and yield the youngest 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1840–1820 Ma among the three groups, which we correlate to the medium to low-pressure granulite facies retrograde metamorphism. The data presented in this study suggest subduction of Meso- and Neoarchean magmatic protoliths to lower crust depths where they were subjected to HP granulite facies metamorphism during Palaeoproterozoic (1900–1850 Ma. Subsequently, the HP granulites were exhumated to upper crust levels, and were overprinted by medium to low-pressure granulite and amphibolite facies retrograde event at ca. 1840–820 Ma.

  20. Early Devonian back-arc extension in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from a bimodal volcanic sequence from Xilinhot, central Inner Mongolia (North China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen; Xu, Bei; Wang, Yanyang; Zhao, Pan; Li, Qunsheng

    2017-08-01

    The Early Devonian bimodal volcanic sequence is firstly recognized in the Xilinhot area, central Inner Mongolia (North China). Zircon U-Pb dating of rhyolitic sample gives crystallization age of 407 ± 2 Ma, which is interpreted as the extrusive age of this bimodal volcanic sequence. Basaltic samples belong to tholeiite series whereas rhyolitic samples are peraluminous. Basaltic rocks show typical N-MORB-like REE and trace elemental patterns, with depletion of LREEs and negligible anomalies of Eu (δEu = 0.83-1.00). They have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7077 to 0.7086, and positive εNd(t) values from +7.5to +9.0. By contrast, rhyolitic rocks show enrichment in LREEs and LILEs but depletion in HFSEs, with negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.58-0.68). They have negative εNd(t) values from -6.7 to -7.7 and TDM2 (Nd) values from 1695 to 1771 Ma. These elemental and isotopic data indicate that basaltic rocks were derived from a depleted mantle source with input of slab-derived fluids, whereas rhyolitic rocks might have been derived from remelting of Paleoproterozoic crustal materials. From our data and previous geological studies in this region, a back-arc setting was proposed for the Early Devonian bimodal volcanic rocks in the Xilinhot region. Subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic lithosphere caused opening of this back-arc basin and upwelling of mantle caused the formation of basalts and provided heat for remelting of crustal materials and formation of rhyolite.the

  1. Predictability of summer extreme precipitation days over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Bin

    2017-08-01

    Extreme precipitation events have severe impacts on human activity and natural environment, but prediction of extreme precipitation events remains a considerable challenge. The present study aims to explore the sources of predictability and to estimate the predictability of the summer extreme precipitation days (EPDs) over eastern China. Based on the region- and season-dependent variability of EPDs, all stations over eastern China are divided into two domains: South China (SC) and northern China (NC). Two domain-averaged EPDs indices during their local high EPDs seasons (May-June for SC and July-August for NC) are therefore defined. The simultaneous lower boundary anomalies associated with each EPDs index are examined, and we find: (a) the increased EPDs over SC are related to a rapid decaying El Nino and controlled by Philippine Sea anticyclone anomalies in May-June; (b) the increased EPDs over NC are accompanied by a developing La Nina and anomalous zonal sea level pressure contrast between the western North Pacific subtropical high and East Asian low in July-August. Tracking back the origins of these boundary anomalies, one or two physically meaningful predictors are detected for each regional EPDs index. The causative relationships between the predictors and the corresponding EPDs over each region are discussed using lead-lag correlation analyses. Using these selected predictors, a set of Physics-based Empirical models is derived. The 13-year (2001-2013) independent forecast shows significant temporal correlation skills of 0.60 and 0.74 for the EPDs index of SC and NC, respectively, providing an estimation of the predictability for summer EPDs over eastern China.

  2. Concentration in the North Eastern Nigeria's Yam Market: A Gini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration in the North Eastern Nigeria's Yam Market: A Gini Coefficient Analysis. ... yam differentiation were yam varieties and size or length and market information were ... Key word: Lorenz Curve, Gini Coefficient Analysis, Yam, Nigeria.

  3. Status of marine mammals in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the status or marine mammals in the eastern north Pacific Ocean. Species covered are: sea otter, northern, Guadalupe fur seals, stellar,...

  4. Mithun : The pride animal of north-eastern hilly region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Shisode

    Full Text Available Mithun, the pride animal called as ‘Cattle of Hilly Region’ of north-eastern hilly region of India and tropical rain forest of China. The animal plays an important role in the day to day socio-economic life of the local tribal population. Mithun (Bos frontalis is a rear species of livestock and is found in the north-eastern region of our country like Arunachal Pradesh (75 per cent of the total population, Nagaland (60 per cent, Manipur (0.8 per cent andMizoram (0.1 per cent having total population 0.25 million according to census 2003 and also very meager in Myanmar, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. The animal has got good potential for production of quality meat, milk and leather. Mithun is the ‘Cattle of Hilly Region’ and is one of the domesticated animals from the North-eastern hilly region and mainly found in tropical rain forest of North-eastern hilly region. Very meager population is found inMyanmar, Bhutan and China. There are four defined mithun strains depending up on the geographical areas namely Arunachal, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram strains, respectively. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 480-481

  5. Lithosphere types in North China: Evidence from geology and geophysics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU; Ruizhao; DENG; Jinfu; ZHOU; Su; LI; Jinfa; XIAO; Qingh

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the characteristics of geology and geophysics in North China, three types of lithosphere, namely, the cratonic, the orogenic and the rift lithospheres can be classified. In terms of petrological method (based on the information from Precambrian rock assemblages, igneous activities, deep-seated enclaves, etc.) and the relationship between seismic velocity and rock compositions, the crust-mantle petrological and chemical structure models can be set up. Researching results indicate that the geology and geophysics of North China platform bears the similar characteristics in comparison with those of the global typical cratons. The Eerduosi(Ordos) block located in the west of the North China Platform is a remnant of cratonic lithosphere after the North China platform had undergone "activation" in Mesozoic and "reconstruction" in Cenozoic times. The continental crust consists mainly of TTG rock assemblage while the subcontinental lithosphere mantle mainly consists of strongly depleted harzburgite. The craton was finally formed in late Archaean and early Proterozoic, and has been kept in stability up to present; its crustal-mantle petrological structures of lithosphere can be set up as a reference for the study of North China craton and even Sino-Korean craton. In the Mesozoic period, the middle and east areas of North China platform were activated in the Yanshanian orogenic process, the continental crust was reformed by material and heat-transfer of convective mantle and the original crustal TTG component was reconstructed to be granitic crust, and the subcontinental lithosphere mantle was replaced by the Yanshanian harzburgite-lherzolite. The Yanshan-Taihang Mountains were the remnants of orogenic lithosphere after the rifting in eastern North China in Cenozoic. The present thickness of continental crust and lithosphere in the Yanshan-Taihang Mountains is not equal to their thickness during the Yanshanian orogenic movement because they had undergone the

  6. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D

    2006-08-15

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North America and Mexico regarding the spatial and temporal context of initial domestication of the four plant species identified as potential eastern North American domesticates: marshelder (Iva annua), chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Genetic and archaeological evidence provides strong support for the independent domestication of all four of these plant species in the eastern United States and reconfirms the region as one of the world's independent centers of domestication.

  7. 北苏鲁超高压变质带前寒武纪基底研究新进展%Main Progresses in the Study of Precambrian Basement of the North Sulu Ultra-high Pressure Metamorphic Belt, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐扬; 杨坤光; 李日辉; 侯方辉; 秦亚超

    2013-01-01

    The north Sulu ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt which is located at the eastern Muping-Jimo fault in eastern Shandong Peninsula is mainly characterized by Neoproterozoic bimodal igneous rocks. And its assemblages include a large number of granitic gneiss and a small amount of ultra basic/basic metamorphic rocks and metasedimentary rocks. The previous research of geochemical, zircon U-Pb, Lu-Hf isotope data revealed the geologic succession of the north Sulu UHP terrane. The Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic ancient crust was remained and its initial crust evolution might start from Neoarchean or even earlier, then it undergone a series of magma-volcano-metamorphic events during 1.8-2.2 Ga. The bimodal magmatism, which caused by the rifting of the Rodinia Supercontinent at mid-Neoproterozoic (0. 7 -0. 8 Ga) reworked the ancient and juvenile crust. As the same to the Sulu-Dabie orogen terrane, some characteristics of the Precambrian basement of the north Sulu UHP terrane are corresponding to Yangtze Block, and its northwestern boundary to the North China Block may be located along the Wulian-Yantai fault.%北苏鲁超高压变质带位于胶东牟平—即墨断裂以东的地区,其前寒武纪基底以出露新元古代的双峰式火成岩为主要特征,其主要岩石组合包括大量花岗片麻岩以及少量变(超)基性岩(榴辉岩)、变沉积岩.对花岗片麻岩、变质(超)基性岩的岩石组合、地球化学、锆石U-Pb和Lu-Hf同位素的研究表明,北苏鲁存在新太古代—古元古代的残留地壳,经历了1.8~2.2 Ga期间的岩浆-火山-变质事件;新元古代中期(0.72 ~0.80 Ga)与Rodinia超大陆的裂解相关的岩浆活动促使地壳的生长和再造,形成了北苏鲁的前寒武纪基底的主体;北苏鲁和苏鲁—大别造山带一样,其前寒武纪基底是扬子板块北缘的一部分,苏鲁造山带的西北边界是五莲—烟台断裂带.

  8. Fluorescence characteristics of water soluble organic carbon in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence excitation and average molecular weight of 46 water soluble organic matter (WSOC) samples extracted from 20 soil types in eastern China were determined. It was found all samples shared similar spectroscopy. A good linear relationship existed between total organic carbon and excitation in the range of 350 to 450 nm though the content of organic carbon and pH of the samples vary in a wide range. No significant correlation between relative excitation intensity and average molecular weight of WSOC and FA was found, but the partial correlation became significant with pH as the controlling factor for WSOC samples. The relative excitation intensity showed a general trend of increasing from south to north in the study area. The pH value might play an important role in regulating the fluorescent spatial variation of WSOC.

  9. Speciation of Fe in the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuroczy, C-E; Gerringa, L. J. A.; Klunder, M. B.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Timmermans, K. R.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2010-01-01

    In the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean iron (Fe) speciation was investigated in three size fractions the dissolvable from unfiltered samples the dissolved fraction (0 2 mu m) fraction were unsaturated with Fe with respect to the dissolved fraction thus these waters had a scavenging potential Crown

  10. Chemical composition of upper crust in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢明才; 迟清华; 顾铁新; 王春书

    1997-01-01

    In an area of 3. 3 ×106 km" within eastern China, 28 253 rock samples were collected systematically and combined into 2 718 composite samples which were analyzed by 15 reliable methods using national preliminary certified reference materials (CRMs) for data quality monitoring. The average chemical compositions of the exposed crust, the sedimentary cover and the exposed basement as well as the upper crust for 76 chemical elements in eastern China are given.

  11. Seasonal Variations in Dustfall and Its Iron Content over North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinchang; DONG Zhibao; WANG Xunming; QIAN Guangqiang; LUO Wanyin

    2008-01-01

    Extensive dustfall collections were carried out from April 2001 to May 2002 in North China. The highest level of dustfall occurred in the Gobi deserts and at the margins of sandy deserts in the region. The iron content in dustfall in North China varied from 0.6% to 6.0% and there was significant seasonal variation, which indicates the dust sources differed during the year. Although the iron content in dustfall in North China is higher in the Loess Plateau and arable lands and lower in the Gobi.and sandy deserts, the total iron deposition was higher in the Gobi desert regions. If the fine particles (PMio) in dustfall in North China are the major contributors of dust transport to eastern China and western parts of the North Pacific, then the annual deposition rates of iron may have been underestimated in previous studies. Our analysis indicates that iron deposition may reach 1.38 × 103 to 2.43 × 103 kg km-2 and that most iron deposition occurs in spring and summer. If the more-coarse fractions (PM50) are considered, deposition rates may reach 2.75 × 103 and 6.80 × 103 kg km-2, which would represent a large source of iron deposition in eastern China and the western North Pacific.

  12. Petrogenetic significance of high Fe/Mn ratios of the Cenozoic basalts from Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Cenozoic basalts from eastern China show commonly high Fe/Mn ratios (average = 68.6 ± 11.5) coupled with OIB-type trace element signature. The Cenozoic basalts form the northern margin and the southern margin of the North China Craton are studied in detail. Model calculations point out that the coupling feature of high Fe/Mn ratio with OIB-type trace element signature of these basalts cannot be produced by neither pyroxene/olivine crystallization nor remelting of previously melted mantle, but require partial melting of a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source. Combining these features of the Cenozoic basalts with the Phanerozoic lithospheric evolution of the eastern China, we suggest that the Cenozoic basalts were derived from a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source associated with continental crust delamination or oceanic crust subduction.

  13. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of the youngest exposed pluton in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) shows that the Yongsheng pluton, located to the south of Huadian County, Jilin Province, in the North China Craton, has a zircon U-Pb isotopic emplacement age of (31.6±13) Ma. It is therefore the youngest exposed pluton so far recognized in eastern China. Although geochemical data indicate intensive crystal fractionation, the Sr-Nd isotopic features suggest that the magmatic source region of the lithospheric mantle was weakly depleted. This implies that the previous enriched lithospheric mantle had been replaced by juvenile asthenospheric mantle before or during the Palaeogene. This recognition has great significance for future work on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological evolution and deep geological processes in eastern China.

  14. Petrogenetic significance of high Fe/Mn ratios of the Cenozoic basalts from Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG BinHui; LIU YongSheng; GAO Shan

    2008-01-01

    The Cenozoic basalts from eastern China show commonly high Fe/Mn ratios (average = 68.6 卤 11.5) coupled with OIB-type trace element signature. The Cenozoic basalts form the northern margin and the southern margin of the North China Craton are studied in detail. Model calculations point out that the coupling feature of high Fe/Mn ratio with OIB-type trace element signature of these basalts cannot be produced by neither pyroxene/olivine crystallization nor remelting of previously melted mantle, but require partial melting of a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source. Combining these features of the Cenozoic basalts with the Phanerozoic lithospheric evolution of the eastern China, we suggest that the Cenozoic basalts were derived from a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source associated with continental crust delamination or oceanic crust subduction.

  15. Upper mantle geotherm for eastern China and its geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐义刚; 林传勇; 史兰斌; J-C.C.Mercier; J.V.Ross

    1995-01-01

    The equilibrium temperature and pressure of both spinel and garnet peridotite xenolithsfrom eastern China have been estimated by using different geothermobarometers that are currentlyconsidered to be reliable.Based on these data,the upper mantle geotherm for eastern China has beenconstructed.The obtained geotherm is higher than that for old craton regions,but is similar to that for southeasternAustralia.The most prominent feature of the geotherm is that there is a slight gradient at about 60 kmdepth,and the inflection of the geotherm just passes through the transition line between spinel and garnetfacies.It is likely that the inflection represents the botmdary between the lithosphere and asthenosphere.Thestructures of the upper mantle beneath eastern China have also been discussed by combining the results ofpetrologic,rheological and dynamical studies of the upper mantle.

  16. Hui Students’ Identity Construction in Eastern China: A Postcolonial Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explored Hui students’ lived experiences in school in eastern China and the impact of their experiences on their identity construction. We used postcolonial theory as a theoretical framework and narrative inquiry as a research methodology to guide questions that we asked, data collection, data analysis, and interpretation and discussion of the findings in the study. We found that schooling for the two Hui students in eastern China is a process of reproducing mainstream Han ideology; taking away their culture, beliefs, knowledge, and identity; and imposing the mainstream Han culture and knowledge on Hui students as truth. The participants, two Hui students in an elementary school in eastern China, accepted the identity constructed by mainstream Han teachers and were confused about their Hui identity.

  17. Trends in Temperature Extremes in Association with Weather-Intraseasonal Fluctuations in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Cheng; YAN Zhongwei; Zhaohua WU; FU Congbin; TU Kai

    2011-01-01

    Trends in the frequencies of four temperature extremes (the occurrence of warm days, cold days, warm nights and cold nights) with respect to a modulated annual cycle (MAC), and those associated exclusively with weather-intraseasonal fluctuations (WIF) in eastern China were investigated based on an updated homogenized daily maximum and minimum temperature dataset for 1960-2008. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method was used to isolate the WIF, MAC, and longer-term components from the temperature series. The annual, winter and summer occurrences of warm (cold) nights were found to have increased (decreased) significantly almost everywhere, while those of warm (cold) days have increased (decreased) in northern China (north of 40°N). However, the four temperature extremes associated exclusively with WIF for winter have decreased almost everywhere, while those for summer have decreased in the north but increased in the south. These characteristics agree with changes in the amplitude of WIF. In particular, winter WIF of maximum temperature tended to weaken almost everywhere, especially in eastern coastal areas (by 10%-20%); summer WIF tended to intensify in southern China by 10%-20%. It is notable that in northern China, the occurrence of warm days has increased, even where that associated with WIF has decreased significantly. This suggests that the recent increasing frequency of warm extremes is due to a considerable rise in the mean temperature level, which surpasses the effect of the weakening weather fluctuations in northern China.

  18. Two-types of Early Cretaceous adakitic porphyries from the Luxi terrane, eastern North China Block: Melting of subducted Paleo-Pacific slab and delaminated newly underplated lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Xu, Zhaowen; Lu, Xiancai; Fu, Bin; Lu, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaonan; Zhao, Zengxia

    2016-01-01

    The origin and tectonic setting of Early Cretaceous adakitic rocks from the Luxi terrane in the eastern North China Block (NCB) remain debated. To resolve this issue, we determined whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages, and in situ Hf-O isotopes of the Mengyin and Liujing adakitic porphyries from the Luxi terrane. Zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that both the Mengyin and Liujing plutons were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous, with weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 130 ± 1 Ma (2σ) and 131 ± 2 Ma (2σ), respectively. In addition, abundant Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic inherited zircon cores are identified in the Mengyin adakitic porphyry with 207Pb/206Pb ages ranging from 2.53 to 2.42 Ga. Rocks of both plutons are silicic (SiO2 = 65.4-70.2 wt.%), metaluminous, and alkaline in composition, comprising mainly quartz syenite porphyries. Samples from both plutons are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) (e.g., Rb, Sr, and Ba), and light rare earth elements (LREEs), depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs) (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), and have either positive or no Eu anomalies. In addition, both adakitic porphyries have high Mg# values (51-64), high Sr and La contents, low Y and Yb contents, and high Sr/Y (Mengyin = 149-264; Liujing = 58-110) and (La/Yb)N (Mengyin = 32.4-45.3; Liujing = 43.8-53.1) ratios, similar to adakitic rocks worldwide. The Mengyin adakitic porphyry has higher whole-rock εNd(t) values (-5.8 to - 4.1), more radiogenic Pb [(206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.35-18.39, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.55-15.56, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 38.20-38.23], higher zircon rim εHf(t) values (+ 3.3 to + 8.8) and δ18O values (+ 6.5‰ to + 7.9‰), and lower (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7049-0.7050) than the Liujing adakitic porphyry [εNd(t) = - 12.4 to - 12.2, (206Pb/204Pb)i = 17.63-17.72, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.56-15.58, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 37.76-37.94, εHf(t) = - 14.8 to - 11.2, δ18O = + 5.9‰ to + 7.1‰, (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7090-0.7091]. The

  19. Lack of divergence in seed ecology of two Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae) species disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keliang; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-06-01

    Many congeneric species are disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America. No previous study has compared the seed biology of closely related disjunct taxa of legumes or of a diaspore-heteromorphic species. Our objective was to compare seed dormancy in two such sister species in the genus Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae). We investigated the ecology and ecophysiology of aerial and subterranean seeds of the amphicarpic species Amphicarpaea edgeworthii from China and compared the results to those published for its sister species A. bracteata from eastern North America. The seed coat of aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii is well developed, whereas the seed coat of subterranean seeds is not. Aerial seeds have combinational dormancy (physical dormancy [PY] + physiological dormancy [PD]) broken by scarification followed by cold stratification or by after-ripening and scarification; whereas subterranean seeds have PD broken by cold stratification. Aerial seeds formed a persistent soil seed bank, and subterranean seeds a transient soil seed bank. Aerial seeds of A. bracteata also have PY+PD and subterranean seeds PD. Subterranean seeds of both species are desiccation intolerant. Dormancy in neither aerial nor subterranean seeds of both species has diverged over geological time. Compared to subterranean seeds, aerial seeds of both species dispersed over longer distances. Seed dispersal ability and degree of dormancy of neither species fits the high-risk/low-risk (H-H/L-L) strategy found in many diaspore-dimorphic species. Rather, both species have an H-L/L-H strategy for these two life history traits. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. The Decadal Shift of the Summer Climate in the Late 1980s over Eastern China and Its Possible Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Renhe; WU Bingyi; ZHAO Ping; HAN Jinping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, it is pointed out that a notable decadal shift of the summer climate in eastern China occurred in the late 1980s. In association with this decadal climate shift, after the late 1980s more precipita-tion appeared in the southern region of eastern China (namely South China), the western Pacific subtropical high stretched farther westward with a larger south-north extent, and a strengthened anticyclone at 850 hPa appeared in the northwestern Pacific. The decadal climate shift of the summer precipitation in South China was accompanied with decadal changes of the Eurasian snow cover in boreal spring and sea surface temperature (SST) in western North Pacific in boreal summer in the late 1980s. After the late 1980s, the spring Eurasian snow cover apparently became less and the summer SST in western North Pacific increased obviously, which were well correlated with the increase of the South China precipitation. The physical pro-cesses are also investigated on how the summer precipitation in China was affected by the spring Eurasian snow cover and summer SST in western North Pacific. The change of the spring Eurasian snow cover could excite a wave-train in higher latitudes, which lasted from spring to summer. Because of the wave-train, an abnormal high appeared over North China and a weak depression over South China, leading to more precip-itation in South China. The increase of the summer SST in the western North Pacific reduced the land-sea thermal contrast and thus weakened the East Asian summer monsoon, also leading to more precipitation in South China.

  1. Wave speed structure of the eastern North American margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, B.; Covellone, B. M.; Shen, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The eastern North American margin (ENAM) is the result of nearly a billion years of continental collision and rifting. To the west of this margin lies thick continental lithosphere of the North American craton, and to the east is oceanic lithosphere in the Atlantic. The substantial changes in lithosphere thickness at this boundary are thought to drive asthenosphere upwelling along the edge of the continent. Through iterative, full-waveform, ambient noise tomography, we observe a heterogeneous low wave speed margin along the continent in the upper mantle. Multiple low wave speed features imaged within the margin are consistent with asthenospeheric upwelling due to edge-driven convection. Also within the margin are high wave speed anomalies that maybe the remnants of eclogitic delamination of the Appalachian crustal root, which contribute to convection at the margin. Edge driven, small-scale convection keeps the margin weak and thus controls the large scale plate tectonic patterns and the crustal deformation. The imaged mantle wave speed anomalies, interpreted as edge-driven convection, correlate with and may increase the likelihood of damaging earthquakes in the eastern portion of North America.

  2. Sandy desertification in the north of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Tao(王涛); ZHU; Zhenda(朱震达); WU; Wei(吴薇)

    2002-01-01

    With the economic and social development, desertification exerted increasingly pro-found influences on natural environment and social development and attracted widespread atten-tion of international communities, China, as one of the countries facing severe desertificationproblems, has witnessed some progress in understanding and combating the process of desertifi-cation through many years of hard work. Based on the experiences and research achievements,this paper briefly discusses the causes, developmental processes, damage assessment and con-trol mechanism of desertification in the north of China so as to provide some basic experiences forthe further study of desertification.

  3. Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Michelsen, O.

    2003-12-01

    This paper provides a review of recent high-resolution and conventional seismic investigations in the eastern Danish North Sea and destribes their implications for the development of the eastern North Sea Basin. The results tomprise detailed timestructure maps of four major unconformities in the eastern Danish North Sea: the Top Chalk surface (mid-Paleogene), near top Oligocene, the mid-Miocene unconformity, and base Quatemary. The maps show that the eastem Danish North Sea has been affected by fauldng and salt diapirism throughout the Cenozoic. Carbonate mounds, erosional valleys and pockmark- or karstlike struttures were identitied at the top of the Upper Cretaceous-Danian Chalk Group. Strike-parallel erosional features and depositional geometries observed at near top Oligocene and at the mid-Miocene unconformity indicate that these major sequence boundarics tan be attributed to large-scale lateral changes in sediment supply directions. Increases in sediment flux to the southeastern North Sea at the Eocene/Oligocene transition and in the post-Middle Miocene appear to correlate with similar events world wide and with long term {delta} {sup 18} O increases, indicating forting by global factors, i.e. eustasy and climate. Stratal geometries observed on the seismic data indicate that the socalled `Neogene uplift' of the Bastern Danish North Sea may have been hundreds of metres less than previously suggested. lt is argued that late Cenozoic uplift of the basin margin and of mountain peaks in southern Norway may have been caused entirely by isostatic uplift of the trust in response to accelerated late Cenozoic denudation and dissection of topography created in the Paleogene. The late Cenozoic periods of accelerated denudation and incision rates were most likely driven by climatic deterioration and long term eustatic lowering rather than active late Cenozoic tectonics, the cause of which is conjectural. A series of shallow thrust struttures and an associated system

  4. Distribution of Helicobacter pylori in north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Hua Gong; Ying Wang; Yuan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the distribution of virulence-associatedgenotypes of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) in two areas of north China with different gastric cancer risk and furthermore probe into the pathogenicity of the bacterium. METHODS: Gastric biopsies were taken from 355 subjects from Zhuanghe, a high risk area of gastric cancer, and 136 subjects from Shenyang, a low risk area of gastric cancer. A total of 149 H pylori strains isolated from these patients were studied by PCR for differences in the genotypes of cagA, vac A, and iceA.RESULTS: In patients with high risk for gastric cancer, higher frequencies of vacA s1 or s1m1b genotypes were found as compared to those from the low risk area. CONCLUSION: There is significantly different distribution of H pylori genotypes between Zhuanghe and Shenyang areas in north China.

  5. Trail Trees: Living Artifacts (Vivifacts of Eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Kawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Living trees historically modified by human populations, oftentimes referred to as “culturally modified trees” (CMTs, are found throughout the North American landscape. In eastern North America specifically, indigenous populations bent thousands of trees to mark trails, and some of these still exist in the region today. In this article, we present a synthesis of current knowledge on trail trees, including their speculated functions, formation, and selection. We also examine the theoretical implications of these living artifacts (or vivifacts and how they may open new avenues for investigation by archaeologists, environmental historians, and ethnobiologists. To conclude, we make a call for expanded public recognition and documentation of trail trees, discussing the need for their incorporation into forest and park management plans.

  6. North Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water simulation and future projection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ruibin; LIU Qinyu; XU Lixiao; LU Yiqun

    2015-01-01

    The present climate simulation and future projection of the Eastern Subtropical Mode Water (ESTMW) in the North Pacific are investigated based on the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (GFDL-ESM2M). Spatial patterns of the mixed layer depth (MLD) in the eastern subtropical North Pacific and the ESTMW are well simulated using this model. Compared with historical simulation, the ESTMW is produced at lighter isopycnal surfaces and its total volume is decreased in the RCP8.5 runs, because the subduction rate of the ESTMW decreases by 0.82×10−6 m/s during February–March. In addition, it is found that the lateral induction decreasing is approximately four times more than the Ekman pumping, and thus it plays a dominant role in the decreased subduction rate associated with global warming. Moreover, the MLD during February–March is banded shoaling in response to global warming, extending northeastward from the east of the Hawaii Islands (20°N, 155°W) to the west coast of North America (30°N, 125°W), with a max-imum shoaling of 50 m, and then leads to the lateral induction reduction. Meanwhile, the increased north-eastward surface warm current to the east of Hawaii helps strengthen of the local upper ocean stratification and induces the banded shoaling MLD under warmer climate. This new finding indicates that the ocean surface currents play an important role in the response of the MLD and the ESTMW to global warming.

  7. Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Continental Margin of North China Platform in Middle Proterozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhongyuan; Liu Zhenghong

    2000-01-01

    An orogenic belt developed in late middle Proterozoic in the northern margin of North China Plate extends from Inner Mongolia to Western Liaoning Province and Eastern Jilin Province. It is over 2000km long. The orogenic belt was formed by collision between North China Platform and Siberia Platform during the Rodinian Super- Continent period. From sedimentary formation, magmatic activity and crustal tectonic deformation, it is suggested that along the tectonic belt the paleocontinental margin experienced four stages of tectonic evolution in middle Proterozoic, they are: continental margin rift,passive continental margin, active continental margin and collisional orogenic stages.

  8. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonjoy Kumar-Borthakur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India.Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam and Aizawl (Mizoram. Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the dif­ferences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test.Results: The findings revealed an overall 22.69 percent occult case. The working dogs had highest prevalence (60% followed by pet (29.16% and stray dogs (17.75%.Conclusion: The highest percentage of occult heartworm infection was present in working dogs maintained under military or paramilitary forces. 

  9. REVIEW: MONASTIC AND LAY TRADITIONS IN NORTH-EASTERN TIBET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Weiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Yangdon Dhondup, Ulrich Pagel, and Geoffrey Samuel (eds. 2013. Monastic and Lay Traditions of North-Eastern Tibet. Leiden and Boston: Brill. Monastic and Lay Traditions in North-Eastern Tibet, edited by Yangdon Dhondup, Ulrich Pagel, and Geoffrey Samuel, is the product of a 2011 workshop convened at St. Michael's College, Llandaff, Cardiff. Although the conference's focus was the tantric practitioner community of the Reb kong region (Ch. Tongren, the resultant volume expands the scope of inquiry to include surrounding areas as well as monastic communities. The editors have organized the volume's nine chapters into three sections, the first on the Dge lugs pa monastic establishment, the second on Rnying ma pa and Bon tantric communities, and finally 'Ritual and Performance in Contemporary Reb kong'. While the chapters are all informative and scholarly, providing new, important empirical detail on an underresearched subject, several tend toward the descriptive. The most successful contributions, however, present their findings within larger analytical and contextual frameworks, giving their chapters explanatory weight beyond the more narrow confines of their studies.

  10. Si- and alkali-rich melt inclusions in minerals of mantle peridotites from eastern China: Implication for lithospheric evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Qicheng; SUI; Jianli; XU; Ping; LI; Ni; SUN; Qian; WANG; Tuanhua

    2006-01-01

    Minerals of spinel- and garnet-facies mantle xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic basalts from eastern China (North China, Northeastern China and Southeastern China coastal area) contains lots of melt inclusions. Studies on these melt inclusions show that the glass inclusions are rich in SiO2 (60%―68%) and alkalis (K2O+Na2O=5%―11%, especially for K2O) as well as volatiles such as H2O and CO2 (2%―7%), which belong to dacites and andesites of the high-K calcic alkali series rocks with few shoshonites. High Al and Ca diopside in melt inclusion is the product of melt crystallization at high temperature and pressure, rather than the product of devitrification. Results show that these K-rich (in general K2O>3%) intermediate-acidic silicate melt inclusions have characteristics of continent without a genetical link to host basalts and their phenocrystic minerals. Thus, these trapped melt inclusions represent melts of Mesozoic lithospheric mantle-crust interaction and imply that the continental lithospheric mantle beneath eastern China had undergone fragmentation and recreation processes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic periods. This result undoubtly provides important implication for the evolution of sub-continental lithosphere beneath eastern China. We propose that these Si- and alkalis-rich melts should be responsible for the mantle chemical heterogeneity underneath eastern China.

  11. Atmospheric responses to idealized urban land surface forcing in eastern China during the boreal spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiechun; Xu, Haiming

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols and greenhouse gases, little is known about the impact of urban land surface forcing (ULSF) on large-scale atmospheric circulation. This study explores atmospheric responses to idealized ULSF in eastern China during the boreal spring using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 coupled with the Community Land Model version 4. Results show that the ULSF leads to an increased air temperature in northern China both near the surface and in the lower troposphere. Related to a strong thermal feedback loop, a middle-upper tropospheric cooling is found in eastern China while a relatively strong warming occurs in the middle-high latitudes, which acts to enhance the meridional temperature gradient to the north of the source region and then shifts the East Asian subtropical jet stream (EASJ) southward. A weakened southwesterly in the lower troposphere in southern China slows down moisture transportation to northern China, and the southward shifted EASJ induces strong anomalous sinking motion to the north of the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). The associated changes in moisture and vertical airflow result in moisture divergence along the YRV and convergence in southern China. Thus, the spring rain belt is shifted southward, as characterized by below-normal rainfall extending from the Huai River Valley to South Korea and above-normal rainfall from southern China to the south coast of Japan. In addition, analysis of the upper tropospheric wave activity signifies that large-scale atmospheric responses due to the ULSF also exert an important influence on local climate.

  12. Observed, reconstructed, and simulated decadal variability of summer precipitation over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingyun; Wu, Maowei; Ge, Quansheng; Hao, Zhixin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2017-02-01

    Based on observations made during recent decades, reconstructed precipitation for the period A.D. 1736-2000, dry-wet index data for A.D. 500-2000, and a 1000-yr control simulation using the Community Earth System Model with fixed pre-industrial external forcing, the decadal variability of summer precipitation over eastern China is studied. Power spectrum analysis shows that the dominant cycles for the decadal variation of summer precipitation are: 22-24 and quasi-70 yr over the North China Plain; 32-36, 44-48, and quasi-70 yr in the Jiang-Huai area; and 32-36 and 44-48 yr in the Jiang-Nan area. Bandpass decomposition from observation, reconstruction, and simulation reveals that the variability of summer precipitation over the North China Plain, Jiang-Huai area, and Jiang-Nan area, at scales of 20-35, 35-50, and 50-80 yr, is not consistent across the entire millennium. We also find that the warm (cold) phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation generally corresponds to dry (wet) conditions over the North China Plain, but wet (dry) conditions in the Jiang-Nan area, from A.D. 1800, when the PDO became strengthened. However, such a correspondence does not exist throughout the entire last millennium. Data-model comparison suggests that these decadal oscillations and their temporal evolution over eastern China, including the decadal shifts in the spatial pattern of the precipitation anomaly observed in the late 1970s, early 1990s, and early 2000s, might result from internal variability of the climate system.

  13. Ordovician paleomagnetism of eastern Yunnan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Wu; Van der Voo, R. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Liang, Qizhong (Yunnan Institute of Geological Sciences, Kunming (China))

    1990-06-01

    Three magnetic components have been isolated in Ordovician formations of the Yangtze Paraplatform (South China Block). Two of these (Daqing A and Hongshiya B components) yield paleopoles that conform to the Carboniferous to Triassic segment of the apparent polar wander path for South China, and are therefore interpreted as remagnetizations. The third component (declination/inclination = 301{degree}/+66{degree}, N = 5 sites, k = 21.4, {alpha}{sub 95} = 17{degree}) passes the fold test and is interpreted as primary (late Early Ordovician). The paleopole, at 39{degree}S, 236{degree}E, and the paleolatitude of 48{degree}S support an Ordovician position of South China adjacent to Gondwana.

  14. Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Gao, Jian; Ding, Aijun; Cooper, Owen R.; Lin, Meiyun; Xu, Pengju; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Xinfeng; Wen, Liang; Zhu, Yanhong; Chen, Tianshu; Yang, Lingxiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-08-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a trace gas playing important roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climate change. In contrast to North America and Europe, long-term measurements of surface O3 are very limited in China. We compile available O3 observations at Mt. Tai - the highest mountain over the North China Plain - during 2003-2015 and analyze the decadal change of O3 and its sources. A linear regression analysis shows that summertime O3 measured at Mt. Tai has increased significantly by 1.7 ppbv yr-1 for June and 2.1 ppbv yr-1 for the July-August average. The observed increase is supported by a global chemistry-climate model hindcast (GFDL-AM3) with O3 precursor emissions varying from year to year over 1980-2014. Analysis of satellite data indicates that the O3 increase was mainly due to the increased emissions of O3 precursors, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An important finding is that the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) have diminished since 2011, but the increase of VOCs appears to have enhanced the ozone production efficiency and contributed to the observed O3 increase in central eastern China. We present evidence that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.

  15. Liquefaction hazard potential in north eastern united arab emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Homoud, A.

    2003-04-01

    The United Arab Emirates is adjacent to the Iranian plateau characterized by very high density of active and recent faults. The Iranian plateau is one of the seismically active areas of the world and frequently suffers destructive and catastrophic earthquakes that cause heavy loss of human life and widespread damage. Therefore seismic risk in the North Eastern UAE (Sharjah and Dubai) is due to the neighboring very active Iranian seismotectonic province. As almost all foundation soils in the UAE are cohesionless material, which is clearly identified as recent fill deposits in major industrial and residential areas, and given the rapid on-shore infrastructure developments in the North Eastern UAE, and due to the lack of geo-hazards maps, it is considered vital to develop liquefaction hazard maps for these areas. The earthquake risk was brought to the attention of the public and the government upon the recent March 11, 2002 earthquake of magnitude 5.1 on Richter Scale that struck the northern emirates and caused slight damages. Initial seismic hazard assessment studies showed that Design Horizontal Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) in Sharjah and Dubai with 90% probabilities of non-exceedence in 50 years is around 200 cm/sec^2. This study is concerned with the development of liquefaction hazard maps in North Eastern Emirates UAE Cities of Sharjah and Dubai. Liquefaction hazard potential for various soil deposits in these cities is evaluated for different Peak Ground Acceleation Values. Data from thorough geotechnical studies were evaluated. This include boreholes drilling (with SPT tests) and shear strength for representative sand samples taken from several boreholes and at different depths. Liquefaction hazard potential is evaluated at representative sites in the city of Dubai and Sharjah using the state of the art liquefaction potential evaluation methods (e.g. Seed's cyclic stress ratio approach). Results indicate clearly that the coastal areas have a high potential

  16. Compositions of Upper Mantle Fluids Beneath Eastern China:Implications for Mantle Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Mingjie; WANG Xianbin; LIU Gang; ZHANG Tongwei; BO Wenrui

    2004-01-01

    The composition of gases trapped in olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in lherzolite xenoliths collected from different locations in eastern China has been measured by the vacuum stepped-heating mass spectrometry.These xenoliths are hosted in alkali basalts and considered as residues of partial melting of the upper mantle, and may contain evidence of mantle evolution. The results show that various kinds of fluid inclusions in lherzolite xenoliths have been released at distinct times, which could be related to different stages of mantle evolution. In general, primitive fluids of the upper mantle (PFUM) beneath eastern China are dominated by H2, CO2 and CO, and are characterized by high contents of H2 and reduced gases. The compositions of PFUM are highly variable and related to tectonic settings. CO, CO2 and H2 are the main components of the PFUM beneath cratons; the PFUM in the mantle enriched in potassic metasomatism in the northern part of northeastern China has a high content of H2, while CO2 and SO2 are the dominant components of the PFUM in the Su-Lu-Wan (Jiangsu-Shandong-Anhui) region, where recycled crustal fluids were mixed with deeper mantle components. There are several fluids with distinct compositions beneath eastern China, such as primitive fluids of upper mantle (CO, CO2 and H2), partial melting fluids (CO2 and CO) and metasomatic fluids mixed with recycled crustal fluids (CO2, N2, 8O2 and CH4) etc. Fluids of the upper mantle beneath the North China craton are different from that of the South China craton in total gases and chemical compositions: the contents of the reduced gases of the PFUM in the NCC are higher than those in the SCC.

  17. Multimodel ensemble projection of precipitation in eastern China under A1B emission scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaorui; Wang, Shuyu; Tang, Jianping; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Gao, Xuejie; Wu, Jia; Hong, Songyou; Gutowski, William J.; McGregor, John

    2015-10-01

    As part of the Regional Climate Model Intercomparison Project for Asia, future precipitation projection in China is constructed using five regional climate models (RCMs) driven by the same global climate model (GCM) of European Centre/Hamburg version 5. The simulations cover both the control climate (1978-2000) and future projection (2041-2070) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenario A1B. For the control climate, the RCMs have an advantage over the driving GCM in reproducing the summer mean precipitation distribution and the annual cycle. The biases in simulating summer precipitation mainly are caused by the deficiencies in reproducing the low-level circulation, such as the western Pacific subtropical high. In addition, large inter-RCM differences exist in the summer precipitation simulations. For the future climate, consistent and inconsistent changes in precipitation between the driving GCM and the nested RCMs are observed. Similar changes in summer precipitation are projected by RCMs over western China, but model behaviors are quite different over eastern China, which is dominated by the Asian monsoon system. The inter-RCM difference of rainfall changes is more pronounced in spring over eastern China. North China and the southern part of South China are very likely to experience less summer rainfall in multi-RCM mean (MRM) projection, while limited credibility in increased summer rainfall MRM projection over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin. The inter-RCM variability is the main contributor to the total uncertainty for the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin and South China during 2041-2060, while lowest for Northeast China, being less than 40%.

  18. Neogene residual subsidence and its response to a sinking slab in the deep mantle of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiang; Liu, ShaoFeng; Bai, Yu; Ji, HuiLi

    2017-08-01

    Mantle convection could have a significant effect on basin evolution; however, research quantifying this relationship is controversial. To understand the formation mechanism and evolution of the Cenozoic rift basins in eastern China, we applied the back-stripping technique and strain rate inversion modeling to 119 wells from Sangjiang Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, North Yellow Sea Basin, South Yellow Sea Basin, East China Sea Shelf Basin, and four basins within the northern South China Sea margin. The modeled results can be used to reconstruct the tectonic subsidence history and further assess the potential subsidence mechanisms of eastern China. Residual subsidence is defined as the difference between the theoretical and observed tectonic subsidences. Our results show that the residual subsidence since 20 Ma in eastern China generally increases from ∼100 to 300 m in terrestrial areas to ∼1.2-1.8 km on the continental shelf. Our observed residual subsidence is generally consistent with the present-day dynamic topography that is predicted from mantle flow models, and it is associated with a stagnant slab within the mantle that has been observed by seismic tomography. The migration pathway of the residual subsidence since 20 Ma is consistent with the movement direction of the Pacific and Philippine plates. Therefore, we suggest that the residual subsidence might be a dynamic subsidence induced by a negative buoyancy of the sinking slab in the deep mantle beneath eastern China.

  19. Cenozoic residual subsidence and its response to sinking slab in deep mantle in eastern part of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiang; Liu, Shaofeng; Ma, Pengfei; Lin, Chengfa

    2016-04-01

    Mantle convection could have a significant effect on basin evolution. However, the research on quantifying this relationship is controversial. To understand the formating mechanisms and evolution of the Cenozoic rift basin in eastern part of China, we applied backstripping and strain rate inversion modeling to 119 wells from the Sangjiang Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, North Yellow Sea Basin, South Yellow Sea Basin, East China Sea Shelf Basin and South China Sea Basin. The modeled results help us reconstruct the tectonic subsidence history and further assess the potential subsidence mechanisms of the eastern China. Post-rift residual subsidence is defined as the discrepancy between observed and predicted post-rift subsidence based on the uniform stretching model, following lithospheric thinning events. Our results show that the residual subsidence since 20Ma in eastern part of China generally increases from ˜100-300 m in terrestrial area to ˜1.2-1.8 km in continental shelf. Our observed residual subsidence is generally in agree with present-day dynamic topography predicted from mantle flow models, and is coupled with stagnant slab within the mantle recorded by seismic tomography. Therefore, we suggest that the residual subsidence might be a dynamic subsidence induced by a negative buoyancy of the sinking slab in the deep mantle beneath the eastern China.

  20. The succession of late Palaeozoic and Triassic plant assemblages of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingxue, Li; Xiuyuan, Wu

    This is a study dealing with the succession of the megafloras or plant assemblages of China's eastern part, ranging from the early Devonian to later Triassic. The plant assemblages in ascending order are as follows: 1. In the three floras formerly recognized for the early, middle and late Devonian, the latter two are here revised as the Protolepidodendron flora and the Leptophloeum-Archaeopteris flora, respectively. 2. Since the two-fold system of the Carboniferous has been currently accepted in China and the mid-Carboniferous boundary in NW China is drawn at the top of the Tsingyuan Formation (s.s.), the latest plant assemblage of the Lower Carboniferous is better named the Eleutherophyllum waldenburgense-Linopteris densissima-Pecopteris aspera Assemblage and its corresponding plant assemblage in SE China being tentatively named the Paripteris gigantea-Karinopteris acuta f. obtusa Assemblage. Moreover, recent studies on the Penchi flora of north China reveal that some typical Cathaysian elements, e.g. Lepidodendron posthumii, Tingia spp., occurred in the Penchi Formation, of which the plant assemblage is revised as the Paripteris gigantea-Linopteris neuropteroides-Conchophyllum richthofeni Assemblage, known probably as the first assemblage assigned to the early Cathaysian flora in east Asia. 3. The latest Permian (Tartarian) of north China is represented by the Ullmannia bronnii-Yuania magnifolia Assemblage based on recent studies of the flora of the Shihchienfeng (Sunjiagou) Formation. 4. Recent studies on the early Triassic flora in north China disclose that the flora may be named the Pleuromeia flora, which can be subdivided into the early Triassic Pl. jiaochengensis assemblage and the late early Triassic Pl. sternbergii Assemblage. In addition, problems about the correlation for some of the representative formations and their palaeophytogeographical regions are also discussed.

  1. Temporal and spatial features of the soil moisture in boreal spring in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO ZhiYan; ZHANG RenHe

    2009-01-01

    Soil moisture data of 45 years from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (EOMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) and the in situ observational data are used to study the temporal and spatial characteristics of the soil moisture in boreal spring in the area to the east of 100°E in China. Results show that ERA-40 soil moisture well reproduces the temporal and spatial features of observations. ERA-40 data capture the spatial pattern that the soils in Northeast China and Southwest China are wetter than those in Inner Mongolia and North China and represent the inter-annual variability in ob-servations. The dry trends of spring soil moisture are evident over the whole eastern China. It is espe-cially prominent for the dry trend in southwest China where the spring soil from surface to deep-layer show drying and the trend became significant after the 1980s. The dry trend in Northeast China is weak after early 1970s in near-surface layer but aggravates after late11970s in deep layers. In the mid-latitude zone, the inter-annual variation of spring soil is robust and shows no dry trend except in deep-layer after 1988.

  2. Temporal and spatial features of the soil moisture in boreal spring in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Soil moisture data of 45 years from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) and the in situ observational data are used to study the temporal and spatial characteristics of the soil moisture in boreal spring in the area to the east of 100°E in China. Results show that ERA-40 soil moisture well reproduces the temporal and spatial features of observations. ERA-40 data capture the spatial pattern that the soils in Northeast China and Southwest China are wetter than those in Inner Mongolia and North China and represent the inter-annual variability in ob-servations. The dry trends of spring soil moisture are evident over the whole eastern China. It is espe-cially prominent for the dry trend in southwest China where the spring soil from surface to deep-layer show drying and the trend became significant after the 1980s. The dry trend in Northeast China is weak after early 1970s in near-surface layer but aggravates after latel 1970s in deep layers. In the mid-latitude zone, the inter-annual variation of spring soil is robust and shows no dry trend except in deep-layer after 1988.

  3. 75 FR 68756 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a depleted stock under the Marine Mammal... assessment report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following...

  4. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase

    2005-01-01

    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  5. Numerical Study of the Eff ect of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Spring Persistent Rain over Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jiechun; XU Haiming; MA Hongyun; JIANG Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    The eff ect of anthropogenic aerosols on the spring persistent rain (SPR) over eastern China is investigated by using a high-resolution Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1). The results show that the SPR starts later due to anthropogenic aerosols, with a shortened duration and reduced rainfall amount. A reduction in air temperature over the low latitudes in East Asia is linked to anthropogenic aerosols;so is a weakened southwesterly on the north side of the subtropical high. Meanwhile, air temperature increases signifi cantly over the high latitudes. This north-south asymmetrical thermal eff ect acts to reduce the meridional temperature gradient, weakening the upper-level westerly jet over East Asia and the vertical motion over southeastern China. As a result, the SPR is reduced and has a much shorter duration. The indirect eff ect of anthropogenic aerosols also plays an important role in changing the SPR. Cloud droplet number concentration increases due to anthropogenic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei, leading to a reduction in cloud eff ective radius over eastern China and a reduced precipitation effi ciency there.

  6. Destruction geodynamics of the North China Craton and its Paleoproterozoic plate tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU RiXiang; ZHENG TianYu

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has been paid in the last two decades to the physical and chemical processes as well as temporal-spatial variations of the lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton. In order to provide insights into the geodynamics of this variation, it is necessary to thoroughly study the state and structure of the lithospheric crust and mantle of the North China Craton and its adjacent regions as an integrated unit. Based on the velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle constrained from seismological studies, this paper presents various available geophysical results regarding the lithosphere thickness, the nature of crust-mantle boundary, the upper mantle structure and deformation characteristics as well as their tectonic features and evolution systematics. Combined with the obtained data from petrology and geochemistry, a mantle flow model is proposed for the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. We suggest that subduction of the Pacific plate made the mantle underneath the eastern Asian continent unstable and able to flow faster. Such a regional mantle flow system would cause an elevation of melt/fluid content in the upper mantle of the North China Craton and the lithospheric softening, which, subsequently resulted in destruction of the North China Craton in different ways of delamination and thermal erosion in Yanshan, Taihang Mountains and the Tan-Lu Fault zone. Multiple lines of evidence recorded in the crust of the North China Craton, such as the amalgamation of the Archean eastern and western blocks, the subduction of Paleo-oceanic crust and Paleo-continental residue, indicate that the Earth in the Paleoproterozoic had already evolved into the plate tectonic system similar to the present plate tectonics.

  7. China and North Korea: A Peculiar Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    States and North Korea. Beijing played an interlocutor role via high-level visits, such as Chinese Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan’s visit to the...stability-or-status-quo-on-the-korean- peninsula/. 92 Sung-Yoon Lee, “Is Status Quo Destiny? China’s Interests in Post-Kim Dynasty Korea,”a presentation at...preferences will heavily impact that outcome). Tang Shiping, a Chinese academic, clearly distinguishes between the two, “While China clearly believes that

  8. Three-Dimensional P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Crust of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wenbo; Ye Gaofeng; Li Yanjun; Jin Sheng; Deng Ming; Jing Jian'en

    2007-01-01

    Since the Xingtai (邢台) earthquake in 1966, China Earthquake Administration has carried out a survey campaign along more than thirty deep seismic sounding (DSS) profiles altogether about twenty thousand kilometers long in North China to study the velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle in this region, and has obtained a great number of research findings. However, these researches have not provided a 3D velocity structure model of the crust of North China and cannot provide seismic evidence for the study of the deep tectonic characteristics of the crust of the whole region. Hence, based on the information from the published data of the DSS profiles, we have chosen 14 profiles to obtain a 3D velocity structure model of North China using the vectorization function of the GIS software (Arc/Info) and the Kriging data gridding method. With this velocity structure model, we have drawn the following conclusions: (1) The P-wave velocity of the uppermost crust of North China changes dramatically, exhibiting a complicated velocity structure in plane view. It can be divided into three velocity zones mainly trending towards north-west. In the research area, the lowest-velocity zones overburden in the study area is somewhat inherited by the upper crust, there are still several differences between them. (2) Generally, the P-wave velocity of the crust increases with depth in the study area, but there still exists local velocity reversion. In the east, low-velocity anomalies of the Haihe eastern and western parts differ in structural trend of stratum above the crystalline basement. The Shanxi block and the eastern edge of the Ordos block is mainly north-west. (3) According to the morphological features of Moho, the crust of the study area can be divided into six blocks. In the Shanxi block, Moho apppears like a nearly south-north trending depression belt with a large crustal the Moho exhibits a feature of fold belt, trending nearly towards east-west. In the eastern

  9. Low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D. S.; Löscher, C. R.; Krahmann, G.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a climate relevant trace gas, and its production in the ocean generally increases under suboxic conditions. The Atlantic Ocean is well ventilated, and unlike the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, dissolved oxygen and N2O concentrations...... in the Atlantic OMZ are relatively high and low, respectively. This study, however, demonstrates that recently discovered low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) can produce N2O concentrations much higher (up to 115 nmol L-1) than those previously reported for the Atlantic Ocean, and which...... are within the range of the highest concentrations found in the open-ocean OMZs of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. N2O isotope and isotopomer signatures, as well as molecular genetic results, also point towards a major shift in the N2O cycling pathway in the core of the low oxygen eddy discussed here, and we...

  10. Catalog of strong motion stations in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, R. W.

    1990-04-01

    The catalog contains information on all strong motion stations operating in Eastern North America known to the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). The location, coordinates, installation dates, type of instrument, operator, structure type and size, and site geology are listed for each station. The format of the catalog is patterned after the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 81-664, 'Western Hemisphere Strong-Motion Accelerograph Station List-1980' but the entries have been updated as of January 1990. There are 237 stations listed in the catalog which include 414 recording instruments. One third of these stations are intended to record free-field ground motion while the rest are associated with large engineered structures. The relationship of station location to seismicity is shown in a series of figures and a method is described to predict peak acceleration levels from an earthquake where the magnitude and distance to station are known.

  11. Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gregori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif is established through the use of geological and geophysical analysis. The positive gravity anomalies located near the Atlantic coast are due to 535 and 540 Ma old rocks belonging to the Pampean Orogeny (Precambrian–middle Cambrian, which are widely recognized in central and northern Argentina. The Famatinian Cycle (Ordovician–Devonian is represented by a Silurian–Devonian marine basin equivalent to those of eastern-central Argentina and South Africa, and which was deformed at the end of the Devonian by an ∼E–W to WNW–ESE compressional event, part of the Famatinian Orogeny. Containing strong gravity gradients, the NW–SE belt is coincident with fault zones which were originated during the Gondwanide Orogeny. This event also produced NW–SE overthrusting of the Silurian–Devonian sequences and strike-slip faults that displaced blocks in the same direction. This deformation event belongs to the Gondwanide Orogeny that includes movements related to a counterclockwise rotation of blocks in northern Patagonia. The strong negative anomalies located in the western part of the area stem from the presence of rocks of the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto basin interbedded in the Marifil Complex. These volcaniclastic sequences show mild deformation of accommodation zones in a pre-Jurassic paleorelief.

  12. The Early Paleozoic paleogeography of the North China block and the other major blocks of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With the summarization of the Early Paleozoic paleomagnetic data recently obtained from the three major blocks of China, the Early Paleozoic (I.e. Cambrian and Ordovician) paleogeographic positions of the North China, South China and Tarim blocks were discussed in detail. The North China, South China and Tarim blocks were inferred to be located adjacent to East Gondwana in low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere during the Early Cambrian. During the Early-Middle Ordovician, the South China and Tarim blocks were also located in low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere with some affinities of the Gondwanaland, whereas the North China block may have episodically separated from the Gondwanaland, and might be sited close to the North America and Siberia. The reestablished paleogeographic configurations are in agreement with the studies on the biogeography, paleoclimate and sedimental facies of the North China and South China blocks.

  13. Characteristics of distribution and seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth in eastern China with MODIS products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chengcai; MAO Jietai; LAU Kai-Hon Alexis; CHEN Jay-Chung; YUAN Zibing; LIU Xiaoyang; ZHU Aihua; LIU Guiqing

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of MODIS aerosol products from the NASA Terra Satellite is validated in comparison with the results of sun-photometer observations in Beijing and Hong Kong. By analyzing the MODIS aerosol products within the period of August 2000 to April 2003, it is believed that human activities are the main source of aerosols in the eastern part of China. This is based on the facts that all areas with relatively high values are consistent with regions of dense population and fast economic development, such as the North China Plain, the Sichuan Basin and the Pearl River Delta. It is also supported by the distribution of ?ngstr?m exponents showing that most aerosols in the eastern part of China are closely related to human activities, excepting the strong sandstorm episodes occurring in spring, fall and winter. In contrast to developed countries, the ?ngstr?m exponent of urban area in China is lower than its surroundings, indicating that the contribution of local floating dust and soot attributed to human activities is significant. Results presented in this paper provide important data for further research on climatic change and environmental study.

  14. Eocene prevalence of monsoon-like climate over eastern China reflected by hydrological dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dehai; Lu, Shicong; Han, Shuang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Quan, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Hydrological dynamics of sedimentary basins are essential for understanding regional climatic pattern in the geological past. In previous qualitative studies lithologically depending on the occurrence of featured sedimentary rocks, the Eocene climate of China had been subdivided into three latitudinal zones, with one subtropical high-controlled arid zone throughout middle China, and two humid zones respectively in the north and south. However, recent advances on mammalian fauna distribution, plant fossil-based quantitative paleoclimatic reconstruction, and modeling experiment jointly suggest that the relatively humid monsoonal climate might have prevailed over the territory. Here we examine and compare sedimentary sequences of 10 Eocene sections across eastern China, and hence the lake level fluctuations, to discuss the nature of climate type. Our results show that, instead of the categorically zonal pattern, the hydroclimate dynamics is intensified landward. This is demonstrated by the fact that, in contrast to the wide developed coal layers around the periphery, evaporites are growingly occurred endocentrically to the central part of middle China. However, although we have had assumed that all evaporites are indicator of extreme aridity, the highly oscillated climate in the central part of middle China was humid in the majority of the Eocene, distinct from permanent arid as seen in deserts or steppe along modern horse latitude. From the upcountry distribution pattern of the Eocene hydrological dynamics, it appears that the relatively dry climate in central China was caused by the impact of continentality or rain shadow effect under monsoonal, or monsoon-like climate.

  15. Eastern tropical North Pacific coral radiocarbon reveals North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, Patrick A.; Sanchez, Sara C.; Ferguson, Julie; Carriquiry, Jose D.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Villaescusa, J. A.; Southon, John R.

    2017-03-01

    Fluctuations in oceanic circulation and upwelling associated with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) are the largest source of salinity and nutrient concentration variability across the Pacific basin. Recent observations suggest NPGO-like variability is intensifying, but longer, "pre-instrumental" records are required to improve our understanding of NPGO amplitude and phase change. Here, using measurements of coral skeletal chemistry from San Benedicto Island in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP), we assess this region's suitability for reconstructing NPGO behavior. We find that coral geochemical proxy measurements of ETNP salinity and dissolved inorganic carbon radiocarbon (Δ14C) content reflect NPGO-driven gyre circulation and regional coastal upwelling. These results provide the basis for reconstructing NPGO-related ocean conditions hundreds of years prior to the modern observational record.

  16. CISRI Competes for Light Rare Earth in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>In the light rare earth market of north China,REHT,the largest rare earth enterprise in the world,has to face a bitter rival in competition.As 3 SOEs(CHINALCO,Minmetals and CNMC)are vying for the medium and heavy rare earth market of South China,a smaller SOE,i.e.,China Iron & Steel Research

  17. Interdecadal variation of East Asian summer monsoon and drought/flood distribution over eastern China in the last 159 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qian; WEI Fengying; LI Dongliang

    2011-01-01

    Based on the drought/flood grades of 90 meterological stations over eastern China and summer average sea-level pressure (SLP) during 1850-2008 and BPCCA statistical methods,the coupling relationship between the drought/flood grades and the East Asian summer SLP is analyzed.The East Asian summer monsoon index which is closely related with interdecadal variation of drought/flood distribution over eastern China is defined by using the key areas of SLP.The impact of the interdecadal variation of the East Asian summer monsoon on the distribution of drought/flood over eastern China in the last 159 years is researched.The results show that there are four typical drought and flood spatial distribution patterns in eastern China,i.e.the distribution of drought/flood in southern China is contrary to the other regions,the distribution of drought/flood along the Huanghe River-Huaihe River Valley is contrary to the Yangtze River Valley and regions south of it,the distribution of drought/flood along the Yangtze River Valley and Huaihe River Valley is contrary to the other regions,the distribution of drought/flood in eastern China is contrary to the western.The main distribution pattern of SLP in summer is that the strength of SLP is opposite in Asian continent and West Pacific.It has close relationship between the interdecadal variation of drought/flood distribution patterns over eastern China and the interdecadal variation of the East Asian summer monsoon which was defined in this paper,but the correlation is not stable and it has a significant difference in changes of interdecadal phase.When the East Asian summer monsoon was stronger (weaker),regions north of the Yangtze River Valley was more susceptible to drought (flood),the Yangtze River Valley and regions south of it were more susceptible to flood (drought) before the 1920s; when the East Asian summer monsoon was stronger (weaker),the regions north of the Yangtze River Valley was prone to flood (drought),the Yangtze River

  18. Electrophoretic enzyme analysis of North American and eastern Asian populations of Agastache sect. Agastache (Labiatae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.

  19. Prediction Research of Climate Change Trends over North China in the Future 30 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanxiang; YAN Jinghui; WU Tongwen; GUO Yufu; CHEN Lihua; WANG Jianping

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of climate change trends over North China in the past 50 years and future 30 years was performed with the actual greenhouse gas concentration and IPCC SRES B2 scenario concentration by IAP/LASG GOALS 4.0 (Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land system coupled model), developed by the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modelling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG),Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In order to validate the model,the modern climate during 1951-2000 was first simulated by the GOALS model with the actual greenhouse gas concentration, and the simulation results were compared with observed data. The simulation results basically reproduce the lower temperature from the 1960s to mid-1970s and the warming from the 1980sfor the globe and Northern Hemisphere, and better the important cold (1950-1976) and warm (1977-2000)periods in the past 50 years over North China. The correlation coefficient is 0.34 between simulations and observations (significant at a more than 0.05 confidence level). The range of winter temperature departures for North China is between those for the eastern and western China's Mainland. Meanwhile, the summer precipitation trend turning around the 1980s is also successfully simulated. The climate change trends in the future 30 years were simulated with the CO2 concentration under IPCC SRES-B2 emission scenario.The results show that, in the future 30 years, winter temperature will keep a warming trend in North China and increase by about 2.5℃ relative to climate mean (1960-1990). Meanwhile, summer precipitation will obviously increase in North China and decrease in South China, displaying a south-deficit-north-excessive pattern of precipitation.

  20. Regional frequency analysis of observed sub-daily rainfall maxima over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hemin; Wang, Guojie; Li, Xiucang; Chen, Jing; Su, Buda; Jiang, Tong

    2017-02-01

    Based on hourly rainfall observational data from 442 stations during 1960-2014, a regional frequency analysis of the annual maxima (AM) sub-daily rainfall series (1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-h rainfall, using a moving window approach) for eastern China was conducted. Eastern China was divided into 13 homogeneous regions: Northeast (NE1, NE2), Central (C), Central North (CN1, CN2), Central East (CE1, CE2, CE3), Southeast (SE1, SE2, SE3, SE4), and Southwest (SW). The generalized extreme value performed best for the AM series in regions NE, C, CN2, CE1, CE2, SE2, and SW, and the generalized logistic distribution was appropriate in the other regions. Maximum return levels were in the SE4 region, with value ranges of 80-270 mm (1-h to 24-h rainfall) and 108-390 mm (1-h to 24-h rainfall) for 20- and 100 yr, respectively. Minimum return levels were in the CN1 and NE1 regions, with values of 37-104 mm and 53-140 mm for 20 and 100 yr, respectively. Comparing return levels using the optimal and commonly used Pearson-III distribution, the mean return-level differences in eastern China for 1-24-h rainfall varied from -3-4 mm to -23-11 mm (-10%-10%) for 20-yr events, reaching -6-26 mm (-10%-30%) and -10-133 mm (-10%-90%) for 100-yr events. In view of the large differences in estimated return levels, more attention should be given to frequency analysis of sub-daily rainfall over China, for improved water management and disaster reduction.

  1. Bird collision impacts at wind turbines in eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Curry, Richard; Guarnaccia, John [Curry and Kerlinger, LLC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the incidence of bird collisions at wind turbines in Eastern North America. Modern wind turbines are high, with long, tubular towers. Bird fatality is analyzed and references to the relevant studies that have been done are given. 26 sites were investigated for turbine mortality in 2011 and these are shown on a map. 64 turbines were examined in Maple Ridge and it was seen that 4 birds were killed per turbine per year. The results demonstrated that no eagles were killed, there were no endangered species involved and there was no real deviation from site to site. More than 80,000 individual turbines were researched and more than $30 million spent on the study. Around 120,000 birds are killed per year, or an average of over 6 birds per turbine per year, in the United States. It is clear from the extensive research conducted that there are a lot of data on birds and turbines; the data show that songbirds are the most often affected.

  2. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many ways, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere is not yet fully understood.

    We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from there.

  3. Fire in Eastern North American Oak Ecosystems: Filling the Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian (Morgan) Varner; Mary Arthur; Stacy Clark; Daniel C. Dey; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Fire Ecology is focused on the fire ecology of eastern USA oak (Quercus L.) forests, woodlands, and savannas. The papers were presented as part of the Fifth Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA, in 2015. The topic of fire in eastern oak ecosystems is one that has received insufficient interest from the...

  4. Interdecadal change of atmospheric stationary waves and North China drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xin-Gang; Fu Cong-Bin; Wang Ping

    2005-01-01

    The inderdecadal change of atmospheric stationary waves (ATW) has been investigated for the two periods 1956-77 and 1978-99. The trough of ATW in the middle and low layer of the troposphere over the Asian continent has experienced a significant weakening during the past two decades, which exerts a great influence on the North China climate. The ATW in 200 hPa has also exhibited some changes since 1977, as a stationary ridge appeared over the northwestern China while a stationary trough appeared above North China. This leads to an increasing of the upward motion above northwestern China and a decreasing above North China. A west-east section of the stationary waves at 40°N shows that the ATW above North China tilted westward for the period 1956-77, but was almost upright during 1978-99. The composite analysis confirms that the climate mean ATW pattern after 1977 is similar to the dry pattern for North China, while the rainy pattern is similar to that before 1977. In consequence, the North China drought is partly due to the interdecadal change of the ATW over boreal Asia in the recent two decades.

  5. Historical Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Tracks, 1949-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Historical Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Tracks file contains the six-hourly (0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 UTC) center locations and intensities for all...

  6. Elaphomyces appalachiensis and E. verruculosus sp. nov. (Ascomycota Eurotiales, Elaphomycetaceae) from eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Castellano; Gonzalo Guevara Guerrero; Jesus Garcia Jimenez; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    We describe Elaphomyces verruculosus as new species from eastern North America, ranging from Quebec, Canada south along the eastern USA and along the Gulf Coast to northeastern México. E. verruculosus is similar in overall morphology to E. granulatus of Europe. In addition we re-describe E....

  7. Large clusters of gold deposits and large-scale metallogene-sis in the Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Jiaodong Peninsula is the largest repository of gold in China based on the production in history. It covers less than 0.2% of China's territory, but production of gold accounts for about one fourth of the whole country. Thus, the Jiaodong Peninsula is a typical area or case of large-scale metallogenesis and a large clusters of mineral deposits in China. It is characterized by the large clusters of gold deposits in large scale, high reserve and short mineralizing stage. In this study, we suggest that the eastern boundary of the large clusters of gold deposits is as same as that of North China Block, the gold deposits are hosted by Archean metamorphic rocks or Mesozoic granites, and the age of gold mineralization is 121.6 to 122.7 Ma. Gold and related ore-forming materials are derived from multisources, i.e. Archean metamorphic rocks, granites and intermediate-mafic dikes, especially, intermediate-mafic dikes and calc-alkaline granites. The metallogenic geodynamic process is constrained by the tectonic evolution of eastern North China Block during Late Mesozoic, and it is the result of the interaction between mantle and crust as the boundary plates are playing role on the block.

  8. Changes in the Diurnal Cycles of Precipitation over Eastern China in the Past 40 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Weihua; YU Rucong; LI Jian

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the interdecadal changes in the diurnal variability of summer (June August) precipitation over eastern China during the period 1966 2005 using hourly station rain gauge data.The results revealed that rainfall diurnal variations experienced significant interdecadal changes.Over the area to the south of the Yangtze River,as well as the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers,the percentages of morning rainfall (0000-1200 LST) to total rainfall in terms of amount,frequency and intensity,all exhibited increasing interdecadal trends.On the contrary,over North China,decreasing trends were found.As a result,diurnal rainfall peaks also presented pronounced interdecadal variations.Over the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers,there were 16 out of 46 stations with afternoon (1200 0000 LST) frequency peaks in the first 20 years of the 40-year period of study,while only eight remained in the latter 20 years.In North China,seven stations experienced the opposite changes,which accounted for about 21% of the total number of stations.The possible causes for the interdecadal changes in diurnal features were discussed.As the rainfall in the active monsoon period presents morning diurnal peaks,with afternoon peaks in the break period,the decrease (increase) of rainfall in the active monsoon period over North China (the area south of the Yangtze River and the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers) may contribute to interdecadal changes in diurnal rainfall variability.

  9. Assembly of the eastern North American herpetofauna: new evidence from lizards and frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Macey, J; Schulte, James A; Strasburg, Jared L; Brisson, Jennifer A; Larson, Allan; Ananjeva, Natalia B; Wang, Yuezhao; Parham, James F; Papenfuss, Theodore J

    2006-01-01

    Darwin first recognized the importance of episodic intercontinental dispersal in the establishment of worldwide biotic diversity. Faunal exchange across the Bering Land Bridge is a major example of such dispersal. Here, we demonstrate with mitochondrial DNA evidence that three independent dispersal events from Asia to North America are the source for almost all lizard taxa found in continental eastern North America. Two other dispersal events across Beringia account for observed diversity among North American ranid frogs, one of the most species-rich groups of frogs in eastern North America. The contribution of faunal elements from Asia via dispersal across Beringia is a dominant theme in the historical assembly of the eastern North American herpetofauna. PMID:17148411

  10. Shallow Cumulus Variability at the ARM Eastern North Atlantic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, K.; Kollias, P.; Ghate, V. P.; Luke, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    Cumulus clouds play a critical role in modulating the radiative and hydrological budget of the lower troposphere. These clouds, which are ubiquitous in regions of large-scale subsidence over the oceans, tend to be misrepresented in global climate models. Island-based, long-term, high-resolution ground-based observations can provide valuable insights on the factors controlling their macroscopic and microphysical properties and subsequenlty assist in model evaluation and guidance. Previous studies, limited to fair-weather cumuli over land, revealed that their fractional coverage is only weakly correlated with several parameters; the best ones being complex dynamical characteristics of the subcloud layer (vertical velocity skewness and eddy coherence). Other studies noted a relationship between cumuli depth and their propensity to precipitate. The current study will expand on such analysis by performing detail characterization of the full spectrum of shallow cumulus fields from non-precipitating to precipitating in the context of the large-scale forcing (i.e. thermodynamic structure and subsidence rates). Two years of ground-based remote sensing observations collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) site are used to document macroscopic (cloud depth, cord length, cover), microphysical (liquid water path, cloud base rain rate) and dynamical (cloud base mass flux, eddy dissipation rate) cumuli properties. The observed variability in shallow cumulus is examined in relation to the variability of the large-scale environment as captured by the humidity profile, the magnitude of the low-level horizontal winds and near-surface aerosol conditions.

  11. Heavy metals exposures among Mexican farmworkers in eastern North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quandt, Sara A., E-mail: squandt@wfubmc.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Jones, Bradley T. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Talton, Jennifer W. [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Whalley, Lara E. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Galvan, Leonardo [North Carolina Farmworkers Project, Benson, NC (United States); Vallejos, Quirina M.; Grzywacz, Joseph G. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chen, Haiying [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Pharr, Kathryn E. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Isom, Scott [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Arcury, Thomas A. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Immigrant farmworkers are a population at risk for numerous environmental and occupational exposures. The metals arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium are known neurotoxins to which workers can be exposed both in the US and in their country of origin. Because farmworkers are exposed to neurotoxic pesticides, they may be at risk for adverse health effects from the combined exposure. Objectives: To examine the relationship between exposure to metals, as measured in urine, with personal and work-related characteristics of Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US. Methods: We analyzed data on metals found in urine of 258 farmworkers recruited from 44 camps in eastern North Carolina in 2007. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to compare data with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We used multivariate regression models fitted for each metal to estimate the association of creatinine-corrected urinary metals and worker characteristics related to environmental and occupational exposures. Results: Geometric mean urinary metals concentrations ({mu}g/g creatinine) exceeded NHANES reference values for arsenic (13.23 [CI 11.11, 15.35] vs. 8.55 [CI 7.23, 9.86]) and lead (1.26 [CI 1.08, 1.43] vs. 0.63 [CI 0.60, 0.66]). Age, being from the central region of Mexico, and pack years of cigarette smoking were significant predictors of metals exposure; being a current smoker and years worked in US agriculture were not. Conclusions: This first study to examine indicators of worker body burdens of metals shows that workers have body burdens related to exposures other than work in the US. Further research should address their risk for adverse health outcomes due to combined exposures to neurotoxins in pesticides.

  12. A glimpse of Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in soils from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haizhen; Ibekwe, A Mark; Ma, Jincai; Wu, Laosheng; Lou, Jun; Wu, Zhigang; Liu, Renyi; Xu, Jianming; Yates, Scott R

    2014-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is an important food-borne pathogen, which continues to be a major public health concern worldwide. It is known that E. coli O157:H7 survive in soil environment might result in the contamination of fresh produce or water source. To investigate how the soils and their properties affect E. coli O157:H7 survival, we studied E. coli O157:H7 survival dynamics in 14 soils collected in eastern China from the warm-temperate zone to subtropical zone. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 survival as a function of time can be well described by the Weibull model. The calculated td values (survival time to reach the detection limit, 100 colony forming units per gram oven-dried weight of soil) for the test soils were between 1.4 and 25.8 days. A significantly longer survival time (td) was observed in neutral or alkaline soils from north-eastern China (the warm-temperate zone) than that in acidic soils from south-eastern China (the subtropical zone). Distinct E. coli O157:H7 survival dynamics was related to soil properties. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the td values were significantly enhanced by soil microbial biomass carbon and total nitrogen, but were significantly reduced by amorphous Al2O3 and relative abundance of Chloroflexi. It should pay more attention to E. coli O157:H7 long survival in soils and its potential environmental contamination risk.

  13. Dust-wind interactions can intensify aerosol pollution over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Russell, Lynn M.; Lou, Sijia; Liao, Hong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Singh, Balwinder; Ghan, Steven J.

    2017-05-01

    Eastern China has experienced severe and persistent winter haze episodes in recent years due to intensification of aerosol pollution. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, the winter aerosol pollution over eastern China is associated with unusual meteorological conditions, including weaker wind speeds. Here we show, based on model simulations, that during years with decreased wind speed, large decreases in dust emissions (29%) moderate the wintertime land-sea surface air temperature difference and further decrease winds by -0.06 (+/-0.05) m s-1 averaged over eastern China. The dust-induced lower winds enhance stagnation of air and account for about 13% of increasing aerosol concentrations over eastern China. Although recent increases in anthropogenic emissions are the main factor causing haze over eastern China, we conclude that natural emissions also exert a significant influence on the increases in wintertime aerosol concentrations, with important implications that need to be taken into account by air quality studies.

  14. Dust-wind interactions can intensify aerosol pollution over eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Russell, Lynn M; Lou, Sijia; Liao, Hong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Singh, Balwinder; Ghan, Steven J

    2017-05-11

    Eastern China has experienced severe and persistent winter haze episodes in recent years due to intensification of aerosol pollution. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, the winter aerosol pollution over eastern China is associated with unusual meteorological conditions, including weaker wind speeds. Here we show, based on model simulations, that during years with decreased wind speed, large decreases in dust emissions (29%) moderate the wintertime land-sea surface air temperature difference and further decrease winds by -0.06 (±0.05) m s(-1) averaged over eastern China. The dust-induced lower winds enhance stagnation of air and account for about 13% of increasing aerosol concentrations over eastern China. Although recent increases in anthropogenic emissions are the main factor causing haze over eastern China, we conclude that natural emissions also exert a significant influence on the increases in wintertime aerosol concentrations, with important implications that need to be taken into account by air quality studies.

  15. Integrated Seismic Arrays for Imaging the North China Craton: the ¡°Destruction of the North China Craton¡± Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Chen, L.; Zheng, T.; Zhou, S.

    2007-12-01

    It has been known, mostly according to the petrological and geochemical studies particularly the xenolith's data, that the North China craton (NCC), which is part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton, had been reactivated since Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Currently the NCC is characterized by a thin lithosphere (as thin as 80 km according to published studies) and strong internal deformation, where over half of the eastern China's earthquakes occurred while the two major plate boundaries about China are thousands kilometers away. Although it is seismically quite active this region encompasses the China's capital and several mega cities which together hosts a large population and are very important to China's growing economy. Supported by the Chinese earth science community, the Chinese NSF recently started a major research program, the ¡°Destruction of the North China craton¡± (DNCC). About 150 million RMB (~ 20 million US dollars) will be allocated for this 5-year multi-disciplinary research program which is open for competition for all the earth scientists in China. Here we report one major seismic observation project of ¡°Integrated Seismic Arrays of DNCC¡± just funded during the first phase funding of DNCC. This observation-driven project integrates two groups at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Peking University, and both institutions have their own broadband seismometers and have recently conducted pilot portable seismic array studies in North China. Up to seven linear broadband seismic arrays, each consists of 60-100 stations, are planned within the NCC. The principle objectives are to quantify the range and degree of the craton destruction in spatial domain with major focus on the east-west variation from the previously proposed intact craton in the west to the rejuvenated region in the east and the transition zone in the middle. With the expected

  16. Water Security Problem in North China: Research and Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun; LIU Meng-Yu; JIA Shao-Feng

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the emergence of water security problems in North China with the aim of highlighting key water resources management and water security issues for the long-term development of North China. Three key problems related to water resources and security issues in North China in the 21st century are addressed, namely 1) the water cycle under environmental change, 2) agricultural water saving, and 3) water security. Development of international research related to these issues is also reviewed. The research plan developed recently by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) is discussed and suggestions on research and development of water resources science in North China are presented.Thanks to focus on experimental catchments and dedicated research stations, a detailed knowledge of the water cycle on North China farmland has been compiled. A range of techniques that include isotope tracers has been used to acquire hydrologic data. Much research has been devoted to developing distributed hydrological models at different scales. In the well irrigation district, five different water saving irrigation regimes have been investigated, and these regimes have had widespread application, and reduced water use 60-150 mm while they increased water use efficiency (WUE) by 20%-30%.Furthermore, preventing water pollution is the most essential step to ensure North China's water security.

  17. Rangeland degradation in North China : Perceptions of pastoralists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Peter; Azadi, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Rangeland degradation, a worldwide problem, is serious in China, especially in the Northern provinces. To assess the pastoralists' perceptions toward rangeland trend and degradation, a survey was conducted in Ningxia, North China. Data were collected from a total of 284 pastoralists in six Ningxia c

  18. Tectonic Evolution of an Early Precambrian High-Pressure Granulite Belt in the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A large-scale high-pressure granulite belt (HPGB), more than 700 km long, is recognized within the metamorphic basement of the North China craton. In the regional tectonic framework, the Hengshan-Chengde HPGB is located in the central collision belt between the western block and eastern block, and represents the deep crustal structural level. The typical high-pressure granulite (HPG) outcrops are distributed in the Hengshan and Chengde areas. HPGs commonly occur as mafic xenoliths within ductile shear zones, and underwent multipile deformations. To the south, the Hengshan-Chengde HPGB is juxtaposed with the Wutai greenstone belt by several strike-slip shear zones. Preliminary isotopic age dating indicates that HPGs from North China were mainly generated at the end of the Neoarchaean, assocaited with tectonic assembly of the western and esatern blocks.

  19. Herpes simplex virus infections among rural residents in eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV has two types: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both infect epithelial cells and establish latent infections in neurons causing an infection that persists for life. Information on age- and gender-specific seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 is valuable for understanding HSV transmission dynamics and designing population-based prevention and intervention programs for HSV. However, such information is not available for China. Methods Cryopreserved serum samples of all subjects aged 5 to 60 years from two randomly selected rural villages in Zhejiang province in Eastern China who had participated in the China national seroepidemiological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection conducted in 2006 were tested. Seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections were determined by type-specific IgG antibody tests using an ELISA technique. Their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for the sampling fraction were calculated according to the Clopper-Pearson method. Results A total of 2,141 residents participated in the survey, with a response rate of 82.3%. HSV-1 seroprevalence was 92.0% overall, 89.1% for males and 94.2% for females. HSV-1 seroprevalence was 61.6% among children aged 5-9 years, 90.3% among 25-29 years, and nearly 100% among those aged > = 40 years. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 13.2% overall, 10.5% for males and 15.3% for females. No children aged 5-14 years were HSV-2 positive, and HSV-2 seroprevalence was 7.1% among 15-19 years and peaked at 24.3% among those aged 45-49 years. Neither HSV-1 nor HSV-2 infections were significantly different by gender. About 11.8% of study subjects were co-infected with both types of HSV. Among 549 participating couples, 8.6% were HSV-1 serodiscordant and 11.8% were HSV-2 serodiscordant. No one tested positive for HIV. The overall prevalence of HBsAg was 16.2%, 16.9% for males and 15.4% for females. Conclusions HSV-1 was highly prevalent among all rural residents aged between 5-60 years in

  20. Impacts of Two Types of Northward Jumps of the East Asian Upper-tropospheric Jet Stream in Midsummer on Rainfall in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhongda

    2013-01-01

    The East Asian upper-tropospheric jet stream (EAJS) typically jumps north of 45°N in midsummer.These annual northward jumps are mostly classified into two dominant types:the first type corresponds to the enhanced westerly to the north of the EAJS's axis (type A),while the second type is related to the weakened westerly within the EAJS's axis (type B).In this study,the impacts of these two types of northward jumps on rainfall in eastern China are investigated.Our results show that rainfall significantly increases in northern Northeast China and decreases in the Yellow River-Huaihe River valleys,as well as in North China,during the type A jump.As a result of the type B jump,rainfall is enhanced in North China and suppressed in the Yangtze River valley.The changes in rainfall in eastern China during these two types of northward jumps are mainly caused by the northward shifts of the ascending air flow that is directly related to the EAJS.Concurrent with the type A (B) jump,the EAJS-related ascending branch moves from the Yangtze-Huai River valley to northern Northeast (North) China when the EAJS's axis jumps from 40°N to 55°N (50°N).Meanwhile,the type A jump also strengthens the Northeast Asian low in the lower troposphere,leading to more moisture transport to northern Northeast China.The type B jump,however,induces a northwestward extension of the lower-tropospheric western North Pacific subtropical high and more moisture transport to North China.

  1. Large bio-geographical shifts in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Payne, Mark; Beaugrand, G.

    2009-01-01

    and persistent bottom-up bio-physical link is demonstrated using a numerical ocean general circulation model and data on four trophically connected levels in the food chain – phytoplankton, zooplankton, blue whiting, and pilot whales. The plankton data give a unique basin-scale depiction of these changes...... water masses in the north-eastern North Atlantic Ocean, associated with changes in the strength and extent of the subpolar gyre. These exchanges lead to variations in the influence exerted by the subarctic or Lusitanian biomes on the intermediate faunistic zone in the north-eastern Atlantic. This strong...

  2. PEDIATRIC OCULAR TOXOCARIASIS IN JIANGSU PROVINCE, EASTERN CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Fang; Hua, Hai-Yong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxocariasis is caused by migration of a Toxocara larva through the posterior eye. We report the first case of pediatric ocular toxocariasis caused by T. canis in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. A 6-year-old girl presented to Suzhou Municipal Children's Hospital with a complaint of right eye redness, minimal white discharge, no photophobia, eye pain, visual impairment, fever or arthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as having conjunctivitis; however, a 2-month treatment with lomefloxacin 0.3% eye drops gave no improvements. The diagnosis was made based on medical history (contact with dogs), clinical features and detection of T. canis IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthelmintic therapy with albendazole in combination with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the ocular symptoms. Ocular toxocariasis is rarely reported in China. However, the rapid economic development in China, could mean an increase in pet dogs with the potential increased risk of contracting toxocariasis if no control measures are taken. Disposal of pet litter, deworming of infected pets, complete cooking of meats, thorough rinsing of fruits and vegetables, and good hand-washing may help prevent human infections. Ocular toxocariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with conjunctivitis that does not resolve with treatment.

  3. Developments in Ground-Motion Modeling in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Boore, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent well-recorded earthquakes in Eastern North America (ENA) have led us to re-evaluate concepts that have been "standard fare" in the development of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for ENA for decades, including all published GMPEs that are used in current practice (e.g. Atkinson and Boore, 2011, 2006, 1995; Pezeshk et al., 2011; Campbell, 2003; Toro et al., 1997, etc.). Assumptions common to all ENA GMPEs that may not be true include the following. (1) Typical ENA stress drops, in the context of a Brune model representation of the source spectrum, are in the range of 150-300 bars, with the exception of occasional high-stress events like the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. (2) Attenuation of ground motions can be modeled with a frequency-independent geometric spreading function, either bilinear or trilinear in shape (e.g. Street and Turcotte, 1975; Herrmann and Kijko, 1983; Atkinson and Mereu, 1992; Atkinson, 2004; Boatwright and Seekins, 2011), and an associated frequency-dependent anelastic attenuation term related to the regional Quality factor. The use of a bilinear or trilinear form models the transition from geometric spreading of body waves at close distances to slower surface-wave-type spreading at regional distances. We use ground-motion recordings from recent ENA events to re-examine these basic tenets of GMPE development, in light of constraints on the problem provided at low frequencies by seismic moment, and at high frequencies by stresses inferred from Empirical Greens Function (EGF) analysis. We find strong evidence, in both ground-motion data and from the constraints, that geometric attenuation may be frequency dependent. Moreover, EGF stress drops may be very high (>500 bars) - but they do not lead to particularly large high-frequency ground motions, at least at distances for which we have observations. More complex models of ENA source and attenuation processes appear to be required in order to reconcile our growing ground-motion database

  4. A description of the tides in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul, Enrique Alvarez; Gómez, Begoña Pérez; Sánchez-Arévalo, Ignacio Rodríguez

    A description of the Eastern North Atlantic tidal dynamics (in a region spanning from 20°N to 48°N in latitude and from 34°W to 0° in longitude) is obtained by means of new in situ measurements and numerical modelling based on TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived data sets. The main source of measurements is the tide gauge network REDMAR (RED de MAReógrafos de Puertos del Estado), operative since July 1992 and managed by Clima Marítimo (Puertos del Estado). Results derived from the harmonic analysis of the first years of measurements are presented and compared with model results. In order to obtain a global picture of the tides in the region, a large compilation of harmonic constants obtained from other institutes is included. The availability of new TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived harmonic constants data sets provides a chance to include the benefits derived from satellite altimetry in high resolution regional applications of numerical models. Richard Ray's tidal model (Ray et al., 1994), based on a response type tidal analysis of TOPEX/POSEIDON data, was employed within a model of the studied area. The numerical model employed is HAMSOM, a 3-D finite difference code developed both by the Institut für Meereskunde (Hamburg University) and Clima Marítimo. Results from simulations of seven major harmonics are presented, providing a comprehensive view of tidal dynamics, including current information. The results of tidal simulations show good agreement between semidiurnal harmonic components and the values measured by both coastal and pelagic tidal gauges and by current meters. The modelled diurnal constituents show larger relative differences with measurements than semidiurnal harmonics, especially concerning the phase lags. The non-linear transfer of energy from semidiurnal to higher order harmonics, such as M 4 and M 6, was mapped. Those transfers were found to be important only in two areas: the French continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay and the widest part of the African

  5. Sediment budget for Rediu reservoir catchment, North-Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todosi, Cristian; Niculita, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Sediment budgets are a useful tool for geomorphologic analysis, catchment management and environmental assessment, despite the uncertainties related to their assessment. We present the sediment budget construction and validation for a small catchment of 9.5319 kmp (953.19 ha) situated in the North-Eastern part of Romania. The Rediu reservoir was built between 1986 and 1988, on Rediu valley, a left tributary of Bahlui river, north-west from Iasi city. The catchment of the reservoir has 6.5 km in length and 2.5 km in maximum width, the altitudes decreasing from 170 m in the northern part, to 52 m in the southern part. The valley is symmetric, the altitude of the hillslopes going between 200 m to 75 m in one km length, in the transversal section with the maximum width. The floodplain is narrow having between 20 m to 210 m (in the area of confluence with Breazu tributary). The mean slope of the catchment is 6.4 degree, the maximum slope being 24.6 degrees. The length of channels which show banks of up to 2 m is 19.98 km. The land is used predominantly as crops (58.1 %), 16.7 % being covered by pastures (from which over half are eroded), 11.5 % percent of the catchment being covered by planted forests, 9.2 % by rural constructions and roads, 2.9 % by hayfields, 1.5 % by lakes and 0.1 % by orchards. Beside the Rediu reservoir, there are three ponds (15 771, 1761 and 751 sqm) in the catchment. We considered the trap efficiency for the reservoir and the ponds to be 95%. Aerial images from 1963, 1978 , 1984, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 were used to assess the state of geomorphological processes before and after the reservoir construction. After 1970 a gully system situated in Breazu tributary sub-catchment and several active landslides along the main valley left side were forested. Beside these processes, soil erosion and human impact by constructions are the main processes generating sediment in the study area. The sediment yields were quantified by estimating the

  6. Gold contents of both mantle-derived xenoliths and sulfides in them from eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The gold contents of 59 samples of mantle-derived xenoliths, along with 85 samples of sulfide assem-blages in them, of Cenozoic basalt from eight districts in eastern China are analyzed. The gold contents of mantle xenoliths usually fall in the range of 10-9―10-8, whereas those of the sulfide assemblages fall in the range of 10-4―10-2. This implies that the latter are several hundred thousand times higher than the former, and thus that Au in the mantle is concentrated mostly in sulfide assemblages. Gold con-tents of both mantle-derived xenoliths and sulfide assemblages in them are inhomogeneous spatially, but their distribution rules are similar. Except the samples from Hainan Province, either the mantle xenoliths with high gold content or sulfide assemblages of the mantle-derived xenoliths with high gold content are distributed mostly on the north and south margins of the North China platform (Hannuoba of Hebei Province and Linqu, Changle of Shandong Province), corresponding to districts with concen-trated gold deposits in northwest Hebei Province and Jiaodong Peninsula of Shandong Province. This may reflect the correlativity in age, nature and composition between the continental crust and the un-derlying lithospheric mantle. The underlying lithospheric mantle of the North China platform is an an-cient gold-rich lithospheric mantle. The gold-rich lithospheric mantle may be the material source of later activation, enrichment, transportation and mineralization of gold by auriferous CO2 mantle fluids.

  7. Comparative phylogeography of the wild-rice genus Zizania (Poaceae) in eastern Asia and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Wei; Wu, Jin-Wei; Qi, Mei-Xia; Lu, Qi-Xiang; Lee, Peter F; Lutz, Sue; Ge, Song; Wen, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Comparative phylogeography of intercontinental disjunct taxa allowed us not only to elucidate their diversification and evolution following geographic isolation, but also to understand the effect of climatic and geological histories on the evolutionary processes of closely related species. A phylogeographic analysis was conducted on the eastern Asian-North American disjunct genus Zizania to compare intracontinental phylogeographic patterns between different continents. Surveys were conducted of 514 individuals using three chloroplast DNA fragments and three nuclear microsatellite loci. These individuals included 246 from 45 populations of Zizania latifolia in eastern Asia, and the following from North America: 154 individuals from 26 populations of Z. aquatica, 84 individuals from 14 populations of Z. palustris, and 30 individuals from one population of Z. texana. The genetic diversity of North American Zizania was significantly higher than that of eastern Asian Zizania. High levels of genetic differentiation among populations and no signal of population expansion were detected in three widespread species. No phylogeographic structure was observed in Z. latifolia, and discordant patterns of cpDNA and microsatellite markers were observed in North American Zizania. Reduced variation in Zizania latifolia likely reflects its perennial life history, the North American origin of Zizania, and the relative homogeneity of aquatic environments. High levels of genetic differentiation suggest limited dispersal among populations in all Zizania species. The more complex patterns of diversification and evolution in North American Zizania may be driven by the greater impact of glaciation in North America relative to eastern Asia. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Carboniferous coprolites from Qinhuangdao of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Here we reported the coprolites that are preserved in the dark grey silty shale of the Carboniferous Benxi Formation from Shimenzhai,Qinhuangdao,North China.The coprolites occur in a sinusoidal and ribbon-like aggregate.A coprolite granule is sesame-shaped,roundish at the terminals,equidimensional and equimorphic.It is 2.2 mm long and 0.6 mm wide.Its ventral surface appears flat,and its dorsal surface is slightly convex and has an axial furrow consisting of a string of bead-shaped pits.The coprolite granule has a directional arrangement and general equality in distribution within the aggregate.Its long axis is commonly perpendicular to the margins of the aggregate.The undigested food remains of animals and plants and the organomineral calcites with heteromorphology can be seen within the coprolite granule under photomicroscope and SEM.We deduced that a tracemaker of coprolites may be a tiny polyphagia animal similar to a modern loach or a tiny fish and that the tracemaker defecated and moved in synchronization below the interface between water and sediment.The coprolites may have a high viscidity and intensity while they were defecated.Diagenesis of feces may take place earlier and quicker than the host strata because of microbes.The lagersttte of coprolites described herein may result from the combination of many factors,such as the high content of oxygen in the Carboniferous atmosphere,the brackish lagoon in humid and tropic climate background,the low water energy,and the anoxic taphonomic environment that was lack of other animals.Further we suggested that the deoxidized color (dark grey) of host strata of coprolites may be formed in the sedimentary environment rich in oxygen and the early anoxic diagenetic environment.

  9. Summer heat waves over Eastern China: dynamical processes and trend attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freychet, Nicolas; Tett, Simon; Wang, Jun; Hegerl, Gabriele

    2017-02-01

    Recent trends in summer heat waves (HW) over Central-Eastern China and their atmospheric drivers are investigated using the ERA Interim re-analysis. A composite analysis shows that these events are preceded by an increase in 500 hPa geopotential height. Consequently, a subsidence anomaly develops over the region and surface solar radiation increases. An increase in the northward moisture transport from the tropical region is also found to increase specific humidity, leading to warmer night-time temperatures. Feedback effects are also important: decrease of precipitation and enhanced evaporation also increases the specific humidity and North-Westerlies due to the low pressure lead to more heat convergence. HW occurrence increases, especially during the last decade, and is largely due to an increase in the mean temperature rather than to a change in dynamics, suggesting a human influence.

  10. Deep-Source Ore-Forming Materials and Prospecting of Gold Deposits in Eastern Hebei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝德; 牛树银; 孙爱群; 李红阳

    2003-01-01

    Eastern Hebei Province is one of the important gold mineralization areas in North China, and detailed investigations have been made in this area. Different mineralization models and different ore-forming sources have been proposed for the gold deposits in this area. As more detailed work was made and more information has been accumulated, it is necessary to make a new investigation on gold metallogenesis and its source. This paper presents the data about 13 gold deposits (occurrences). It is concluded that the element gold came from the deep mantle.Different models of metallogenesis substantially describe such processes that ore-forming fluids were involved in metallogenesis in different favorable loci. Gold ore prospecting should be focused on fluid channel ways and favorable structures.

  11. Phylogeny and Biogeography of Thuja L. (Cupressaceae), an Eastern Asian and North American Disjunct Genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua LI; Qiao-Ping XIANG

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop better insights into biogeographic patterns of eastern Asian and North American disjunct plant genera, sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (nr DNA ITS) region were used to estimate interspecific relationships of Thuja L. (Cupressaceae) and infer its biogeography based on the phylogeny. According to the phylogenetic analysis, two clades were recognized. The first clade included Thuja plicata D. Don (western North America) and T. koraiensis Nakai (northeastern Asia), and the second one contained T. occidentalis (Gord.) Carr. (Japan). The ancestral area of Thuja was inferred to be eastern Asia, and two dispersal events were responsible for the modern distribution of Thuja in North America. Both the North Atlantic land bridge and Bering land bridge were possible routes for the migration of ancestral populations to North America.

  12. Neogene dinocyst zonation for the eastern North Sea Basin, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkjær, Karen; Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    - and sequence stratigraphy. The dinocyst zonation and the foraminifer zonation of the Danish Miocene (based upon analysis of the same boreholes) were independently calibrated with the established nannoplankton zonation. This correlation revealed a mismatch generally corresponding to one nannoplankton zone...... for the Achomosphaera andalousiensis Zone. Neogene biostratigraphy in the North Sea Basin has been problematic due to the periodically limited connection between the North Sea Basin and the North Atlantic Ocean, especially with respect to stratigraphy based on foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton. Many...

  13. Quality Control Methodology Of A Surface Wind Observational Database In North Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; Conte, Jorge; Beltrami, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    This work summarizes the design and application of a Quality Control (QC) procedure for an observational surface wind database located in North Eastern North America. The database consists of 526 sites (486 land stations and 40 buoys) with varying resolutions of hourly, 3 hourly and 6 hourly data, compiled from three different source institutions with uneven measurement units and changing measuring procedures, instrumentation and heights. The records span from 1953 to 2010. The QC process is composed of different phases focused either on problems related with the providing source institutions or measurement errors. The first phases deal with problems often related with data recording and management: (1) compilation stage dealing with the detection of typographical errors, decoding problems, site displacements and unification of institutional practices; (2) detection of erroneous data sequence duplications within a station or among different ones; (3) detection of errors related with physically unrealistic data measurements. The last phases are focused on instrumental errors: (4) problems related with low variability, placing particular emphasis on the detection of unrealistic low wind speed records with the help of regional references; (5) high variability related erroneous records; (6) standardization of wind speed record biases due to changing measurement heights, detection of wind speed biases on week to monthly timescales, and homogenization of wind direction records. As a result, around 1.7% of wind speed records and 0.4% of wind direction records have been deleted, making a combined total of 1.9% of removed records. Additionally, around 15.9% wind speed records and 2.4% of wind direction data have been also corrected.

  14. The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Farke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopsids (“horned dinosaurs” are known from western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting an inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern North America, presumably due to limited outcrop of the appropriate age and depositional environment as well as the separation of eastern and western North America by the Western Interior Seaway during much of the Late Cretaceous. A dentary tooth from the Owl Creek Formation (late Maastrichtian of Union County, Mississippi, represents the first reported occurrence of Ceratopsidae from eastern North America. This tooth shows a combination of features typical of Ceratopsidae, including a double root and a prominent, blade-like carina. Based on the age of the fossil, we hypothesize that it is consistent with a dispersal of ceratopsids into eastern North America during the very latest Cretaceous, presumably after the two halves of North America were reunited following the retreat of the Western Interior Seaway.

  15. 12 Blocks Open in North west China's Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PetroChina Foreign Cooperation Administration Depa

    2006-01-01

    @@ After having opened up for 20 years, the field of oil/gas exploration and development in China is witnessing a new round of high tide to attract foreign investment.PetroChina, China's biggest oil/gas producer and supplier,decided to offer 12 blocks totaling an acreage of 110,000sq.km. in Tarim Basin to players of the industry globally.The project is the biggest oil/gas deal in China aiming at foreign cooperation for approximately 12 years, in which the 12 blocks that will be offered located mainly in southwestern, central and eastern Tarim Basin. It will enable PetroChina to combine its experience and cognition on the geological condition of Tarim Basin with the updated prospecting concept and advanced prospecting technique in the world, improve the proved degree of oil and gas resources in Tarim Basin and achieve a big breakthrough in oil and gas exploration.

  16. Geochemistry of eastern North American CAMP diabase dykes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, S.; Marzoli, A.; Bertrand, H.; Reisberg, L. C.; Chiaradia, M.; Bellieni, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Piedmont area of the Appalachians and the coastal plains of eastern North America (ENA) were intruded between 202 and 195 Ma[1,2] by swarms of diabase (dolerite) dykes and a few sills of the Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP). Different trends are observed for the dykes, from NW (more frequent in the South), to N-S and NE, thus a radial pattern and a coeval emplacement driven by the bulging effect of a mantle plume were initially inferred[3]. Conversely, based on field data, an age progression can be defined from NW- to N- and NE-oriented dykes, supporting a diachronous northward rift-to-drift transition during Pangaea break-up. New geochemical data on 74 ENA dykes suggest a dominant lithospheric mantle source for these magmatic suite. A deep enriched mantle source is further discarded by the crystallization temperatures (ca.1350°C) calculated[4] for high-Fo (up to Fo89) olivines, which do not reflect very hot (i.e. mantle-plume) potential mantle temperatures. Incompatible trace element contents are fairly homogeneous and generally low, e.g. (La/Yb)Ch (0.54-2.39), typical of melts derived from a quite depleted shallow (spinel) mantle-source. However, isotopic compositions of ENA dykes display a considerable spread in initial isotopic signatures, do not show correlation with incompatible trace elements, and are independent of the orientation and age of the dykes, i.e. 87Sr/86Sr200Ma (0.7043-0.7088), ɛNd200Ma (-6.67-+2.42) and 206Pb/204Pb200Ma (17.46-18.61). Pb isotopic compositions plot above the NHRL, at positive Δ7/4 (10-17) and Δ8/4 (19-73), calling for an enriched ancient component in the mantle source. Unradiogenic 187Os/188Os200Ma ratios (0.127-0.144) argue for negligible amounts of crustal contamination and, coupled with the large range of Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, suggest generation from a strongly heterogeneous mantle source, probably metasomatized lithosphere. Lithospheric mantle underlying the Appalachian orogen may have undergone

  17. Uppermost mantle P wavespeed structure beneath eastern China and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weijia; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2016-06-01

    Pn travel-time tomography provides a way of improving structural information on the uppermost mantle across eastern China exploiting recent developments of dense seismic networks with well recorded seismic events. We used waveforms from 2009 at Chinese stations, supplemented by bulletin arrival times. An initial P wave model was constructed using the crustal model from CRUST1.0 coupled to a P wave model in the mantle derived from the SL2013sv model to capture the broad-scale features. This starting model enables us to compensate for the large contrasts in crustal thickness across the region. All events were relocated using the initial 3-D P model, and after relocation, consistent patterns of travel-time residuals are obtained. We extract Pn as the first arrival in the distance range 1.8 ∘ to 12 ∘. We use the FMTOMO (Fast Marching TOMOgraphy) approach to invert the travel-time results to generate a P wavespeed structure with a resolution of 2 ∘× 2 ∘ down to 75 km. There are considerable variations in Pn wavespeed in the uppermost mantle across the region. The central portion of the North China craton is imaged with particularly slow P wavespeeds, whilst most of the neighbouring Ordos block is fast. Fast P wavespeeds extend through much of the uppermost mantle beneath eastern Central Asia Orogen, northeast China and beneath the Korean peninsula. In the south, the Sichuan Block and the western Yangtze craton show rather fast P wavespeeds. The Tanlu fault system appears to cut through the crust into the mantle with marked slow P wavespeed at its southern end.

  18. Understanding severe winter haze events in the North China Plain in 2014: roles of climate anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun; Chen, Huopo

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a serious environmental and social problem in China. Over the past 30 years, the number of winter (December-February) haze days over the North China Plain (WHDNCP) was greatest in 2014. In addition to anthropogenic influence, climate anomalies also played a role. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the anomalous atmosphere circulations associated with haze pollution of this year in detail. Near the surface, the weaker East Asian winter monsoon pattern, causing southerly winds over the North China Plain, could aggravate the situation of haze. In the lower and middle troposphere, taking the anticyclone circulation over North China as an intermediate system, the positive phases of the eastern Atlantic/western Russia (EA/WR), the western Pacific (WP), and the Eurasia (EU) patterns led to a worse air pollution dispersion condition that contributed to a larger number of WHDNCP. In 2014, these three patterns could be recognized from the wind anomalies in the lower troposphere. The preceding autumn (September-November) Arctic sea ice (ASI) anomalies over the eastern Hemisphere and the warmer winter surface over Eurasia might have induced or intensified the positive EA/WR pattern in 2014. These two external forcings, together with the pre-autumn sea surface temperature anomalies in the Pacific, might have also stimulated or enhanced the positive EU-like patterns. The anomalous surface temperature in autumn 2014 was efficient in intensifying anomalous circulations such as the positive phase of the WP pattern. The opposite case of minimum WHDNCP in 2010 further supports the mechanism of how EA/WR and WP patterns and associated external factors altered the local climate conditions to impact the WHDNCP.

  19. Prevalence of dengue and chikungunya virus infections in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C; Kaaya, Robert D; Mwakalinga, Steven;

    2016-01-01

    and chikungunya virus among participants presenting with malaria-like symptoms (fever, headache, rash, vomit, and joint pain) in three communities with distinct ecologies of north-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: Cross sectional studies were conducted among 1100 participants (aged 2-70 years) presenting with malaria....... Further analyses revealed that headache and joint pain were significantly associated with chikungunya IgM seropositivity. CONCLUSION: In north-eastern Tanzania, mainly chikungunya virus appears to be actively circulating in the population. Continuous surveillance is needed to determine the contribution...

  20. [Detection of antibodies of Borrelia burgdorferi among inhabitants of north-eastern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancewicz, S A; Januszkiewicz, A; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, T

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi among inhabitants in North Eastern Poland 1765 persons from Białystok, Lomza and Suwałki voivodships were examined. Among them 1101 persons were from high-risk of exposition to ticks group (forest workers, people living close to forests). 418 (23.68%) persons from group of 1765 had antibodies against B.b. There was no difference of incidence of antibodies against B.b. in high-risk group and the others. The results show that North Eastern Poland is the endemic region of occurrence of B.b.

  1. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    ... (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution...

  2. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qing Liu

    2015-04-01

    Besides, during the Late Mesozoic, a huge terrestrial biota, mainly dinosaur fauna, dominated in North China. The Yanliao biota of the Middle–Late Jurassic and the Jehol biota of the Early Cretaceous are characterized by feathered dinosaurs, primitive birds, mammals, pterosaur, insects and plants (angiosperms. In northeastern Asia, this Late Mesozoic tectonic background , palaeogeoraphy and palaeoecology were shared by East China, Korean Peninsula, Japan and the Far East of Russia.

  3. North Koreans in China in need of international protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cohen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of continuing persecution of North Koreans who are forcibly returned to their country of origin by China, the international community needs to reconsider how it might better work towards securing protection for North Koreans. Some may be political refugees, others ‘refugees sur place’: they may not have been refugees when they left their country but become refugees because they have a valid fear of persecution upon return.

  4. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cotton in north eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, P.; Rowlings, D.; Weier, K.; Rochester, I.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2009-04-01

    Cotton is one of many agricultural industries in Australia heavily reliant on nitrogenous fertilizers and water storages to maintain high levels of production. Cotton-based farming systems are therefore labelled as potentially high-risk agricultural systems with respect to gaseous losses of nitrogen to the atmosphere. The on-farm study was undertaken at Dalby in the Darling Downs region of Queensland in north eastern Australia. The field was furrow irrigated and had been under continuous cotton (with winter bare fallow) for 10 years. The block was conventionally tilled, with a spraying regime typical for cotton production in this area. The black clay (with a surface clay content of 68%) and soil organic carbon content (0-10 cm) of 1.0% and a pH of 8.5, is typical of the region. During the the 2006/07 season, soil water (0-50 cm with Enviroscan), mineral nitrogen (0-10 cm) and crop production data was also collected to develop accurate models for predicting greenhouse gas emissions as a function of key chemical, physical and biological processes and specific management events. The 2006/07 experiment also attempted to directly measure the specific losses of N2O and N2 from a single application of N fertiliser using 15N isotopically labelled urea. The automated greenhouse gas measuring system (developed by Butterbach-Bahl et al.) consists of six chambers connected to sequential sampling unit, a gas chromatograph (equipped with both electron capture and flame ionization detectors for nitrous oxide and methane analysis respectively), and a Licor for carbon dioxide. To meet the demand for high mobility, the sample acquisition and analysis system is trailer mounted. During a normal sampling period, the chambers were closed for 90 minutes (unless temperatures within the chambers exceeded 55oC). The sampling program ensured that that a single gas sample was drawn back from each chamber every 20 minutes. To facilitate 15N gas sampling, Swagelok T-pieces were inserted into

  6. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... on the petition (75 FR 68756). That Federal Register notice began NMFS' 15-day public comment period... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... petition to designate the Eastern North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as...

  7. 76 FR 77021 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency... Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) and North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency are... single unit Westinghouse three-loop pressurized water reactor located in Wake and Chatham Counties,...

  8. 76 FR 77024 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company North Carolina Eastern, Municipal Power Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Carolina Power & Light Company North Carolina Eastern, Municipal Power Agency, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Order Approving Indirect Transfer of Control of Licenses I Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) and North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency are the owners of...

  9. Huge Oil Spill off North China Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xiaojie

    2011-01-01

    ConocoPhillips China, a subsidiary of the US oil giant, operates an oilfield in Bohai Bay in partnership with Chinese offshore oil producer China National Offshore Oil Company (CNOOC), where a massive oil slick was detected on June 4 this year. The spill from the oilfield, which the United States' ConocoPhillips operates with China's state-run oil giant CNOOC, has polluted a total area of almost 4,250 square kilometers. The figures,

  10. Gold Content of Mantle-Derived Rocks from Eastern China and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ying; DONG Zhenxin; YUE Kefen; ZHANG Zhanjun; WANG Xin

    2003-01-01

    We have analyzed the gold content of 65 samples of mantle-derived xenoliths and their host rocks from eastern China, which is found to be inhomogeneous, falling in the ranges of 1.0×10-9-8.2×10-9 (averaging 3.8 ×10-9) and 0.2×10-9-5.3×10-9 (averaging 2.7×10-9) in the mantle-derived xenoliths and the host basalts respectively. Except the samples from Wanquan County of Hebei Province and Anding County of Hainan Province, the gold content is the highest on the margins of the North China platform and decreases spatially towards the north and south, and temporally the samples of the Tertiary have a higher gold content than those of the Quaternary. The gold content of the mantle-derived xenoliths and the host Paleozoic kimberlites is 3.8×10-9-180×10-9 and 0.1×10-9-38.0×10-9 respectively, which are higher than that in the mantle-derived xenoliths in basalt and the host Cenozoic basalts. The mantle-derived xenoliths have a higher gold content than the host rocks, but their relativity is not very clear, suggesting that the genetic relationship between them is complex. Our data indicate that the average gold content of the lithospheric mantle in eastern China is approximately equal to or approaching 3.8×10-9, which is lower than the average abundance of the upper mantle (5.0×10-9), higher than the average abundance of the continental crust (3.0×10-9) and only slightly higher than the average abundance of the lower continental crust (3.4×10-9). Except the samples from Hainan Province, the mantle-derived xenoliths in basalts with a high gold content are distributed on the two margins of the North China platform, corresponding to the gold deposits-concentrated districts in northwest Hebei Province and Shandong Province, showing the control by the old continental lithospheric mantle and the lower continental crust on the margins of the North China platform. The gold content of the mantle-derived xenoliths from Hainan Province ranges from 7.1×10-9 to 15×10

  11. Highly Silica-Undersaturated Sapphirine Granulites from the Daqingshan Area of the Western Block, North China Craton: Palaeoproterozoic UHT Metamorphism and Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jing-hui; ZHAO Guo-chun; Chen Yi; Peng Peng; B. F. Windley; SUN Min

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sapphirine-bearing granulites have recently been found in the Daqingshan and Jining areas, both of which are located in a Palaeoproterozoic collisional belt, named the Khondalite Belt, along which the Yinshan Block in the north and the Ordos Block in the south were amalgamated to form the Western Block at~1.95 Ga, and then the Western Block collided with the Eastern Block along the Trans-North China Orogen to form the coherent basement of the North China Craton at~1.85 Ga.

  12. ON THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SUMMER RAINFALL IN CHINA AND THE ATMOSPHERIC HEAT SOURCES OVER THE EASTERN TIBETAN PLATEAU AND THE WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简茂球; 罗会邦; 乔云亭

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between the summer rainfall in China and the atmospheric heat sources over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific warm pool were analyzed comparatively, using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis daily data. The strong (weak) heat source in summer over the eastern Tibetan Plateau will lead to abundant (scarce) summer rainfall in the Yangtze River basin, and scarce/abundant summer rainfall in the eastern part of Southern China. While the strong (weak) heat source in summer over the western Pacific warm pool will lead to another pattern of abundant (scarce) summer rainfall in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River and scarce (abundant) summer rainfall in Southern China and in the region of northern Jiangsu to southern Shandong. Comparatively, the heat source over the eastern Tibetan Plateau affects a larger area of summer rainfall than the heat source over the western Pacific. In both cases of the heat source anomalies over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and over the western Pacific, there exist EAP-like teleconnection patterns in East Asia. The summer rainfall in China is influenced directly by the abnormal vertical motion, which is related closely to the abnormal heat sources in the atmosphere. The ridge line of the western Pacific High locates far south (north) in summer in the case of strong (weak) heat sources over the two areas mentioned above.

  13. Regional warming chnages fish species richness in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Hiddink, J.G.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    Regional warming causes changes in local communities due to species extinctions and latitudinal range shifts. We show that the species richness of fish in 3 regional seas in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean has changed over time (1997 to 2008), and we relate this to higher water temperatures and the

  14. The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica recorded on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos AC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica was found causing a powdery mildew disease on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil. Its chasmothecial state was not observed on the collected samples. The fungus is illustrated and described. This report represents the first record of this fungus on Cleome spinosa in Brazil.

  15. Pollinators of the invasive plant, yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), in north-eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McIver; Robbin Thorp; Karen Erickson

    2009-01-01

    The potential pollinators of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) were surveyed at six sites in north-eastern Oregon, USA, between May and September from 2000 to 2002. The objective of the study was to determine the species composition and relative abundance of the insects that visited yellow starthistle throughout the flowering season and...

  16. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, WJ

    2000-01-01

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases, th

  17. Data on the macromycetes flora of the North-Eastern Ploand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longin Olesiński

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The list of 352 macromycetes (Asco- and Basidiomycetes collected in the North-Eastern Poland is given. It is the first part of mycofloristic investigation in this region conducted in the years 1964-1997 by latter author, and 1981-1982, by former autor.;

  18. A hidden early source of information on north-eastern Brazilian zoology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Attention is drawn to some hitherto overlooked paragraphs on the north-eastern Brazilian fauna hid- den in a historiographic account of Count Johan Maurits' govenorship (1637-1644), published by Caspar van Baerle (Barlaeus) in 1647, a year before the publication of Marcgrave & Piso's famous Historia

  19. Maloprim malaria prophylaxis in children living in a holoendemic village in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Msangeni, H A; Rønn, A M;

    1997-01-01

    A randomized, double-'blind', placebo-controlled trial of weekly Maloprim (dapsone-pyrimethamine, D-P) for malaria prophylaxis was conducted at Magoda village in north-eastern Tanzania. The effect of D-P on the incidence of clinical malaria, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and density, splenomeg...

  20. Field Guide for the Biological Control of Weeds in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    This field guide provides information about invasive weeds in Eastern North America and their associated biological control agents. Information about plant identification and ecology is provided through photographs and descriptions for each weed species. The guide also includes photographs of the bi...

  1. Deep crustal structures of eastern China and adjacent seas revealed by magnetic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Through reduction to the North Pole and upward continuation of the total field magnetic anomalies, we analyze magnetic patterns and spatial distributions of different tectonic blocks and crustal faults in eastern China and adjacent seas. Depths to the Curie isotherms are further estimated from radially averaged amplitude spectra of magnetic data reduced to the pole. Data reductions effectively enhance boundaries of regional tectonic belts, such as the Dabie ultra-high metamorphic belt, the Tanlu Fault, and the Diaoyudao Uplift. Curie depths are estimated at between 19.6 and 48.9 km, with a mean of 31.7 km. The Subei Basin and the south Yellow Sea Basin in the lower Yangtze block show relatively deep Curie isotherms, up to about 35 km in depth, whereas in the surrounding areas Curie depths are averaged at about 25 km. This implies that the lower Yangtze Block has experienced a unique tectonic evolution and/or has unique basement lithology and structures. From a regional perspective, sedimentary basins, such as the Subei Basin, the south Yellow Sea Basin, and the East China Sea Basin, normally show deeper Curie isotherms than surrounding uplifts such as the Diaoyudao Uplift and the Zhemin Uplifts. Curie isotherms also upwell significantly in volcanically active areas such as the Ryukyu Arc and the Cheju Island, confirming strong magmatic and geothermal activities at depth.

  2. Characterization of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinhong; Gong, Jiansen; Han, Xiangan; Xu, Ming; Shen, Haiyu; Zhang, Di; Zhuang, Linlin; Liu, Jiasheng; Zou, Jianmin

    2016-01-15

    In order to investigate the biological characteristics of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated in eastern China, a total of 243 isolates were isolated from diseased poultry on different farms during the period from 2007 to 2014. These isolates were characterized for serogroups (polymerase chain reaction and agglutination), the presence of virulence-associated genes (fimC, iss, ompA, fyuA, stx2f, iroC, iucD, hlyE, tsh, cvaC, irp2, and papC) and class I integrons (polymerase chain reaction), drug susceptibilities (disk diffusion method) and the biofilm-forming abilities (semi-quantitative method). The results showed that the most predominant serogroups were O78 (87 isolates, 35.8%) and O2 (35 isolates, 14.4%). Gene profiling found that fimC and ompA were frequently distributed among the isolates and that 77.4% of the isolates were positive for class 1 integrons. Overall, isolates displayed resistance to tetracycline (97.5%), nalidixic acid (82.3%), ampicillin (81.1%), sulphafurazole (80.7%), streptomycin (79.0%), trimethoprim (78.2%) and cotrimoxazole (78.2%). Multiple-drug resistance was exhibited in 80.3% of the isolates, and the presence of class 1 integrons is associated with multidrug resistance. Finally, 151 isolates had the ability to form biofilms in vitro, and drug resistance seemed relative to biofilm-forming abilities.

  3. Study of thrust and nappe tectonics in the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HongYuan; HOU QuanLin; CAO DaiYong

    2007-01-01

    Thrust and nappe tectonics have affected the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, the easternmost terminal of the Sulu Ultra-high Pressure Metamorphic Belt. Four nappes have been mapped, named respectively the Shidao, Rongcheng, Mishan and Mouping nappes. The methods used included multi-scale structural analysis and structural chronology analysis. These nappes define four deep level slip-thrust shear zones that were mainly active in the Mesozoic. The amount of ductile deformation decreases from the Shidao to Rongcheng to Mouping to Mishan shear zones, and shows an inverse relationship with temperature. 40Ar/39Ar chronological analysis and the chronological results of former workers reveal four movement steps defined by the development of thrusts and nappes in the late Triassic (210-180 Ma), extensional movement from the Jurassic to early Cretaceous (180-130 Ma), slip-thrust movement in the Early Cretaceous (130-120 Ma), and extensional movement since the Late Cretaceous (120 Ma). The order of boundary shear zone motion in the period of slip-thrust movement during the Early Cretaceous (130-120 Ma) was along the Shidao, Rongcheng, Mouping and finally the Mishan shear zone. This resulted in clockwise rotation of the nappes relative to block west to the Tan-Lu Faults. Because of the similar evolutionary history of the Tan-Lu Faults and the thrust and nappe structure in the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, slip dislocation along the Tan-Lu Faults might have been absorbed by thrust and nappe tectonics in the Jiaodong area in the Mesozoic era, resulting in much less dislocation on the Tan-Lu faults in North Eastern China than that in south along the Jiaodong Peninsula.

  4. Study of thrust and nappe tectonics in the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thrust and nappe tectonics have affected the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, the easternmost terminal of the Sulu Ultra-high Pressure Metamorphic Belt. Four nappes have been mapped, named respectively the Shidao, Rongcheng, Mishan and Mouping nappes. The methods used included multi-scale struc- tural analysis and structural chronology analysis. These nappes define four deep level slip-thrust shear zones that were mainly active in the Mesozoic. The amount of ductile deformation decreases from the Shidao to Rongcheng to Mouping to Mishan shear zones, and shows an inverse relationship with temperature. 40Ar/39Ar chronological analysis and the chronological results of former workers reveal four movement steps defined by the development of thrusts and nappes in the late Triassic (210-180 Ma), extensional movement from the Jurassic to early Cretaceous (180-130 Ma), slip-thrust movement in the Early Cretaceous (130-120 Ma), and extensional movement since the Late Cretaceous (120 Ma). The order of boundary shear zone motion in the period of slip-thrust movement during the Early Cre- taceous (130-120 Ma) was along the Shidao, Rongcheng, Mouping and finally the Mishan shear zone. This resulted in clockwise rotation of the nappes relative to block west to the Tan-Lu Faults. Because of the similar evolutionary history of the Tan-Lu Faults and the thrust and nappe structure in the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, slip dislocation along the Tan-Lu Faults might have been absorbed by thrust and nappe tectonics in the Jiaodong area in the Mesozoic era, resulting in much less dislocation on the Tan-Lu faults in North Eastern China than that in south along the Jiaodong Peninsula.

  5. Investigating the cooperative strategies between China and North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating the cooperative strategies between China and North Korea for the ... to how to build multi-purpose dams and allocate the benefits and costs thereof. ... in this case, moved from a low-growth scenario to a high-growth scenario.

  6. Early Pleistocene occurrence of Acheulian technology in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingwen; Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Shan; Huang, Weiwen; Hou, Yamei; Zhang, Weihua; An, Zhisheng

    2017-01-01

    Acheulian tools with their associated level of cognizance heralded a major threshold in the evolution of hominin technology, culture and behavior. Thus, unraveling occurrence ages of Acheulian technology across different regions worldwide constitutes a key aspect of understanding the archeology of early human evolution. Here we present a magneto-cyclochronology for the Acheulian assemblage from Sanmenxia Basin, Loess Plateau, North China. Our results place a sequence of stable normal and reversed paleomagnetic polarities within a regional lithostratigraphic context. The Acheulian assemblage is dated to be older than the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary at 0.78 Ma, and is found in strata that are probably equivalent to a weak paleosol subunit within loess layer L9 in the Chinese loess-paleosol sequence, which corresponds to marine isotope stage (MIS) 23, a relatively subdued interglacial period with age range of ∼0.89-0.92 Ma. This age of ∼0.9 Ma implies that Acheulian stone tools were unambiguously present in North China during the Early Pleistocene. It distinctly enlarges the geographic distribution of Acheulian technology and brings its occurrence in North China back into the Early Pleistocene, which is contemporaneous with its first emergence in Europe. Combined with other archeological records, the larger area over which Acheulian technology existed in East Asia during the terminal Early Pleistocene has important implications for understanding early human occupation of North China.

  7. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Neoarchean North Liaoning tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses of the North China Craton, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maojiang; Liu, Shuwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Kang; Yan, Ming; Guo, Boran; Bai, Xiang; Guo, Rongrong

    2016-12-01

    Tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses are dominant lithological assemblages in Archean high grade metamorphic terranes in the world. These TTG gneisses preserve important information in formation and evolution of Archean continental crust. Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock in North Liaoning Province (NLP) is one of the major Neoarchean metamorphic basement terranes in the northeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock is composed mainly of Neoarchean tonalitic-trondhjemitic (TT) gneisses, subordinate granodioritic to monzogranitic association (GMA) and minor supracrustal rocks. The tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses are divided into high MgO Group (HMG) and low MgO Group (LMG) based on their chemical compositions. Detailed petrogenetic investigations suggest that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were derived from partial melting of subducted slabs and contaminated by the overlying mantle wedge during its ascent; whereas, magmatic precursors of the LMG samples were derived from the juvenile lower crust. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb isotopic dating analyses reveal that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were formed at 2553-2531 Ma. An older HMG tonalitic gneiss sample was discovered at Sandaoguan in the southmost of the studied area, with its magmatic precursor emplaced at 2680 Ma. The magmatic precursors of the LMG samples emplaced at 2595-2583 Ma. Combined with previous credible chronological data, our newly obtained zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic data indicate that three episodes of magmatism at ∼2700-2680 Ma, ∼2600-2570 Ma and ∼2550-2510 Ma occurred in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock, and the TT gneisses in this microblock were subjected to generally amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ∼2520-2470 Ma. Based on the above Neoarchean crust-mantle thermal-dynamic processes, we propose that the Neoarchean magmatism and metamorphism in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock of North Liaoning Province occurred in

  8. Comprehensive Evaluation on the Level of Agricultural Modernization in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on correct understanding of the connotation and essence of agricultural modernization,according to the data in 2008 China Statistical Yearbook and the relevant literatures about eastern China,a total of 12 indices are selected to construct the evaluation index system of agricultural modernization in eastern China by combining with its social development and following the principles of systematization,comprehensiveness,representativeness,legitimacy and comparability.Then,according to the decision-making rules of modern science,3 alternatives are put forward and max compatibility degree method is used to generate the optimization solution.Result shows that agricultural modernization in eastern China can be classified into three types.The first type is Shanghai;the second type includes Zhejiang,Jiangsu,Fujian and Shandong;and the third type is Jiangxi and Anhui.The evaluation result is in accord with the actual situation of agricultural development in eastern China.Finally,since there still needs improvement in capital investment,rural education,agricultural science and technology research,peasant training,and social and organizational structure,it is pointed out that we should optimize the investment agriculture,enhance support for science and technology,perfect the mechanism of "promoting agriculture development by industry and developing the township by the city",and accelerate the development of agricultural modernization in eastern China.

  9. Stranding survey as a framework to investigate rare cetacean records of the north and north-eastern Brazilian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Fernandes Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine mammal stranding events are used as an important tool for understanding cetacean biology worldwide. Nonetheless, there are vast gaps of knowledge to be filled in for a wide range of species. Reputable information is required regarding species from large baleen whales to sperm and beaked whales, as well as pelagic dolphins. This paper describes new cetacean records from north and north-eastern Brazil, which are both the least surveyed areas regarding aquatic mammals. Regular beach surveys were conducted to recover cetacean carcasses along the coast of Pará beginning November 2005. At the coasts of the Maranhão and Piauí states, the surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2013. From 2003 to 2014, 34 strandings of cetaceans were registered. The study provides four additional species records’ in the area based on strandings (Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera physalus, Peponocephala electra, and Pseudorca crassidens. A mass stranding of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis, N = 12, the most common species for the region, was reported for the first time. The records presented herein are of special concern, since they expand the knowledge on cetaceans from the Brazilian coast. In addition, this study conducted an analysis to verify the similarity between cetacean compositions described for north and north-eastern Brazil and the southern Caribbean region. The results showed a high similarity between these regions, proving the connection with the Caribbean cetacean fauna.

  10. Palaeomagnetism of Neoproterozoic glacial rocks of the Huabei Shield: the North China Block in Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, J. D. A.; Rui, Zhang Qi

    1997-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study is reported of reddened facies (Fengtai Formation) of Neoproterozoic glacial rocks which underlie Early Cambrian rocks with disconformity in the Huabei (North China/Sino-Korean) Block. The diamictite (preferred age 620-600 Ma) carries a dual polarity remanence residing in hematite of the red matrix. The mean direction derived from 62 samples is {D}/{I} = {205.9}/{- 32.4°} ( α95 = 3.9°) yielding a pole position at 233°E, 62°N. Tests on the matrix deformed beneath dropstones suggest that remanence was fixed before full compaction, although clasts near the base of the formation are largely overprinted. Overlying Early Cambrian sediments of the Houjiashan and Yutaishan formations have a similar remanence also of dual polarity ( {D}/{I} = {205.5}/{- 32.1°}, α95 = 3.9°, 32 samples). The magnetisation in the diamictite is therefore interpreted to have been acquired during loading by the ice sheet and/or the overlying Cambrian succession. Red shales from the Liulaobei Formation (˜890-840 Ma) near the base of the Neoproterozoic succession in the Huabei Block yield a contrasting remanence of {D}/{I} = {59.4}/{75.3°} ( α95 = 7.1°, 19 samples) equivalent to a pole position at 150°E, 43°N. Pole positions from this study accord with Lower-Middle Cambrian poles from the Australian and South China Blocks with North China sited adjacent to northeastern Australia in accordance with recent biogeographic and palaeogeographic models. Although the palaeolatitude derived from the Fengtai diamictite (17°) is Cambrian in age and probably later than the glaciation, the correlation with Australia implies that glaciation in North China took place in low palaeolatitudes (˜20°) and reinforces the view that late Neoproterozoic glaciation, at least at this perimeter of Gondwana, occurred at low latitudes. Neoproterozoic-Cambrian poles from North China, South China and Australia fail to conform to the popular Rodinia reconstruction with the latter blocks

  11. Jurassic Tectonics of North China: A Synthetic View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yueqiao; DONG Shuwen; ZHAO Yue; ZHANG Tian

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a synthetic view on the Jurassic tectonics of North China, with an attempt to propose a framework for the stepwise tectonic evolution history. Jurassic sedimentation, deformation and magmatism in North China have been divided into three stages. The earliest Jurassic is marked by a period of magmatism quiescence (in 205-190 Ma) and regional uplift, which are considered to be the continuation of the "Indosinian movement" characterized by continent-continent collision between the North and South China blocks. The Early to Middle Jurassic (in 190-170 Ma) was predominated by weak lithospheric extension expressed by mantle-derived plutonism and volcanism along the Yanshan belt and alongside the Tan-Lu fault zone, normal faulting and graben formation along the Yinshan-Yanshan tectonic belt, depression and resuming of coal-bearing sedimentation in vast regions of the North China block (NCB). The Middle to Late Jurassic stage started at 165,.5 Ma and ended up before 136 Ma; it was dominated by intensive intraplate deformation resulting from multi-directional compressions. Two major deformation events have been identified. One is marked by stratigraphic unconformity beneath the thick Upper Jurassic molasic series in the foreland zones of the western Ordos thrust-fold belt and along the Yinshan-Yanshan belt; it was predated 160 Ma. The other one is indicated by stratigraphic unconformity at the base of the Lower Cretaceous and predated 135 Ma. During this last stage, two latitudinal tectonic belts, the Yinshan-Yanshan belt in the north and the Qinling-Dabie belt in the south, and the western margin of the Ordos basin were all activated by thrusting; the NCB itself was deformed by the NE to NNE-trending structural system involving thrusting, associated folding and sinistral strike-slip faulting, which were spatially partitioned. Foliated S-type granitic plutons aged 160-150 Ma were massively emplaced in the Jiao-Liao massif east of the Tan-Lu fault zone and

  12. CHANGCHUN:Spring City of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Although Changchun has been more than 200 years old,it is still a young city compared with other historical cities in China.It is located at the central oart of Songliao Plain,covering a total area of 20,571 square kilometers (about 8,012 square miles).Being the capital city of Jilin province,Changchun is the political,economic and cultural center.

  13. Mantle xenoliths from Late Cretaceous basalt in eastern Shandong Province: New constraint on the timing of lithospheric thinning in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; CHEN Jiangfeng; XIE Zhi; ZHOU Taixi

    2003-01-01

    The age of the alkali basalt from Daxizhuang in Jiaozhou, eastern Shandong, was determined to be 73.5 ± 0.3Ma by40Ar-39Ar technique. The basalt gave high εNd(t) values of +7.5 and +7.6, suggesting that the primitive magma was derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle with a formation depth of about 65-95 km. Spinel-lherzolite xenoliths have been discovered in the basalt. The Fo values of olivine from the xenoliths range from 88 to 89. The estimated equilibrium P-T conditions of spinel-lherzolite xenoliths are about 2.0 GPa and 1010-1140℃, suggesting an equilibrium depth of about 65 km. Geochemical characteristics of the Late Mesozoic (125-115 Ma) mantle-derived rocks in Shahdong Province suggest an enriched lithospheric mantle along the southern margin of the North China block. However,geochemical characteristics of the Late Cretaceous basalts in Daxizhuang and the equilibrium P-T condition estimated from the xenoliths suggest that the lithosphere at 73 Ma ago was as thick as that of the Cenozoic in the region. Additionally, the xenoliths are rich in basaltic-component, suggesting a derivation from a newly-formed lithosphere. Therefor,lithospheric thinning took place at a time interval between about 120 and 73 Ma along the southern margin of the North China block.

  14. Increase in winter haze over eastern China in recent decades: Roles of variations in meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions: INCREASE IN WINTER HAZE IN EASTERN CHINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Liao, Hong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Lou, Sijia [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-11-05

    The increase in winter haze over eastern China in recent decades due to variations in meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions was quantified using observed atmospheric visibility from the National Climatic Data Center Global Summary of Day database for 1980–2014 and simulated PM2.5 concentrations for 1985–2005 from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Observed winter haze days averaged over eastern China (105–122.5°E, 20–45°N) increased from 21 d in 1980 to 42 d in 2014, and from 22 to 30 d between 1985 and 2005. The GEOS-Chem model captured the increasing trend of winter PM2.5 concentrations for 1985–2005, with concentrations averaged over eastern China increasing from 16.1 μg m-3 in 1985 to 38.4 μg m-3 in 2005. Considering variations in both anthropogenic emissions and meteorological parameters, the model simulated an increase in winter surface-layer PM2.5 concentrations of 10.5 (±6.2) μg m-3 decade-1 over eastern China. The increasing trend was only 1.8 (±1.5) μg m-3 decade-1 when variations in meteorological parameters alone were considered. Among the meteorological parameters, the weakening of winds by -0.09 m s-1 decade-1 over 1985–2005 was found to be the dominant factor leading to the decadal increase in winter aerosol concentrations and haze days over eastern China during recent decades.

  15. A research on consumer satisfaction and shopping patterns of households in the North Eastern Savo region

    OpenAIRE

    Taavitsainen, Ossi

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis deals with shopping patterns of consumers and their satisfaction with local supply of goods in the North Eastern Savo region in Finland. The thesis was conducted as a follow-up research to the original research made by a student of the University of Eastern Finland in 2009-2010. The theoretical part of the thesis consists of two main topics: purchase behavior of consumers and development of online shopping. The empirical part is based on a survey, conducted among consum...

  16. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  17. Mapping cumulative human impacts in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, A.; Andersen, Jesper; Heinänen, S.

    of the MSFD; and 3) to deepen the understanding of how errors in expert judgment affect the resulting cumulative human impact maps by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We combined existing data sets on the spatial distribution of 33 anthropogenic stressors (linked to the MSFD pressures) and 28 key habitats....... In contrast, the predicted impacts for much of the Norwegian EEZ and areas far offshore were lower. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed earlier findings that mapping cumulative impacts is generally "robust", but also showed that specific combinations of errors can seriously change local and regional...... on marine ecosystems have only recently been developed. The aims of our study were: 1) to develop a map of cumulative human impacts for the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German parts of the Greater North Sea; 2) to adjust the existing methods for mapping cumulative human impacts to fit the requirements...

  18. Peat Formation on Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island), subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Tibby, John; Barr, Cameron; Weerensena, Chagi; Gontz, Allen; Petherick, Lynda

    2016-04-01

    Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island) is the second largest sand island in the world and contains extensive peat dominated wetlands, comprising ~20% of the total area of the island. These wetland systems include large areas of estuarine swamps [mainly mangrove forest (~16% of the island's wetland area)], freshwater swamps [both herb (~58% of the island's wetland area) and tree dominated (~20% of the island's wetland area)] and numerous lake systems [both perched and window lakes (~2% of the island's wetland area)]. This presentation will examine peat formation processes at four wetland sites: a late Holocene prograding beach system (Flinders Beach); a 150,000 year lacustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 1), as well as a late Holocene lacustrine/palustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 2); and a late Quaternary lacustrine/palustrine system (Tortoise Lagoon), as well as discussing broader environmental characteristics of Minjerribah's nationally and internationally important wetland systems.

  19. Northern fulmars as biological monitors of trends of plastic pollution in the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; O'Hara, Patrick D; Kleine, Lydia; Bowes, Victoria; Wilson, Laurie K; Barry, Karen L

    2012-09-01

    Marine plastic debris is a global issue, which highlights the need for internationally standardized methods of monitoring plastic pollution. The stomach contents of beached northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) have proven a cost-effective biomonitor in Europe. However, recent information on northern fulmar plastic ingestion is lacking in the North Pacific. We quantified the stomach contents of 67 fulmars from beaches in the eastern North Pacific in 2009-2010 and found that 92.5% of fulmars had ingested an average of 36.8 pieces, or 0.385 g of plastic. Plastic ingestion in these fulmars is among the highest recorded globally. Compared to earlier studies in the North Pacific, our findings indicate an increase in plastic ingestion over the past 40 years. This study substantiates the use of northern fulmar as biomonitors of plastic pollution in the North Pacific and suggests that the high levels of plastic pollution in this region warrant further monitoring.

  20. Phylogenetics and biogeography of eastern Asian-North American disjunct genus Pachysandra (Buxaceae) inferred from nucleotide sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-hua JIAO; Jian-hua LI

    2009-01-01

    Pachysandra is an eastern Asian-North American disjunct genus with three species, two in eastern Asia (Pachysandra axillaris and Pachysandra terminalis) and one in eastern North America (Pachysandra procumbens). Although morphological and cytological studies suggest a close affinity of Pprocumbens with P axillaris, molecular data from nuclear and chloroplast DNA regions have provided conflicting signals. In this study, we tested previous phylogenetic hypotheses using sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers and chloroplast ndhF gene from multiple individuals of each of the three species. We also estimated the time of divergence between eastern Asia and eastern North America. Our results support the morphological and cytological conclusion that P procumbens is more closely related to P axillaris than to P terminalis. The estimated time of divergence of P axillaris and P procumbens was 14.64-5.5 mya, consistent with estimates from many other eastern Asian-North American disjunct genera. The migration of Pachysandra populations from eastern Asia to North America might have occurred by way of the North Atlantic land bridge.

  1. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abundant seismic sections and well data from the Cenozoic succession in the eastern North Sea area generally reveal normal faulting, salt tectonics and localized tectonic inversion. However, inferences on the Cenozoic dynamic evolution of the region require thorough analysis of interactions between....... These structures have in the last decades been an integrated part of the discussions about subsidence and uplift of not only the interior of the basin but also of the basin margin. Abundant 2D and 3D seismic data and new depositional models enable detailed analysis and reinterpretation of where and when basement...... or cover tectonism took place. Our objectives are thus 1) to analyze the interaction between basement and cover structures, and if possible 2) to relate the structures to the regional tectonic evolution. The Zechstein evaporites pinch out onto the Ringkøbing-Fyn High, which in the eastern North Sea...

  2. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abundant seismic sections and well data from the Cenozoic succession in the eastern North Sea area generally reveal normal faulting, salt tectonics and localized tectonic inversion. However, inferences on the Cenozoic dynamic evolution of the region require thorough analysis of interactions between...... or cover tectonism took place. Our objectives are thus 1) to analyze the interaction between basement and cover structures, and if possible 2) to relate the structures to the regional tectonic evolution. The Zechstein evaporites pinch out onto the Ringkøbing-Fyn High, which in the eastern North Sea...... influencede.g. Miocene deposition and controlled the generation of second order faults. The latter detached along the top Chalk Group due to the topography generated during faulting, i.e. they are second order detachment surfaces. We conclude that the regional tectonic significance of the Cenozoic structures...

  3. The feeding habits of slope dwelling macrourid fishes in the eastern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Buckley, Troy W.; Hoff, Gerald R.

    2001-03-01

    The diet of slope dwelling macrourid fishes in the eastern North Pacific is poorly known. We collected several hundred stomach samples to investigate the feeding habits of Coryphaenoides acrolepis and Albatrossia pectoralis, the two dominant slope dwelling macrourids off the continental United States. Coryphaenoides acrolepis exhibited a pronounced ontogenetic shift in diet. Specimens 15 cm with scavenged food constituting approximately 20% of the weight of total prey and occurring in approximately 20% of fish 21-29 cm. Albatrossia pectoralis consumed primarily midwater fish and squid, and we believe that it feeds in the water column. There were significant differences between the diets of A. pectoralis and C. acrolepis suggesting some degree of niche separation between macrourid species on the continental slope of the eastern North Pacific. Both species are at the top of the food web on the upper continental slope and, because of their abundance, may exert significant pressures on their prey populations.

  4. Late Ordovician-Early Silurian chitinozoans from north-eastern and western Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, A.; Mikulic, Donald G.; Kluessendorf, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Samples of uppermost Ordovician and Silurian strata from two cores from north-eastern and western Illinois were processed for chitinozoans. Due to apparent sea-floor oxidation or palaeoenvironmental constraints, very few samples yielded specimens, but those that did allow tentative correlation with established biostratigraphical zonations for the Chitinozoa. Samples from the Wilhelmi Formation of core DH76-21 in north-eastern Illinois yielded Spinachitina fragilis, a typically earliest Silurian taxon. A sample from the Maquoketa Group strata of core Principia #4, western Illinois, yielded a monospecific assemblage of Conochitina elegans, which is suggestive of a late Ordovician age. Higher in this core, a sample from the upper strata of the Bowling Green Dolomite yielded an assemblage indicating a late Rhuddanian to Aeronian age, including Angochitina hansonica, previously only described from strata in Nevada, and one new species, Fungochitina illinoisensis. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Invasive range expansion by the Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, in the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidberg, Louis D; Robison, Bruce H

    2007-07-31

    A unique 16-year time series of deep video surveys in Monterey Bay reveals that the Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, has substantially expanded its perennial geographic range in the eastern North Pacific by invading the waters off central California. This sustained range expansion coincides with changes in climate-linked oceanographic conditions and a reduction in competing top predators. It is also coincident with a decline in the abundance of Pacific hake, the most important commercial groundfish species off western North America. Recognizing the interactive effects of multiple changes in the environment is an issue of growing concern in ocean conservation and sustainability research.

  6. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  7. Effect of climate variability and change on winter haze over eastern China in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hong; Yang, Yang

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, eastern China has frequently experienced persistent and severe winter haze pollution episodes with high aerosol concentrations, which have affected half of the 1.3 billion people in China. In this work, the increases in wintertime aerosol concentrations and severe haze events in eastern China over 1985-2015 were quantified by using observed atmospheric visibility from the National Climatic Data Center Global Summary of Day database, observed PM2.5 concentrations from the network of China National Environmental Monitoring Centre (CNEMC), and simulated PM2.5 concentrations from the Goddard Earth-Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Observed winter haze days (defined as days with atmospheric visibility less than 10 km and relative humidity less than 80%) averaged over eastern China (105-122.5°E, 20-45°N) increased from 21 days in 1980 to 42 days in 2014. Observed severe haze days (defined as days with PM2.5 >150 μg m-3) occurred mainly over Northern China. Considering variations in both anthropogenic emissions and meteorological parameters, the GEOS-Chem model simulated an increasing trend in wintertime surface-layer PM2.5 concentrations of 10.5 (±6.2) μg m-3 decade-1 over eastern China in the past decades. Sensitivity studies showed that changes in anthropogenic emissions and in climate contributed 87% and 17% to this increasing trend, respectively. Wintertime severe haze events over eastern China showed large interannual variations, driven by climate variability. Process analyses were performed to identify the key meteorological parameters that determined the interannual variations of wintertime severe haze events.

  8. Quality Control and First Insights on the Variability of Surface Wind Observations for North Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, E.; González-Rouco, F. J.; Navarro Montesinos, J.; Hidalgo; Jiménez, P.; García-Bustamante, E.; Conte, J.; Casabella, N.; Beltrami, H.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades, a policy change in energy sources has been fostered in Atlantic Canada. The purpose of this has been to reduce the dependency on energy produced abroad and to propose feasible alternatives with the aim of reducing greenhouse emissions. The region offers a high potential for the development of wind energy facilities and studies within the framework of wind resource assessment are encouraged. Studies of this nature rely on the quality of observational data. Henceforth, it is essential to develop procedures that ensure the reliability of observations before they are subjected to any subsequent analysis. This work summarizes the Quality Control process applied to an observational database of surface wind module and direction in North Eastern North America. The data set consists of 525 stations compiled from three different sources: 344 land sites from Environment Canada (EC; 1940-2009) located in the provinces of Atlantic Canada and Quebec; 40 buoys distributed over the East Coast and the Canadian Great Lakes provided by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (FOC; 1988-2008); and 141 land sites over both Eastern Canada and North Eastern USA provided by the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR; 1975-2010). The process comprises different phases that: 1) unify measurement units and recording times; 2) find accidentally duplicated periods of data within a time series or between different stations; 3) check for physical consistency in the ranges of values; 4) detect time intervals of anomalous low and high variability; and 5) look for long term biases in mean and variance. The temporal extension and resolution of the quality controlled database allows to explore the wind variability at different temporal scales, from daily to multidecadal. This contribution will present a first assessment of the wind field climatology in the region, including a description of long term trends, analogous of wind circulation regimes and their relationship to large scale

  9. The Impact of the 2013 Eastern China Smog on Outpatient Visits for Coronary Heart Disease in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been relatively few opportunities to examine the cardiovascular effects of an extreme air pollution event in China. We aimed to examine the impact of the 2013 Eastern China Smog occurring from 2 to 9 December 2013, on outpatient visits for coronary heart diseases (CHD in a typical hospital in Shanghai, China. We used the over-dispersed, generalized additive model to estimate the relative risk (RR of the 2013 Eastern China Smog on the outpatient visits by comparing the smog period (2–9 December 2013; 8 days to the non-smog period (1 November–1 December 2013, and 10 December–28 February 2014; 112 days. This model also controlled for time trends, days of the week, holidays, and meteorological factors. A stratification analysis was performed to estimate sex- and age-specific RRs. The daily average PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm concentrations during the smog period were 212 μg/m3, which were three times higher than during the non-smog period (76 μg/m3. The smog in Eastern China in 2013 was significantly associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for CHD. For example, the RR was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 on lag 0 day. There were similar effects on males and females. Our analyses provided preliminary evidence that smog constituted a significant risk factor of CHD in China.

  10. Circulation characteristics of persistent cold spells in central-eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Manson, Alan H.; Li, Yanping; Meek, Chris

    2017-02-01

    The circulation patterns of persistent cold weather spells with durations longer than 10 days in central-eastern North America (United States and Canada; 32°-52°N, 95°-65°W) are investigated by using NCEP reanalysis data from 1948 to 2014. The criteria for the persistent cold spells are: (1) three-day averaged temperature anomalies for the regional average over the central-eastern United States and Canada must be below the 10th percentile, and (2) such extreme cold spells must last at least 10 days. The circulation patterns associated with these cold spells are examined to find the common signals of these events. The circulation anomaly patterns of these cold spells are categorized based on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation (AO), and other climate indices. The atmospheric circulation patterns that favor the cold spells are identified through composites of geopotential height maps for the cold spells. Negative AO phases favor persistent cold spells. Phases of sea surface temperature (SST) modes that are associated with warm SSTs in the eastern extratropical Pacific also favor persistent cold events in the study region. Stratospheric polar vortex breakdown alone is not a good predictor for the regional extreme cold spells in central-eastern North America. The meridional dispersions of quasi-stationary Rossby waves in the Pacific-North America sector in terms of cut-off zonal wavenumber modulated by background flow are analyzed to provide insight into the difference in evolution of the cold spells under different mean AO phases. The waveguide for AO > 1 is in a narrow latitudinal band centered on 40°N, whereas the waveguide for AO <-1 is in a broader latitudinal band from 40° to 65°N. The circulation patterns and lower boundary conditions favorable for persistent cold spells identified by this study can be a stepping-stone for improving winter subseasonal forecasting in North America.

  11. Cultural Resources, Studies, Eastern North Carolina Above Cape Lookout, Literature Review and Preliminary Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    inhabitants and activities of New Bern in the years im- mediately following the War of 1812. Most enlightening ; usually reliable. Mobley 1981 is an...Virginia upon the development of the [- Albemarle would be highly enlightening . 2-67 1 CHAPTER 3 ARCHITECTURAL RESOURCES OF THE EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA...trends. Georgian, Federal, Greek Revival, Gothic Revival, and Italianate styles, though sometimes retarditaire in nature, predominated. Builders and

  12. Seasonal Variation in the Measurement of Urinary Pesticide Metabolites among Latino Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This analysis describes the detection of urinary pesticide metabolites for Latino farmworkers across the agricultural season. Two hundred and eighty four farmworkers were recruited from 44 camps in eastern North Carolina in 2007. Data were collected at one month intervals for a total of 939 data points. The OP insecticide metabolites 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (46.2%), malathion dicarboxylic acid (27.7%), and para-nitrophenol (97.4%); the pyrethroid metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (56.4%); and...

  13. Linx individual B132 from north-eastern Switzerland sighted in Trentino (northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A subadult lynx was caught in February 2008 in the Swiss National Park, fitted with a Gps-Gsm radio-collar and later genetically identified as B132 - i.e., a male born in 2006 in North-Eastern Switzerland -. B132 is at present located in the western Trentino region, more than 200 km away from his mother's home range. This is the furthest dispersal ever documented outside of Scandinavia for a Eurasian lynx.

  14. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient concentrations at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abdul; Li, Yiping; Du, Wei; Wang, Jianwei; Gao, Xiaomeng; Wang, Wencai; Acharya, Kumud

    2017-07-01

    Shallow lakes are highly sensitive to respond internal nutrient loading due to wind-induced flow velocity effects. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient suspension were investigated at a long narrow bay of large shallow Lake Taihu, the third largest freshwater lake in China. Wind-induced reverse/compensation flow and consistent flow field probabilities at vertical column of the water were measured. The probabilities between the wind field and the flow velocities provided a strong correlation at the surface (80.6%) and the bottom (65.1%) layers of water profile. Vertical flow velocity profile analysis provided the evidence of delay response time to wind field at the bottom layer of lake water. Strong wind field generated by the west (W) and west-north-west (WNW) winds produced displaced water movements in opposite directions to the prevailing flow field. An exponential correlation was observed between the current velocities of the surface and the bottom layers while considering wind speed as a control factor. A linear model was developed to correlate the wind field-induced flow velocity impacts on nutrient concentration at the surface and bottom layers. Results showed that dominant wind directions (ENE, E, and ESE) had a maximum nutrient resuspension contribution (nutrient resuspension potential) of 34.7 and 43.6% at the surface and the bottom profile layers, respectively. Total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) average concentrations were 6.38, 1.5, and 0.03 mg/L during our field experiment at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. Overall, wind-induced low-to-moderate hydrodynamic disturbances contributed more in nutrient resuspension at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. The present study can be used to understand the linkage between wind-induced flow velocities and nutrient concentrations for shallow lakes (with uniform morphology and deep margins) water quality management and to develop further models.

  15. IMPACTS OF ANTARCTIC OSCILLATION ON SUMMER MOISTURE TRANSPORT AND PRECIPITATION IN EASTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jun; WANG Pan-xing; GONG Yan

    2005-01-01

    Using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and monthly precipitation over 160 conventional stations in China,analyses of moisture transport characteristics and corresponding precipitation variation in the east part of China in summer are made, and studies are carried out on possible influence on moisture transport and precipitation in summer by the variation of Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). The results show that the abnormal variation of the AAO affected the summer precipitation in China significantly. The variation of AAO can cause the variation ofintension and location of Northwestern Pacific High, which in turn cause the variation of summer monsoon rainfall in the eastern China.

  16. Neoarchean tectonics: Insight from the Baijiafen ductile shear zone, eastern Anshan, Liaoning Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yong-Jiang; Jin, Wei; Li, Xian-Hua; Neubauer, Franz; Li, Wei-Min; Liang, Chen-Yue; Wen, Quan-Bo; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    The North China Craton is one of the major Archean to Paleoproterozoic cratons in the world and oldest craton in China, which preserves a large amount of ancient basement and abundant structures showing the early earth tectonics. The controversy over the Archean tectonic regimes has lasted several decades centering around horizontal and vertical tectonics, the two classical tectonic models for Archean times. Thus, more studies of the early crustal growth and tectonic evolution are requisite for better understanding geodynamic regimes in the early Precambrian. This study provides an example for revealing of Archean tectonics. The NWN-trending, ENE-dipping Baijiafen ductile shear zone is located in the eastern Anshan of the northeastern North China Craton and mainly comprises two types of gneisses, including the Chentaigou porphyritic granitic gneiss and the Baijiafen trondhjemitic gneiss. In this study, we have carried out a detailed study on the macrostructure, microstructure and fabric characteristics of the two main types of deformed gneisses within the shear zone. The ribbon structures formed by intensely elongated quartz grains are widespread in these gneisses. Well-developed mineral stretching lineations and asymmetric fabrics indicate an ESE-directed downward shearing. The quartz c-axis fabric patterns obtained by electron backscatter diffraction technique imply low to middle temperature non-coaxial deformation with active rhomb slip and basal slip. Deformation behaviors of minerals and quartz crystallographic preferred orientations demonstrate that the rocks underwent mylonitization at a temperature of 400-500 °C under greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. Dislocation creep is the main rock deformation mechanism within the shear zone. Finite strain measurement results suggest that the strain types of the shear zone are generally related to elongate-plane deformation, and the tectonites change from L-S- to LS-type across the shear zone. The strain

  17. Aerosol forcing of extreme summer drought over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixia; Wu, Peili; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-03-01

    The frequency of extreme summer drought has been increasing in North China during the past sixty years, which has caused serious water shortages. It remains unclear whether anthropogenic forcing has contributed to the increasing extreme droughts. Using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) re-analysis data and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model simulations with various combinations of historical forcings, the authors investigated the driving mechanism behind the observed changes. Metrological drought is usually measured by precipitation anomalies, which show lower fidelity in current climate models compared to large-scale circulation patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR re-analysis, a linear relationship is firstly established between the weakest regional average 850 hPa southerly winds and extreme summer drought. This meridional winds index (MWI) is then used as a proxy for attribution of extreme North China drought using CMIP5 outputs. Examination of the CMIP5 simulations reveals that the probability of the extreme summer droughts with the first percentile of MWI for 1850–2004 under anthropogenic forcing has increased by 100%, on average, relative to a pre-industrial control run. The more frequent occurrence of extremely weak MWIs or drought over North China is ascribed from weakened climate and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation due to the direct cooling effect from increased aerosol.

  18. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade

  19. Phylogeography of Labrus bergylta (Pisces: Labridae in the north-eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Almada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta (Labridae, is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish common in the north-eastern Atlantic from Norway to Morocco. It is a commercially important resource for local fisheries and is currently being used as cleaner fish to control sea lice in salmon farms in northern Europe. We analysed the phylogeographic patterns of this species using mitochondrial (control region and nuclear (I intron of the S7 gene markers in populations throughout its distributional range. The results revealed a marked genetic structure of L. bergylta along the sampled area, with a major separation found between the Archipelago of the Azores and all remaining locations and also a clear separation between the north-eastern Atlantic and Scandinavian locations. Similarly to other temperate species the genetic diversity decreased from north-eastern Atlantic to Scandinavian populations. Haplotype networks confirm the distinctiveness of the population from the Azores and show that Scandinavian populations also present some distinct haplotypes. The phylogeographic pattern and diversity indices found for the ballan wrasse are discussed and compared with others found for different labrid species. The recognition of different populations of L. bergylta may be an in important result for fisheries management and also for future regulation of capture and translocation of specimens to be used as cleaners in aquaculture facilities.

  20. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Notes on the Reproductive Biology of Female Salmon Sharks in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Little information has previously been published on the reproductive biology of the salmon shark in the Eastern North Pacific ocean. This data set incorporates basic...

  1. AFSC/NMML: Shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale stock from central California, 1967 - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 26 years from...

  2. Lithospheric thermal structure of the North China Craton and its geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiongying; Zhang, Linyou; Zhang, Chao; He, Lijuan

    2016-12-01

    We conduct 2-D numerical modeling of the lithospheric thermal structure of the North China Craton (NCC) on basis of twenty-four crustal velocity structure profiles. About five hundred heat flow data constitute the principal constraints for our modeling. The modeling results demonstrate marked lateral variations in thermal regime of the crust-lithosphere system in the NCC. The average mantle heat flow decreases from 38 ± 5 mW m-2 under the Bohai Bay Basin in the eastern NCC to 27 ± 4 mW m-2 under the Ordos Basin in the western NCC, characterized by a 'cold crust but hot mantle' structure and a 'hot crust but cold mantle' structure, respectively. Thermal lithospheric thickness varies from ∼65 km beneath the Tan-Lu Fault zone to ∼160 km beneath the western and northern Ordos Basin, with similar trend to the seismic lithosphere. However, the disparities in thickness between the thermal and seismic lithosphere are within 20 km beneath the Bohai Bay Basin, but 30-90 km beneath the Shanxi-Weihe Graben and 50-120 km beneath the Ordos Basin. This may imply a westward thickening trend of the rheological boundary layer, which might be attributed to the reducing of asthenosphere viscosity due to hydrous fluid released by dehydration of the subducting Pacific Plate under the eastern NCC. Combined with other pieces of evidence, we suggest that vigorous mantle processes may occur beneath the eastern NCC, whereas the western NCC is relatively stable.

  3. Regional difference of the start time of the recent warming in Eastern China: prompted by a 165-year temperature record deduced from tree rings in the Dabie Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiufang; Liu, Yu; Duan, Bingchuang; Sun, Changfeng

    2017-06-01

    Tree-ring studies from tropical to subtropical regions are rarer than that from extratropical regions, which greatly limit our understanding of some critical climate change issues. Based on the tree-ring-width chronology of samples collected from the Dabie Mountains, we reconstructed the April-June mean temperature for this region with an explained variance of 46.8%. Five cold (1861-1869, 1889-1899, 1913-1920, 1936-1942 and 1952-1990) and three warm (1870-1888, 1922-1934 and 2000-2005) periods were identified in the reconstruction. The reconstruction not only agreed well with the instrumental records in and around the study area, but also showed good resemblance to previous temperature reconstructions from nearby regions, indicating its spatial and temporal representativeness of the temperature variation in the central part of eastern China. Although no secular warming trend was found, the warming trend since 1970 was unambiguous in the Dabie Mountains (0.064 °C/year). Further temperature comparison indicated that the start time of the recent warming in eastern China was regional different. It delayed gradually from north to south, starting at least around 1940 AD in the north part, around 1970 AD in the central part and around 1980s in the south part. This work enriches the high-resolution temperature reconstructions in eastern China. We expect that climate warming in the future would promote the radial growth of alpine Pinus taiwanensis in the subtropical areas of China, therefore promote the carbon capture and carbon storage in the Pinus taiwanensis forest. It also helps to clarify the regional characteristic of recent warming in eastern China.

  4. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Harland

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC, and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC, driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP, and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka, given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial.

  5. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Rex; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Morley, Audrey; Morris, Angela; Harris, Anthony; Howe, John A

    2016-05-01

    The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC), and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP), Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP), and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP) indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka), given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records) group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial.

  6. Landslide hazard prediction in the North-Eastern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disperati, L.; Guastaldi, E.; Rindinella, A.

    2003-04-01

    In order to assess the landslide hazard nearby the Pergola city (in the Northern-Eastern Apennines, Italy) a ground survey at a scale of 1:10,000 was performed for an extent of about 370 km^2 (Carmignani, 2001), and a GIS of landslides was built. Following statistical analysis allows to assess the correlation among landslide occurrences and causal factors related to the detachment zone (lithology, engineering geology, elevation, slope, aspect, bedding as related with slope face -RBS- and land use). Consequently, considering the morphological, lithological and anthropic characters of current slides, it was agreed to locate possible future landslides in those area actually stable but characterised by similar conditions. Because of that, a geostatistical analysis was performed. Comparing for every landslide the occurence of either single or combined causal factor, the analysis was carried out in grid format. The spatial analysis of the GIS data layers allowed building the unique condition regions (Chung et al., 1995) and creating statistical data on causal factors in relation of landslides. Afterwards, for every region the susceptibility to development of new occurrences (favourability mapping) was calculated by utilising the certainty factor (CF; Chung &Fabbri, 1993). For landslides where crown was identified, the main scarp was considered as occurrence; a buffer around the highest point of landslide was built for all the others (Disperati et al., 2002). Such procedure was applied both for slides (175 occurrences) and flows (464 occurrences). Furthermore, by the application of the procedure to causal factors and their combination, additional information regarding susceptibility to development of new occurrences was calculated. The selection of the most suitable factors combination can be done through the results accuracy assessment in relation of time and/or space (Chung, 1999), by utilising two different hazard information layers, respectively computed from a

  7. Water column biogeochemistry of oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical North Atlantic and eastern tropical South Pacific oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, Carolin R.; Bange, Hermann W.; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Callbeck, Cameron M.; Engel, Anja; Hauss, Helena; Kanzow, Torsten; Kiko, Rainer; Lavik, Gaute; Loginova, Alexandra; Melzner, Frank; Meyer, Judith; Neulinger, Sven C.; Pahlow, Markus; Riebesell, Ulf; Schunck, Harald; Thomsen, Sören; Wagner, Hannes

    2016-06-01

    Recent modeling results suggest that oceanic oxygen levels will decrease significantly over the next decades to centuries in response to climate change and altered ocean circulation. Hence, the future ocean may experience major shifts in nutrient cycling triggered by the expansion and intensification of tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are connected to the most productive upwelling systems in the ocean. There are numerous feedbacks among oxygen concentrations, nutrient cycling and biological productivity; however, existing knowledge is insufficient to understand physical, chemical and biological interactions in order to adequately assess past and potential future changes. In the following, we summarize one decade of research performed in the framework of the Collaborative Research Center 754 (SFB754) focusing on climate-biogeochemistry interactions in tropical OMZs. We investigated the influence of low environmental oxygen conditions on biogeochemical cycles, organic matter formation and remineralization, greenhouse gas production and the ecology in OMZ regions of the eastern tropical South Pacific compared to the weaker OMZ of the eastern tropical North Atlantic. Based on our findings, a coupling of primary production and organic matter export via the nitrogen cycle is proposed, which may, however, be impacted by several additional factors, e.g., micronutrients, particles acting as microniches, vertical and horizontal transport of organic material and the role of zooplankton and viruses therein.

  8. Mesozoic adakitic rocks from the Xuzhou-Suzhou area, eastern China: Evidence for partial melting of delaminated lower continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Qing-Hai; Wang, Dong-Yan; Guo, Jing-Hui; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2006-09-01

    Adakitic rocks in the Xuzhou-Suzhou area, eastern China, consist of dioritic and monzodioritic porphyries and were dated at 131-132 Ma by the SHRIMP U-Pb zircon method. These rocks have high MgO content (1.47-5.73%), high Mg # values (0.49-0.61), and high La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios. These features are similar to rocks derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab. However, their high initial 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7053-0.7075) and low ɛNd( t) values (-4.43˜-13.14) are inconsistent with the origin from slab melting. These rocks often contain garnet residual crystals and eclogite, garnet clinopyroxenite, and garnet amphibolite xenoliths. Petrographical characteristics and estimated P- T conditions of these xenoliths indicate that they were once deeply subducted and subsequently underwent rapid exhumation in the early Mesozoic. Garnet residual crystals from the porphyries show similar chemical compositions to garnets from garnet clinopyroxenite and garnet amphibolite xenoliths. Ages of the inherited zircons of the xenoliths and their host rocks likely indicate that sources for the adakitic magma and protoliths of the eclogite and garnet clinopyroxenite xenoliths in the study area were from Precambrian basement of the North China Craton. The data also suggest that the lower continental crust in the eastern North China Craton was thickened during the early Mesozoic and delaminated in the early Cretaceous. The high-Mg adakitic magma resulted from partial melting of this delaminated lower continental crust and its subsequent interaction with the mantle during upward transport, leaving garnet as the residual phase.

  9. Mesozoic adakitic rocks from the Xuzhou Suzhou area, eastern China: Evidence for partial melting of delaminated lower continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Qing-Hai; Wang, Dong-Yan; Guo, Jing-Hui; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2006-07-01

    Adakitic rocks in the Xuzhou-Suzhou area, eastern China, consist of dioritic and monzodioritic porphyries and were dated at 131-132 Ma by the SHRIMP U-Pb zircon method. These rocks have high MgO content (1.47-5.73%), high Mg # values (0.49-0.61), and high La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios. These features are similar to rocks derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab. However, their high initial 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7053-0.7075) and low ɛNd( t) values (-4.43 to -13.14) are inconsistent with the origin from slab melting. These rocks often contain garnet residual crystals and eclogite, garnet clinopyroxenite, and garnet amphibolite xenoliths. Petrographical characteristics and estimated P-T conditions of these xenoliths indicate that they were once deeply subducted and subsequently underwent rapid exhumation in the early Mesozoic. Garnet residual crystals from the porphyries show similar chemical compositions to garnets from garnet clinopyroxenite and garnet amphibolite xenoliths. Ages of the inherited zircons of the xenoliths and their host rocks likely indicate that sources for the adakitic magma and protoliths of the eclogite and garnet clinopyroxenite xenoliths in the study area were from Precambrian basement of the North China Craton. The data also suggest that the lower continental crust in the eastern North China Craton was thickened during the early Mesozoic and delaminated in the early Cretaceous. The high-Mg adakitic magma resulted from partial melting of this delaminated lower continental crust and its subsequent interaction with the mantle during upward transport, leaving garnet as the residual phase.

  10. Comparison of temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Ozone Pollution at Ground Level in the Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Houfeng

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring data from ozone(O3) automatic stations in three typical cities with different climatic areas in the southern and northern parts of eastern China are used to analyze temporal and spatial characteristics of ozone pollution at ground level. The results show that ozone pollution level has distinct regional differences and the concentration in the suburbs is higher than that in the urban areas. The seasonal variation of ozone concentration in different climatic areas is greatly affected by the variation of precipitation. Ozone concentration in Shenyang and Beijing , in the temperate zone, has one perennial peak concentration, occurring in early summer,May or June. Ozone concentration in Guangzhou, in sub-tropical zone, has two peak values year round. The highest values occur in October and the secondary high value in June. The ozone season in the south is longer than that in the north. The annual average daily peak value of ozone concentrations in different climates usually occur around 3 pm. The diurnal variation range of ozone concentration declines with the increase of latitude. Ozone concentration does not elevate with the increase of traffic flow. Ozone concentration in Guangzhou has a distinct reverse relation to CO and NOx. This complicated non-linearity indicates that the equilibrium of ozone photochemical reaction has regional differences.Exceeding the rate of Beijing's 1h ozone concentration is higher than that of Guangzhou, whereas the average 8h ozone level is lower than that of Guangzhou, indicating that areas in low latitude are more easily affected by moderate ozone concentrations and longer exposure. Thus,China should work out standards for 8h ozone concentration.

  11. Response of Groundwater to Climate Change under Extreme Climate Conditions in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Jincui Wang; Jihong Jing; Jichao Sun

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the water shortage areas of China. Lack of water resources restricted the economic and social development of North China area and resulted in deterio-ration of ecosystem and natural environment. Influenced by the climate change and human activities, the water circulation of NCP was largely changed and the crisis of water resources was aggravated. Therefore, it is important to study the features of the extreme climate and the response mechanism of groundwater to climate change. We analyzed the trend of climate change and extreme climate features in the past 60 years based on the monitoring data of meteorological stations. And then the response characteristics of groundwater to climate change were discussed. The average temperature of NCP was in an obviously upward trend. The overall precipitation variation was in a downward trend. The cli-mate change in this area showed a warming-drying trend. The intensity of extreme precipitation dis-played a trend of declining and then increasing from north to south as well as declining from eastern coastal plain to the piedmont plain. Grey correlation degree analysis indicated that groundwater depth had a close relationship with precipitation and human activities in NCP. The response of groundwater level to precipitation differed from the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain to the coastal plain. The response was more obvious in the coastal plain than the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain and the middle plain. The precipitation influenced the groundwater depth both directly and indirectly. Under the condition of extreme precipitation, the impact would aggravate, in the forms of rapid or lag raise of groundwater levels.

  12. 华北板块北缘东段二叠纪的构造属性:来自火山岩锆石U-Pb年代学与地球化学的制约%Permian tectonic evolution of the eastern section of the northern margin of the North China Plate: Constraints from zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹花花; 许文良; 裴福萍; 郭鹏远; 王枫

    2012-01-01

    parts of Jilin Province, with the aim of constraining the tectonic nature of the eastern section of the northern margin of the North China Plate in Late Paleozoic. Zircons from the volcanic rocks in the Daheshen and Guanmenzuizi formations are euhedral-subhedral in shape and display fine-scale oscillatory zoning and striped absorption ( basaltic andesite) as well as high Th/U ratios (0. 31 ~ 1. 56) , implying their magmatic origin. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age data indicate that the dacite and rhyolites from the Daheshen Formation in Huadian County formed in the Early Permian (279 ± 3 Ma ~ 293 ±2Ma) , whereas the basaltic andesite and basalt from the Guanmenzuizi Formation in the Hunchun and Tumen areas formed in the Early Permian (275 ±7Ma) and Late Permian (250 ±5Ma) , respectively. The volcanic rocks from the Daheshen Formation have SiO2 = 64. 9% -75. 4% , Mg#=0. 21 ~0. 57, belonging chemically to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline series, and display an enrichment in LREEs and LILEs and depletion in HFSEs (such as Nb, Ta, and Ti) and P, similar chemically to those from an active continental margin setting. Their initial Hf isotopic ratios and Hf two-stage model ages range from +0. 9 to + 10. 37 and from 785Ma to 1240Ma, respectively, suggesting that their primary magmas could be mainly derived from partial melting of the Meso-Neoproterozoic accretted lower crust. The Early Permian basaltic andesites from the Guanmenzuizi Formation in Hunchun area, belonging chemically to medium-K calc-alkaline series, are poor in SiO2 (53. 4% ~ 53. 7% ) and HFSEs, rich in A12O3 (16. 4% ~ 16. 8% ) and LILEs, and display low REE abundances and flat REE pattern, similar to those from an island arc setting. The primary magma of the basaltic andesites could be mainly derived from partial melting of the depleted mantle wedge metasomatized by the subducted slab-derived fluid. The Late Permian basalts from the Guanmenzuizi Formation in Tumen area have SiO2 = 48. 7% ~ 49. 6% , Mg# = 0. 64 ~ 0

  13. Drought reconstruction in eastern Hulun Buir steppe, China and its linkages to the sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Bao, Guang; Bao, Ming; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Lizhi; Ge, Yuxiang; Bao, Wurigen; Tian, Heng

    2016-01-01

    A tree-ring width chronology covering the period 1780-2013 AD was developed from Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica for the eastern Hulun Buir steppe, a region located on the edge of the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Climate-growth response analysis revealed drought stress to be the primary limiting factor for tree growth. Therefore, the mean February-July standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was reconstructed over the period 1819-2013, where the reconstruction could account for 32.8% of the variance in the instrumental record over the calibration period 1953-2011. Comparison with other tree-ring-based moisture sequences from nearby areas confirmed a high degree of confidence in our reconstruction. Severe drought intervals since the late 1970s in our study area consisted with the weakening East Asian summer monsoon, which modulating regional moisture conditions in semi-arid zone over northern China. Drought variations in the study area significantly correlated with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Pacific Ocean, suggesting a possible connection of regional hydroclimatic variations to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The potential influence associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was primarily analyzed.

  14. Anthropogenic forcing of shift in precipitation in Eastern China in late 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Observation shows that eastern China has experienced an interdecadal shift in the summer precipitation during the second half of the 20th century. The summer precipitation increased in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley, whereas it decreased in northern China. Here we use a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model and multi-ensemble simulations to show that the interdecadal shift is mainly caused by the combined effect of increasing global greenhouse gases and regional aerosol emissions over China. The rapidly increasing greenhouse gases induce tropical warming and a westward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high, leading to more precipitation in Yangtze River Valley. At the same time the aerosol cooling effect over land contributes to a reduced summer land–sea thermal contrast and therefore to a weakened East Asian summer monsoon and to drought in northern China. Consequently, an anomalous precipitation pattern starts to emerge in eastern China in late 1970s. Our results highlight the important role of anthropogenic forcing agents in shaping the weakened East Asian summer monsoon and associated anomalous precipitation in eastern China.

  15. Prediction model for spring dust weather frequency in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG XianMei

    2008-01-01

    It is of great social and scientific importance and also very difficult to make reliable prediction for dust weather frequency (DWF) in North China. In this paper, the correlation between spring DWF in Beijing and Tianjin observation stations, taken as examples in North China, and seasonally averaged surface air temperature, precipitation, Arctic Oscillation, Antarctic Oscillation, South Oscillation, near surface meridional wind and Eurasian westerly index is respectively calculated so as to construct a prediction model for spring DWF in North China by using these climatic factors. Two prediction models, I.e. Model-Ⅰ and model-Ⅱ, are then set up respectively based on observed climate data and the 32-year (1970--2001) extra-seasonal hindcast experiment data as reproduced by the nine-level Atmospheric General Circulation Model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP9L-AGCM). It is indicated that the correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted DWF reaches 0.933 in the model-Ⅰ, suggesting a high prediction skill one season ahead. The corresponding value is high up to 0.948 for the subsequent model-Ⅱ, which involves synchronous spring climate data reproduced by the IAP9L-AGCM relative to the model-Ⅰ. The model-Ⅱ can not only make more precise prediction but also can bring forward the lead time of real-time prediction from the model-Ⅰ's one season to half year. At last, the real-time predictability of the two models is evaluated. It follows that both the models display high prediction skill for both the interannual variation and linear trend of spring DWF in North China, and each is also featured by different advantages. As for the model-Ⅱ, the prediction skill is much higher than that of original approach by use of the IAP9L-AGCM alone. Therefore, the prediction idea put forward here should be popularized in other regions in China where dust weather occurs frequently.

  16. Prediction model for spring dust weather frequency in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is of great social and scientific importance and also very difficult to make reliable prediction for dust weather frequency (DWF) in North China. In this paper, the correlation between spring DWF in Beijing and Tianjin observation stations, taken as examples in North China, and seasonally averaged surface air temperature, precipitation, Arctic Oscillation, Antarctic Oscillation, South Oscillation, near surface meridional wind and Eurasian westerly index is respectively calculated so as to construct a prediction model for spring DWF in North China by using these climatic factors. Two prediction models, i.e. model-I and model-II, are then set up respectively based on observed climate data and the 32-year (1970 -2001) extra-seasonal hindcast experiment data as reproduced by the nine-level Atmospheric General Circulation Model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP9L-AGCM). It is indicated that the correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted DWF reaches 0.933 in the model-I, suggesting a high prediction skill one season ahead. The corresponding value is high up to 0.948 for the subsequent model-II, which involves synchronous spring climate data reproduced by the IAP9L-AGCM relative to the model-I. The model-II can not only make more precise prediction but also can bring forward the lead time of real-time prediction from the model-I’s one season to half year. At last, the real-time predictability of the two models is evaluated. It follows that both the models display high prediction skill for both the interannual variation and linear trend of spring DWF in North China, and each is also featured by different advantages. As for the model-II, the prediction skill is much higher than that of original approach by use of the IAP9L-AGCM alone. Therefore, the prediction idea put forward here should be popularized in other regions in China where dust weather occurs frequently.

  17. Fluorine emission from com-bustion of steam coal of North China Plate and Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To study the amount of fluorine emission from the combustion of the steam coal (mainly Permo-Carbonif- erous coal) from the North China Plate and Northwest China, the fluorine contents of the coal, the fly ash and the cinder in high-temperature power stations as well as mid-low temperature power stations have been analyzed. This note provides a rough estimate of the total annual amount of fluorine emission as well as emission ratio from steam coal combustion in China. Our results show that by combustion of 1 t of Permo-Carboniferous coal (containing roughly 100 g fluorine), high-temperature power stations emit roughly 90 g fluorine into the atmosphere. The fluorine emission ratio of coal combustion in high-temperature power stations is about 96% and that in mid-low temperature power stations is about 78%. A total of 800 million tons of coal is burnt in China every year, and the coal comes mainly from Permo- Carboniferous deposite in the North China Plate and Northwest China coal mines. Taking the average fluorine content of the coal used at a low value of 100 mg/kg, the total annual fluorine emission from steam coal combustion into the atmosphere is estimated to be 66398 t.

  18. Conditions of the occurrence of Anemone sylvestris in a kettle hole in north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Kwiatkowska-Falińska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The research, in 2004, was focused on the whole population of Anemone sylvestris (Snowdrop Windflower present in the area of a kettle hole (0.8 km2 in north-eastern Poland (52°50’00’’N; 23°11’20’’E. The location of 56 clumps of generative specimens was surveyed. They numbered from several to approx. 1500 specimens. The number of generative specimens in this population exceeded 10 000. On account of this, it is a unique stand of A. sylvestris in Poland. The relationship between the occurrence of the Snowdrop Windflower and the presence of kame hills and ridges has been proven. Low slopes of kame with an inclination of 10-20o, and a north-eastern or eastern exposition has been found as the local ecological optimum for this species. Research carried out in 1970-2001 on 5 permanent plots (25 m2 each has shown that: 1 Anemone sylvestris is an essential element of xerothermic grasslands of the order Festucetalia valesiacae; 2 the species suddenly withdraws from the parts of land on which woody species have already reached the shrub layer; 3 the greatest danger for the population of A. sylvestris in this area is the process of secondary succession initiated by the discontinuation of grazing on the kame hills.

  19. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the waters of the eastern North Pacific, including the Gulf of California, Hawaii, and the western Arctic of North America. The animals described are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance in…

  20. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the waters of the eastern North Pacific, including the Gulf of California, Hawaii, and the western Arctic of North America. The animals described are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance in…

  1. Phylogeographic analyses of Phragmites australis in China: Native distribution and habitat preference of the haplotype that invaded North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Xing AN; Qian WANG; Ji YANG; Jian-Quan LIU

    2012-01-01

    Phragmites australis is a cosmopolitan clonal species,but one haplotype from Eurasia has become highly invasive in North America.This article describes an investigation of the phylogeographic composition of 77 populations from China,based on the sequencing of two chloroplast non-coding DNA regions.A total of 11 haplotypes were detected,based on the sequence alignments of two chloroplast DNA fragments from 421 sampled individuals.Six of these haplotypes were completely new,and did not correspond to any of this species' 27 previously known haplotypes.The invasive haplotype M and haplotypes O and P were shown to occur frequently.Haplotype O is widely distributed across all regions and probably represents the primitive haplotype of this species.In contrast,P is mainly distributed in the humid eastern and northeastern regions of China,whereas M is more frequent in western and northwestern China— arid habitats with low precipitation.Between eastern and northeastern and western and northwestern regions,there was distinct genetic differentiation; the former region has a higher genetic diversity than the latter.The high occurrence of haplotype M in western China suggests that it prefers more arid habitats.These findings shed new light on the native distribution,adaptation,and habitat preference of haplotype M,which invaded North America.

  2. Recent heterogeneous warming and the associated summer precipitation over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Huang, Dan-Qing; Dai, Ying; Chen, Xi

    2016-02-01

    The recent heterogeneous warming and the associated summer precipitation over eastern China are investigated in this study. In 1990-1999, there exist warming over northwestern Pacific and cooling over eastern equatorial Pacific, which can be quantified by temperature gradient index (TGI). Positive and negative cases are chosen based on TGI. In positive cases, a "southern flood and northern drought" summer rainfall pattern dominates over eastern China. The atmospheric circulations show that associated with the southward receding of western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), ascending motion accompanied with more water vapor exists over southern China. Furthermore, cold-warm air activity affected by weakened East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) and strengthened East Asia polar front jet (EAPJ) may also be responsible for this rainfall anomaly pattern. In negative cases, significant positive Meiyu-like rainfall anomaly concentrated over Yangtze Huaihe River Basin (YHRB). Associated with the northward shift of WPSH, more water vapor is transported to YHRB. Additionally, the enhanced ascending motion over YHRB may be related with the northward shift of the EAPJ and westward shift of the EASJ. The results reinforce the notion that the configuration of EASJ and EAPJ in both intensity and position has large impacts on the precipitation variations over eastern China.

  3. Communication Development and Differences in Children Adopted from China and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Matsuo, Hisako

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The communication development of children adopted from China and Eastern Europe was compared by region of origin at 6 and 12 months after adoption. Method: Twenty children, recruited before or immediately following their adoption, participated in the study. Measures were collected between 2 and 6 months after adoption (Time 1) and between…

  4. EU-China Trade Partnership: Strategic Importance of Central and Eastern European Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Jitaru

    2016-01-01

    the increase of Chinese investment in Europe. This paper aims to analyze trade flows betweenChina and the EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe in the framework of the EU-Chinatrade partnership and how these countries can be considered a strategic partner in EU-Chinatrade relations.

  5. THE PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN CHINA: EVIDENCE FROM THE CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying; Luo, Renfu; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Although China has experienced rapid economic growth over the past few decades, significant health and nutritional problems remain. Little work has been done to track basic diseases, such as iron-deficiency anemia, so the exact prevalence of these health problems is unknown. The goals of this study were to assess the prevalence of anemia in China and identify individual, household and community-based factors associated with anemia. We used data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), including the measurement of hemoglobin levels among 7,261 individuals from 170 communities and 7 provinces in central and eastern China. The overall prevalence of anemia was 13.4% using the WHO's blood hemoglobin thresholds (1968). This means in China's more developed central and eastern regions up to 180 million people may be anemic. Some vulnerable subgroups were disproportionately affected by anemia. Seniors (aged 60 years and above) were more likely to be anemic than younger age cohorts, and females had higher anemia prevalence among all age groups except among children aged 7 to 14 years. We found a negative correlation between household wealth and the presence of anemia, suggesting anemia prevalence may decline as China's economy grows. However, the prevalence of anemia was greater in migrant households, which should be experiencing an improved economic status.

  6. Correlations between the North China Craton and the Indian Shield: Constraints from regional metallogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caifeng Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the North China Craton (NCC and the Indian Shield (IND has been a hot topic in recent years. On the basis of ore deposit databases, the NCC and IND have shown broad similarity in metallogenesis from the middle Archaean to the Mesoproterozoic. The two blocks both have three major metallogenic systems: (1 the Archaean BIF metallogenic system; (2 the Paleoproterozoic Cu-Pb-Zn metallogenic system; and (3 the Mesoproterozoic Fe-Pb-Zn system. In the north margin of the NCC and the west margin of the IND, the Archaean BIF-Au-Cu-Pb-Zn deposits had the same petrogenesis and host rocks, the Paleoproterozoic Cu-Pb-Zn deposits were controlled by active belts, and the Mesoproterozoic Fe-Pb-Zn deposits were mainly related to multi-stage rifting. Matching regional mineralization patterns and geological features has established the continental assembly referred to as “NCWI”, an acronym for the north margin of the NCC (NC and the west margin of the IND (WI during the middle Archaean to the Mesoproterozoic. In this assembly, the available geological and metallogenic data from the Eastern Block and active belts of NC fit those from the Dharwar craton and the Aravalli–Delhi–Vindhyan belt of WI, respectively. Moreover, the depositional model and environment of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary manganese deposits in NCWI implied that the assembly may be located at low latitudes, where the conditions were favorable for dissolving ice and precipitating manganese deposits.

  7. Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole C Monnahan

    Full Text Available Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus were exploited extensively around the world and remain endangered. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP population. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches. We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP. The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114 from 1905-1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42% of all catches in the North Pacific. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180. The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. The results of this study provide information for future studies investigating the recovery of these populations and the impact of continuing and future sources of anthropogenic

  8. Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnahan, Cole C; Branch, Trevor A; Stafford, Kathleen M; Ivashchenko, Yulia V; Oleson, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were exploited extensively around the world and remain endangered. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP) population. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches. We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP). The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114) from 1905-1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42%) of all catches in the North Pacific. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180). The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. The results of this study provide information for future studies investigating the recovery of these populations and the impact of continuing and future sources of anthropogenic mortality.

  9. Oxygen distribution and aerobic respiration in the north and south eastern tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiano, Laura; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Dalsgaard, Tage

    2014-01-01

    Highly sensitive STOX O-2 sensors were used for determination of in situ O-2 distribution in the eastern tropical north and south Pacific oxygen minimum zones (ETN/SP OMZs), as well as for laboratory determination of O-2 uptake rates of water masses at various depths within these OMZs. Oxygen...... was generally below the detection limit (few nmol L-1) in the core of both OMZs, suggesting the presence of vast volumes of functionally anoxic waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Oxygen was often not detectable in the deep secondary chlorophyll maximum found at some locations, but other secondary maxima...... efficiently at extremely low oxygen concentrations with apparent half-saturation concentrations (K-m values) ranging from about 10 to about 200 nmol L-1. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  10. Effect of forest on sediment yield in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xinxiao Prof.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest-sediment relationship is a hot and important issue in Ecohydrology studies. China has implemented many large-scale reforestation programmes in the last decades to address the growing soil erosion and desertification. In this study, we made statistical and graphic analyses on the long-term hydrological data of the 39 watersheds in the rocky mountain area of the North China, and then we were able to analyze the effect of forest on sediment yield. Our results show that the effect is weak in the lees-precipitation regions (when MAP 500 mm, the impact of forest on reducing sediment yield is different with the varied forest coverage (f, the relationship between the sediment yield and forest coverage show a quadratic polynomial.

  11. Central and Eastern European NGO Delegation Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正At the invitation of CAFIU, a 15-member delegation composed of representatives from Civil Association "Polish House", "Amicus Europe" (Friends of Europe) Foundation of Poland, "World Bridge" Foundation of Hungary, Czech-China

  12. Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Joseph, R.A.; O'Brien, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

  13. Hydroclimatology and Comparative Soil Erosion in Eastern North America and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Stanley

    2010-05-01

    Extreme soil erosion and hydrologic disruption during the historical period of European agricultural occupance has been well documented for several regions of the US. Why was it so much more severe in the US than in Western Europe, the place of origin of most settlers? While choice of crops, agricultural practices, literacy, tenancy and economic factors were all contributing factors, differences of hydroclimatology, specifically rainfall intensities and amounts, also played a strong role. The climate of Western Europe is Marine West Coast (Koeppen:Cfb)while that of Eastern North America is Humid Subtropical or Humid Continental(Cfa, Dfa). While both regions are humid, Western Europe tends to have well-distributed rainfall occurring in moderate storms whereas Eastern North America has more erratic rainfall occurring in often intense storms. A comparison of long-term frequency-magnitude relationships of storms shows much lower values for Europe than for America. For example, a 100-year-24 hour event in the southeastern US is about 2-4 times as great as that in lowland England. European settlers simply did not have the agronomic and engineering techniques to deal with this excessive rainfall and such techniques were not developed in he US until the 1930s. . Agricultural fields in Britain generally require no engineering such as terracing, contour strip cropping, or even contour plowing to handle excess water but they are absolutely required in the eastern US. There is evidence that climate change will affect these features. For example, intense rainstorms in southern England in recent years have flooded roads (because the drains were inadequate), eroded fields (no conservation measures), and flooded villages (storm channels were too small).For future projects, Europeans may well have to look to the engineering practices developed and used in the eastern US.

  14. Satellite signal shows storage-unloading subsidence in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiwo, J. P.; Tao, F.

    2015-06-01

    Worsening water storage depletion (WSD) contributes to environmental degradation, land subsidence and earthquake and could disrupt food production/security and social stability. There is need for efficient water use strategies in North China, a pivotal agrarian, industrial and political base in China with a widespread WSD. This study integrates satellite, model and field data products to investigate WSD and land subsidence in North China. In the first step, GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mass rates are used to show WSD in the region. Next, GRACE total water storage (TWS) is corrected for soil water storage (SWS) to derive groundwater storage (GWS) using GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) data products. The derived GWS is compared with GWS obtained from field-measured groundwater level to show land subsidence in the study area. Then GPS (Global Positioning System) data of relative land surface change (LSC) are used to confirm the subsidence due to WSD. A total of ~ 96 near-consecutive months (January 2002 through December 2009) of datasets are used in the study. Based on GRACE mass rates, TWS depletion is 23.76 ± 1.74 mm yr-1 or 13.73 ± 1.01 km3 yr-1 in the 578 000 km2 study area. This is ~ 31 % of the slated 45 km3 yr-1 water delivery in 2050 via the South-North Water Diversion Project. Analysis of relative LSC shows subsidence of 7.29 ± 0.35 mm yr-1 in Beijing and 2.74 ± 0.16 mm yr-1 in North China. About 11.53 % (2.74 ± 0.18 mm or 1.58 ± 0.12 km3) of the TWS and 8.37 % (1.52 ± 0.70 mm or 0.88 ± 0.03 km3) of the GWS are attributed to storage reductions accompanying subsidence in the region. Although interpretations of the findings require caution due to the short temporal and large spatial coverage, the concurrence of WSD and land subsidence could have adverse implications for the study area. It is critical that the relevant stakeholders embark on resource-efficient measures to ensure water availability, food security, ecological

  15. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  16. Spatial oscillation of the particle pollution in eastern China during winter: Implications for regional air quality and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Minghui; Chen, Liangfu; Li, Rong; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zifeng; Tang, Guiqian; Tao, Jinhua

    2016-11-01

    We provided a large-scale observational insight into spatial variations of the particle pollution in eastern China during winter based on recently extended air quality monitoring networks. Severe particle pollution with PM2.5 >150 μg/m3 prevailed in most areas of eastern China during December 2015, when red alert of haze pollution was released in many places. It was found that two distinct pollution processes existed in eastern China during winter. In the fringe areas such as Beijing and Shanghai in eastern China, most of air pollution events were characterized by abrupt peak values and short duration. By comparison, particle pollution in the interior exhibited obvious accumulation and decline processes with much higher PM2.5 concentration. Regional observations in ground networks show notable spatial oscillation of particle pollutants in eastern China, which is the main driver of the abrupt particle pollution in fringe areas. Despite common alternation of northerly and southerly airflows within planetary boundary layer (PBL), particle pollution in central part of eastern China was under the influence of regional accumulated pollutants due to lack of persistent strong winds. In addition, spatial oscillation of particle pollutants weakened with low PBL (air quality in eastern China.

  17. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Maris

    2016-01-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about...

  18. Stable Isotopes Provide Insight into Population Structure and Segregation in Eastern North Atlantic Sperm Whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrell, Asuncion; Velasquez Vacca, Adriana; Pinela, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    highly mobile, shows indication of structuring in the eastern North Atlantic, an ocean basin in which a single population is believed to occur. To do so, we examined stable isotope values in sequential growth layer groups of teeth from individuals sampled in Denmark and NW Spain. In each layer we...... measured oxygen-isotope ratios (delta O-18) in the inorganic component (hydroxyapatite), and nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (delta N-15: delta C-13) in the organic component (primarily collagenous). We found significant differences between Denmark and NW Spain in delta N-15 and delta O-18 values...

  19. Assessment and classification of eutrophication status in the Eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axe, P.; Andersen, Jesper; Murray, Ciarán

    This contribution describes the first eutrophication assessment of the eastern North Sea using a harmonized quantitative assessment tool, so as to describe recent environmental status in response to nutrient loading pressures. The assessment tool HEAT (Andersen et al., 2010) was developed......) eutrophication status was presented as single values covering large assessment units (often national Exclusive Economic Zones) with no indication of status gradients within these regions. The present assessment resolves status variation within and across these assessment units. The eutrophication assessment...... highlighted limitations of some eutrophication indicators, differences in assumptions about eutrophication status between countries and also between the OSPAR COMP, Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy approaches....

  20. Celiac disease in Middle Eastern and North African countries:A new burden?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kassem; Barada; Abbas; Bitar; Mohamad; Abdul-Razak; Mokadem; Jana; Ghazi; Hashash; Peter; Green

    2010-01-01

    Celiac disease(CD) is now recognized as a common disorder among Middle Eastern(ME) and North African(NA) populations.The aim of this review is to assess the available data regarding CD in the ME and NA and to compare this information with that of Western countries.A literature review was performed using the electronic databases PubMed and Medline(1950-2008) as search engines,and "celiac disease" was used as a Mesh term.The search was limited to ME and NA countries.The prevalence of CD in ME and NA countries...

  1. [Melioidosis in a Danish tourist returning from North-eastern Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leth, Steffen; Wang, Mikala; Deutch, Susanna

    2014-06-09

    Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in South East Asia and Northern Australia. It has a wide clinical diversity, spanning from asymptomatic cases to rapid septic shock and death. We present a case of pulmonary melioidosis in a Danish tourist returning from North-eastern Thailand. The patient was treated with intravenous ceftazidime followed by oral therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and subsequently switched to doxycycline due to abnormal liver function tests and eosinophilia, with no sign of relapse two months after antibiotic cessation.

  2. High oxygen consumption rates in the deep layers of the North Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SOUVERMEZOGLOU

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe winter meteorological conditions promote dense water formation over the shelves of the North Aegean Sea. The newly formed dense water fills the deep basins of the North Aegean Sea, contributing to their ventilation and the downward transport of organic and inorganic material. The great bathymetric variability imposes limitations on the deep circulation and the communication between the various basins and makes the North Aegean Sea an appropriate area for the monitoring of oxygen consumption in the deep layers. Historical hydrographic data suggest that there was extensive production of dense water in the North Aegean Sea on two occasions during the last decade, the winters of 1987 and 1992-1993. Our data series from August 1986 to September 1989 and from March 1997 to February 1999, permitted us to follow, step by step, the oxygen consumption and the nutrient regeneration in the deep basins of the northern Aegean Sea during these periods of isolation. The organic matter reaching the bottom layer just after the deep water formation event is rich in labile and easily oxidizable material and its decomposition leads to a significant oxygen uptake during the first year of stagnation. The further decomposition of the remaining semi-labile and refractory material turns over on greater time scales, by consuming lesser amounts of oxygen. A more significant oxygen decrease is recorded in the eastern basin (Lemnos Basin of the North Aegean Trough, than in the central (Athos Basin and the western (North Sporades Basin ones and is attributed to the irregular contribution of the Black Sea Water (BSW to the water masses formed on the different shelves of the North Aegean Sea. Our results and the existing data on the Turkish straits showed that dissolved organic matter is the major constituent responsible for this high oxygen consumption. The slightly different particulate organic carbon fluxes to these depressions play a secondary role.

  3. High oxygen consumption rates in the deep layers of the North Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SOUVERMEZOGLOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe winter meteorological conditions promote dense water formation over the shelves of the North Aegean Sea. The newly formed dense water fills the deep basins of the North Aegean Sea, contributing to their ventilation and the downward transport of organic and inorganic material. The great bathymetric variability imposes limitations on the deep circulation and the communication between the various basins and makes the North Aegean Sea an appropriate area for the monitoring of oxygen consumption in the deep layers. Historical hydrographic data suggest that there was extensive production of dense water in the North Aegean Sea on two occasions during the last decade, the winters of 1987 and 1992-1993. Our data series from August 1986 to September 1989 and from March 1997 to February 1999, permitted us to follow, step by step, the oxygen consumption and the nutrient regeneration in the deep basins of the northern Aegean Sea during these periods of isolation. The organic matter reaching the bottom layer just after the deep water formation event is rich in labile and easily oxidizable material and its decomposition leads to a significant oxygen uptake during the first year of stagnation. The further decomposition of the remaining semi-labile and refractory material turns over on greater time scales, by consuming lesser amounts of oxygen. A more significant oxygen decrease is recorded in the eastern basin (Lemnos Basin of the North Aegean Trough, than in the central (Athos Basin and the western (North Sporades Basin ones and is attributed to the irregular contribution of the Black Sea Water (BSW to the water masses formed on the different shelves of the North Aegean Sea. Our results and the existing data on the Turkish straits showed that dissolved organic matter is the major constituent responsible for this high oxygen consumption. The slightly different particulate organic carbon fluxes to these depressions play a secondary role.

  4. Numerical air quality forecasting over eastern China: An operational application of WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangqiang; Xu, Jianming; Xie, Ying; Chang, Luyu; Gao, Wei; Gu, Yixuan; Zhou, Ji

    2017-03-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Environmental Modeling System for eastern China (RAEMS) is an operational numerical system to forecast near surface atmospheric pollutants such as PM2.5 and O3 over the eastern China region. This system was based on the fully online coupled weather research and forecasting/chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Anthropogenic emissions were based on the multi-resolution emission inventory for China (MEIC), and biogenic emissions were online calculated using model of emissions of gases and aerosols from nature (MEGAN2). Authorized by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), this system started to provide operational forecast in 2013. With a large domain covering eastern China, the system produces daily 72-hr forecast. In this work, a comprehensive evaluation was carried out against measurements for two full years (2014-2015). Evaluation results show that the RAEMS is skillful in forecasting temporal variation and spatial distribution of major air pollutants over the eastern China region. The performance is consistent in different forecast length of 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. About half of cities have correlation coefficients greater than 0.6 for PM2.5 and 0.7 for daily maximum 8-h averaged (DM8H) ozone. The forecasted PM2.5 is generally in good agreement with observed concentrations, with most cities having normalized mean biases (NMB) within ±25%. Forecasted ozone diurnal variation is very similar to that of observed, and makes small peak time error for DM8H ozone. It also shows good capability in capturing ozone pollution as indicated by high critical success indexes (CSI). The modeling system also exhibits acceptable performance for PM10, NO2, SO2, and CO. Meanwhile, degraded performance for PM2.5 is found under heavy polluted conditions, and there is a general over estimation in ozone concentrations.

  5. Examination of Health Effects and Long-Term Impacts of Deployments of Multiple Tag Types on Blue, Humpback, and Gray Whales in the Eastern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    deployments of multiple tag types on blue, humpback, and gray whales in the eastern North Pacific John Calambokidis Cascadia Research Collective 218...large whales including blue, humpback, and gray whales by conducting long term follow up of previously tagged individuals in the eastern North Pacific...humpback, and gray whales in the eastern North Pacific and our extensive monitoring of these populations. Despite extensive use of implant tags for more

  6. Molecular identification of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in eastern North America by using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Logan M; Yu, Tian; Florin, David A; Nukmal, Nismah; Brown, Grayson C; Zhou, Xuguo

    2013-07-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are small blood-feeding dipterans that are primary vectors of numerous human and livestock pathogens. Effective surveillance programs with accurate identification tools are critical in development and implementation of modern integrated pest management programs. Although morphological keys are available for North American species, identification can still be challenging owing to the nature of sample preparation and incompatibility with molecular or biochemical-based pathology assays. Further, the potential for introduction of Old World or other exotic species is not accounted for by current keys. Herein, we present the development and validation of a restriction fragment-length polymorphism-based molecular identification method. Specifically, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, a mitochondrial DNA marker, was used to distinguish two species of adult sand flies indigenous to eastern North America with two exotic species not yet known to occur in the United States.

  7. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  8. How well can fishes prey on zebra mussels in eastern North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Literature on mollusk-eating fishes was reviewed to determine the potential for different species of fish to control zebra mussels in eastern North America. At least six species are potential predators of zebra mussels because they possess (1) both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth or (2) lower pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads located on the dorsal roof for crushing mollusk shells. Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and two centrarchids, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) and pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), possess both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth and are likely to consume more zebra mussels than fishes with only lower pharyngeal teeth. Only two catostomid species, copper and river redhorses (Moxostoma hubbsi and M. carinatum), have chewing pads that enable them to crush mollusks. The exotic omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio), possessing lower teeth and a chewing pad, may prey on zebra mussels when aquatic insect larvae, its preferred food, become rare. Managing populations of drum, sunfishes and redhorses to reduce exploitation of large individuals and improve their habitats are suggested as means to intensify biological control of zebra mussels in eastern North America. Other Eurasian molluscivores, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) should not be introduced into North America because research has shown repeatedly that an introduced biological controller usually does not forage for unwanted pests or reside only in preferred habitats of pests. Drum, sunfishes and redhorses should be preferred over these exotics as biological controllers of zebra mussels in North America because these native fishes will likely occupy newly established habitats of zebra mussels.

  9. Evaluation of dust activity and climate effects in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiang-ao; LIANG Feng; WANG Ming-xing

    2004-01-01

    TOMS/Al data with nearly 20 years are utilized in the paper to evaluate dust activities in North China.Combined with simultaneous NCEP reanalysis climate data, climate effects on dust activities are assessed. Theresults showed that the whole North China suffers impact by dust aerosols, with three centers standing out inTOMS/Al spring average map that are western three basins, which are characterized by lower annual precipitationand elevation. Gobi deserts in Mongolia Plateau do not attain higher TOMS/Al value due to cloud contamination andrelative higher elevation. Spring is the season with the highest TOMS dust aerosol index; within the western threebasins, high dust aerosol index appears in both spring and summer, especially in Tarim Basin. Wind speed in springand precipitation in previous rainy season play important roles in controlling dust activities, higher wind speed andless precipitation than the normal are in favor of dust activities in spring. Temperature in spring and previous winteralso affect dust activity to a certain extent, but with contrary spatial distribution. Temperature in winter exert effectprincipally in west part, contrarily, temperature effect in spring is mainly shown in east part. Both of them havenegative correlation with dust activity.

  10. Parallel Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tangpei Cheng; Jingli Shao; Yali Cui; Zeyao Mo; Zhong Han; Ling Li

    2014-01-01

    Numerical modeling is of crucial importance in understanding the behavior of regional groundwater system. However, the demand on modeling capability is intensive when performing high-resolution simulation over long time span. This paper presents the application of a parallel pro-gram to speed up the detailed modeling of the groundwater flow system in the North China Plain. The parallel program is implemented by rebuilding the well-known MODFLOW program on our parallel- computing framework, which is achieved by designing patch-based parallel data structures and algo-rithms but maintaining the compute flow and functionalities of MODFLOW. The detailed model with more than one million grids and a decade of time has been solved. The parallel simulation results were examined against the field observed data and these two data are generally in good agreement. For the comparison on solution time, the parallel program running on 32 cores is 6 times faster than the fastest MICCG-based MODFLOW program and 11 times faster than the GMG-based MODFLOW program. Therefore, remarkable computational time can be saved when using the parallel program, which facili-tates the rapid modeling and prediction of the groundwater flow system in the North China Plain.

  11. A potential archive of Pleistocene uplift and erosion in the eastern Nete basin, Campine area, north-eastern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    From a geodynamic point of view, the Campine area is situated on the crossroads between distinctive tectonic settings: the subsiding North Sea basin and Roer Valley Graben in the north, and the uplifting Brabant Massif and Ardennes in the south. In general, this has led to overall Cenozoic subsidence of the area and sedimentation of unconsolidated marine sands. However, the morphology of the present-day Nete basin, which is situated in the central and eastern part of the Campine area, is a clear example of an erosional feature and shows evidence of up to 30 m of Quaternary erosion. However, the drivers, timing and rate of landscape development in the Nete basin are poorly constrained. Here, we present and describe geological and geomorphological remnants testifying to past landscape development in the Nete basin, that will help understanding the Quaternary geodynamic evolution (uplift) of the Campine area. The Nete basin is located in northern Belgium and is drained by two small rivers, the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete, that merge into the larger Nete river several km before entering the Lower Scheldt basin. The Nete basin can clearly be identified on topographical maps as a depression, ca. 40 km x 40 km, with valley floors ranging between 10-20 m above sea level (a.s.l.). It is bounded in the north, east and south by erosion resistant geological formations at altitudes between 30 m (north) and 60 m (south). The major direction of drainage is from ENE to WSW and the basin thus opens towards the west. The start of basin development is situated after deposition of Rhine sediments (~ 1 Ma) which form the erosion resistant eastern watershed with the Meuse basin at an altitude of ~ 50 m a.s.l. on top of the Campine Plateau. GIS-based landscape analysis of the topography and the contour map of the Quaternary base confirm the observation that the lowering of the relief from the Campine Plateau down to the floodplain of the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete shows a stepwise

  12. Hydrology and circulation in the North Aegean (eastern Mediterranean throughout 1997 and 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. ZERVAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of two research projects offered us the opportunity to perform a comprehensive study of the seasonal evolution of the hydrological structure and the circulation of the North Aegean Sea, at the northern extremes of the eastern Mediterranean. The combination of brackish water inflow from the Dardanelles and the sea-bottom relief dictate the significant differences between the North and South Aegean water columns. The relatively warm and highly saline South Aegean waters enter the North Aegean through the dominant cyclonic circulation of the basin. In the North Aegean, three layers of distinct water masses of very different properties are observed: The 20-50 m thick surface layer is occupied mainly by Black Sea Water, modified on its way through the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles. Below the surface layer there is warm and highly saline water originating in the South Aegean and the Levantine, extending down to 350-400 m depth. Below this layer, the deeper-than-400 m basins of the North Aegean contain locally formed, very dense water with different θ /S characteristics at each subbasin. The circulation is characterised by a series of permanent, semi-permanent and transient mesoscale features, overlaid on the general slow cyclonic circulation of the Aegean. The mesoscale activity, while not necessarily important in enhancing isopycnal mixing in the region, in combination with the very high stratification of the upper layers, however, increases the residence time of the water of the upper layers in the general area of the North Aegean. As a result, water having out-flowed from the Black Sea in the winter, forms a separate distinct layer in the region in spring (lying between “younger” BSW and the Levantine origin water, and is still traceable in the water column in late summer.

  13. The impacts of the Indian summer rainfall on North China summer rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renguang; Jiao, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a connection between interannual variations of the Indian and North China summer rainfall. An atmospheric circulation wave pattern over the mid-latitude Asia plays an important role in the connection. The present study compares the influence of the above-normal and below-normal Indian summer rainfall on the North China summer rainfall variations. Composite analysis shows that the mid-latitude Asian atmospheric circulation and the North China rainfall anomalies during summer tend to be anti-symmetric in above-normal and below-normal Indian rainfall years. Analysis indicates that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relation tends to be stronger when larger Indian rainfall anomaly occurs during a higher mean rainfall period. The observed long-term change in the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship cannot be explained by the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The present study evaluates the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship in climate models. Analysis shows that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship differs largely among different climate models and among different simulations of a specific model. The relationship also displays obvious temporal variations in both individual and ensemble mean model simulations. This suggests an important role of the atmospheric internal variability in the change of the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship.

  14. Copper Factories in North China Suspended Production Extensively, Consumption Release May Appear in Late September

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Recently,it was discovered that many copper factories in North China market one after another entered production suspension status.According to manufacturers in Tianjin area,in order to guarantee successful proceeding of China’s Military Parade in early September,high pollution and high energy consumingsmelting&processing; enterprises in North China received notice of production suspension

  15. Reemergence and Autochthonous Transmission of Dengue Virus, Eastern China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Yu, Bin; Lin, Xian-Dan; Kong, De-Guang; Wang, Jian; Tian, Jun-Hua; Li, Ming-Hui; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-09-01

    In 2014, 20 dengue cases were reported in the cities of Wenzhou (5 cases) and Wuhan (15 cases), China, where dengue has rarely been reported. Dengue virus 1 was detected in 4 patients. Although most of these cases were likely imported, epidemiologic analysis provided evidence for autochthonous transmission.

  16. Sunflower domestication alleles support single domestication center in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Benjamin K; Scascitelli, Moira; Kane, Nolan C; Luton, Harry H; Rasmussen, David A; Bye, Robert A; Lentz, David L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-08-23

    Phylogenetic analyses of genes with demonstrated involvement in evolutionary transitions can be an important means of resolving conflicting hypotheses about evolutionary history or process. In sunflower, two genes have previously been shown to have experienced selective sweeps during its early domestication. In the present study, we identified a third candidate early domestication gene and conducted haplotype analyses of all three genes to address a recent, controversial hypothesis about the origin of cultivated sunflower. Although the scientific consensus had long been that sunflower was domesticated once in eastern North America, the discovery of pre-Columbian sunflower remains at archaeological sites in Mexico led to the proposal of a second domestication center in southern Mexico. Previous molecular studies with neutral markers were consistent with the former hypothesis. However, only two indigenous Mexican cultivars were included in these studies, and their provenance and genetic purity have been questioned. Therefore, we sequenced regions of the three candidate domestication genes containing SNPs diagnostic for domestication from large, newly collected samples of Mexican sunflower landraces and Mexican wild populations from a broad geographic range. The new germplasm also was genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci. Our evidence from multiple evolutionarily important loci and from neutral markers supports a single domestication event for extant cultivated sunflower in eastern North America.

  17. Glacial cycles as an allopatric speciation pump in north-eastern American freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Julien; Hanner, Robert H; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Allopatric speciation may be the principal mechanism generating new species. Yet, it remains difficult to judge the generality of this process because few studies have provided evidence that geographic isolation has triggered the development of reproductive isolation over multiple species of a regional fauna. Here, we first combine results from new empirical data sets (7 taxa) and published literature (9 taxa) to show that the eastern Great Lakes drainage represents a multispecies suture zone for glacial lineages of freshwater fishes with variable levels of genetic divergence. Second, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses among four pairs of lineages. Results indicate that lineages with relatively deep levels of mtDNA 5' COI (barcode) sequence divergence (>2%) developed strong reproductive barriers, while lineages with lower levels of divergence show weaker reproductive isolation when found in sympatry. This suggests that a threshold of 2% sequence divergence at mtDNA could be used as a first step to flag cryptic species in North American freshwater fishes. By describing different levels of divergence and reproductive isolation in different co-occurring fishes, we offer strong evidence that allopatric speciation has contributed significantly to the diversification of north-eastern American freshwater fishes and confirm that Pleistocene glacial cycles can be viewed as a 'speciation pump' that played a predominant role in generating biodiversity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Tectonic inversion in the Wandel Sea Basin: A new structural model of Kilen (eastern North Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennevig, Kristian; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Stemmerik, Lars

    2016-12-01

    The seminunatak Kilen in eastern North Greenland, with its complexly deformed Carboniferous-Cretaceous strata, is a key area to understand the tectonic history of the transform plate boundary between eastern North Greenland and Svalbard. Detailed 3-D geological mapping from oblique photogrammetry along with limited ground fieldwork and interpretation of previously published data forms the basis for a new structural model of Kilen. Previous structural models interpreted rhombic-shaped fault patterns as the evidence for strike-slip tectonics. These structures are here interpreted to be the result of a post-Coniacian NE-SW extension with NW-SE trending normal faults followed by later, N-S compression of presumable Paleocene-Eocene age, folding the faults passively and suggesting the presence of a basal detachment. Furthermore, two thrust sheets have been distinguished on Kilen: a lower Kilen Thrust Sheet and an upper Hondal Elv Thrust Sheet separated by a subhorizontal fault: the Central Detachment. The style of deformation and the structures described are interpreted as the result of Paleocene-Eocene N-S directed compression resulting in basin inversion with strike-slip faults only having minor status. This indicates that the Greenland margin as exposed on Kilen and the conjugate Svalbard margin in the West Spitsbergen fold-and-thrust belt are more similar than previously anticipated.

  19. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Martin, Tara G; Hobson, Keith A; Wunder, Michael B; Norris, D Ryan

    2013-10-07

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km(2) that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America.

  20. Invasive Alien Species of Terrestrial Vegetation of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetational landscape of north-eastern Terai region at the foot hills of Central Himalayas is a mosaic of grassland, old-field, wasteland, and forest ecosystems. Like many other parts of the country, this region is also infested with alien intruders which not only interfere with the growth and production of food crops but also exercise adverse effects on the biodiversity of native species. The present study attempts to catalogue the invasive alien species of the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh especially with reference to their habit, taxonomic position, and nativity. A total of 1135 plant species within 580 genera under 119 families are so far known to occur in the region. Of these, only 149 species within 100 genera under 41 families have been found to be invasive aliens as evident from their center of origin, past history, nature of aggregation, and invasion observed under field conditions. About 80% of these invaders have been introduced from neotropics. Out of 173 invasive plants across India, this region shares 149 species, out of which 66% of species have come from Tropical America, 14% from African continent, and the rest from other countries. A better planning in the form of early identification and reporting of infestation and spread of noxious weeds is needed for their control.

  1. Temporal separation of two fin whale call types across the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirović, Ana; Williams, Lauren N; Kerosky, Sara M; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2013-01-01

    Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) produce a variety of low-frequency, short-duration, frequency-modulated calls. The differences in temporal patterns between two fin whale call types are described from long-term passive acoustic data collected intermittently between 2005 and 2011 at three locations across the eastern North Pacific: the Bering Sea, off Southern California, and in Canal de Ballenas in the northern Gulf of California. Fin whale calls were detected at all sites year-round, during all periods with recordings. At all three locations, 40-Hz calls peaked in June, preceding a peak in 20-Hz calls by 3-5 months. Monitoring both call types may provide a more accurate insight into the seasonal presence of fin whales across the eastern North Pacific than can be obtained from a single call type. The 40-Hz call may be associated with a foraging function, and temporal separation between 40- and 20-Hz calls may indicate the separation between predominately feeding behavior and other social interactions.

  2. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-07-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  3. Modes of sedimentary basin formation in the north-eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Randell; Starostenko, Vitaly; Sydorenko, Grygoriy; Yegorova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus and Black Sea sedimentary basins developed in a Mesozoic back-arc setting, the former older than the latter (Jurassic v. Cretaceous). Compressional shortening of the former and accompanying ongoing development of marginal basin depocentres in the north-eastern Black Sea - which is closely tied to the formation of the Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogen - is a Cenozoic phenomenon, starting in the Eocene and proceeding until the present day. Recently, the sedimentary basin/crust/lithosphere geometry of the study area has been characterised across a range of scales using regional seismic reflection profiling, long-offset refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling and local earthquake tomography. These provide a new integrated image of the present-day crustal structure and sedimentary basin architecture of the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea, north across the Azov Sea and provide evidence of the deeper expression of sedimentary basins and the processes controlling the geometry of their inversion during the Cenozoic. It is inferred that the Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, lying stratigraphically below the Black Sea and younger sedimentary successions, extends further to the west than previously known. This basin has significant thickness in the area between the Azov and Black seas and probably forms the deeper core of the Crimea-Caucasus inversion zone. The Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogenic belt is the expression of "basin inversion" of the Jurassic Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, the degree of inversion of which varies along strike. The Greater Caucasus foredeep basins - Indolo-Kuban and Sorokin-Tuapse troughs -represent syn-inversional marginal troughs to the main inversion zone. The Shatsky Ridge - the northern flank of the main East Black Sea Basin - may also be mainly a syn-inversional structure, underlain by a blind thrust zone expressed as a northward dipping zone of seismicity on the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea.

  4. The flow field of the upper hypoxic Eastern Tropical North Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stramma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A subsurface low oxygen zone is located in the eastern tropical North Atlantic Ocean (ETNA in the upper ocean with the core of the hypoxic (O2 ≤ 60 μmol kg−1 oxygen minimum zone (OMZ at 400 to 500 m depth. The poorly known subsurface circulation in the OMZ region is derived from observations and data assimilation results. Measurements in the eastern tropical North Atlantic in November/December 2008, in November/December 2009 and October/November 2010 of velocity, oxygen and of a tracer (CF3SF5 that was released in April 2008 at ∼ 8° N, 23° W (at ∼ 330 m depth show circulation in the upper part of the OMZ with spreading to the east in the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC region and northwestward around the Guinea Dome. Three floats equipped with oxygen sensors deployed at ∼ 8° N, 23° W with parking depths at 330, 350 and 400 m depths were used to estimate velocity along the float trajectory at the surface and at the park depth. South of 9° N, the zonal surface velocity estimate from float data alternate seasonally. At the 350 m park depth north of 9° N a cyclonic northwestward flow across the OMZ was observed. The northward shift into the upper OMZ and the cyclonic flow around the Guinea Dome seem to be connected to a strong Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM event in 2009. A near-surface cyclonic circulation cell east of the Cape Verde Islands expands into the OMZ layer. The circulation of the upper OMZ mirrors the near surface circulation. Oxygen measurements from the cruises used here, as well as other recent cruises up to the year 2014 confirm the continuous deoxygenation trend in the upper OMZ since the 1960's near the Guinea Dome. The three floats deployed with the tracer show spreading paths consistent with the overall observed tracer spreading. Mesoscale eddies may modify the oxygen distribution in the OMZs. Oxygen sensors on the floats remained well calibrated for more than 20 months and so the oxygen profiles can be

  5. Tectonic affiliation of the North China Block with supercontinents since 1.8 Ga (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.

    2010-12-01

    North China Block (NCB) is a small but very stable Precambrian craton in eastern Asia. Its tectonic affiliation with the supercontinents in geological history is of great interest but remains unclear. The previous reconstruction models based on the Precambrian tectonostratigraphic and paleomagnetic analysis should be radically revised because the new geochronological data obtained in the last several years have greatly changed the Proterozoic age framework of the strata in the NCB. In this research, five Precambrian paleomagnetic key poles, including three poles with direct U-Pb zircon ages from the Xionger GP (1.78Ga), Taihang dike (1.77Ga) and Tieling Fm (1.44Ga) respectively and two less well-dated poles from Yangzhuang Fm (1.45-1.56Ga) and Yunmengshan Fm (1.60-1.77Ga), were selected to discuss the relationship between the NCB and the supercontinent Columbia. These poles, in combination with reliable poles from other continents, suggest that the NCB was connected to Laurentia between 1.78 Ga and ca. 1.40 Ga. However, there is no well dated pole to determine the paleogeographic position of the NCB in Rodinia from 1.3 Ga to ca. 0.80 Ga. The available paleomagnetic data and sedimentary records suggest that the NCB was likely isolated block in low latitude during the late Neoproterozoic. Latest Precambrian and Paleozoic Paleomagnetic results do not support any connection between the NCB and Gondwana, although some biogeographic studies demonstrated the similarity between the NCB and Australia in the Early Cambrian. During the Paleozoic, the NCB significantly enlarged by the addition of accretionary blocks along its northern and southern sides. The Permian paleomagnetic poles from the north side of the Solonker suture are in agreement with those from interior of the NCB indicating that the NCB collided with the Mongolia composite terrane by Permian. On the other side, assembly of the NCB and south China block (SCB) took place from late Permian through Triassic. The

  6. Evolution of biogeographic disjunction between eastern Asia and North America in Chamaecyparis: Insights from ecological niche models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The disjunct distribution of plants between eastern Asia (EA and North America (NA is one of the most well-known biogeographic patterns. However, the formation and historical process of this pattern have been long debated. Chamaecyparis is a good model to test previous hypotheses about the formation of this disjunct pattern as it contains six species disjunctly distributed in EA, western North America (WNA and eastern North America (ENA. In this study, we applied ecological niche models to test the formation of the disjunct pattern of Chamaecyparis. The model calibrated with the EA species was able to predict the distribution of eastern NA species well, but not the western NA species. Furthermore, the eastern Asian species were shown to have higher niche overlap with the eastern North American species. The EA species were also shown to share more similar habitats with ENA species than with WNA species in the genus. Chamaecyparis species in WNA experienced a significant niche shift compared with congeneric species. Chamaecyparis had a low number of suitable regions in Europe and the middle and western NA during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM period, and became extinct in the former region whereas it retains residual distribution in the latter. The extirpations in western NA and Europe in response to the late Neogene and Quaternary climatic cooling and the more similar habitats between ENA and EA ultimately shaped the current intercontinental disjunct distribution of Chamaecyparis. Both current hypotheses may be also jointly applied to explain more eastern Asian and eastern North American disjunctions observed today.

  7. China Eastern Paves the Wavon Shanghai International Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    To build Shanghai air terminal is to realize the transits from one international flight to the other,or from international flight to domestic flight,or from domestic flight to international flight in Shanghai.The basis for the construction of international air terminal needs a powerful and confident airlines company which can bear any kind of big risks,and China Easter is undoudtedly the first choice.

  8. Quantifying production potential of winter wheat in the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, D.; Yu, Q.; Lu, C.; Hengsdijk, H.

    2006-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the major winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) producing areas in China. Current wheat yields in the NCP stabilize around 5 Mg ha¿1 while the demand for wheat in China is growing due to the increase in population and the change in diet. Since options for area exp

  9. Discovery of the Earliest Synthetic Carborundum (SiC in Neolithic Jade Artifacts in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jung Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Raman microscopy and scanning electron microscopy we have successfully identified, for the first time, synthetic silicon carbide (carborundum particles in 15 unearthed relics and assorted remains from five out of six Neolithic sites (~4000 - 7000 years b.p. in Eastern China. Because of its extreme hardness, silicon carbide was apparently employed in the manufacture of ancient jade artifacts presumably as an abrasive for polishing. We show that Neolithic people may have already used this synthetic material to carve and polish both jade and quartz artifacts, contributing to the blooming development of the jade culture throughout ancient China.

  10. Fluid Composititon and Carbon & Oxygen Isotope Geochemistry of Cenozoic Alkali Basalts in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭杰; 王先彬; 等

    1999-01-01

    The fluid compositions of Cenozoic alkali basalts in eastern China have been determined by the pyrolysis-MS method,meanwhile the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of CO2 released from these samples at different heating temperatures have been analyzed by the vacuum step-heating method.The data show the volatiole heterogeneity in upper-mantle sources and different evolution trends of alkali basaltic magmas in eastern China,and these alkali basaltic magmas may be generated in the oxidizing milieu,as compared with mantle-derived xenoliths in these alkali basalts,and exotic volatile components were mixed into these magmas in the process of their formation and development.

  11. EFFECTS OF PACIFIC SSTA ON SUMMER PRECIPITATION OVER EASTERN CHINA, PART Ⅱ: NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zheng-shou; SUN Zhao-bo; NI Dong-hong; ZENG Gang

    2007-01-01

    Based on an observational analysis, seven numerical experiments are designed to study the impacts of Pacific SSTA on summer precipitation over eastem China and relevant physical mechanism by NCAR CCM3. The numerical simulation results show that preceding winter SSTA in the Kuroshio region leads to summer precipitation anomaly over the Yangtze River valleys by modifying atmospheric general circulation over eastern Asia and middle-high latitude. West Pacific subtropical high is notably affected by preceding spring SSTA over the middle and east of Equator Pacific; SSTA of the central region of middle latitude in the corresponding period causes the summer rainfall anomaly over eastern China so as to trigger the atmospheric Eurasia-Pacific teleconnection pattern.

  12. Impacts of decaying eastern and central Pacific El Niños on tropical cyclone activities over the western North Pacific in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxing; Xie, Ruihuang; Wang, Faming; Huang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the influences of the decaying eastern Pacific El Niño (EP-El Niño) and central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño) on tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the western North Pacific (WNP) during July, August, and September (JAS). During this period, TC geneses and tracks are reduced in the central and eastern WNP. However, TC tracks reaching the Philippines increase, and more TC geneses appear west of 145°E during EP-El Niño. During CP-El Niño, tracks reaching the South China Sea (SCS) and southeast coast of China increase, and positive anomalies of TC genesis are found in the southern part of the central WNP and southern SCS. It is possible that the different variations of the anomalous anticyclone over east of the Philippines in the WNP induced by El Niños are instrumental to the different TC variations in the two types of decaying El Niños during JAS. Compared with EP-El Niño, strengthening and northward expansion of the anomalous anticyclone during CP-El Niño cause a westward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high in summer, which is responsible for more westward TC tracks over the SCS and southeast coast of China. This northward expansion can cause the center of suppressed TC geneses in the central WNP to migrate further north during CP-El Niño. A decreased magnitude of vertical shear dominates the southern part of the central WNP and southern SCS, which enhances TC formation in these regions during CP-El Niño.

  13. Paleoproterozoic Sediment- hosted Gold Deposits in Eastern Liaoning, Northeast China: Implications for Gold Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Dejiang

    2001-01-01

    Gold deposits in eastern Liaoning, northeast China are hosted in the middle and upper parts of a Paleoproterozoic volcanic - sedimentary succession, which consists of interlayered carbonates and fine - grained clastics. This paper discusses the geological features of ore - bearing formations, ore- controlling structures and metallogenetic characteristics. Analysis of ore - controlling factors suggested that the schists from the Gaixian formatyion, syngenetic faults and ductile shear zones are principal ore controls over mineralization and thereafter indicators for gold exploration.

  14. Monitoring Crustal Movement of the Coastal Zone in Eastern China with GPS Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, various dominating factors affecting crustal movement of the coastal zone in eastern China are analyzed, and major characteristics of crustal movement are summarized. Subduction of the pacific plate and Philippine plate and southeastward "escape" of Qinghai-Tibet plateau are believed to be dominating factors affecting crustal movement of that zone. Undoubtedly, it is a best way to monitor this kind of large-scale crustal movement with GPS technique. The feasibility of monitoring crustal m...

  15. Malaria prevalence in north-eastern Nigeria:A cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Houben CH; Fleischmann H; Gckel M

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in north-eastNigeria and to evaluate the measures for the prevention of malaria.Methods:A village in north-eastern Nigeria was selected for the cross sectional study at the height of the rainy season inOctober 2011.A total of550 inhabitants of a hamlet were recruited for this study.After obtaining the consent individuals received a structured interview and were tested for malaria parasites in their blood films.Recruits testing positive for malaria were given a course of artemesinin-based combination therapy(ACT).Results:A total of497 inhabitants representing approximately90 percent of the population participated: a quarter of the study group carried malaria parasites-exclusivelyPlasmodium falciparum(P. falciparum)-representing aP. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) of24.5%.Besides,53/138 in the age group of2 to <10 years old children tested positive for P. falciparum representing aPfPR2-10 value of38.4%.Malaria control measures were used in just under a third(157/497) of this cohort.Despite these measures28/157(17.8%) still tested positive for P. falciparum.Conclusions:The malaria burden is overestimated for this region in north-east Nigeria.The findings support an intermediate pattern of malaria endemicity.The30% bed nets coverage for malaria control is well below theWHO estimates for2011.

  16. Distribution, migration and derivation of Mesozoic-Cenozoic regional fault systems in the central continental margin of eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaomeng; HAO Fujiang; BIAN Weihua; GAO Yi; BAO Yafan

    2007-01-01

    Deep-large faults in the central continental margin of eastern China are well developed. Based on the regularity of spatial and temporal distribution of the faults,four fault systems were divided: the Yanshan orogenic belt fault system, the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt fault system, the Tanlu fault system and the East China Sea shelfbasin-Okinawa trough fault system. The four fault systems exhibit different migration behaviors. The Yanshan orogenic belt fault system deflected from an EW to a NE direction,then to a NNE direction during the Indo-Chinese epoch-Yanshanian epoch. The thrust-nappe strength of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt fault system showed the tendency that the strength was greater in the south and east, but weaker in the north and west. This fault system faulted in the east and folded in the west from the Indo-Chinese epoch to the early Yanshanian epoch. At the same time, the faults also had a diachronous migration from east to west from the Indo-Chinese epoch to the early Yanshanian epoch. On the con-trary, the thrust-nappe strength was greater in the north and west, weaker in the south and east during the late Yanshanian epoch-early Himalayan epoch. The Tanlu fault system caused the basin to migrate from west to east and south to north. The migration regularity of the East China Sea shelf basin-Okinawa trough fault system shows that the for mation age became younger in the west. The four fault systems and their migration regularities were respectively the results of four different geodynamic backgrounds. The Yanshan orogenicbelt fault system derived from the intracontinental orogeny.The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt fault system derived from the collision of plates and intracontinental subduction.The Tanlu fault system derived from the strike-slip movement and the East China Sea shelf basin-Okinawa trough fault system derived from plate subduction and retreat of the subduction belt.

  17. Characteristics of groundwater recharge on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiu-Cui; Wu, Jing-Wei; Cai, Shu-Ying; Yang, Jin-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is an important component of the groundwater system. On the North China Plain (NCP), groundwater is the main water supply. Because of large-scale overexploitation, the water table has declined, which has produced severe adverse effects on the environment and ecosystem. In this article, tracer experiment and watershed model were used to calculate and analyze NCP groundwater recharge. In the tracer experiment, average recharge was 108 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.16. With its improved irrigation, vegetation coverage and evapotranspiration modules, the INFIL3.0 model was used for calculation of groundwater recharge. Regional modeling results showed an average recharge of 102 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.14, for 2001-2009. These values are very similar to those from the field tracer experiment. Influences in the two methods were analyzed. The results can provide an important reference for NCP groundwater recharge.

  18. Integrated hydrological modelling of the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Yunqiao; Villholth, Karen G.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2012-01-01

    The integrated hydrological model MIKE SHE was applied to a part of the North China Plain to examine the dynamics of the hydrological system and to assess water management options to restore depleted groundwater resources. The model simulates the spatio-temporal distribution of recharge...... to and the associated dynamics of the alluvial aquifers based on climatic conditions, land use, soil characteristics, irrigation and coupled unsaturated-saturated zone processes. The model was auto-calibrated for the period 1996–2002 against daily observations of groundwater head from wells distributed across the 7230...... km2 region and actual evapotranspiration measured at an agricultural station located within the model area. The model simulations compared well with observations and acceptable values were obtained for both root mean square error and correlation coefficient. The calibrated model was subsequently used...

  19. Evolution of Quaternary groundwater system in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗祜; 施德鸿; 任福弘; 殷正宙; 孙继朝; 张翠云

    1997-01-01

    The Quaternary groundwater system in the North China Plain is formed mainly through the terrestrial water flow action on the united geological and tectonic backgrounds. The analysis of groundwater dynamic field, simulation of groundwater geochemistry, and the 14C dating and extraction of isotope information have provided more evidence for recognizing and assessing the evolution of groundwater circulation system and studying the past global changes. The exploitation and utilization of groundwater on a large scale and overexploitation have given rise to the decline of regional groundwater level, change of flow field, decrease of water resources and downward movement of saline water body. The water environment has entered a new evolution stage in which it is intensely disturbed by the mankind’s activities.

  20. Evaluation of nutrient value of seabuckthorn in north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jian-zhong; Guo Xiao-feng

    2006-01-01

    Five minerals or elements, crude protein, lysine, methionine+cystine, calcium and phosphorus, were selected for evaluation of the food value of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) using the method of "food analysis". The decision values (δi)of seabuckthorn seeds, leaves and fruit residues rank in the fifth, sixth and ninth position among the 16 types of fodder. Seeds, leaves and fruit residues of seabuckthorn are suitable for livestock and poultry fodder. The weights of livestock and poultry are considerably increased after feeding with seabuckthorn. The development of seabuckthorn should have great potentials as food, pre-food and food additives for livestock and poultry in north China. Processing facilities should pay more attention to seabuckthorn food development methods and strategies and the seabuckthorn fodder industry should be promoted.

  1. A HISTORICAL EXAMINATION ON LAND DESERTIFICATION IN NORTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Desertification control has been facing severe situations in the interlocking area between cultivated land and gazing land in North China since the Qing Dynasty because of unreasonable land utilization. The paper analyzes the policies of all the previous governments to open up land, and examines the historical and geographical background and process by means of historical records. We consider that causes of the area of land desertification to extend are increase of farming migrants, the change of life style of Mongol and weather and land conditions. In order to control the spread of land desertification, we suggest the level of the government to make policies should be improved, the number of farming migrants should be controlled, the Government′s general and specifie polices should be actively publicized, and invest ment in agriculture should be increased.

  2. Environmental Implication of Intensive Farming Practices on North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Lin; Zhou Hailin; Xie Gaodi

    2005-01-01

    The current pressure on production resources of North China Plain, such as land and water to feed the growing population, necessitates the assessment of the sustainability of farming practices. This study focuses on the sustainability of farming practices related to groundwater and soil fertility management. The assessment is based on selected site-specific key indicators and their established threshold limits. The current farming practices in the study area are clearly unsustainable.Only about 6% of the surveyed farm households practice sustainable farming. The study stresses that farming practice, which is economically sustainable,should not be promoted at the cost of environment.Holistic strategies need to be developed and implemented that aim at balanced use of inputs,which satisfy both productivity and environmental concerns.

  3. Analysis and Numerical Simulations of the Teleconnection Between Indian Summer Monsoon and Precipitation in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunyun; DING Yihui

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1980s, Chinese meteorologists discovered the positive correlation in summer rainfall be-tween India and North China and the correlation was later confirmed by some researches in and outside China. Based on a variety of meteorological data from 1951 to 2005 and numerical simulations, the present study investigates such a correlation between Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and precipitation in North China. Furthermore, we discuss the intrinsic relations of the positive (Northwest India)-negative (the Ti-betan Plateau)-positive (North China) precipitation anomaly teleconnection pattern from two aspects of thermal and dynamical factors, which not only confirms the precipitation teleconnection previously discov-ered again, but also reveals the influence mechanism of the ISM on the rainfall in North China. The results show that: (1) When the ISM is strong (weak), the precipitation in North China tends to be more (less) than normal; however, when the rainfall in North China is more (less) than normal, the probability of the strengthening (weakening) of the ISM is relatively lower. This implies that the ISM anomaly has more impact on the rainfall in North China. (2) The Indian low usually dominantly impacts the intensity of the ISM. When the Indian low deepens, the low troughs in mid-high latitudes are frequently strengthened, and the ridge of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) extends westward. The southwesterly water vapor transport originated from low-latitudes and the southeasterly water vapor transport along the southwestern flank of the WPSH converge in North China, which is favorable for more rainfall there than normal, and vice versa. (3) The simulations from the regional climate model developed by National Climate Center (ReGCM_NCC) capture the salient feature of the precipitation teleconnection between India and North China. The simulated anomalous atmospheric circulations are close to observations, which confirms the existence of such a

  4. Ethnobotanical study of some of mosquito repellent plants in north-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae, Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae. The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK and O. suave (OS used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91% and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5% was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results

  5. AN OBJECTIVE PREDICTION SCHEME FOR TROPICAL CYCLONES MAKING LANDFALLS IN EASTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟元; 胡波

    2002-01-01

    The iandfall of tropical cyclones in the eastern part of China falls in the category of small probability events.Constructing a step function with intervals adequately divided can help reflect the non-linear distribution of conditional probability for a landfall event.For the prediction of landfall event probability,factors applying the step function in transformation are superior to the standardized factors that are linearly related .The prediction scheme discussed in the work uses transformation factors of step function to formulate prediction models for tropical cyclones making landfalls in eastern China.through screening with non-linear correlative ratios and REEP analysis .Classified models for statistic-synoptics,statistic-climatology and statistic-dynamics have been constructed using initial field data and numerical prediction output.Forecasting skills have been improved due to ensemble of predictions using these classified models.As shown in forecasting evaluations and experiments,the scheme is capable of predicting tropical cyclones that make landfalls in eastern China.

  6. Zinc isotope evidence for a large-scale carbonated mantle beneath eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wang, Ze-Zhou; Li, Shu-Guang; Huang, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A large set of zinc (Zn) stable isotope data for continental basalts from eastern China were reported to investigate the application of Zn isotopes as a new tracer of deep carbonate cycling. All of the basalts with ages of 120 Ma basalts from eastern China (0.27 ± 0.06‰; 2sd). Given that Zn isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation is limited (≤0.1‰), the elevated δ66Zn values reflect the involvement of isotopically heavy crustal materials (e.g., carbonates with an average δ66Zn of ∼0.91‰) in the mantle sources. SiO2 contents of the recycled Mg (Zn)-rich carbonates in the mantle beneath eastern China since the Late Mesozoic. Since Zn is a trace element in the mantle and Zn isotopic compositions of marine carbonates and the mantle differ markedly, we highlight Zn isotopes as a new and useful tool of tracing deep carbonate cycling in the Earth's mantle.

  7. AREM Simulations of Cloud Features over Eastern China in February 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yunying; YU Rucong; XU Youping; ZHOU Tianjun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the simulations of cloud features in February 2001 by the regional numerical weather prediction model-Advanced Regional Eta-coordinate Model (AREM), the dynamic and thermodynamic conditions for middle cloud formation over eastern China are studied. Diagnostic analysis partly confirms the previous suggestion that the middle stratiform clouds downstream of the Tibetan Plateau are maintained by the frictional and blocking effects of the plateau. In addition, it is found that the temperature inversion at plateau height over eastern China generated by the warm air advected from the plateau provides a favorable thermodynamic condition for middle clouds. Both diurnal variations of the mid-level divergence and the inversion over eastern China, which are determined by the atmospheric boundary activity over the Tibetan Plateau, dominate the cloud diurnal cycle. The middle cloud amount decreases and the cloud top falls in the daytime, but reverses at night. The comparison of cloud features between the simulations and the observations also proves that the AREM can well capture the distinctive continental stratiform cloud features downstream of the Tibetan Plateau.

  8. AN OBJECTIVE PREDICTION SCHEME FOR TROPICAL CYCLONES MAKING LANDFALLS IN EASTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟元; 胡波

    2002-01-01

    The landfall of tropical cyclones in the eastern part of China falls in the category of small probability events.Constructing a step function with intervals adequately divided can help reflect the non-linear distribution of conditional probability for a landfall event.For the prediction of landfall event probability,factors applying the step function in transformation are superior to the standardized factors that are linearly related.The prediction scheme discussed in the work uses transformation factors of step function to formulate prediction models for tropical cyclones making landfalls in eastern China,through screening with non-linear correlative ratios and REEP analysis.Classified models for statistic-synoptics,statistic-climatology and statistic-dynamics have been constructed using initial field data and numerical prediction output.Forecasting skills have been improved due to ensemble of predictions using these classified models.As shown in forecasting evaluations and experiments,the scheme is capable of predicting tropical cyclones that make landfalls in eastern China.

  9. Architecture and Kinematics of the Dabie Orogen, Central Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shutong; LIU Yican; CHEN Guanbao; WU Weiping

    2005-01-01

    The geometry of the Dabie Mountains is manifested in terms of the distribution of petro-tectonic units in three dimensions. It is identified into three segments from east to west, four horizons in vertical profiles and eight petrotectonic units from north to south. Three segments are the east, middle and west segments. Four horizons, from top to bottom, are two different meta-tectonic melange in the uppermost part, underthrust basement and cover below them, and mantle at the bottom of the profiles. Eight petro-tectonic units from north to south are: (1) the hinterland basin, (2) the meta-flysch, (3) the ultramafic rock belt (UM) + Sujiahe eclogite belt (SH), (4) eclogite belt 2 (Ec2) with most eclogites of continental affinity, (5) eclogite belt 1 (Ecl1) with some eclogite of oceanic affinity, (6) the Dabie complex or underthrust basement of the Yangtze continent, (7) the Susong and Zhangbaling Groups or underthrust cover of the Yangtze continent and (8) the foreland belt. The (3), (4) and (5) units belong to meta-tectonic melange. Some ultrahigh pressure metamorphic minerals such as coesite and micro-diamonds have been found in (3) and (4) units; a possible ultrahigh pressure mineral,clinozoisite aggregate pseudomorph after lawsonite, was found in unit (5). The three tectonic units are speculated to be coherent initially; the UM and SH units are suggested to be the root belt in the east, middle and west segments respectively.The kinematics of the Dabie orogen is divided into three stages: top-to-south thrusting during the eclogite-granulite facies metamorphism, top-to-north extension during the amphibolite metamorphic stage, and faults or shear bands of brittle deformation and greenschist facies metamorphism were formed in the post-orogenic stage since the Late Jurassic and the movement pictures of these faults is different from each other.

  10. Report of the Regional Co-ordination Meeting for the North Sea and Eastern Arctic (RCM NS&EA) 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, M.; van Beek, F; DALSKOV J.; Elliott, M; Elson, J.; Griuniene, V. (Vilda); M. Hansson; Janakakis, M. (Marta); Kjems-Nilsen, H. (Henrik); Knapp, A. (Amelie); Kunzlik, P. (Phil); Lorenzo-González, J. (José); Mahe, K (Kelig); Morgado, C.; Nimmegeers, S.

    2014-01-01

    Report of the Regional Co-ordination Meeting for the North Sea and Eastern Arctic (RCM NS&EA) 2014 Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences (SLU Aqua) Lysekil, Sweden 08-12 September 2014 The RCM NS&EA met in Lysekil (Sweden) between 8-12 September 2014. The main purpose of the RCM is coordinate the National Programmes (NP) of the Member States (MS) in the North Sea region for 2015.

  11. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-06-10

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959-2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China's gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD.

  12. Soft-sediment Deformation Structures Related to Earthquake from the Devonian of the Eastern North Qilian Mts. and Its Tectonic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yuansheng; XU Yajun; YANG Jianghai

    2008-01-01

    Devonian in the North Qilian orogenic belt and Hexi Corridor developed terrestrial molasse of later stage of foreland basin caused by collision between the North China plate and Qaidam microplate. The foreland basin triggered a intense earthquake, and formed seismites and earthquake- related soft-sediment deformation. The soft-sediment deformation structures of Devonian in the eastern North Qilian Mts. consist of seismo-cracks, sandstone dykes, syn-depositional faults, microfolds (micro-corrugated lamination), fluidized veins, load casts, flame structures, pillow structures and brecciation. The seismo-cracks, syn-depositional faults and microfolds are cracks, faults and folds formed directly by oscillation of earthquake. The seismic dykes formed by sediment instilling into seismic cracks. Fluidized veins were made by instilling into the seismo-fissures of the fluidized sands. The load casts, flame structures and pillow structures were formed by sinking and instilling caused from oscillation of earthquake along the face between sandy and muddy beds. The brecciation resulted from the oscillation of earthquake and cracking of sedimentary layers. The seismites and soft-sediment deformations in Devonian triggered the earthquake related to tectonic activities during the orogeny and uplift of North Qilian Mts.

  13. Heat flow and its coalbed gas effects in the central-south area of the Huaibei coalfield, eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the present geo-temperature field and the thermal conductivity (K) of 62 samples from the central-south area of the Huaibei coalfield in eastern China, we calculated the heat flow and plotted its distribution map. The results show that the average heat flow in the research area is about 60 mW/m2. It is different from other major energy basins in the North China Plate, but has close relationship with the regional geology and the deep geological setting. The heat flow is comparatively higher in the southeastern, central, and northwestern areas than in the northeastern and southwestern areas. The geo-temperature distribution map of the bottom interface of the Permian coal measure was drawn by calculating its embedding depth and geo-temperature gradients. Finally, the present gas generation condition of the Permian coal measure is discussed by associating with the temperature condition, the vitrinite reflectance (Ro), the metamorphism of coal and tectonic-burial evolution. The study indicates all present characters of the Permian coal measure, such as lower present temperature, higher Ro value, middle-high rank coals, and uplift and extension events after the coal measure sediment, are favorable for the generation of secondary biogenic gas, but not thermogenic gas or primary biogenic gas.

  14. Composition and chemical variability of leaf oil of Myrtus communis from north-eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzabata, Amel; Boussaha, Faffani; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2010-10-01

    The chemical composition of 27 oil samples of Myrtus communis isolated from leaves collected in three locations in north-eastern Algeria was investigated by GC(RI) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Yields ranged between 0.2-1.2% (w/w). The chemical composition of the oils was largely dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons, with alpha-pinene (40.5-64.0%), 1,8-cineole (10.9-29.1%) and limonene (6.7-8.2%) being the major compounds. In all the samples, 3,3,5,5,8,8-hexamethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]non-1(6)-ene-2,4-dione was identified (0.8-1.5%). The composition is similar to that reported for myrtle oils from Corsica, Sardinia and Tunisia, but differed from that of Moroccan and Spanish myrtle oils.

  15. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Tuset

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The sagittal otolith of 348 species, belonging to 99 families and 22 orders of marine Teleostean fishes from the north and central eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean were described using morphological and morphometric characters. The morphological descriptions were based on the otolith shape, outline and sulcus acusticus features. The morphometric parameters determined were otolith length (OL, mm, height (OH, mm, perimeter (P; mm and area (A; mm2 and were expressed in terms of shape indices as circularity (P2/A, rectangularity (A/(OL×OH, aspect ratio (OH/OL; % and OL/fish size. The present Atlas provides information that complements the characterization of some ichthyologic taxa. In addition, it constitutes an important instrument for species identification using sagittal otoliths collected in fossiliferous layers, in archaeological sites or in feeding remains of bony fish predators.

  16. Life cycle assessment of cricket farming in north-eastern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Hanboonsong, Y; Roos, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    presents the first case of a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed on an existing production system of Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer (field cricket) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket) production in north-eastern Thailand and compares it with broiler production in the same region. The system boundaries...... of the production system considered the entire production cycle of edible crickets as well as processing. The study included two functional units (1 kg of edible mass and 1 kg of protein in edible mass). Irrespective of the functional unit, larger impacts were associated with broiler production. Major hotspots...... for cricket and broiler production were related to the production soybean meal and maize grain for feed. A scaled-up cricket farming system which was considered as a possible 'future' scenario demonstrated a reduction in overall environmental impacts when compared to current cricket production and industrial...

  17. Mastitis in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, T; Molla, B

    2001-01-01

    Quarter milk samples (n = 543) from 152 traditionally managed lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia were examined to determine the prevalence of camel mastitis and identify its bacterial causes. Out of 152 camels examined, 19 (12.5%) were diagnosed as clinical mastitis cases based on clinical signs and bacteriological examinations. Of the 257 California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive quarter milk samples 162 (63.0%) yielded pathogenic bacteria. A positive correlation was observed between CMT positive results and presence of major pathogens in camel milk samples. The main mastitis pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, and other species of streptococci, Pasteurella haemolytica and E. coli. Results of the present study suggest that mastitis in Afar camels is prevalent, Gram-positive cocci are the major isolates from camel milk samples and the CMT can be used as a screening test for the detection of mastitis in camels.

  18. Plastic ingestion in marine-associated bird species from the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, S; Provencher, J F; Morgan, K H; Bertram, D F

    2013-07-15

    In addition to monitoring trends in plastic pollution, multi-species surveys are needed to fully understand the pervasiveness of plastic ingestion. We examined the stomach contents of 20 bird species collected from the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific, a region known to have high levels of plastic pollution. We observed no evidence of plastic ingestion in Rhinoceros Auklet, Marbled Murrelet, Ancient Murrelet or Pigeon Guillemot, and low levels in Common Murre (2.7% incidence rate). Small sample sizes limit our ability to draw conclusions about population level trends for the remaining fifteen species, though evidence of plastic ingestion was found in Glaucous-Winged Gull and Sooty Shearwater. Documenting levels of plastic ingestion in a wide array of species is necessary to gain a comprehensive understanding about the impacts of plastic pollution. We propose that those working with bird carcasses follow standard protocols to assess the levels of plastic ingestion whenever possible.

  19. Constraints Encountered by the Beneficiaries of Krishi Vigyan Kendra in North Eastern Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Nath

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted among 200 farmers of ten purposively selected Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs in North Eastern region of India. The respondents were interviewed using a questionnaire for identifying the constraints and their suggestions for future improvement of KVK activities. The study revealed that unavailability of labour, unavailability of good quality seed and other inputs, unavailability of information about pest and disease management at right time,(inability to purchase modern agricultural implements and lack of capital were the major constraints. The respondents suggested that timely availability of seed and other inputs, regular and continuous monitoring, linking farmers to financial institutuions for financial support, and more long term practical oriented training programme are important for strengthening KVK activities.

  20. Roman settlement pattern and LCP modelling in ancient North-Eastern Pannonia (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bence Simon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Roman times are known as an epoch when man subdued nature all over the \\textit{orbis terrarum}, however all humans were and are still bound by certain environmental conditions, therefore in settling a special dichotomy can be observed. In my present study I am analysing the Roman settlement patterns of the North-Eastern part of Pannonia by evaluating field-walking material and results of excavations. The classification of the sites is mainly based on building material and pottery collected on the field. After examining the structure of settlements with the assistance of GIS technologies, I assess how the least cost paths calculated from the relief of terrain influenced settling.

  1. Mid-Holocene Hemlock Decline in Eastern North America Linked with Phytophagous Insect Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhiry, Najat; Filion, Louise

    1996-05-01

    Macrofossil evidence indicates that the mid-Holocene hemlock [ Tsuga canadensisL. (Carr.)] decline that occurred over a wide area in eastern North America was associated with phytophagous insect activity. In situhemlock macrofossils and insect remains found in a paludified dunefield at the northern limit of hemlock testify that two defoliation events occurred at 4910 ± 90 and 4200 ± 100 yr B.P., respectively. The sharp coincidence of remains from hemlock needles with chewing damage typical of hemlock looper feeding, head capsules from the hemlock looper ( Lambdina fiscellaria) and the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana), absence of hemlock fruiting remains, and tree-ring anomalies in fossil hemlocks that died prematurely (caused mass mortality. Our findings indicate that defoliation can affect ecosystems for centuries, especially when long-lived tree species are involved.

  2. Petrology and Origin of Ultramfic Xenoliths from North Eastern Jordan Volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Al-Fugha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of major, minor and trace elements in the Cenozoic alkali basalt from north-eastern Jordan indicates a homogeneous lava flow from a mantle source. These basaltic rocks contain abundant upper mantle xenoliths (spinal lherzolite, harzburgile and olivine- websterite. Theses xenoliths contain olivine, orthopyroxne, clinoporoxene and a few amounts of spinal. Their mineral assemblages, chemistry, texture and major elements abundances indicate they were derived and equilibrated under upper mantle conditions within temperature range for 970-1090°C. Pressure estimates based on the spinal lherzolite stability field restrict the xenoliths source depth to around 65 km. The concentrations of incompatible trace elements (Ba, Rb and Sr. imply a derivation from ultramafic predictive source from the upper mantle with low degree of melting (<20%. Low concentration of Lithium and Rubidium in the basalt is used as an argument against the contamination of the basaltic magma during its journey to the surface.

  3. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in North American snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrea M; Graham, Sean P; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; White, Gregory S; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus.

  4. Response of North Pacific eastern subtropical mode water to greenhouse gas versus aerosol forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Luo, Yiyong

    2016-04-01

    Mode water is a distinct water mass characterized by a near vertical homogeneous layer or low potential vorticity, and is considered essential for understanding ocean climate variability. Based on the output of GFDL CM3, this study investigates the response of eastern subtropical mode water (ESTMW) in the North Pacific to two different single forcings: greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosol. Under GHG forcing, ESTMW is produced on lighter isopycnal surfaces and is decreased in volume. Under aerosol forcing, in sharp contrast, it is produced on denser isopycnal surfaces and is increased in volume. The main reason for the opposite response is because surface ocean-to-atmosphere latent heat flux change over the ESTMW formation region shoals the mixed layer and thus weakens the lateral induction under GHG forcing, but deepens the mixed layer and thus strengthens the lateral induction under aerosol forcing. In addition, local wind changes are also favorable to the opposite response of ESTMW production to GHG versus aerosol.

  5. Effects of warming conditions in eastern North American forests on red-backed salamander morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James P; Karraker, Nancy E

    2006-06-01

    Several studies have reported climate-associated changes in phenotypically plastic traits of amphibians, yet it remains unknown whether amphibians can manifest an evolutionary response to global climate change at the rate and magnitude that it is occurring. To assess this issue, we examined temporal change in the morphology of the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), a small, abundant woodland salamander distributed widely in eastern North America with two distinct morphotypes: striped individuals associated with cooler microclimates and unstriped individuals associated with warmer microclimates. We compiled morph frequencies for 50,960 individual salamanders from 558 sites as recorded in the published literature and in unpublished field notes of herpetologists between 1908 and 2004. We observed that striping probability increased with increasing latitude, longitude, and elevation and decreased (from 80% to 74% range wide) with time. The combined forces of regional climate warming and, particularly, forest disturbance have evidently been sufficient to cause morphological evolution in this amphibian over the last century.

  6. Tree diversity, tree height and environmental harshness in eastern and western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Christian O; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Tilman, David

    2016-07-01

    Does variation in environmental harshness explain local and regional species diversity gradients? We hypothesise that for a given life form like trees, greater harshness leads to a smaller range of traits that are viable and thereby also to lower species diversity. On the basis of a strong dependence of maximum tree height on site productivity and other measures of site quality, we propose maximum tree height as an inverse measure of environmental harshness for trees. Our results show that tree species richness is strongly positively correlated with maximum tree height across multiple spatial scales in forests of both eastern and western North America. Maximum tree height co-varied with species richness along gradients from benign to harsh environmental conditions, which supports the hypothesis that harshness may be a general mechanism limiting local diversity and explaining diversity gradients within a biogeographic region.

  7. Observations of Cloud Condensation Nuclei in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lixin; DUAN Ying

    2008-01-01

    Using a DMT (Droplet Measurement Technologies) continuous flow streamwise thermal gradient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter mounted on a Cheyenne ⅢA aircraft, about 20 flights for aircraft mea-surements of CCN over North China were conducted in the autumn of 2005 and spring of 2006. According to the design for aircraft observation, the method of spiral ascent or descent in the troposphere was used for the vertical measurement of CCN, and some certain levels were chosen for horizontal measurement. The vertical distributions of CCN concentrations show that most CCN particles are concentrated in the low level of troposphere and CCN concentration decreased with height increasing. It suggests that the main source of CCN is from the surface. This result is consistent with former studies during 1983-1985 in China with a static thermal gradient CCN counter. The comparison of vertical observations between polluted rural area near Shijiazhuang and non-polluted rural area near Zhangjiakou shows that there is about five times difference in CCN concentration. But over two polluted cities, Shijiazhuang and Handan, there is no notable difference in CCN concentration. The horizontal flight measurements for penetrating the cumulus clouds experiment show the apparent decrease of CCN in clouds. It confirms that cloud has a definite consumptive effect on CCN particles because some CCN particles can form cloud droplets.The surface measurements of CCN in Shijiazhuang City were made during June-August 2005. The eta-tistical CCN data show the great difference in concentration at the same supersaturation (S) in Shijiazhuang summertime. The minimum CCN concentrations were 584, 808, and 2431 cm-3, and the maximum concen-trations were 9495, 16332, and 21812 cm-3 at S=0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%, respectively. CCN has a diurnal variation cycle. From 0600 BT, the concentration began to increase and reached the maximum at about noon. Then it generally decreased throughout the afternoon. The

  8. Arsenic in groundwater in the North Carolina Eastern slate belt (Esb): Nash and halifax counties, north carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.; Haven, W.T.; Eudy, D.D.; Milosh, R.M.; Stafford, E.G.

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic-contaminated groundwater is present within the Eastern Slate Belt (ESB) of North Carolina. Long-term, integrated geologic and geo-chemical investigations havedetermined the presence of arsenic by analyzing precipitates from first and second order streams under base flow conditions. When groundwater discharges into streams, arsenic and other metals are precipitated from solution, due to redox changes between the subsurface and surface environments. Analyses (As, base metals, Fe and Mn) were determined following chemical extraction ofnaturally occurring manganese-iron oxide-coatings, which had precipitated from solution onto stream-bed cobbles. Additionally, artificial redox fronts were produced by placing ceramic tilesin streambeds to collect and analyze oxide precipitates. Thermochemical plots from these data, as well as information from respective stream water measurements (pH and Eh), water sampling, and rock chemical analyses indicate mobile arsenic in predicted stability fields. Initial results show that naturally occurring arsenic-contaminated groundwater is present within the study area. However, the resulting oxidation and pre-cipitation within streams appreciably removes thiscontaminant from surface water solution.

  9. Distribution of Hepatitis B virus genotypes among healthy blood donors in eastern part of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Kailash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We evaluated the distribution HBV genotypes among non-remunerated healthy blood donors in eastern North India. Materials and Methods: During screening of donated blood, 176 consecutive HBsAg positive, samples comprised the study. HBV-DNA was quantitative detected in 150 samples by PCR. HBV genotype was determined by identifying genotype-specific DNA band using nested PCR. Results: Majorities were of age group 31-40 yrs (65.3%. Males (92.7% outnumbered females (7.3% and were HbeAg-negative HBsAg carriers. Over all, genotype-A was the most prevalent (54% followed by D (21.3%. We did not find genotype-G and H. Districts under study, divided into four zones: Zone-I genotype-A was most common (62.3% followed by D (18.8%; Zone-II genotype-C (41.2% was more frequent followed by D (20.6% and A (17.7%. Zone-III in adjoining Bihar state close to Zone-I, A was more prevalent (81.8% followed by B and C (9.1%. In Zone-IV adjoining Zone- II had genotype-A (100% only. Genotype-D had more sporadic distribution. Genotype-E and F were prevalent in Zone I and II (3/150, 2%. Conclusions: Among blood donors HBV genotype-A followed by D was the most prevalent in eastern North India. Genotype-A had pattern of distribution signifying common focus, while D was more sporadic and C had single large pocket (Zone-II probably common focus but restricting to particular area. Evidences are suggestive of association of HBV genotype in liver dysfunction. An effective treatment and preventive strategies based of genotypes will reduce the disease burden and increase the blood safety.

  10. Nd isotopes in deep-sea corals in the North-eastern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copard, Kevin; Colin, Christophe; Douville, Eric; Freiwald, Andre; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; De Mol, Ben; Frank, Norbert

    2010-09-01

    Neodymium (Nd) concentrations and isotopic signatures of living and fossil deep-sea coral species Lophelia pertusa, Desmophyllum dianthus and Madrepora oculata from the northeast Atlantic Ocean have been investigated in order to test the ability of deep-sea corals to reconstruct the seawater Nd isotopic signature and past changes of ocean circulation in the eastern North Atlantic. Small quantities of Nd—less than 45 ng/g—are incorporated into the aragonite skeleton of living deep-sea corals that dwell at upper intermediate depths throughout the Northeast Atlantic. Rigorous cleaning techniques are needed in order to avoid Nd contamination from manganese-oxide and iron hydroxide coatings. Moreover, Nd isotopic compositions have been measured using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) by Nd-oxide method. Our data indicate that the isotopic signatures of modern corals are similar to those of adjacent water masses, implying that deep-sea corals can serve as an archive of the seawater Nd isotopic compositions in the past. The first results from few fully-cleaned fossils corals collected within the Porcupine Seabight and the southwest Rockall Bank reveal significantly higher ɛNd for corals dated between 150 ± 40 and 3060 ± 90 yrs than those of the living corals located in similar areas. This suggests rapid hydrological variations along the eastern margin of the North Atlantic Ocean at intermediate water depth with higher contribution of the Mediterranean Overflow Waters (MOW) or other temperate Atlantic mid-depth water masses (ENACW or NAC) in the past.

  11. Millennium scale radiocarbon variations in Eastern North Atlantic thermocline waters: 0-7000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, N.; Tisnerat-Laborde, N.; Hatte, C. [LSCE, F-91190 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Colin, C. [Univ Paris 11, IDES, Orsay, (France); Dottori, M.; Reverdin, G. [Univ Paris 06, LOCEAN, F-75252 Paris, (France)

    2009-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Deep water corals are exceptional archives of modern and past ocean circulation as combined U-series and radiocarbon dating allows to reconstruct seawater radiocarbon. Here we present thermocline water radiocarbon concentrations that have been reconstructed for the past {approx} 7000 years for the eastern north Atlantic, based on deep-water corals from Rockall Bank and Porcupine Seabight. We find that thermocline water radiocarbon values follow overall the mean atmospheric long term trend with an average offset of {Delta}{sup 14}C between intermediate water and atmosphere of -55{+-}5 per thousand until 1960 AD. Residual variations are strong ({+-}25 per thousand) over the past 7000 years and there is first evidence that those are synchronous to millennium scale climate variability. Over the past 60 years thermocline water radiocarbon values increase due to the penetration of bomb-radiocarbon into the upper intermediate ocean. Radiocarbon increases by {Delta}{sup 14}C of +95 per thousand compared to +210 per thousand for eastern North Atlantic surface waters. Moreover, bomb-radiocarbon penetration to thermocline depth occurs with a delay of {approx} 10-15 years. Based on high resolution ocean circulation models we suggest that radiocarbon changes at upper intermediate depth are today barely affected by vertical mixing and represent more likely variable advection and mixing of water masses from the Labrador Sea and the temperate Atlantic (including Mediterranean outflow water). Consequently, we assume that residual radiocarbon variations over the past 7000 years reflect millennium scale variability of the Atlantic sub-polar and sub-tropical gyres

  12. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised.

  13. The association between the food environment and weight status among eastern North Carolina youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Wade, Scott; McGuirt, Jared T; Wu, Qiang; Lazorick, Suzanne; Moore, Justin B

    2011-09-01

    To examine associations between various measures of the food environment and BMI percentile among youth. Cross-sectional, observational. Pitt County, eastern North Carolina. We extracted the electronic medical records for youth receiving well child check-ups from January 2007 to June 2008. We obtained addresses for food venues from two secondary sources and ground-truthing. A geographic information systems database was constructed by geocoding home addresses of 744 youth and food venues. We quantified participants' accessibility to food venues by calculating 'coverage', number of food venues in buffers of 0·25, 0·5, 1 and 5 miles (0·4, 0·8, 1·6 and 8·0 km) and by calculating 'proximity' or distance to the closest food venue. We examined associations between BMI percentile and food venue accessibility using correlation and regression analyses. There were negative associations between BMI percentile and coverage of farmers' markets/produce markets in 0·25 and 0·5 mile Euclidean and 0·25, 0·5 and 1 mile road network buffers. There were positive associations between BMI percentile and coverage of fast-food and pizza places in the 0·25 mile Euclidean and network buffers. In multivariate analyses adjusted for race, insurance status and rural/urban residence, proximity (network distance) to convenience stores was negatively associated with BMI percentile and proximity to farmers' markets was positively associated with BMI percentile. Accessibility to various types of food venues is associated with BMI percentile in eastern North Carolina youth. Future longitudinal work should examine correlations between accessibility to and use of traditional and non-traditional food venues.

  14. Petrographically deduced triassic climate for the Deep River Basin, eastern piedmont of North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarn, S.T.; Mansfield, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A petrographic comparison of Triassic, fluvial sandstones from the Deep River Basin in the eastern piedmont of North Carolina with nearby Holocene stream sands (1) indicates that he Triassic climate was more arid than today's and (2) distinguishes an eastern, more plutonic terrane from a western, more metamorphic source terrane. The paleoclimatic interpretation is based on differences in framework composition between modern and ancient sands of the same grain size, derived from the same rock type, transported similar distances and deposited in similar settings. The Triassic sandstones contain more lithic-fragments but less quartz than otherwise equivalent, modern sand in the Deep River Basin. Feldspar content is more complex, controlled by both source-rock composition and climate. Sand from the more plutonic terrane contains more feldspar and plutonic lithic-fragments than sand from the more metamorphic terrane, which contains more quartz and metamorphic lithic-fragments. This petrographic interpretation of the Triassic sandstones along with the presence of coal, limestone, chert and caliche in the middle of the section suggests that the Triassic climate was cyclic, changing from arid to humid and back to arid. Plate-tectonic reconstructions place the Deep River Basin between the Triassic equator and Tropic of cancer, where the easterly trade winds would predominate. Therefore, the arid portions of the cycle could have been due to a periodic, orographic, rain shadow formed as the result of intermittent movement along the Jonesboro Fault, creating a highland area east of the Deep River Basin.

  15. Seroepidemiology of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Slaughterhouse Workers in North Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zeinali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is an acute febrile haemorrhagic disease. This study was conducted to ascertain the infection status amongst slaughterhouse workers in Iran's north-eastern provinces (Razavi and northern and southern Khorasan, so that analysis of the results could help clarification of the epidemiology of this disease in the aforementioned provinces and eastern regions of Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2004 and 2005, 108 slaughterhouse workers from 24 cities of the three previously mentioned provinces were randomly entered into the study. An IgG specific ELISA test was carried out on the participants’ serum samples.Results: Sixteen out of 108 (14.8% participants under study were shown to have IgG against CCHF. The highest rate of infection was seen in Razavi Khorasan and southern Khorasan at 17.5% and 16.7%, respectively.Conclusion: The study showed a relatively high frequency of this disease amongst slaughterhouse workers in these provinces. Taking into account the small number of reported cases from these provinces, it would seem that more focus is required on primary diagnosis and on referral of suspected patients.

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF SEMI-NATURAL GRASSLANDS IN NORTH-EASTERN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVA APOSTOLOVA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the syntaxonomic diversity of the semi-natural grasslands in NorthEastern Bulgaria following the principles of the Ziirich-Montpellier School. A total number of 172 releves, collected during 2002-2004, is used. TWINSPAN clustering is applied for determination vegetation types. The diagnostic species groups for the associations and subassociations are created by Cocktail method using the phi-coefficient with values above 0.3 within the JUICE software. As a result class Fesluco-Brometea is established with the alliances Festucion valesiacae, Pimpinello-Thymion and Chrysopogoni-Danthonion. The originally described Botriochloetum ischaemi Pop 1977 association is considered as typical on the subassociation level and a part of our releves are referred to it. Following the nomenclature rules we determined the subassotiation typicum. One new subassociation named Thymefosum pannonici of more xerophytic character, as compared to typical one, and well represented by differential species is established. The geographical distribution of Agropyro-Thymetum zygoidi and Agrostideto-Chrysopogonetum grylli associations is extended to the territory of Bulgaria. Class Molinio-Arrhenalherefea is represented by Cynosurion alliance and Festuco-Agrostidetum association is established by its probably most eastern area of distribution.

  17. North-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean species of Cornulariidae Dana, 1846 (Anthozoa: Stolonifera) with the description of a new genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-González, P.J.; Ocaña, O.; García-Gómez, J.C.; Núñez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The North-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean species of the family Cornulariidae are re-examined and taxonomically revised. This family is mainly characterized by the absence of sclerites. Up to now, only one genus, Cornularia Lamarck, 1816, has been assigned to the family. Studies of the internal

  18. Production and degradation of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in surface waters of the eastern north Atlantic ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lønborg, C.; Yokokawa, T.; Herndl, G.J.; Alvarez-Salgado, X.A.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and fate of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the epipelagic Eastern North Atlantic was investigated during a cruise in the summer 2009 by combining field observations and culture experiments. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), the absorption spectra of

  19. Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions (1976-1986) in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.

    1993-01-01

    Species of Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic are described and discussed, altogether five species belonging to three genera of Corallimorphidae: the shallow water forms Corynactis viridis Allman, 1846, Pseudocorynactis caribbeoru

  20. Marine shallow-water Haplosclerida (Porifera) from the South-Eastern Part of the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdt, de W.H.; Soest, van R.W.M

    1986-01-01

    Sixteen species of marine Haplosclerida were collected by the CANCAP-expeditions, among which two are new to science, viz. Petrosia canariensis and Oceanapia cancap. The Haplosclerida fauna of the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic, comprising 46 species, is reviewed, discussed and compared wi

  1. Tracking population loss in Cornus florida since discovery of Discula destructiva, causal agent of dogwood anthracnose, in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Jones; William D. Smith; Daniel B. Twardus

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation monitoring project was to document the losses of flowering dogwood, Cornus florida (L.), an important ornamental and wildlife tree that grows across much of Eastern North America. The project was prompted in 2001 by the apparent abundance of flowering dogwoods along roadsides in the Morgantown, WV, area, despite a...

  2. Contrasting patterns of α- and β-diversity in deep-sea bivalves of the eastern and western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Solange; Stuart, Carol T.; Wagstaff, Martine C.; McClain, Craig R.; Allen, John A.; Rex, Michael A.

    2013-08-01

    We analyzed patterns of α- and β-diversity in deep-sea bivalves collected by epibenthic sleds from the western North Atlantic south of New England, and from the eastern North Atlantic in the Rockall Trough, Porcupine Seabight and Porcupine Abyssal Plain. In the western North Atlantic, species diversity, measured as the normalized expected number of species, shows a unimodal bathymetric trend peaking at mid-bathyal depths. In the eastern North Atlantic, diversity increases monotonically with depth reaching a maximum at abyssal depths. We used Baselga's (2010) metrics to distinguish two separate components of β-diversity along depth gradients, species dissimilarity among sites due to spatial replacement (turnover) and species loss leading to nestedness. We also examined the rank order of nestedness with depth using Rodríguez-Gironés and Santamaría's (2006) BINMATNEST. The primary difference in β-diversity between west and east centers on the composition of abyssal communities. In the western North Atlantic, abyssal assemblages are nested subsets of bathyal assemblages. In the eastern North Atlantic, turnover dominates at all depths. These very fundamental differences in community structure between the basins may be attributable to differences in food supply, which is greater in the eastern North Atlantic region sampled. POC-flux to abyssal depths in the east may not reach levels low enough to depress species diversity as it does in the west. In the west, the abyssal fauna is largely an impoverished nested subset of the bathyal fauna that shows less endemism and may be maintained partly by source-sink dynamics.

  3. A possible relict mantle wedge:Geochemical evidence from Paleogene volcanics in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The major and trace element and isotopic composition were analyzed for the Paleogene volcanics in North China dated by the K-Ar method. The geochemical data show that most volcanics are in caic-alkaline series and the minor is in alkaline series. They differ obviously from Neogene and Quaternary volcanics in geochemistry. In particular, the Paleogene volcanics from the southern part of North China were derived from enriched lithospheric mantle (EMⅡ), which were likely to be a relict mantle wedge formed during the subduction of the Yangtze plate into the North China plate in late Triassic (Indo- Sinian).

  4. Suggestion of a dynamic model of North China basin-range system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It is found from preliminary studies that previous basin-range models have difficulties in explaining the formation of the Mesozoic North-China basin-range system. This work suggests a new model-"tectonic thermal erosion" model, which considers the North China basin of Late Mesozoic and its peripheral ranges as a unified system, identifies relationship between upwelling and lateral spreading of the asthenolith with horizontal movement and deformation of the upper crust in the system, clarifies the effects of underplating erosion on the crustal evolution, and tries to establish an earth-dynamic model of the North China Mesozoic basin-range supported by numerical simulation.

  5. Book Review: Evans, Arthur V. 2014. Beetles of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A. 560 pp. ISBN 978-0-691-13304-1 (paperback). Price: US $35.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    A book review is presented for “Beetles of Eastern North America” by Arthur V. Evans. This 560 page book was published in 2014 and treats over 1,400 species of beetles distributed in eastern North America....

  6. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959-2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China’s gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD.

  7. Household catastrophic medical expenses in eastern China: determinants and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohong; Shen, Jay J; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo

    2013-12-05

    Much of research on household catastrophic medical expenses in China has focused on less developed areas and little is known about this problem in more developed areas. This study aimed to analyse the incidence and determinants of catastrophic medical expenses in eastern China. Data were obtained from a health care utilization and expense survey of 11,577 households conducted in eastern China in 2008. The incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses was calculated using the method introduced by the World Health Organization. A multi-level logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants. The incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses in eastern China ranged from 9.24% to 24.79%. Incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses was lower if the head of household had a higher level of education, labor insurance coverage, while the incidence was higher if they lived in rural areas, had a family member with chronic diseases, had a child younger than 5 years old, had a person at home who was at least 65 years old, and had a household member who was hospitalized. Moreover, the impact of the economic level on catastrophic medical expenses was non-linear. The poorest group had a lower incidence than that of the second lowest income group and the group with the highest income had a higher incidence than that of the second highest income group. In addition, region was a significant determinant. Reducing the incidence of household catastrophic medical expenses should be one of the priorities of health policy. It can be achieved by improving residents' health status to reduce avoidable health services such as hospitalization. It is also important to design more targeted health insurance in order to increase financial support for such vulnerable groups as the poor, chronically ill, children, and senior populations.

  8. Assessing Knowledge and Attitudes towards Cervical Cancer Screening among Rural Women in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongtong; Li, Shunping; Ratcliffe, Julie; Chen, Gang

    2017-08-27

    There is a heavy burden of cervical cancer in China. Although the Chinese government provides free cervical cancer screening for rural women aged 35 to 59 years, the screening rate remains low even in the more developed regions of eastern China. This study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer and its screening among rural women aged 30 to 65 years in eastern China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four counties of Jining Prefecture in Shandong Province during August 2015. In total, 420 rural women were randomly recruited. Each woman participated in a face-to-face interview in which a questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer. A total of 405 rural women (mean age 49 years old) were included in the final study. Among them, 210 (51.9%) participants had high knowledge levels. An overwhelming majority, 389 (96.0%) expressed positive attitudes, whilst only 258 (63.7%) had undergone screening for cervical cancer. Related knowledge was higher amongst the screened group relative to the unscreened group. Age, education and income were significantly associated with a higher knowledge level. Education was the only significant factor associated with a positive attitude. In addition, women who were older, or who had received a formal education were more likely to participate in cervical cancer screening. The knowledge of cervical cancer among rural women in eastern China was found to be poor, and the screening uptake was not high albeit a free cervical cancer screening program was provided. Government led initiatives to improve public awareness, knowledge, and participation in cervical cancer screening programs would likely be highly beneficial in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality for rural women.

  9. Estimation of PFOS emission from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuangwei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Shijie; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related chemicals (collectively "PFOS equivalents") have been released to the environment through widespread consumer use and disposal of PFOS-containing products like carpet, leather, textiles, paper, food containers, household cleansers, etc. Accordingly, in addition to PFOS-related industries, domestic activities may also considerably contribute to the PFOS emissions in the eastern coastal region of China, which has been characterized by high industrial input. In the present study, domestic emissions of PFOS equivalents derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants were estimated at the county level, using a regression model of domestic emission density with population density and per capita disposable income as independent variables. The total emission load of PFOS equivalents from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China was 381kg in 2010, and large cities were prominent as the emission centers. The domestic emission density averaged 0.37g/km(2)·a for the entire study area. Generally, the Beijing-Tianjin area, Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta, as the most populous and economically developed areas in China, showed significantly higher emission density. Geographical variations within individual provinces were noteworthy. The average per capita discharge load of PFOS equivalents arising from domestic activities was 1.91μg/day per capita in the eastern coastal region of China, which is consistent with previous estimates in Korea, but lower than those calculated for developed countries. In comparison, the spatial distributions of provincial PFOS emissions from domestic and industrial sources were similar to each other; however, the latter was much larger for all the provinces.

  10. Vertical density gradient in the eastern North Atlantic during the last 30,000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogerson, M.; Ramirez, J. [University of Hull, Geography Department, Hull (United Kingdom); Bigg, G.R. [University of Sheffield, Department of Geography, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Rohling, E.J. [University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Past changes in the density and momentum structure of oceanic circulation are an important aspect of changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and consequently climate. However, very little is known about past changes in the vertical density structure of the ocean, even very extensively studied systems such as the North Atlantic. Here we exploit the physical controls on the settling depth of the dense Mediterranean water plume derived from the Strait of Gibraltar to obtain the first robust, observations-based, probabilistic reconstruction of the vertical density gradient in the eastern North Atlantic during the last 30,000 years. We find that this gradient was weakened by more than 50%, relative to the present, during the last Glacial Maximum, and that changes in general are associated with reductions in AMOC intensity. However, we find only a small change during Heinrich Event 1 relative to the Last Glacial Maximum, despite strong evidence that overturning was substantially altered. This implies that millennial-scale changes may not be reflected in vertical density structure of the ocean, which may be limited to responses on an ocean-overturning timescale or longer. Regardless, our novel reconstruction of Atlantic density structure can be used as the basis for a dynamical measure for validation of model-based AMOC reconstructions. In addition, our general approach is transferrable to other marginal sea outflow plumes, to provide estimates of oceanic vertical density gradients in other locations. (orig.)

  11. Stable Isotopes Provide Insight into Population Structure and Segregation in Eastern North Atlantic Sperm Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Asunción; Velásquez Vacca, Adriana; Pinela, Ana M.; Kinze, Carl; Lockyer, Christina H.; Vighi, Morgana; Aguilar, Alex

    2013-01-01

    In pelagic species inhabiting large oceans, genetic differentiation tends to be mild and populations devoid of structure. However, large cetaceans have provided many examples of structuring. Here we investigate whether the sperm whale, a pelagic species with large population sizes and reputedly highly mobile, shows indication of structuring in the eastern North Atlantic, an ocean basin in which a single population is believed to occur. To do so, we examined stable isotope values in sequential growth layer groups of teeth from individuals sampled in Denmark and NW Spain. In each layer we measured oxygen- isotope ratios (δ18O) in the inorganic component (hydroxyapatite), and nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (δ15N: δ13C) in the organic component (primarily collagenous). We found significant differences between Denmark and NW Spain in δ15N and δ18O values in the layer deposited at age 3, considered to be the one best representing the baseline of the breeding ground, in δ15N, δ13C and δ18O values in the period up to age 20, and in the ontogenetic variation of δ15N and δ18O values. These differences evidence that diet composition, use of habitat and/or migratory destinations are dissimilar between whales from the two regions and suggest that the North Atlantic population of sperm whales is more structured than traditionally accepted. PMID:24324782

  12. Trends in trawl and purse seine catch rates in the north-eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MACHIAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on fishing effort expressed in vessel days at sea and corresponding landing/day for a large number of species have been collected by the Institute of Marine Biological Resources (IMBR since the second half of 1995. Data were collected over a grid of 21 stations throughout the Greek seas. In the present study we analyzed the monthly days at sea as well as catch per day for trawlers and purse seiners from 1996 to 2000, by general linear models and trend analysis. The following vessel size groups per gear were considered: (a trawlers smaller and larger than 20m; (b purse-seiners smaller and larger than 15m. Collected data were also aggregated for five fishing sub-areas: the North Aegean, the Central Aegean, the South Aegean, Cretan waters and the Ionian Sea. Trend analysis of landing/day time series indicated that demersal and pelagic resources are declining in the main fishing grounds. Declining landing/day trends are regarded as indicators of overfishing, especially in the light of the fact that high catch rates are maintained by fishing in ‘hot spots’. The results of the present analysis provide, for the first time, important information on the sustainability of the fisheries in the north-eastern Mediterranean, an area characterized by a complete lack of accurate long-term data on effort and catch per effort

  13. Critically endangered western gray whales migrate to the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Bruce R; Ilyashenko, Valentin Yu; Bradford, Amanda L; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Tsidulko, Grigory A; Rozhnov, Vyacheslav V; Irvine, Ladd M

    2015-04-01

    Western North Pacific gray whales (WGWs), once considered extinct, are critically endangered with unknown migratory routes and reproductive areas. We attached satellite-monitored tags to seven WGWs on their primary feeding ground off Sakhalin Island, Russia, three of which subsequently migrated to regions occupied by non-endangered eastern gray whales (EGWs). A female with the longest-lasting tag visited all three major EGW reproductive areas off Baja California, Mexico, before returning to Sakhalin Island the following spring. Her 22 511 km round-trip is the longest documented mammal migration and strongly suggests that some presumed WGWs are actually EGWs foraging in areas historically attributed to WGWs. The observed migration routes provide evidence of navigational skills across open water that break the near-shore north-south migratory paradigm of EGWs. Despite evidence of genetic differentiation, these tagging data indicate that the population identity of whales off Sakhalin Island needs further evaluation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Mantle source heterogeneity of the Early Jurassic basalt of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Shellnutt, J.; Dostal, Jaroslav; Yeh, Meng-Wan

    2017-08-01

    One of the defining characteristics of the basaltic rocks from the Early Jurassic Eastern North America (ENA) sub-province of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the systematic compositional variation from South to North. Moreover, the tectono-thermal regime of the CAMP is debated as it demonstrates geological and structural characteristics (size, radial dyke pattern) that are commonly associated with mantle plume-derived mafic continental large igneous provinces but is considered to be unrelated to a plume. Mantle potential temperature (T P) estimates of the northern-most CAMP flood basalts (North Mountain basalt, Fundy Basin) indicate that they were likely produced under a thermal regime (T P ≈ 1450 °C) that is closer to ambient mantle (T P ≈ 1400 °C) conditions and are indistinguishable from other regions of the ENA sub-province (T Psouth = 1320-1490 °C, T Pnorth = 1390-1480 °C). The regional mantle potential temperatures are consistent along the 3000-km-long ENA sub-province suggesting that the CAMP was unlikely to be generated by a mantle plume. Furthermore, the mantle potential temperature calculation using the rocks from the Northern Appalachians favors an Fe-rich mantle (FeOt = 8.6 wt %) source, whereas the rocks from the South Appalachians favor a less Fe-rich (FeOt = 8.3 wt %) source. The results indicate that the spatial-compositional variation of the ENA basaltic rocks is likely related to differing amounts of melting of mantle sources that reflect the uniqueness of their regional accreted terranes (Carolinia and West Avalonia) and their post-accretion, pre-rift structural histories.

  15. The paleomagnetism and geological significance of Meso- proterozoic dyke swarms in the central North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms are extensively distributedin the central North China Craton(NCC) including North Shanxi, Wutai and Lüliang areas, which are not deformed and metamorphic but high magnetic, so the dyke swarms become the mark to compare the high meta-morphic rock areas in magnetism. Based on the analysis of paleomagnetism of mafic dyke swarms in North Shanxi, Wutai and Lüliang areas, NCC inclined southward about 18° so that North Shanxi lifted up and rotated 10° left to Wutai area. The dyke swarms in Lüliang developed later than in North Shanxi and Wutai area. The NNW-trending and WNW-trending dyke swarms developed in Lüliang while the North China Plate moved northward consistently so that the paleomagnetism of dyke swarms in Lüliang is greatly different from North Shanxi and Wutai area.

  16. Quantitative risk assessment of the effects of drought on extreme temperature in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zengchao; Hao, Fanghua; Singh, Vijay P.; Ouyang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Hot extremes may lead to disastrous impacts on human health and agricultural production. Previous studies have revealed the feedback between drought and hot extremes in large regions of eastern China, while quantifying the impact of antecedent drought on hot extremes has been limited. This study aims at quantitatively assessing the risk of extreme temperature conditioned on the antecedent drought condition represented by Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) during summer time in eastern China. A copula-based model is proposed to construct the joint probability distribution of extreme temperature and drought based on 6 month SPI (SPI6). Accordingly, the conditional probability distribution is employed to quantify impacts of antecedent dry (and wet) conditions on the exceedance probability of extreme temperature. Results show that the likelihood of extreme temperature exceeding high quantiles is higher given antecedent dry conditions than that given antecedent wet conditions in large regions from southwestern to northeastern China. Specifically, the conditional probability difference of temperature exceeding 80th percentile given SPI6 lower than or equal to -0.5 and SPI6 higher than 0.5 is around 0.2-0.3. The case study of the 2006 summer hot extremes and drought in Sichuan and Chongqing region shows that the conditional return period of extreme temperature conditioned on antecedent drought is around 5-50 years shorter than univariate return period. These results quantify the impact of antecedent drought on subsequent extreme temperature and highlight the important role of antecedent drought in intensifying hot extremes in these regions.

  17. Evolution of 3D tectonic stress field and fault movement in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈连旺; 陆远忠; 郭若眉; 许桂林; 张杰

    2001-01-01

    Based on data of fault movement surveying, we simulate the evolution process of three dimensional stress field in North China by three dimensional finite element method. Evolutional patterns in one-year time scale from 1986 to 1997 have been illustrated and the evolution characteristics of stress field have been analyzed. In comparison with the seismic activity among that time interval in North China, we have primarily discussed the relationship between the evolution of stress field and seismic activity.

  18. Large clusters of gold deposits and large-scale metallogene-sis in the Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI; Mingguo

    2001-01-01

    , E, Xiao, Y. L. et al., Chronology of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the Dabie mountain and Su-Lu terrane: I. Sm-Nd isotope system, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1996, 26 (6): 597-609.[11]Ye, K., Guo, J. H., Zhai, M. G., The discovery and geological significance of coesite in the intercrystal of eclogite in Yangkou, Qingdao, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1996, 41(15): 1407-1408.[12]Liu, W. J., Zhai, M. G., Li, Y. G., Metamorphism of the high-pressure basic granulites in Laixi, eastern Shandong, China, Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1998, 14(4): 449-459.[13]Li, Y. G., Guo, J. H., Zhai, M. G., Geochemical differences of basement felsic gneisses in Shandong peninsula and its sig-nificance to the boundary between North China plate and Sulu UHP belt, Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1999, 15(4): 557-563.[14]Guo, W. K., Duan, C. J., The gold deposits in Linglong area, Zhaoyuan County, eastern Shandong Province, Geological Review (in Chinese), 1951, 16(1): 112-113.[15]Yu, H. M., Study on the isotope chronology of the rocks in the northwestern Jiaodong district, Shandong Province, Geolo-gy of Shandong (in Chinese), 1987, 3(1): 75-88.[16]Yao, F. L., Liu, L. D., Kong, Q. C. et al., The Lode Gold Deposits in Northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula (in Chinese), Changchun: Jilin Science and Technology Press, 1990, 1-234.[17]Li, Z. L., Yang, M. Z., The Geology-Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Jiaodong Region (in Chinese), Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press, 1993, 1-300.[18]Wang, H. N., Wang, Y., The relationships of migmatite, granite and gold mineralization, Journal of Nanjing University (in Chinese), 1984, (supp.): 29-40.[19]Li, H. Q., Liu, J. Q., Wei L., The Isochronology of Inclusions of Hydrothermal Deposits and its Geological Application (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 1-126.[20]Zhang, Z. H., Zhang, J. X., Ye, S. Z., The Isotopic Age of Gold Deposits in Jiaodong

  19. Simulation of nitrogen deposition in the North China Plain by the FRAME model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition in the North China Plain (NCP at high resolution, 5 × 5 km2, was conducted for the first time by the Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange (FRAME model. The total N deposition budget was 1481 Gg in this region, with 77 % from reduced N and 23 % from oxidized N, and the annual deposition rate (47 kg ha−1 was much higher than previously reported values for other parts of the world such as the UK (13 kg ha−1, Poland (7.3 kg ha−1 and EU27 (8.6 kg ha−1. The exported N budget (1981 Gg was much higher than the imported N budget (584 Gg, suggesting that the NCP is an important net emission source of N pollutants. Seven provinces in the region contributed N deposition budgets that were proportional to their area ratios. The calculated spatial distributions of N deposition displayed high rates of reduced N deposition in the south and of oxidized N deposition in the eastern part. The N deposition exceeded an upper limit of 30 kg N ha−1 for natural ecosystems over more than 90 % of the region, resulting in terrestrial ecosystem deterioration, impaired air quality and coastal eutrophication not only in the NCP itself but also in surrounding areas including the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea.

  20. Variation characteristics of ultraviolet radiation over the north china plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Wang, Yuesi

    2014-01-01

    In situ measured data of broadband solar radiation ( R s) and ultraviolet ( U v) radiation were used to investigate the spatiotemporal variation properties of U v radiation and the ratio of U v radiation to R s over the North China Plain (NCP). Based on the analysis, an empirical model for estimating U v radiation under all weather conditions in this region was developed. The results showed that the annual U v radiation over the NCP ranges from 0.38-0.52 MJ m-2 d-1. The highest value during the study period was recorded at the Changwu site, which is located near the margin of the Loess Plateau, while the lowest value appeared at the station in Beijing. The seasonal variation pattern of the ratio of U v radiation to R s is similar to that of U v radiation; namely, the highest value appears in August and then decreases gradually until the lowest value appears in November. A small increasing trend in the U v radiation levels and the ratio of U v radiation to R s was observed over the NCP. The evaluation results showed that the empirical estimation model can be widely used to estimate U v radiation under all atmospheric conditions. The relative error between the modeled and measured daily values were within ±15%.

  1. [Evapotranspiration of winter wheat field in North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiaxuan; Li, Yuzhong; Yan, Chang-Rong; Zhao, Quansheng; Mei, Xurong

    2006-12-01

    By using eddy covariance and remote sensing techniques, the relationships between winter wheat soil moisture content and farmland evapotranspiration or canopy temperature were analyzed at field scale under various environmental conditions in the North China Plain. The results showed that when the soil moisture content was below 65% of field capacity, the evaporative fraction under full canopy was low and stable during the middle part of clear days. Under clear sky condition, there was a good non-linear correlation between latent heat flux and crop canopy temperature with diurnal and seasonal patterns. The temperature difference between crop canopy and air as well as the relative evapotranspiration had a close link to the relative moisture content of 0 - 100 cm soil layer. Based on the in situ measurements of daily evapotranspiration amount (ET(d)), daily net radiation flux (Rn(d), mm), average canopy temperature (T(e), degrees C) from 13 : 30 to 14: 00, and daily maximum air temperature (T(a max), degrees C) during the field experiment, the parameters of simplified estimation model for daily evapotranspiration were established.

  2. The epidemiology of adolescent acne in North East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, B; Pang, Y; Zhu, H; Qu, L; Xiao, T; Wei, H-C; Chen, H-D; He, C-D

    2010-08-01

    Adolescent acne impacts self-esteem and quality of life in adolescents and its aetiology is not fully clarified. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological features of adolescent acne in North East China and determine the impact of genetic and environmental factors on the pathogenesis of acne. Data were collected from 5696 undergraduates (2920 patients and 2776 controls) using questionnaire. The survey data were analysed using spss version 13.0 and heritability of adolescent acne was calculated using Falconer's method. Total prevalence of adolescent acne was 51.30% (52.74% in males, 49.65% in females). The difference between genders was statistically significant (P acne had earlier age of onset (P acne in first- and second-degree relatives of acne patients was 22.5% and 7.19%, respectively, significantly higher than in controls (P acne was 78.47 +/- 2.05% in first-degree relatives and 75.05 +/- 3.18% in second-degree relatives. Risk factors to the acne suffers include (in descending order of occurrence), acne family history, mental stress, menstrual disorder, frequent insomnia, high fat diet, being male, dysmenorrhoea, anxiety, sleeping acne includes a familial genetic predisposition. Additional environmental factors of psychological stress, skin oiliness and high caloric diets may also contribute to the onset of acne in Chinese adolescents.

  3. Potential tsunami impact on a refinery in North-Eastern Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A. M.; Franchello, G.; Krausmann, E.

    2009-04-01

    Industrial facilities located in coastal areas subject to tsunami hazards may be at risk of tsunami impact and damage. Furthermore, if hazardous materials are present these can be accidentally released impacting nearby residents and dispersing into the environment. We have analysed the potential impact of two tsunami scenarios originating in the Tyrrhenian Sea and their consequences at an industrial facility located on the coast in North-Eastern Sicily. The results of the tsunami simulations indicate that in both scenarios there would be between 30-45 storage tanks at the industrial facility (potentially exposing up to 1.4 million m3 of chemicals) subject to flooding, with tanks closer to the beach suffering up to 1.6 m inundation. Flow velocities in most areas are less than 1 m/s. This indicates that any damage would occur due to hydrostatic uplift forces due to buoyancy particularly in the western part of the facility where inundation levels are higher and storage tanks are less protected. Damage to the facility due to impact of floating debris may be a problem at the eastern most tip of the refinery where the distance between the waterline and the refinery fence line is less than 20 m. Foundation soils and foundation systems could also be at risk from shear- and liquefaction-induced scour in this section of the plant. The likelihood for hazardous materials releases from inundated storage tanks is low but could occur due to breakage of connected pipelines and flanges due to floating off of storage tanks and other connected appurtenances. Flooding of electrical equipment such as control panels, pumps and motors, not raised above the inundation level could suffer water intrusion.

  4. Paleomagnetic Results of Permo-Carboniferous Volcanic-sedimentary Strata in Mid-eastern Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for Tectonic Evolution of the Eastern CAOB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Huang, B.; Zhao, J.; Bai, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, T.

    2015-12-01

    There has been hotly debating over the closure time of the eastern Paleo-Asian Ocean and the tectonic evolution of the eastern CAOB (Central Asian Orogenic Belt) for decades. To better puzzle out this controversy, we carried out a detailed paleomagnetic study on the Permo-Carboniferous volcanic-sedimentary strata in mid-eastern Inner Mongolia, northeast of China. More than 820 samples were collected from 81 sites and titanium-poor magnetite and hematite are proved as the principal magnetic carriers. (1)In Kingan Block, 9 sites of volcanic rocks from Dashizhai Formation (P1) were calculated to get a mean magnetic direction Dg/Ig = 285.5°/77.4°, kg = 68.2, α95 = 6.8° before and Ds/Is = 206.5°/48.2°, ks = 100.8, α95 = 5.5°, N = 9 after bedding correction, which suggests a paleolatitude of 34.5°±5°N. Both the positive fold test and reversal test suggest a pre-folding magnetization and thus may indicate a primary remanence. (2)Three volcanic sections of Baoligaomiao Formation (C3-P1) from Uliastai Passive Margin were sampled and a mean magnetic direction derived from 16 sites is Dg/Ig = 30.1°/31.8°, kg = 16.3, α95 = 9.8° before and Ds/Is = 65.6°/58.1°, ks = 39.8, α95 = 6.1°, N = 16 after bedding correction. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole Plat. /Plong = 43.1° N/186.7°E, A95=8° suggests a paleolatitude of 38.7°±6.3°N. A primary remanence is confirmed by positive fold test. (3) In the northern margin of NCB (North China Block), a ChRM is successfully isolated from 6 sites of basaltic rocks in Elitu Formation (P2) as Dg/Ig = 351.1°/67.2°, kg = 2.1, α95 = 71.8° before and Ds/Is = 351.1°/29.1°, ks = 32.7, α95 = 71.8°, N = 16 after bedding correction, and thus yielded a paleomagnetic pole as Plat. /Plong = 63.1° N/313.5°E, A95=9.5°, which suggests a paleolatitude of 17.2°±7.2°N. A positive fold test and reversal test indicate that the remanence should be primary. The paleomagetic pole of Kingan Block and Uliastai Passive Margin are

  5. Nd isotopic and geochemical constraints on the provenance and tectonic setting of the low-grade meta-sedimentary rocks from the Trans-North China Orogen, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaohui; Zhao, Guochun; Liu, Fulai; Han, Yigui

    2014-11-01

    In the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) of the North China Craton, low-grade supracrustal successions extensively occur in the Wutai, Lüliang, Zanhuang, Zhongtiao and Dengfeng Complexes from north to south. Meta-sedimentary samples from the Wutai and Zhongtiao Complexes were collected for geochemical and Nd isotopic studies and several samples from the Zanhuang and Dengfeng Complexes were also analyzed for Nd isotopic studies for comparative purpose. Most of the meta-siltstones and meta-sandstones from the Wutai and Zhongtiao Complexes are characterized by depletions in mobile elements like CaO, Sr and Na2O, high Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) values and strong positive correlation between Al2O3 and TiO2, indicating intense weathering conditions. Significant post-depositional K-metasomatism is indicated in the A-CN-K diagrams for most of the analyzed samples and the relatively high pre-metasomatized Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values (43-87) also imply a high degree of source weathering. Depleted transitional trace elements (Ni, Cr, Co and Sc), fractionated light rare earth elements patterns, mild negative Eu anomalies in the majority of these meta-sedimentary samples point toward felsic source rocks, including the ∼2.5 Ga granitics, TTG gneisses and the Paleoproterozoic granitics in the TNCO. Minor contribution from mafic rocks is evidenced from relative high contents of MgO, Fe2O3T, Sc and lower La/YbN ratios in some older sequence-set samples from the Zhongtiao Complex. Our geochemical and Nd isotopic data, combined with previous studies in the lithostratigraphic sequence, provenance and depositional age, suggest that the older and younger sequence-sets of the low-grade supracrustal successions in the TNCO were deposited in the different depositional environments. The older sequence-set was deposited in a back-arc basin between the “Andean-type” continental margin arc and the Eastern Block after ∼2.1 Ga, whereas the younger sequence-set formed

  6. Important meteorological variables for statistical long-term air quality prediction in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Liu, Yongqiang; Zhao, Fengjun

    2017-09-01

    Weather is an important factor for air quality. While there have been increasing attentions to long-term (monthly and seasonal) air pollution such as regional hazes from land-clearing fires during El Niño, the weather-air quality relationships are much less understood at long-term than short-term (daily and weekly) scales. This study is aimed to fill this gap through analyzing correlations between meteorological variables and air quality at various timescales. A regional correlation scale was defined to measure the longest time with significant correlations at a substantial large number of sites. The air quality index (API) and five meteorological variables during 2001-2012 at 40 eastern China sites were used. The results indicate that the API is correlated to precipitation negatively and air temperature positively across eastern China, and to wind, relative humidity and air pressure with spatially varied signs. The major areas with significant correlations vary with meteorological variables. The correlations are significant not only at short-term but also at long-term scales, and the important variables are different between the two types of scales. The concurrent regional correlation scales reach seasonal at p correlations are much smaller in magnitude than the concurrent correlations and their regional correction scales are at long term only for wind speed and relative humidity. It is concluded that wind speed should be considered as a primary predictor for statistical prediction of long-term air quality in a large region over eastern China. Relative humidity and temperature are also useful predictors but at less significant levels.

  7. Mesozoic high-K granitic rocks from the eastern Dabie Mountains, Central China and their geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Chunjing

    2001-01-01

    [1]Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Anhui Province, Regional Geology Annals of Anhui Province, Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1987.[2]Xu, S. T., Liu, Y. C., Jiang, L. L. et al., Tectonic Regime and Evolution of Dabie Mountains, Beijing: Science Press, 1994, 175.[3]Chen, T. Y., Niu, B. G., Liu, Z. G. et al., Geochronology of Yanshanian magmatism and metamorphism in the hinterland of the Dabie Mountains and their geological significance, Acta Geologica Sinica, 1991, 4: 329-336.[4]Chen, J. F., Xie, Z., Liu, S. S. et al., Cooling age of Dabie orogen, China, determined by 40Ar-39Ar and fission track tech-niques, Science in China, Ser. B, 1995, 38: 749-757.[5]Xue, F., Rowley, D. B., Tucker, R. D. et al., U-Pb zircon ages of granitoid rocks in the north Dabie complex, eastern Dabie Shan, China, J. Geol., 1997, 105: 744-753.[6]Ma, C. Q., Li, Z. C., Ehlers, C. et al., A post-collisional magmatic plumbing system: Mesozoic granitoid plutons from the Dabieshan high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic zone, east-central China, Lithos., 1998, 45: 431-456.[7]Chapell, B. W., White, A. J. R., Two contrasting granite types, Pacific Geology, 1974, 8: 173-174.[8]Peccerillo, A., Taylor, S. R., Geochemistry of Eocene calcalkaline volcanic rocks from the Kastamonu area, northern Tur-key, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 1976, 58: 63-81.[9]Batchelor, R. A., Bowden, P., Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters, Chem. Geol., 1985, 48: 43-55.[10]Faure, G., Principles of Isotope Geology, 2nd edition, New York, Santa Barbara, London, Sydney, Toronto: John Wiley & Sons, 1986, 217-239.[11]Xie, Z., Chen, J. F., Zhou, T. X. et al., Nd isotopic compositions of metamorphic and granitic rocks from Dabie and their geological significance, Acta Petrologica Sinica , 1996, 12: 401-408.[12]Hacker, B. R., Wang, Q. C., Ar/Ar geochronology of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in central China

  8. Astronomical Orientation of Pyramid Tombs in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusell Tiede, Vance

    2010-01-01

    Two ancient Chinese texts, the Chou Bei Suan Ching and Chou Li (Western Han Dynasty, ca. 100 BC), record that the Imperial Astronomer (Feng Hsian Shin) made solar observations to determine the solstices and equinoxes, and for determining the cardinal directions with a circle and gnomon. By combining the techniques of astro-archaeology (G. S. Hawkins, 1968) with both overhead imagery and ground survey, the present study seeks to link historical Chinese descriptions of astronomical phenomena with contemporary architectural orientation. In the process, several unexpected astronomical orientation patterns emerged which apparently do not appear in the surviving historical record. For example, at the imperial Western Han capital of Ch'ang-an (N 34° latitude), the diagonals of cardinally oriented square pyramid mounds (ling) align to zenith (+34° declination) and nadir (-34° declination) star rise and set points on the skyline. This is in accord with the Chou (Zhou) Dynasty's name of Chung-Kuo, meaning Central Country or Middle Kingdom. That is, the imperial capital is centered both politico-geographically with respect to its vassal states of the Eastern Yi, Southern Man, Western Rong, and Northern Di, as well as astro-geomantically regarding the color-coded Five Sacred Directions East-South-West-North-Zenith/Nadir in the Cosmos. Our ground survey also confirmed pyramid orientation to the lunar standstills (+28°, +18° and +5° declination) that we reported from overhead imagery in 1980 (155th AAS Meeting, HAD 18.CE.12, Lunar and Solar Alignments of Ancient Chinese Pyramids). Grateful acknowledgment is given to the Chinese Academy of Sciences for the invitation to conduct an astro-archaeological survey of the Wei-ho valley, Shensi (Shaanxi) Province.

  9. Prediction of episodic acidification in North-eastern USA: An empirical/mechanistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T.D.; Tranter, M.; Wigington, P.J.; Eshleman, K.N.; Peters, N.E.; Van Sickle, J.; DeWalle, David R.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    1999-01-01

    Observations from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Episodic Response Project (ERP) in the North-eastern United States are used to develop an empirical/mechanistic scheme for prediction of the minimum values of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) during episodes. An acidification episode is defined as a hydrological event during which ANC decreases. The pre-episode ANC is used to index the antecedent condition, and the stream flow increase reflects how much the relative contributions of sources of waters change during the episode. As much as 92% of the total variation in the minimum ANC in individual catchments can be explained (with levels of explanation >70% for nine of the 13 streams) by a multiple linear regression model that includes pre-episode ANC and change in discharge as independent variable. The predictive scheme is demonstrated to be regionally robust, with the regional variance explained ranging from 77 to 83%. The scheme is not successful for each ERP stream, and reasons are suggested for the individual failures. The potential for applying the predictive scheme to other watersheds is demonstrated by testing the model with data from the Panola Mountain Research Watershed in the South-eastern United States, where the variance explained by the model was 74%. The model can also be utilized to assess 'chemically new' and 'chemically old' water sources during acidification episodes.Observations from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Episodic Response Project (ERP) in the Northeastern United States are used to develop an empirical/mechanistic scheme for prediction of the minimum values of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) during episodes. An acidification episode is defined as a hydrological event during which ANC decreases. The pre-episode ANC is used to index the antecedent condition, and the stream flow increase reflects how much the relative contributions of sources of waters change during the episode. As much as 92% of the total variation in

  10. Towards groundwater neutral cropping systems in the Alluvial Fans of the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Wang, G.; Vos, J.; Meinke, H.; Li, B.G.; Huang, J.K.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater levels in the North China Plain (NCP), the bread basket of China, have dropped more than one meter per year over the last 40 years, putting at risk the long term productivity of this region. Groundwater decline is most severe in the Alluvial Fans where our study site is located.

  11. Biological characterization of African swine fever virus genotype II strains from north-eastern Estonia in European wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmoja, I; Petrov, A; Breidenstein, C; Zani, L; Forth, J H; Beer, M; Kristian, M; Viltrop, A; Blome, S

    2017-01-24

    Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, African swine fever (ASF) is regarded as one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. Following the ongoing epidemic in the Transcaucasian countries and the Russian Federation, African swine fever virus was introduced into the Estonian wild boar population in 2014. Epidemiological investigations suggested two different introductions into the southern and the north-eastern part of Estonia. Interestingly, outbreak characteristics varied considerably between the affected regions. While high mortality and mainly virus-positive animals were observed in the southern region, mortality was low in the north-eastern area. In the latter, clinically healthy, antibody-positive animals were found in the hunting bag and detection of virus was rare. Two hypotheses could explain the different behaviour in the north-east: (i) the frequency of antibody detections combined with the low mortality is the tail of an older, so far undetected epidemic wave coming from the east, or (ii) the virus in this region is attenuated and leads to a less severe clinical outcome. To explore the possibility of virus attenuation, a re-isolated ASFV strain from the north-eastern Ida-Viru region was biologically characterized in European wild boar. Oronasal inoculation led to an acute and severe disease course in all animals with typical pathomorphological lesions. However, one animal recovered completely and was subsequently commingled with three sentinels of the same age class to assess disease transmission. By the end of the trial at 96 days post-initial inoculation, all animals were completely healthy and neither virus nor viral genomes were detected in the sentinels or the survivor. The survivor, however, showed high antibody levels. In conclusion, the ASFV strain from north-eastern Estonia was still highly virulent but nevertheless, one animal recovered completely. Under the experimental conditions, no transmission occurred from the survivor

  12. Tobacco use among students in the eight North-eastern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : To obtain baseline information about prevalence of tobacco use among school children in eight states in the North-eastern part of India. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A two-stage probability sample of students in grades 8-10 corresponding to 13 to 15 years of age was selected in each state and surveyed through an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS : Among the sampled schools, the school response rate was 100% in all states except Tripura (92% and Meghalaya (96%. Among the eligible students, over 80% participated in the survey. Among the respondents, the proportion of boys ranged between 50% to 55%. Ever tobacco users ranged from 75.3% (Mizoram to 40.1% (Assam. Over 65% of users reported initiation at 10 years of age or earlier in all states except Mizoram (23.1%. The range of current tobacco use (any product was 63% (Nagaland to 36.1% (Assam. Current smokeless tobacco use ranged from 49.9% (Nagaland to 25.3% (Assam. Mizoram reported the highest current smoking (34.5%, mainly cigarette and Assam reported the lowest (19.7%, again mainly cigarette. Current smoking among girls (8.3% to 28.2% was also quite high. Over half of current cigarette smokers (53.2% to 96.3% and a high proportion of current smokeless tobacco users (38.5% to 80.8% reported feeling like having tobacco first thing in the morning. Only about 20% of students reported having been taught in school about the dangers of tobacco use, except in Mizoram (around 50%. Tobacco use by parents and close friends was positively associated with students′ current tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS : Tobacco use including smoking was very high, even among girls, in all eight states in the North-eastern part of India. Signs of tobacco dependency were already visible in these students, more among those who smoked. In general schools did not educate students about the hazards of tobacco use.

  13. Numerical simulation of scatterometer assimilated wind and ocean wave in eastern China seas and adjacent waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using the latest version of Mesoscale Modeling System (MM5v3), we assimilated wind data from the scatterometer and built a model to assimilate the wind field over eastern China seas and adjacent waters and applied the wave model WAVEWATCH-Ⅲ to test the sea area with assimilative wind and blended wind of QSCAT and NCEP as driving forces. High precision and resolution numerical wave results were obtained.Analysis indicated that ifwe replace the model wind result with the blended wind, better sea surface wind results and wave results could be obtained.

  14. Molecular evolution of the H6 subtype influenza a viruses from poultry in eastern China from 2002 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Daxin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although extensive data demonstrates that the majority of H6 duck isolates belonged to a single H6N2 virus lineage with a single gene constellation in southern China from 2000 to 2005, the prevalence of H6N2 virus in poultry in Eastern China is largely unknown. Results Epidemiology revealed that H6N2 viruses were the most frequently detected influenza subtypes in live bird markets from 2002 to 2008 in Eastern China, but from 2009 onwards, they were replaced with novel H6N6 viruses. We phylogenetically and antigenically analyzed 42 H6 viruses isolated mainly in domestic ducks from 2002 to 2010 in Eastern China. Surprisingly, none of these isolates grouped with the previously described H6N2 viruses which belonged to a single H6N2 virus lineage with a single gene constellation in domestic ducks in southern China from 2000 to 2005. Two distinct hemagglutinin lineages were identified and they all underwent frequent reassortment with multiple virus subtypes from the natural gene pool, but few reassortants were persistent or prevalent. Conclusions Five subtypes of H6 influenza viruses (H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6 and H6N8 cocirculated in Eastern China, which form a significant part of the natural influenza virus reservoir in domestic ducks, and significant viral reassortment is still ongoing in this species.

  15. The variability in the relationship between black carbon and carbon monoxide over the eastern coast of China: BC aging during transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available East Asia is a densely populated region with a myriad of primary emissions of pollutants such as black carbon (BC and carbon monoxide (CO. To characterize primary emissions over the eastern coast of China, a series of field campaigns were conducted in 2011, including measurements from a ship cruise, island, and coastal receptor sites. The relationship between BC and CO is presented here for the first ship cruise (C1, the second ship cruise (C2, an island site (Changdao Island, CD, and a coastal site (Wenling, WL. The average BC mass concentrations were 2.43, 2.73, 1.09, 0.94, and 0.77 µg m−3 for CD, WL, C1-YS (Yellow Sea, C1-ES (East China Sea, and C2-ES, respectively. For those locations, the average CO mixing ratios were 0.55, 0.48, 0.31, 0.36, and 0.27 ppm. The high loadings of both BC and CO imply severe anthropogenic pollution over the eastern coast of China. Additionally, the linear correlation between BC and CO was regressed for each location. The slopes, i.e., the ratios of ΔBC to ΔCO derived from their relationship, correlated well with the ratios of diesel consumption to gasoline consumption in each province/city, which reveals vehicular emission to be the common source for BC and CO and that there are distinct fuel structures between North and South China. The ΔBC/ΔCO values at coastal sites (Changdao Island and Wenling were much higher than those over the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and the correlation coefficients also showed a decreasing trend from the coast to the sea. Therefore, the quantity of ΔBC/ΔCO and the correlation coefficients are possible indicators for the aging and removal of BC.

  16. Influence of internal decadal variability on the summer rainfall in Eastern China as simulated by CCSM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yali; Wang, Tao; Ma, Jiehua

    2016-06-01

    The combined impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on the summer rainfall in eastern China was investigated using CCSM4. The strongest signals occur with the combination of a positive PDO and a negative AMO (+PDO-AMO), as well as a negative PDO and a positive AMO (-PDO+AMO). For the +PDO-AMO set, significant positive rainfall anomalies occur over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley (YR), when the East Asian summer monsoon becomes weaker, while the East Asian westerly jet stream becomes stronger, and ascending motion over the YR becomes enhanced due to the jet-related secondary circulation. Contrary anomalies occur over East Asia for the -PDO+AMO set. The influence of these two combinations of PDO and AMO on the summer rainfall in eastern China can also be observed in the two interdecadal rainfall changes in eastern China in the late 1970s and late 1990s.

  17. Study on numerical simulation and dynamic mechanism of winter- time circulation in the eastern China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong; HOU Yijun; WEI Zexun; LIU Xingquan; ZHAO Xixi

    2004-01-01

    An MOM2 based 3-dimentional prognostic baroclinic Z-ordinate model was established to study the circulation in eastern China seas, considering the topography, inflow and outflow on the open boundary, wind stress, temperature and salinity exchange on the sea surface. The results were consistent with observation and showed that the Kuroshio intrudes in large scale into the East China Sea continental shelf East China, during which its water is exchanged ceaselessly with outer sea water along Ryukyu Island. The Tsushima Warm Current is derived from several sources, a branch of the Kuroshio, part of the Taiwan Warm Current, and Yellow Sea mixed water coming from the west of Cheju Island. The water from the west of Cheju Island contributes approximately 13% of the Isushima Warm Current total transport through the Korea Strait. The circulation in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea is basically cyclonic circulation, and is comprised of coastal currents and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. Besides simulation of the real circulation, numerical experiments were conducted to study the dynamic mechanism. The numerical experiments indicated that wind directly drives the East China Sea and Yellow Sea Coastal Currents, and strengthens the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current. In the no wind case, the kinetic energy of the coastal current area and main YSWC area is only 1% of that of the wind case. Numerical experiments also showed that the Tsushima Warm Current is of great importance to the formation of the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current.

  18. Radioactivity in wastes generated from shale gas exploration and production - North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodłowski, Paweł; Macuda, Jan; Nowak, Jakub; Nguyen Dinh, Chau

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the K-40, U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Ra-228 and Th-228 activity concentrations were measured in 64 samples of wastes generated from shale gas exploration in North-Eastern Poland. The measured samples consist of drill cuttings, solid phase of waste drilling muds, fracking fluids, return fracking fluids and waste proppants. The measured activity concentrations in solid samples vary in a wide range from 116 to around 1100 Bq/kg for K-40, from 14 to 393 Bq/kg for U-238, from 15 to 415 Bq/kg for Ra-226, from 12 to 391 Bq/kg for Pb-210, from a few Bq/kg to 516 Bq/kg for Ra-228 and from a few Bq/kg to 515 Bq/kg for Th-228. Excluding the waste proppants, the measured activity concentrations in solid samples oscillate around their worldwide average values in soil. In the case of the waste proppants, the activity concentrations of radionuclides from uranium and thorium decay series are significantly elevated and equal to several hundreds of Bq/kg but it is connected with the mineralogical composition of proppants. The significant enhancement of Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations after fracking process was observed in the case of return fracking fluids, but the radium isotopes content in these fluids is comparable with that in waste waters from copper and coal mines in Poland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in wild small rodents, potentially preys of ocelots in north-eastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendón-Franco Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in rodents that coexist with ocelots in north-eastern Mexico. Eighty rodents of five genera were captured and their serum samples tested for specific IgG antibodies to T. gondii by in-house indirect ELISA using three different conjugates. Prevalences of 7% (3/44 and 33% (4/12 were found in Sigmodon hispidus and Liomys irroratus, respectively, and were significantly different. All Baiomys taylori and Oligoryzomys fulvescens were negative for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. The samples from Peromyscus spp. could not be analyzed because none of the three conjugates tested recognized their immunoglobulins. Infection was confirmed in one single specimen of L. irroratus by qPCR, which generated an estimate of 146 parasites per mg of muscle tissue. The results strongly support the notion of active T. gondii transmission between rodents and felines in this zone of Mexico and an important role of some rodent species in the sylvatic cycle of T. gondii.

  20. Comparison of earthquake source spectra and attenuation in eastern North America and southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T.I.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paucity of ground-motion data in stable continental regions (SCRs) remains a key limitation when developing relations that seek to predict effects of strong ground shaking from large damaging earthquakes. It is desirable to combine data from more than one SCR to increase database size, but this raises questions as to whether the source and attenuation properties of the SCRs are equivalent. We compare recently compiled spectral-amplitude databases from small to moderate events (moment magnitudes, 2.0 ??? M ??? 5.0) in both southeastern Australia and eastern North America (ENA). Both are SCRs but are widely separated, spatially and in tectonic history. We statistically compare ground motions by plotting mean and standard deviations of spectral amplitudes for data grouped in magnitude and distance bins. These comparisons show that the source and attenuation properties of the two regions are very similar, in particular, at shorter hypocentral distances R (i.e., R < 70 km). At larger distances, regional attenuation differences are observed that may be attributed to differences in crustal structure. We conclude that it is valid to combine the Australian and ENA ground-motion datasets in the development of ground-motion prediction equations, with some limitations in frequency and distance ranges. These ground-motion relations may serve as generic functions for SCRs around the world.

  1. Resource-use strategies of native and invasive plants in Eastern North American forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, J Mason; Fridley, Jason D

    2013-10-01

    Studies in disturbed, resource-rich environments often show that invasive plants are more productive than co-occurring natives, but with similar physiological tradeoffs. However, in resource-limited habitats, it is unclear whether native and invasive plants have similar metabolic constraints or if invasive plants are more productive per unit resource cost - that is, use resources more efficiently. Using a common garden to control for environment, we compared leaf physiological traits relating to resource investments, carbon returns, and resource-use efficiencies in 14 native and 18 nonnative invasive species of common genera found in Eastern North American (ENA) deciduous forest understories, where growth is constrained by light and nutrient limitation. Despite greater leaf construction and nitrogen costs, invaders exhibited greater instantaneous photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) and marginally greater photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE). When integrated over leaf lifespan (LL), these differences were magnified. Differences in efficiency were driven by greater productivity per unit leaf investment, as invaders exhibited both greater photosynthetic abilities and longer LL. Our results indicate that woody understory invaders in ENA forests are not constrained to the same degree by leaf-based metabolic tradeoffs as the native understory flora. These strategy differences could be attributable to pre-adaptation in the native range, although other explanations are possible. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in artisanal catches of dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus off north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, M F; Kinas, P G; Lessa, R; Ferrandis, E

    2015-02-01

    The sampling of fish from the artisanal fleet operating with surface lines off north-eastern Brazil was carried out between 1998 and 2000. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to standardize mean abundance indices using catch and fishing effort data on dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus and to identify abundance trends in time and space, using 1215 surface line deployments. A standard relative abundance index (catch per unit effort, CPUE) was estimated for the most frequent vessels used in the sets, employing factors and coefficients generated in the GLMs. According to the models, C. hippurus catches are affected by the operating characteristics and power of different fishing vessels. These differences highlight the need for standardization of catch and effort data for artisanal fisheries. The highest mean abundance values for C. hippurus were off the state of Rio Grande do Norte, with an increasing tendency in areas with greater depths and more distant from the coast, reaching maximal values in areas whose depths range from 200 to 500 m. The highest mean abundance values occurred between April and June. The higher estimated abundance of C. hippurus in this period off the state of Rio Grande do Norte and within the 200-500 m depth range may be related to a migration pattern of food sources, as its main prey, the flying fish Hirundichthys affinis, uses floating algae as refuge and to deposit its pelagic eggs.

  3. The Pleistocene biogeography of eastern North America: A nonmigration scenario for deciduous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Iltis, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1998-12-31

    The current reconstruction of the vegetation of eastern North America at the last glacial maximum postulates a very wide zone of tundra and boreal forest south of the ice. This reconstruction requires that the deciduous forest retreated far to the south. The authors believe that this reconstruction is seriously in error. Geologic evidence for glacial activity or tundra is absent from the southern Appalachians. Positive evidence for boreal forest is based on pollen identifications for Picea, Betula, and Pinus, when in reality southern members of these genera have pollen that cannot be distinguished from that of northern members. Further, pollen of typical southern species such as oaks and hickories occurs throughout profiles that past authors had labeled boreal. Pollen evidence for a far southern deciduous forest refuge is lacking. Data on endemics are particularly challenging for the scenario in which deciduous forest migrated to the south and back. The southern Appalachian region is rife with endemics that are often extreme-habitat specialists unable to migrate. The previously glaciated zone is almost completely lacking in endemics. Outlier populations, range boundaries, and absence of certain hybrids all argue against a large boreal zone. The new reconstruction postulates a cold zone no more than 75--100 miles wide south of the ice in the East.

  4. Bite force and feeding kinematics in the eastern North Pacific Kyphosidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Clinton Joseph; Ferry, Lara

    2014-04-01

    Some fishes that feed on attached food items possess an intramandibular joint (IMJ), which is thought to increase maximum gape and facilitate contact between the tooth-bearing surface and the substrate. However, the mechanical consequences of using an IMJ to remove attached food items from the substrate are still poorly understood. We examined the most prominent eastern North Pacific kyphosid, the scraper: Girella nigricans and two other kyphosids, Medialuna californiensis and Hermosilla azurea, which occupy similar habitats. Of the three species, G. nigricans had the highest theoretical bite force per unit length. We examined the feeding mechanics of G. nigricans in two different feeding scenarios: a scraping behavior elicited on a block of brine shrimp gelatin and a picking behavior elicited on Ulva sp. We measured cranial elevation, lower jaw rotation, premaxillary protrusion, premaxillary rotation, gape maximum, and intramandibular rotation. Ulva treatments produced significantly greater cranial rotation, when compared to gelatin treatments. Gelatin treatments were associated with greater lower jaw rotation and larger gape. Premaxillary rotation and premaxillary protrusion did not differ between treatments. Intramandibular rotation occurred only when G. nigricans physically contacted the gelatin, suggesting the IMJ is a passive joint with no associated musculature. We also noted that G. nigricans do not appear to use suction to draw food into the mouth. The lack of suction and the presence of the IMJ suggest that the jaws of G. nigricans are specialized for maximizing jaw force when scraping.

  5. A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN THYROID GLAND IN THE POPULATION OF NORTH - EASTERN REGION OF INDIA

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    Debabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Due to the high incidence of thyroid disorders in the North - Eastern population of India a study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the gland in the ca davers of this region. AIM : The study was done to compare the dimensions of the thyroid gland in this population with different studies around the world to see if it can throw any light why thyroid disorders are more common in this population and help clin icians to deal better. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The specimens were divided into three groups according to their ages. Twenty (21 specimens (both male and female were taken from each age group. Statistical analysis was done by paired t - test and t was taken a s significant if the value of t was greater than 2.18. SUMMARY : A study of all together of 63 specimen were taken up to see if any morphological differences in dimension exists in various age groups viz. pediatrics , adults and elderly and co relate with fi ndings of previous workers and was statistically analyzed. CONCLUSION : The study showed that there was no morphological difference of this population with that of previous studies done in other parts of the world. Perhaps a histological study in molecular level will throw more light why this stratum of population is so vulnerable to thyroid disorders.

  6. Seasonal variation in the measurement of urinary pesticide metabolites among Latino farmworkers in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Isom, Scott; Whalley, Lara E; Vallejos, Quirina M; Chen, Haiying; Galván, Leonardo; Barr, Dana B; Quandt, Sara A

    2009-01-01

    This analysis describes the detection of urinary pesticide metabolites for Latino farmworkers across the agricultural season. Two hundred and eighty four farmworkers were recruited from 44 camps in eastern North Carolina in 2007. Data were collected at one month intervals for a total of 939 data points. The OP insecticide metabolites 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (46.2%), malathion dicarboxylic acid (27.7%), and para-nitrophenol (97.4%); the pyrethroid metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (56.4%); and the herbicides 2,4-D (68.1%), acetochlor (29.2%), and metolachlor (16.9%) were found in sizable percentages of the samples. The percentage of farmworkers for whom metabolites were detected varied across the agricultural season. None of the farmworker characteristics were significantly associated with the detection of any pesticide metabolite. Seasonality overrides the effects of other farmworker characteristics in predicting detection of pesticide urinary metabolites. Future research needs to collect multiple exposure measures at frequent intervals over an extended period to characterize factors associated with exposure.

  7. Phylogenetics of Kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula Complex (Serpentes: Colubridae), in Eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysko, Kenneth L; Nuñez, Leroy P; Newman, Catherine E; Bowen, Brian W

    2017-01-24

    Kingsnakes of the Lampropeltis getula complex range throughout much of temperate and subtropical North America. Studies over the last century have used morphology and color pattern to describe numerous subspecies. More recently, DNA analyses have made invaluable contributions to our understanding of their evolution and taxonomy. We use genetic and ecological methods to test previous hypotheses of distinct evolutionary lineages by examining 66 total snakes and 1) analyzing phylogeographic structure using 2 mtDNA loci and 1 nuclear locus, 2) estimating divergence dates and historical demography among lineages in a Bayesian coalescent framework, and 3) applying ecological niche modeling (ENM). Our molecular data and ENMs illustrate that 3 previously recognized subspecies in the eastern United States comprise well-supported monophyletic lineages that diverged during the Pleistocene. The geographic boundaries of these 3 lineages correspond closely to known biogeographic barriers (Florida peninsula, Appalachian Mountains, and Apalachicola River) previously identified for other plants and animals, indicating shared geographic influences on evolutionary history. We conclude that genetic, ecological, and morphological data support recognition of these 3 lineages as distinct species (Lampropeltis floridana, Lampropeltis getula, and Lampropeltis meansi).

  8. The influence of railways on spatial layouts of settlements in North-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Weronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the transformation of spatial structures of towns in North-Eastern Poland, characterized by different origins and happening due to the construction of railway line. The region in question was in the past subject to different settlement processes taking place against the background of historical events such as, among others, the conquest of land by the Teutonic Knights and the political partition of Poland (the border between Prussia and Russia, thereby forming diverse urban systems, later influenced by the railway, which modified their spatial structures, as well as changed their existing importance in the region. As a result of aforementioned changes different forms of urban layouts were formed - line layouts within the historic towns and more complicated layouts within the new railway settlements. The entire analytical procedure was based mainly on archival cartographic materials and divided into three parts: conditions of settlements development, analyze the evolution of its spatial layouts and the typology of researched urban layouts. The chronological summary of the parts allowed for the comparison of the spatial structure of a given town and for its interpretation. In addition, field research necessary for the interpretation of the contemporary structures of chosen towns was carried out. The final result was a synthesis of research in the form of a typology of links between the original structure and the railway station, distinguishing between the different forms of settlements.

  9. Filamentous fungi vectored by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a public hospital in North-Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, R S S; Silveira, S S; Pessoa, W F B; Rodrigues, A; Andrioli, J L; Delabie, J H C; Fontana, R

    2013-03-01

    The increase in opportunistic fungal infections has led to the search for putative sources of contamination in hospital environments. Ants in a public hospital in Itabuna, north-eastern Brazil were examined for carriage of filamentous fungi. During a year-long survey, ants from different hospital areas were sampled. Preference was given to locations where it was possible to observe ants actively foraging. The fungi found on the ants' integument were cultured and identified. A total of 106 ant workers belonging to 12 species in 11 genera were collected. A total of 47 fungal strains was isolated from 40% of the ants (N = 42). We found 16 fungal species in 13 genera associated with the ant workers. The prevalent fungal genera were Aspergillus, Purpureocillium and Fusarium. The ants Tapinoma melanocephalum, Paratrechina longicornis and Pheidole megacephala were associated with six fungal genera; and four genera of fungi were associated with Solenopsis saevissima workers. Fungal diversity was higher in the following hospital areas: nursery, hospital beds, breastmilk bank and paediatrics. Ants act as carriers of soil and airborne fungal species, and ant control in hospital areas is necessary to prevent the dissemination of such micro-organisms. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among pupils in rural North Eastern, Nigeria

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    J G Damen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasitism among pupils in rural schools (Almajiris in Konduga local Government Area of Borno state. Materials and Methods: A total of 257 stool specimens were collected at random among pupils (Almajiris in rural quranic schools; the stools were processed and examined both macroscopically and microscopically by concentration techniques. Results: The prevalence of intestinal parasitism among the Almajiris was 80.9%. The highest prevalence rate was 97.8% while the least prevalence was 67.4%. The 6-8 years age group had the highest prevalence of 85.7% while the least prevalence of 77.7% in the 13-16years age bracket. Ascaris lumbricoides had the highest prevalence of (19.1% while Trichuris trichiura had the least prevalence of (3.5%. Thirteen pupils in the 5-8 years had multiple parasites; multiple parasitism also occurred in 22 pupils aged 9-12 years and in 11 pupils aged 13-16 years. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence rate of intestinal parasites with attendant risk of intestinal obstruction among the Almajiris in rural north eastern Nigeria.

  11. Examining current or future trade-offs for biodiversity conservation in north-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reside, April E; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moilanen, Atte; Graham, Erin M

    2017-01-01

    With the high rate of ecosystem change already occurring and predicted to occur in the coming decades, long-term conservation has to account not only for current biodiversity but also for the biodiversity patterns anticipated for the future. The trade-offs between prioritising future biodiversity at the expense of current priorities must be understood to guide current conservation planning, but have been largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we compared the performance of four conservation planning solutions involving 662 vertebrate species in the Wet Tropics Natural Resource Management Cluster Region in north-eastern Australia. Input species data for the four planning solutions were: 1) current distributions; 2) projected distributions for 2055; 3) projected distributions for 2085; and 4) current, 2055 and 2085 projected distributions, and the connectivity between each of the three time periods for each species. The four planning solutions were remarkably similar (up to 85% overlap), suggesting that modelling for either current or future scenarios is sufficient for conversation planning for this region, with little obvious trade-off. Our analyses also revealed that overall, species with small ranges occurring across steep elevation gradients and at higher elevations were more likely to be better represented in all solutions. Given that species with these characteristics are of high conservation significance, our results provide confidence that conservation planning focused on either current, near- or distant-future biodiversity will account for these species.

  12. The Upper Eocene crustose coralline algal pavement in the Colli Berici, north-eastern Italy

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    Davide Bassi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A crustose coralline algal pavement, identified in Upper Eocene (Priabonian shallow water, middleramp carbonates in north-eastern Italy (Colli Berici, Southern Alps, represents a rare example of this facies.The crustose pavement consists of a coralline crust bindstone with a wackestone-packstone matrix, and is characterised by the dominance of crustose coralline thalli composed primarily of melobesioids (Lithothamnion and Mesophyllum and mastophoroids (Spongites, Lithoporella, Neogoniolithon. In places the coralline bindstone can be seen to develop from isolated encrusting-to-foliose thalli which bifurcate and join to form an open framework interbedded with matrix debris from crusts. Various forms of rhodoliths occur commonly within this facies. The largest discoidal rhodoliths (up to 12 cm of large diameter show an inner arrangement consisting of loosely packed laminar (encrusting-to-foliose coralline thalli with a high percentage of constructional voids (50-63%. Accessory components are represented by larger hyaline perforated foraminifera such as nummulitids and orthophragminids. This facies formed in a ramp palaeoenvironment characterised by relatively low hydrodynamic energy and low rates of sedimentation. Channelised structures present within the facies were formed by return currents which swept the middle ramp creating such distal structures. Further toward the distal middle-ramp the return currents decreased in energy and discharged nutrients allowing the mesotrophic crustose coralline algal pavement to develop.

  13. A sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary imaged beneath eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Catherine A; Fischer, Karen M; Rondenay, Stéphane

    2005-07-28

    Plate tectonic theory hinges on the concept of a relatively rigid lithosphere moving over a weaker asthenosphere, yet the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary remains poorly understood. The gradient in seismic velocity that occurs at this boundary is central to constraining the physical and chemical properties that create differences in mechanical strength between the two layers. For example, if the lithosphere is simply a thermal boundary layer that is more rigid owing to colder temperatures, mantle flow models indicate that the velocity gradient at its base would occur over tens of kilometres. In contrast, if the asthenosphere is weak owing to volatile enrichment or the presence of partial melt, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary could occur over a much smaller depth range. Here we use converted seismic phases in eastern North America to image a very sharp seismic velocity gradient at the base of the lithosphere-a 3-11 per cent drop in shear-wave velocity over a depth range of 11 km or less at 90-110 km depth. Such a strong, sharp boundary cannot be reconciled with a purely thermal gradient, but could be explained by an asthenosphere that contains a few per cent partial melt or that is enriched in volatiles relative to the lithosphere.

  14. Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.

  15. Environmental factors affecting the distribution of Chironomid larvae of the Seybouse wadi, North-Eastern Algeria

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    Nadjla Chaib

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the Seybouse wadi (North-Eastern Algeria between 2008 and 2011 was conducted in 26 sampling sites located on the main river and its tributaries using chironomids. From 3264 collected larvae, forty-five chironomid species were identified, and were correlated to 13 environmental variables to predict determinant factors affecting their distribution. Indicator value (IndVal analysis was first performed to determine indicator chironomid species according to several factors (sites, seasons, source distance, granulometry, conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, water velocity, pollution and the abundance of filamentous algae. Co-inertia analysis (CoIA supported the IndVal results, emphasising an upstream/downstream gradient in the first axis, while a granulometry gradient was emphasised by the second axis. A pollution gradient was also highlighted in the plane of the first two axes, separating tolerant Chironomus sp. 1, Cricotopus bicinctus and Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris from intolerant species as Phaenopsectra flavipes, Rheotanytarsus sp.1 and Cladotanytarsus sp. 1.

  16. Risk factors and outcomes of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter bloodstream infection in North-eastern Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zakuan Zainy Deris; Mohd Nazri Shafei; Azian Harun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors and outcomes of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacterbaumannii (IRAB) bloodstream infection (BSI) cases, since there is very little publication on Acinetobacter baumannii infections from Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study of 41 cases (73.2%) of imipenem-sensitive Acinetobacter baumanii (ISAB) and 15 cases (26.8%) of IRAB was conducted in a teaching hospital which was located at North-Eastern state of Malaysia. Results:There was no independent risk factor for IRAB BSI identified but IRAB BSI was significantly associated with longer bacteraemic days [OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.01, 1.50)]. Although prior use of carbepenems and cephalosporin were higher among IRAB than ISAB group, statistically they were not significant. There was no significant difference in term of outcomes between the two groups. Conclusions: Although statistically not significant, this analysis compliments previous publication highlighting the importance of appropriate empiric antibiotic usage in hospital especially carbepenems and need further evaluation with bigger subjects.

  17. Maternal Perspectives of Prenatal Sonogram in a North-Eastern Population in Nigeria

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    Ugwu AC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited information exists on maternal perspectives of prenatal sonogram in north-eastern Nigeria. This study was aimed at documenting the views and expectations of pregnant women concerning prenatal sonogram as well as their level of awareness of its purpose, limitations and safety in a predominantly Moslem society. A survey was carried out on a convenience sample of 150 patients referred from ante-natal clinics for prenatal sonogram, by administering semi-structured questionnaires. The results show that 61.3% of the women had prenatal sonogram, with little or no information about the purpose, capabilities and limitations of the procedure. 24.7% had neither formal western nor Islamic educational background that may have influenced their perceptions. Most of the women (81.3% were sponsored by either government or their husbands, 72.7% perceived sonogram to be affordable and 63.4% viewed sonographic results as reliable. The perceived main reasons for having a prenatal sonogram were to determine the expected date of delivery and foetal well-being, and to obtain reassurance of maternal health. Sex determination and number of foetuses were the least considered reasons. The study indicates that providing pregnant women with adequate information and sensitising them to the purpose and limitations of sonograms is necessary to guarantee its rational utilisation. Improving patient care, enhancing the skill of sonographers and providing more facilities would improve the services and patients’ perspectives of prenatal sonography.

  18. Origin of the Blue Ridge escarpment along the passive margin of Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotila, J.A.; Bank, G.C.; Reiners, P.W.; Naeser, C.W.; Naeser, N.D.; Henika, B.S.

    2004-01-01

    The Blue Ridge escarpment is a rugged landform situated within the ancient Appalachian orogen. While similar in some respects to the great escarpments along other passive margins, which have evolved by erosion following rifting, its youthful topographic expression has inspired proposals of Cenozoic tectonic rejuvenation in eastern North America. To better understand the post-orogenic and post-rift geomorphic evolution of passive margins, we have examined the origin of this landform using low-temperature thermochronometry and manipulation of topographic indices. Apatite (U-Th)/He and fission-track analyses along transects across the escarpment reveal a younging trend towards the coast. This pattern is consistent with other great escarpments and fits with an interpretation of having evolved by prolonged erosion, without the requirement of tectonic rejuvenation. Measured ages are also comparable specifically to those measured along other great escarpments that are as much as 100 Myr younger. This suggests that erosional mechanisms that maintain rugged escarpments in the early post-rift stages may remain active on ancient passive margins for prolonged periods. The precise erosional evolution of the escarpment is less clear, however, and several end-member models can explain the data. Our preferred model, which fits with all data, involves a significant degree of erosional escarpment retreat in the Cenozoic. Although this suggests that early onset of topographic stability is not required of passive margin evolution, more data are required to better constrain the details of the escarpment's development. ?? 2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Vertebral column deformities in white-beaked dolphins from the eastern North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulli, Chiara G; Galatius, Anders; Kinze, Carl C; Rasmussen, Marianne H; Deaville, Rob; Jepson, Paul; Vedder, Elisabeth J; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; Sabin, Richard C; Watson, Alastair

    2015-09-17

    Five white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris with outwardly vertebral kyphosis, kyphoscoliosis or lordosis were identified during a photo-identification survey of over 400 individuals (2002-2013) in Faxaflói and Skjálfandi Bays, Iceland. In addition, 3 stranding reports from Denmark, The Netherlands and the UK were analysed, providing both external observation and post mortem details of axial deviations of the vertebral column in this species. Two of the free-ranging cases and 2 of the stranded specimens appeared to have an acquired disease, either as a direct result of trauma, or indirectly from trauma/wound and subsequent infection and bony proliferation, although we were unable to specifically identify the causes. Our data represent a starting point to understand vertebral column deformations and their implications in white-beaked dolphins from the eastern North Atlantic. We recommend for future necropsy cases to conduct macro- and microscopic evaluation of muscle from both sides of the deformed region, in order to assess chronic or acute conditions related to the vertebral deformations and cause of death.

  20. FREQUENCY STRUCTURE OF MAJOR RAINFALL EVENTS IN THE NORTH-EASTERN PART OF BANGLADESH

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    RAQUIBUL ALAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The amount of rainfall received over an area is an important factor in assessing availability of water to meet various demands for agriculture, industry, irrigation, generation of hydroelectricity and other human activities. The distribution of rainfall in time and space is, therefore, an important factor for the economic development of a country. Due to rapid urbanization in various parts of the north-eastern region of Bangladesh, there is a growing need to study the rainfall pattern, and also frequency of the heavy rainfall events. This study was checked monthly average rainfall from daily records of last 50 years for this region. In order to check the major events, time history of monthly rainfall data were transformed into frequency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Estimated peak frequency (11.98 month depicts that major rainfall events of a year are occurring earlier than the previous year. The variability of rainfall in time scale was also checked from filtered signals, which is very useful for long-term water resources planning, agricultural development and disaster management for Bangladesh.

  1. Large Human Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in North-Eastern Italy in 2012

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    Luisa Barzon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation.

  2. The attenuation of Fourier amplitudes for rock sites in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Gail M.; Boore, David M.

    2014-01-01

    We develop an empirical model of the decay of Fourier amplitudes for earthquakes of M 3–6 recorded on rock sites in eastern North America and discuss its implications for source parameters. Attenuation at distances from 10 to 500 km may be adequately described using a bilinear model with a geometric spreading of 1/R1.3 to a transition distance of 50 km, with a geometric spreading of 1/R0.5 at greater distances. For low frequencies and distances less than 50 km, the effective geometric spreading given by the model is perturbed using a frequency‐ and hypocentral depth‐dependent factor defined in such a way as to increase amplitudes at lower frequencies near the epicenter but leave the 1 km source amplitudes unchanged. The associated anelastic attenuation is determined for each event, with an average value being given by a regional quality factor of Q=525f 0.45. This model provides a match, on average, between the known seismic moment of events and the inferred low‐frequency spectral amplitudes at R=1  km (obtained by correcting for the attenuation model). The inferred Brune stress parameters from the high‐frequency source terms are about 600 bars (60 MPa), on average, for events of M>4.5.

  3. SEISMODYNAMICS AND DEEP INTERNAL ORIGIN OF THE NORTH CHINA ZONE OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Stepashko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Space-and-time regularities of seismicity of the North China (Tan-Lu zone are studies, and tectonic nature of strong earthquakes is analyzed. The concept of its genesis is still a matter of debate as this zone is located in the centre of the ancient SinoKorean craton, i.e. thousand kilometers away from convergent margins of Eurasia and the Pacific оcean and IndoAustralian plates (Figure 1. The information on the regional cycling dynamics [Xu, Deng, 1996] is updated. Two cycles, in which strong earthquakes (14 shocks with М≥7.0 occurred in the region under study, are distinguished, i.e. from 1500 to 1700, and from 1800 to 1980 (Figure 2. The seismodynamics of the North China zone is consistent with the Circum Pacific оcean deformation wave that occurs once in 300 years at the margin between Asia and the ocean and thus causes the strongest earthquakes (М≥8.8 and eruptions of volcanoes in the Pacific оcean belt [Vikulin et al., 2009, 2010]. This wave came to the northern regions of China in the years of 1500 and 1800 (Figure 3 and triggered seismic activity cycles. The second factor predetermining the seismicity of the Northern China is a specific structure of the region which can manifest seismic activity due to the impact of deformation waves. The genesis of the metastable structure of the region is related to tectonic restructuring of the lithosphere of the SinoKorean craton due to shear displacements in the Tan-Lu megazone. Regional variations of compositions of mantle xenoliths of the Sikhote Alin orogeny demonstrate that the latent strike of the Tan-Lu faults can be traced across the south-eastern areas of Russia to the Tatar Strait. These faults are borders of the Vshaped mantle block (400 x 1500 km (Figure 5, which composition is characterized by an anomalous content of iron and a low depletion of peridotites. The tectonic mantle block maintains its activity; being impacted by compression from the west, it is squeezed out towards

  4. The earliest evidence of millet as a staple crop: New light on neolithic foodways in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyi; Jones, Martin K; Zhao, Zhijun; Liu, Guoxiang; O'Connell, Tamsin C

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing body of archaeobotanical evidence for the harvesting of millet in Eurasia prior to 5,000 cal. BC. Yet direct evidence for the extent of millet consumption in this time period is rare. This contradiction may be due to millet crops making only a minor contribution to the diet before 5,000 BC. In this article, drawing from recent excavations in North China, we present evidence for millet crops making a substantial contribution to human and animal diets in periods, which correspond chronologically with the time depth of the archaeobotanical record. We infer that in eastern Inner Mongolia, human adoption of millets, which may or may be not related to substantial agriculture, happened at the Early Neolithic, with direct dates between 5,800 and 5,300 cal. BC.

  5. Crust recycling induced compositional-temporal-spatial variations of Cenozoic basalts in the Trans-North China Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Liu, Yongsheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Zong, Keqing; Hu, Zhaochu; Chen, Haihong; Zhou, Lian

    2017-03-01

    It has been advocated that the stagnant Pacific slab within the mantle transition zone played a critical role in the genesis of the Cenozoic basalts in the eastern part of the North China Craton (NCC); however, it is not clear whether this recycled oceanic crust contributed to the chemical makeup of the Cenozoic basalts in the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO, the central zone of the NCC). Here, we show that Cenozoic basalts from the TNCO are featured by low CaO contents, high TiO2 and FeOT contents and high Fe/Mn and Zn/Fe ratios, indicating a mantle source of pyroxenite. Temporally, these basalts evolved from alkali basalts of Late Eocene-Oligocene age to coexisting alkali and tholeiitic basalts of Late Miocene-Quaternary age. Spatially, their isotopic and chemical compositions vary symmetrically from the center to both the north and the south sides along the TNCO, i.e., SiO2 contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios increase, FeOT contents and 143Nd/144Nd, Sm/Yb and Ce/Pb ratios decrease. The estimated average melting pressure of the TNCO tholeiitic basalts ( 3 GPa) agrees well with the present lithosphere thickness beneath the north region of the TNCO ( 90-120 km). The temporal and spatial chemical variations of Cenozoic basalts in the TNCO suggest that the recycled oceanic crust in the mantle of the TNCO is mainly related to the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic plate and the northward subduction of the Tethyan ocean plate. The westward subduction of Pacific slab may not have contributed much than previously thought.

  6. The 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake and its significance for seismic hazards in eastern North America: overview and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J. Wright; Chapman, Martin C.; Green, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    The 23 August 2011 Mw (moment magnitude) 5.7 ± 0.1, Mineral, Virginia, earthquake was the largest and most damaging in the central and eastern United States since the 1886 Mw 6.8–7.0, Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake. Seismic data indicate that the earthquake rupture occurred on a southeast-dipping reverse fault and consisted of three subevents that progressed northeastward and updip. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" intensity reports from across the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, rockfalls triggered at distances to 245 km, and regional groundwater-level changes are all consistent with efficient propagation of high-frequency seismic waves (∼1 Hz and higher) in eastern North America due to low attenuation.

  7. Zircon U/Pb Dating of Cretaceous Adakitic Volcanic Rocks in the Eastern Part of North Dabie Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛怀民; 董树文; 刘晓春

    2003-01-01

    Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the eastern part of the North Dabie Mountains are rich inNa ( Na2O=4.03%, Na2O/K2O = 1.31 ), Sr (865μg/g) and Ba ( 1361μg/g) , and high inSr/Y ratio (66.1) but low in Nb, Y and HREE. They have experienced strong fractionation ofREE [ (La/Yb)N = 26.6 ], and are similar to adakite in geochemical characteristics. The U-Pbdating of zircon from the volcanic rocks is ( 129.2 + 2.6) Ma, belonging to Early Cretaceous.These rocks are similar to the volcanic rocks of North Huaiyang not only in age and rare-earth el-ement and trace element geochemistry, but also in the formation temperature and pressure of theminerals. The results indicated that the delamination of mountain root and underplating of mafic-ultramafic magma had happened in the Dabie orogen before Early Cretaceous. Mesozoic mag-matism was intense in the North Dabie Mountains, including the intrusion of mafic-ultramaficmagma, uplifting of gneiss dome, explosion of volcanic rocks and intrusion of granitic magma.The Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the eastern part of the North Dabie Mountains may be one part ofthe Mesozoic volcano-intrusive complex belt of North Huaiyang. The existence of Mesozoic vol-canic remnant cap means the denudation of the Dabie orogenic belt was not very strong sinceEarly Cretaceous.

  8. From holy war to opium war? A case study of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhand, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper examines the recent growth of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan. A detailed analysis of one village in Badakshan Province reveals profound changes in the local economy and social institutions. The paper describes two major shifts in the local economy: first, the switch from wheat to poppy cultivation; and second, the shift from the livestock trade to the opium trade. It then examines the underlying causes and impacts of the opium economy on social relations in the village. Although a case study of a community living on the margins of the global economy, it is argued that these changes have important implications for international policymakers. The emergence of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan is symptomatic of new and expanding forms of trans-border trade associated with the restructuring of the global political economy.

  9. Invasion of terrestrial enchytraeids into two postglacial tundras: North-eastern Greenland and the Arctic Archipelago of Canada (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent; Dózsa-Farkas, Klára

    2006-01-01

    that of potential source regions indicating either strong selection or varied dispersal ability. It appears that the Archipelago is influenced mainly from North America and North-eastern Greenland from Europe while the specialized fauna of the ancient Beringian tundra is of minor importance. The two alternative...... scenarios: (a) survival of a prepleistocene fauna in protected refugia within the area or (b) a postglacial re-invasion from outside are discussed, but the available data do not discriminate between these two possibilities. A total of 24 terrestrial enchytraeid taxa are recorded of which 22 are identified...

  10. Geographical Tendencies of Trace Element Contents in Soils Derived from Gramite,Basalt and Limestone of Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJING-SHENG; PANMAO; 等

    1993-01-01

    92 soil samples were collected from granite,basalt and limestone areas of eastern China and determined for 13 trace element contents.The geographical tendencies of and factors affecting trace element contents in soils were studied.The sequences of soil trace element contents (especially the transitional elements in the 4period) were:basalt soils> limestone soils> granite soils.The contents of trace elements in soils of granite areas and basalt areas showed great inheritance of trace element contents from the relevant parent rocks.The contents of trace elements in limestones were very low,but they became very high in limestone soils.Trace element contents of soils derived from limestone and basalt increased significantly from north to south,these tendencies were similar to the tendency of ferric oxide contents in soils.There were differences of contents of trace elements bound to ferric oxide in different kinds of parent material and in different types of soil.The correlations between the contents of trace elements and the contents of ferric oxide were better in basalt soils than in granite soils.

  11. Statistical Comparison of Cloud and Aerosol Vertical Properties between Two Eastern China Regions Based on CloudSat/CALIPSO Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cloud and aerosol properties was investigated over two 4° × 4° adjacent regions in the south (R1 and in the north (R2 in eastern China. The CloudSat/CALIPSO data were used to extract the cloud and aerosol profiles properties. The mean value of cloud occurrence probability (COP was the highest in the mixed cloud layer (−40°C~0°C and the lowest in the warm cloud layer (>0°C. The atmospheric humidity was more statistically relevant to COP in the warm cloud layer than aerosol condition. The differences in COP between the two regions in the mixed cloud layer and ice cloud layer (<−40°C had good correlations with those in the aerosol extinction coefficient. A radar reflectivity factor greater than −10 dBZ occurred mainly in warm cloud layers and mixed cloud layers. A high-COP zone appeared in the above-0°C layer with cloud thicknesses of 2-3 km in both regions and in all the four seasons, but the distribution of the zonal layer in R2 was more continuous than that in R1, which was consistent with the higher aerosol optical thickness in R2 than in R1 in the above-0°C layer, indicating a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud probability.

  12. Updated precipitation reconstruction (AD 1482-2012) for Huashan, north-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Ruibo; Wang, Huiqin; Qin, Li; Yuan, Yujiang

    2016-02-01

    We developed a tree-ring width chronology from pine trees ( Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus armandii) stand near the peaks of Huashan, Shaanxi, north-central China. Growth-climate response analyses showed that the radial growth of pine trees is mainly influenced by April-June precipitation. A model to reconstruct precipitation based on tree widths was constructed, accounting for 55 % of the instrumental variance during the period 1953-2012. Spatial correlation analyses between the reconstruction and observed gridded precipitation data shows that the seasonal precipitation reconstruction captures regional climatic variations over north China. Compared with the historical archives and other tree-ring records in north China, many large-scale drought events, linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), were found. Many of these events have had profound impacts on the people of north China over the past several centuries. Composite maps of sea surface temperatures and 500 hPa geopotential heights for selected extremely dry and wet years in Huashan show characteristics similar to those related to the ENSO patterns, particularly with regard to ocean and atmospheric conditions in the equatorial and north Pacific. Our 531-year precipitation reconstruction for Huashan provides a long-term perspective on current and 20th century wet and dry events in north China, and is useful to guide expectations of future variability, and helps us to address climate change.

  13. Dating Metasomatism in the Lithosphere Beneath North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Zhou, X.

    2005-12-01

    Dating of mantle metasomatism had been carried out using zircons in metasomatized mantle xenoliths entrained in kimberlites (Kinny and Dawson, 1992; Rudnick et al., 1999; Konzett et al., 1998, 2000; Liati et al., 2004), because the U-Pb system in zircon can remain closed at high temperature (>900-)(Lee et al., 1997). Here we report a SHRIMP U-Pb dating analysis of zircons from a unique dunite-orthopyroxenite xenolith entrained in Cretaceous high-Mg diorite of Shandong province, which provides a timing constraint for the multi-stage metasomatism in the lithosphere beneath North China craton (NCC). Abundant ultramafic xenoliths had been found in the Tietonggou intrusion, one of the Cretaceous high-Mg diorite-dominated plutons in North China (Chen and Zhou, 2004). The lithology, mineral chemistry, equilibrium temperature (690-790A), and metasomatic characteristics of the ultramafic xenoliths indicate that they might be derived from the shallow lithosphere (the crust-mantle transitional zone or the uppermost lithospheric mantle) and had suffered multi-stage metasomatism (Chen and Zhou, 2004, 2005). Xenolith LW0006 is the most extremely metasomatized sample found so far in the xenolith suite of the Tietonggou pluton. The petrography, mineral chemistry, and major element compositions provide a clear metasomatic record of the composite xenolith: K (and/or Ca) metasomatism, and Si (Na) metasomatism (Chen and Zhou). We found seven zircons range from 100-170 Im in longest dimension, which is reflected in the unusually high Zr content of the bulk rock (49 ppm) of this sample. SHRIMP U-Pb dating reveals that these zircons might be grouped three kinds: Mesozoic (concordia age of 127-A3 Ma, 5 zircons), Paleozoic (430-470 Ma, 1 zircon only) and Mesoproterozoic (1310-1540 Ma, 1 zircon only). Cathodoluminescence (CL) images reveal that a few Mesozoic zircons and the Paleozoic zircons retain oscillatory zoning. The Mesozoic zircons are characterized with high Th, U contents and high

  14. The Composition of the Fluids in Alkali Basalts and Mantle-Derived Xenoliths in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Minjie; WANG Xianbin; LIU Gang; LI Liwu

    2001-01-01

    The components of the fluids released from alkali basalts and mantle-derived Iherzolite xenoliths in eastern China have been determined by the vacuum pyrolysis-mass spectrometric (MS) method in the present study. The results show that mantle-derived lherzolites formed in fluids composed mainly of reducing gases such as H2 and CO, and their fluid composition is characterized by a higher H2 content and a lower total content of volatiles. The fluids in alkali basalts are composed mainly of oxidizing gases, such as CO2 an SO2 and characterized by higher contents of SO2 and volatiles,implying that the extraneous oxidized fluids which are composed mainly of SO2 mixed with primary alkali basaltic magmas during their formation and evolution. The fluid compositions of alkali basalts and Iherzolite xenoliths show high nonhomogeneity in the upper mantle source region and difference in alkali basaltic magma evolution in different districts. It can be deduced that the region with higher PH2 could exist in the upper mantle beneath eastern China.

  15. Obesity, diabetes mellitus, and the risk of female breast cancer in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was designed to explore the relationship between obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), and female breast cancer in Eastern China. Methods A 1:3 matched case–control study was carried out, comprising 123 women with breast cancer and 369 controls. All of the 492 subjects were selected from a previous epidemiological survey of 122,058 women in Eastern China. Results There were significant differences between the case and control groups in waist circumference and body mass index (BMI), but not in waist to hip ratio or hip circumference. There was a significant difference between the two groups in BMI for post-menopausal women, and a significant difference in waist circumference for pre-menopausal women. After adjustment for other factors, BMI was still significantly associated with breast cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 to 2.19). DM was significantly associated with breast cancer (OR = 3.35, 95% CI 1.02 to 11.01) in the univariate analysis but not in the multivariate analysis (P = 0.059). Conclusions Obesity might be a risk factor for female breast cancer. We found different strengths of association for women with different menopausal status when we examined the relationship between obesity and breast cancer. The association between DM and female breast cancer should be further confirmed with larger sample sizes. PMID:23497298

  16. Analysis of the severe group dust storms in eastern part of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the available original dust storm records from 60 meteorological stations, we discussed the identification standard of severe dust storms at a single station and constructed a quite complete time series of severe group dust storms in the eastern part of Northwest China in 1954-2001.The result shows that there were 99 severe group dust storms in this region in recent 48 years. The spatial distribution indicates that the Alax Plateau, most parts of the Ordos Plateau and most parts of the Hexi Corridor are the main areas influenced by severe group dust storms. In addition, the seasonand the month with the most frequent severe group dust storms are spring and April, accounting for 78.8% and 41.4% of the total events respectively. During the past 48 years the lowest rate of severe group dust storms occurred in the 1990s. Compared with the other 4 decades, on the average, the duration and the affected area of severe group dust storms are relatively short and small during the 1990s. In 2000 and 2001, there were separately 4 severe group dust storms as the higher value after 1983 in the eastern part of Northwest China.

  17. Error Analysis and Evaluation of the Latest GSMap and IMERG Precipitation Products over Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Ning

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprehensively analyzes error characteristics and performance of the two latest GPM-era satellite precipitation products over eastern China from April 2014 to March 2016. Analysis results indicate that the two products have totally different spatial distributions of total bias. Many of the underestimations for the GSMap-gauged could be traced to significant hit bias, with a secondary contribution from missed precipitation. For IMERG, total bias illustrates significant overestimation over most of the eastern part of China, except upper reaches of Yangtze and Yellow River basins. GSMap-gauged tends to overestimate light precipitation (<16 mm/day and underestimate precipitation with rain rate larger than 16 mm/day; however, IMERG underestimates precipitation at rain rate between 8 and 64 mm/day and overestimates precipitation at rain rate more than 64 mm/day. IMERG overestimates extreme precipitation indices (RR99P and R20TOT, with relative bias values of 17.9% and 11.5%, respectively. But GSMap-gauged shows significant underestimation of these indices. In addition, both products performed well in the Huaihe, Liaohe, and Yangtze River basins for extreme precipitation detection. At basin scale comparisons, the GSMap-gauged data has a relatively higher accuracy than IMERG, especially at the Haihe, Huaihe, Liaohe, and Yellow River basins.

  18. Candidal infection in oral leukoplakia: a clinicopathologic study of 396 patients from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lan; Feng, Jinqiu; Shi, Linjun; Shen, Xuemin; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Zengtong

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between the presence of Candida invasion and oral premalignant lesion. The objective of the current study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features of candidal infection in biopsies of a large retrospective cohort of patients with premalignant oral leukoplakia (n = 396) from eastern China and assess the clinical implications. Candidal hyphae were detected with periodic acid-Schiff staining of the biopsy samples. The results showed that 59 patients (15.9%) with oral leukoplakia were infected by Candida. The average age of the patients with candidal leukoplakia was 60.7 years with equal sex ratio. The tongue was the predominant site (66.1%). Epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia were involved in 44.1% and 55.9% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that patient older than 60 years (odd ratio [OR], 2.28; P = .005), lesion located at the tongue (OR, 1.89; P = .038), and presence of dysplasia (OR, 2.02; P = .018) were significant risk factors of candidal infection in oral leukoplakia. Collectively, clinicopathologic features of candidal leukoplakia in eastern China were elucidated. A point to highlight was that we identified a subpopulation that was more liable to candidal infection. Elderly patients with oral tongue leukoplakia with epithelial dysplasia had much higher risk of candidal infection. Antifungal therapy was further recommended to be routine treatment of this subpopulation.

  19. Alpine glacier change in the Eastern Altun mountains of Northwest China during 1972-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Yu

    Full Text Available Accurately mapping and monitoring glacier changes over decades is important for providing information to support sustainable use of water resource in arid regions of northwest China. Since 1970, glaciers in the Eastern Altun Mountains showed remarkable recession. Further study is indispensable to indicate the extent and amplitude of glacial change at basin and individual glacier scale. In this study, spatiotemporal glacier changes referring to the year 1972, 1990, 2000 and 2010 were studied for the Eastern Altun Mountains using Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ images and glacier volume-area scaling. The results demonstrated that the total area and volume of glaciers in EAMs decreased significantly by 10.70±0.57 km² (19.56±10.41% and 0.61±0.03 km³ (23.19±11.40% during 1972-2010, respectively. More than half of the total receding area occurred during 1990-2000, primarily due to higher temperature increasing. However, varied response of individual glaciers indicated that glacier change was also affected by glacier dynamics, which was related to local topography. In addition, five glaciers unrecorded in the glacier inventory of China were reported in this study.

  20. Assessing antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using fossil pollen data: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yao; Jackson, Stephen T [Department of Botany and Program in Ecology, University of Wyoming (United States); Brewer, Simon [Department of Botany, University of Wyoming (United States); Williams, John W, E-mail: yliu11@uwyo.ed [Department of Geography and Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We explored formal approaches to identifying and interpreting the antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using pollen records. Preliminary results of cluster analyses, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, and likelihood estimation of ecosystem analog in a simple Bayesian model allow assessment of modern ecosystem antiquities and past ecosystem turnovers. Approaches discussed in this study thus provide a vehicle for further studies.

  1. Assessment of Input-Output Transformation in Purple Passion Fruit Production in Central-Eastern and North-Rift, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Macharia; Maina Mwangi

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing economic importance of purple passion fruit in Kenya. The primary objective of this study was to assess the input-output transformation process in purple passion fruit production in Central-Eastern and North-Rift Kenya in order to identify avenues for improving and sustaining productivity. Cross-sectional data from 123 multistage sampled farmers was collected using a structured questionnaire, which was subjected to stochastic frontier in STATA 1...

  2. Aeroradiometric and photogeologic characterizations Of the younger granites in the north eastern desert, Egypt and implications for mineral deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Maksoud, M. A. [محمد علي عبدالمقصود; Meguid, Ahmed A. Abdel; Abuzied, Hassan T.; Rakaiby, Magid L.; Bishta, Adel Z.

    1995-01-01

    Photogeologic studies of the younger granites in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt using both aerial photographs and satellite images revealed the separation of three successive phases of younger granites with different photogeological radiometrical and gcologiical characteristics. The first phase plutons (YG1) are charactlerizcd by brown colour, dark tone, fine surface texture, low relief with gentle slopes, elongated ridges, large size (3 km3), and high density -dendritic to parallcd-dra...

  3. The Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous of eastern Heilongjiang, Northeast China: stratigraphy and regional basin history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, J.G.; Matsukawa, M.; Cai, H.W.; Jiang, B.Y.; Ito, M.; He, C.Q.; Gu, Z.W. [Academy of Sinica, Nanjing (China)

    2003-12-01

    In eastern Heilongjiang, the Upper Jurassic is marine and restricted to the Suibin and Dong'an areas, where it is characterized faunally by Callovian-Volgian (Tithonian) bivalves and florally by dinoflagellates. The Lower Cretaceous is widely distributed in eastern Heilongjiang, and characterized faunally by Berriasian-Valanginian bivalves, Barremian-Albian ammonites and Aucellina, and florally by dinoflagellates. To the west, the marine facies grade into non-marine beds. Thus, in the east, for example in the Dong'an and Dajiashan areas, near the northwestern Palaeo-Pacific, the Lower Cretaceous is marine; westward, in the Yunshan, Longzhaogou. Peide, and Zhushan areas, marine and non-marine deposits alternate, whereas further west still, e.g. in the Jixi Basin, non-marine facies are intercalated with marine beds. This regional distribution is indicative of a large, shallow embayment opening eastwards to the Palaeo-Pacific; during the Early Cretaceous successive transgressive-regressive events influenced the climate and biota of eastern Heilongjiang and northeastern China. Many of the Lower Cretaceous sections contain abundant coals, demonstrating that in this region the Early Cretaceous was an important coal-forming period.

  4. The identification of source regions of black carbon at a receptor site off the eastern coast of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingfeng; Hu, Min; Guo, Song; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Weiwei; Peng, Jianfei; Hu, Wei; Wu, Yusheng; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The black carbon (BC) mass concentration and the particle chemical compositions were continually measured at Changdao Island, which is a regional receptor site off the eastern coast of China. This island is in the transport passage of the continental outflow to the Pacific Ocean when the East Asia monsoon prevails in the winter and spring. The campaign period was for March and April 2011, which corresponded to heating and non-heating periods in northern China. The effect of BC emission source regions on BC measured at Changdao Island between the heating and non-heating periods was determined by integrating the total potential source contribution function (TPSCF) model with the new monthly emission inventory in 2010 and the fire counts retrieved from MODIS during the campaign. BC concentrations were determined to be highest for similar times of day for both the heating and non-heating periods: 4.27 μg m-3 at 8:00 AM and 3.06 μg m-3 at 9:00 AM, respectively. The probable source regions for BC were primarily located in Shandong and Jiangsu provinces (and in other neighboring provinces) for both periods. However, the source regions for the non-heating period extended more to the north and southwest than those of the heating period. TPSCF values were correlated with the emission rates from residential, industry, transportation, and power plants sources in the anthropogenic emission inventory. This correlation provides an indirect and qualitative process to verify the emission inventory. In the heating period, the predominant source was the residential source in the emission inventory, and this source had a significant effect on the BC concentration. The differing peak concentrations between the two periods may be observed because of the increased residential heating during the heating period, which suggested that the measures employed by the government and environmental managers to reduce the emissions of pollutants should be stricter in the identified source regions

  5. [Aboveground biomass and nutrient distribution patterns of larch plantation in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yang, Kai; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Larch is the main timber species of forest plantations in North China. Imbalance in nutrient cycling in soil emerged due to single species composition and mono system structure of plantation. Thus it is necessary to grasp its biomass and nutrients allocation for scientific management and nutrient cycling studies of larch plantation. We measured aboveground biomass (stem, branch, bark and leaf) and nutrient concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn), and analyzed the patterns of accumulation and distribution of 19-year-old larch plantation with diameter at breast height of 12. 8 cm, tree height of 15. 3 m, and density of 2308 trees · hm(-2), in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that aboveground biomass values were 70.26 kg and 162.16 t · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. There was a significant difference between biomass of the organs, and decreased in the order of stem > branch > bark > leaf. Nutrient accumulation was 749.94 g and 1730.86 kg · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. Nutrient accumulation of stem was significantly higher than that of branch, bark and leaf, whether it was macro-nutrient or micro-nutrient. Averagely, 749.94 g nutrient elements would be removed from the system when a 19-year-old larch tree was harvested. If only the stem part was removed from the system, the removal of nutrient elements could be reduced by 40.7%.

  6. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the Huojiadi Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin, North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Ping; Deng, Chenglong; Li, Shihu; Zhu, Rixiang

    2010-01-01

    The fluvio-lacustrine sequences in the Nihewan Basin, northern China provide important terrestrial archives of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment as well as an important source of Paleolithic settlements and therefore early human occupation in the eastern Old World. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the

  7. Sources and petrogenesis of the Cenozoic alkali basalts in Hebi, eastern North China Craton: Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic evidence%鹤壁新生代玄武岩源区及成因:地球化学和Sr-Nd-Hf同位素证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱昱升; 侯广顺; 杨进辉

    2012-01-01

    大陆碱性玄武岩是研究大陆地慢、软流圈和岩石圈、壳幔相互作用的窗口.鹤壁碱性玄武岩为华北中部新生代玄武岩重要组成部分,其源区和成因对了解新生代期间华北克拉通中部岩石圈地幔改造提供了重要依据.鹤壁新生代玄武岩主要为碱性玄武岩,贫硅(SiO2 =45.0%~47.8%)富锾(MgO =7.3%~8.5%)和全碱(Na2O+K2O=4.6%~6.3%),富集轻稀土元素,轻、重稀土元素强烈分馏[(La/Yb)N=15.1~21.2],无明显Eu异常.富集大离子亲石元素(LILEs)和高场强元素(HFSEs).在原始地幔标准化蛛网图上,具有明显的Nb、Ta正异常,其中Nb/U=35 ~ 48、La/Nb=0.4~0.7、Ba/Nb=3.6 ~11.全岩的Sr、Nd、Hf同位素比值分别为87Sr/86 Sri=0.7036 ~0.7044,εNd(t)=+0.4~+5.4,εHf(t)=+5.0~+9.7,显示鹤壁新生代玄武岩具有洋岛玄武岩(OIB)的地球化学特征和同位素组成.岩相学特征和地球化学特征表明鹤壁新生代玄武岩是软流圈地幔(> 80km)小程度部分熔融形成的熔体与富集的岩石圈地幔相互作用后的结果,地壳物质混染和结晶分离作用不显著.%Continental alkali basalts are the key to understand the nature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle and the interaction among the crust, lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere. Cenozoic alkali basalts, located in the central North China Craton, are main components of Cenozoic basalt province in the North China Craton. Their source and petrogenesis would provide complement evidence for studying the modification of lithospheric mantle beneath the central North China Craton during Cenozoic. The Hebi basalts are basanites and alkali olivine basalts, belonging to alkaline rocks, with SiO2 contents of 45. 0%~47. 8% , MgO concentrations of 7.3% ~8.5% , and Na2O + K2O abundances of4.6% ~6.3%. They are enriched in light rare earth elements (REEs) with highly fractionated LREEs and HREEs ( (La/Yb)N = 15. 1 ~ 21. 2) . In primitive mantle

  8. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Manipur, one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states of India: a future danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Singh, E. Jayantakumar; Das, Bhaskar; Shah, Babar Ali; Hossain, M. Amir; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ahamed, Sad; Singh, N. Rajmuhon

    2008-11-01

    Manipur State, with a population of 2.29 million, is one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states in India, and is severely affected by groundwater arsenic contamination. Manipur has nine districts out of which four are in Manipur Valley where 59% of the people live on 10% of the land. These four districts are all arsenic contaminated. We analysed water samples from 628 tubewells for arsenic out of an expected total 2,014 tubewells in the Manipur Valley. Analyzed samples, 63.3%, contained >10 μg/l of arsenic, 23.2% between 10 and 50 μg/l, and 40% >50 μg/l. The percentages of contaminated wells above 10 and 50 μg/l are higher than in other arsenic affected states and countries of the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) Plain. Unlike on the GMB plains, in Manipur there is no systematic relation between arsenic concentration and the depth of tubewells. The source of arsenic in GMB Plain is sediments derived from the Himalaya and surrounding mountains. North-Eastern Hill states were formed at late phase of Himalaya orogeny, and so it will be found in the future that groundwater arsenic contamination in the valleys of other North-Eastern Hill states. Arsenic contaminated aquifers in Manipur Valley are mainly located within the Newer Alluvium. In Manipur, the high rainfall and abundant surface water resources can be exploited to avoid repeating the mass arsenic poisoning that has occurred on the GMB plains.

  9. Two new species of Dendrobrachia Brook, 1889 (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Dendrobrachiidae from the north-eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. López-González

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Examination of recent benthic material collected during several cruises in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic and the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean has allowed the taxonomic reassessment of some previously identified specimens belonging to the monogeneric gorgonian family Dendrobrachiidae Brook, 1889. Dendrobrachia fallax Brook, 1889 is the type species of the single genus in this family, and was originally described from Ascension Island (South Atlantic. Subsequently, other authors reported the presence of this species in Cape Verde Islands (north-eastern Atlantic and some Mediterranean localities (Alboran Sea and the Strait of Sicily. The study of the specimen from the Prince of Monaco collections in Cape Verde Islands, and recently collected material from the Gulf of Cadiz (north-eastern Atlantic and in the south of Malta (Mediterranean, materials previously considered as D. fallax, allow us to recognize two undescribed species in this genus. All previous records of D. fallax from the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean should be considered incorrect. Opresko and Bayer (1991 added two additional species of Dendrobrachia. Two new species are described here and compared with their congeners.

  10. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanisms and population structure of Enterobacter cloacae non-susceptible to Ertapenem in North-Eastern France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGuillard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone (FQ agents are a potential resort to treat infection due to Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase and susceptible to FQ. In a context of increase of non-susceptibility to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae, we characterized FQ resistance mechanisms in 75 Enterobacter cloacae isolates non-susceptible to ertapenem in North-Eastern France in 2012 and describe the population structure by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST.Among them, 14.7% (12/75 carried a carbapenemase-encoding gene. Except one isolate producing VIM-1, the carbapenemase-producing isolates carried the well-known IncL/M pOXA48a plasmid. Most of the isolates (59/75 harbored at least a FQ-R determinant. qnr genes were predominant (40%, 30/75. The MLST study revealed that E. cloacae isolates’ clonality was wide (24 different STs. The more widespread STs were ST74, ST101, ST110, ST114 and ST133. Carbapenem MICs were higher for E. cloacae ST74 than for other E. cloacae isolates. PMQR determinants were more often observed in E. cloacae ST74 isolates. These findings showed that (i pOXA-48a is spreading in North-Eastern France, (ii qnr is preponderant in E. cloacae, (iii E. cloacae comprised a large amount of lineages spreading in North-Eastern France and (iv FQ as an alternative to β-lactams to treat ertapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae are compromised.

  11. Simulating aerosol–radiation–cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe haze conditions in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol–radiation–cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe winter haze conditions during January~2013 are simulated using the fully coupled on-line Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem model. Three simulation scenarios including different aerosol configurations are undertaken to distinguish the impact of aerosol radiative (direct and semi-direct and indirect effects on meteorological variables and air quality. Simulated spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 are generally consistent with surface observations, with a mean bias of −18.9 μg m−3 (−15.0% averaged over 71 big cities in China. Comparisons between different scenarios reveal that aerosol radiative effects (direct effect and semi-direct effects result in reductions of downward shortwave flux at the surface, 2 m temperature, 10 m wind speed and planetary boundary layer (PBL height by up to 84.0 W m−2, 3.2 °C, 0.8 m s−1, and 268 m, respectively. The simulated impact of the aerosol indirect effects is comparatively smaller. Through reducing the PBL height and wind speeds, the aerosol effects lead to increases in surface concentrations of primary pollutants (CO and SO2 and PM2.5. The aerosol feedbacks on secondary pollutants such as surface ozone and PM2.5 mass concentrations show some spatial variations. Surface O3 mixing ratio is reduced by up to 6.9 ppb due to reduced incoming solar radiation and lower temperature. Comparisons of model results with observations show that inclusion of aerosol feedbacks in the model significantly improves model's performances in simulating meteorological variables and improves simulations of PM2.5 temporal distributions over the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and Central China. Although the aerosol–radiation–cloud feedbacks on aerosol mass concentrations are subject to uncertainties, this work demonstrates the significance of aerosol

  12. Landslides and fortified settlements as valuable geoheritage sites in the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculita, Mihai; Bucci, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are widespread natural phenomena that shape the earth surface. As such, they are part of the environment where people live, playing an important role as natural hazard, but also making a place peculiar for its specific morphology. Nowadays, like in the past, people living in hilly to mountainous areas have always had to face landslides. In the Eastern Carpathians lowlands, landslides have carved a landscape with inaccessible escarpments tens of meters high, providing old populations with panoramic and naturally defensive places to build their settlements. This interaction produced an association of landslide morphologies and archaeological remains that is unique in Romaina. In this study, we present the case of chalcolitic and thraco-getic (6.5 ka BP to 500 BP) fortified settlements, for which landslides provided a favorable place for their construction on one hand, and acted as a natural hazard on the other hand. In the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania, more than 50 sites were identified on structural plateaus bounded by wide scarps of Pleistocene landslides, on cuesta ridges bounded by scarps of Holocene landslides, or situated on hillslopes, on erosional remnants of landslide bodies. For nine out of the 50 sites, we produced accurate geomorphological landslide inventories, mapping more than 500 landslides starting from high resolution LiDAR DEM derived images. Such inventories provide information on landslide type and relative ages (very old, old, recent landslides) based on the morphological appearance of each slope failure. Analysis of the relations between the sites hosting the fortified settlements, their archaeological remains and very old landslides distribution, provides evidences that landslide scarps and their deposits were used by these populations as defensive sites. In particular, the scarps were used as natural walls, allowing to save material and manpower required to erect walls on the gentle and open parts of the sites. Besides

  13. Dynamical downscaling of regional climate over eastern China using RSM with multiple physics scheme ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peishu, Zong; Jianping, Tang; Shuyu, Wang; Lingyun, Xie; Jianwei, Yu; Yunqian, Zhu; Xiaorui, Niu; Chao, Li

    2017-08-01

    The parameterization of physical processes is one of the critical elements to properly simulate the regional climate over eastern China. It is essential to conduct detailed analyses on the effect of physical parameterization schemes on regional climate simulation, to provide more reliable regional climate change information. In this paper, we evaluate the 25-year (1983-2007) summer monsoon climate characteristics of precipitation and surface air temperature by using the regional spectral model (RSM) with different physical schemes. The ensemble results using the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) method are also assessed. The result shows that the RSM model has the capacity to reproduce the spatial patterns, the variations, and the temporal tendency of surface air temperature and precipitation over eastern China. And it tends to predict better climatology characteristics over the Yangtze River basin and the South China. The impact of different physical schemes on RSM simulations is also investigated. Generally, the CLD3 cloud water prediction scheme tends to produce larger precipitation because of its overestimation of the low-level moisture. The systematic biases derived from the KF2 cumulus scheme are larger than those from the RAS scheme. The scale-selective bias correction (SSBC) method improves the simulation of the temporal and spatial characteristics of surface air temperature and precipitation and advances the circulation simulation capacity. The REA ensemble results show significant improvement in simulating temperature and precipitation distribution, which have much higher correlation coefficient and lower root mean square error. The REA result of selected experiments is better than that of nonselected experiments, indicating the necessity of choosing better ensemble samples for ensemble.

  14. Tectonic evolution of the Dabashan orocline, central China: Insights from the superposed folds in the eastern Dabashan foreland

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    Wei Shi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Dabashan orocline is situated in the northwestern margin of the central Yangtze block, central China. Previous studies have defined the orthogonal superposed folds growing in its central-western segment thereby confirming its two-stage tectonic evolution history. Geological mapping has revealed that more types of superposed folds have developed in the eastern segment of the orocline, which probably provides more clues for probing the structure and tectonic history of the Dabashan orocline. In this paper, based on geological mapping, structural measurements and analyses of deformation, we have identified three groups of folds with different trends (e.g. NW-, NE- and nearly E-trending folds and three types of structural patterns of superposed folds in the eastern Dabashan foreland (e.g. syn-axial, oblique, and conjunctional superposed folds. In combination with geochronological data, we propose that the syn-axial superposed folds are due to two stages of ∼N–S shortening in the west and north of the Shennongjia massif, and that oblique superposed folds have been resulted from the superposition of the NW- and NE-trending folds onto the early ∼E–W folds in the east of the Shennongjia massif in the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous. The conjunctional folds are composed of the NW- and NE-trending folds, corresponding to the regional-scale dual-orocline in the eastern Sichuan as a result of the southwestward expansion of the Dabashan foreland during late Jurassic to early Cretaceous, coeval with the northwestward propagation of the Xuefengshan foreland. Integration of the structure and geochronology of the belt shows that the Dabashan orocline is a combined deformation belt primarily experiencing a two-stage tectonic evolution history in Mesozoic, initiation of the Dabashan orocline as a foreland basin along the front of the Qinling orogen in late Triassic to early Jurassic due to collisional orogeny, and the final formation of the Dabashan

  15. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating for lamprophyre from Liaodong Peninsula: Constraints on the initial time of Mesozoic lithosphere thinning beneath eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yaohui; JIANG Shaoyong; ZHAO Kuidong; NI Pei; LING Hongfei; LIU Dunyi

    2005-01-01

    It is undebated fact that the lithospheric mantle beneath eastern China was considerably thinned during the Mesozoic time. However, it has no adequate evidence for the exact timing when the lithosphere thinning started. The Liaodong Peninsula is located in the eastern segment of the North China Craton and is one of the important domains to explore the event of lithosphere thinning. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating and geochemical study were carried out for the lamprophyre dike swarm that intruded into the magnesite ore-beds in the Dashiqiao Formation of Paleoproterozoic Liaohe Group at the Huaziyu magnesite ore district, Liaodong Peninsula. The results indicate that these lamprophyre dikes were intruded in late Jurassic (155±4 Ma) and show some geochemical characteristics of potassic magmas. It is now accepted that the lithosphere thinning took place in the late Mesozoic, and the peak thinning stage occurred in early Cretaceous (130―120 Ma). Considering the potassic mafic magmatism marking the onset of the lithospheric thinning, we therefore suggest that the studied late Jurassic potassic lamprophyre dike swarm could imply that the late Jurassic is the time that lithosphere thinning started.

  16. Geomorphological map of a coastal stretch of north-eastern Gozo (Maltese archipelago, Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Mauro; Micallef, Anton; Biolchi, Sara; Chelli, Alessandro; Cuoghi, Alessandro; Devoto, Stefano; Gauci, Christopher; Graff, Kevin; Lolli, Federico; Mantovani, Matteo; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Pisani, Luca; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Restall, Brian; Roulland, Thomas; Saliba, Michael; Selmi, Lidia; Vandelli, Vittoria

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphological investigations carried out along the north-eastern coast of the Island of Gozo (Malta) have led to the production of a detailed geomorphological map. Field surveys, accompanied by aerial photo-interpretation, were carried out within the framework of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement Project ``Developing Geomorphological mapping skills and datasets in anticipation of subsequent Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Hazard and Risk Mapping'' (Council of Europe). In particular, this geomorphological map is the main output of a `Training Course on Geomorphological Mapping in Coastal Areas' held within the Project in November 2016. The study area selected was between Ramla Bay and Dacrhlet Qorrot Bay on the Island of Gozo (67 km2), part of the Maltese archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea. From a geological viewpoint, the stratigraphic sequence includes Late Oligocene (Chattian) to Late Miocene (Messinian) sedimentary rocks. The hard limestones of the Upper Coralline Limestone Formation, the youngest lithostratigraphic unit, dominate the study area. Underlying this formation, marls and clays belonging to the Blue Clay Formation extensively outcrop. The oldest lithostratigraphic unit observed in the study area is the Globigerina Limestone Formation, a fine-grained limestone. The lithostructural features of the outcropping units clearly condition the morphography of the landscape. The coast is characterised by the alternation of inlets and promontories. Worthy of notice is the large sandy beach of Ramla Bay partly backed by dunes. From a geomorphological perspective, the investigated coastal stretch is characterised by limestone plateaus bounded by steep structural scarps which are reshaped by gravitational and/or degradation processes, and milder slopes in Blue Clays at their foot comprising of numerous rock block deposits (rdum in Maltese) and active or abandoned terraced fields used for agricultural purposes. Landforms and processes related to

  17. Gamma radiation monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Miranda, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Nitschke, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of gamma radiation is often performed in nuclear facilities and industrial environments as a way to control the ambient radioactivity and give warning of potential accidents. However, gamma radiation is also ubiquitous in the natural environment. The main sources are i) cosmic radiation from space, including secondary radiation from the interaction with atoms in the atmosphere, ii) terrestrial sources from mineral grains in soils and rocks, particularly Potassium (K-40), Uranium (U-238) and Thorium (Th-232) and their decay products (e.g. Radium, Ra-226) , and iii) airborne Radon gas (Rn-222), which is the dominant source of natural environmental radioactivity. The temporal variability of this natural radiation background needs to be well understood and quantified in order to discriminate non-natural sources of radiation in the environment and artificial radionuclides contamination. To this end, continuous gamma radiation monitoring is being performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The site is unique for the study of the natural radioactivity background on one hand due to the remote oceanic geographical location, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean and clear of direct continental influence, and on the other hand because of the comprehensive dataset of atmospheric parameters that is available for enhancing the interpretation of the radiation measurements, as a result of the vast array of very detailed and high-quality atmospheric measurements performed at the ARM-ENA facility. Gamma radiation in the range 475 KeV to 3000 KeV is measured continuously with a 3" x 3" NaI(Tl) scintillator. The campaign started started in May 2015, with gamma

  18. Study of Distinctive Regional Features of Surface Solar Radiation in North and East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关福来; 郑有飞; 蔡子颖; 于长文; 张楠

    2011-01-01

    Solar radiation is an important energy source for plants on the earth and also a major component of the global energy balance.Variations in solar radiation incident at the earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment,including the climate change.To provide useful information for predicting the future climate change in China,distinctive regional features in spatial and temporal variations of the surface solar radiation (SSR) and corresponding attributions (such as cloud and aerosol) are analyzed based on SSR observations and other meteorological measurements in North and East China from 1961 to 2007.Multiple models,such as the plane-parallel radiative transfer model,empirical and statistical models,and corrclation and regrcssion analysis methods are used in the study.The results are given as follows.(1) During 1961-2007,the total SSR in North China went through a process from quickly “dimming” to slowly “dimming”,while in East China,a significant transition from “dimming” to “brightening” occurred.Although there are some differences between thc two regional variation trends,long-term variations in SSR in the two regions are basically consistent with the observation worldwide.(2) Between the 1960s and 1980s,in both North and East China,aerosols played a critical rolc in the radiation dimming.However,after 1989,different variation trends of SSR occurred in North and East China,indicating that aerosols were not the dominant factor.(3) Cloud cover contributed less to the variation of SSR in North China,but was thc major attribution in East China and played a promoting role in the reversal of SSR from dimming to brightening,especially in the “remarkable brightening” period,with its contribution as high as 70%.

  19. An analysis of extreme intraseasonal rainfall events during January-March 2010 over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Suxiang; Huang, Qian

    2016-09-01

    The precipitation over eastern China during January-March 2010 exhibited a marked intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) and a dominant period of 10-60 days. There were two active intraseasonal rainfall periods. The physical mechanisms responsible for the onset of the two rainfall events were investigated using ERA-interim data. In the first ISO event, anomalous ascending motion was triggered by vertically integrated (1000-300 hPa) warm temperature advection. In addition to southerly anomalies on the intraseasonal (10-60-day) timescale, synoptic-scale southeasterly winds helped advect warm air from the South China Sea and western Pacific into the rainfall region. In the second ISO event, anomalous convection was triggered by a convectively unstable stratification, which was caused primarily by anomalous moisture advection in the lower troposphere (1000-850 hPa) from the Bay of Bengal and the Indo-China Peninsula. Both the intraseasonal and the synoptic winds contributed to the anomalous moisture advection. Therefore, the winter intraseasonal rainfall events over East Asia in winter could be affected not only by intraseasonal activities but also by higher frequency disturbances.

  20. Atmospheric Electric Field measurements at Eastern North Atlantic ARM Climate Research Facility: Global Electric Circuit Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Francisco; Silva, Hugo; Nitschke, Kim; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility of the ARM programme (established an supported by the U.S. Department of Energy with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores), is located at Graciosa Island of the Azores Archipelago (39° N; 28° W). It constitutes a strategic observatory for Atmospheric Electricity since it is located in the Atlantic Ocean basin exposed to clean marine aerosol conditions which reduces the well known spectral signature of atmospheric pollution and enables the study of the so called Global Electrical Circuit (GEC). First evidences of the existence of a GEC affecting the Earth's Electric Environment has retrieved by the Carnegie cruise expedition, in what became known as the Carnegie Curve. Those measurements were made in the Ocean in several campaigns and the present studies aims at reconsidering measurements in similar conditions but in a long-term basis, at least 5 years. This will contribute to the understanding of the long-term evolution of the Ionospheric Potential (IP). In literature there is theoretical evidence that it is decreasing IP in strength, but that conjecture is still lacking valid experimental evidence. Moreover, to clearly identify the GEC signal two effects must be taken into account: the effect of surface radon gas variation, because the Azores Archipelago is a seismic active region the possible influence of Earthquakes cannot be discarded easily; the effect of short-term solar activity on the Atmospheric Electricity modulation, solar flares emitting solar particles (e.g., solar energetic protons) need to be considered in this study.

  1. Potential fossil endoliths in vesicular pillow basalt, Coral Patch Seamount, eastern North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Westall, Frances; Cady, Sherry L; Barbieri, Roberto; Foucher, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    The chilled rinds of pillow basalt from the Ampère-Coral Patch Seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic were studied as a potential habitat of microbial life. A variety of putative biogenic structures, which include filamentous and spherical microfossil-like structures, were detected in K-phillipsite-filled amygdules within the chilled rinds. The filamentous structures (∼2.5 μm in diameter) occur as K-phillipsite tubules surrounded by an Fe-oxyhydroxide (lepidocrocite) rich membranous structure, whereas the spherical structures (from 4 to 2 μm in diameter) are associated with Ti oxide (anatase) and carbonaceous matter. Several lines of evidence indicate that the microfossil-like structures in the pillow basalt are the fossilized remains of microorganisms. Possible biosignatures include the carbonaceous nature of the spherical structures, their size distributions and morphology, the presence and distribution of native fluorescence, mineralogical and chemical composition, and environmental context. When taken together, the suite of possible biosignatures supports the hypothesis that the fossil-like structures are of biological origin. The vesicular microhabitat of the rock matrix is likely to have hosted a cryptoendolithic microbial community. This study documents a variety of evidence for past microbial life in a hitherto poorly investigated and underestimated microenvironment, as represented by the amygdules in the chilled pillow basalt rinds. This kind of endolithic volcanic habitat would have been common on the early rocky planets in our Solar System, such as Earth and Mars. This study provides a framework for evaluating traces of past life in vesicular pillow basalts, regardless of whether they occur on early Earth or Mars.

  2. Ecology of rare water plant communities in lakes of north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jabłońska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Habitat studies were conducted on three rare plant communities dominated by Nuphar pumila, Nymphaea candida and Hydrilla verticillata in lakes of north-eastern Poland. The comparison of habitat properties of these three types of phytocoenoses with those of Nuphar lutea common in the area under study was also performed. It was demonstrated that the plant communities studied were ecologically distinct. The habitats of the phytocoenoses of N. pumila differed most significantly from those of the other phytocoenoses. They often inhabited softer waters poor in Mg2+, dissolved SiO2, but rich in total Fe, PO43−, NO3−, and were associated with acidic substrates containing lower levels of Ca2+ and Na+, but greater amounts of total Fe and NO3−. The differences in the habitats of H. verticillata and N. candida phytocoenoses were most pronounced in the case of four properties of water: Na+, K+, Cl−, and Mg+. Their values were lower in waters of the H. verticillata phytocoenoses. The habitats of all the three types of rare phytocoenoses differed considerably from those of N. lutea. The most significant differences were found between the N. lutea and N. pumila phytocoenoses and the smallest differences were between the patches of N. lutea and N. candida. The properties of water were more important in differentiating the habitats of the phytocoenoses studied than the substrate properties. Due to alkalization and increase in water hardness in the lakes studied the stands of N. pumila are among the most threatened. The patches of N. candida and H. verticillata, which occur in waters with a wider range of hardness and tolerating a slight increase in trophy, can still continue to persist in the lakes for a long time.

  3. Use of the Aquacrop model for the simulation of wheat evapotranspiration in north-eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, A.; Masmoudi, M.; Jacob, F.; Ben Mechlia, N.

    2012-04-01

    Improvement of rainfed cropping systems is based on the use of rainfall water for crop transpiration. This could be achieved by the appropriate partitioning of rainfall between green water and blue water. Under semiarid conditions, the AquaCrop model which has a driving engine based on the direct link between dry matter production and crop evapotranspiration, seems to be a powerful tool to perform this task. For this purposes, an experimental work was conducted on the wheat crop, grown under various farming conditions, to determine how simulation modeling could be used to monitor canopy changes and actual crop evapotranspiration. The study area -CapBon- is located in north eastern Tunisia where rainfall is about 500 mm and ET0 around 1200mm Field monitoring consisted in regular measurements of the leaf area index (LAI), vegetation cover changes (CC) and soil moisture content profiles over the cropping season December 2009-April 2010. The usefulness of using hemispherical and standard images to determine LAI and CC was also investigated for their adoption as a standard methods for the assessment of these important parameter as input data. Results show that good estimates of LAI and CC could be obtained from digital images. Fairly reliable linear relationships were obtained between measurements on samples using a leaf area meter and indirect assessments (r2 = 0.78) Aqua-Crop simulations where also mostly accurate in estimating soil moisture temporal variations and soil water content of well textured soils. However for soils with high clay content, important differences were observed between simulation outputs and direct gravimetric measurements.

  4. Upper Mantle Discontinuity Structure Beneath the Western Atlantic Ocean and Eastern North America from SS Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerr, N. C.; Beghein, C.; Kostic, D.; Baldridge, A. M.; West, J. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Bull, A. L.; Montesi, L.; Byrne, P. K.; Hummer, D. R.; Plescia, J. B.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Lekic, V.; Schmidt, B. E.; Elkins, L. J.; Cooper, C. M.; ten Kate, I. L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Parai, R.; Glass, J. B.; Ni, J.; Fuji, N.; McCubbin, F. M.; Michalski, J. R.; Zhao, C.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Koelemeijer, P.; Courtier, A. M.; Dalton, H.; Waszek, L.; Bahamonde, J.; Schmerr, B.; Gilpin, N.; Rosenshein, E.; Mach, K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Caracas, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Moore-Driskell, M. M.; Du Frane, W. L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic discontinuities within the mantle arise from a wide range of mechanisms, including changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. In particular, the depth and sharpness of upper mantle discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth are attributed to solid-state phase changes sensitive to both mantle temperature and composition, where regions of thermal heterogeneity produce topography and chemical heterogeneity changes the impedance contrast across the discontinuity. Seismic mapping of this topography and sharpness thus provides constraint on the thermal and compositional state of the mantle. The EarthScope USArray is providing unprecedented access to a wide variety of new regions previously undersampled by the SS precursors. This includes the boundary between the oceanic plate in the western Atlantic Ocean and continental margin of eastern North America. Here we use a seismic array approach to image the depth, sharpness, and topography of the upper mantle discontinuities, as well as other possible upper mantle reflectors beneath this region. This array approach utilizes seismic waves that reflect off the underside of a mantle discontinuity and arrive several hundred seconds prior to the SS seismic phase as precursory energy. In this study, we collected high-quality broadband data SS precursors data from shallow focus (ocean lithosphere to underlying continental lithosphere, as while deeper reflectors are associated with the subduction of the ancient Farallon slab. A comparison of the depth of upper mantle discontinuities to changes in seismic velocity and anisotropy will further quantify the relationship to mantle flow, compositional layering, and phases changes.

  5. Authigenic gypsum found in gas hydrate-associated sediments from Hydrate Ridge, the eastern North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jiasheng; Erwin; Suess; Dirk; Rickert

    2004-01-01

    Characteristic gypsum micro-sphere and granular mass were discovered by binocular microscope in the gas hydrate-associated sediments at cores SO143-221 and SO143/TVG40-2A respectively on Hydrate Ridge of Cascadia margin, the eastern North Pacific. XRD patterns and EPA analyses show both micro-sphere and granular mass of the crystals have the typical peaks and the typical main chemical compositions of gypsum, although their weight percents are slightly less than the others in the non-gas hydrate-associated marine regions. SEM pictures show that the gypsum crystals have clear crystal boundaries, planes, edges and cleavages of gypsum in form either of single crystal or of twin crystals. In view of the fact that there are meanwhile gas hydrate-associated authigenic carbonates and SO42(-rich pore water in the same sediment cores, it could be inferred reasonably that the gypsums formed also authigenically in the gas hydrate-associated environment too, most probably at the interface between the downward advecting sulfate-rich seawater and the below gas hydrate, which spilled calcium during its formation on Hydrate Ridge. The two distinct forms of crystal intergrowth, which are the granular mass of series single gypsum crystals at core SO143/TVG40-2A and the microsphere of gypsum crystals accompanied with detrital components at core SO143-221 respectively, indicate that they precipitated most likely in different interstitial water dynamic environments. So, the distinct authigenic gypsums found in gas hydrate-associated sediments on Hydrate Ridge could also be believed as one of the parameters which could be used to indicate the presence of gas hydrate in an unknown marine sediment cores.

  6. Biochemical basis of permethrin resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Lower Moshi, north-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxborough Richard M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of resistance to different classes of insecticides is a potential threat to malaria control. With the increasing coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in Tanzania, the continued monitoring of resistance in vector populations is crucial. It may facilitate the development of novel strategies to prevent or minimize the spread of resistance. In this study, metabolic-based mechanisms conferring permethrin (pyrethroid resistance were investigated in Anopheles arabiensis of Lower Moshi, Kilimanjaro region of north-eastern Tanzania. Methods WHO susceptibility test kits were used to detect resistance to permethrin in An. arabiensis. The levels and mechanisms of permethrin resistance were determined using CDC bottle bioassays and microplate (biochemical assays. In bottle bioassays, piperonyl butoxide (PBO and s,s,s-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF were used as synergists to inhibit mixed function oxidases and non-specific esterases respectively. Biochemical assays were carried out in individual mosquitoes to detect any increase in the activity of enzymes typically involved in insecticide metabolism (mixed function oxidases, α- and β-esterases. Results Anopheles arabiensis from the study area was found to be partially resistant to permethrin, giving only 87% mortality in WHO test kits. Resistance ratios at KT50 and KT95 were 4.0 and 4.3 respectively. The permethrin resistance was partially synergized by DEF and by PBO when these were mixed with permethrin in bottle bioassays and was fully synergized when DEF and PBO were used together. The levels of oxidase and β-esterase activity were significantly higher in An. arabiensis from Lower Moshi than in the laboratory susceptible strain. There was no difference in α-esterase activity between the two strains. Conclusion Elevated levels of mixed function oxidases and β-esterases play a role in detoxification of permethrin in the resistant An. arabiensis population

  7. Cetacean range and climate in the eastern North Atlantic: future predictions and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Emily; Pierce, Graham J; Hall, Karen; Brereton, Tom; Dunn, Timothy E; Wall, Dave; Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; MacLeod, Colin D

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that the distributions of a large number of species are shifting with global climate change as they track changing surface temperatures that define their thermal niche. Modelling efforts to predict species distributions under future climates have increased with concern about the overall impact of these distribution shifts on species ecology, and especially where barriers to dispersal exist. Here we apply a bio-climatic envelope modelling technique to investigate the impacts of climate change on the geographic range of ten cetacean species in the eastern North Atlantic and to assess how such modelling can be used to inform conservation and management. The modelling process integrates elements of a species' habitat and thermal niche, and employs "hindcasting" of historical distribution changes in order to verify the accuracy of the modelled relationship between temperature and species range. If this ability is not verified, there is a risk that inappropriate or inaccurate models will be used to make future predictions of species distributions. Of the ten species investigated, we found that while the models for nine could successfully explain current spatial distribution, only four had a good ability to predict distribution changes over time in response to changes in water temperature. Applied to future climate scenarios, the four species-specific models with good predictive abilities indicated range expansion in one species and range contraction in three others, including the potential loss of up to 80% of suitable white-beaked dolphin habitat. Model predictions allow identification of affected areas and the likely time-scales over which impacts will occur. Thus, this work provides important information on both our ability to predict how individual species will respond to future climate change and the applicability of predictive distribution models as a tool to help construct viable conservation and management strategies.

  8. Determining water balance components at a lysimeter site in north-eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Kammerer, Gerhard; Cepuder, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The water balance of a certain soil profile in a certain time interval is subjected to changes of soil water content within the respective profile, and fluxes at its upper and lower boundary such as evapotranspiration and percolation, respectively. Weighing lysimeters are valuable instruments for water balance studies. Typically, mass changes - thus, changes of soil profile water content - are detected by a weighing system, while percolating water is measured by a tipping bucket or a weighed storage tank, and precipitation is measured by a rain gauge. Consequently, evapotranspiration can be determined by solving a simple water balance equation. However, a typical problem is that using separately measured precipitation data may cause implausible (negative) evapotranspiration. As a solution, the quantities can be determined directly from lysimeter mass changes, which are assumed to be positive due to precipitation and negative due to evapotranspiration. This method requires short measuring intervals and precise data. In this regard, data management of primarily older lysimeter facilities may be improved to fulfil these criteria. At an experimental site in north-eastern Austria hourly water balance components were determined using a reference lysimeter that was installed 1983 and equipped with lever-arm-counterbalance weighing system. A disadvantage of such systems is their sensitivity to external disturbances, mainly forces exerted by wind, which can significantly decrease measuring accuracy. Hence, we firstly studied the mechanical performance of the system regarding wind effects and oscillation behavior, and tested averaging procedures on noisy raw data to enhance measurement accuracy. The measurement accuracy for a wind velocity dew formation was measured, though its total amount was small. Evapotranspiration calculated on daily and hourly base according to ASCE standards indicated good correlation with measured data, but measured values were considerably smaller

  9. Freshwater fish's spatial patterns in isolated water springs in North-eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Núñez, Jorge; Verdú, José R; Numa, Catherine; Jiménez-García, Daniel; Olmos Oropeza, Genaro; Galante, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    The Media Luna lake-spring was selected as representative of all thermal or no thermal springs in the zone of Valley of Rioverde, a semi-arid vegetation in the North-eastern of Mexico. This system is inhabited by 11 fish species, of which six are native. Four of the native species are endemic to the region and threatened due to touristic pressure and to the introduction of exotic species. The objectives were to determine the characteristics that influence the spatial distribution of the fish species, to analyze their spatial distribution patterns, and to describe the relationships between the different species. The general aim was to establish some basis for the conservation of these fish communities and their habitat. Several sessions were initiated in 1992 through direct observation. Later, between 1998 and 1999 five systematically seasonal sampling sessions were conducted (54 subaquatic transects/session). Finally, the data was updated by sampling in summer 2002 and winter 2006. Through the analysis was performed only for endemics of the region, like Ataeniobius toweri Meek, Cualac tessellatus Miller, Cichlasoma bartoni Bean and C. labridens Pellegrin, in at least one life stage, showed correlation with habitat variables or with other species. For these species, patterns of spatial aggregation and association with other species were observed. These results show a certain degree of specialization of endemic species to some microhabitat characteristics, as well as a significant interaction with other native species which they coexist. In addition, some significant relations between endemic and alien species suggest an antagonist relation. Management actions focused in the touristic use of the spring represent the main threat for these species, followed by an adequate management of exotic species. This study provides basis for future responsible management of these wetlands, where tourism and conservation can be combined.

  10. Modeling four occurred debris flow events in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreggio, Mauro; Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Bernard, Martino

    2016-04-01

    Four occurred debris flows in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps) are modeled by back-analysis. The four debris flows events are those occurred at Rio Lazer (Trento) on the 4th of November 1966, at Fiames (Belluno) on the 5th of July 2006, at Rovina di Cancia (Belluno) on the 18th of July 2009 and at Rio Val Molinara (Trento) on the 15th of August 2010. In all the events, runoff entrained sediments present on natural channels and formed a solid-liquid wave that routed downstream. The first event concerns the routing of debris flow on an inhabited fan. The second event the deviation of debris flow from the usual path due to an obstruction with the excavation of a channel in the scree and the downstream spreading in a wood. The third event concerns the routing of debris flow in a channel with an ending the reservoir, its overtopping and final spreading in the inhabited area. The fourth event concerns the routing of debris flow along the main channel downstream the initiation area until spreading just upstream a village. All the four occurred debris flows are simulated by modeling runoff that entrained debris flow for determining the solid-liquid hydrograph. The routing of the solid-liquid hydrograph is simulated by a bi-phase cell model based on the kinematic approach. The comparison between simulated and measured erosion and deposition depths is satisfactory. Nearly the same parameters for computing erosion and deposition were used for all the four occurred events. The maps of erosion and deposition depths are obtained by comparing the results of post-event surveys with the pre-event DEM. The post-event surveys were conducted by using different instruments (LiDAR and GPS) or the combination photos-single points depth measurements (in this last case it is possible obtaining the deposition/erosion depths by means of stereoscopy techniques).

  11. Biogeochemistry of Recently Discovered Oxygen-Depleted Mesoscale Eddies in the Open Eastern Tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, B.; Grundle, D.; Löscher, C. R.; Schütte, F.; Hauss, H.; Karstensen, J.; Silva, P.; Koertzinger, A.

    2016-02-01

    Severely oxygen-depleted mesoscale features in the open eastern tropical North Atlantic, which are formed in the Mauritanian upwelling region, were discovered only recently. So far, few remote surveys conducted with autonomous platforms such as moorings, underwater gliders and profiling floats have provided a very first insight into these mesoscale eddies. Due to their hydrographic properties such water bodies are well isolated from ambient waters and therefore can develop severe near-surface oxygen deficits. In this presentation we show results from the first-ever biogeochemical survey of one of these anticyclonic mode-water eddies conducted in spring 2014 at the Cape Verde Ocean Observatory (CVOO) off West Africa. Very low oxygen concentrations of 4.5 µmol kg-1 associated with a CO2 partial pressure of 1164 µatm were found close to the core of the eddy (at 100 m depth). Measurements for nitrate and phosphate also show exceptional high values. Findings point to rapid oxygen consumption through remineralization of organic matter along with depressed lateral mixing of this water body. Indeed, rates for oxygen utilization (OUR) were found to be enhanced when compared to known values in the Atlantic. A closer look into the carbonate system inside the eddýs core revealed disadvantageous conditions for calcifying organisms with the pH dropping down to 7.6 and the Aragonite saturation level reaching 1 at the lower boundary of the euphotic zone. Finally, strong indications for a shift in nitrogen cycling in the core of the eddy from nitrification towards denitrification were found based on gene abundance and N2O-isotope analyses. To our knowledge such severe hypoxic and even suboxic near-surface conditions along with active denitrification have never been reported before in the open Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Epidemiological characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease in North-Eastern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alicja Wiercinska-Drapalo; Jerzy Jaroszewicz; Robert Flisiak; Danuta Prokopowicz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To provide the clinical and epidemiological data of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients of NorthEastern Poland.METHODS: A total of 248 IBD patients diagnosed and hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases in Bialystok between 1990 and 2003 were included in the study. We analyzed age, sex, education, characteristics of job, type of the environment, discontinuation of employment due to IBD, colitis extent, need of surgical treatment, and coexistence of other diseases.RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-three IBD patients (94%) were diagnosed as ulcerative colitis (UC), and only 15 (6%) were diagnosed as Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with CD were significantly younger at the time of diagnosis and male predominance was observed. The mean age of the patients at the time UC diagnosis was 44.9±1.1 years. Histogram of the age of patients showed the characteristic biphasic distribution with two peaks between 20 and 40 years and between 60 and 70 years. The predominant form of UC was left sided colitis, which affected almost 80% of the studied population. The most extensive form - pancolitis was present in 34 patients (15%). Only 6% of UC patients required surgery, whereas 36% of CD patients underwent surgery (P<0.005). Among coexisting disorders, cholelithiasis was the most prevalent and demonstrated in 35 patients (14%), pulmonary disorders were diagnosed in 2%, and psoriasis in 1.4%.Since 1998, the number of admitted IBD patients has slightly increased.CONCLUSION: Occurrence of UC in Poland is much higher than that of CD. The majority of UC cases are diagnosed in young people (20-40 years) with the predominance of male patients. The most common clinical form of UC is left sided colitis.

  13. Spatial Profile of Poverty.Case Study:The North-Eastern Development Region in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SCHVAB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the authors try to em-phasize the interdependent relations that are established between space and poverty, as well as the modalities through which poverty policies can be optimized and implemented at the territo-rial systems level in accordance to the polycen-tric development model.The f rst goal of the study is to understand the way in which the complexity of the territory, in its structure and relations, inf uences in un-equal ways the territorial pattern of poverty and development. The concept of territorial poverty that we use in the present study transcends the usual connotation of poverty as a simple lack of different kind of resources towards the incapacity of the system to offer a wide range of impulses and solutions to the encountered problems and thus induce a state of underdevelopment.The second goal is to understand in which ways the polycentric development theory can play a role in reducing poverty. In this sense the authors created a poverty index, and based on this index a polycentric development model was created for the North-Eastern region. This poly-centric development model has direct implica-tions for policy makers, as it highlights the areas that require the most attention and the develop-ment pole that should inf uence its development. By taking into consideration the results of this study, the next logical step for policy makers is to implement the necessary measures by consider-ing the relations between the development pole and the underdeveloped area that is under its in-f uence area. In this respect tailor-f t policies and measures can be applied in the effort to reduce poverty levels.

  14. Assessing Disaster Preparedness among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Foreman Britt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, and fires often involve substantial physical and mental impacts on affected populations and thus are public health priorities. Limited research shows that vulnerable populations such as the low-income, socially isolated migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW are particularly susceptible to the effects of natural disasters. This research project assessed the awareness, perceived risk, and practices regarding disaster preparedness and response resources and identified barriers to utilization of community and government services during or after a natural disaster among Latino MSFWs’ and their families. Qualitative (N = 21 focus groups (3 and quantitative (N = 57 survey methodology was implemented with Latino MSFWs temporarily residing in rural eastern North Carolina to assess perceived and actual risk for natural disasters. Hurricanes were a top concern among the sample population, many participants shared they lacked proper resources for an emergency (no emergency kit in the house, no evacuation plan, no home internet, a lack of knowledge of what should be included in an emergency kit, etc.. Transportation and language were found to be additional barriers. Emergency broadcasts in Spanish and text message alerts were identified by the population to be helpful for disaster alerts. FEMA, American Red Cross, local schools and the migrant clinic were trusted places for assistance and information. In summary, tailored materials, emergency alerts, text messages, and news coverage concerning disaster threats should be provided in the population’s native language and when feasible delivered in a culturally appropriate mechanism such as “charlas” (talks and brochures.

  15. Seasonal heterogeneity in aerosol types over Dibrugarh-North-Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Gogoi, Mukunda; Bhuyan, Kalyan

    2012-02-01

    Columnar aerosol properties retrieved from Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR) measurements during the period 2001-2010 over Dibrugarh (27.3°N, 94.6°E, 111 m amsl), North-Eastern India are analyzed to identify the types of aerosols in the atmospheric column. Highest Aerosol optical depth (AOD) characterizes the pre-monsoon (March-May), while lowest AOD has been observed during the post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) season. The Ångström exponent (α) indicates predominance of fine aerosols during post-monsoon and winter (Dec-Feb) and dominance of coarse mode in pre-monsoon and monsoon (June-Sept). NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis suggests that the seasonal heterogeneity in aerosol characteristics can be attributed to the varying contribution from different source regions. Using the relationship between AOD 500 and α, the aerosols can be classified into five main types viz. continental average (CA), marine continental average (MCA), urban/industrial and biomass burning (UB) and desert dust (DD) while the remaining cases are considered as unidentified or mixed type (MT). These aerosol types exhibit seasonal heterogeneity in their contribution depending upon variability in sources. In winter, local production contributes to observed appreciable CA aerosol type, while highest percentage of UB type is attributed to both local and transported aerosols. On the other hand, transported UB and DD types play a significant role in the pre-monsoon season. Post-monsoon season is indicative of background continental average aerosol condition with a significant contribution from CA and MCA aerosols. Monsoon aerosols couldn't be distinguished properly due to different particle growth processes like humidification, hygroscopic growth etc. and hence MT aerosol type is predominant in this season. This is the first ever attempt to classify aerosols over this environment.

  16. Initial formation of an indigenous crop complex in eastern North America at 3800 B.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D; Yarnell, Richard A

    2009-04-21

    Although geneticists and archaeologists continue to make progress world-wide in documenting the time and place of the initial domestication of a growing number of plants and animals, far less is known regarding the critically important context of coalescence of various species into distinctive sets or complexes of domesticates in each of the world's 10 or more independent centers of agricultural origin. In this article, the initial emergence of a crop complex is described for one of the best-documented of these independent centers, eastern North America (ENA). Before 4000 B.P. there is no indication of a crop complex in ENA, only isolated evidence for single indigenous domesticate species. By 3800 B.P., however, at least 5 domesticated seed-bearing plants formed a coherent complex in the river valley corridors of ENA. Accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates and reanalysis of archaeobotanical assemblages from a short occupation of the Riverton Site in Illinois documents the contemporary cultivation at 3800 B.P. of domesticated bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), marshelder (Iva annua var. macrocarpa), sunflower (Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus), and 2 cultivated varieties of chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), as well as the possible cultivation of Cucurbita pepo squash and little barley (Hordeum pusillum). Rather than marking either an abrupt developmental break or a necessary response to population-packing or compressed resource catchments, the coalescence of an initial crop complex in ENA appears to reflect an integrated expansion and enhancement of preexisting hunting and gathering economies that took place within a context of stable long-term adaptation to resource-rich river valley settings.

  17. Understanding on Soil Inorganic Carbon Transformation in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guitong; Yang, Lifang; Zhang, Chenglei; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    Soil total carbon balance in long-term fertilization field experiments in North China Plain. Four long-term fertilization experiments (20-30 years) were investigated on SOC in 40 cm, calcium carbonate and active carbonate (AC) in 180 or 100 cm soil profile, δ13C values of SOC and δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate in soil profile, particle distribution of SOC and SIC in main soil layers, and ratios of pedogenic carbonate (PC) in SIC and C3-SOC in SOC. The most important conclusion is that fertilization of more than 20 years can produce detectable impact on pool size, profile distribution, ratio of active component and PC of SIC, which make it clear that SIC pool must be considered in the proper evaluation of the response of soil carbon balance to human activities in arid and semi-arid region. Land use impact on soil total carbon pool in Inner Mongolia. With the data of the second survey of soils in Inner Mongolia and the 58 soil profile data from Wu-lan-cha-bu-meng and Xi-lin-hao-te, combining with the 13C and 18O techniques, SIC density and stock in Inner Mongolia is estimated. The main conclusion is that soils in inner Mongolia have the same level of SOC and SIC, with the density in 100cm pedons of 8.97 kg•m-2 and 8.61 kg•m-2, respectively. Meanwhile, the significantly positive relationship between SOC and SIC in A layer indicates co-sequestration of SOC and SIC exist. Evaluation of the methods for measuring CA enzyme activity in soil. In laboratory, method in literature to measure CA activity in soil sample was repeated, and found it was not valid indeed. The failure could not attribute to the disturbance of common ions like NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, and Mg2+. The adsorption of CA to soil material was testified as the main reason for that failure. A series of extractants were tested but no one can extract the adsorbed CA and be used in measuring CA activity in soil sample. Carbonate transformation in field with straw returned and biochar added. In 2009, a field

  18. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    the Paleo-Asian Ocean the Jiamusi Block underwent a very rapid exhumation in the late Permian. In the early Mesozoic the area went into a basin developing stage and formed a large basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous the Jiamusi Block started uplifting and the basin was broken into isolate small basins. References: Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Heilongjiang Province. Regional geology of Heilongjiang Province. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993.578-581. Cao Chengrun, Zheng Qingdao. Structural evolution feature and its significance of hydrocarbon exploration in relict basin formation, Eastern Heilongjiang province. Journal of Jilin university (Earth Science Edition), 2003, 33(2):167-172. Lang Xiansheng. Biologic Assemblage features of Coal-bearing Strata in Shuangyashan-Jixian coal-field. Coal geology of China, 2002, 14(2):7-12. Piao Taiyuan , Cai Huawei , Jiang Baoyu. On the Cretaceous coal-bearing Strata in Eastern Heilongjiang. Journal Of Stratigraphy, 2005, 29:489-496. Wang Jie , He Zhonghua , Liu Zhaojun , Du Jiangfeng , Wang Weitao. Geochemical characteristics of Cretaceous detrital rocks and their constraint on provenance in Jixi Basin. Global Geology,2006, 25(4):341-348. DickinsonW R and Christopher A. Suczek. Plate Tectonics and Sandstone Composition. AAPG B. 1979,63(12 ):2164-2182. DickinsonW R, Beard L S, Brakenridge G R, et al. Provenance of North American Phanerozoic sandstones in relation to tectonic setting. Bull Geo-Soc Amer, 1983, 94: 222-235. Maruyama S, Seno T. Orogeny and relative plate motions: Example of the Japanese Islands. Tectonophysics, 1986,127(3-4):305-329. Maruyama S, Isozaki Y, Kimura Gand Terabayashi M C.Paleogeographic maps of the Japanese Islands: plate tectonic systhesis from 750 Ma to the present. Island Arc, 1997,6:121-142.

  19. Drought assessment using a multivariate drought index in the Huaihe River basin of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zeng, M.; Wang, H.; Li, P.; Wang, K.; Yu, M.

    2015-06-01

    The Huaihe River Basin having China's highest population density (662 persons per km2) lies in a transition zone between the climates of North and South China, and is thus prone to drought. Therefore, the paper aims to develop an appropriate drought assessment approach for drought assessment in the Huaihe River basin, China. Based on the Principal Component Analysis of precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff, the three latter variables of which were obtained by use of the Xin'anjiang model, a new multivariate drought index (MDI) was formulated, and its thresholds were determined by use of cumulative distribution function. The MDI, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) time series on a monthly scale were computed and compared during 1988, 1999/2000 and 2001 drought events. The results show that the MDI exhibited certain advantages over the sc-PDSI and the SPI in monitoring drought evolution. The MDI formulated by this paper could provide a scientific basis for drought mitigation and management, and references for drought assessment elsewhere in China.

  20. Research on water shortage risks and countermeasures in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuxiang; Fang, Wenxuan; Wu, Ziqin

    2017-05-01

    In the paper, a grey forecasting model and a population growth model are established for forecasting water resources supply and demand situation in the region, and evaluating the scarcity of water resources thereof in order to solve the problem of water shortage in North China. A concrete plan for alleviating water resources pressure is proposed with AHP as basis, thereby discussing the feasibility of the plan. Firstly, water resources supply and demand in the future 15 years are predicted. There are four sources for the demand of water resources mainly: industry, agriculture, ecology and resident living. Main supply sources include surface water and underground water resources. A grey forecasting method is adopted for predicting in the paper aiming at water resources demands since industrial, agricultural and ecological water consumption data have excessive decision factors and the correlation is relatively fuzzy. Since residents' water consumption is determined by per capita water consumption and local population, a logistic growth model is adopted to forecast the population. The grey forecasting method is used for predicting per capita water consumption, and total water demand can be obtained finally. International calculation standards are adopted as reference aiming at water supply. The grey forecasting method is adopted for forecasting surface water quantity and underground water quantity, and water resources supply is obtained finally. Per capita water availability in the region is calculated by comparing the water resources supply and demand. Results show that per capita water availability in the region is only 283 cubic meters this year, people live in serious water shortage region, who will suffer from water shortage state for long time. Then, sensitivity analysis is applied for model test. The test result is excellent, and the prediction results are more accurate. In the paper, the following measures are proposed for improving water resources condition

  1. Changes in flowering phenology of woody plants in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junhu

    2016-04-01

    Over the past several decades, abundant evidences proved that the first flowering date of plants in northern hemisphere became earlier in response to climate warming. However, the existing results about impact of climate change on flowering duration are controversial. In this study, we studied temporal trends in first flowering date (FFD), end of flowering date (EFD) and flowering duration (FD) of 94 woody plants from 1963 to 2014 at three stations (Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an) in North China. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between length of flowering periods and temperature using two phenological models (including regression model and growing degree day model). At all stations, more than 90% of observed species showed earlier flowering over time from 1963 to 2014. The average trends in FFD were 1.33, 1.77 and 3.01 days decade-1 at Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. During the same period, EFD also became earlier by a mean rate of 2.19, 1.39 and 2.00 days decade-1, respectively. Regarding FD, a significant shortening of FD was observed at Harbin (-0.86 days decade-1), but FD extended by 0.37 and 1.01 days decade-1 at Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. At interspecific level, the plant species with longer FD tend to have stronger trends of FD extension. Through regression analyses, we found more than 85% of time series revealed a significant negative relationship between FFD (or EFD) and preseason temperature. The regression model could simulate the interannual changes in FFD and EFD with the mean goodness of fit (R2) ranging from 0.38 to 0.67, but failed to simulate the FD accurately, as R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.18. Regarding to FFD and EFD, the growing degree day model could improved R2 of simuation, but also could not simulate FD accurately. Therefore, we concluded that the FFD and EFD advanced notably in recent six decades as a result of climate warming, but the direction of FD changes depended on locations and the species involved. In addition, the

  2. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Liang [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yin, Yan, E-mail: yinyan@nuist.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xiao, Hui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yu, Xingna [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); and others

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  3. Migration of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui, to north-eastern Spain is aided by African wind currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Constantí; Alarcón, Marta; Avila, Anna

    2007-09-01

    1. Thousands of records of migratory butterfly species such as Vanessa cardui flying just above ground-level on fixed compass bearings have led to the common belief that these insects migrate within the so-called 'flight-boundary layer', where movements are relatively independent of the wind. 2. Given the selective advantages of windborne migration and the existence of a number of observations of flights of V. cardui from the upper levels of the atmosphere, we tested the hypothesis that migration from North Africa to southern Europe in this species is influenced by synoptic-scale wind currents. 3. Even with modern technology, it is extremely difficult to observe high-altitude flights directly, so we rely on an indirect approach that examines whether or not arrival peaks in north-eastern Spain are associated with winds blowing from Africa. 4. Arrivals of V. cardui were determined for the spring period (1 March-27 June, 1997-2006) at 79 sites in the Catalan Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Wind patterns were described on the basis of synoptic-scale maps, transport models and back-trajectories calculated for each day of the spring period. 5. We found a strong association between migration and winds from North Africa, both for the whole data set (1997-2006; chi(2) = 4.7, P = 0.03) and for a restricted data set that excludes years in which the species was very scarce (chi(2) = 7.26, P = 0.007). 6. Episodes of massive northward migration within the species' flight-boundary layer also coincided with spells of winds from North Africa, suggesting a connection between low-altitude (observational) and high-altitude flights (inferred from wind patterns). 7. Finally, on the assumption that migration in V. cardui is windborne, a source-receptor transport model applied to spring abundance data in north-eastern Spain enables us to identify the most probable population source areas in North Africa.

  4. Sedimentary-tectonic evolution from late Palaeozoic to Triassic in south of North China block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. [University of Petroleum, Dongying (China). Dept of Resource

    2000-09-01

    The sedimentary facies of some typical profiles as in Hancheng, Jiyuan, Denfeng and Huainan, and the characteristic of regional palaeogeography in the south of North China block were researched. The result shows that the research area had an evolution from the epeiric sea to a lake basin during Palaeozoic to Triassic. This transition was controlled by the collision progeny of Qinling orogenic belt directly. The collision began along the Shangnan-Zhenping-Tongbai line, making the south of North China block compressed and subsided, and transferred from a structural high land to an epeiric sea in Late Carboniferous. The western part of North Qinling began to uplift and became a source of terrigenous clastic sediments to North China basin. In the Permian, the compression strengthened further and the North Qinling-North Huaiyang structural belt uplifted, making the epeiric sea transits to a marginal lake basin. In the Triassic, the Qinling orogenic belt uplifted rapidly and the large scale depression lake basin developed in its north side, and the centre of the basin also transferred to the orogenic belt in the Late Triassic. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Widespread and persistent ozone pollution in eastern China during the non-winter season of 2015: observations and source attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohui; Bei, Naifang; Cao, Junji; Wu, Jiarui; Long, Xin; Feng, Tian; Dai, Wenting; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qiang; Tie, Xuexi

    2017-02-01

    Rapid growth of industrialization, transportation, and urbanization has caused increasing emissions of ozone (O3) precursors recently, enhancing the O3 formation in eastern China. We show here that eastern China has experienced widespread and persistent O3 pollution from April to September 2015 based on the O3 observations in 223 cities. The observed maximum 1 h O3 concentrations exceed 200 µg m-3 in almost all the cities, 400 µg m-3 in more than 25 % of the cities, and even 800 µg m-3 in six cities in eastern China. The average daily maximum 1 h O3 concentrations are more than 160 µg m-3 in 45 % of the cities, and the 1 h O3 concentrations of 200 µg m-3 have been exceeded on over 10 % of days from April to September in 129 cities. Analyses of pollutant observations from 2013 to 2015 have shown that the concentrations of CO, SO2, NO2, and PM2.5 from April to September in eastern China have considerably decreased, but the O3 concentrations have increased by 9.9 %. A widespread and severe O3 pollution episode from 22 to 28 May 2015 in eastern China has been simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to evaluate the O3 contribution of biogenic and various anthropogenic sources. The model generally performs reasonably well in simulating the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface O3 concentrations. Using the factor separation approach, sensitivity studies have indicated that the industry source plays the most important role in the O3 formation and constitutes the culprit of the severe O3 pollution in eastern China. The transportation source contributes considerably to the O3 formation, and the O3 contribution of the residential source is not significant generally. The biogenic source provides a background O3 source, and also plays an important role in the south of eastern China. Further model studies are needed to comprehensively investigate O3 formation for supporting the design and

  6. Simulation of nitrogen deposition in the North China Plain by the FRAME model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition in the North China Plain (NCP at high resolution, 5 × 5 km2, was conducted for the first time by the Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange (FRAME model. The total N deposition budget was 1481 Gg in this region, with 77 % from reduced N and 23 % from oxidized N, and the annual deposition rate (47 kg N ha−1 was much higher than previously reported values for other parts of the world such as the UK (13 kg N ha−1, Poland (7.3 kg N ha−1 and EU27 (8.6 kg N ha−1. The exported N component (1981 Gg was much higher than the imported N component (584 Gg, suggesting that the NCP is an important net emission source of N pollutants. Contributions of N deposition budgets from the seven provinces in this region were proportional to their area ratios. The calculated spatial distributions of N deposition displayed high rates of reduced N deposition in the south and of oxidized N deposition in the eastern part. The N deposition exceeded an upper limit of 30 kg N ha−1 for natural ecosystems over more than 90 % of the region, resulting in terrestrial ecosystem deterioration, impaired air quality and coastal eutrophication not only in the NCP itself but also in surrounding areas including the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea.

  7. Addressing water challenges on the North China Plain with hydroeconomic optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Grith; Davidsen, Claus; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    With its diverse environment and large population, China is facing water resource challenges, both in terms of quantity and quality. The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the world’s most densely populated areas and one of the highly water stressed regions of China. It counts for 15% of the Chinese...... GDP, from both industry and agriculture. The high water demand for especially irrigation has caused decade long groundwater depletion, ecosystem deterioration and high pollution loads in the region. To alleviate the water crisis of Northern China the South-North Water Transfer Project has been...... constructed. However, the project alone cannot solve the NCP’s water crisis. A hydroeconomic optimization model has been developed for the NCP system. The model area represents the administrative area of the Hai River Commission. The challenges addressed are the spatio-temporal distribution of costs...

  8. TECTONOPHYSICAL EVIDENCES OF GEODYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF THE PRIKOLYMA TERRAIN (NORTH-EASTERN REGIONS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton N. Glukhov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prikolyma terrain is a part of the Yana-Kolyma orogenic belt located in the North Eastern Asia. It is generally composed of the Proterozoic deposits, including sandstones, metapellites, quartz-feldspar and carbonate rocks, meta- and hyperbasites. The Prikolyma terrain represents a fragment of passive margin of the North-Asian craton that was detached in the Middle Paleozoic due to progressing rifting. Subsequent geological development of the terrain was determined by accretion events at its boundary with margin of the North-Asian craton and the Omolon microcraton. Its longterm geodynamic evolution is reflected in the character and sequence of formation of the Prikolyma terrain deformation structures. In the central part of the Prikolyma terrain, i.e. in the basin of the Malaya Stolbovaya river, two reference areas of tectonics were studied, which contain packs of thrust sheets complicated by subsequent highangle faults.The fault pattern is complex, and its major elements are gently dipping zones of plastic deformation, which mark the boundaries of petrographically heterogenous plates. The thrust packs  are more than 200 m thick; their root zones are represented by series of highangle reverse faults. Another important element of the fault pattern is highangle zones of brittle deformation, which kinematic characteristics are ambiguous. A vertical component of displacement is predominant for the faults of the north-western strike; a strike-slip component is characteristic of latitudinal and meridional faults. The fault pattern developed in several stages under the impact of fields of tectonic stress, which vectors were variable. The folds, comprising a uniform structural paragenesis with thrusts, are of great importance for the structure under study. The largest folds exhibit the asymmetric structure with the N-E dipping axial planes. Axes of smaller folds are oriented to N-W and N–NW.Four stages of deformation are

  9. Forecasting the summer rainfall in North China using the year-to-year increment approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to forecasting the year-to-year increment of rainfall in North China in July-August (JA) is proposed. DY is defined as the difference of a variable between the current year and the preceding year (year-to-year increment). NR denotes the seasonal mean precipitation rate over North China in JA. After analyzing the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with the DY of NR, five key predictors for the DY of NR have been identified. The prediction model for the DY of NR is established by using multi-linear regression method and the NR is obtained (the current forecasted DY of NR added to the preceding observed NR). The prediction model shows a high correlation coefficient (0.8) between the simulated and the observed DY of NR throughout period 1965-1999, with an average relative root mean square error of 19% for the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China. The prediction model makes a hindcast for 2000-2007, with an average relative root mean square error of 21% for the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China. The model reproduces the downward trend of the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China during 1965-2006. Because the current operational prediction models of the summer precipitation have average forecast scores of 60%-70%, it has been more difficult to forecast the summer rainfall over North China. Thus this new approach for predicting the year-to-year increment of the summer precipitation (and hence the summer precipitation itself) has the potential to significantly improve operational forecasting skill for summer precipitation.

  10. Forecasting the summer rainfall in North China using the year-to-year increment approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ke; LIN MeiJing; GAO YuZhong

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to forecasting the year-to-year increment of rainfall in North China in 07-August (JA) is proposed. DY is defined as the difference of a variable between the current year and the preceding year (year-to-year increment). NR denotes the seasonal mean precipitation rate over North China in JA. After analyzing the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with the DY of NR, five key predictors for the DY of NR have been identified. The prediction model for the DY of NR is established by using multi-linear regression method and the NR is obtained (the current forecasted DY of NR added to the preceding observed NR). The prediction model shows a high correlation coefficient (0.8) between the simulated and the observed DY of NR throughout period 1965--1999, with an average relative root mean square error of 19% for the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China. The prediction model makes a hindcast for 2000-2007, with an average relative root mean square error of 21% for the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China. The model reproduces the downward trend of the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China during 1965-2006. Because the current operational prediction models of the summer precipitation have average forecast scores of 60%-70%, it has been more difficult to forecast the summer rainfall over North China. Thus this new approach for predicting the year-to-year increment of the summer precipitation (and hence the summer precipitation itself) has the potential to significantly improve operational forecasting skill for summer precipitation.

  11. Comparison of mantle-derived matierals from different spatiotemporal settings: Implications for destructive and accretional processes of the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG JianPing

    2009-01-01

    accreted lithosphere, accompanied with a little thickness in lithosphere and thus finally achieved the lithospheric thinning as a whole. The translithospheric faults, such as the Tanlu fault, play excellent channels for asthenospheric upwelling. Meanwhile, the channels in lithosphere are usually irregular, which resulted in dif-ferent eruption times of magma. Peridotite xenolith in the basalts erupted at 100 Ma is mainly fertile, indicating such a fact, that is, the mantle replacement occurred before the eruption (e.g. 125-100 Ma) beneath the eastern part of the North China Craton.

  12. Improving Urban Water Environment in Eastern China by Blending Traditional with Modern Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and poor water quality. In addition, urban water landscapes hardly provided ecological functions given excessive construction. Accordingly, a proposition to connect tradition with modernism in the improvement and innovation of urban water landscape planning was put forward, and further, the way to achieve it was explored. By taking Qinhu Wetland Park as a case, the principles and specific planning methods on macro- and microperspectives were discussed to guide the development of urban landscape in eastern China.

  13. Evaluation of regional energy security in eastern coastal China based on the DPSIR model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; SHEN Lei

    2012-01-01

    The DPSIR assessment method,which implies the relationships among driving force (D),pressure (P),status (S),impact (I),and response (R),is widely applied by scholars.This paper aims to establish a comprehensive assessment system for regional energy security in eastern coastal China based on the above model using different indicators.Factor analysis and the SPSS statistical analysis software were used to carry out scientific and quantitative assessments.The results indicated that contradictions of energy supply and demand as well as environmental pollution are the critical factors that present great challenges to regional energy security in this area.The authors argued that a sustainable,stable,and safe supply energy supply is crucial in solving the aforesaid dilemma,and improving the energy use efficiency is one of the best choices.Some countermeasures and suggestions regarding regional energy supply stability and utilization security were pointed out.

  14. Numerical modeling of geothermal groundwater flow in karst aquifer system in eastern Weibei, Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming; LI GuoMin; YANG Liao; DANG XueYa; ZHAO ChunHu; HOU GuangCai; ZHANG MaoSheng

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of geothermal water resources is important to the exploitation and utilization of geothermal resources. In the geothermal water systems the density of groundwater changes with the temperature, therefore the variations in hydraulic heads and temperatures are very complicated. A three-dimensional density-dependent model coupling the groundwater flow and heat transport is established and used to simulate the geothermal water flow in the karst aquifers in eastern Weibei,Shaanxi Province, China. The multilayered karst aquifer system in the study area is cut by some major faults which control the regional groundwater flow. In order to calibrate and simulate the effect of the major faults, each fault is discretized as a belt of elements with special hydrological parameters in the numerical model. The groundwater dating data are used to be integrated with the groundwater flow pattern and calibrate the model. Simulation results show that the calculated hydraulic heads and temperature fit with the observed data well.

  15. Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bashmakov, I. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)]|[Center for Energy Efficiencies (CENEf), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-01

    This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

  16. Improving Urban Water Environment in Eastern China by Blending Traditional with Modern Landscape Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiajie; Yu, Junjun; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Cai; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water) in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and poor water quality. In addition, urban water landscapes hardly provided ecological functions given excessive construction. Accordingly, a proposition to connect tradition with modernism in the improvement and innovation of urban water landscape planning was put forward, and further, the way to achieve it was explored. By taking Qinhu Wetland Park as a case, the principles and specific planning methods on macro- and microperspectives were discussed to guide the development of urban landscape in eastern China.

  17. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (PChlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (PChlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA from Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Suggests Cryptic Speciation and Pinpoints the Source of the Introduction to Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Michael E. Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Shigehiko Shiyake; Adalgisa Caccone; Adalgisa Caccone

    2006-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced pest of unknown origin that is causing severe mortality to hemlocks (Tsuga spp.) in eastern North America. Adelgids also occur on other Tsuga species in western North America and East Asia, but these trees are not significantly damaged. The purpose of this study is to use...

  19. Quantitative Modelling of Multiphase Lithospheric Stretching and Deep Thermal History of Some Tertiary Rift Basins in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林畅松; 张燕梅; 李思田; 刘景彦; 仝志刚; 丁孝忠; 李喜臣

    2002-01-01

    The stretching process of some Tertiary rift basins in eastern China is characterized by multiphase rifting. A multiple instantaneous uniform stretching model is proposed in this paper to simulate the formation of the basins as the rifting process cannot be accurately described by a simple (one episode) stretching model. The study shows that the multiphase stretching model, combined with the back-stripping technique, can be used to reconstruct the subsidence history and the stretching process of the lithosphere, and to evaluate the depth to the top of the asthenosphere and the deep thermal evolution of the basins. The calculated results obtained by applying the quantitative model to the episodic rifting process of the Tertiary Qiongdongnan and Yinggehai basins in the South China Sea are in agreement with geophysical data and geological observations. This provides a new method for quantitative evaluation of the geodynamic process of multiphase rifting occurring during the Tertiary in eastern China.

  20. Diurnal and Seasonal Patterns of Methane Emissions from a Dairy Operation in North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In China, dairy cattle managed in collective feedlots contribute about 30% of the milk production and are believed to be an important contributor to national methane emissions. Methane emissions from a collective dairy feedlot in North China Plain (NCP) were measured during the winter, spring, summer, and fall seasons with open-path lasers in combination with an inverse dispersion technique. Methane emissions from the selected dairy feedlot were characterized by an apparent diurnal pattern wi...

  1. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Liu

    Full Text Available Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  2. Study of spatial distribution of sandy desertification in North China in recent 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; WU Wei; XUE Xian; SUN Qingwei; CHEN Guangting

    2004-01-01

    Sandy desertification is a land degradation characterized by wind erosion, mainly resulted from the excessive human activities in arid, semiarid and part of sub-humid regions in North China. It is one of main kinds of desertification/land degradation as well as water-soil erosion and salinization in China. Rapid and continuous spread of sandy desertification during last 50 years has created a major environmental and socio-economic problem in North China. Remote sensing monitored results in 2000 showed that the sandy desertified land area has been 38.57×104 km2. The area of potential to slightly sandy desertified land is 13.93×104 km2, moderately land 9.977×104 km2, severely land 7.909×104 km2 and very severely land 6.756×104km2. Sandy desertification mainly occurs in the semi-arid mixed farming-grazing zone and its northern rangeland zone, semi-arid dryland rainfed cropping zone and arid oasis-desert margin zone. The average annually developmental rate of sandy desertified land increased from 2,100tion in North China is "overall deterioration, while local rehabilitation". Already achieved rehabilitation results and monitoring assessment show that about 60% of desertified land in North China can be restored under the conditions of rational land-use ways and intensity.

  3. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  4. Influence of biomass burning plumes on HONO chemistry in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, W.; Ding, A. J.; Xie, Y. N.; Xu, Z.; Mao, H.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Zheng, L. F.; Qi, X. M.; Huang, X.; Yang, X.-Q.; Sun, J. N.; Herrmann, E.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Fu, C. B.

    2015-02-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) plays a key role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the budget of hydroxyl radical (OH). In this study, a two-month measurement of HONO and related quantities were analyzed during a biomass burning season in 2012 at a suburban site in the western Yangtze River delta, eastern China. An overall high HONO concentration with the mean value of 0.76 ppbv (0.01 ppbv to 5.95 ppbv) was observed. During biomass burning (BB) periods, both HONO concentration and HONO/NO2 ratio were enhanced significantly (more than a factor of 2, p CHONO) in BB plumes was almost twice as that in non-BB plumes (0.0062 hr-1 vs. 0.0032 hr-1). Given that the residence time of the BB air masses was lower than that of non-BB air masses, these results suggest BB aerosols have higher NO2 conversion potentials to form HONO than non-BB aerosols. A further analysis based on comparing the surface area at similar particle mass levels and HONO/NO2 ratios at similar surface area levels suggested larger specific surface areas and higher NO2 conversion efficiencies of BB aerosols. A mixed plume of BB and anthropogenic fossil fuel (FF) emissions was observed on 10 June with even higher HONO concentrations and HONO/NO2 ratios. The strong HONO production potential (high HONO/NO2 to PM2.5 ratio) was accompanied with a high sulfate concentration in this plume, suggesting a promotion of mixed aerosols to the HONO formation. In summary, our study suggests an important role of BB in atmospheric chemistry by affecting the HONO budget. This can be especially important in eastern China, where agricultural burning plumes are inevitably mixed with urban and industrial pollution.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among HIV/AIDS Patients in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guoqiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Hui; Gao, Yaying

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, occurs throughout the world. Human T. gondii infection is asymptomatic in 80% of the population; however, the infection is life-threatening and causes substantial neurologic damage in immunocompromised patients such as HIV-infected persons. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in subjects infected with HIV/AIDS in eastern China. Our findings showed 9.7% prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in HIV/AIDS patients, which was higher than in intravenous drug users (2.2%) and healthy controls (4.7%), while no significant difference was observed in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody among all participants (P>0.05). Among all HIV/AIDS patients, 15 men (7.7%) and 10 women (15.9%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibody; however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody between males and females. The frequency of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody was 8.0%, 13.2%, 5.5%, and 0% in patients with normal immune function (CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count ≥500 cells/ml), immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥200 and AIDS patients, respectively (cell count HIV/AIDS patients in eastern China, and a preventive therapy for toxoplasmosis may be given to HIV/AIDS patients based on CD4(+) T lymphocyte count.

  6. Origin and distribution of carbon dioxide gas pools in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴春森; 宋岩; 孙岩

    1995-01-01

    Carbon dioxide gas pools occur widely in the basins of eastern China.CO2 gas-bearing bedsare from the Teritary to Ordovician,and reservoirs are sandstone,carbonates and volcanics.The gases fromthese gas pools contain CO2 of 62.86 ‰—99.55 ‰.In the Mesozoic-Cenozoic extensional basins,such asSongliao,Bohai Bay,Subei,Sanshui and Zhujingkou,the δ13CCO2values of CO2 gas pools range from-2.65‰to-8.83‰,mainly from-3.5‰ to-6.0‰,3He/4He ratios are 2.65Ra to 4.96Ra.The regression equa-tion of CO2 content and helium isotope ratio is CO2(%)=61.3852+7.9745R/Ra,correlation coefficient r is0.9430,CO2 is mainly mantle-derived and magmatic origin.δ13CCO2value of CO2 gas from Well X inYinggehai Basin is-3.80‰.3He/4He ratio is 0.07Ra,CO2 is metamorphic origin.Mantle-derived and magmaticCO2 gases are discharged from the cross areas of northeastern trending and northwestern trending faults inthese Mesozoic-Cenozoic extensional basins,in the shallow level,the CO2 gases migrate and accumulate alongnortheastern trending extensional faults.The activity of the Neogene to Quaternary northwestern trendingtectonic-magmatism zones in eastern China is another important discharge event for mantle-derived andmagmatic gases,which have great contribution to the CO2 gas pools in this area.Metamorphic CO2 in theYinggehai Basin is released by the dynamic metamorphism of shear fractures.

  7. Influence of biomass burning plumes on HONO chemistry in eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Nie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous acid (HONO plays a key role in atmospheric chemistry via influencing the budget of hydroxyl radical (OH. In this study, a two-month measurement period of HONO and related quantities were analyzed during a biomass burning season in 2012 at a suburban site in the western Yangtze River delta, eastern China. An overall high HONO concentration with the mean value of 1.1 ppbv was observed. During biomass burning (BB periods, both HONO concentration and HONO / NO2 ratio were enhanced significantly compared with non-biomass burning periods. A correlation analysis showed that the HONO concentration was not associated potassium (a tracer of BB in BB plumes, but showed a high correlation with the NO2 concentration, suggesting a principle role of secondary production rather than direct emissions in elevated HONO concentrations. A further analysis based on comparing the surface area at similar PM levels and HONO / NO2 ratios at similar surface area levels suggested larger specific surface areas and higher NO2 conversion efficiencies of BB aerosols. A mixed plume of BB and anthropogenic fossil fuel (FF emissions was observed on 10 June with even higher HONO concentrations and HONO / NO2 ratios. The strong HONO production potential (high HONO / NO2 to PM2.5 ratio was accompanied with a high sulfate concentration in this plume, suggesting a promotion of mixed aerosols to HONO formation. In summary, our study suggests an important role of BB in atmospheric oxidation capacity by affecting the HONO budget. This can be especially important in eastern China, where agricultural burning plumes are inevitably mixed with urban pollutions.

  8. Geomagnetic intensity variations for the past 8 kyr: New archaeointensity results from Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shuhui; Tauxe, Lisa; Deng, Chenglong; Pan, Yongxin; Jin, Guiyun; Zheng, Jianming; Xie, Fei; Qin, Huafeng; Zhu, Rixiang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we have carried out paleointensity experiments on 918 specimens spanning the last ∼7 kyr, including pottery fragments, baked clay and slag, collected from Shandong, Liaoning, Zhejiang and Hebei Provinces in China. Approximately half of the specimens yielded results that passed strict data selection criteria and give high-fidelity paleointensities. The virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) of our sites range from ∼2×1022 to ∼13×1022 Am. At ∼2250 BCE our results suggest a paleointensity low of ∼2×1022 Am, which increases to a high of ∼13×1022 Am by ∼1300 BCE. This rapid (less than 1000 yrs) six-fold change in the paleointensity may have important implications for the dynamics of core flow at this time. Our data from the last ∼3 kyr are generally in good agreement with the ARCH3k.1 model, but deviate significantly at certain time periods from the CALS3k.4 and CALS10k.1b model, which is likely due to differences in the data used to constrain these models. At ages older than ∼3 ka, where only the CALS10k.1b model is available for comparison, our data deviate significantly from the model. Combining our new results with the published data from China and Japan, we provide greatly improved constraints for the regional model of Eastern Asia. When comparing the variations of geomagnetic field in three global representative areas of Eastern Asia, the Middle East and Southern Europe, a common general trend of sinusoidal variations since ∼8 ka is shown, likely dominated by the dipole component. However, significant disparities are revealed as well, which we attribute to non-dipolar components caused by movement of magnetic flux patches at the core-mantle boundary.

  9. Occurrence and risk assessment of organophosphate esters in drinking water from Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinjian; Shen, Xiaoli; Liu, Weiping; Covaci, Adrian; Yang, Fangxing

    2015-12-15

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are ubiquitous in the environment and may pose potential health risks to humans. Drinking water is suspected as one possible exposure pathway of OPEs to humans. In this study, we investigated the r