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Sample records for eastern mediterranean bluetongue

  1. box modeling of the eastern mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Stone, P. H.

    2003-04-01

    Recently (~1990) a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1Sv=10^6m^3/s, three times larger then the Adriatic source. We develop a simple 3 box-model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The 3 boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian sea. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analytically analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We consider two cases for which the temperatures of the boxes are (i) fixed or (ii) variable. After setting the parameters to correspond to the Eastern Mediterranean we find that the system has two stable states, one with (i) two thermally dominant sources of deep water formation in the Adriatic and Aegean and the other with (ii) a salinity dominant source of deep water formation in the Adriatic and a thermally dominant source in the Aegean. While the Adriatic thermally dominant source is comparable to the observed flux of 0.3Sv the Aegean source has much smaller flux than the observed value. This situation is analogous to the state of the thermohaline circulation pre 1990 where the only source of deep water formation was in the Adriatic. If we decrease the atmospheric temperature of the Aegean box by 2C in accordance with recent observations, we find that the deep water formation of the Aegean increases significantly to a value comparable to the recently observed flux.

  2. Sprite Climatology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Rubanenko, Lior; Ben-Ami, Yuval; Arnone, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of 436 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan and summer ones in central Europe. Other shapes such as trees, wishbones, etc. appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.5% of observations, with 83.5% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogeneous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). Our observations suggest winter East Mediterranean thunderstorms to have a vertical structure that is an intermediate type between high tropical convective systems and the lower cloud-top cells in winter thunderstorms over the Sea of Japan. The climatology shows that the Eastern Mediterranean is a major sprite producer during Northern Hemisphere winter, and thus the existing and future optical observation infrastructure in Israel offers ground-based coverage for upcoming space missions that aim to map global sprite activity.

  3. Index medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shorbaji Najeeb

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study provides the rationale, history and current status of the Index Medicus for the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Index is unique in combining the geographic coverage of peer-reviewed health and biomedical journals (408 titles from the 22 countries of the Region. Compiling and publishing the Index coupled with a document delivery service is an integral part of the WHO Regional Office's knowledge management and sharing programme. In this paper, bibliometric indicators are presented to demonstrate the distribution of journals, articles, languages, subjects and authors as well as availability in printed and electronic formats. Two countries in the Region (Egypt and Pakistan contribute over 50% of the articles in the Index. About 90% of the articles are published in English. Epidemiology articles represent 8% of the entire Index. 15% of the journals in the Index are also indexed in MEDLINE, while 7% are indexed in EMBASE. Future developments of the Index will include covering more journals and adding other types of health and biomedical literature, including reports, theses, books and current research. The challenges and lessons learnt are discussed.

  4. Lightning flash multiplicity in eastern Mediterranean thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Y.; Shalev, S.; Erlich, Z.; Agrachov, A.; Katz, E.; Saaroni, H.; Price, C.; Ziv, B.

    2014-02-01

    Cloud-to-ground lightning flashes usually consist of one or several strokes coming in very short temporal succession and close spatial proximity. A commonly used method for converting stroke data into flashes is using the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) thresholds of maximum temporal separation of 0.5 s and maximum lateral distance of 10 km radius between successive strokes. In the present study, we tested a location-based algorithm with several spatial and temporal ranges, and analyzed stroke data obtained by the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS) during one year (1.8.2009-31.7.2010). We computed the multiplicity, the percentage of single stroke flashes and the geographical distribution of average multiplicity values for thunderstorms in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Results show that for the NLDN thresholds, the percentage of single stroke flashes in Israel was 37% and the average multiplicity was 1.7. We reanalyzed the data with a spatial range that equals twice the ILLS location error and shorter times. For the new thresholds of maximum distance of 2.5 km and maximum allowed temporal separation of 0.2 s we find that the mean multiplicity of negative CGs is lowered to 1.4 and find a percentage of 58% of single stroke flashes. A unique severe storm from 30 October 2009 is analyzed and compared with the annual average of 2009/2010, showing that large deviations from the mean values can occur in specific events.

  5. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Fanourgakis, G.S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Krol, M.C.; Brugh, Aan de J.M.J.; Kanakidou, M.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the

  6. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myriokefalitakis, S; Daskalakis, N; Fanourgakis, G S; Voulgarakis, A; Krol, M C; Aan de Brugh, J M J; Kanakidou, M

    2016-09-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the Western basins and the boundary layer (BL) from the free troposphere (FT). The FT of the Eastern Mediterranean is shown to be a strong receptor of polluted air masses from the Western Mediterranean, and the most important source of polluted air masses for the Eastern Mediterranean BL, with about 40% of O3 and of CO in the BL to be transported from the FT aloft. Regional anthropogenic sources are found to have relatively small impact on regional air quality in the area, contributing by about 8% and 18% to surface levels of O3 and CO, respectively. Projections using anthropogenic emissions for the year 2050 but neglecting climate change calculate a surface O3 decrease of about 11% together with a surface CO increase of roughly 10% in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  7. National health research system mapping in 10 Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A; Khoja, T A M; Abou-Zeid, A H; Ghannem, H; IJsselmuiden, C

    2008-01-01

    Health research systems in the Eastern Mediterranean Region are not well developed to generate and use knowledge to improve health, reduce inequity and contribute to economic development. This study aimed to provide core data on National Health Research Systems (NHRS) in 10 Eastern Mediterranean countries in order to inform actions to strengthen health research system governance and management. Whilst there were examples of good practice, few countries had a formal NHRS and many basic building blocks needed for an effective system had not been put in place. Although limited in focus, the study provides useful information for countries to initiate action to strengthen their NHRS.

  8. A Sea Change : Exotics In the eastern Mediterranean.

    OpenAIRE

    Galil, B.S.; Zenetos, A

    2002-01-01

    The eastern Mediterranean is susceptible to biological invasions because of its placement between the Atlantic, Pontic and Erythrean regions, busy maritime traffic, and lagoons and bays that are crowded with fish and shellfish farms. However, the greatest influx of invaders resulted from the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, which allowed entry of Indo-Pacific and Erythrean biota. Exotic macro phytes, invertebrates and fish are found in most coastal habitats in the eastern Med...

  9. Guo Dantong, Intercourse between Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    With growing interests in the studies of global history, scholars around the worldhave since the 1970s increasingly focused their attentions on the relationship between the ancient civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world. Guo Dantong has takenpart in the academic discussions on this subject in China in recent years, and publishedone of her important research results in 2011.

  10. Palaeoceanography of the interglacial eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, G.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of the present interglacial climate to the ongoing anthropogenic-driven increase of atmospheric greenhouse gas poses a fundamental concern to modern society. The Mediterranean region is responding with a distinct change towards drier and warmer conditions, which affects also the hydr

  11. Palaeoceanography of the interglacial eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, G.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of the present interglacial climate to the ongoing anthropogenic-driven increase of atmospheric greenhouse gas poses a fundamental concern to modern society. The Mediterranean region is responding with a distinct change towards drier and warmer conditions, which affects also the hydr

  12. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey's Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Tanriverdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus' financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey's attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey's position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey's energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  13. Reducing maternal mortality in the eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaini, R; Mahmoud, H

    2005-07-01

    Current efforts in some countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region are still insufficient to achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal on improving maternal health. Strong commitment, intensive efforts and effective national policies and strategies are now urgently required in order to translate vision into action. Such efforts and plans should target the strengthening of health systems, the expansion in the coverage of effective integrated interventions, and the recognition of the essential role of individuals, families and communities in making pregnancy safer. This article provides a background on the current situation of maternal health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, including underlying causes and contributing factors, and describes strategic directions aimed at accelerating the reduction of maternal mortality in the Region and moving closer to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

  14. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey.

  15. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  16. Highlights and conclusions from the Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET) conference 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nsour, M; Kaiser, R; Abd Elkreem, E; Walke, H; Kandeel, A; Bloland, R

    2012-02-01

    As a follow up of a short communication that the Eastern Mediterranean Health journal published in December 2011, this article reports on highlights and conclusions from scientific abstracts, methodology workshops and plenary sessions that were presented as part of the Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET) conference held from 6 to 9 December 2011 in Sharm Al Sheikh, Egypt.

  17. Heat Wave Changes in the Eastern Mediterranean since 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, Franz G.; Toreti, Andrea; Xoplaki, Elena; Della-Marta, Paul M.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Türkes, Murat; Luterbacher, Jürg

    2010-05-01

    Heat waves have discernible impacts on mortality and morbidity, infrastructure, agricultural resources, the retail industry, ecosystem and tourism and consequently affect human societies. A new definition of socially relevant heat waves is presented and applied to new data sets of high-quality homogenized daily maximum and minimum summer air temperature series from 246 stations in the eastern Mediterranean region (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey). Changes in heat wave number, length and intensity between 1960 and 2006 are quantified. Daily temperature homogeneity analysis suggest that many instrumental measurements in the 1960s are warm-biased, correcting for these biases regionally averaged heat wave trends are up to 8% higher. We find significant changes across the western Balkans, southwestern and western Turkey, and along the southern Black Sea coastline. Since the 1960s, the mean heat wave intensity, heat wave length and heat wave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor 7.6 ±1.3, 7.5 ±1.3 and 6.2 ±1.1, respectively. These findings suggest that the heat wave increase in this region is higher than previously reported.

  18. Connectivity controls on the late Miocene eastern Mediterranean fish fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiadi, Konstantina; Antonarakou, Assimina; Kontakiotis, George; Kafousia, Nefeli; Moissette, Pierre; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil; Karakitsios, Vasileios

    2016-06-01

    Environmental change significantly affects the production of fish resources and their dependent societies. The paleontological record offers unique insight into the effects of long-term paleoenvironmental variability on the fish species' distributions and abundances. In the present study, we investigate the late Miocene (7.5-6.5 Ma) fish assemblages of the Potamida section in western Crete (eastern Mediterranean). The determined fish taxa are examined in a paleobiogeographic context, with regard to their geographic and stratigraphic distribution from the early Miocene (~13 Ma) through today. In addition, present-day ecological data are used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions in the study area. Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy significantly improves the earlier dating of the studied sequence. The late Miocene fish fauna of Potamida includes 35 taxa (seven in open nomenclature) from 13 teleost families. The eastern Mediterranean biostratigraphic and geographic distribution of 32 taxa is significantly expanded into the Tortonian, whereas 13 species are recorded for the first time from the Messinian. Four stages are distinguished in the area's paleoenvironmental evolution. (1) The Potamida area was an open marine environment with depths exceeding 150 m between ~7.5-7.45 Ma. (2) Between 7.45-7.36 Ma, the results suggest depths between 300-400 m. (3) The depositional depth increases between 7.36-7.28 Ma to 400-550 m. (4) Later on, approximately between 6.8-6.6 Ma, the depth is again estimated around 100-150 m.

  19. Airborne expendable bathythermograph surveys of the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, C.; Kerling, J.; Athey, G.; Schmitz, J.; Clifford, M.

    1994-05-01

    Two extensive airborne expendable bathythermograph (AXBT) surveys of the eastern Mediterranean were conducted during December 1991 and July 1992 from a Naval Oceanographic Office RP-3 aircraft. Larger areas were sampled over shorter periods of time than is possible with conventional surveys carried out by ships. The circulation of the eastern Mediterranean consists of a collection of subgyres and fronts which show surprising seasonal and interannual variability. These surveys help to describe further this variability which is only partially understood. In particular, the surveys provide additional evidence that a relatively strong anticyclone located adjacent to the southeast corner of Crete during the late summer and through fall is a consequence of strong north winds from the Aegean, the Etesians, being blocked by Crete. Also notable in both surveys was the absence of "a" strong Mersa-Matruh gyre, an anticyclone or anticyclonic subgyre off the Egyptian coast generally considered to be permanent. In contrast to published earlier observations, the Mersa Matruh gyre system was more a collection of weaker anticyclones rather than a single, sometimes double centered, strong feature. In both surveys we saw a string of anticyclones off the African coast between about 24° and 32°E. In general, these eddies did not exhibit a significant surface thermal structure, but were most evident in the 200 m to 300 m-depth depictions. It may be that the formation of a strong southeast Crete anticyclone inhibits the formation of a large, relatively strong Mersa-Matruh subgyre by interacting with the mid-Mediterranean jet. If so, then both the southeast Crete anticyclone and the Mersa-Matruh anticyclone could both be recurrent but tend to occur at different times.

  20. The controversial path of Atlantic Water in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappa, Achille Carlo

    2014-04-01

    The Atlantic Water (AW) path suggested by two decades of thermal satellite data observations in the Eastern Mediterranean is similar to the path followed by the AW in the Western Mediterranean but is in contrast with the scheme proposed after the Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM) experiment during the 1990s. Evidence of the AW path along the Libyo-Egyptian coast (Libyo-Egyptian Current; LEC) and around anti-cyclonic eddies of variable size and position (Libyo-Egyptian Eddies; LEEs) is reported in XBT transects, high resolution models and drifter trajectories. In the POEM scheme, the AW was carried eastwards by the Mid-Mediterranean Jet (MMJ) flowing in the middle of the Levantine basin. The MMJ is still noted in recent drifter trajectory analyses, and seasonal surveys and glider missions report that the AW is transferred towards the Levantine basin by the MMJ in subsurface layers. The issue is investigated in this study by considering whether the determination of the AW path and the resolution of the surface circulation are, unlike in the Western Mediterranean, two distinct problems. Historical hydrographic datasets and numerical experiments illustrated in this study demonstrate that satellite observations in the Eastern Mediterranean reveal the path of the surface water of Atlantic origin, which is modified by heating and evaporation into the saltier and warmer Levantine Surface Water (LSW), but do not reveal the path of the submerged AW that maintains the distinctive character of fresh AW in the Levantine basin. Differences between the surface and the submerged circulation in the Mersa-Matruh area explain the reason for the discrepancy. In summer the AW departs from the Sicily Channel at the sea surface and crosses the Ionian Sea in a surface layer 30 m deep. At the entrance to the Levantine basin, part of the AW re-circulates westwards in two separate branches, one directed to the Southern Ionian and the other towards the Central Ionian

  1. Segmentation of the Levant continental margin, eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Avraham, Z.; Schattner, U.; Lazar, M.; Hall, J. K.; Ben-Gai, Y.; Neev, D.; Reshef, M.

    2006-10-01

    The Levant continental margin is divided into two major segments by the Carmel structure, which extends from the Dead Sea fault into the eastern Mediterranean. New seismic reflection data over the unexplored northern segment are used for completing the structural framework of the Levant area, together with existing data south of it. Inclusive depth structural maps of the area were produced for the base Pliocene and base Messinian evaporites. Previous studies indicate that differences between the two segments are well expressed in the deep crustal structure. The present study, which focuses mainly on the shallow section, shows that these differences are maintained throughout the accumulation of young sedimentary units, and even in the bathymetry. This preservation of segmentation, both in the shallow and in the deep structure, insinuates that the two segments were formed through different continental breakup processes, which continue to dictate the style of sediment accumulation.

  2. Trace element concentrations in the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigaro, Costanza; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Dendrinos, Panagiotis; Marsili, Letizia; Silvi, Marina; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2017-01-15

    The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is one of the most endangered marine mammals in the world. The biggest sub-population of the species survives in Greece, where understanding the effects of pollution on the survival of the species has been identified as a national research and conservation priority. From 1990 to 2013 we collected tissue samples from 59 deceased monk seals in order to: (i) Define the concentration of trace elements (As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se, Cr, Ni) in three different matrices (i.e., blubber, liver and kidney), (ii) Determine whether differences in trace element concentrations are age- or gender-related, (iii) Evaluate the potential effects of these pollutants. The study recorded differences in trace element concentrations among matrices, but in general, trace element exposure in Mediterranean monk seals in Greece was low and within the non-acutely toxic levels for Pinnipeds. Only arsenic concentrations were at the upper limit of the normal range observed in other marine mammals (0.69±0.55mg/kg w.w. in blubber, 0.79±0.62mg/kg w.w. in liver and 0.79±0.59mg/kg w.w. in kidney). We recorded also exceptionally high Hg concentrations in a single adult female (24.88mg/kg w.w.). Age- and gender-related differences were also recorded and were due to various biological, ecological and chemical factors. Based on the results of the study, potentially adverse effects on the immune and endocrine system of the Mediterranean monk seal from some pollutants (e.g., As, Cd, Se, Ni, Cr) cannot be ruled out, which may expose the Mediterranean seal population in Greece to epizootics and stochastic phenomena of mass mortality. It is therefore of utmost importance that pollutant monitoring becomes an integral component of the standard monitoring protocol of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal in the eastern Mediterranean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Imaging density and seismic velocities in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Nienke; Gokhberg, Alexey; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean domain is a geologically complicated region, a result of its complex tectonic and geodynamic evolution. Our understanding of it draws from surface geology, modeling and imaging of the subsurface. Here, we present the first results of seismic waveform inversion of the Eastern Mediterranean region. While computationally much more expensive than more traditional ray-based imaging methods, the advantage of waveform tomography lies in its ability to incorporate in a consistent manner all the information in seismograms - not just the arrivals of certain, specified phases. As a result, body and multimode surface waves, source effects, frequency-dependence, wavefront healing, anisotropy and attenuation are naturally and coherently incorporated. This not only allows us to image P- and S-wave velocity jointly for the crust and mantle, but also makes it possible to put additional constraints on density that ray tomography cannot provide. This is of special interest because heterogeneities in density drive geodynamics, and the combined knowledge of all parameters would help to distinguish between thermal and compositional effects in the subsurface, where no direct measurements can be made. Our tomography makes use of a multi-scale approach, initially using only the very lowest frequency signals of periods of around 100-150 seconds which corresponds to structures of 200 km size in the crust. Slowly, higher-frequency data is added as the model is updated and more of the data is explained by it. Our ultimate aim is to go down to periods of 10 seconds, which corresponds to structures of about 15 km size in the crust to 25 km in the mantle. Only those parts of the seismograms are used in which data and synthetics are similar enough to allow for meaningful comparison. As iterations progress and synthetics become more similar to the data, more parts of the seismogram can be included. Resolution of the final model is assessed using a resolution analysis strategy

  4. Low Frequency Variability and the Eastern Mediterranean Teleconnection Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.

    2007-12-01

    The long time series analysis of the atmospheric circulation has revealed large scale correlations between the flow at remote locations. These fluctuations belong in the low frequency range of timescale and referred to as teleconnections patterns. They are located in particular places and appear as preferred modes of low-frequency natural variability of the atmospheric circulation with fixed oscillating nodes and antinodes, called poles. These teleconnection patterns describe standing waves oscillating with time scales of a month or longer. It has been recognized that the large scale eddies and their feedback onto the mean flow, the propagation of Rossby waves in the midlatitudes and the stratosphere-troposphere interaction play an important role in understanding low frequency general circulation and variability. In previous studies, the Eastern Mediterranean Teleconnection pattern (EMP) was found with its two poles located in North-eastern Europe and Eastern Mediterranean, and it was predominantly identified at the upper troposphere during winter. An index was defined, based on the exact position of the two poles of the pattern, to represent the strength of the teleconnection pattern and to discriminate its positive and negative phase. The objective of this study is to investigate the large scale dynamics related to the development of EMP. For this purpose, datasets of daily geopotential height, temperature and horizontal wind components at several isobaric levels are employed, as obtained from the NCEP/NCAR and from the ECMWF centres, for the calculation of transient eddy kinetic energy, E-vectors, Rossby wave source and potential vorticity. It was found that the role of the eddy driven mid-latitude jet is important. It is likely that the subtropical jet is passive and that the transient eddies remove much more momentum in the negative phase, when the storm- track comes charging into Europe. Rossby wave propagation seems to determine the differing wave

  5. Important Conclusions on the Messinian Salinity Crisis Depositional History of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Pinar; Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    The interpretation of a comprehensive set of high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection profiles, multibeam bathymetry data and the litho- and bio-stratigraphic information from exploration wells across the Antalya Basin and Florence Rise revealed important conclusions on the Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution and the Messinian Salinity Crisis depositional history of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. This study clearly demonstrated the presence of a 4-division Messinian evaporite stratigraphy in the eastern Mediterranean, similar to that observed in the western Mediterranean, suggesting the existence of a similar set of depositional processes across the Mediterranean during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. However, the stratigraphic and depositional similarities of the evaporites between the eastern and western basins do not necessitate synchroneity in their depositional histories. The fact that the only saline water source for the eastern Mediterranean is the Atlantic Ocean and that the Sicily sill creates a physical barrier between the eastern and western Mediterranean impose several critical conditions. A simple 2-D model is developed which satisfies these conditions. The synchroneity of evaporite deposition across the eastern and western basins broke down as the Sicily Gateway became largely subaerial during a period when the Calabrian Arc area experienced uplift associated with slab break-off: the Sicily sill must have remained within a "goldilocks" zone to allow the right amount of saline water inflow into the eastern Mediterranean so that evaporites (massive halite) could be deposited. During this time, the sea level in western Mediterranean was at the breach-level of the Sicily sill, thus no evaporite deposition took place there. The model suggests that the eastern and western basin margins experienced a nearly synchronized gypsum deposition associated with the initial drawdown of the Mediterranean level, followed by the resedimentation in the deep

  6. Silica cycling in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Krom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although silica is a key plant nutrient there have been few studies aimed at understanding the Si cycle in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS. Here we use a combination of new measurements and literature values to explain the silicic acid distribution across the basin and to calculate a silica budget to identify the key controlling processes. The surface water concentration of ~ 1 μM, which is unchanging seasonally across the basin was due to the inflow of Western Mediterranean Sea (WMS water at the Straits of Sicily. It does not change seasonally because there is only a sparse population of diatoms due to the low nutrient (N and P supply to the photic zone in the EMS. The concentration of silicic acid in the deep water of the western Ionian Sea (6.3 μM close to the S. Adriatic area of formation was due to the preformed silicic acid (3 μM plus biogenic silica (BSi from the dissolution of diatoms from the winter phytoplankton bloom (3.2 μM. The increase of 4.4 μM across the deep water of the EMS was due to silicic acid formed from in-situ diagenetic weathering of alumina-silicate minerals fluxing out of the sediment. The major inputs to the EMS are silicic acid and BSi inflowing from the western Mediterranean (121 × 109 mol Si year−1 silicic acid and 16 × 109 mol Si year−1 BSi, silicic acid fluxing from the sediment (54 × 109 mol Si year−1, riverine (27 × 109 mol Si year−1 and subterranean ground water (9.7 × 109 mol Si year−1 inputs, with only a minor direct input from dissolution of dust in the water column (1 × 109 mol Si year−1. This budget shows the importance of rapidly dissolving BSi and in-situ weathering of alumino-silicate minerals as sources of silica to balance the net export of silicic acid at the Straits of Sicily. Future measurements to improve the accuracy of this preliminary budget have been identified.

  7. Radioactivity in three species of eastern Mediterranean jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamish, S; Al-Masri, M S; Durgham, H

    2015-11-01

    Activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U were determined in umbrella and oral arms of three widely distributed jellyfish species; namely Rhopilema nomadica Galil, 1990, Aurelia aurita Linne, 1758 and Aequorea forskalea Péron & Lesueur, 1810 collected from February 2011 to January 2012 in four sampling locations along the Syrian coast (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The results have shown significant variations in radionuclides activity concentrations amongst the species. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U in the umbrella of R. nomadica species were higher than the average activity concentrations in the umbrella of A. aurita species by about 3.2, 1.4, 1.8, 3.2 and 3.2 folds, and A. forskalea species by about 45.5, 15.4, 19, 7.4 and 7.6 folds, respectively. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U in oral arms of R. nomadica species were higher than the average activity concentrations in oral arms of A. aurita species by about 3.8, 1.7, 1.9, 2.8 and 2.9 folds, respectively. (137)Cs activity concentrations were below the detection limit in all measured samples. In addition, activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U were also determined in 44 surface seawater samples and the activity concentrations ranged between 10.6 and 11.9 Bq l(-1) for (40)K, 1.1 and 1.4 mBq l(-1) for (210)Po, 0.5 and 0.7 mBq l(-1) for (210)Pb, 40.8 and 44.5 mBq l(-1) for (234)U, and 36.9 and 38.4 mBq l(-1) for (238)U, while (137)Cs activity concentrations were below the detection limit in all measured samples. Moreover, the umbrella and oral arms readily accumulated (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U above ambient seawater levels in the sequence of (210)Po > (210)Pb > (4) K > (234)U and (238)U. Concentration ratio (CR) values were relatively high for (210)Po and (210)Pb and reached 10(3) and 10(2), respectively for the jellyfish R

  8. Submarine landslides along the eastern Mediterranean Israeli continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuven, Einav; Katz, Oded; Aharonov, Einat

    2013-04-01

    Numerous shallow submarine slope failures (scars and deposits) are observed in recent high resolution bathymetric grids of the continental slope off the Israeli eastern Mediterranean coast. The nature of these slope failures is currently not comprehensively understood as well as the question of whether the eastern Mediterranean continental slope is continuously or episodically unstable. We report here first steps towards understanding the present state of this submarine landslide system, which include mapping and analyzing the geology of the landslides and the hosting slopes. The continental slope extends from water depths of about 150 to more than 1000 meters with a slope of less than 5 degrees in general. Bathymetric grids with pixel resolution of 15 m till water depth of 700 m and 50 m till water depth of 1700 m were used. Analyzing the bathymetry revealed three main submarine surface features: (a) numerous shallow landslides, within the upper sequence of the post-Messenian sediments. Landslide widths range between hundreds to thousand of meters at the scar, with scar heights up to hundred meters. The toes of the landslides are not always mapable and lay up to a few kilometers down slope from the scar. Slope angles within the scars are 5 to more than15 degrees. At least two types of landslides were detected: presumably young slides with sharp scars, and presumably old slides with secondary slides and secondary drainage systems developed within the scar area; (b) a few kilometers long, north striking step-like lineaments. Step heights are up to 100 meters and the slopes are up to 20 degrees. The offset between parallel steps is less than a kilometer to a few kilometers. The steps are interpreted as surface expressions of growth faults rooted at the Messinian evaporates up to 1.5 kilometers below surface; (c) a few north striking channels were also detected with steep walls of more than 15 degrees, up to two kilometers width and a few kilometers length. The nature

  9. Assessing Evaporation Duct Variability In The Eastern Mediterranean Sea In Support Of Radar And Radio Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    EVAPORATION DUCT VARIABILITY IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA IN SUPPORT OF RADAR AND RADIO COMMUNICATIONS by Süleyman C. Gürbüz December 2016...MEDITERRANEAN SEA IN SUPPORT OF RADAR AND RADIO COMMUNICATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Süleyman C. Gürbüz 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA IN SUPPORT OF RADAR AND RADIO COMMUNICATIONS Süleyman C. Gürbüz Lieutenant Junior Grade, Turkish Navy B.S

  10. Particle size distributions in the Eastern Mediterranean troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivitis, N.; Birmili, W.; Stock, M.; Wehner, B.; Massling, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2008-11-01

    Atmospheric particle size distributions were measured on Crete island, Greece in the Eastern Mediterranean during an intensive field campaign between 28 August and 20 October, 2005. Our instrumentation combined a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and measured number size distributions in the size range 0.018 μm 10 μm. Four time periods with distinct aerosol characteristics were discriminated, two corresponding to marine and polluted air masses, respectively. In marine air, the sub-μm size distributions showed two particle modes centered at 67 nm and 195 nm having total number concentrations between 900 and 2000 cm-3. In polluted air masses, the size distributions were mainly unimodal with a mode typically centered at 140 nm, with number concentrations varying between 1800 and 2900 cm-3. Super-μm particles showed number concentrations in the range from 0.01 to 2.5 cm-3 without any clear relation to air mass origin. A small number of short-lived particle nucleation events were recorded, where the calculated particle formation rates ranged between 1.1 1.7 cm-3 s-1. However, no particle nucleation and growth events comparable to those typical for the continental boundary layer were observed. Particles concentrations (Diameter population was governed mainly by coagulation and that particle formation was absent during most days.

  11. Sugars in atmospheric aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosi, Christina; Panagiotopoulos, Christos; Nouara, Amel; Zarmpas, Pavlos; Nicolaou, Panagiota; Violaki, Kalliopi; Kanakidou, Maria; Sempéré, Richard; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    The role of biomass combustion and primary bio-particles in atmospheric PM10 aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean over a two-year period was estimated by studying sugar tracers. Sugar concentrations ranged from 6 to 334 ng m-3, while their contributions to the organic carbon (OC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) pools were 3 and 11%, respectively. Over the studied period, glucose and levoglucosan were the two most abundant sugars accounting equally about 25% of the total sugar concentration in PM10 aerosols whereas fructose, sucrose, and mannitol represented 18%, 15% and 10%, respectively. Primary saccharides (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) peaked at the beginning of spring (21, 17 and 15 ng m-3, respectively), indicating significant contributions of bioaerosols to the total organic aerosol mass. On the other hand, higher concentrations of anhydrosugars (burning biomass tracers including levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were recorded in winter (19, 1.4 and 0.2 ng m-3, respectively) than in summer (9.1, 1.1 and 0.5 ng m-3, respectively). Levoglucosan was the dominant monosaccharide in winter (37% of total sugars) with less contribution in summer (19%) probably in relation with enhanced photochemical oxidation reactions by hydroxyl (ṡOH) radicals impacting anhydrosugars. We estimate that atmospheric oxidation by ṡOH decreases levoglucosan levels by 54% during summer. Biomass burning, based on levoglucosan observations, was estimated to contribute up to 13% to the annual average OC measured at Finokalia. Annual OC, WSOC, and carbohydrate dry deposition fluxes for the studied period were estimated to 414, 175, and 9 mg C m-2 y-1, respectively. Glucose and levoglucosan accounted for 34% and 2% of the total sugar fluxes. According to our estimations, atmospheric OC and WSOC inputs account for ˜0.70% of the carbon produced by annual primary production (PP) in the Cretan Sea. Considering the entire Mediterranean, dry deposition of OC could provide at

  12. Mediterranean circulation perturbations over the last five centuries: Relevance to past Eastern Mediterranean Transient-type events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incarbona, Alessandro; Martrat, Belen; Mortyn, P. Graham; Sprovieri, Mario; Ziveri, Patrizia; Gogou, Alexandra; Jordà, Gabriel; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg; Langone, Leonardo; Marino, Gianluca; Rodríguez-Sanz, Laura; Triantaphyllou, Maria; di Stefano, Enrico; Grimalt, Joan O.; Tranchida, Giorgio; Sprovieri, Rodolfo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) occurred in the Aegean Sea from 1988 to 1995 and is the most significant intermediate-to-deep Mediterranean overturning perturbation reported by instrumental records. The EMT was likely caused by accumulation of high salinity waters in the Levantine and enhanced heat loss in the Aegean Sea, coupled with surface water freshening in the Sicily Channel. It is still unknown whether similar transients occurred in the past and, if so, what their forcing processes were. In this study, sediments from the Sicily Channel document surface water freshening (SCFR) at 1910 ± 12, 1812 ± 18, 1725 ± 25 and 1580 ± 30 CE. A regional ocean hindcast links SCFR to enhanced deep-water production and in turn to strengthened Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. Independent evidence collected in the Aegean Sea supports this reconstruction, showing that enhanced bottom water ventilation in the Eastern Mediterranean was associated with each SCFR event. Comparison between the records and multi-decadal atmospheric circulation patterns and climatic external forcings indicates that Mediterranean circulation destabilisation occurs during positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and negative Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) phases, reduced solar activity and strong tropical volcanic eruptions. They may have recurrently produced favourable deep-water formation conditions, both increasing salinity and reducing temperature on multi-decadal time scales.

  13. Particle size distributions in the Eastern Mediterranean troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalivitis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particle size distributions were measured on Crete island, Greece in the Eastern Mediterranean during an intensive field campaign between 28 August and 20 October 2005. Our instrumentation combined a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS and measured number size distributions in the size range 0.018 μm–10 μm. Four time periods with distinct aerosol characteristics were discriminated, two corresponding to marine and polluted air masses, respectively. In marine air, the sub-μm size distributions showed two particle modes centered at 67 nm and 195 nm having total number concentrations between 900 and 2000 cm−3. In polluted air masses, the size distributions were mainly unimodal with a mode typically centered at 140 nm, with number concentrations varying between 1800 and 2900 cm−3. Super-μm particles showed number concentrations in the range from 0.01 to 2.5 cm−3 without any clear relation to air mass origin. A small number of short-lived particle nucleation events were recorded, where the calculated particle formation rates ranged between 1.1–1.7 cm−3 s−1. However, no particle nucleation and growth events comparable to those typical for the continental boundary layer were observed. Particles concentrations (Diameter <50 nm were low compared to continental boundary layer conditions with an average concentration of 300 cm−3. The production of sulfuric acid and its subsequently condensation on preexisting particles was examined with the use of a simplistic box model. These calculations suggested that the day-time evolution of the Aitken particle population was governed mainly by coagulation and that particle formation was absent during most days.

  14. Particle size distributions in the Eastern Mediterranean troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalivitis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particle size distributions were measured on Crete island, Greece in the Eastern Mediterranean during an intensive field campaign between 28 August and 20 October, 2005. Our instrumentation combined a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS and measured number size distributions in the size range 0.018 μm–10 μm. Four time periods with distinct aerosol characteristics were discriminated, two corresponding to marine and polluted air masses, respectively. In marine air, the sub-μm size distributions showed two particle modes centered at 67 nm and 195 nm having total number concentrations between 900 and 2000 cm−3. In polluted air masses, the size distributions were mainly unimodal with a mode typically centered at 140 nm, with number concentrations varying between 1800 and 2900 cm−3. Super-μm particles showed number concentrations in the range from 0.01 to 2.5 cm−3 without any clear relation to air mass origin. A small number of short-lived particle nucleation events were recorded, where the calculated particle formation rates ranged between 1.1–1.7 cm−3 s−1. However, no particle nucleation and growth events comparable to those typical for the continental boundary layer were observed. Particles concentrations (Diameter <50 nm were low compared to continental boundary layer conditions with an average concentration of 300 cm−3. The production of sulfuric acid and its subsequently condensation on preexisting particles was examined with the use of a simplistic box model. These calculations suggested that the day-time evolution of the Aitken particle population was governed mainly by coagulation and that particle formation was absent during most days.

  15. Observations of smoke and mineral dust over Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisantzi, Argyro; Elisavet Mamouri, Rodanthi; Hadjimitsis, Diofandos; Ansmann, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Four-year combined observations (2010-2014) with EARLINET polarization lidar and AERONET sun/sky photometer at Limassol (34.7 N, 33 E), Cyprus, Eastern Mediterranean, were used in order to study the soil dust content in lofted fire smoke plumes. This study focuses on air masses advected from Turkey as well regions further north of Black Sea during the main burning season (summer half year). Cases with strong impact of smoke events (occurring over Turkey during 1-3 days before arrival at Limassol) and observations with more background-like aerosol signatures (not influenced by Turkish fire smoke) were separated. This first systematic attempt to characterize less than 3-day-old smoke plumes in terms of particle linear depolarization ratio (PDR), measured with lidar, shown that PDR was typically 10-15% when Turkish fires contributed to the aerosol burden in the free troposphere and considerably lower with values 3-8% when fires over Turkey were absent while the air masses cross this country. High Ångström exponents of 1.4-2.2 during all these events with lofted smoke layers, occurring between 1 and 3 km height, suggest the absence of a pronounced particle coarse mode. When PDR plotted vs. travel time (spatial distance between Limassol and last fire area), PDR decreased strongly from initial values around 16-18% (1 day travel) to 4-8% after 4 days of travel caused by deposition processes. This behavior was found to be in close agreement with findings described in the literature. Biomass burning should therefore be considered as another source of free tropospheric soil dust.

  16. Genetic homogeneity of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) in the western Mediterranean and the eastern Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Pla Zanuy, Carles; Pujolar, Josep Martí

    1998-01-01

    Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) is an epipelagic, highly migratory species distributed worldwide in tropical and temperate waters including the Mediterranean Sea. Protein electrophoresis analyses can provide knowledge of the genetic population structure of the species and therefore be used as a tool for fishery management. Areas sampled include the islands of Majorca and Sicily in the western Mediterranean and the Canary Islands in the eastern Atlantic. The results of the protein electropho...

  17. Primary health care in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: from Alma-Ata to Doha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawky, S

    2012-12-04

    The celebration in Doha of the 30th anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration at the International Conference on Primary Health Care renewed the commitment of the Eastern Mediterranean Region to primary health care as the tool for better health. The principles agreed at Alma-Ata in 1978 apply as much now as they did before. The event provided an opportunity for the Eastern Mediterranean countries to define future directions to steer the health systems to integrate primary health care and harness the intersectoral approach.

  18. Bluetongue virus in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, J; Lorusso, A; Carmine, I; Di Gennaro, A; Portanti, O; Olivieri, S; Casaccia, C; Pisciella, M; Teodori, L; Sghaier, S; Savini, G

    2013-10-01

    Since 2000, several incursions of bluetongue virus (BTV) occurred in the Mediterranean Basin involving European and surrounding Countries. The Middle East represents one of the most important gateways for the access of BTV in Europe. Limited data on the BTV situation in this area are available. In this perspective, an epidemiological survey on the presence of BTV in Lebanon was conducted. Of the 181 serum samples tested, 97 (mean = 53.6%; 95% CI: 46.3-60.7) resulted positive when tested for the presence of BTV antibodies by c-ELISA, of these 42 (mean = 42%; 95% CI: 32.8-51.8) serum samples were from sheep and 55 (mean = 67.9%; 95% CI: 57.1-77.1) serum samples were from goats. Fourteen blood samples (14/110; mean = 12.7%; 95% CI: 7.8-20.3), 6 (6/66; mean = 9.1%; 95% CI: 4.4-18.5) from sheep and 8 (8/44; mean = 18.2%; 95% CI: 9.6-32.0) from goats, were positive by qRT-PCR. The results with serum-neutralization assay and typing performed by RT-PCR confirmed that six BTV serotypes are currently circulating in Lebanon, and these serotypes are as follows: 1, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24. This study is the first report that confirms the presence and circulation of BTV in Lebanon. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Comparison of deep-sea sediment microbial communities in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijs, Sander K.; Laverman, Anniet M.; Forney, Larry J.; Hardoim, Pablo R.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    Bacterial and archaeal communities in sediments obtained from three geographically-distant mud volcanoes, a control site and a microbial mat in the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea were characterized using direct 16S rRNA gene analyses. The data were thus in relation to the chemical characteristics of

  20. A model study of ozone in the eastern Mediterranean free troposphere during MINOS (August 2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, GJ; Scheeren, HA; Heland, J; Ziereis, H; Lelieveld, J

    2003-01-01

    A coupled tropospheric chemistry-climate model is used to analyze tropospheric ozone distributions observed during the MINOS campaign in the eastern Mediterranean region ( August, 2001). Modeled ozone profiles are generally in good agreement with the observations. Our analysis shows that the atmosph

  1. Diverse methane concentrations in anoxic brines and underlying sediments, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    Elevated methane (CH sub(4)) concentrations (128-2692x10 sup(3) nM) occur in the hypersaline anoxic brine pools of Bannock and Urania Basins, eastern Mediterranean Sea, compared to low concentrations (17-80x10 sup(3) nM) in the sediments below...

  2. A model study of ozone in the eastern Mediterranean free troposphere during MINOS (August 2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, GJ; Scheeren, HA; Heland, J; Ziereis, H; Lelieveld, J

    2003-01-01

    A coupled tropospheric chemistry-climate model is used to analyze tropospheric ozone distributions observed during the MINOS campaign in the eastern Mediterranean region ( August, 2001). Modeled ozone profiles are generally in good agreement with the observations. Our analysis shows that the

  3. Communication Barriers: A Study of Eastern Mediterranean University Students' and Teachers' of Online Program and Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Altinay, Fahriye

    2005-01-01

    This research study defines communication barriers in online programs and courses by determining the perceptions of students and teachers at Eastern Mediterranean University. It aims to get the answers to the questions of what sorts of problems students and teachers face while being involved in online courses and online programs. Distance…

  4. The eastern Mediterranean climate at times of sapropel formation: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohling, E.J.; Hilgen, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Sapropel formation in the eastern Mediterranean coincided closely with minima in the precession index. Such minima occur approximately every 21000 years. At such times perihelion falls within Northern Hemisphere summer. Minima in the precession index are characterized by intensified Indian Ocean

  5. Sulphur geochemistry and sapropel formation : syngenetic and diagenetic signals in eastern Mediterranean sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passier, Hilde Françoise

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis the sulphur geochemistry of eastern Mediterranean sediments is studied. The sediments discussed were recovered during the 1987 ABC cruise with R/V Tyro (core ABC27), the 1988 BAMO-3 expedition of R/V Bannock (cores GC17 and GC21), the 1991 Marflux cruise with R/V Marion Dufresne

  6. Molecular palaeontology of eastern Mediterranean sapropels: Evidence for photic zone euxinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Bosch, Hendrik-Johannes (paleontoloog); Leeuw, J.W. de

    1997-01-01

    Organic geochemical data are presented for two Pliocene sapropels recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 160 in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin. One sapropel from Site 969 is exceptionally rich in organic carbon (TOC up to 30%) and the other one, from Site 967, has a more typical organic

  7. Composition and sources of sedimentary organic matter in the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pedrosa-Pàmies

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediments collected from deep slopes and basins (1018–4087 m depth of the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea have been analysed for bulk elemental and isotopic composition of organic carbon, total nitrogen and selected lipid biomarkers, jointly with grain size distribution and other geochemical proxies. The distribution and sources of sedimentary organic matter (OM have been subsequently assessed and general environmental variables, such as water depth and currents, have been examined as causative factors of deep-sea sediment characteristics. Lithogenic and biogenic carbonates are the dominant sedimentary fractions, while both bulk and molecular organic tracers reflect a mixed contribution from autochthonous and allochthonous sources for the sedimentary OM, as indicated by relatively degraded marine OM, terrestrial plant waxes and anthropogenic OM including degraded petroleum by-products, respectively. Wide regional variations have been observed amongst the studied proxies, which reflect the multiple factors controlling sedimentation in the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Our findings highlight the role of deep Eastern Mediterranean basins as depocentres of organic-rich fine-grained sediments (mean 5.4 ± 2.4 μm, with OM accumulation and burial due to aggregation mechanisms and hydrodynamic sorting. A multi-proxy approach is hired to investigate the biogeochemical composition of sediment samples, which sheds new light on the sources and transport mechanisms along with the impact of preservation vs. diagenetic processes on the composition of sedimentary OM in the deep basins of the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Molecular palaeontology of eastern Mediterranean sapropels: Evidence for photic zone euxinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Bosch, Hendrik-Johannes (paleontoloog); Leeuw, J.W. de

    1997-01-01

    Organic geochemical data are presented for two Pliocene sapropels recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 160 in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin. One sapropel from Site 969 is exceptionally rich in organic carbon (TOC up to 30%) and the other one, from Site 967, has a more typical organic

  9. Isotopic values of plants in relation to water availability in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Gideon; Danin, Avinoam

    2010-04-01

    Plant C and N isotope values often correlate with rainfall on global and regional scales. This study examines the relationship between plant isotopic values and rainfall in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The results indicate significant correlations between both C and N isotope values and rainfall in C(3) plant communities. This significant relationship is maintained when plant communities are divided by plant life forms. Furthermore, a seasonal increase in C isotope values is observed during the dry season while N isotope values remain stable across the wet and dry seasons. Finally, the isotopic pattern in plants originating from desert environments differs from those from Mediterranean environments because some desert plants obtain most of their water from secondary sources, namely water channeled by local topographic features rather than direct rainfall. From these results it can be concluded that water availability is the primary factor controlling C and N isotope variability in plant communities in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  10. Atmospheric Electricity Effects of Eastern Mediterranean Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shai; Yair, Yoav; Yaniv, Roy; Price, Colin

    2016-04-01

    We present atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory (WO) in Mizpe-Ramon (30035'N, 34045'E) and Mt. Hermon (30024'N, 35051'E), Israel, during two massive and unique dust storms that occurred over the Eastern Mediterranean region on February 10-11 and September 08-12, 2015. The first event transported Saharan dust from Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula in advance of a warm front of a Cyprus low pressure system. In the second event, dust particles were transported from the Syrian desert, which dominates the north-east border with Iraq, through flow associated with a shallow Persian trough system. In both events the concentrations of PM10 particles measured by the air-quality monitoring network of the Israeli Ministry of the Environment in Beer-Sheba reached values > 2200 μg m-3. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) obtained from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker reached values up to 4.0. The gradual intensification of the first event reached peak values on the February 11th > 1200 μg m-3 and an AOT ~ 1.8, while the second dust storm commenced on September 8th with a sharp increase reaching peak values of 2225 μg m-3 and AOT of 4.0. Measurements of the fair weather vertical electric field (Ez) and of the vertical current density (Jz) were conducted continuously with a 1 minute temporal resolution. During the February event, very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters were measured at the WO. The Ez values changed between +1000 and +8000 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -10 and +20 pA m-2 (this is an order of magnitude larger compared to the fair weather current density of ~2 pA m-2. In contrast, during the September event, Ez values registered at WO were between -430 and +10 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -6 and +3 pA m2. For the September event the Hermon site showed Ez and Jz values fluctuating between -460 and +570 V m-1 and -14.5 and +18 pA m-2 respectively. The electric field and current variability, amplitude and the

  11. Prehistoric (Chalcolithic) Eastern Mediterranean tsunami deposit identified offshore central Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyuleneva, Natalia; Braun, Yael; Suchkov, Igor; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly

    2017-04-01

    The shallow shelf area ( 15-30 m water depth) offshore Israel, bears great potential for paleo-tsunami studies. It was shown in the course of previous research that in these offshore marine deposits, tsunami generated sedimentary layers can be well preserved and readily identified; unlike in onshore sedimentary sequences, which experience continuous exogenous natural and anthropogenic influence. A sediment core, 219 cm long, was obtained from 15.3 m water depth, in about 4 km north of Caesarea. Grain size at 1 cm interval as well as XRD and XRF analyses at coarser resolution were performed. Previously carried out research allowed correlation of two anomalous layers in this core with well described sediment sequences offshore Caesarea. These two events correspond best with the proposed events of 749 AD and 1500 BC. Identified unusual layers in this core bear certain set of proxies that are characteristic for tsunami generated deposits and easily distinguished from the local normal marine setting. The latter is characterized by three dominating mineralogical components, such as carbonaceous sand derived either from biogenic material, namely shell fragments or from eroded limestones and dolomites that outcrop the mountains to the east; siliciclastic quartz for the sand fraction and mineral smectite for the clays. The supply of the two latter terrigenous sedimentary components comes from the Nile River, which has been a stable and predominant source of sediments for the past 8 ka. The aim of this study is to characterize the earliest unusual sedimentary layer found down core between 191 and 211 cm. This layer was attributed to a tsunami-generated sedimentary sequence in the studied core. Absolute age determination based on 14C gave the time frame from 5.6 to 6 ka BP, making this event the oldest identified in the Eastern Mediterranean to date. This tsunami corresponds to the Chalcolithic ('Copper Age') cultural period of the region. Prehistoric age of these sediments

  12. The unique chemistry of Eastern Mediterranean water masses selects for distinct microbial communities by depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    Full Text Available The waters of the Eastern Mediterranean are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties within separate water masses occupying different depths. Distinct water masses are present throughout the oceans, which drive thermohaline circulation. These water masses may contain specific microbial assemblages. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical and geological phenomena on the microbial community of the Eastern Mediterranean water column. Chemical measurements were combined with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbial community in the water column at five sites. We demonstrate that the chemistry and microbial community of the water column were stratified into three distinct water masses. The salinity and nutrient concentrations vary between these water masses. Nutrient concentrations increased with depth, and salinity was highest in the intermediate water mass. Our PLFA analysis indicated different lipid classes were abundant in each water mass, suggesting that distinct groups of microbes inhabit these water masses. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the presence of distinct microbial communities in each water mass. Taxa involved in autotrophic nitrogen cycling were enriched in the intermediate water mass suggesting that microbes in this water mass may be important to the nitrogen cycle of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean also contains numerous active hydrocarbon seeps. We sampled above the North Alex Mud Volcano, in order to test the effect of these geological features on the microbial community in the adjacent water column. The community in the waters overlaying the mud volcano was distinct from other communities collected at similar depths and was enriched in known hydrocarbon degrading taxa. Our results demonstrate that physical phenomena such stratification as well as geological phenomena such as mud volcanoes strongly

  13. Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and comparison with Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertical ozone profiles measured in the period 1996–2002 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft for flights connecting Central Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Heraklion, Rhodes; Antalya were analysed in order to evaluate the high rural ozone levels recorded in the Mediterranean area during summertime. The 77 flights during summer (JJAS showed significantly (10–12 ppb, 20–40% enhanced ozone mixing ratios in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean frequently exceeding the 60 ppb, 8-h EU air quality standard, whereas ozone between 700 hPa and 400 hPa was only slightly (3–5 ppb, 5–10% higher than over central Europe. Analysis of composite weather maps for the high and low ozone cases, as well as back-trajectories and vertical profiles of carbon monoxide, suggest that the main factor leading to high tropospheric ozone values in the area is anticyclonic influence, in combination with a persistent northerly flow in the lower troposphere during summertime over the Aegean. On the other hand the lowest ozone levels are associated with low-pressure systems, especially the extension of the Middle East low over the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  14. Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and comparison with Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical ozone profiles measured in the period 1996–2002 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft for flights connecting Central Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Heraklion, Rhodes, Antalya were analysed in order to evaluate the high rural ozone levels recorded in the Mediterranean area during summertime. The 77 flights during summer (JJAS showed substantially (10–12 ppb, 20–40% enhanced ozone mixing ratios in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean frequently exceeding the 60 ppb, 8-h EU air quality standard, whereas ozone between 700 hPa and 400 hPa was only slightly (3–5 ppb, 5–10% higher than over Central Europe. Analysis of composite weather maps for the high and low ozone cases, as well as back-trajectories and vertical profiles of carbon monoxide, suggest that the main factor leading to high tropospheric ozone values in the area is anticyclonic influence, in combination with a persistent northerly flow in the lower troposphere during summertime over the Aegean. On the other hand the lowest ozone levels are associated with low-pressure systems, especially the extension of the Middle East low over the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  15. The wind and thermally driven circulation of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Part II: the Baroclinic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Bergamasco, Andrea

    1991-04-01

    Compared with other interesting parts of the World Ocean, little is known of the eastern Mediterranean and major issues of the Mediterranean circulation are still unsolved. Among them, the most crucial one is: what is the dominant driving mechanism of the eastern Mediterranean general circulation: (1) the wind stress; (2) the thermohaline surface fluxes; (3) the inflow forcing at the Sicily Straits? What is the relative importance of these three forcing functions? Is it the same in the different sub-basins comprising the eastern Mediterranean? What modelling factors are important for the simulation of the seasonal cycle and is the general circulation overall dominated by the annual mean or seasonal signal? To answer the above questions we have carried out an extensive and thorough series of numerical experiments using a multilevel model of the circulation, suitable for coarse-resolution studies but endowed with active thermodynamics and allowing for realistic geometry (coastlines, islands, bottom relief). The model is used in a three-level version as the minimum one capable of simulating the vertical superposition of different water masses observed in the eastern Mediterranean. The climatological monthly averages of wind-stress, thermal and evaporative fluxes and inflow at Sicily are used to drive the model. In Part I of the present study it was shown that the seasonal cycle present in the wind-stress curl induces a strongly seasonal barotropic circulation comprising the entire eastern Mediterranean. This seasonal gyre reverses from being cyclonic in winter to anticyclonic in summer. The inclusion of baroclinicity, however, profoundly modifies the purely wind-driven, barotropic circulation, eliminating the strong seasonality and the winter-to-summer reversal. The first important result is that the general circulation pattern now consists of a succession of sub-basin-scale gyres, with a seasonal modulation emphasizing the cyclonic centres in winter and the

  16. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey’s Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Tanrıverdi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus’ financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey’s attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey’s position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey’s energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  17. Community structure and population genetics of Eastern Mediterranean polychaetes

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    Giorgos eChatzigeorgiou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Species and genetic diversity are often found to co-vary since they are influenced by external factors in similar ways. In this paper, we analyse the genetic differences of the abundant polychaete Hermodice carunculata (Pallas, 1776 during two successive years at two locations in northern Crete (Aegean Sea and compare them to other populations in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The genetic analysis is combined with an analysis of ecological divergence of the total polychaete community structure (beta diversity at these locations. The phylogenetic analysis of all included H. carunculata populations revealed two main clades, one exclusively found in the Mediterranean and a second occurring in both the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. Genetic diversity indices reveal unexpectedly high differences between the two Cretan populations, despite the absence of apparent oceanographic barriers. A similarly high divergence, represented by a high beta diversity index, was observed between the polychaete communities at the two locations. This comparatively high divergence of the genetic structure of a dominant species and the total polychaete community might be explained by the strong influence of local environmental factors as well as inter-specific interactions between the dominance of a single species and the members of the community.

  18. The wind power potential of the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Besir; Bilgili, Mehmet; Akilli, Huseyin [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Arhitecture, & amp; Ccedil; ukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2005-02-01

    The wind energy potential in the eastern Mediterranean region has been investigated using hourly wind data taken from seven stations during 1992-2001 periods by the Turkish Meteorological Service. The present work suggests that in the east Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey, wind energy sources are convenient for electricity generation. The mean power density was determined as 500W/m{sup 2} in many areas of this region at 25m from the ground level. The most promising locations in terms of wind power generation are identified. The contours of constant wind speed and power potential could lead the private power developers to decide the locations of appropriate wind farms.

  19. Flabelliderma cinari (Polychaeta: Flabelligeridae, a new species from the Eastern Mediterranean

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    S.U. KARHAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of flabelligerid polychaete, Flabelliderma cinari, is described from the Turkish coast of the Eastern MediterraneanSea. This represents the first occurrence of the genus Flabelliderma in the Mediterranean. Flabelliderma cinari sp. nov. isclosely allied to F. claparedei in having dorsal tubercles of two different sizes; however, these species differ in the relative shapeand number of dorsal tubercles, the number of capillaries per fascicle in the notopodia and the shape of the curved distal articlesin the neuropodial hooks.

  20. The impact of monsoon outflow from India and Southeast Asia in the upper troposphere over the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, HA; Lelieveld, J; Roelofs, GJ; Williams, J; Fischer, H; de Reus, M; de Gouw, JA; Warneke, C; Holzinger, R; Schlager, H; Klupfel, T; Bolder, M; van der Veen, C; Lawrence, M

    2003-01-01

    A major objective of the Mediterranean INtensive Oxidant Study (MINOS) was to investigate long-range transport of pollutants ( notably ozone precursor species). Here we present trace gas measurements from the DLR ( German Aerospace Organization) Falcon aircraft in the eastern Mediterranean troposphe

  1. An oceanic box model of the Miocene Mediterranean Sea with emphasis on the effects of closure of the eastern gateway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karami, M.P.; Meijer, P.Th.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Wortel, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The early Miocene Mediterranean Sea had two gateways toward the open ocean: the Indian Ocean in the east and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. Closure of the eastern connection during the middle Miocene had important effects on the water properties and circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. To gain ins

  2. Precession driven changes in terrestrial organic matter input to the Eastern Mediterranean leading up to the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Flecker, Rachel; Marzocchi, Alice; Kouwenhoven, Tanja J.; Lunt, Dan J.; Pancost, Rich D.

    2017-01-01

    Eastern Mediterranean sediments over the past 12 Myr commonly show strongly developed precessional cyclicity, thought to be a biogeochemical response to insolation-driven freshwater input from run-off. The Mediterranean's dominant freshwater source today and in the past, is the Nile, which is fed by

  3. The impact of monsoon outflow from India and Southeast Asia in the upper troposphere over the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, HA; Lelieveld, J; Roelofs, GJ; Williams, J; Fischer, H; de Reus, M; de Gouw, JA; Warneke, C; Holzinger, R; Schlager, H; Klupfel, T; Bolder, M; van der Veen, C; Lawrence, M

    2003-01-01

    A major objective of the Mediterranean INtensive Oxidant Study (MINOS) was to investigate long-range transport of pollutants ( notably ozone precursor species). Here we present trace gas measurements from the DLR ( German Aerospace Organization) Falcon aircraft in the eastern Mediterranean troposphe

  4. Alien marine fishes deplete algal biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Kizilkaya, Zafer; Yildirim, Derya; Ballesteros, Enric

    2011-02-22

    One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less 'barrens', we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus) are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to 'barrens' implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast.

  5. Alien marine fishes deplete algal biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Sala

    Full Text Available One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less 'barrens', we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to 'barrens' implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast.

  6. Indications of low macrobenthic activity in the deep sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Basso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluxes and budget of organic matter from the oligotrophic surface waters of the eastern Mediterranean to the deep waters are poorly known, and little information is available on past and present macrobenthic activity on the sea floor. Evidence of macrobenthic activity can be direct, through recovery of living organisms or their autochthonous skeletal remains, or indirect, through bioturbation and trace fossils. The evidence of biological activity in deep eastern Mediterranean sediments has been evaluated and compared through 210Pb profiles from box-cores and study of dredge samples from sites on Medina Rise (1374 m water depth, the Messina Abyssal Plain (4135 m and several sites along the Mediterranean Ridge, SW and S of Crete (1783 to 3655 m. All these sites are remote from the continental shelves, so the biological benthic activity is expected to depend primarily on primary production from surface waters. The results show that present-day macrobenthos and trace fossils are generally scarce, especially at depths > 2500 m. This observation is supported by surface sediment 210Pb excess distributions that show a surface mixed layer (SML 2500 m. The historical layer of some box-cores and the Pleistocene hardgrounds collected in the Cleft area (Mediterranean Ridge do, however, record a macrobenthic activity that is apparently more intense than at present, which may be related to higher primary production of the Pleistocene glacial intervals. In contrast with most areas of the present-day deep eastern Mediterranean which depend on surface primary production based on photosynthesis, a relatively dense and diversified macrobenthic community based on chemosynthesis has been recognised at depths > 1100 m on the Napoli Dome mud volcano in the Olimpi area, and on the Kazan and other mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountains.

  7. Tracers confirm downward mixing of Tyrrhenian Sea upper waters associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient

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    W. Roether

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of tritium and 3He in the Tyrrhenian Sea, 1987–2009, confirm the enhanced vertical mixing of intermediate waters into the deep waters that has been noted and associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient in previous studies. Our evidence for the mixing rests on increasing tracer concentrations in the Tyrrhenian deep waters, accompanied by decreases in the upper waters, which are supplied from the Eastern Mediterranean. The downward transfer is particularly evident between 1987 and 1997. Later on, information partly rests on increasing tritium-3He ages; here we correct the observed 3He for contributions released from the ocean floor. The Tyrrhenian tracer distributions are fully compatible with data upstream of the Sicily Strait and in the Western Mediterranean. The tracer data show that mixing reached to the bottom and confirm a cyclonic nature of the deep water circulation in the Tyrrhenian. They furthermore indicate that horizontal homogenization of the deep waters occurs on a time scale of roughly 5 years. Various features point to a reduced impact of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW in the Tyrrhenian during the enhanced-mixing period. This is an important finding because it implies less upward mixing of WMDW, which has been named a major process to enable the WMDW to leave the Mediterranean via the Gibraltar Strait. On the other hand, the TDW outflow for several years represented a major influx of enhanced salinity and density waters into the deep-water range of the Western Mediterranean.

  8. Contribution of mono and polysaccharides to heterotrophic N2 fixation at the eastern Mediterranean coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahav, E; Giannetto, M J; Bar-Zeev, E

    2016-06-16

    N2 fixation should be a critical process in the nitrogen-poor surface water of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Despite favorable conditions, diazotroph abundance and N2 fixation rates remains low for reasons yet explained. The main goal of this study was to investigate the limiting nutrients for diazotrophy in this oligotrophic environment. Hence, we conducted dedicated bottle-microcosms with eastern Mediterranean Sea water that were supplemented with mono and polysaccharides as well as inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous. Our results indicate that the diazotrophic community expressing nifH was primarily represented by heterotrophic Proteobacteria. N2 fixation and heterotrophic bacterial activity increased up-to tenfold following two days of dark incubations, once seawater was supplemented with organic carbon substrate in the form of glucose (monosaccharides) or gum-xanthan (polysaccharide surrogate). Furthermore, our results point that carbon-rich polysaccharides, such as transparent exopolymer particles, enhance heterotrophic N2 fixation, by forming microenvironments of intense metabolic activity, high carbon: nitrogen ratio, and possibly low O2 levels. The conclusions of this study indicate that diazotrophs in the eastern Mediterranean coast are primarily limited by organic carbon substrates, as possibly in many other marine regions.

  9. Vertical diffusion processes in the Eastern Mediterranean - Black Sea System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioroglou, Sotiris; Tragou, Elina; Zervakis, Vassilis; Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Herut, Barak; Gertman, Isaak; Kovacevic, Vedrana; Özsoy, Emin; Tutsak, Ersin

    2014-07-01

    The identification and examination of ‘complete' potential density overturns in CTD profiles, within the framework of SESAME project, are employed to assess vertical eddy diffusivities, mostly in the top 100 m of the water column, for a broad area covering the East Mediterranean, the Turkish Straits and the Black Sea. The implementation of this method shows that, mixing induced by mechanical turbulence is enhanced in frontal areas, in the proximity of straits and inside anticyclones; furthermore, that mechanical turbulence is insignificant, down to the scale of CTD resolution, within areas of double diffusive staircases, encountered in deep layers of the water column. Consequently, only laminar theories about double diffusion are applied for assessing diffusivities therein. Susceptibility to different types of double diffusion seems to be related to the interaction of different types of water masses.

  10. European bluetongue serotype 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drolet, Barbara S.; Reister-Hendricks, Lindsey M.; Podell, Brendan K.; Breitenbach, Jonathan E.; Mcvey, D.S.; Rijn, van Piet A.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an orbivirus transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) that can result in moderate to high morbidity and mortality primarily in sheep and white-tailed deer. Although only 5 serotypes of BTV are considered endemic to the United States, as many as 11 incursive serotyp

  11. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-08-20

    Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary

  12. Food-web traits of the North Aegean Sea ecosystem (Eastern Mediterranean) and comparison with other Mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagarakis, K.; Coll, M.; Giannoulaki, M.; Somarakis, S.; Papaconstantinou, C.; Machias, A.

    2010-06-01

    A mass-balance trophic model was built to describe the food-web traits of the North Aegean Sea (Strymonikos Gulf and Thracian Sea, Greece, Eastern Mediterranean) during the mid-2000s and to explore the impacts of fishing. This is the first food-web model representing the Aegean Sea, and results were presented and discussed in comparison to other previous ecosystems modelled from the western and the central areas of the basin (South Catalan and North-Central Adriatic Seas). Forty functional groups were defined, covering the entire trophic spectrum from lower to higher trophic levels. Emphasis was placed on commercial invertebrates and fish. The potential ecological role of the invasive ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, and several vulnerable groups (e.g., dolphins) was also explored. Results confirmed the spatial productivity patterns known for the Mediterranean Sea showing, for example, that the total biomass is highest in N.C. Adriatic and lowest in N. Aegean Sea. Accordingly, food-web flows and several ecosystem indicators like the mean transfer efficiency were influenced by these patterns. Nevertheless, all three systems shared some common features evidencing similarities of Mediterranean Sea ecosystems such as dominance of the pelagic fraction in terms of flows and strong benthic-pelagic coupling of zooplankton and benthic invertebrates through detritus. The importance of detritus highlighted the role of the microbial food-web, which was indirectly considered through detritus dynamics. Ciliates, mesozooplankton and several benthic invertebrate groups were shown as important elements of the ecosystem linking primary producers and detritus with higher trophic levels in the N. Aegean Sea. Adult anchovy was shown as the most important fish group in terms of production, consumption and overall effect on the rest of the ecological groups in the model, in line with results from the Western Mediterranean Sea. The five fishing fleets considered (both artisanal and

  13. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Giantsis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable domain 1 (VD1 domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey. A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels.

  14. Deep-sea tsunami deposits triggered by the explosion of Santorini (3500 y BP), eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cita, M. B.; Aloisi, G.

    2000-09-01

    The collapse of the Santorini caldera after the catastrophic eruption of the Bronze Age, 3500 y BP, caused a tsunami wave that had catastrophic effects in the Ionian basin, including its deepest parts. Pelagic turbidites of local origin were deposited on the bottom of small perched basins of the Southern Calabrian, Western and Central Mediterranean Ridges (type A homogenite) whereas a megaturbidite of distal origin, presumably triggered by the tsunami wave hitting the shoreline of the Sirte Gulf, was deposited on the Ionian and Sirte Abyssal Plains, extending eastwards as far as the Western Herodotous Trough depositing a thick, acoustically transparent layer (type B homogenite). Three core transects crossing the deformation front of the Mediterranean Ridge are presented and discussed. A fourth transect of giant piston cores was collected on the abyssal plains located to the south of the Mediterranean Ridge. All those to the west of the collision zone contain the Holocene homogenite with a thickness in excess of 20 m, whereas the cores taken from the Herodotous Abyssal Plain east of the collision zone are devoid of the homogenite. Sedimentological analyses were performed on the only giant core that penetrated the sandy base of the homogenite and the underlying pelagic sediments of late Pleistocene (last glacial) age. The African provenance of this typical type B homogenite is corroborated by shallow-water fauna derived from the North African shelf. No sedimentological characteristics peculiar to tsunamiites are observed in the deep-sea homogenite of the eastern Mediterranean.

  15. Large-scale response of the Eastern Mediterranean thermohaline circulation to African monsoon intensification during sapropel S1 formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, T.; Asioli, A.; Minisini, D.; Maselli, V.; Dalla Valle, G.; Gamberi, F.; Langone, L.; Cattaneo, A.; Montagna, P.; Trincardi, F.

    2017-03-01

    The formation of Eastern Mediterranean sapropels has periodically occurred during intensification of northern hemisphere monsoon precipitation over North Africa. However, the large-scale response of the Eastern Mediterranean thermohaline circulation during these monsoon-fuelled freshening episodes is poorly constrained. Here, we investigate the formation of the youngest sapropel (S1) along an across-slope transect in the Adriatic Sea. Foraminifera-based oxygen index, redox-sensitive elements and biogeochemical parameters reveal - for the first time - that the Adriatic S1 was synchronous with the deposition of south-eastern Mediterranean S1 beds. Proxies of paleo thermohaline currents indicate that the bottom-hugging North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) suddenly decreased at the sapropel onset simultaneously with the maximum freshening of the Levantine Sea during the African Humid Period. We conclude that the lack of the "salty" Levantine Intermediate Water hampered the preconditioning of the northern Adriatic waters necessary for the NAdDW formation prior to the winter cooling. Consequently, a weak NAdDW limited in turn the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDWAdriatic) formation with important consequences for the ventilation of the Ionian basin as well. Our results highlight the importance of the Adriatic for the deep water ventilation and the interdependence among the major eastern Mediterranean water masses whose destabilization exerted first-order control on S1 deposition.

  16. Toward tracing routes of bottom waters in the Eastern Mediterranean basin using a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Angelo; Zanchettin, Davide; Bensi, Manuel; Cardin, Vanessa; Hainbucher, Dagmar; Baldi, Franco; Marchetto, Davide; Mapelli, Francesca; Borin, Sara

    2013-04-01

    We use near-bottom measurements of total mercury, biopolymeric carbon and its constituents, microbial activities, and bacterial diversity to attempt tracing routes of convectively generated bottom waters toward the abyss of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. The advantage of employing these parameters -which are often linked to persistent biological activities rather than to episodic flow phenomena- to complement the traditionally used ones (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen) is twofold: they can yield valuable information even when the values of temperature and salinity in competing sources are virtually indistinguishable and they can allow also for a spatial and temporal integration of the export of newly formed deep waters. In our case study -the Eastern Mediterranean basin, which can be considered as a miniature global ocean - the proposed method seems to be able to capture two different exporting routes from the northern convective source and one exporting route from the eastern convective source, thus elucidating further aspects of the structure and variability of the local deep stratification.

  17. Millennial to orbital-scale variations of drought intensity in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhecke, Mona; Timmermann, Axel; Kipfer, Rolf; Haug, Gerald H.; Kwiecien, Ola; Friedrich, Tobias; Menviel, Laurie; Litt, Thomas; Pickarski, Nadine; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2016-02-01

    Millennial to orbital-scale rainfall changes in the Mediterranean region and corresponding variations in vegetation patterns were the result of large-scale atmospheric reorganizations. In spite of recent efforts to reconstruct this variability using a range of proxy archives, the underlying physical mechanisms have remained elusive. Through the analysis of a new high-resolution sedimentary section from Lake Van (Turkey) along with climate modeling experiments, we identify massive droughts in the Eastern Mediterranean for the past four glacial cycles, which have a pervasive link with known intervals of enhanced North Atlantic glacial iceberg calving, weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and Dansgaard-Oeschger cold conditions. On orbital timescales, the topographic effect of large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and periods with minimum insolation seasonality further exacerbated drought intensities by suppressing both summer and winter precipitation.

  18. A new morpho-bathymetric map of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascle, Jean; Brosolo, Laetitia

    2016-04-01

    A new morpho-bathymetric synthesis of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been compiled using a digital terrain model (DTM) based on a 100-meter grid. This DTM has been constructed using data provided by several peri-mediterranean Institutes, and collected using various swath bathymetry systems operated by different research vessels. One may estimate that 90% of the seabed extending by water depths higher than 2000m have been mapped using swath systems. The aim of this synthesis is chiefly to illustrate, in detail, the morphological features resulting from the various (sedimentary, tectonic, geochemical, magmatic, etc.) active geological processes operating on the four main physiographic domains, which characterize the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: the Calabria outer arc (Ionian Sea), the Mediterranean Ridge (most of the central basin), the Nile sedimentary cone (off Egypt) and the Eratosthenes seamount (south of Cyprus). For areas not yet covered by swath bathymetric systems the map has been completed by digital data extracted either from GEBCO or from EMODNET DTM files (http://www.gebco.net/data_and_products/gebco_digital_atlas/) (http://www.emodnet-hydrography.eu/). Several artifacts introduced by the use of these files, for example theoccurrences of their grids, can be detected along most of the steep continental slopes not yet mapped in detail, as well as in the southern domain of the Adriatic Sea. Similarly it has not been possible to systematically correct a few, but non-linear, discrepancies in Z values between various DTM files. Such discrepancies result either from the use of data collected by swath systems operating at different frequencies and/or from minor differences in seawater sound velocity corrections.

  19. Spatial Model Assessment of P Transport from Soils to Waterways in an Eastern Mediterranean Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Reichmann

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available P index is a management tool commonly used to identify critical source areas (CSAs in agro-catchments. We tested the applicability of several P-index models adjusted to Eastern Mediterranean conditions. On the basis of model structure and data requirements, we selected the Arkansas model and two models with the RUSLE equation and runoff curve number (RCN. Concurrently, we developed a GIS-based Hermon-P model which was designed to simulate rainfall–runoff events representing the major nutrient-transport mechanism in Eastern Mediterranean. The P index values computed by the Arkansas and RUSLE models exhibited low correlation (r2 < 0.32 with the measured soluble reactive (SRP and total P (TP, while the RCN model result correlations were somewhat higher (r2 = 0.53 for SRP and 0.45 for TP. High correlations between the calculated and measured P during rainfall–runoff events were only achieved with the Hermon model (r2 = 0.77 to 0.9. These high coefficients resulted from avoiding subjective categorization of the continuous variables and using the measured site-specific erosional predictors instead. On one occasion, during the first significant runoff event of the year, the Hermon model failed to predict total P in the stream water (r2 = 0.14 because of considerable resuspension of stream sediments. Most of the P-index models are based on the perceptual transfer-continuum framework that was developed for temperate agro-catchments; this framework does not consider P resuspension along streams during rainfall–runoff events. Hence, a new set of equations should be added to the P index to account for potential resuspension in Eastern Mediterranean streams at the beginning of the hydrological year.

  20. Mesoscale modeling of combined aerosol and photo-oxidant processes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lazaridis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter and photo-oxidant processes in the Eastern Mediterranean have been studied using the UAM-AERO mesoscale air quality model in conjunction with the NILU-CTM regional model. Meteorological data were obtained from the RAMS prognostic meteorological model. The modeling domain includes the eastern Mediterranean area between the Greek mainland and the island of Crete. The modeling system is applied to study the atmospheric processes in three periods, i.e. 13–16 July 2000, 26–30 July 2000 and 7–14 January 2001. The spatial and temporal distributions of both gaseous and particulate matter pollutants have been extensively studied together with the identification of major emission sources in the area. The modeling results were compared with field data obtained in the same period. The objective of the current modeling work was mainly to apply the UAM-AERO mesoscale model in the eastern Mediterranean in order to assess the performed field campaigns and determine that the applied mesoscale model is fit for this purpose. Comparison of the modeling results with measured data was performed for a number of gaseous and aerosol species. The UAM-AERO model underestimates the PM10 measured concentrations during summer and winter campaigns. Discrepancies between modeled and measured data are attributed to unresolved particulate matter emissions. Particulate matter in the area is mainly composed by sulphate, sea salt and crustal materials, and with significant amounts of nitrate, ammonium and organics. During winter the particulate matter and oxidant concentrations were lower than the summer values.

  1. Dynamic processes associated with the eastern Mediterranean 'bomb' of 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacostas, T. S.; Brikas, D.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2010-09-01

    The meteorological "bomb" of the 21st and 22nd of January 2004, that affected the eastern Aegean Sea with very strong winds reaching 80 kts, excessive rain and even snow, with accumulations of at least one (1) meter on Limnos island and mean sea-level pressure at the record level of 972 hPa on Ikaria island, is studied from the synoptic and mostly dynamic concept. Lagouvardos and co-authors have already proved that the upper tropospheric PV anomaly was a necessary ingredient of the explosive cyclogenesis and the latter was attributed to the merger of troughs coming from North Africa and Europe. The present study is mainly concerned with the dynamic processes that led to the explosive cyclogenesis of 21 - 22 January 2004. Relying upon the use of the original ECMWF data information, a serious attempt is made to investigate, verify and justify the space and time of the "bomb explosion", the accompanied characteristics and the reasons causing the cyclolysis. Upper and lower tropospheric level forcing mechanisms are identified and monitored and a quantitative dynamical picture is provided for the explosively (pre) cyclogenetic period. The explosive cyclogenesis begins in Gabes Sea, just off the Libyan coast, the low forming on a frontogenetically active occlusion of a Saharan depression, when a tropopause fold/upper level front system crosses aloft. The occlusion is traced back to the Sahara desert, as a low level convergence/frontal zone, along which Qs vectors indicate an anticyclonic rotation of the warm part of the front. Dynamic tropopause maps show significant cold air advection just upstream the area of surface cyclogenesis on the 21st of January 2004. Consequently, an upper level vortex forms, which perturbs the thermal field, maximizing Q vector convergence above the bomb. Gradually the role of the tropopause decreases, as the upper level front system weakens. During these initial stages, when the low level vortex of the bomb is not yet well defined, the

  2. Vaccines against bluetongue in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Giovanni; MacLachlan, N James; Sanchez-Vizcaino, Jose-Manuel; Zientara, Stéphan

    2008-03-01

    After the incursion of bluetongue virus (BTV) into European Mediterranean countries in 1998, vaccination was used in an effort to minimize direct economic losses to animal production, reduce virus circulation and allow safe movements of animals from endemic areas. Vaccination strategies in different countries were developed according to their individual policies, the geographic distribution of the incurring serotypes of BTV and the availability of appropriate vaccines. Four monovalent modified live virus (MLV) vaccines were imported from South Africa and subsequently used extensively in both cattle and sheep. MLVs were found to be immunogenic and capable of generating strong protective immunity in vaccinated ruminants. Adverse side effects were principally evident in sheep. Specifically, some vaccinated sheep developed signs of clinical bluetongue with fever, facial oedema and lameness. Lactating sheep that developed fever also had reduced milk production. More severe clinical signs occurred in large numbers of sheep that were vaccinated with vaccine combinations containing the BTV-16 MLV, and the use of the monovalent BTV-16 MLV was discontinued as a consequence. Abortion occurred in sheep and cattle that received MLVs did not exceed 35 days, with the single notable exception of a cow vaccinated with a multivalent BTV-2, -4, -9 and -16 vaccine in which viraemia persisted at least 78 days. Viraemia of sufficient titre to infect Culicoides insects was observed transiently in MLV-vaccinated ruminants, and natural transmission of MLV strains has been confirmed. An inactivated vaccine was first developed against BTV-2 and used in the field. An inactivated vaccine against BTV-4 as well as a bivalent vaccine against serotypes 2 and 4 were subsequently developed and used in Corsica, Spain, Portugal and Italy. These inactivated vaccines were generally safe although on few occasions reactions occurred at the site of inoculation. Two doses of these BTV inactivated vaccines

  3. WHO EMRO's approach for supporting e-health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Al-Shorbaji

    2006-01-01

    "E-health" is a generic term covering the use of computer and communication applications and technologies in health and medical care. This paper outlines WHO's dynamic and diversified approach for supporting e-health by the Regional Office of the Eastern Mediterranean. This includes: policy-setting; human resources development; planning, monitoring and evaluation; networking and communication; infrastructure development; consulting services; electronic publishing; systems development; e-learning; telemedicine; and online library services and support to HINARI It also reviews some of the impediments towards development of e-health in the Region.

  4. Earthquake and the Catastrophic End of the Late Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, A.

    2009-04-01

    The reasons for the catastrophic and wide spread political as well as physical collapse in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean areas that define the end of the Bronze age ca. 1225 BC to 1175 BC remain a major enigma. It has been attributed by historian to attacks by outsiders with the most favored group being the (enigmatic) so-called sea people. Unfortunately there is no real evidence for this. However combined geological, geophysical and archaeological evidence suggests that earthquakes may have played a key role in this extraordinary collapse during the late 13th and early 12th centuries . Based on the instrumentally recorded earthquakes occurring in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean region during the 20th century, several events that have clear historical information, and the geography of seismically active faults it is obvious that numerous earthquakes of magnitude 6·5 or greater (enough to destroy modern buildings, let alone those of antiquity) occurred here frequently in the past. Furthermore major earthquakes often occur in this region in groups, known as ‘‘sequences'' or ‘‘storms'', in which one large quake is followed days, months, or a few years later by others elsewhere on the plate boundary fault lines. When a map of the areas in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean region shaken by 20th century  earthquakes of magnitude 6·5 and greater and with an intensity of VII or greater is overlaid on Robert Drews' map of sites destroyed in these same regions during the so-called ‘‘Catastrophe'' near the end of the Late Bronze Age, it is readily apparent that virtually all of these LBA sites lie within the affected (‘‘high-shaking'') areas. This would suggest that a major ‘‘earthquake storm'' may have occurred in the Late Bronze Age Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean during the years 1225-1175 . This ‘‘storm'' may have interacted with societal, political and economic forces at work in these areas c. 1200  and

  5. The ecology of the Ostracoda (Crustacea) species obtained from the coasts of Iskenderun Bay (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Paçal, Ferda Perçin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to understand the ecology of the ostracoda species obtained from Iskenderun Bay, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Ecological parameters like temperature and salinity, affecting the distribution of the live ostracoda species are considerably higher in Iskenderun Bay than the middle and western parts of the Mediterranean Sea. This study was carried out along the coasts of Iskenderun Bay between 22-26 September 2002. Total of 27 genera and 56 ostracoda species we...

  6. The Impact of Rapid Climate Change on Prehistoric Societies during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean

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    Bernhard Weninger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the impact of Rapid Climate Change (RCC on prehistoric communities in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Early and Middle Holocene. Our focus is on the social implications of the four major climate cold anomalies that have recently been identified as key time-windows for global RCC (Mayewski et al. 2004. These cooling anomalies are well-dated, with Greenland ice-core resolution, due to synchronicity between warm/cold foraminifera ratios in Mediterranean core LC21 as a proxy for surface water temperature, and Greenland GISP2 non sea-salt (nss [K+] ions as a proxy for the intensification of the Siberian High and for polar air outbreaks in the northeast Mediterranean (Rohling et al. 2002. Building on these synchronisms, the GISP2 agemodel supplies the following precise time-intervals for archaeological RCC research: (i 8.6–8.0 ka, (ii 6.0–5.2 ka, (iii 4.2–4.0 ka and (iv 3.1–2.9 ka calBP. For each of these RCC time intervals, based on detailed 14C-based chronological studies, we investigate contemporaneous cultural developments. From our studies it follows that RCC-related climatic deterioration is a major factor underlying social change, although always at work within a wide spectrum of social, cultural, economic and religious factors.

  7. Mesozooplankton biomass and abundance in Cyprus coastal waters and comparison with the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

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    C. C.S. HANNIDES

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we conduct the first comprehensive assessment of mesozooplankton abundance, biomass, and taxa composition in Cyprus coastal waters (Levantine Sea.  Mesozooplankton abundance and biomass sampled at several locations around the island ranged from 153 – 498 individuals m-3 and 0.7 – 5.2 mg dry weight m-3, respectively, with significantly larger biomass observed in winter-early spring (March than in summer (September.  The community was dominated by calanoid and cyclopoid copepods throughout the year (80% of total numbers, with higher abundances of predatory taxa (chaetognaths and medusae in winter and cladocerans in summer.  Overall, we find that coastal mesozooplankton communities around Cyprus appear to be more similar to communities in offshore waters or those around the island of Rhodes than to communities along the mainland Levantine coast.  We further highlight regional differences in the eastern Mediterranean by comparing our data with mesozooplankton in the western Aegean (Saronikos Gulf and northeastern Aegean Sea (NEA.  Distinct spatial differences were observed, for example anthropogenic influences in the Saronikos Gulf and the outflow of Modified Black Sea Water in the NEA drove generally greater biomass and abundance in these regions.  Overall, our comparison supports the concept of a latitudinal gradient in oligotrophy in the eastern Mediterranean, with ultra-oligotrophic conditions found in the Levantine Sea.

  8. Simulation of tsunami generation, propagation and coastal inundation in the Eastern Mediterranean

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    A. G. Samaras

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an advanced tsunami generation, propagation and coastal inundation 2-DH model (i.e. 2-D Horizontal model based on the higher-order Boussinesq equations – developed by the authors – is applied to simulate representative earthquake-induced tsunami scenarios in the Eastern Mediterranean. Two areas of interest were selected after evaluating tsunamigenic zones and possible sources in the region: one at the Southwest of the island of Crete in Greece and one at the East of the island of Sicily in Italy. Model results are presented in the form of extreme water elevation maps, sequences of snapshots of water elevation during the propagation of the tsunamis, and inundation maps of the studied low-lying coastal areas. This work marks one of the first successful applications of a fully nonlinear model for the 2-DH simulation of tsunami-induced coastal inundation; acquired results are indicative of the model's capabilities, as well of how areas in the Eastern Mediterranean would be affected by eventual larger events.

  9. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-01

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  10. Climate Data Homogenization and its Impact on Heatwave Changes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, F. G.; Toreti, A.; Xoplaki, E.; Della-Marta, P. M.; Zerefos, C. S.; Turkes, M.; Luterbacher, J.

    2010-12-01

    Heatwaves have discernible impacts on mortality and morbidity, infrastructure, agricultural resources, the retail industry, ecosystem and tourism and consequently affect human societies. A new definition of socially relevant heatwaves is presented and applied to new data sets of high-quality homogenized daily maximum and minimum summer air temperature series from 246 stations in the eastern Mediterranean region (including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey). Changes in heatwave number, length and intensity between 1960 and 2006 are quantified before and after data homogenization. Daily temperature homogeneity analyses suggest that many instrumental measurements in the 1960s are warm-biased, correcting for these biases regionally averaged heatwave trends are up to 8% higher. We find significant changes across the western Balkans, southwestern and western Turkey, and along the southern Black Sea coastline. Since the 1960s, the mean heatwave intensity, heatwave length and heatwave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor of 7.6 ± 1.3, 7.5 ± 1.3 and 6.2 ± 1.1, respectively. These findings suggest that the heatwave increase in this region is higher than previously reported.

  11. Developing a Virtual Museum for the Ancient Wine Trade in Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanis, S.; Kontogianni, G.; Chliverou, R.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2017-08-01

    Digital technologies for representing cultural heritage assets of any size are already maturing. Technological progress has greatly enhanced the art of virtual representation and, as a consequence, it is all the more appealing to the general public and especially to younger generations. The game industry has played a significant role towards this end and has led to the development of edutainment applications. The digital workflow implemented for developing such an application is presented in this paper. A virtual museum has been designed and developed, with the intention to convey the history of trade in the Eastern Mediterranean area, focusing on the Aegean Sea and five productive cities-ports, during a period of more than 500 years. Image based modeling methodology was preferred to ensure accuracy and reliability. The setup in the museum environment, the difficulties encountered and the solutions adopted are discussed, while processing of the images and the production and finishing of the 3D models are described in detail. The virtual museum and edutainment application, MEDWINET, has been designed and developed with the intention to convey the essential information of the wine production and trade routes in the Eastern Mediterranean basin. The user is able to examine the 3D models of the amphorae, while learning about their production and use for trade during the centuries. The application has been evaluated and the results are also discussed.

  12. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-10

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  13. Mesoscale modeling of combined aerosol and photo-oxidant processes in the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lazaridis

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter and photo-oxidant processes in the Eastern Mediterranean have been studied using the UAM-AERO mesoscale air quality model in conjunction with the NILU-CTM regional model. Meteorological data were obtained from the RAMS prognostic meteorological model. The modeling domain includes the eastern Mediterranean area between the Greek mainland and the island of Crete. The modeling system is applied to study the atmospheric processes in three periods, i.e. 13–16 July 2000, 26–30 July 2000 and 7–14 January 2001. The spatial and temporal distributions of both gaseous and particulate matter pollutants have been extensively studied together with the identification of major emission sources in the area. The modeling results were compared with field data obtained in the same period. Comparison of the modeling results with measured data was performed for a number of gaseous and aerosol species. The UAM-AERO model underestimates the PM10 measured concentrations during summer but better comparison has been obtained for the winter data.

  14. High genetic diversity with moderate differentiation in Juniperus excelsa from Lebanon and the eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaihy, Bouchra; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Boratyński, Adam; Machon, Nathalie; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Juniperus excelsa is an important woody species in the high mountain ecosystems of the eastern Mediterranean Basin where it constitutes the only coniferous species found at the tree line. The genetic diversity within and among J. excelsa populations of the eastern Mediterranean Basin is studied in the light of their historical fragmentation. Methodology Nuclear microsatellites originally developed for Juniperus communis and J. przewalskii were tested on 320 individuals from 12 different populations originating from Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece and the Ukraine. Principal results Among the 31 nuclear microsatellite primers tested, only three produced specific amplification products, with orthology confirmed by sequence analysis. They were then used for genetic diversity studies. The mean number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity means were Na=8.78 and He=0.76, respectively. The fixation index showed a significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and an excess of homozygotes (FIS=0.27–0.56). A moderate level of genetic differentiation was observed among the populations (FST=0.075, P2000 m) in Lebanon. These populations were differentiated from the other populations that are grouped into three sub-clusters. Conclusions High levels of genetic diversity were observed at species and population levels. The high level of differentiation in the high-mountain Lebanese populations reflects a long period of isolation or possibly a different origin. The admixture observed in other populations from Lebanon suggests a more recent separation from the Turkish–southeastern European populations. PMID:22476474

  15. Situational analysis of tuberculosis control programs in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Gaps and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Samiha

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to highlight the key challenges and the strategic directions to scale-up tuberculosis (TB) care in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); to review TB burden in EMR, and evaluate the progress toward Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets by 2015; to identify the main obstacles for optimal TB care toward TB elimination; and to provide strategic directions to address the key challenges. The Eastern Mediterranean Region is composed of 22 countries with 648 million populations. The region has estimated TB incidence of 116 per 100,000. The estimated number of incident TB cases in 2015 was 749000 TB case. The paper is based on the Annual World Health Organization Global TB report on implementation of TB control strategy. The EMR is a middle TB- and MDR-TB-burden region with 22 countries. As for MDGs, the region was able to meet the mortality target and revert TB incidence but could not achieve the prevalence target. The main challenges are limited infrastructure, human capacity, funds, use of new diagnostics tools and new medicines, and involvement of all stakeholders and community in TB care and control in addition to complex emergencies. The year 2015 marks a transition from the MDGs to the Sustainable Development Goals and from the Stop TB Strategy to the End TB Strategy. The region will move into three main directions: complete pending tasks, mitigate the impact of the complex emergencies on TB control, and move toward TB elimination. Copyright © 2016.

  16. High genetic diversity with moderate differentiation in Juniperus excelsa from Lebanon and the eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaihy, Bouchra; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Boratyński, Adam; Machon, Nathalie; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Juniperus excelsa is an important woody species in the high mountain ecosystems of the eastern Mediterranean Basin where it constitutes the only coniferous species found at the tree line. The genetic diversity within and among J. excelsa populations of the eastern Mediterranean Basin is studied in the light of their historical fragmentation. Nuclear microsatellites originally developed for Juniperus communis and J. przewalskii were tested on 320 individuals from 12 different populations originating from Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece and the Ukraine. Among the 31 nuclear microsatellite primers tested, only three produced specific amplification products, with orthology confirmed by sequence analysis. They were then used for genetic diversity studies. The mean number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity means were N(a)=8.78 and H(e)=0.76, respectively. The fixation index showed a significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and an excess of homozygotes (F(IS)=0.27-0.56). A moderate level of genetic differentiation was observed among the populations (F(ST)=0.075, P2000 m) in Lebanon. These populations were differentiated from the other populations that are grouped into three sub-clusters. High levels of genetic diversity were observed at species and population levels. The high level of differentiation in the high-mountain Lebanese populations reflects a long period of isolation or possibly a different origin. The admixture observed in other populations from Lebanon suggests a more recent separation from the Turkish-southeastern European populations.

  17. The impact of temperature changes on summer time ozone and its' precursors in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Im

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in temperature due to variability in meteorology and climate change are expected to significantly impact atmospheric composition. The Mediterranean is a climate sensitive region and includes megacities like Istanbul and large urban agglomerations such as Athens. The effect of temperature changes on gaseous air pollutant levels and the atmospheric processes that are controlling them in the Eastern Mediterranean are here investigated. The WRF/CMAQ mesoscale modeling system is used, coupled with the MEGAN model for the processing of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. A set of temperature perturbations (spanning from 1 to 5 K is applied on a base case simulation corresponding to July 2004. The results indicate that the Eastern Mediterranean basin acts as a reservoir of pollutants and their precursor emissions from large urban agglomerations. During summer, chemistry is a major sink at these urban areas near the surface, and a minor contributor at downwind areas. On average, the atmospheric processes are more effective within the first 1000 m. The response rate of biogenic emissions to temperature changes is calculated to be 9±3% K−1. Ozone concentrations respond almost linearly to the changes in the ambient temperature with rates of 1±0.1 ppb O3 K−1 for all studied urban and receptor stations except for Istanbul, where a 0.4±0.1 ppb O3 K−1 change rate is calculated, which is almost half of the domain-averaged increase of 0.9±0.1 ppb O3 K−1. The computed changes in atmospheric processes are also linearly related with temperature changes.

  18. The impact of temperature changes on summer time ozone and its precursors in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Im

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in temperature due to variability in meteorology and climate change are expected to significantly impact atmospheric composition. The Mediterranean is a climate sensitive region and includes megacities like Istanbul and large urban agglomerations such as Athens. The effect of temperature changes on gaseous air pollutant levels and the atmospheric processes that are controlling them in the Eastern Mediterranean are here investigated. The WRF/CMAQ mesoscale modeling system is used, coupled with the MEGAN model for the processing of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. A set of temperature perturbations (spanning from 1 to 5 K is applied on a base case simulation corresponding to July 2004. The results indicate that the Eastern Mediterranean basin acts as a reservoir of pollutants and their precursor emissions from large urban agglomerations. During summer, chemistry is a major sink at these urban areas near the surface, and a minor contributor at downwind areas. On average, the atmospheric processes are more effective within the first 1000 m above ground. Temperature increases lead to increases in biogenic emissions by 9±3% K−1. Ozone mixing ratios increase almost linearly with the increases in ambient temperatures by 1±0.1 ppb O3 K−1 for all studied urban and receptor stations except for Istanbul, where a 0.4±0.1 ppb O3 K−1 increase is calculated, which is about half of the domain-averaged increase of 0.9±0.1 ppb O3 K−1. The computed changes in atmospheric processes are also linearly related with temperature changes.

  19. LATE PLIOCENE-HOLOCENE DEBRIS FLOW DEPOSITS IN THE IONIAN SEA (EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN

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    GIOVANNI ALOISI DE LARDEREL

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Widespread coring of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin has outlined the existence of a systematic relation between lithology of debris flow deposits and physiographic setting. Whilst the topographic highs are characterized by pelagic sedimentation, the basin floors are alternatively subject to pelagic sedimentation and re-sedimentation pro cesses. Amongst the latters, turbidity flows and debris flows are the most common transport mechanisms.In this paper we present the study of the debris flow pro cess in the Ionian Sea using visual description of cores, grain size, carbonate content and smear slide analysis carried out on gravity and piston cores recovered over the past 20 years. A distinction has been made between debris flow deposits originating from the continental margins (North Africa and Malta Escarpment and those emplaced in the small basins amidst the Calabrian and Mediterranean ridges "Cobblestone Topography". As a result of the difference in setting, the former debris flow deposits include a great variety of lithologies and ages whilst the latter involve the pelagic sediments forming the typical Eastern Mediterranean Plio-Quaternary succession. A detailed study of clast and matrix structures makes it possible to describe the flows in terms of existing classifications of sediment gravity flows and to assume a clast support mechanism. Finally, biostratigraphy coupled with the presence of widespread marker beds enabled us to estimate the age of emplacement of the deposits and to hypothesize a triggering mechanism for flow initiation. Three flows are strictly related to the pelagic turbidite named homogenite, triggered by the explosive eruption of the Santorini volcano (Minoan eruption and therefore have an estimated age of 3,500 BP. The other deposits have ages ranging from 9,000 BP to about 70,000 BP and were originated by debris flows triggered by events such as earthquakes and glacial low sea level stands.    

  20. Integrated survey of elemental stoichiometry (C, N, P from the Western to Eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    M. Pujo-Pay

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an extensive vertical and longitudinal description of the biogeochemistry in the whole Mediterranean Sea during the summer 2008. During this strong stratified period, the distribution of nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, nitrogen (DON and phosphorus (DOP were investigated along a 3000 km transect (BOUM cruise crossing the Western and Eastern Mediterranean basins. The partitioning of chemical C, N and P species among all these mineral and organic pools has been analysed to produce a detailed spatial and vertical extended examination of the elemental stoichiometry. Surface Mediterranean waters were depleted in nutrients and the thickness of this depleted layer increased towards the East from about 10 m in the Gulf of Lion to more than 100 m in the Levantine basin, concomitantly to the gradual deepening of the thermocline and nutriclines. We used threshold in oxygen concentration to discriminate the water column in three layers; surface (Biogenic Layer BL, intermediate (Mineralization Layer ML, and deep layer (DL and to propose a schematic representation of biogeochemical fluxes between the different compartments and to compare the functioning of the two basins. The stoichiometry revealed a clear longitudinal and vertical gradient in the mineral fraction with a P-depletion evidenced on both dimension. As a consequence of the severe deficiency in phosphorus, the C:N:P ratios in all pools within the BL largely exceed the Redfield ratios. Despite these gradients, the deep estimated fluxes in the mineral compartment tend towards the canonical Redfield values in both basins. A change in particulate matter composition has been evidenced by a C increase relative to N and P along the whole water column in the western basin and between BL and ML in the eastern one. More surprisingly, a decrease in N relative to P with depth was encountered in the whole Mediterranean Sea. We suggest that there was a more rapid

  1. Influence of chemosynthetic ecosystems on nematode community structure and biomass in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    N. Lampadariou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mud volcanoes are a~special type of cold seeps where life is based on chemoautotrophic processes. They are considered to be extreme environments and are characterized by unique megafaunal and macrofaunal communities. However, very few studies on mud volcanoes taking into account the smaller meiobenthic communities have been carried out. Two mud volcanoes were explored during the MEDECO (MEditerranean Deep-sea ECOsystems cruise (2007 with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV Victor-6000: Amsterdam, located south of Turkey between 1700 and 2000 m depth (Anaximander mud field; and Napoli, south of Crete, located along the Mediterranean Ridge at about 2000 m depth (Olimpi mud field. The major aim of this study was to describe distributional patterns of meiofaunal communities and nematode assemblages from different seep microhabitats. Meiofaunal taxa and nematode assemblages at both mud volcanoes differed significantly from other Mediterranean sites in terms of standing stocks, dominance and species diversity. Density and biomass values were significantly higher at the seep sites, particularly at Amsterdam. Patterns of nematode diversity, the dominant meiofaunal taxon, varied, displaying both very high or very low species richness and dominance, depending on the microhabitat studied. The periphery of the Lamellibrachia and bivalve shell microhabitats of Napoli exhibited the highest species richness, while the reduced sediments of Amsterdam yielded a species-poor nematode community dominated by two successful species, one belonging to the genus Aponema and the other to the genus Sabatieria. Analysis of β-diversity showed that microhabitat heterogeneity of mud volcanoes contributed substantially to the total nematode species richness in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. These observations indicate a strong influence of mud volcanoes and cold-seep ecosystems on the meiofaunal communities and nematode assemblages.

  2. Non-methane hydrocarbons over the Eastern Mediterranean during summer, measured from northwest Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Carina; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Keßel, Stephan; Thorenz, Ute; Baker, Angela; Williams, Jonathan; Lelieveld, Jos

    2015-04-01

    In summer 2014 the CYprus Photochemistry EXperiment (CYPHEX) field campaign took place at an elevated (600m) measurement site in the north western part of Cyprus close (10 km) to the coast (35,96N, 32,4E) in order to investigate the photochemistry and air mass transport of the eastern Mediterranean. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured with a commercial GC-FID (AMA instruments GmbH, Ulm, Germany) with a final dataset consisting of two weeks of continuous, hourly measurements for 10 NMHC. NMHCs are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are emitted by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Their predominant sink in the atmosphere is photochemically driven oxidation by OH radicals. Their atmospheric lifetimes, which range from a few days for more reactive compounds such as pentanes and butanes and up to a month for less reactive ones like ethane, make it possible to deduce photochemical histories and transport regimes from NMHC observations. Furthermore, in the presence of NOx they are important precursors for tropospheric ozone. Backward trajectories show that the airmasses reaching the measurement site had been influenced periodically by emissions from western continental Europe (France, Spain) that crossed the Mediterranean Sea and from eastern continental Europe (Greece and Turkey) more recently influenced by industrial emissions. Varying patterns in NMHC data delineates these two regimes very well, with aged western European air masses being characterized by low level ethane and with toluene and benzene being higher and more variable in plumes from eastern Europe. Additionally, atypical n-butane and i-butane ratios suggest a deviation from the expected predominant oxidation by OH, possibly indicating reaction with chlorine radicals (Cl). The dataset has been evaluated with respect to NMHC sources and oxidative history using different methods of approach.

  3. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1800 to 1900 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1800-1900 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea and
    the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the present
    paper.

  4. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1900 to 1980 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1900 to 1980 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  5. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1000 to 1500 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1000 to 1500 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  6. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1500 to 1800 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1500-1800 A.D., in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea and the
    Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the present
    paper.

  7. North-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean species of Cornulariidae Dana, 1846 (Anthozoa: Stolonifera) with the description of a new genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-González, P.J.; Ocaña, O.; García-Gómez, J.C.; Núñez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The North-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean species of the family Cornulariidae are re-examined and taxonomically revised. This family is mainly characterized by the absence of sclerites. Up to now, only one genus, Cornularia Lamarck, 1816, has been assigned to the family. Studies of the internal

  8. Life at cold seeps: a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Werne, J.P.; Zitter, T.; Haese, R.R.; Aloisi, G.; Bouloubassi, I.; Heijs, S.; Fiala-Medioni, A.; Pancost, R.D.; Lange, G.J. de; Gottschal, J.; Foucher, J.-P.; Mascle, J.; Woodside, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the MEDINAUT

  9. Life at cold seeps : a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werne, JP; Haese, RR; Zitter, T; Aloisi, G; Bouloubassi, L; Heijs, S; Fiala-Medioni, A; Pancost, RD; Damste, JSS; de Lange, G; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC; Foucher, JP; Mascle, J; Woodside, J

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the MEDINAUT

  10. Life at cold seeps: a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Werne, J.P.; Zitter, T.; Haese, R.R.; Aloisi, G.; Bouloubassi, I.; Heijs, S.; Fiala-Medioni, A.; Pancost, R.D.; Lange, G.J. de; Gottschal, J.; Foucher, J.-P.; Mascle, J.; Woodside, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the

  11. Life at cold seeps : a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werne, JP; Haese, RR; Zitter, T; Aloisi, G; Bouloubassi, L; Heijs, S; Fiala-Medioni, A; Pancost, RD; Damste, JSS; de Lange, G; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC; Foucher, JP; Mascle, J; Woodside, J

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the

  12. Life at cold seeps : a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werne, JP; Haese, RR; Zitter, T; Aloisi, G; Bouloubassi, L; Heijs, S; Fiala-Medioni, A; Pancost, RD; Damste, JSS; de Lange, G; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC; Foucher, JP; Mascle, J; Woodside, J

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the MEDINAUT

  13. Life at cold seeps: a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Werne, J.P.; Zitter, T.; Haese, R.R.; Aloisi, G.; Bouloubassi, I.; Heijs, S.; Fiala-Medioni, A.; Pancost, R.D.; Lange, G.J. de; Gottschal, J.; Foucher, J.-P.; Mascle, J.; Woodside, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the MEDINAUT

  14. Climate Change and its Impact on the Energy Sector in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    It is anticipated that the Eastern Mediterranean and Cyprus will be disproportionally and adversely affected by future climate change. Impacts of these changes include rising summer temperatures and decreasing annual precipitation thereby causing strains on the energy sector in the region. Increases in the frequency of heat waves and tropical nights will lead to rising demands for air-conditioning of private and public housing on the one hand and to growing water scarcity, which will have to be satisfied by additional seawater desalination, on the other, to name just two of the repercussions of climate change on energy demand. Coping with these impacts will require additional electricity generation and will lead to enhanced energy demands. In the case of Cyprus, this will add to an already strained sector of the economy. The current electricity production is entirely based on fossil-fuel fired power plants. However, the use of conventional energy sources is clearly an undesirable option. It enhances the economic burden on energy consumers and at the same time increases Cyprus' dependency on external providers of hydrocarbon products. Moreover, it leads to growing emissions of carbon dioxide and thereby worsens Cyprus' already challenged greenhouse gas emission budget. While current emissions amount to app. 9.9 Mill. t of CO2, the total allowance according to EU regulations lies at 5.5 Mill. t. Possible remedies, which will be relevant for other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean, as well include energy saving measures in the building sector and the use of renewable energy sources. With regard to sustainable building technologies, new and innovative building materials will have to be introduced. This includes advanced thermochromic materials based on nanotechnology techniques combined with phase change microcapsules, photochromic coatings able to present very high or low solar reflectance, chameleon coatings presenting very low emissivity and time varying

  15. Spatial and seasonal variability of particulate matter optical and size properties in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgis, A. P.; Georgopoulos, D.; Kanellopoulos, T. D.; Mikkelsen, O. A.; Pagou, K.; Kontoyiannis, H.; Pavlidou, A.; Anagnostou, Ch.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter plays a paramount role in the biogeochemical processes taking place in the marine environment. We report seasonal (spring and summer 2008) distribution of particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean, along a transect extending from the open Ionian Sea to the North Aegean Sea, including measurements in the Levantine Sea. A suite of optical instruments measuring beam attenuation (beam cp), fluorescence and particle size, the latter obtained with the innovative in-situ laser particle sizer LISST-Deep are used in concert with traditional measurements of particulate matter concentration (PMC), and total chlorophyll α from bottle samples. PMCs were generally low during both seasons (range: 0.02-0.85 mg L- 1), with values substantially higher in the euphotic zone during spring. The deep waters (> 200 m) in the Eastern Mediterranean exhibit extremely low PMCs, well-below 0.1 mg L- 1. Total chlorophyll α concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 0.28 μg L- 1 in spring and from 0.08 to 0.19 μg L- 1 in summer, verifying the ultra-oligotrophic character of the area. A significant correlation of beam cp and fluorescence in spring suggests that sources of particles are primarily biogenic in the surface waters. Deep water formation triggered the development of a ~ 900-m thick benthic nepheloid layer in the N. Aegean Sea. LISST-Deep revealed valuable information on the particle volume concentrations and the median particle size. It is striking that large particles (range: 31-230 μm; median ~ 85 μm) predominate in the entire region, from the surface up to the deep waters. In addition, accumulation of particles in the pycnocline is observed during summer; however, it is possible that schlieren (increase in beam attenuation due to scattering off of density gradients) could be responsible for the high particle volume concentrations and large median particle diameters recorded. These measurements, conducted for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean

  16. Fluid transport processes in the passive margins of the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Claudia; Foschi, Martino; Cartwright, Joe; Levell, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    We analyse and produce a synoptic model of the different styles of fluid transport occurring in the various passive margin settings in the Eastern Mediterranean. The common tectonic-stratigraphic setting is dominated, from the Mesozoic, by the interaction of the Tethyan platforms with Cenozoic to recent, mainly clastic, deposits interacting with the ubiquitous thick late Miocene (Messinian) evaporitic sediments. This created different specific modes of fluid-lithology coupling behaviours, and generated an extraordinary suite of seismically resolvable fluid flow phenomena, including mud volcanoes, pockmarks, dissolution/collapse structures, chimneys and pipes. We integrate this evidence with the analysis of the regional pressure/temperature gradient, and with published hydrocarbon generation models, to propose a regional synthesis of all fluid transport processes in a specific basinal context. We place the fluid flow evidence observed in the Eastern Mediterranean in the framework of the three main fluid flow settings, which are typically defined in sedimentary basins, in terms of depth: 1) A thermobaric fluid regime, where fluid transport is limited and convection can be the dominant transport mechanism, 2) A thermogenic regime, where fluids supplied by hydrocarbon generation can migrate by hydraulic fracturing and advection (along open faults/conduits), by matrix flow and in the longer term, by diffusion processes, 3) A shallow compactional regime, where the fluids are generated by sediment dewatering and shallow diagenesis, and the main transport mechanism is characterised by vertical fluid flow, either through advection and hydrofracturing along faults, or matrix flow. In the Eastern Mediterranean passive margins, this depth-related subdivision needs to be modified in order to accommodate the influence of the laterally and vertically extensive evaporitic series, which acts as a regional aquitard/aquiclude to water or a seal to hydrocarbon flow. The presence of

  17. Abyssal and deep circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artale, Vincenzo; Bensi, Manuel; Falcini, Federico; Marullo, Salvatore; Rubino, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    In the mid-1990s, experimental evidences on the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) were presented and it was shown that the Mediterranean abyssal circulation is not in a steady state but can be subjected to episodic sudden changes (Roether et al., 1996). In the last 10 years the Ionian Sea, the central and deepest part of the Mediterranean Sea, was subjected to relevant scientific interests from a theoretical and experimental point of view. Among these, there is the discovery of the BiOS (Bimodal Oscillating System), one new mechanism that drives a periodic (almost decadal) redistribution of surface and subsurface waters in the Eastern Mediterranean, with considerable feedbacks in the variability of the deep-water formation both in the southern Adriatic and in the Levantine and Aegean sub-basins (Gačić et al., 2010). In the Ionian Sea, numerous recent observational campaigns have been conducted to investigate the behaviour of deep and abyssal waters, at depths between 2000-4000m that are comparable to the mean global ocean depth (Rubino and Hainbucher, 2007; Bensi et al., 2013). There, advection, diffusion and vertical stability of the water masses can assume an important role on the internal quasi-periodical variability, creating the preconditions for catastrophic events such as the EMT or reversals of the Ionian circulation (Pisacane et al., 2006). Since there are no significant deep heat sources in the world ocean, waters that fill the deep ocean can only return to the sea surface as a result of downward mixing of heat from the sea surface to the bottom and vice versa and this occurs through eddy diffusion. Along our presentation, mainly through the analysis of the deepest CTD casts taken from 2009 to 2011 in the eastern basins and in particular in the Ionian Sea, we will show a significant change in the deep thermohaline structure (including its biogeochemical and hydrological characteristics), giving an indication on the time scale of the renewal of deep

  18. Geological evidence of tsunamis and earthquakes at the Eastern Hellenic Arc: correlation with historical seismicity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos Papadopoulos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary stratigraphy determined by trenching in Dalaman, south-western Turkey, revealed three sand layers at a distance of approximately 240 m from the shoreline and at elevations of +0.30, +0.55 and +0.90 cm. Storm surge action does not explain the features of these deposits that show instead typical characteristics of tsunami deposition. The sand layers correlate with historical tsunamis generated by large earthquakes which ruptured the eastern Hellenic Arc and Trench in 1303, 1481 and 1741. Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of a wood sample from layer II indicated deposition in AD 1473±46, which fits the 1481 event. From an estimated average alluvium deposition rate of approximately 0.13 cm/year, layers I and III were dated at 1322 and 1724, which may represent the large 1303 and 1741 tsunamis. The geological record of the 1303 key event is very poor; therefore, sand layer I perhaps represents an important geological signature of the 1303 tsunami. However, the strong tsunami reported to have been generated by the 1609 earthquake is missing from Dalaman stratigraphy: this underlines the sensitivity of tsunami geological signatures to various local factors. The 1303 earthquake ruptured the trench between the islands of Crete and Rhodes. For the earthquakes of 1481, 1609 and 1741 we suggested that they were very likely generated in the Rhodes Abyssal Plain where sea depths of up to approximately 4200 m, together with the thrust component of seismotectonics, favor tsunami generation. Sand dykes directed upwards from layer I to layer II indicated that the 1481 earthquake triggered liquefaction of sand layer I. The results substantially widen our knowledge about the historical earthquake and tsunami activity in the eastern Mediterranean basin.

  19. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Tuset

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The sagittal otolith of 348 species, belonging to 99 families and 22 orders of marine Teleostean fishes from the north and central eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean were described using morphological and morphometric characters. The morphological descriptions were based on the otolith shape, outline and sulcus acusticus features. The morphometric parameters determined were otolith length (OL, mm, height (OH, mm, perimeter (P; mm and area (A; mm2 and were expressed in terms of shape indices as circularity (P2/A, rectangularity (A/(OL×OH, aspect ratio (OH/OL; % and OL/fish size. The present Atlas provides information that complements the characterization of some ichthyologic taxa. In addition, it constitutes an important instrument for species identification using sagittal otoliths collected in fossiliferous layers, in archaeological sites or in feeding remains of bony fish predators.

  20. Sedimentology and geochemistry of mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountain Region from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Ezgi; Duman, Muhammet; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Brennan, Michael L; Raineault, Nicole A

    2015-06-15

    Investigations carried out on surface sediments collected from the Anaximander mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to determine sedimentary and geochemical properties. The sediment grain size distribution and geochemical contents were determined by grain size analysis, organic carbon, carbonate contents and element analysis. The results of element contents were compared to background levels of Earth's crust. The factors that affect element distribution in sediments were calculated by the nine push core samples taken from the surface of mud volcanoes by the E/V Nautilus. The grain size of the samples varies from sand to sandy silt. Enrichment and Contamination factor analysis showed that these analyses can also be used to evaluate of deep sea environmental and source parameters. It is concluded that the biological and cold seep effects are the main drivers of surface sediment characteristics from the Anaximander mud volcanoes.

  1. Natural and anthropogenic aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East: possible impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallos, G; Solomos, S; Kushta, J; Mitsakou, C; Spyrou, C; Bartsotas, N; Kalogeri, C

    2014-08-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles have significant implications on the microphysical cloud processes. Maritime clouds have different properties than polluted ones and the final amounts and types of precipitation are different. Mixed phase aerosols that contain soluble matter are efficient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and enhance the liquid condensate spectrum in warm and mixed phase clouds. Insoluble particles such as mineral dust and black carbon are also important because of their ability to act as efficient ice nuclei (IN) through heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. The relative contribution of aerosol concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions on cloud structure and precipitation is discussed in the framework of RAMS/ICLAMS model. Analysis of model results and comparison with measurements reveals the complexity of the above links. Taking into account anthropogenic emissions and all available aerosol-cloud interactions the model precipitation bias was reduced by 50% for a storm simulation over eastern Mediterranean.

  2. Impact of the Minoan tsunami of Santorini: Simulated scenarios in the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, Maria Teresa; Favalli, Massimiliano; Boschi, Enzo

    2006-09-01

    We have simulated the impact of the tsunami generated by the Late Bronze Age (LBA) volcanic eruption of Santorini on the Eastern Mediterranean. Two different tsunami triggering mechanisms were considered: a caldera collapse and pyroclastic flows/surges entering the sea. Simulations include the "worst" input conditions in order to evaluate the maximum possible impacts, but also "lighter" input conditions, compatible with the lack of any tsunami trace on the Northern coasts of Crete. In all the simulations, tsunami propagation is mainly confined to the Southern Aegean. Outside the Aegean, the tsunami impact was negligible and not responsible for the slide-slumping of fine-grained pelagic and/or hemipelagic sediments considered the sources of the sporadically located sea-deposits in the Ionian Sea and of the widespread megaturbidite deposits localized in the Ionian and Sirte Abyssal Plains.

  3. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, “NEMO-SN1”, deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz–1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9–22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise. PMID:26581104

  4. POP levels in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and edible fish from the eastern Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Serkan; Pazi, Idil

    2017-01-01

    Organochlorinated pesticides and Aroclors were measured in the muscle of two edible fish species (gray mullet, sea bream) and blue crab, collected from eastern Mediterranean coast in 2013. The concentration of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and Aroclors in biota samples which were collected at six sites ranged from 1.0-8.6 and 9-47.5 ng g(-1) wet weight, respectively. Total DDT concentrations in seafood samples were compared to tolerance level established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the concentrations were detected below the tolerence level. Health risk assessment was conducted related to the consumption of chemically contaminated seafood. The estimated daily intake of OCPs calculated by using the estimated daily fish consumption in Turkey was far below the acceptable daily intake as established by FAO/WHO. Our data indicated that consumption of blue crab, gray mullet, and sea bream collected from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey could pose "no risk" for human health in terms of OCPs.

  5. Zooplankton of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean: Similarities and dissimilarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. KOVALEV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of data on abundance and biomass of zooplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED and the Black Sea shows major differences in the composition and structure of pelagic communities in the two basins. Few Mediterranean planktonic animals have invaded and acclimatised in the Black Sea. The great bulk of Black Sea species is represented by coastal inhabitants that spread throughout the whole basin. This process has been called “neritization” of the Black Sea fauna. Peculiarities in zooplankton assemblages of the Black Sea have been further strengthened over the last few decades due to increasing eutrophication and the massive invasion of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. The relative contribution of copepods, cladocerans, chaetognaths, and appendicularians to total zooplankton biomass has notably decreased , whereas gelatinous groups (mainly represented by Mnemiopsis and Aurelia aurita contributed up to 99% of total wet weight in 1995 in the Black Sea.The basic features of planktonic fauna in the Black Sea are mainly due do the geo-morphological characters of the basin and the limited exchanges with the EMED, that are confined to the surface-subsurface layers in the Dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits. However, the dramatic changes that recently occurred in the structure of zooplankton assemblages seem to have been caused by heavy anthropogenic impact on the pelagic system.

  6. Zooplankton of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean: Similarities and dissimilarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. KOVALEV

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of data on abundance and biomass of zooplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED and the Black Sea shows major differences in the composition and structure of pelagic communities in the two basins. Few Mediterranean planktonic animals have invaded and acclimatised in the Black Sea. The great bulk of Black Sea species is represented by coastal inhabitants that spread throughout the whole basin. This process has been called “neritization” of the Black Sea fauna. Peculiarities in zooplankton assemblages of the Black Sea have been further strengthened over the last few decades due to increasing eutrophication and the massive invasion of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. The relative contribution of copepods, cladocerans, chaetognaths, and appendicularians to total zooplankton biomass has notably decreased , whereas gelatinous groups (mainly represented by Mnemiopsis and Aurelia aurita contributed up to 99% of total wet weight in 1995 in the Black Sea. The basic features of planktonic fauna in the Black Sea are mainly due do the geo-morphological characters of the basin and the limited exchanges with the EMED, that are confined to the surface-subsurface layers in the Dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits. However, the dramatic changes that recently occurred in the structure of zooplankton assemblages seem to have been caused by heavy anthropogenic impact on the pelagic system.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus

  8. Particle fluxes in the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins: the role of ocean vertical velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Patara

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between deep sedimentary fluxes and ocean current vertical velocities in an offshore area of the Ionian Sea, the deepest basin of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Sediment trap data are collected at 500 m and 2800 m depth in two successive moorings covering the period September 1999–May 2001. A tight coupling is observed between the upper and deep traps and the estimated particle sinking rates are higher than 200 m day−1. The current vertical velocity field is computed from a high resolution Ocean General Circulation Model simulation and from the wind stress curl. Current vertical velocities are larger and more variable than Ekman vertical velocities, yet the general patterns are alike. Current vertical velocities are generally smaller than 1 m day−1: we therefore exclude a direct effect of downward velocities in determining high sedimentation rates. However, we find that upward velocities in the subsurface layers of the water column are positively correlated with deep particle fluxes. We thus hypothesize that upwelling would produce an increase in upper ocean nutrient levels – thus stimulating primary production and grazing – a few weeks before an enhanced vertical flux is found in the sediment traps. By analyzing the delayed effects of ocean vertical velocities on deep particle fluxes we envisage a spectrum of particle sinking speeds ranging from about 100 m day−1 to more than 200 m day−1. High particle sedimentation rates may be attained by means of rapidly sinking fecal pellets produced by gelatinous macro-zooplankton. Other sedimentation mechanisms, such as dust deposition, are also considered in explaining large pulses of deep particle fluxes. The fast sinking rates estimated in this study might be an evidence of the efficiency of the biological pump in sequestering organic carbon from the surface layers of the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins.

  9. Nutrient Limitation in Surface Waters of the Oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea: an Enrichment Microcosm Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Tsiola, A.

    2015-12-01

    The growth rates of planktonic microbes in the pelagic zone of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are nutrient limited, but the type of limitation is still uncertain. During this study, we investigated the occurrence of N and P limitation among different groups of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic (pico-, nano-, and micro-) plankton using a microcosm experiment during stratified water column conditions in the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). Microcosms were enriched with N and P (either solely or simultaneously), and the PO4 turnover time, prokaryotic heterotrophic activity, primary production, and the abundance of the different microbial components were measured. Flow cytometric and molecular fingerprint analyses showed that different heterotrophic prokaryotic groups were limited by different nutrients; total heterotrophic prokaryotic growth was limited by P, but only when both N and P were added, changes in community structure and cell size were detected. Phytoplankton were N and P co-limited, with autotrophic pico-eukaryotes being the exception as they increased even when only P was added after a 2-day time lag. The populations of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus were highly competitive with each other; Prochlorococcus abundance increased during the first 2 days of P addition but kept increasing only when both N and P were added, whereas Synechococcus exhibited higher pigment content and increased in abundance 3 days after simultaneous N and P additions. Dinoflagellates also showed opportunistic behavior at simultaneous N and P additions, in contrast to diatoms and coccolithophores, which diminished in all incubations. High DNA content viruses, selective grazing, and the exhaustion of N sources probably controlled the populations of diatoms and coccolithophores.

  10. Legal priorities for prevention of non-communicable diseases: innovations from WHO's Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, L O; Abou-Taleb, H; Roache, S A; Alwan, A

    2017-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally and in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This paper reports on a research collaboration between the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Office (EMRO) and the O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University that aims to identify (1) regionally relevant, cost-effective and affordable legal interventions to prevent NCDs, and (2) methods to strengthen implementation and enforcement. Comparative analysis of >200 international, regional and domestic interventions addressing key NCD risk factors, including tobacco, alcohol, diet and physical inactivity. Researchers searched legal and policy databases including the WHO Nutrition, Obesity and Physical Activity Database and drew upon academic commentary and 'grey' literature. Measures included evidence of impact; evidence of cost-effectiveness; and monitoring and enforcement mechanisms. Researchers identified many examples of legal interventions effectively reducing NCD risk factors. Key enabling factors for effective NCD-related laws include regulatory capacity; governance mechanisms promoting multisectoral collaboration and accountability; and tailoring interventions to local legal, economic and social contexts. In the EMR, and globally, law can be a cost-effective and affordable means of curbing underlying drivers of the NCD pandemic, such as rampant junk food marketing. Building upon this research, together with international and regional experts, EMRO has identified 10 priority interventions in the areas of tobacco control, unhealthy diets and NCD governance. The EMRO/O'Neill Institute partnership will develop guidance tools and capacity building initiatives to support Member States to harness the power of law to achieve population health improvements. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Progress of KOERI Tsunami Warning System for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Yilmazer, Mehmet; Cokacar, Tulay; Comoglu, Mustafa; Pinar, Ali; Kekovali, Kivanc

    2016-04-01

    This presentation provides a progress report on the activities of the Bogazici University / Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute - Regional Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring Center (KOERI-RETMC) which provides services as a Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) of ICG/NEAMTWS in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas since 1 July 2012. KOERI continues to operate 178 BB and 97 strong motion and 6 short period sensors and the regional coverage includes 77 stations from GFZ and additional 16 stations through bilateral agreements. One radar-type tide-gauge has been installed in Fethiye within the framework of "Inexpensive Device for Sea-Level Measurement" (IDSL) initiative offered as donation by the EC/JRC and planning is in progress for the possible installation of three more IDSLs in selected locations in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. The capabilities and the limitations of HF Radar technology for the purpose of tsunami detection in the Eastern Mediterranean has been identified and the maturity and the applicability of these systems for the possible use under the Tsunami Warning System has been determined. The development of the TsuComp as a user-friendly interface to be used in the assessment of tsunamigenic potential and as a single-point entry for message dissemination has been finalized. The work towards the creation of Tsunami Inundation Maps at the Tsunami Forecast Points in Turkey is near finalization. This work is partially funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839. The authors would like to thank EC/JRC and Mr. Alessandro Annunziato for their continuous support in the operational activities of RETMC and IDSL initiative.

  12. Oil families in the eastern Mediterranean offshore and southern Israel: Biomarker and trace element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinstein, S.; Brooks, P.W.; Fowler, M.G.; Snowdon, L.R.; Goldberg, M.; Aizenshtat, Z.

    1988-08-01

    Oil samples were obtained from producing wells and DSTs from the eastern Mediterranean offshore and the southern coastal plain and Dead Sea area in Israel. The oil samples were fractionated by liquid chromatography and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to define their gross chemical and biomarker composition. The nickel and vanadium content of the samples was analyzed by emission spectrography. The oils may be classified into three different families which agree with their geographical distribution. The biomarker distributions and nickel/vanadium ratios of the oils from the Dead Sea region suggest they were derived from a carbonate-rich source rock deposited in a highly reducing hypersaline environment. The oils from the coastal plain Helez-Kokhav field were also generated from a predominantly carbonate-rich source rock. However, they probably were contributed from a clastic rock deposited in a slightly less reducing depositional environment, as indicated by the presence of diasteranes and higher pristane/phytane and nickel/vanadium ratios. The Ziv 1 oil from the eastern Mediterranean offshore was probably generated from a predominantly clastic, marine source rock. All the oils analyzed seem to have been generated from mature source rocks. The maturity of their host rocks is much lower, indicating the oils reached their present location by lateral and/or vertical migration. The Dead Sea region oils have suffered varying amounts of water-washing and biodegradation, whereas the Helez-Kokhav and Ziv 1 oils have suffered limited water-washing and only little (if any) biodegradation.

  13. Progress toward measles elimination--Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleb, Nadia; Lebo, Emmaculate; Ahmed, Hinda; Hossam, Abdel Rahman; El Sayed, El Tayeb; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Rota, Paul; Alexander, James

    2014-06-13

    In 1997, the 22 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) adopted a goal of measles elimination by 2010. To achieve this goal, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) developed a four-pronged strategy: 1) achieve ≥ 95% vaccination coverage of children with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) in every district of each country through routine immunization services, 2) achieve ≥ 95% vaccination coverage with the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) in every district of each country either through a routine 2-dose vaccination schedule or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), 3) conduct high-quality, case-based surveillance in all countries, and 4) provide optimal clinical case management, including supplementing diets with vitamin A. Although significant progress was made toward measles elimination in the EMR during 1997-2007, the measles elimination goal was not reached by the target date of 2010, and the date was revised to 2015. This report updates previous reports and summarizes the progress made toward measles elimination in EMR during 2008-2012. From 2008 to 2012, large outbreaks occurred in countries with a high incidence of measles, and reported annual measles cases in EMR increased from 12,186 to 36,456. To achieve measles elimination in EMR, efforts are needed to increase 2-dose vaccination coverage, especially in countries with high incidence of measles and in conflict-affected countries, and to implement innovative strategies to reach populations at high risk in areas with poor access to vaccination services or with civil strife.

  14. Hindcast oil spill simulations from the existing offshore wells in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Following the expansion of the exploration and exploitation of the hydrocarbons in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin during the last 5 years, oil spill simulations for 20 existing offshore platforms/wells were carried out based on new and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The oil spill simulations were carried out using the well known MEDSLIK oil spill model, with the use of high temporal and spatial resolution data for 3D sea currents, winds and waves, provided by the CYCOFOS forecasting system, downscaled from the Copernicus Marine environment monitoring service (CMEMS). The hindcast oil spill simulations from the 20 potential oil spill sources have been prepared for a period of four years, presenting the movement of the spills and the area affected, the fate parameters, the first impact on the coast and the extend of the affected coastline from each location every week. The modeled oil spills took into account the oil spill scenario following the REMPEC MEDEXPOL 2013 experiment. Moreover, a qualitative analysis of the seabed morphology has been applied to examine the direction of the oil slick expansion, shown that the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. The oil spill simulations from the existing offshore wells/platforms, show a clear trend for east and northeast movement of the oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin, with the first impact at the coast in a time interval between 1 to 20 days after the first oil spilled at sea, depending on the location of the platforms/wells and of the intensity and direction of the meteo-ocean data.

  15. Assessing the state of health research in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S A; McDonald, A; Dubois, E; Aljohani, F G; Coutts, A P; Majeed, A; Rawaf, S

    2013-06-01

    Member states across the Eastern Mediterranean region face unprecedented health challenges, buffeted by demographic change, a dual disease burden, rising health costs, and the effects of ongoing conflict and population movements - exacerbated in the near-term by instability arising from recent political upheaval in the Middle East. However, health actors in the region are not well positioned to respond to these challenges because of a dearth of good quality health research. This review presents an assessment of the current state of health research systems across the Eastern Mediterranean based on publicly available literature and data sources. The review finds that - while there have been important improvements in productivity in the Region since the early 1990s - overall research performance is poor with critical deficits in system stewardship, research training and human resource development, and basic data surveillance. Translation of research into policy and practice is hampered by weak institutional and financial incentives, and concerns over the political sensitivity of findings. These problems are attributable primarily to chronic under-investment - both financial and political - in Research and Development systems. This review identifies key areas for a regional strategy and how to address challenges, including increased funding, research capacity-building, reform of governance arrangements and sustained political investment in research support. A central finding is that the poverty of publicly available data on research systems makes meaningful cross-comparisons of performance within the EMR difficult. We therefore conclude by calling for work to improve understanding of health research systems across the region as a matter of urgency.

  16. Particle fluxes in the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins: the role of ocean vertical velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Patara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between deep sedimentary fluxes and ocean current vertical velocities in an offshore area of the Ionian Sea, the deepest basin of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Sediment trap data are collected at 500 m and 2800 m depth in two successive moorings covering the period September 1999–May 2001. A tight coupling is observed between the upper and deep traps and the estimated particle sinking rates are more than 200 m day−1. The current vertical velocity field is computed from a 1/16°×1/16° Ocean General Circulation Model simulation and from the wind stress curl. Current vertical velocities are larger and more variable than Ekman vertical velocities, yet the general patterns are alike. Current vertical velocities are generally smaller than 1 m day−1: we therefore exclude a direct effect of downward velocities in determining high sedimentation rates. However we find that upward velocities in the subsurface layers of the water column are positively correlated with deep particle fluxes. We thus hypothesize that upwelling would produce an increase in upper ocean nutrient levels – thus stimulating primary production and grazing – a few weeks before an enhanced vertical flux is found in the sediment traps. High particle sedimentation rates may be attained by means of rapidly sinking fecal pellets produced by gelatinous macro-zooplankton. Other sedimentation mechanisms, such as dust deposition, are also considered in explaining large pulses of deep particle fluxes. The fast sinking rates estimated in this study might be an evidence of the efficiency of the biological pump in sequestering organic carbon from the surface layers of the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins.

  17. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  18. Two new species of Dendrobrachia Brook, 1889 (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Dendrobrachiidae from the north-eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. López-González

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Examination of recent benthic material collected during several cruises in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic and the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean has allowed the taxonomic reassessment of some previously identified specimens belonging to the monogeneric gorgonian family Dendrobrachiidae Brook, 1889. Dendrobrachia fallax Brook, 1889 is the type species of the single genus in this family, and was originally described from Ascension Island (South Atlantic. Subsequently, other authors reported the presence of this species in Cape Verde Islands (north-eastern Atlantic and some Mediterranean localities (Alboran Sea and the Strait of Sicily. The study of the specimen from the Prince of Monaco collections in Cape Verde Islands, and recently collected material from the Gulf of Cadiz (north-eastern Atlantic and in the south of Malta (Mediterranean, materials previously considered as D. fallax, allow us to recognize two undescribed species in this genus. All previous records of D. fallax from the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean should be considered incorrect. Opresko and Bayer (1991 added two additional species of Dendrobrachia. Two new species are described here and compared with their congeners.

  19. Present-day kinematics in the Eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus from dense GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadov, Bahruz; Jin, Shuanggen

    2017-07-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus are located among the Eurasian, African and Arabian plates, and tectonic activities are very complex. In this paper, the kinematics and strain distribution in these regions are determined and investigated from dense GPS observations with over 1000 stations and longer observations. The elastic block model is used to constrain present-day plate motions and crustal deformation. The relative Euler vectors between the Nubian, Arabian, Caucasus, Anatolian and Central Iranian plates are estimated. The Arabian-Eurasia, Anatolian-Eurasia, Nubian-Eurasia, Caucasus-Eurasia and Central Iranian Euler vectors are 0.584 ± 0.1 Myr-1, 0.825 ± 0.064 Myr-1, 0.35 ± 0.175 Myr-1, 0.85 ± 0.086 Myr-1 and 0.126 ± 0.016 Myr-1. The strain rate in the East Mediterranean and Caucasus has been estimated from the GPS velocity field. The results show that the thrust dominated areas, the eastern Mediterranean-Middle East-Caucasus and Zagros have negative dilatation and the western Anatolia region has positive 2D dilatation rate with significant rotation. The west Anatolian shows the extension in NW-SE with about 150-199 nstrain/yr in the W-E direction. The Central Anatolia shows compression rate below 50 nstrain/yr and extensional strain rate adjacent to East Anatolian Fault and Dead Sea Fault is about 0-100 nstrain/yr. The contraction strain rate is higher in Zagros and Caucasus between 100-150 nstrain/yr and contraction orientation is along the NE-SW direction in Caucasus. The north part of Iran shows less contraction rate below 50 nstrain/yr but North-East Zagros Mountains, Tabriz fault and Chalderan fault show extensional rate between 50-110 nstrain/yr and principal axes rotation in the N-S direction. The maximum contraction observed in the Kopek Dag is about 100-194 nstrain/yr and orientated in the NE-SW direction. East Zagros Mountain and Makran subduction zone have a large clockwise rotation with 70-85 nradian and principal axes remains mostly

  20. Structural geometry in the eastern Pyrenees and western Gulf of Lion (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauffret, Alain; Durand de Grossouvre, Bernard; Tadeu Dos Reis, Antonio; Gorini, Christian; Nercessian, Alex

    2001-11-01

    We present new seismic data from the Gulf of Lion located east of the Pyrenees on the continental shelf of the Mediterranean Sea. The deep penetration LISA (Ligurian-Sardinia Sea) seismic lines, the shots of the LISA cruise recorded on land, and the high definition ELF seismic sections allow us to present a complete picture of the tectonics in this area from the surface to the Moho level, and also to document late Miocene-early Pliocene extensional tectonics in the area. Previous studies show a prominent thinning of the crust observed from the Pyrenees towards the Gulf of Lion. The Moho depth varies from 48 km beneath the Axial Range crust (thickened during the Pyrenean Eocene Orogeny) to 21 km below the Catalan Basin in the Gulf of Lion. This crustal thinning occurred mainly during the early Miocene extension of the Mediterranean Sea. Balanced reconstructed geological sections derived from reflection and refraction seismic data allow us to evaluate the stretching factors at the crustal level. A maximum extension of 25 km is computed for the Catalan Basin area. This extension is related to detachments that penetrate the crust as deep as 11 km to the base of the brittle crust. These intra basement detachments have been confused in the past with the Paleozoic acoustic basement. The detachments show a clear listric shape and the geometry of horst and grabens can be explained by a hanging wall and footwall configuration with isostatic rebound of the footwall. The uplift in the Eastern Pyrenees (Albères and Canigou Massifs), on the other hand, is related to the late Miocene-early Pliocene extension we mapped in the area. These elevated features, probably formed by isostatic rebound, are surrounded by deep basins such as the Roussillon and El Empordà depressions. A 1.7 km uplift during the late Miocene-early Pliocene is computed in the offshore part of the Albères Massif. The cause of this Late Miocene-early Pliocene extension is not well explained although an uplift

  1. Outer shelf seafloor geomorphology along a carbonate escarpment: The eastern Malta Plateau, Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Georgiopoulou, Aggeliki; Mountjoy, Joshu; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Iacono, Claudio Lo; Le Bas, Timothy; Del Carlo, Paola; Otero, Daniel Cunarro

    2016-12-01

    Submarine carbonate escarpments, documented in numerous sites around the world, consist of thick exposures of Mesozoic shallow water carbonate sequences - primarily limestones and dolomites - with reliefs of >1 km and slope gradients of >70°. Whilst most research efforts have focused on the processes that shaped carbonate escarpments into complex and extreme terrains, little attention has been paid to the geomorphology of shelves upslope of carbonate escarpments. In this study we investigate high resolution geophysical, sedimentological and visual data acquired from the eastern Malta Plateau, central Mediterranean Sea, to demonstrate that the outer shelf of a carbonate escarpment is directly influenced by escarpment-forming processes. We document forty eight erosional scars, six long channels and numerous smaller-scale channels, three elongate mounds, and an elongate ridge across the eastern Malta Plateau. By analysing their morphology, seismic character, and sedimentological properties, we infer that the seafloor of the eastern Malta Plateau has been modified by three key processes: (i) Mass movements - in the form of translational slides, spreading and debris flows - that mobilised stratified Plio-Pleistocene hemipelagic mud along the shelf break and that were likely triggered by seismicity and loss of support due to canyon erosion across the upper Malta Escarpment; (ii) NNW-SSE trending sinistral strike-slip deformation in Cenozoic carbonates - resulting from the development of a mega-hinge fault system along the Malta Escarpment since the Late Mesozoic, and SE-NW directed horizontal shortening since the Late Miocene - which gave rise to NW-SE oriented extensional grabens and a NNW-SSE horst; (iii) Flow of bottom currents perpendicular and parallel to the Malta Escarpment, associated with either Modified Atlantic Water flows during sea level lowstands and/or Levantine Intermediate Water flows at present, which was responsible for sediment erosion and deposition

  2. The surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, N.; Millot, C.; Taupier-Letage, I.

    2003-04-01

    The POEM-schema of the Atlantic Water (AW, http://ciesm.org/events/RT5-WaterMassAcronyms.pdf) circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea widely referred to nowadays (Robinson et al., 1991, completed by Robinson and Golnaraghi, 1993, and by Malanotte-Rizzoli et al., 1997) represents, in particular, a jet meandering offshore across the whole basin. No information is given on the southern part of the basin and no mention is made of a possible overall alongslope anticlockwise flow there, as suggested by a contemporaneous analysis of infrared satellite images (Le Vourch et al., 1992; Millot, 1992). A roughly similar controversy was elucidated in the western basin where such imagery was proven reliable. This has motivated the detailed analysis of daily and weekly composite images (about 1000) during the period 1996-2000, and of monthly composites available since 1985. Our analysis shows that AW circulates alongslope and anticlockwise around the whole basin, as indicated by Nielsen (1912) who considered the Coriolis effect as dominant. This circulation, which is permanent from Tunisia to Turkey, exists more or less temporarily in the Aegean, in the Ionian around Greece and in the Adriatic, due to the Etesians. However, a branch having spread for years (up to early 1998) from the channel of Sicily towards the northern Ionian before vanishing represents marked interannual (not seasonal) variability. Being unstable during most of its circuit, the AW flow generates mesoscale eddies which had not been correctly described before and which represent a relatively large amount of AW. Other eddies are known to be generated by orographic effects on the wind field, especially the Etesians. Both kinds of eddies play a fundamental role in spreading AW from alongslope towards the open basin. Although these eddies have characteristics almost specific to each subbasin and/or generation mechanism, the largest ones are anticyclonic, both kinds reach diameters of a few 100s km

  3. Submarine landslides along the eastern Mediterranean Israeli continental slope - a possible source for tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, O.; Reuven, E.; Aharonov, E.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous shallow submarine slope failures (scars and deposits) are observed in recent high resolution bathymetric grids of the continental slope off the Israeli eastern Mediterranean coast. The nature of these slope failures is currently not comprehensively understood as well as the question of whether the eastern Mediterranean continental slope is continuously or episodically unstable. This question is relevant to tsunami hazard along the densely populated eastern Mediterranean shores. We report here first steps towards understanding the present state of this submarine landslide system, which include mapping and analyzing the geology of the landslides and the hosting slopes. The continental slope extends from water depths of about 150 to more than 1000 meters with a slope of less than 5 degrees in general. Bathymetric grids with pixel resolution of 15 m till water depth of 700 m and 50 m till water depth of 1700 m were used. Analyzing the bathymetry revealed three main submarine surface features on the continental slope: (a) numerous shallow landslides, within the upper sequence of the post-Messenian sediments. Landslide widths range between hundreds to thousand of meters at the scar, with scar heights up to hundred meters. The toes of the landslides are not always mapable and lay up to a few kilometers down slope from the scar. Slope angles within the scars are 5 degrees to more than 15 degrees. In general landslides size decreases from south to north where their head scar depth turns to be shallower northwards. At least two types of landslides were detected: presumably young slides with sharp scars and presumably old slides with secondary slides and secondary drainage systems developed within the scar area; (b) a few kilometers long, north striking step-like lineaments. Step heights are up to 100 meters and the slopes are up to 20 degrees. The offset between parallel steps is less than a kilometer to a few kilometers. Analyzing seismic lines, the steps are

  4. Strategic approach to control of viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: report from a regional consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M R; El Bushra, H E; Opoka, M; Formenty, P; Velayudhan, R; Eremin, S

    2013-10-01

    The viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a growing public health threat in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Nearly all of them are of zoonotic origin. VHF often cause outbreaks with high fatalities and, except for yellow fever, currently there are no specific treatment or vaccination options available. In response to this growing threat, the Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean of the World Health Organization convened a technical consultation in Tehran on 27-30 November 2011 to review the current gaps in prevention and control of VHF outbreaks in the Region. The meeting recommended a number of strategic public health approaches for prevention and control of VHF outbreaks through synergizing effective collaboration between the human and animal health sectors on areas that involve better preparedness, early detection and rapid response. Implementation of these approaches would require working together with vision, commitment and a sense of purpose involving partnerships and cooperation from all relevant sectors.

  5. Active tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region: deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reilinger

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main tectonic features of the Eastern Mediterranean region combining the recent information obtained from GPS measurements, seismicity and neotectonic studies. GPS measurements reveal that the Arabian plate moves northward with respect to Eurasia at a rate of 23 ± 1 mm/yr, 10 mm/yr of this rate is taken up by shortening in the Caucasus. The internal deformation in Eastern Anatolia by conjugate strike-slip faulting and E-W trending thrusts, including the Bitlis frontal thrust, accommodates approximately a 15 mm/yr slip rate. The Northeast Anatolian fault, which extends from the Erzincan basin to Caucasus accommodates about 8 ± 5 mm/yr of left-lateral motion. The neotectonic fault pattern in Eastern Anatolia suggests that the NE Anatolian block moves in an E-ENE direction towards the South Caspian Sea. According to the same data, the Anatolian-Aegean block is undergoing a counter-clockwise rotation. However, from the residuals it appears that this solution can only be taken as a preliminary approximation. The Eulerian rotation pole indicates that slip rate along the North Anatolian fault is about 26 ± 3 mm/yr. This value is 10 mm/yr higher than slip rates obtained from geological data and historical earthquake records and it includes westward drift of the Pontides of a few millimetres/year or more. GPS measurements reveal that the East Anatolian fault accommodates an 11 ± 1 mm/yr relative motion. GPS data suggest that Central Anatolia behaves as a rigid block, but from neotectonic studies, it clearly appears that it is sliced by a number of conjugate strike-slip faults. The Isparta Angle area might be considered a major obstacle for the westward motion of the Anatolian block (Central and Eastern Anatolia. The western flank of this geological structure, the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone appears to be a major boundary with a slip rate of 15-20 mm/yr. The Western Anatolian grabens take up a total of 15 mm/yr NE-SW extension

  6. Automated inter-station phase velocity measurements across the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Amr; Weidle, Christian; Christiano, Luigia; Soomro, Riaz; Lebedev, Sergi; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The structure of the lithosphere in northeastern Africa, eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East is highly variable. It ranges from young oceanic lithosphere in the Red Sea to what is considered the oldest oceanic lithosphere on Earth in the Mediterranean Sea north of Libya, and from highly deformed continental lithosphere at the east-Mediterranean margins to more stable continental lithosphere of Phanerozoic origin and to cratonic lithosphere beneath the Arabian Peninsula. Details of the lithospheric structure are, however, poorly known. Surface waves are ideally suited for studies of the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by surface wave tomography. Using regional to teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves that traverse the area we can obtain information about its seismic structure by examining phase velocities as a function of frequency. A newly developed algorithm for automated inter-station phase velocity measurements (Soomro et al. 2016) is applied here to obtain both Rayleigh and Love fundamental mode phase velocities. We utilize a database consisting of more than 3800 regional and teleseismic earthquakes recorded by more than 1850 broadband seismic stations within the area, provided by the European Integrated Data Archive (WebDc/EIDA) and IRIS. Moreover, for the first time, data from the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), recorded by up to 25 broad band seismic stations, is also included in the analysis. For each station pair approximately located on the same great circle path, the recorded waveforms are cross correlated and the dispersion curves of fundamental modes are calculated from the phase of the weighted cross correlation functions. Path average dispersion curves are obtained by averaging the smooth parts of single-event dispersion curves. Parameters tests and preliminary results of automatically measured phase velocities are

  7. Observing and simulating the impact of growing urbanization on air quality and climate in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Daskalakis, Nikos; Sfakianaki, Maria; Hatziannastassiou, Nikos; Im, Ulas

    2016-07-01

    The Mediterranean, and particularly its east basin, is a crossroad of air masses coming from Europe, Asia and Africa. Over this area, anthropogenic emissions, mainly from Europe, Balkans and the Black Sea, meet with natural emissions from Sahara (Saharan dust), vegetation and the ocean as well as from biomass burning, overall presenting a strong seasonal pattern. As a consequence of its unique location and emissions, the Mediterranean region is climatically very sensitive and often exposed to multiple stresses, such as a simultaneous water shortage and elevated air pollution exposure. During the last decades, the Eastern Mediterranean, following the general trend, has experienced a rapid growth in urbanization, including increased vehicle circulation, and industrialization, all impacting pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the challenging environmental problems for Istanbul and Cairo megacities but also for the whole Eastern Mediterranean region. The recent financial crisis resulted in changes in human habits, energy production and subsequently air pollution. This resulted in changes in tropospheric composition that reflect changes in natural emissions and in human behavior have been detected by satellites and simulated by chemistry transport models. The results are presented and their robustness is discussed.

  8. An overlooked alien species present on the coasts of Greece (Eastern Mediterranean: the polychaete Polycirrus twisti Potts (Polychaeta: Terebellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Terebellidae polychaete Polycirrus twisti Potts, 1928 had been confused in several previous records the Eastern Mediterranean with the co-generic species Polycirrus plumosusWollebaeck, 1912, because of incomplete specimens or unclear descriptions; therefore its presence in Greek seas had been overlooked. Specimens of Polycirrus twisti were currently identified from the Korinthiakos Gulf (Greece, Eastern Mediterranean, while older records from the Hellenic marine area, erroneously assigned toPolycirrus plumosus and recorded since 1983 (Rhodos island, Dodekanesse were emended. Polycirrus twisti is an alien species, most likely introduced to the Mediterranean from the Suez Canal, while it was recently reported from the Southern coasts of Turkey (Levantine Sea. Its identification and report in Greek Seas increases the number of alien polychaete species in this area to 37 and offers a further evidence and link of its introduction and dispersion dynamics from the Suez Canal to the Levantine and Aegean Sea. The presence of the previously reported species Polycirrus plumosus in the Mediterranean Sea is therefore strongly questionable.

  9. Interactions between climate change and human activities during the early to mid-Holocene in the eastern Mediterranean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jean-Francois; Lespez, Laurent; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Glais, Arthur; Hourani, Fuad; Barra, Adrien; Guilaine, Jean

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on early Holocene rapid climate change (RCC) records in the Mediterranean zone, which are under-represented in continental archives (9.2 to 8.2 ka events) and on their impact on prehistoric societies. This lack of data handicaps the general interpretation of climate impacts on human societies, which flourished in recent years. Key questions remain about the impact of early Holocene cooling events on the Mediterranean climate, ecosystems and human societies. In this paper, we discuss some examples from river and lake systems from the eastern to central Mediterranean area (central Anatolia, Cyprus, northeastern and northwestern Greece) that illustrate some palaeohydrological and erosion variations that modified the sustainability of the first Neolithic populations in this region. Results allow us to present direct land-sea correlations and to reconstruct regional long-term trends as well as millennial- to centennial-scale climatic changes. In this context, we question the socio-economic and geographical adaptation capacities of these societies (mobility, technology, economic practices, social organisation) during the "early Holocene" interval (11.7 to 8.2 ka), which corresponds partly to the Sapropel 1 deposition in the eastern Mediterranean sea.

  10. Water-conscious development and the prevention of water misuse and wastage in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosh-Chashm, K

    2000-07-01

    Many countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region suffer from severe water shortage, primarily as a result of population growth. The problem will undoubtedly worsen in the future with possibly drastic consequences. This paper outlines the current situation in the Region and the possible impact of water scarcity on health and the environment. Water conservation in agricultural, commercial and domestic areas is discussed from the perspective of water-conscious development and possible strategies are proposed.

  11. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrobičić, Ana; Chaudhry, Nauman; Ghaffar, Abdul; Marušić, Ana

    2012-05-11

    Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006-2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006-2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient's privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community.

  12. New data on the occurrence of two alien fishes, Pisodonophis semicinctus and Pomadasys stridens, from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    M. BILECENOGLU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical Atlantic originated saddled snake eel, Pisodonophis semicinctus (Richardson, 1848 and the Indian Ocean originated striped piggy, Pomadasys stridens (Forsskål, 1775, are being recorded for the first time from Turkish coasts. First species is also a new addition to the eastern Mediterranean ichthyofauna, while the latter species has expanded its range to the northeastern Levant Sea.

  13. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006–2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Results Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006–2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient’s privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Conclusion Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community. PMID:22577965

  14. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utrobičić Ana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR, we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006–2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Results Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations during 2006–2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS. Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient’s privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed, policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%, and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%. Conclusion Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community.

  15. Invasive symbiont bearing (and other) foraminifera altering the community structure of eastern Mediterranean rocky reefs environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Perelis Grossowicz, Lydia; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    2015-04-01

    The rocky reefs of the Israeli eastern Mediterranean shelf constitute a highly diverse marine ecosystem rich in macroalgae and calcareous organisms. The benthic foraminiferal community living in this ecosystem is rapidly changing due to massive invasion of symbiont bearing foraminifera (SBF) as well as other foraminiferal species of tropical origin. This trend facilitated by the ongoing increase in temperature enables more tropical species to adjust to the eastern Mediterranean habitats. In order to document the status of the benthic foraminiferal community structure rocky reefs at Akhziv (AK) and Carmel Head (CH), northern Israel were sampled by scuba diving. Different macroalgae species, including invasive ones, accommodating the live epiphytic benthic foraminifera were sampled twice a year at AK and in each season at CH in three depth intervals between 5-20 m, during 2013-4. The numerical abundance of the group ranges between 170-3500 #/10cc (wet macroalgae volume) without any significant difference in standing stocks within regions, water depths or macroalgae preference. In total 77 benthic foraminiferal species were identified 71 in CH and only 43 at AK. Species richness per site varied between 3 and 42 with higher values at CH. 25% of all species were aliens, mostly Lessepsian, that comprise on average 70% - 84% of the numerical abundance of AK and CH respectively. Cluster analysis using benthic foraminifera relative abundance data did not correlate with the different macroalgae species, water depths or seasonality, indicating that the foraminiferal community in the two regions is quite homogenous. Amphistegina lobifera a Lessepsian migrant is by far the most common species on the Israeli rocky reefs occurring in all samples and comprising 18-93% of the foraminiferal community. Heterostegina depressa behaves similarly to A. lobifera though it occurs in lower numbers. Pararotalia calcariformata, a recently arriving SBF occupies mainly shallow water sites at CH

  16. Fish geographic distribution range shifts as recorded in the eastern Mediterranean during the last 5 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiadi, Konstantina; Karakitsios, Vasileios

    2013-04-01

    Marine fish species geographic distribution is known to reflect the individuals' response to changes in oceanic circulation, temperature, salinity, local geography, other species presence and/or abundance, food availability and other biotic and abiotic factors1. New and published records on the eastern Mediterranean fish, from the end of the Messinian salinity crisis to the present, are here examined, in correlation with palaeoenvironmental data, in order to draw conclusions regarding the abiotic parameters most affecting the fish distribution during the last 5 Ma in this area. This investigation shows that the environmental variables do not affect the fish fauna in a uniform way. Rather, three faunal components may be separated, each occupying a different depth range in the water column. Pelagic fish dwell for the most part on the uppermost 200 m, and their distribution seems to be affected mainly by climatic variability. Mesopelagic fish occupy mostly intermediate depths and their distribution is regulated by the prevailing water circulation patterns. Benthic and benthopelagic fish, which live close or in contact with the sea bottom, are mostly affected by the nature and depth of the substratum. Furthermore, examples from the Ionian2,3 and the Aegean Sea indicate that, during the last 5 Ma, large-scale range shifts, similar to those occurring today, frequently took place in this area. This observation significantly alters previously views on the stability of fish assemblages and the processes occurring today. Acknowledgments. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Heracleitus II. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund. References 1 Wooton RJ. 1998. Ecology of teleost fishes,Fish and Fisheries Series,24.Kluwers.392p. 2

  17. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in photochemically aged air from the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derstroff, Bettina; Hüser, Imke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Crowley, John N.; Fischer, Horst; Gromov, Sergey; Harder, Hartwig; Janssen, Ruud H. H.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Mallik, Chinmay; Martinez, Monica; Novelli, Anna; Parchatka, Uwe; Phillips, Gavin J.; Sander, Rolf; Sauvage, Carina; Schuladen, Jan; Stönner, Christof; Tomsche, Laura; Williams, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    During the summertime CYPHEX campaign (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment 2014) in the eastern Mediterranean, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured from a 650 m hilltop site in western Cyprus (34° 57' N/32° 23' E). Periodic shifts in the northerly Etesian winds resulted in the site being alternately impacted by photochemically processed emissions from western (Spain, France, Italy) and eastern (Turkey, Greece) Europe. Furthermore, the site was situated within the residual layer/free troposphere during some nights which were characterized by high ozone and low relative humidity levels. In this study we examine the temporal variation of VOCs at the site. The sparse Mediterranean scrub vegetation generated diel cycles in the reactive biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, from very low values at night to a diurnal median level of 80-100 pptv. In contrast, the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) methanol and acetone exhibited weak diel cycles and were approximately an order of magnitude higher in mixing ratio (ca. 2.5-3 ppbv median level by day, range: ca. 1-8 ppbv) than the locally emitted isoprene and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. Acetic acid was present at mixing ratios between 0.05 and 4 ppbv with a median level of ca. 1.2 ppbv during the daytime. When data points directly affected by the residual layer/free troposphere were excluded, the acid followed a pronounced diel cycle, which was influenced by various local effects including photochemical production and loss, direct emission, dry deposition and scavenging from advecting air in fog banks. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was used to determine transport patterns and photochemical processing times (between 12 h and several days) of air masses originating from eastern and western Europe. Ozone and many OVOC levels were ˜ 20 and ˜ 30-60 % higher, respectively, in air arriving from the east. Using the FLEXPART calculated transport time, the contribution of photochemical

  18. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in photochemically aged air from the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Derstroff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the summertime CYPHEX campaign (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment 2014 in the eastern Mediterranean, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured from a 650 m hilltop site in western Cyprus (34° 57′ N/32° 23′ E. Periodic shifts in the northerly Etesian winds resulted in the site being alternately impacted by photochemically processed emissions from western (Spain, France, Italy and eastern (Turkey, Greece Europe. Furthermore, the site was situated within the residual layer/free troposphere during some nights which were characterized by high ozone and low relative humidity levels. In this study we examine the temporal variation of VOCs at the site. The sparse Mediterranean scrub vegetation generated diel cycles in the reactive biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, from very low values at night to a diurnal median level of 80–100 pptv. In contrast, the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs methanol and acetone exhibited weak diel cycles and were approximately an order of magnitude higher in mixing ratio (ca. 2.5–3 ppbv median level by day, range: ca. 1–8 ppbv than the locally emitted isoprene and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. Acetic acid was present at mixing ratios between 0.05 and 4 ppbv with a median level of ca. 1.2 ppbv during the daytime. When data points directly affected by the residual layer/free troposphere were excluded, the acid followed a pronounced diel cycle, which was influenced by various local effects including photochemical production and loss, direct emission, dry deposition and scavenging from advecting air in fog banks. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was used to determine transport patterns and photochemical processing times (between 12 h and several days of air masses originating from eastern and western Europe. Ozone and many OVOC levels were  ∼  20 and  ∼  30–60 % higher, respectively, in air arriving from the east. Using the FLEXPART

  19. Assimilation of ocean colour data into a Biochemical Flux Model of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    G. Triantafyllou

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the European MFSTEP project, an advanced multivariate sequential data assimilation system has been implemented to assimilate real chlorophyll data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS into a three-dimensional biochemical model of the Eastern Mediterranean. The physical ocean is described through the Princeton Ocean Model (POM while the biochemistry of the ecosystem is tackled with the Biochemical Flux Model (BFM. The assimilation scheme is based on the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK filter, in which the error statistics were parameterized by means of a suitable set of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs. A radius of influence was further selected around every data point to limit the range of the EOFs spatial correlations. The assimilation experiment was performed for one year over 1999 and forced with ECMWF 6 hour atmospheric fields. The accuracy of the ecological state identification by the assimilation system is assessed by the relevance of the system in fitting the data, and through the impact of the assimilation on non-observed biochemical processes. Assimilation of SeaWiFS data significantly improves the forecasting capability of the BFM model. Results, however, indicate the necessity of subsurface data to enhance the controllability of the ecosystem model in the deep layers.

  20. Assessing trade in health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean from a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Shennawy, Azza; Mirza, Zafer; Drager, Nick; Sabri, Belgacem

    2010-01-01

    Assessing trade in health services (TiHS) in developing countries is challenging since the sources of information are diverse, information is not accessible and professionals lack grasp of issues. A multi-country study was conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR)--Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Yemen. The objective was to estimate the direction, volume, and value of TiHS; analyze country commitments; and assess the challenges and opportunities for health services.Trade liberalization favored an open trade regime and encouraged foreign direct investment. Consumption abroad and movement of natural persons were the two prevalent modes. Yemen and Sudan are net importers, while Jordan promotes health tourism. In 2002, Yemenis spent US$ 80 million out of pocket for treatment abroad, while Jordan generated US$ 620 million. Egypt, Pakistan, Sudan and Tunisia export health workers, while Oman relies on import and 40% of its workforce is non-Omani. There is a general lack of coherence between Ministries of Trade and Health in formulating policies on TiHS.This is the first organized attempt to look at TiHS in the EMR. The systematic approach has helped create greater awareness, and a move towards better policy coherence in the area of trade in health services. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical sonde

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    A. Papayannis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A two-wavelength ultraviolet (289–316nm ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL system is used to perform ozone measurements in the free troposphere in the Eastern Mediterranean (Northern Greece. The ozone DIAL profiles obtained during a Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Transport (STT event are compared to that acquired by an electrochemical ozonesonde, in the altitude range between 2 and 10 km. The measurement accuracy of these two instruments is also discussed. The mean difference between the ozone profiles obtained by the two techniques is of the order of 1.11 ppbv (1.86%, while the corresponding standard deviation is 4.69 ppbv (8.16%. A case study of an STT event which occurred on 29 November 2000 is presented and analyzed, using ozone lidar, satellite and meteorological data, as well as air mass back-trajectory analysis. During this STT event ozone mixing ratios of 55–65 ppbv were observed between 5 and 7 km height above sea level (a.s.l.. Stratospheric air was mixed with tropospheric air masses, leading to potential vorticity (PV losses due to diabatic processes. The ozone DIAL system can be used for following STT events and small-scale mixing phenomena in the free troposphere, and for providing sequences of vertical ozone profiles in the free troposphere.

    Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (Evolution of the atmosphere; Instruments and techniques – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Middle atmosphere dynamics; Turbulence

  2. Trends in trawl and purse seine catch rates in the north-eastern Mediterranean

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    A. MACHIAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on fishing effort expressed in vessel days at sea and corresponding landing/day for a large number of species have been collected by the Institute of Marine Biological Resources (IMBR since the second half of 1995. Data were collected over a grid of 21 stations throughout the Greek seas. In the present study we analyzed the monthly days at sea as well as catch per day for trawlers and purse seiners from 1996 to 2000, by general linear models and trend analysis. The following vessel size groups per gear were considered: (a trawlers smaller and larger than 20m; (b purse-seiners smaller and larger than 15m. Collected data were also aggregated for five fishing sub-areas: the North Aegean, the Central Aegean, the South Aegean, Cretan waters and the Ionian Sea. Trend analysis of landing/day time series indicated that demersal and pelagic resources are declining in the main fishing grounds. Declining landing/day trends are regarded as indicators of overfishing, especially in the light of the fact that high catch rates are maintained by fishing in ‘hot spots’. The results of the present analysis provide, for the first time, important information on the sustainability of the fisheries in the north-eastern Mediterranean, an area characterized by a complete lack of accurate long-term data on effort and catch per effort

  3. Effect of Dust Storms on the Atmospheric Microbiome in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Yinon; Cytryn, Eddie; Erel, Yigal; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-04-19

    We evaluated the impact of Saharan dust storms on the local airborne microbiome in a city in the Eastern Mediterranean area. Samples of particles with diameter less than 10 μm were collected during two spring seasons on both dusty and nondusty days. DNA was extracted, and partial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Bioinformatic analysis showed the effect of dust events on the diversity of the atmospheric microbiome. The relative abundance of desert soil-associated bacteria increased during dust events, while the relative abundance of anthropogenic-influenced taxa decreased. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements of selected clinically significant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) showed that their relative abundance decreased during dust events. The ARG profiles on dust-free days were similar to those in aerosol collected in a poultry house, suggesting a strong agricultural influence on the local ambient profiles. We conclude that dust storms enrich the ambient airborne microbiome with new soil-derived bacteria that disappear as the dust settles, suggesting that the bacteria are transported attached to the dust particles. Dust storms do not seem to be an important vector for transport of probed ARGs.

  4. Women and waterpipe tobacco smoking in the eastern mediterranean region: allure or offensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Joanna; Afifi, Rima; Fouad, Fouad M; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Mohamed, Mostafa; Nakkash, Rima

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide, despite evidence indicating its adverse health effects. Women and young people seem more likely to be choosing waterpipe tobacco smoking over cigarettes. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand better whether and why waterpipe smoking is a more acceptable form of tobacco use than cigarettes for women in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and to understand whether the strategies used by multi-national corporations to attract women to cigarette smoking were perceived to be relevant in the context of waterpipe tobacco use. Focus groups (n = 81) and in-depth interviews (n = 38) were conducted with adults in Lebanon, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. Discussions were thematically analyzed and recurrent themes identified. One of the themes which emerged was the negative image of women smoking waterpipes. Moreover, the sexual allure conveyed through waterpipe smoking as well as waterpipe tobacco smoking as a symbol of emancipation was illustrated. The latter was mainly expressed in Lebanon, in contrast with Egypt where traditional gender roles depict women smoking waterpipes as disrespectful to society. Understanding the social aspects of waterpipe tobacco smoking is crucial to planning future interventions to control waterpipe tobacco smoking among women and in society at large.

  5. EXPORTING ECONOMIC SECURITY TOWARDS THE EUROPEAN UNION: EASTERN NEIGHBORHOOD IN CONTRAST TO SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN

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    OXANA SOIMU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A prosperous neighbourhood for a developing country is an undeniable fact. Among most eloquent examples serves the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP that is subject of large debates. In this context, we are used to get knowledge about the benefits that the ENP brings to Eastern and Southern Mediterranean partners. On the other hand, many studies criticize the European Union (EU foreign policy as presenting weak incentives and conditionality. Nevertheless, this situation requires from our point of view a thorough analysis about the share of economic security that is “imported” by the EU due to the ENP implementation in its immediate vicinity. Thereby, an empirical analysis is going to be carried out in this article where the manoeuvre with some statistic data and macroeconomic indicators within economic security typologies is expected to generate useful insights in order to identify: Who generates more economic security gains for the EU? In more details, tracing the analytic parallel between economic measures within the European Neighbourhood Policy and contemporary approach to economic security, namely according to the European vision of security it enables the author to reach conclusions which of the EU's neighbours show more economic certainty and security. If this correlation generates positive results, then the author will assert that the EU offer regarding the Neighbourhood Policy is prospective for recipients but also for the EU in terms of economic security "import".

  6. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources.

  7. Paleodepth variations on the Eratosthenes Seamount (Eastern Mediterranean: sea-level changes or subsidence?

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    S. Spezzaferri

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eratosthenes Seamount (Eastern Mediterranean is interpreted as a crustal block in process of break up in response to subduction and incipient collision of the African and Eurasian Plates. Subsidence is considered to be the mechanism triggering the Messinian to Pleistocene water deepening above this unique structure. However, the application of a recently developed transfer equation of depth range distribution of benthic foraminifera indicates that sea-level changes may also have played a role, although it was generally minor. In particular, we suggest that across the Miocene/Pliocene boundary and during the Pliocene-Pleistocene, the eustatic signal is frequently coupled with uplifts and subsidence. The uplift of Cyprus across the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition is clearly recorded in the paleodepth curve. Micropaleontological studies and the use of this transfer equation based on the distribution of benthic foraminifera proves to be useful when studying the paleodepth history of complex sites, where tectonic and eustatic signals combine. We also show that marginal seas record global sea-level changes that can be identified even in tectonically active settings.

  8. Climate change and health in the Eastern Mediterranean countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef S; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdo, Nour; Al-Sharif, Munjed; Elbetieha, Ahmed; Bakir, Hamed; Alemam, Rola

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the existing knowledge of the impact of climate change on health from previous research in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) and identify knowledge and research gaps. Different databases were searched for relevant studies published in the region between 2000 and 2014. The review was limited to studies reporting the impacts of climate change on health or studying associations between meteorological parameters and well-defined human health outcomes. This systematic review of 78 studies identified many knowledge and research gaps. Research linking climate change and health is scarce in the most vulnerable countries of the region. There is limited information regarding how changes in temperature, precipitation and other weather variables might affect the geographic range and incidence of mortality and morbidity from various diseases. Available research has many limitations and shortcomings that arise from inappropriate study designs, poor assessment of exposure and outcomes, questionable sources of data, lack of standardized methods, poor adjustment of confounders, limited geographical area studies, small sample sizes, poor statistical modeling and not testing for possible interactions between exposures. Research and information on the effect of climate change on health are limited. Longitudinal studies over extended periods of time that investigate the link between climate change and health are needed. There is a need for studies to be expanded to include more countries in the region and to include other environmental, social and economic factors that might affect the spread of the disease.

  9. Short communication: Stocktaking forestry knowledge in Eastern Mediterranean: a glimpse on where do practitioners stand

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    Elsa Sattout

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To identify the lines of research initiatives and programmes on forest ecosystem and trees and shed lights on the need of new insights in forestry sector. Area of Study: Eastern Mediterranean countries (i.e. Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey. Materials and Methods: Online assessment through search on Google, Science Direct, Tandfonline, Forestry related journals, PLOS ONE, FAOSTAT, FAO-Agris, Unasylva, and Research Gate. Direct contacts were made with researchers at universities and professionals from international development organisations. Main results: The highest contribution in research is recorded in Turkey, followed by Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. Forest ecosystem functioning was ranked first in the research thematic areas, followed by forest ecosystem management. Research interest focuses on limited genera of coniferous and broadleaf trees. Emerging needs feature the execution of comprehensive national and regional stocktaking exercises to harmonize research agendas; ensuring synergies between international agreements’ goals (e.g. SDGs and national policies instruments (e.g. NBSAPs; alignment of research agendas with national and international related frameworks; revisiting governance structure and regulatory measures and laws in the forestry sector. Research highlights: Insights put in the interface a new outlook on the leadership profile and foundation of interdisciplinary communities of practices. Rethink academic forestry related programmes and transform the approaches adopted to aim for more inclusiveness leading to stronger knowledge and coherent and successful practices in forestry.

  10. Temporal variations and sources of Eastern Mediterranean aerosols based on a 9-year observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, F.; Zararsız, A.; Dutkiewicz, V. A.; Husain, L.; Hopke, P. K.; Tuncel, G.

    2012-12-01

    Concentrations of 48 elements, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, NH4+, and black carbon (BC) were determined in PM10 aerosols collected daily at a rural Eastern Mediterranean (EM) site (Antalya, 30.34°E, 36.47°N) from 1993 to 2001. Temporal variations (daily, seasonal and long term), sources and source regions of EM aerosols were delineated. Concentrations of elements with marine and crustal origin were more episodic as compared to anthropogenic ones. Most of the variables showed well defined seasonal cycles. Concentrations of crustal elements increased in summer while winter concentrations of marine elements were considerably higher than in summer. Trends in concentrations were analyzed using the Kendall test. Essentially, all elements showed decreasing trends. Sen's slope was applied to find the magnitude of the trends. The annual rate of decrease was found to change from 0.001 to 209 ng m-3. A receptor-based model, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), resolved five factors influencing the chemical composition of EM aerosols as airborne dust, oil combustion, coal combustion, motor vehicle emissions and sea salt. Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis was performed to identify the likely areas influencing the chemical composition of aerosol samples. Local and remote sources were detected for the factors resolved by PMF. PSCF maps including backward trajectories at starting height of 900 hPa have indicated that North Africa is the major source contributing to the concentrations of variables associated with dust factor.

  11. Zika virus: no cases in the Eastern Mediterranean Region but concerns remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, N N Tran; Huda, Q; Asghar, H; Samhouri, D; Abubakar, A; Barwa, C; Shaikh, I; Buliva, E; Mala, P; Malik, M

    2016-08-18

    Following the WHO declaration on 1 February 2016 of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) with regard to clusters of microcephaly and neurological disorders potentially associated with Zika virus, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean conducted three rounds of emergency meetings to address enhancing preparedness actions in the Region. The meetings provided up-to-date information on the current situation and agreed on a set of actions for the countries to undertake to enhance their preparedness and response capacities to Zika virus infection and its complications. The most urgent action is to enhance both epidemiological and entomological surveillance between now and the coming rainy seasons in countries with known presence of Aedes mosquitoes. Zika virus like other vector-borne diseases poses a particular challenge to the countries because of their complex nature which requires multidisciplinary competencies and strong rapid interaction among committed sectors. WHO is working closely with partners and countries to ensure the optimum support is provided to the countries to reduce the risk of this newly emerged health threat.

  12. Spatial scales of bacterial community diversity at cold seeps (Eastern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop Ristova, Petra; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Ramette, Alban; Felden, Janine; Boetius, Antje

    2015-06-01

    Cold seeps are highly productive, fragmented marine ecosystems that form at the seafloor around hydrocarbon emission pathways. The products of microbial utilization of methane and other hydrocarbons fuel rich chemosynthetic communities at these sites, with much higher respiration rates compared with the surrounding deep-sea floor. Yet little is known as to the richness, composition and spatial scaling of bacterial communities of cold seeps compared with non-seep communities. Here we assessed the bacterial diversity across nine different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea and surrounding seafloor areas. Community similarity analyses were carried out based on automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and high-throughput 454 tag sequencing and were combined with in situ and ex situ geochemical analyses across spatial scales of a few tens of meters to hundreds of kilometers. Seep communities were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria and shared, on average, 36% of bacterial types (ARISA OTUs (operational taxonomic units)) with communities from nearby non-seep deep-sea sediments. Bacterial communities of seeps were significantly different from those of non-seep sediments. Within cold seep regions on spatial scales of only tens to hundreds of meters, the bacterial communities differed considerably, sharing cold seep ecosystems contribute substantially to the microbial diversity of the deep-sea.

  13. Overweight and Obesity in Eastern Mediterranean Region: Prevalence and Possible Causes

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    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among various age groups as well as discuss the possible factors that associated with obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. A systematic review of published papers between 1990 and 2011 was carried out. Obesity reached an alarming level in all age groups of the EMR countries. The prevalence of overweight among preschool children(<5 years ranged from 1.9% to 21.9%, while the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children ranged from 7% to 45%. Among adults the prevalence of overweight and obesity ranged from 25% to 81.9%. Possible factors determining obesity in this region include: nutrition transition, inactivity, urbanization, marital status, a shorter duration of breastfeeding, frequent snacking, skipping breakfast, a high intake of sugary beverages, an increase in the incidence of eating outside the home, long periods of time spent viewing television, massive marketing promotion of high fat foods, stunting, perceived body image, cultural elements and food subsidize policy. A national plan of action to overcome obesity is urgently needed to reduce the economic and health burden of obesity in this region.

  14. The popular resort port of cruise tourism in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin: Turkey

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    Okan Yaşar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cruise tourism is in most demand in Europe and North America. The Eastern Mediterranean, and consequently Turkey rank among the destinations that cruise ship tour companies prefer to travel. Part of the demand for cruise tourism, which has been displaying a constantly raising momentum in tourism movements in the world, is now being directed towards Turkey. Nonetheless, the cruise tourism trend is spreading and prompting domestic demand in Turkey as well. A significant boom in the domestic demand has led to the commencement of cruise tours to the Black Sea, the Greek Islands, the Dalmatian shores and Italy leaving from Istanbul, Izmir and Kusadasi harbors. Turkey’s active foreign demand for cruise tourism mostly focuses on ports and its surrounding supply of services. Cruise tourism is now one of the predominant agendas within policies for diversifying and spreading tourism. Within one year Turkey managed to be ranked among the first ten countries in regard to the number of tourists and tourism revenues in the world.

  15. The popular resort port of cruise tourism in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin: Turkey

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    Okan Yasar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cruise tourism is in most demand in Europe and North America. The Eastern Mediterranean, and consequently Turkey rank among the destinations that cruise ship tour companies prefer to travel. Part of the demand for cruise tourism, which has been displaying a constantly raising momentum in tourism movements in the world, is now being directed towards Turkey. Nonetheless, the cruise tourism trend is spreading and prompting domestic demand in Turkey as well. A significant boom in the domestic demand has led to the commencement of cruise tours to the Black Sea, the Greek Islands, the Dalmatian shores and Italy leaving from Istanbul, Izmir and Kusadasi harbors. Turkey’s active foreign demand for cruise tourism mostly focuses on ports and its surrounding supply of services. Cruise tourism is now one of the predominant agendas within policies for diversifying and spreading tourism. Within one year Turkey managed to be ranked among the first ten countries in regard to the number of tourists and tourism revenues in the world.       

  16. Estimating the direct and indirect water use of tourism in the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikakou, Michalis; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Miller, Graham

    2013-01-15

    The impact of tourism activities on local water resources remains a largely understudied issue in environmental and sustainable tourism management. The aim of the paper is to present a simple methodology that allows an estimate of direct and indirect local water use associated with different holiday packages and to then discuss relevant management implications. This is explored through the creation of five illustrative examples of holidays to semi-arid eastern Mediterranean destinations: Cyprus (2), Turkey, Greece and Syria. Using available data on water use associated with different forms of travel, accommodation and tourist activities, indicative water footprints are calculated for each of the illustrative examples. Food consumption by tourists appears to have by far the most significant impact on the overall water footprint and this aspect of water use is explored in detail in the paper. The paper also suggests a way of employing the water footprint methodology along with import/export balance sheets of main food commodities to distinguish between the global and local pressure of tourism demand on water resources. Water resource use is likely to become an increasingly important issue in tourism management and must be considered alongside more established environmental concerns such as energy use, using methodologies that can capture direct as well as supply chain impacts.

  17. Potential Use of HF Radar for Tsunami Detection in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokacar, Tulay; Necmioglu, Ocal; Ozer, Ceren

    2016-04-01

    Today, HF radar is recognized as internationally cost-effective and efficient solution to provide near-real time measurements that cover a large area continuously over time for ocean hazards warning and long term ocean monitoring studies such as, seasonal forecasts of climate, hurricanes, s torm surges and large-scale ocean circulation changes. These radar systems recently became an operational tool in coastal monitoring worldwide. They are used for many operational applications that include ship detection, tracking, guidance, distribution of pollutants, fishery and oceanography. HF radar data used for the tsunami warnings, can also be used for the other purposes and be of potential interest to wide application area users and stakeholders. Moreover multi user applications will ensure the system is maintained operationally over the long term. Hence the system is cost effective also with regards to maintenance. New algorithms allow useful detection and verification for tsunami detection. While technical monitoring capacity and the algorithms for tsunami detection is improved significantly, further studies are required to obtain complete wave height determination. We analysed the available technology and algorithms for the purpose of tsunami detection in the central-eastern Mediterranean and its connected Seas (Aegean and Black Sea). Since the study area is characterized by narrow continental shelf area, the HF radar observation for the purpose of tsunami detection is possible in restricted areas. While extensive continental shelves in the northeastern Black Sea and along the coast of Tunisia in the central Mediterranean let tsunami detection 2.5 hours before tsunami waves hit the coast, the detection is possible around 1 hr or less in advance for the remaining basins with wide continental shelf areas. The bathymetric structure is important for deciding the applicability of HF radar systems for the tsunami detection in continental shelf areas, which can be covered by

  18. The modern and Last Glacial Maximum hydrological cycles of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant from a water isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Y.; Polissar, P. J.; Ayalon, A.; Bar-Matthews, M.; deMenocal, P. B.; Broecker, W. S.

    2017-01-01

    The isotopic composition of precipitation (δP) is one of the most widely used and informative terrestrial paleoclimate proxies. δP integrates a series of hydrological processes; therefore, any interpretation of paleohydrology using δP requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the full hydrological cycle. In this paper, we use modern data to analytically model the full isotopic hydrological cycle of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Southern Levant, including oceanic evaporation, distillation during transport and precipitation over land. This model allows us to determine the important factors controlling this system. The model results underscore the significance of the isotopic distillation process driven by the land-sea temperature gradient as a significant factor controlling the long-term average isotopic composition of precipitation across Israel. Based on the understanding of the processes that govern the modern system, we model the isotopic composition of precipitation from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) using published data for speleothem oxygen isotopes in calcite, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in fluid inclusions and clumped isotope values from Soreq Cave and the isotopic composition of East Mediterranean planktonic foraminifera G. ruber. The data and model results indicate two plausible scenarios for the LGM that entail changes in the magnitude of distillation over Israel, in normalized humidity over the Mediterranean and possible shifts of the moisture trajectories over the Mediterranean. The results presented in the paper illustrate the importance of understanding the full local hydrological cycle when reconstructing and interpreting the isotopic composition of precipitation.

  19. Five-years of atmospheric aerosol number size distribution measurements in Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    The first long term measurements of atmospheric particle size distributions from the Eastern Mediterranean region are reported. Atmospheric aerosol number size distributions have been measured at the environmental research station of University of Crete at Finokalia, Crete, Greece (35° 20' N, 25° 40' E, 250m a.s.l) on a continuous base since 2008. A custom built (TROPOS type) scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) is used covering size ranges from 8 to 900 nm. The system is humidity controlled so that relative humidity is kept below 40% most of the time. Throughout the measuring period the average number concentration of the particles in the studied size range was found to be 2354 ± 1332 cm-3 (median of 2098 cm-3). Maximum concentrations are observed during summer while minimum during winter, reflecting the effectiveness of the removal processes in the region. Clear annual circles are found for the number concentrations of nucleation, Aitken and accumulation mode particles. Nucleation mode is presenting different pattern from the other two modes, with the highest concentrations during winter (and March) and the lowest during summer. New particle formation events are more frequently observed during March and October. The number size distributions present different seasonal patterns. During summer, unimodal distributions centering on the lower end of the accumulation mode size range are dominant in our observations. The prevailing meteorology characterized by the Etesian winds (Meltemi) and the lack of precipitation along the trajectory results to the arrival of well mixed air masses at Finokalia, carrying aged aerosol mainly from central and Eastern Europe. Regarding the other seasons, the shape of the distributions is more variable and strongly dependent on the air mass history: When the air masses are of marine origin or precipitation has affected them, the size distributions are mainly bimodal (peaking both in Aitken and in Accumulation mode). These

  20. Ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol as tracers for biogenic aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean

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    N. Burshtein

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols containing biological components can have a significant effect on human health by causing primarily irritation, infection and allergies. Specifically, airborne fungi can cause a wide array of adverse responses in humans depending on the type and quantity present. In this study we used chemical biomarkers for analyzing fungi-containing aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean region during the year 2009 in order to quantify annual fungal abundances. The prime marker for fungi used in this study was ergosterol, and its concentrations were compared with those of mannitol and arabitol, which were recently suggested to also correlate with fungal spores concentrations (Bauer et al., 2008a. Back trajectory analysis, inorganic ions, humidity and temperature were used in an attempt to identify sources as well as the dependence on seasonal and environmental conditions. We found that the ambient concentrations of ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol range between 0 and 2.73 ng m−3, 1.85 and 58.27 ng m−3, 5.57 and 138.03 ng m−3, respectively. The highest levels for all biomarkers were during the autumn, probably from local terrestrial sources, as deduced from the inorganic ions and back trajectory analysis. Significant correlations were observed between arabitol and mannitol during the entire year except for the winter months. Both sugars correlated with ergosterol only during the spring and autumn. We conclude that mannitol and arabitol might not be specific biomarkers for fungi and that the observed correlations during spring and autumn may be attributed to high levels of vegetation during spring blossoms and autumn decomposition.

  1. Ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol as tracers for biogenic aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burshtein, N.; Lang-Yona, N.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosols containing biological components can have a significant effect on human health by causing primarily irritation, infection and allergies. Specifically, airborne fungi can cause a wide array of adverse responses in humans depending on the type and quantity present. In this study we used chemical biomarkers for analyzing fungi-containing aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean region during the year 2009 in order to quantify annual fungal abundances. The prime marker for fungi used in this study was ergosterol, and its concentrations were compared with those of mannitol and arabitol which were recently suggested to also correlate with fungal spores concentrations (Bauer et al., 2008a). Back trajectory analysis, inorganic ions, humidity and temperature were used in an attempt to identify sources as well as the dependence on seasonal and environmental conditions. We found that the ambient concentrations of ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol range between 0 and 2.73 ng m-3, 1.85 and 58.27 ng m-3, 5.57 and 138.03 ng m-3, respectively. The highest levels for all biomarkers were during the autumn, probably from local terrestrial sources, as deduced from the inorganic ions and back trajectory analysis. Significant correlations were observed between arabitol and mannitol during the entire year except for the winter months. Both sugars correlated with ergosterol only during the spring and autumn. We conclude that mannitol and arabitol might not be specific biomarkers for fungi and that the observed correlations during spring and autumn may be attributed to high levels of vegetation during spring blossoms and autumn decomposing.

  2. Respiratory health outcomes and air pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Nour; Khader, Yousef S; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Graboski-Bauer, Ashley; Malkawi, Mazen; Al-Sharif, Munjed; Elbetieha, Ahmad M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to air pollution can cause detrimental health and be an economic burden. With newly developed equipment, monitoring of different air pollutants, identifying the sources, types of air pollutants and their corresponding concentrations, and applying mitigation intervention techniques became a crucial step in public health protection. Countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) are highly exposed to dust storms, have high levels of particulate matter (PM) concentrations, and have a unique climatic as well as topographic and socio-economic structure. This is the first study conducted to systemically and qualitatively assess the health impacts of air pollution in the EMR, identify susceptible populations, and ascertain research and knowledge gaps in the literature to better inform decisions by policy makers. We screened relevant papers and reports published between 2000 and 2014 in research databases. A total of 36 published studies met the inclusion criteria. A variety of indoor and outdoor exposures associated with various acute and chronic respiratory health outcomes were included. Respiratory health outcomes ranged in severity, from allergies and general respiratory complaints to lung cancer and mortality. Several adverse health outcomes were positively associated with various indoor/outdoor air pollutants throughout the EMR. However, epidemiological literature concerning the EMR is limited to a few studies in a few countries. More research is needed to elucidate the health outcomes of air pollution. Standardized reliable assessments on the national level for various air pollutants in different regions should be implemented and made publically available for researchers to utilize in their research. Moreover, advancing and utilizing more sound epidemiological designs and studies on the effect of air pollution on the respiratory health outcomes is needed to portray the actual situation in the region.

  3. Spatial distribution and abundance of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    H. EL LAKHRACH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring to light the knowledge of marine diversity of invertebrates in Gabes gulf. The spatial distribution of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, together with the bottom type and vegetation cover, were studied. The abundance of the megabenthic fauna was represented by eight groups: Echinodermata (38%, Crustacea (21%, Tunicata (19%, Mollusca (13%, Porifera (4%, Cnidaria (3%, Bryozoa, and Annelida (2%. It was spatially more concentrated in the coast area of the gulf than in the offshore waters. This area, especially, in Southern Kerkennah, North-est of Gabes and North-east of Djerba appeared to be in a good ecological condition  hosting a variety of species like the paguridsPaguristes eremita and Pagurus cuanensis, the brachyura Medorippe lanata, Inachus doresttensis, the Gastropoda Hexaplex trunculus, Bolinus brandaris, Aporrhais pespelecani, andErosaria turdus, the Bivalvia Fulvia fragilis, the Echinoidea Psammechinus microtuberculatus, Holothuria polii,Ophiothrix fragilis and Antedon mediterranea, and the AscidiaceaAplidium cf. conicum, Didemnum spp, and Microcosmus exasperatus.The species’ compositions of the megabentic fauna community showed clearly that the spatial analysis represented the differences between the community of these two regions (inshore waters and offshore waters. These differences were closely related to peculiar characters of the fauna and biotopes (depth, bottom type and vegetation cover community. The results of the present study should be considered as a necessary starting point for a further analysis of priceless benthic fauna contribution to the marine environment and its organisms.

  4. Determination of Genetic Diversity of Some Sage Species Collected From Eastern Mediterranean Region

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    Ebru Çardaklı

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia spp. is the most important and largest genus of the Lamiaceae family, and the popularity among medical plants is increasing. Sage plant is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and spice industries and as tea by many people. The fact that the plant may be marketed after being collected uncontrollably from the nature threatens its future. Therefore, it is necessary to put these species under protection and to start breeding projects as well to do genetic characterization of them. For this purpose, in the study, 11 different sage species from the Eastern Mediterranean region were collected and genetic differences among species were determined using SRAP (Sequence dependent replicated polymorphism markers. As the result of our experiments, average polymorphism content, allele number and polymorphism information content (PIC of the species were calculated as 90.91%, 4.2 and 0.91, respectively. The PIC values ranged from 0.04 to 0.99. While the average genetic difference among species was determined as 43.15%, the highest genetic difference, which was between Salvia aucheri spp. aucheri and Salvia aramiensis, was found to be 61.46%. The least genetic difference, on the other hand, was detected between Salvia tomentosa and Salvia hypergeia species with 22.62% similarity. Additionally, according to the observations made through the study, the SRAP markers we used were thought to be reliable for the genetic characterization of sage species. In breeding programs where interspecies dissimilarities are considered, selecting parental species with high genetic differences will increase the success.

  5. The knowledge translation status in selected Eastern-Mediterranean universities and research institutes.

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    Katayoun Maleki

    Full Text Available A serious worldwide effort to strengthen research based knowledge translation (KT has begun in recent years and some countries, particularly developed ones, are trying to incorporate KT in their health and health research systems. Keeping in mind the recent economic depression and the need to perform more efficient research, we aimed to assess and compare the KT status of selected health research institutes in the Eastern Mediterranean Regions' countries, and to identify their strengths and weaknesses in the field.After finding the focal points that would steer the focus group discussions (FGDs and help complete the 'Self Assessment Tool for Research Institutes' (SATORI tool, each focal point held two FGDs in which researchers, research authorities and other individuals specified in detail further in the study were held. The scores obtained by each institute were evaluated quantitatively, and the transcriptions were analyzed qualitatively with OpenCode software.For ease of analysis the 50 items of the SATORI were classified into 7 main domains: 'priority setting', 'research quality and timeliness', 'researchers' KT capacities', 'facilities and pre-requisites of KT', 'processes and regulations supporting KT', 'interaction with research users', and 'promoting and evaluating the use of knowledge'. Based on the scoring system, the strongest domain was 'research quality and timeliness'. 'Priority setting' was the weakest domain of all. The remaining domains were more or less equal in strength and were not in a favorable state. The qualitative findings confirmed the quantitative findings.The main problem, it seems, is that a KT climate does not exist in the region. And despite the difference in the contexts, there are many similarities in the region's institutes included in this study. Collaborative efforts can play a role in creating this climate by steering countries towards KT and suggesting regional strategic directions according to their needs.

  6. Ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol as tracers for biogenic aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean

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    N. Burshtein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols containing biological components can have a significant effect on human health by causing primarily irritation, infection and allergies. Specifically, airborne fungi can cause a wide array of adverse responses in humans depending on the type and quantity present. In this study we used chemical biomarkers for analyzing fungi-containing aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean region during the year 2009 in order to quantify annual fungal abundances. The prime marker for fungi used in this study was ergosterol, and its concentrations were compared with those of mannitol and arabitol which were recently suggested to also correlate with fungal spores concentrations (Bauer et al., 2008a. Back trajectory analysis, inorganic ions, humidity and temperature were used in an attempt to identify sources as well as the dependence on seasonal and environmental conditions. We found that the ambient concentrations of ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol range between 0 and 2.73 ng m−3, 1.85 and 58.27 ng m−3, 5.57 and 138.03 ng m−3, respectively. The highest levels for all biomarkers were during the autumn, probably from local terrestrial sources, as deduced from the inorganic ions and back trajectory analysis. Significant correlations were observed between arabitol and mannitol during the entire year except for the winter months. Both sugars correlated with ergosterol only during the spring and autumn. We conclude that mannitol and arabitol might not be specific biomarkers for fungi and that the observed correlations during spring and autumn may be attributed to high levels of vegetation during spring blossoms and autumn decomposing.

  7. Phylogeographic patterns of Merodon hoverflies in the Eastern Mediterranean region: revealing connections and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhls, Gunilla; Vujić, Ante; Petanidou, Theodora; Cardoso, Pedro; Radenković, Snezana; Ačanski, Jelena; Pérez Bañón, Celeste; Rojo, Santos

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the phylogeographic patterns of Merodon species (Diptera, Syrphidae) in the Eastern Mediterranean. Ten species were sampled on five different islands and mainland sites as a minimum. All samples were screened for their mtDNA COI barcode haplotype diversity, and for some samples, we additionally generated genomic fingerprints. The recently established zoogeographic distribution categories classify these species as having (1) Balkan distribution; (2) Anatolian distribution; (3) continental areas and large islands distribution; and (4) with wide distribution. The ancestral haplotypes and their geographical localities were estimated with statistical parsimony (TCS). TCS networks identified as the ancestral haplotype samples that originated from localities situated within the distributional category of the species in question. Strong geographical haplotype structuring was detected for many Merodon species. We were particularly interested to test the relative importance of current (Aegean Sea) and past Mid-Aegean Trench) barriers to dispersal for Merodon flies in the Aegean. We employed phylogenetic β-diversity (Pβ total) and its partition in replacement (Pβ repl) and richness difference (Pβ rich) to test the importance of each explanatory variable (interisland distance, MAT, and island area) in interisland differences using partial Mantel tests and hierarchical partitioning of variation. β-Analyses confirmed the importance of both current and past barriers to dispersal on the evolution of group. Current interisland distance was particularly important to explain the replacement of haplotypes, while the MAT was driving differences in richness of haplotypes, revealing the MAT as a strong past barrier whose effects are still visible today in the phylogenetic history of the clade in the Aegean. These results support the hypothesis of a highly restricted dispersal and gene flow among Merodon populations between islands since late Pleistocene. Additionally

  8. Photochemical production of ammonium in the oligotrophic Cyprus Gyre (Eastern Mediterranean

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    V. Kitidis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the photoproduction of ammonium (NH4+ in surface waters of the Cyprus gyre in the central Eastern Mediterranean in May 2002, in 8 on deck irradiations with freshly collected, filtered samples. NH4+ photoproduction (photoammonification increased with time-integrated irradiance during the course of irradiations. Photoammonification rates around local noon were 0.4–2.9 nmol L−1 h−1. Normalised to time integrated irradiance, these rates were 0.9–3.8 pmol L−1 h−1/(W m−2 and were significantly correlated with Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM absorbance at 300 nm normalised to Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC. These results are consistent with the notion that successive CDOM photobleaching in the surface mixed layer results in decreased DOC-normalised light absorbance concurrent with decreased dissolved organic matter reactivity with regard to photochemical NH4+ release. Combining our experimental data with estimates of annual solar irradiance and water column light attenuation yields an annual photoammonification rate for the Cyprus Gyre of 40±17 mmol m−2 a−1, equivalent to ~12±5% of the previously estimated annual nitrogen requirement of new production in this region. Based on this analysis, NH4+ photoproduction makes a small, but significant contribution to the nitrogen budget of the euphotic zone in the oligotrophic Cyprus Gyre.

  9. Use of health systems evidence by policymakers in eastern mediterranean countries: views, practices, and contextual influences

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    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems evidence can enhance policymaking and strengthen national health systems. In the Middle East, limited research exists on the use of evidence in the policymaking process. This multi-country study explored policymakers’ views and practices regarding the use of health systems evidence in health policymaking in 10 eastern Mediterranean countries, including factors that influence health policymaking and barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence. Methods This study utilized a survey adapted and customized from a similar tool developed in Canada. Health policymakers from 10 countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Sudan, Tunisia, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive and bi-variate analyses were performed for quantitative questions and thematic analysis was done for qualitative questions. Results A total of 237 policymakers completed the survey (56.3% response rate. Governing parties, limited funding for the health sector and donor organizations exerted a strong influence on policymaking processes. Most (88.5% policymakers reported requesting evidence and 43.1% reported collaborating with researchers. Overall, 40.1% reported that research evidence is not delivered at the right time. Lack of an explicit budget for evidence-informed health policymaking (55.3%, lack of an administrative structure for supporting evidence-informed health policymaking processes (52.6%, and limited value given to research (35.9% all limited the use of research evidence. Barriers to the use of evidence included lack of research targeting health policy, lack of funding and investments, and political forces. Facilitators included availability of health research and research institutions, qualified researchers, research funding, and easy access to information. Conclusions Health policymakers in several countries recognize the importance of using health systems evidence. Study findings are important in light

  10. Hydrology and circulation in the North Aegean (eastern Mediterranean throughout 1997 and 1998

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    V. ZERVAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of two research projects offered us the opportunity to perform a comprehensive study of the seasonal evolution of the hydrological structure and the circulation of the North Aegean Sea, at the northern extremes of the eastern Mediterranean. The combination of brackish water inflow from the Dardanelles and the sea-bottom relief dictate the significant differences between the North and South Aegean water columns. The relatively warm and highly saline South Aegean waters enter the North Aegean through the dominant cyclonic circulation of the basin. In the North Aegean, three layers of distinct water masses of very different properties are observed: The 20-50 m thick surface layer is occupied mainly by Black Sea Water, modified on its way through the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles. Below the surface layer there is warm and highly saline water originating in the South Aegean and the Levantine, extending down to 350-400 m depth. Below this layer, the deeper-than-400 m basins of the North Aegean contain locally formed, very dense water with different θ /S characteristics at each subbasin. The circulation is characterised by a series of permanent, semi-permanent and transient mesoscale features, overlaid on the general slow cyclonic circulation of the Aegean. The mesoscale activity, while not necessarily important in enhancing isopycnal mixing in the region, in combination with the very high stratification of the upper layers, however, increases the residence time of the water of the upper layers in the general area of the North Aegean. As a result, water having out-flowed from the Black Sea in the winter, forms a separate distinct layer in the region in spring (lying between “younger” BSW and the Levantine origin water, and is still traceable in the water column in late summer.

  11. Quality of medical journals with special reference to the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Abdel Moneim

    2004-01-01

    Medical journals will continue as a main vehicle of scientific information for years to come, particularly where access to more efficient instruments is relatively limited. The quality of medical journals depends on several factors involving 3 groups of people; namely: the authors, the reviewers and the editors. The Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (EMHJ) formulated its essential requirements for the manuscripts submitted for possible publication. These are published in every issue of the Journal, and potential authors are strongly advised to adhere to them, to avoid first-hand rejection of their progress. The reviewers' role is a keystone in maintaining the quality of a medical journal. A reviewer is required to address several important aspects of the paper under review and to resend his opinion thereon with his recommendation concerning the acceptability of the paper or otherwise. The editorial management is a crucial part of the publishing process. The editors begin action with the receipt of the manuscript, direct the various steps of evaluation, correction and re-submission, until an editorial decision is taken to accept the paper as is, accept it after modification or rejection. Editors will then make necessary text and layout editing. Due consideration is given to the statistical, multilingual and ethical aspects as well as to the overall uniformity of the terminology, nomenclatures and style throughout the volume as a whole. In February 1999, the EMHJ was accepted by the National Library of Medicine, USA, to be indexed and included in Index Medicus and MEDLINE. Such selection usually depends on several critical criteria; namely: scope and coverage, quality of content, quality of editorial work, production quality, audience and types of content. Evidently, the EMHJ has satisfactorily met all the above criteria.

  12. Pre-Columbian treponemal disease from 14th century AD Safed, Israel, and implications for the medieval eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2003-06-01

    In 1912, 68 medieval crania were excavated from a cave at Safed in the eastern Mediterranean and brought to the United Kingdom. It is only recently that these skulls have been studied for evidence of disease. One adult individual demonstrates multiple lesions of the cranial vault, compatible with treponematosis. Radiocarbon dating suggests the year of death to be between 1290-1420 AD. This range equates to the mamluk period, just after the crusades. This is the oldest dated case of treponematosis in the Middle East, and the first to confirm its presence there before the epidemiologically important transatlantic voyage of Christopher Columbus. The finding has significant implications for our understanding of the introduction of the disease to the Middle East and of the medieval diagnosis of ulcerating skin conditions by medical practitioners in the Mediterranean world.

  13. Precession driven changes in terrestrial organic matter input to the Eastern Mediterranean leading up to the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Flecker, Rachel; Marzocchi, Alice; Kouwenhoven, Tanja J.; Lunt, Dan J.; Pancost, Rich D.

    2017-03-01

    Eastern Mediterranean sediments over the past 12 Myr commonly show strongly developed precessional cyclicity, thought to be a biogeochemical response to insolation-driven freshwater input from run-off. The Mediterranean's dominant freshwater source today and in the past, is the Nile, which is fed by North African monsoon rain; other, smaller, circum-Mediterranean rivers also contribute to Mediterranean hydrology. Crucially, run-off through all of these systems appears to vary with precession, but there is no direct evidence linking individual water sources to the biogeochemical response recorded in Mediterranean sediments. Consequently, it is not clear whether the North African monsoon is entirely responsible for the Mediterranean's sedimentary cyclicity, or whether other, precessional signals, such as Atlantic storm precipitation, drive it. Organic matter in sediments derives from both marine and terrestrial sources and biomarker analysis can be used to discriminate between the two, thereby providing insight into sedimentary and ecological processes. We analysed a wide range of lipids from the Late Miocene (6.6-5.9 Ma) Pissouri section, southern Cyprus, and reconstructed the vegetation supplied to this region by measuring the carbon isotopes of the terrestrial component to identify its geographic source. BIT (Branched-Isoprenoidal-Tetraether) indices reflect changes in the relative abundance of marine vs terrestrial (soil) organic matter inputs, and with the exception of records from the last deglaciation, this work is the first application of the BIT approach to the reconstruction of orbital impacts on sedimentological processes. BIT indices show that the organic matter supplied to Cyprus changed over the course of each precession cycle and was dominantly terrestrial during insolation maxima when North African run-off was enhanced. The δ13C values from these intervals are compatible with tropical North African vegetation. However, the δ13C record indicates that

  14. Evaluating the impact of atmospheric depositions on springtime dinitrogen fixation in the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean - A mesocosm approach

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    Eyal Rahav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of dust and atmospheric aerosols, originating from surrounding desert areas (e.g., Sahara and Middle East are deposited annually on the surface of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. These depositions can provide high amounts of micro (such as Fe, Zn, Co and macro nutrients (such as P and N to supplement nutrient-poor surface waters- that typically limit primary productivity and also dinitrogen (N2 fixation in many marine environments. Here, we studied the impact of the atmospheric deposition of dust and aerosols on N2 fixation in the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Mixed polluted aerosols (hereafter A and Saharan dust (hereafter SD were added to nine mesocosms (3-m3 each containing surface mixed layer seawater (~10 m, and N2 fixation was evaluated for 6 days during May 2012 (springtime. The addition of SD triggered a rapid (30 h and robust (2-4 fold increase in N2 fixation rates that remained high for 6 days and contributed 3-8% of the primary productivity. The A addition also resulted in higher N2 fixation rates compared to the unamended control mesocosms, although the responses were less profound (1.5-2 fold and accounted for only 2-4% of the primary productivity. The microbial community responded differently to the two additions. Heterotrophic bacterial N2 fixers dominated the diazotroph community in A and the control mesocosms, while the non-filamentous cyanobacterial group Trichodesmium prevailed in the SD treatment (68% of all the operational taxonomic units, verified by qPCR analyses. Our results indicate that the aerosol source, its route prior to deposition, and its specific chemical composition, can alter the diazotrophic diversity and activity in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and may thus impact both the N and C dynamics in this impoverished environment.

  15. The length-weight relationships of three sharks and five batoids in the Lebanese marine waters, eastern Mediterranean

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    Myriam Lteif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight relationships were estimated for 8 elasmobranchs (3 sharks and 5 batoids in the Lebanese marine waters, eastern Mediterranean. The values of parameter b ranged between 1.752 ± 0.4508 and 3.337 ± 0.2321. Sex influenced the length-weight relationships for the shark Centrophorus uyato (Rafinesque 1801 and the batoid Torpedo marmorata (Risso 1810. These relationships should be used only with the observed length ranges.

  16. Lithospheric Response of the Anatolian Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern Anatolian Fault Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/Anatolian microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at

  17. On the relationship among the Adriatic–Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS, the Eastern Mediterranean salinity variations and the Western Mediterranean thermohaline cell

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    M. Gačić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that the salinity in the Levantine depends on the intensity of the Atlantic Water inflow. Moreover, its spreading eastward or northward in the Ionian is determined by the Ionian circulation pattern, i.e. by the Adriatic–Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System mechanism. The aim of this paper is to relate salinity variations in the core of the Levantine Intermediate Water flowing through the Sicily Channel to the salt content in the Levantine and its possible impact on the Western Mediterranean Transition (i.e. the sudden salinity increase in the bottom layer of the Algero-Provençal sub-basin occurring since 2004. From the historical dataset MEDAR/MEDATLAS in the Levantine and Northern Ionian, we present evidence of decadal occurrences of extreme salinities associated with the varying flow pattern of Atlantic Water over the last 60 yr. Furthermore, we show that the salinity variations in the two sub-basins are out of phase. High-salinity events in the Levantine are a pre-conditioning for the potential occurrence of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT. However, there is no firm evidence of occurrences of EMT-like phenomenon prior to the one in the early 1990s. Cross-correlation between the salinity time series in the Levantine and in the Sicily Channel suggests that the travel time of the salinity signal is between 16 and 18 yr. From the timing of the Western Mediterranean Transition and the salinity maximum in the Levantine Intermediate Water core in the Sicily Channel we also conclude that the time interval needed for the signal propagating from the Levantine to reach the bottom of the Algero-Provençal sub-basin is about 27 yr.

  18. Multi-temporal retreat rates along the eastern Mediterranean coastal cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, O.; Mushkin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Israeli coastal cliff extends about 50 km along the eastern Mediterranean shores. The cliff is comprised of late Quaternary eolianites and paleosols and reaches heights of up to 50 meters. In places, time-averaged inland cliff-top retreat rates of up to a few tens of centimeters per year have been measured usually by comparing aerial photos from the last decades. Commonly, these locally constrained retreat rates have been: 1) extrapolated as representative of the entire cliff length, and 2) adopted by hazard-mitigation and planning authorities. Here, we re-evaluate the current understanding of coastal-retreat patterns and rates along Israel's Mediterranean cliff line using a suite of field observations, aerial photography and recently obtained airborne and ground based high resolution LiDAR measurement of cliff morphologies. First, we constrain the decadal-scale retreat rates along the coastal-cliff by comparing the cliff-top location in 1945 and 2004 using aerial photos. We find a statistically significant spatial correlation between: 1) calculated low retreat rates (less than 0.1 m/yr) and field-based criteria indicating overall stability: slope angle of 45 deg. and talus cover along the lower part of the cliff and developed vegetation cover, and 2) high retreat rates and field criteria indicating recent instability: fresh landslide scars and 'hanging' valleys, which provides independent support for the calculated retreat rates. Calculated 60 years average cliff-top retreat rates of less than 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/yr along 58%, 77% and 85% of the cliff length, respectively, reveal that extended stretches of the cliff line did not experience detectable retreat in the past 60 years, thus implying relative stability of 50% of Israel's costal cliffs during this time period. Second, we constrain the annual retreat rates using repeat high-resolution ground based LiDAR surveys before and after an extreme winter storm that occurred in Dec. 2010. Locally, storm induced

  19. Urban atmospheric pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean : lessons from the TRANSEMED initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbon, Agnes; Salameh, Therese; Gaimoz, Cecile; Sauvage, Stephane; Locoge, Nadine; Oztürk, Fatma; Cetin, Banu; Keles, Melek; Afif, Charbel

    2016-04-01

    from a global perspective, the relative importance of Eastern Mediterranean emissions is suspected to be largely underestimated compared to other regions worldwide: they could be as significant for VOC and NOx as the ones of Europe and North America or even higher for PM2.5. This work was supported by the ENVIMED and ChArMEx programmes within MISTRALS. The author would like to thank Thierry Leonardis for his technical support. References: Borbon et al., Composition of gaseous organic carbon during ECOCEM in Beirut, Lebanon: new observational constraints for VOC/OVOC anthropogenic emission evaluation in the Middle East region. In preparation for ACP. Salameh et al., Source apportionment vs. emission inventories of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in an urban area of the Middle East: local and global perspectives, in revision for ACP, 2016. http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/15/26795/2015/acpd-15-26795-2015.html Salameh et al., Exploring the seasonal NMHC distribution in an urban area of the Middle East during ECOCEM campaigns: very high loadings dominated by local emissions and dynamics. Environ. Chem. 12 (3), 316 - 328. doi : 10.1071/EN14154, 2015. Salameh et al., Speciation of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) from anthropogenic sources in Beirut, Lebanon, Environ Sci. Pollut. Res., 21, 10867 - 10877. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-2978-5, 2014.

  20. First record of Aequorea macrodactyla (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa from the Israeli coast of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, an alien species indicating invasive pathways

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    Gur Mizrahi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The species of Aequorea attract much scientific interest as they contain the unique Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP. In this work we describe for the first time the discovery of a hydrozoan jellyfish belonging to the genus Aequorea from the Israeli eastern Mediterranean that contains and exhibits fluorescent protein. Finding Aequorea macrodactyla (Brandt, 1835 in the eastern Mediterranean indicates that changes are occurring in the gelatinous fauna of this area. This hydromedusa is known in the seas adjoining the Mediterranean though most of its records are more than four decades old. We examined and identified the newly discovered Israeli Aequorea species by combining two phylogenetic systems, traditional morphological phylogeny and molecular phylogenetics. The molecular identification determined that the species is A. macrodactyla but with minor genetic differences in the mtDNA 16S gene marker. A 1% difference between the Israeli and the Japanese A. macrodactyla was demonstrated, which suggests that the genetic difference between the Israeli and the Japanese population is small but existent. Invasive pathways for this jellyfish were examined by phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships with similar Cnidaria. The results indicate introduction from the Indo-Pacific as invasive pathway, probably by human transportation, and the discovery of A. macrodactyla in the eastern Mediterranean Sea could be interpreted as part of the changes in marine biota as a result of cumulative effects of anthropogenic and global changes that affect the eastern Mediterranean basin.

  1. Aerosol physical and optical properties in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, Crete, from Aerosol Robotic Network data

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    A. Fotiadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the aerosol optical properties, namely aerosol extinction optical thickness (AOT, Angström parameter and size distribution over the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, using spectral measurements from the recently established FORTH (Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas AERONET station in Crete, for the two-year period 2003–2004. The location of the FORTH-AERONET station offers a unique opportunity to monitor aerosols from different sources. Maximum values of AOT are found primarily in spring, which together with small values of the Angström parameter indicate dust transported from African deserts, whereas the minimum values of AOT occur in winter. In autumn, large AOT values observed at near-infrared wavelengths arise also from dust transport. In summer, large AOT values at ultraviolet (340 nm and visible wavelengths (500 nm, together with large values of the Angström parameter, are associated with transport of fine aerosols of urban/industrial and biomass burning origin. The Angström parameter values vary on a daily basis within the range 0.05–2.20, and on a monthly basis within the range 0.68–1.9. This behaviour, together with broad frequency distributions and back-trajectory analyses, indicates a great variety of aerosol types over the study region including dust, urban-industrial and biomass-burning pollution, and maritime, as well as mixed aerosol types. Large temporal variability is observed in AOT, Angström parameter, aerosol content and size. The fine and coarse aerosol modes persist throughout the year, with the coarse mode dominant except in summer. The highest values of AOT are related primarily to southeasterly winds, associated with coarse aerosols, and to a less extent to northwesterly winds associated with fine aerosols. The results of this study show that the FORTH AERONET station in Crete is well suited for studying the transport and mixing of different types of aerosols from a variety

  2. Hierarchy of source-to-sink systems - Example from the Nile distribution across the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, Uri; Lazar, Michael

    2016-08-01

    A standard source-to-sink approach examines sediment transport along an imaginary axis (regarded here as primary) extending between land, the continental margin and a nearby basin. This approach oversimplifies the development of depositional environments located off the axis (regarded here as secondary). Similarly, it imposes that factors affecting the primary source (e.g. climate) will directly be reflected in the secondary sink. The current study examines this suggested hierarchy in a confined basin, where the sedimentary budget remains closed. It evaluates the mechanism connecting between the primary and secondary axes. The study focuses on the Nile sedimentary system, across northeastern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean basin (primary axis) and the Levant depositional system (secondary sink). We hypothesize that since secondary river input into the Levant basin is negligible, the main secondary source is seafloor currents. The Levant Jet System (LJS) transported sediments from the Nile cone along the Levant margin at depths between 0 and 350 m, during the Holocene and until today. Once the LJS reaches its capacity to transport sediments, the surplus falls downslope to the deep basin. By integrating seismic and bathymetric data, this paper suggests a unifying mechanism integrating deposition, erosion and transport of sediments across the Levant margin and basin throughout the Quaternary. Results show that during both highstand and lowstand conditions the primary source-to-sink axis delivers sediments to the deep basin via south to north meandering channels. The LJS transports sediments that build the shelf, while unconfined overspills slide downslope to accumulate across the continental rise. However, when sea levels drop, the capacity of the LJS weakens. This results in a drastic decrease in sedimentation across the shelf and rise, accompanied by confined downslope turbidity flows into the deep basin. We conclude that seafloor currents serve as an immediate

  3. New techniques on oil spill modelling applied in the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Kokinou, Eleni; Alves, Tiago; Lardner, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Small or large oil spills resulting from accidents on oil and gas platforms or due to the maritime traffic comprise a major environmental threat for all marine and coastal systems, and they are responsible for huge economic losses concerning the human infrastructures and the tourism. This work aims at presenting the integration of oil-spill model, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of oil spills in maritime regions such as bays, as well as in the open sea, carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea within the frame of NEREIDs, MEDESS-4MS and RAOP-Med EU projects. The MEDSLIK oil spill predictions are successfully combined with bathymetric analyses, the shoreline susceptibility and hazard mapping to predict the oil slick trajectories and the extend of the coastal areas affected. Based on MEDSLIK results, oil spill spreading and dispersion scenarios are produced both for non-mitigated and mitigated oil spills. MEDSLIK model considers three response combating methods of floating oil spills: a) mechanical recovery using skimmers or similar mechanisms; b) destruction by fire, c) use of dispersants or other bio-chemical means and deployment of booms. Shoreline susceptibility map can be compiled for the study areas based on the Environmental Susceptibility Index. The ESI classification considers a range of values between 1 and 9, with level 1 (ESI 1) representing areas of low susceptibility, impermeable to oil spilt during accidents, such as linear shorelines with rocky cliffs. In contrast, ESI 9 shores are highly vulnerable, and often coincide with natural reserves and special protected areas. Additionally, hazard maps of the maritime and coastal areas, possibly exposed to the danger on an oil spill, evaluate and categorize the hazard in levels from low to very high. This is important because a) Prior to an oil spill accident, hazard and shoreline susceptibility maps are made available to design

  4. The Burden of Mental Disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charara, Raghid; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohsen; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Afshin, Ashkan; Vos, Theo; Daoud, Farah; Wang, Haidong; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Khalil, Ibrahim; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Khader, Yousef; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla; Rafay, Anwar; Asghar, Rana; Rana, Saleem M.; Shaheen, Amira; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Khoja, Tawfik; Al Rayess, Zulfa A.; AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Ali, Raghib; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Hamidi, Samer; Refaat, Amany H.; Westerman, Ronny; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali S.; Ali, Syed Danish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Faghmous, Imad A. D.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Jonas, Jost B.; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Mehari, Alem; Omer, Saad B.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Mokdad, Ali A.; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Akseer, Nadia; Arya, Dinesh; Borschmann, Rohan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Brugha, Traolach S.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Degenhardt, Louisa; Ferrari, Alize; Haro, Josep Maria; Horino, Masako; Hornberger, John C.; Huang, Hsiang; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Mitchell, Philip B.; Patton, George; Sagar, Rajesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savuon, Kim; Seedat, Soraya; Shiue, Ivy; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Stein, Dan J.; Tabb, Karen M.; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost–YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability–YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25–49 age group, with a peak in the 35–39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of

  5. The Burden of Mental Disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charara, Raghid; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohsen; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Afshin, Ashkan; Vos, Theo; Daoud, Farah; Wang, Haidong; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Khalil, Ibrahim; Hamadeh, Randah R; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Khader, Yousef; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla; Rafay, Anwar; Asghar, Rana; Rana, Saleem M; Shaheen, Amira; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Husseini, Abdullatif; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Khoja, Tawfik; Al Rayess, Zulfa A; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Hsairi, Mohamed; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Ali, Raghib; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Hamidi, Samer; Refaat, Amany H; Westerman, Ronny; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali S; Ali, Syed Danish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Faghmous, Imad A D; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Jonas, Jost B; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Mehari, Alem; Omer, Saad B; Pourmalek, Farshad; Uthman, Olalekan A; Mokdad, Ali A; Maalouf, Fadi T; Abd-Allah, Foad; Akseer, Nadia; Arya, Dinesh; Borschmann, Rohan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Brugha, Traolach S; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Degenhardt, Louisa; Ferrari, Alize; Haro, Josep Maria; Horino, Masako; Hornberger, John C; Huang, Hsiang; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Mitchell, Philip B; Patton, George; Sagar, Rajesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savuon, Kim; Seedat, Soraya; Shiue, Ivy; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Stein, Dan J; Tabb, Karen M; Whiteford, Harvey A; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Murray, Christopher J L; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost-YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability-YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25-49 age group, with a peak in the 35-39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of

  6. Remote sensing for environmental protection of the eastern Mediterranean rugged mountainous areas, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawlie, M.; Awad, M.; Shaban, A.; Bou Kheir, R.; Abdallah, C.

    Lying along the eastern Mediterranean coast with elevated mountain chains higher than 2500 m straddling its terrain, Lebanon is a country of natural beauty and is thus attracting tourism. However, with a population density exceeding 800/km 2 and a rugged steep sloping land, problems abound in the country calling for holistic-approach studies. Only remote sensing, whose use is new in Lebanon can secure such needed studies within a scientific and pragmatic framework. The paper demonstrates for the concerned themes, the innovative use of remote sensing in such a difficult terrain, giving three examples of major environmental problems in the coastal mountains. Only few studies have so far focused on those mountains, notably application of remote sensing. The rugged mountainous terrain receives considerable rain, but the water is quickly lost running on the steep slopes, or infiltrating through fractures and the karstic conduits into the subsurface. Field investigations are difficult to achieve, therefore, remote sensing helps reveal various surface land features important in reflecting water feeding into the subsurface. Optical, radar and thermal infrared remotely sensed data cover a wide spectrum serving that purpose. A map of preferential groundwater accumulation potential is produced. It can serve for better water exploitation as well as protection. Because the terrain is karstic and rugged, the subsurface water flow is difficult to discern. Any pollution at a certain spot would certainly spread around. This constitutes the second example of environmental problems facing the mountainous areas in Lebanon. An integrated approach using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) gives good results in finding out the likelihood of how pollution, or contaminants, can selectively move in the subsurface. A diagnostic analysis with a GIS-type software acts as a guide producing indicative maps for the above purpose. The third example given deals with the problem

  7. Harnessing genomics to improve health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region - an executive course in genomics policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Tara; Rab, Mohammed Abdur; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S

    2005-01-21

    BACKGROUND: While innovations in medicine, science and technology have resulted in improved health and quality of life for many people, the benefits of modern medicine continue to elude millions of people in many parts of the world. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in EMR, the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics jointly organized a Genomics and Public Health Policy Executive Course, held September 20th-23rd, 2003, in Muscat, Oman. The 4-day course was sponsored by WHO-EMRO with additional support from the Canadian Program in Genomics and Global Health. The overall objective of the course was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in the region. This article presents the course findings and recommendations for genomics policy in EMR. METHODS: The course brought together senior representatives from academia, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics covered included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. RESULTS: A set of recommendations, summarized below, was formulated for the Regional Office, the Member States and for individuals.* Advocacy for genomics and biotechnology for political leadership;* Networking between member states to share information, expertise, training, and regional cooperation in biotechnology; coordination of national surveys for assessment of health biotechnology innovation systems, science capacity, government policies, legislation and regulations, intellectual property policies, private sector activity;* Creation in each member country of an effective National Body on genomics, biotechnology and health to:- formulate national biotechnology strategies- raise biotechnology awareness- encourage teaching and

  8. Long-range transport of Saharan dust and chemical transformations over the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, E.; Protonotariou, A.; Papangelis, G.; Tombrou, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Gerasopoulos, E.

    2016-09-01

    Three recent Saharan dust outbreaks during different seasons (4-6 days in winter of 2009, late autumn of 2010 and summer of 2011) are selected in order to study the chemical footprint and aging processes of dust intrusions over the Eastern Mediterranean (EM). The applied model system (PMCAMx, WRF and GEOS-CHEM) and methodology are found competent to reproduce dust production, long-range transport and chemical transformations over the EM, with the synergistic use of synoptic patterns analysis, optical depth retrievals, back-trajectories, surface and satellite aerosol measurements. The dust loads were high during the cold period events and much lighter during summertime, when transport was mainly in the free troposphere. In all cases, dust originated from the northwest and/or west Saharan desert and reached the EM from the west/southwest. Sensitivity runs underlie the effect of dust transport on the chemical constituents of aerosols over the EM and show a large impact on calcium (70-90% of maximum daily values 2-5 μg m-3), with its gradient at surface level being around -10% per 100 km along the dust pathway. For the cold period cases, this value can also be considered analogous to the dust dissipation ratio, because the plume is vertically extended down to the surface layers. Interestingly, the surface particulate nitrate concentrations over the EM are reversely affected by the approaching dust loads, exhibiting the highest values (up to 6 μg m-3) and the largest dust fraction (ca. 70%) during summertime. This is attributed to the enhanced nitric acid formation under high atmospheric temperature and insolation, its uptake onto the carbonate dust particles, and their effective accumulation, due to low deposition rates over the sea and scarce precipitation. Sulfate formation onto dust particles is found insignificant (rapid reaction with ammonia and/or sea-salt), while the influence of dust and sea-salt on sodium, when spatio-temporal averages are calculated, is

  9. Origin and variability in volatile organic compounds observed at an Eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec, Cécile; Sauvage, Stéphane; Gros, Valérie; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Salameh, Thérèse; Leonardis, Thierry; Gaudion, Vincent; Depelchin, Laurence; Fronval, Isabelle; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Baisnée, Dominique; Bonsang, Bernard; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-09-01

    or from more distant emission zones (i.e., the south coast of Turkey); and a last factor (36 %) associated with regional background pollution (air masses transported both from the Western and Eastern Mediterranean regions). One of the two biogenic and the regional background factors were found to be the largest contributors to the VOC concentrations observed at our sampling site. Finally, a combined analysis of VOC PMF factors with source-apportioned organic aerosols (OAs) helped to better distinguish between anthropogenic and biogenic influences on the aerosol and gas phase compositions. The highest OA concentrations were observed when the site was influenced by air masses rich in semi-volatile OA (less oxidized aerosols) originating from the southwest of Asia, in contrast with OA factor contributions associated with the remaining source regions. A reinforcement of secondary OA formation also occurred due to the intense oxidation of biogenic precursors.

  10. Investigating correlation of lighting activity and precipitation in an Eastern Mediterranean island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanidou, Vasiliki; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    This study examines conditions under which lightning activity and precipitation events can be correlated in an Eastern Mediterranean island climate. As a first step, the activity within a predefined area of 50km radius around the gauge station is examined, given the temporal evolution of rain accumulation at an hourly time step. Then the lightning activity is grouped in time-space clusters and for each lightning-cluster precipitation recordings of 10 minutes time step from nearby gauges are searched in an area of variable radius ranging from 10 to 100km. The number of clusters is decided according to the g-means algorithm in which the number of clusters is increasing until the data of all clusters follow the Gaussian distribution. For different durations, number of lightning events and radius the proportion of the corresponding precipitation events for the given radius around the lightning-clusters is investigated. The methods are tested in the case study of the island of Crete. Precipitation data from 22 gauging stations over Crete and lightning data from the Global Lightning Network (GLN) are examined for the investigation of possible associations in a period of almost two years (09/2012-07/2014). For the first approach, for half of the stations rain accumulations over 10mm/h (90th percentile of rain) are recorded up to a day after lightning activity occurrence. According to the second approach, lightning-clusters of smaller duration (up to 5 hours) and more lightning flashes (more than 100) are highly associated with rain events. The optimal radius from the center of the lightning-cluster, according to the proportion of rain events, is found to be 30km. The results establish a better understanding of the relations between lightning and precipitation and could provide valuable information to the now-casting of flash flood events triggered by severe thunderstorms. The research reported in this study effort was fully supported by the "ARISTEIA II" Action

  11. Source spectra, moment, and energy for recent eastern mediterranean earthquakes: calibration of international monitoring system stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayeda, K M; Hofstetter, A; Rodgers, A J; Walter, W R

    2000-07-26

    In the past several years there have been several large (M{sub w} > 7.0) earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean region (Gulf of Aqaba, Racha, Adana, etc.), many of which have had aftershock deployments by local seismological organizations. In addition to providing ground truth data (GT << 5 km) that is used in regional location calibration and validation, the waveform data can be used to aid in calibrating regional magnitudes, seismic discriminants, and velocity structure. For small regional events (m{sub b} << 4.5), a stable, accurate magnitude is essential in the development of realistic detection threshold curves, proper magnitude and distance amplitude correction processing, formation of an M{sub s}:m{sub b} discriminant, and accurate yield determination of clandestine nuclear explosions. Our approach provides a stable source spectra from which M{sub w} and m{sub b} can be obtained without regional magnitude biases. Once calibration corrections are obtained for earthquakes, the coda-derived source spectra exhibit strong depth-dependent spectral peaking when the same corrections are applied to explosions at the Nevada Test Site (Mayeda and Walter, 1996), chemical explosions in the recent ''Depth of Burial'' experiment in Kazahkstan (Myers et al., 1999), and the recent nuclear test in India. For events in the western U.S. we found that total seismic energy, E, scales as M{sub o}{sup 0.25} resulting in more radiated energy than would be expected under the assumptions of constant stress-drop scaling. Preliminary results for events in the Middle East region also show this behavior, which appears to be the result of intermediate spectra fall-off (f{sup 1.5}) for frequencies ranging between {approx}0.1 and 0.8 Hz for the larger events. We developed a Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) coda processing command that reads in an ASCII flat file that contains calibration information specific for a station and surrounding region, then outputs a coda

  12. From tropical to sub-tropical: Prolonged reproductive activity of the invasive ascidian Microcosmus exasperatus in the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilach Raijman Nagar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The solitary ascidian Microcosmus exasperatus is globally distributed in tropical and sub-tropical waters. In the Mediterranean it is considered an invasive species introduced through the Suez Canal, with a restricted distribution in the eastern basin. In order to understand the potential of this species to establish sustainable communities at additional sites in the Mediterranean, we studied its reproduction cycle over a 2-year period in relation to seawater temperature and chlorophyll-a data. Although M. exasperatus reproduces seasonally, with significantly greater activity in summer and early fall, mature oocytes occur throughout the year, suggesting multiple spawning periods. We found that reproductive effort significantly correlated with seawater temperature, while chlorophyll-a showed a low and insignificant explanatory power. A combined regression model of both parameters yielded the highest explained variance, suggesting a synergic effect of these two factors. Such a prolonged reproductive activity period enables repeated recruitment events. In view of the anticipated rise in seawater temperature, we predict that this species will gradually expand its distribution further across the Mediterranean.

  13. Geomorphological map of a coastal stretch of north-eastern Gozo (Maltese archipelago, Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Mauro; Micallef, Anton; Biolchi, Sara; Chelli, Alessandro; Cuoghi, Alessandro; Devoto, Stefano; Gauci, Christopher; Graff, Kevin; Lolli, Federico; Mantovani, Matteo; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Pisani, Luca; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Restall, Brian; Roulland, Thomas; Saliba, Michael; Selmi, Lidia; Vandelli, Vittoria

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphological investigations carried out along the north-eastern coast of the Island of Gozo (Malta) have led to the production of a detailed geomorphological map. Field surveys, accompanied by aerial photo-interpretation, were carried out within the framework of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement Project ``Developing Geomorphological mapping skills and datasets in anticipation of subsequent Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Hazard and Risk Mapping'' (Council of Europe). In particular, this geomorphological map is the main output of a `Training Course on Geomorphological Mapping in Coastal Areas' held within the Project in November 2016. The study area selected was between Ramla Bay and Dacrhlet Qorrot Bay on the Island of Gozo (67 km2), part of the Maltese archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea. From a geological viewpoint, the stratigraphic sequence includes Late Oligocene (Chattian) to Late Miocene (Messinian) sedimentary rocks. The hard limestones of the Upper Coralline Limestone Formation, the youngest lithostratigraphic unit, dominate the study area. Underlying this formation, marls and clays belonging to the Blue Clay Formation extensively outcrop. The oldest lithostratigraphic unit observed in the study area is the Globigerina Limestone Formation, a fine-grained limestone. The lithostructural features of the outcropping units clearly condition the morphography of the landscape. The coast is characterised by the alternation of inlets and promontories. Worthy of notice is the large sandy beach of Ramla Bay partly backed by dunes. From a geomorphological perspective, the investigated coastal stretch is characterised by limestone plateaus bounded by steep structural scarps which are reshaped by gravitational and/or degradation processes, and milder slopes in Blue Clays at their foot comprising of numerous rock block deposits (rdum in Maltese) and active or abandoned terraced fields used for agricultural purposes. Landforms and processes related to

  14. Dinosaurs ''re-write'' the geodynamics of the eastern Mediterranean and the paleogeography of the Apulia Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosellini, A.

    2002-11-01

    Evidence of a sizeable population of large dinosaurs on the Apulia carbonate platform calls for a revision of the current paleotectonic and paleogeographic scenario of the eastern Mediterranean area. A review of geophysical and geological data of the Ionian Sea and surrounding areas leads to envisage the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Ionian Sea region as a "cul-de-sac"-type basin enclosed by shallow-water carbonate banks, connecting the Apulia carbonate platform to Peloponnesus, northern Cyrenaica, Cyrene Seamount and Medina Ridge. These banks were repeatedly and periodically exposed to subaerial conditions, and offered vast land areas for migration of dinosaurs. As regards the nature of the Mesozoic Ionian basin, interpretations are quite controversial. The "continental" vs. "oceanic" crust debate will likely be solved only when the Ionian basin crust will be reached by drilling. The conclusion of the present review leads to consider Adria as a true African Promontory and the Apulia Platform as a sort of Florida Peninsula, attached to North Africa (Cyrenaica spur), subdividing the oceanic(?) "Mesozoic Mediterranean" into a western Ionian basin and an eastern Levantine basin.

  15. Particle Size Distribution of Airborne Microorganisms and Pathogens during an Intense African Dust Event in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2008-01-01

    Background The distribution of microorganisms, and especially pathogens, over airborne particles of different sizes has been ignored to a large extent, but it could have significant implications regarding the dispersion of these microorganisms across the planet, thus affecting human health. Objectives We examined the microbial quality of the aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean region during an African storm to determine the size distribution of microorganisms in the air. Methods We used a five-stage cascade impactor for bioaerosol collection in a coastal city on the eastern Mediterranean Sea during a north African dust storm. Bacterial communities associated with aerosol particles of six different size ranges were characterized following molecular culture–independent methods, regardless of the cell culturability (analysis of 16S rRNA genes). Results All 16S rDNA clone libraries were diverse, including sequences commonly found in soil and marine ecosystems. Spore-forming bacteria such as Firmicutes dominated large particle sizes (> 3.3 μm), whereas clones affiliated with Actinobacteria (found commonly in soil) and Bacteroidetes (widely distributed in the environment) gradually increased their abundance in aerosol particles of reduced size (< 3.3 μm). A large portion of the clones detected at respiratory particle sizes (< 3.3 μm) were phylogenetic neighbors to human pathogens that have been linked to several diseases. Conclusions The presence of aerosolized bacteria in small size particles may have significant implications to human health via intercontinental transportation of pathogens. PMID:18335093

  16. Occurrence, sources and transport pathways of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinos, C.; Gogou, A.; Bouloubassi, I.; Pedrosa-Pàmies, R.; Hatzianestis, I.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Rousakis, G.; Velaoras, D.; Krokos, G.; Lykousis, V.

    2013-09-01

    Surface sediments collected from deep basins (1018-4087 m depth) of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea, southern Aegean Sea and northwestern Levantine Sea) were analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as tracers of natural and anthropogenic inputs. Concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of aliphatic hydrocarbons varied significantly, ranging from 1.34 to 49.2 μg g-1, 145 to 4810 ng g-1 and 0.73 to 36.7 μg g-1, respectively, while concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged between 11.6 and 223 ng g-1. Molecular profiles of determined hydrocarbons reflect a mixed contribution from both natural and anthropogenic sources in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, i.e., terrestrial plant waxes, degraded petroleum products, unburned fossil fuels and combustion of grass, wood and coal. Hydrocarbon mixtures display significant variability amongst sub-regions, reflecting differences in the relative importance of inputs from various sources and phase associations/transport pathways of individual hydrocarbons that impact on their overall distribution and fate. Hydrocarbon concentrations correlated significantly with the organic carbon content of sediments, indicating that the latter exerts an important control on their transport and ultimate accumulation in deep basins. Additionally, water masses' circulation characteristics also seem to influence the regional features and distribution patterns of hydrocarbons. Our findings highlight the role of deep basins/canyons as repositories of both natural and anthropogenic chemical species.

  17. The impact of monsoon outflow from India and Southeast Asia in the upper troposphere over the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Scheeren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of the Mediterranean INtensive Oxidant Study (MINOS was to investigate long-range transport of pollutants (notably ozone precursor species. Here we present trace gas measurements from the DLR (German Aerospace Organization Falcon aircraft in the eastern Mediterranean troposphere. Ten day backward trajectories and a coupled chemistry-climate model (ECHAM4 were used to study the nature and origin of pollution observed in the upper troposphere between 6 and 13 km altitude. We focus on a large pollution plume encountered over the eastern Mediterranean between 1 and 12 August originating in South Asia (India and Southeast Asia, referred to as the Asian plume, associated with the Asian Summer Monsoon. Vertical as well as longitudinal gradients of methane, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons including acetone, methanol, and acetonitrile, halocarbons, ozone and total reactive nitrogen (NOy are presented, showing the chemical impact of the Asian plume compared to westerly air masses containing pollution from North America. The Asian plume is characterized by enhanced concentrations of biomass burning tracers (acetylene, methyl chloride, acetonitrile, notably from biofuel use. Concentrations of the new automobile cooling agent HFC-134a were significantly lower in the Asian plume than in air masses from North America. Relatively high levels of ozone precursors (CO, hydrocarbons were found in both air masses, whereas lower ozone concentrations in the Asian plume suggest NOx-limited conditions. Consistently, ECHAM model simulations indicate that the expected future increase of NOx-emissions in Asia enhances the photochemical ozone production in the Asian plume. The size and location of the Asian plume near the tropopause provides an important potential for pollution transport into the lowermost stratosphere. We present observations indicative of Asian pollution transport into the lower stratosphere.

  18. Water Soluble Organic Compounds over the Eastern Mediterranean: Study of their occurrence and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziaras, T.; Spyros, A.; Mandalakis, M.; Apostolaki, M.; Stephanou, E. G.

    2010-05-01

    Fine marine aerosols influence the climate system by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. The organic chemical composition and origin of the marine fine particulate matter are still largely unknown, because of the insufficient reports on in situ studies, the large variability in the emission from the sea, from the complex transfer of gases and particles at the air-sea interface, and the transport of aerosol particles from very distant sources. As important processes of formation of marine organic aerosol production we consider: transport of terrestrial particles, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the oxidation of biogenic dimethyl-sulfide (DMS), and biogenic particle emissions through sea spray. Specific compounds related to the above-mentioned processes have been proposed as molecular markers: e.g. n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanes (terrestrial particles), levoglucosan (biomass burning aerosol), aminoacids (biological terrestrial or marine particles), methanesulphonate (MSA) (DMS oxidation), C8 and C9 dicarboxylic acids and oxo-carboxylic acids (marine SOA) and other short-chain dicarboxylic acids (marine or terrestrial SOA), and humic-like compounds (emission of marine organic carbon). In our study, we made an effort to characterize the water-soluble organic fraction of marine aerosols collected at a background sampling site of Eastern Mediterranean (Finokalia, N35o20', E25o40', Island of Crete, Greece). The sampling period was 2007-2008. In order to identify and quantify the water-soluble organic compounds of marine aerosols determined in the present study we have used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and ion chromatography (IC). The origin of air masses arriving in the study area was studied by using backward trajectories calculation (NOAA HYSPLIT Model). In addition, we have used the "MODIS fire products" for fire

  19. Recent findings of Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae in the eastern Mediterranean and the implication on its range expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii is found circumglobally in subtropical, temperate waters and sustains important fisheries in the North Pacific, but it is rarely encountered in the Mediterranean Sea. During the last decade, and particularly since 2004, the frequency of its presence in the Aegean Sea and nearby regions has increased, raising a question about a change in the species distribution and abundance in this area. In this study, we reviewed the literature on O. bartramii findings in the Mediterranean Sea and present new data describing body and beak morphometry, diet and the maturity of specimens recently collected from the easternmost basins. According to data from the entire Mediterranean Sea, collected individuals reached 66 cm in mantle length (ML, wherein only females were larger than 32 cm in ML. An isometric growth in body weight (BW was shown, whereas the lower beak rostral length (LRL was allometrically positive in relation to the ML. Occasional catches by jigs during experimental cruises provided most of the individuals recorded in the period from 1982-1992. In contrast, the most recent records are primarily comprised of mature females collected on or near the shore in the eastern basin and of predominantly smaller individuals from the western basin caught by professional jigging fisheries. The distribution of the specimen recorded from the Aegean Sea indicates an association between the species distribution and the circulation of the warm Levantine Intermediate Water. The more frequent observations of moribund spawning females at the periphery of the Cretan Sea are indicative of a spawning ground at this area. The suspected recent increase of O. bartramii abundance in both the northeastern and northwestern basins might be due to the warming of upper sea layers, which has been observed since the mid-1980s and is considered to be the main factor driving the northward expansion of the warm-water species’ range within

  20. Recent findings of Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae in the eastern Mediterranean and the implication on its range expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii is found circumglobally in subtropical, temperate waters and sustains important fisheries in the North Pacific, but it is rarely encountered in the Mediterranean Sea. During the last decade, and particularly since 2004, the frequency of its presence in the Aegean Sea and nearby regions has increased, raising a question about a change in the species distribution and abundance in this area. In this study, we reviewed the literature on O. bartramii findings in the Mediterranean Sea and present new data describing body and beak morphometry, diet and the maturity of specimens recently collected from the easternmost basins. According to data from the entire Mediterranean Sea, collected individuals reached 66 cm in mantle length (ML, wherein only females were larger than 32 cm in ML. An isometric growth in body weight (BW was shown, whereas the lower beak rostral length (LRL was allometrically positive in relation to the ML. Occasional catches by jigs during experimental cruises provided most of the individuals recorded in the period from 1982-1992. In contrast, the most recent records are primarily comprised of mature females collected on or near the shore in the eastern basin and of predominantly smaller individuals from the western basin caught by professional jigging fisheries. The distribution of the specimen recorded from the Aegean Sea indicates an association between the species distribution and the circulation of the warm Levantine Intermediate Water. The more frequent observations of moribund spawning females at the periphery of the Cretan Sea are indicative of a spawning ground at this area. The suspected recent increase of O. bartramii abundance in both the northeastern and northwestern basins might be due to the warming of upper sea layers, which has been observed since the mid-1980s and is considered to be the main factor driving the northward expansion of the warm-water species’ range within

  1. Calculating the water and heat balances of the Eastern Mediterranean basin using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological, and ocean data

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the Eastern Mediterranean water and heat balances over a 52-yr period. The modelling uses a process-oriented approach resolving the one-dimensional equations of momentum, heat, and salt conservation, with turbulence modelled using a two-equation model. The exchange through the Sicily Channel connecting the Eastern and Western basins is calculated from satellite altimeter data. The results illustrates that calculated surface temperature and salinity follow the reanalysed da...

  2. Bluetongue virus isolations from midges belonging to the Obsoletus complex (Culicoides, Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, G; Goffredo, M; Monaco, F; Di Gennaro, A; Cafiero, M A; Baldi, L; de Santis, P; Meiswinkel, R; Caporale, V

    2005-07-30

    Between July and September 2002 there were outbreaks of bluetongue on three sheep holdings in the communities of San Gregorio Magno (Salerno, Campania), Laviano (Salerno, Campania) and Carpino (Foggia, Puglia), and the involvement of bluetongue virus (btv) was confirmed serologically and virologically. The mortality rate was at least 11 per cent and involved btv serotype 2 (btv-2) and serotype 9 (btv-9). These holdings were also surveyed for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vectors; approximately 10,000 midges belonging to 15 species were captured, but they did not include a single specimen of the classical Afro-Asiatic bluetongue vector, Culicoides imicola. Species belonging to the Obsoletus complex dominated the light-trap collections, and Culicoides obsoletus Meigen, Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle and Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer constituted 90 per cent of all the Culicoides species captured. Fifty-six pools of the Obsoletus complex (excluding C dewulfi), each containing 100 individual midges and containing only parous and gravid females, were assayed for virus. btv-2 was isolated from three pools from San Gregorio Magno and Carpino, and btv-9 was isolated from one pool from Laviano. These results indicate that a species other than C imicola is involved in the current re-emergence of bluetongue in the Mediterranean Basin, but whether it is C obsoletus sensu stricto or C scoticus, or both, is uncertain.

  3. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Faulwetter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979 and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided.

  4. Aerosol sources and their contribution to the chemical composition of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during summertime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sciare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on the temporal variability of compounds important in controlling aerosol chemical composition was performed during a one-month experiment conducted during summer 2000 at a background site on Crete, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Contribution of different aerosol sources in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin could be investigated at this location since the site is influenced by a wide range of air masses originating mainly in Europe and Africa. Chemical apportionment was performed for various air mass origins and showed a strong impact of anthropogenic emissions in the Turkey and Central Europe sectors, with black carbon (BC and non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO4 concentrations higher than observed in the Eastern and Western Europe sectors. High levels of non-sea-salt calcium (nss-Ca were associated with air masses from Africa but also from Central Turkey. Evidence was found that BC calculation based on light absorbance during dust events was biased. This quality-controlled high temporal resolution dataset allowed to investigate in detail the source-receptor relationships responsible for the levels of BC, nss-SO4 and sulfur dioxide (SO2, observed in Crete. Among the results obtained from this model, the major contribution of Turkey and Central Europe was confirmed in terms of anthropogenic emissions. Comparisons with remote optical properties obtained from Satellite observations (SEAWIFS north of Crete indicates that our ground based aerosol characterization was suitable for describing aerosol properties in the atmospheric column for most of the time during the campaign.

  5. Epidemiology of Bluetongue in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P P; Hegde, N R; Reddy, Y N; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Gollapalli, S R; Putty, K; Reddy, G H

    2016-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine

  6. Occurrence of Bluetongue in ruminants in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y Krishnamohan; Brindha, K; Ganesan, P I; Srinivas, K; Reddy, G S; Minakshi, P

    2016-09-30

    Tamil Nadu is located in the South-Eastern part of Indian peninsula, between 8.087° and 13.09°N and 76.50° and 80.27°E. Bluetongue (BT) was first reported in this region in sheep during 1982 with regular occurrence thereafter. In 1989-1990, 1997-1998 and 2005-2006, there was wide spread occurrence of BT resulting in huge mortality of sheep. The present study had the goal of isolating the BTV from outbreaks in sheep occurred in Tamil Naadu between 2003-2011 and comparing the VP2 gene sequences of the BTV isolates involved in such outbreaks. Serotypes 1, 2, 16, and 23 of the Bluetongue virus (BTV) have been isolated from sheep during BT outbreaks. BTV-16 has also been isolated in goats and cattle in the region; BTV-2 isolated in Tamil Nadu has homology with BTV-2 isolated in Africa; whereas the BTV-23 isolated in this area has homology with BTV-23 from South East Asia, indicating that both Eastern and Western topotypes of BTV are circulating in ruminant population in Tamil Nadu.

  7. Investigation of sea level trends and the effect of the north atlantic oscillation (NAO) on the black sea and the eastern mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgenc Aksoy, Aysegul

    2017-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has significant effects on sea levels, weather, and climate. In this study, the sea level trends and the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation Indices (NAOI) on annual mean sea level data were assessed for the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The trends of sea level and NAOI were determined using Mann-Kendall dimensionless z statistics. Generally, upward sea level trends were detected for the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. In the Black Sea, significant and continuous upward trends were detected after the year 1950. Weaker trends were detected for the Eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Sea level trends were correlated with trends in NAO indices; negative correlations were detected for the Black Sea, whereas positive correlations were found for the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Paired t tests were performed to determine the turning points for all sea level data sets. The value of t was positive for all data sets, which means that the mean value of the data set before the turning point was smaller than the mean value of the data set after the turning point.

  8. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mone, I.; Kraja, B.; Bregu, A.; Duraj, V.; Sadiku, E.; Hyska, J.; Burazeri, G.

    2015-01-01

    W1-publicatie Our aim was to assess the association of a Mediterranean diet and gastroesophageal reflux disease among adult men and women in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe with a predominantly Muslim population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, which includ

  9. On the establishment of two more alien mollusca (Chama aspersa Reeve, 1846 and Chama asperella Lamarck, 1819 in the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. OVALIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific bivalvia Chama aspersa Reeve, 1846 and Chama asperella Lamarck, 1819 are recorded for the first time in Greek waters. These findings represent a considerable expansion in the eastern Mediterranean. Ship fouling is assumed as the most probable transportation means. However, natural dispersal via the Suez Canal is feasible as well.

  10. High resolution surface solar radiation patterns over Eastern Mediterranean: Satellite, ground-based, reanalysis data and radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, G.; Georgoulias, A.; Meleti, C.; Balis, D.

    2013-12-01

    Surface solar radiation (SSR) and its long and short term variations play a critical role in the modification of climate and by extent of the social and financial life of humans. Thus, SSR measurements are of primary importance. SSR is measured for decades from ground-based stations for specific spots around the planet. During the last decades, satellite observations allowed for the assessment of the spatial variability of SSR at a global as well as regional scale. In this study, a detailed spatiotemporal view of the SSR over Eastern Mediterranean is presented at a high spatial resolution. Eastern Mediterranean is affected by various aerosol types (continental, sea, dust and biomass burning particles) and encloses countries with significant socioeconomical changes during the last decades. For the aims of this study, SSR data from satellites (Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility - CM SAF) and our ground station in Thessaloniki, a coastal city of ~1 million inhabitants in northern Greece, situated in the heart of Eastern Mediterranean (Eppley Precision pyranometer and Kipp & Zonen CM-11 pyranometer) are used in conjunction with radiative transfer simulations (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - SBDART). The CM SAF dataset used here includes monthly mean SSR observations at a high spatial resolution of 0.03x0.03 degrees for the period 1983-2005. Our ground-based SSR observations span from 1983 until today. SBDART radiative transfer simulations were implemented for a number of spots in the area of study in order to calculate the SSR. High resolution (level-2) aerosol and cloud data from MODIS TERRA and AQUA satellite sensors were used as input, as well as ground-based data from the AERONET. Data from other satellites (Earth Probe TOMS, OMI, etc) and reanalysis projects (ECMWF) were used where needed. The satellite observations, the ground-based measurements and the model estimates are validated against each other. The good agreement

  11. A biomarker study of high resolution sedimentary records in the eastern Mediterranean Sea since the last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsouras, G.; Gogou, A.; Bouloubassi, I.; Emeis, K.-C.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Lykousis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Information stored in sedimentary records provides evidence on climate and environmental variability at decadal to centennial time scales. The eastern Mediterranean Sea and the related Aegean Sea exhibit high sedimentation rates in certain areas and are considered as sensitive regions to record paleo-environmental and -climatic changes. The aim of our study is to reconstruct high-frequency paleoclimatic variations and identify associated changes in the physical, chemical and biological environment in selected basins of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, using molecular biogeochemical proxies. Here we present a high-resolution multi-proxy study along two Aegean Sea cores (north (152SL) and southeast (NS-14)) and a Libyan Sea core (HCM2/22). An important time marker and indicator of remarkable climatic and environmental changes is sapropel S1, a sediment layer rich in organic carbon. Depending on the water column depth, the sediment accumulation rates and the proximity to freshwater and water formation sources, S1 deposited between ~9.8 to 6.4 kyr BP, with an apparent interruption in the S1 deposition that occurred from ~8.6 to 7.6 kyr BP. SSTs based on alkenone unsaturation index Uḱ 37, ^15tot, ^13Corg and various marine and terrestrial biomarkers are used to investigate the region's climatic variability, and the modifications in the biogeochemical functioning of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Uḱ 37 SST distribution in our records reveals significant fluctuations in temperature over the last 20.000 yrs. Organic carbon stable isotopes values span a narrow range over the whole sequence, with values varying to typical marine origin. The distributions of land-plant biomarkers are indicative of variable terrigenous organic matter supply and the concomitant transport of nutrients to surface waters. Furthermore, the distribution patterns and characteristic ratios of marine biomarkers exhibit differences in the paleoproductivity trends and ventilation changes over the last

  12. A pollen-based environmental reconstruction in Lake Hazar (Eastern Turkey) during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene: Example for the Eastern Mediterranean Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biltekin, Demet; Kadir Eris, Kürsad; Namik Cagatay, Memet; Nagihan Arslan, Tugce; Akcer On, Sena; Acar, Dursun

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Mediterranean realm historically is a melting area for ancient civilisations. This region has been therefore anthropogenically influenced since the Late Pleistocene. The understanding the processes between vegetation and climate, pollen analysis is a significant proxy in the investigation of past climate, vegetation records and the human influence on the environment. In this research, we carried out the environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene using multi-proxy analysis (palynology, XRF core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and TOC) in the sediment core obtained from 54.39 m depth on the northern shelf of Lake Hazar using a percussion piston corer. Lake Hazar (38° 31' N-39° 25' E) is located at ca. 1255 m above sea level, 22 km south-east of Elazıǧ city in eastern Turkey in the south-east Taurus Mountains. It is an oligotrophic, alkaline soda and a tectonic lake being situated on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). The chronology of the sediment core has been determined using AMS radiocarbon method. We present the first pollen record from the core sediments in Lake Hazar, providing insight into multi-millennial scale climatic changes over the last ~15 14C ka BP. In the piston core, the Bølling/Allerød period is associated by the presence of Pistacia reflecting milder winter conditions with high biological productivity. Onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) period is marked by increase in herbaceous plants and lake level lowering that can also be documented by high magnetic susceptibility and Ca/Ti ratio. The spread of deciduous Quercus at the beginning of Holocene can be attributed to significant forestation due to a high humidity that was presumably sufficient for the establishment of oak forest. An increase in Quercus continued in most of the early and middle Holocene. The 3rd millenium crisis is strongly characterized by an increase in herbal elements, and a decline in Quercus, pointing to dry climatic conditions. The most striking

  13. A Mössbauer spectroscopic study of the iron redox transition in eastern Mediterranean sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, C. van der; Slomp, C.P.; Rancourt, D.G.; Lange, G.J. de; Raaphorst, W. van

    2005-01-01

    Fe cycling at two sites in the Mediterranean Sea (southwest of Rhodes and in the North Aegean) has been studied, combining the pore water determination of nutrients, manganese, and iron, citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CDB) and total sediment extractions, X-ray diffraction, and 57Fe Mössbauer

  14. Gouge marks on deep-sea mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean: Caused by Cuvier's beaked whales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, J. M.; David, L.; Frantzis, A.; Hooker, S. K.

    2006-11-01

    Enigmatic seafloor gouge marks at depths of 1700-2100 m have been observed from submersible during geological survey work studying mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The marks consist of a central groove (about 10 cm deep and 1-2 m long), superimposed on a broader bowl-shaped depression (1-2 m long by about 50 cm wide) with raised rims (up to 10 cm high) to either side of the central groove. We discuss the potential biological causes of these marks, and conclude that they are probably created by Cuvier's beaked whales ( Ziphius cavirostris) during foraging dives to these depths. The mud volcanoes have a comparatively rich and diverse benthic ecology associated with methane-rich fluid seeps and thus could be the base of food chains that reach top predators like the deep-diving whales. The characteristic high acoustic backscatter of the mud volcanoes would facilitate their detection by the echolocation system of these whales.

  15. Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence for Neolithic and Bronze Age Crop Water Management in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael P; Jones, Glynis; Charles, Michael; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H E; Bogaard, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In a large study on early crop water management, stable carbon isotope discrimination was determined for 275 charred grain samples from nine archaeological sites, dating primarily to the Neolithic and Bronze Age, from the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia. This has revealed that wheat (Triticum spp.) was regularly grown in wetter conditions than barley (Hordeum sp.), indicating systematic preferential treatment of wheat that may reflect a cultural preference for wheat over barley. Isotopic analysis of pulse crops (Lens culinaris, Pisum sativum and Vicia ervilia) indicates cultivation in highly varied water conditions at some sites, possibly as a result of opportunistic watering practices. The results have also provided evidence for local land-use and changing agricultural practices.

  16. Recent changes and relations among drought, vegetation and wildfires in the Eastern Mediterranean: The case of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Levin, Noam; Tessler, Naama; Saaroni, Hadas

    2017-04-01

    On-going changes in drought, vegetation and wildfires in Israel provide a key example of possible future evolution in transition areas at the border between Mediterranean and arid climates. Here we present multiple lines of evidence suggesting that drought conditions in Israel, representing the eastern Mediterranean, have increased during the period 1980-2014. Drought conditions were calculated using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI). A 30-year series (1982-2011) of monthly Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) indicates generally positive trends in winter and spring and negative ones in summer and autumn, except in the transition zone between the southern Negev desert and the Mediterranean climate region, where a statistically significant negative trend in all seasons was found. Available ground observations suggest that fire activity has decreased during the period 1987-2011. Apparent year-to-year oscillations are superposed onto these long-term trends. We show that inter-annual variability of summer fires is related to antecedent wet conditions and to above normal vegetation conditions. These relationships suggest the summer fires in Israel are mainly limited by fuel availability rather than by fuel flammability. On the other hand, the year-to-year variations of spring and autumn fires are significantly related with drought indices. Thus, the increase of drought conditions together with climate projections for further warming and drying in this region, point at a potential increase of fire risk in the intermediate seasons.

  17. Occurrence, sources and transport pathways of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    C. Parinos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediments collected from deep basins (1018–4087 m depth of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea, southern Aegean Sea and northwestern Levantine Sea were analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as tracers of natural and anthropogenic inputs. Concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and the unresolved complex mixture (UCM of aliphatic hydrocarbons varied significantly, ranging from 1.34 to 49.2 μg g−1, 145 to 4810 ng g−1 and 0.73 to 36.7 μg g−1, respectively, while concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs ranged between 11.6 and 223 ng g−1. Molecular profiles of determined hydrocarbons reflect a mixed contribution from both natural and anthropogenic sources in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, i.e., terrestrial plant waxes, degraded petroleum products, unburned fossil fuels and combustion of grass, wood and coal. Hydrocarbon mixtures display significant variability amongst sub-regions, reflecting differences in the relative importance of inputs from various sources and phase associations/transport pathways of individual hydrocarbons that impact on their overall distribution and fate. Hydrocarbon concentrations correlated significantly with the organic carbon content of sediments, indicating that the latter exerts an important control on their transport and ultimate accumulation in deep basins. Additionally, water masses' circulation characteristics also seem to influence the regional features and distribution patterns of hydrocarbons. Our findings highlight the role of deep basins/canyons as repositories of both natural and anthropogenic chemical species.

  18. The role of the Miocene-to-Pliocene transition in the Eastern Mediterranean extrusion tectonics: Constraints from numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Fabio A.

    2016-08-01

    In the Eastern Mediterranean, extension in the Aegean Sea and lateral Anatolian extrusion are contrasting and seemingly unrelated examples of continental tectonics developed during Tethys closure. We use numerical modelling to investigate the relation of the tectonic regimes to the underlying subduction dynamics, during subduction land-locking and slab break-off. We find that the tectonics has a two-phase evolution: 1) an incipient phase, with back arc spreading and transcurrent shear zone formation and lateral escape of a block in the upper plate interiors, and 2) a reorganisation phase, during which the transcurrent shear zone propagates and the extruding block internally stretches, progressively separating from the opening back arc domain, while the collisional margin reactivates into a transform plate boundary. The regimes are explained by two concurring plate margin processes: 1) mantle tractions following the subduction and retreat of a land-locked oceanic slab, and 2) stresses propagated through rigid indentation upon slab break-off. These have different spatial and temporal fingerprints: long-term trench retreat and convergence slow-down follow continental subduction, while stresses localise atop the newly formed slab edge upon slab break-off, fastening up margin reorganisation, driving faulting and extrusion, yet fading rapidly, forcing local tectonics rearrangement. A comparison with the Eastern Mediterranean allows an explanation for the time evolution of the tectonics here, and emphasises the role of the Miocene-to-Pliocene tectonics transition, previously not considered. This offers a novel key to the dynamics of the enigmatic evolution of this area.

  19. Particle dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: A synthesis based on light transmission, PMC, and POC archives (1991 2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgis, Aristomenis P.; Gardner, Wilford D.; Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Mishonov, Alexey V.; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Christos

    2008-02-01

    During the last two decades light transmission (LT) data have been collected routinely in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, within the framework of several research projects. A procedure was developed to obtain beam attenuation coefficient due to particles ( cp) at 660-670 nm adjusted for variations in mid-depth 'clear' water and instrumental drifts. Data from 3146 stations occupied between 1991 and 2001 were converted to a common format for the analysis of particulate matter (PM) temporal and spatial distribution patterns. The data were separated into 'wet' (December-May) and 'dry' (June-November) periods. The horizontal distribution of beam cp at various depths revealed clearly higher values in the surface nepheloid layer (SNL) in the vicinity of river mouths during the 'wet' period, whilst the increase was negligible during the 'dry' period. In contrast, the bottom nepheloid layer (BNL; 1-10 m above bottom) appeared to be turbid throughout the year, particularly on the continental shelves receiving riverine discharge. This feature is attributed to resuspension and advection of recently deposited bottom sediments due to waves and currents. However, the Eastern Mediterranean as a whole is impoverished in PM in the water column, particularly at depths >200 m. The behavior of surface-water cp revealed a strong relationship to mesoscale dynamic features. Cyclonic eddies, which upwell nutrient-rich waters toward the surface, favor primary production, which was identified as elevated beam cp values. Beam cp was correlated with PM concentration (PMC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration obtained by bottle sampling. Although there were regional differences in the correlations, no significant seasonal variations were observed. Two generic equations were generated that can be used for a first-order estimate of PMC and POC from historical LT measurements conducted in the area, provided that data are handled according to the proposed methodology.

  20. Extensional and compressional regime driven left-lateral shear in southwestern Anatolia (eastern Mediterranean): The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Aktuğ, Bahadır

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic framework of the eastern Mediterranean presented in this paper is based on an active subduction and small underwater hills/mountains on the oceanic crust moving toward the north. The Hellenic Arc, the Anaximander Mountains, the Rhodes and Finike basins, the compressional southern regions of the Western Taurides, and the extensional western Anatolian graben are the main interrelated tectonic structures that are shaped by the complex tectonic regimes. There are still heated debates regarding the structural properties and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Anatolia. GPS velocities and focal mechanisms of earthquakes demonstrate the absence of a single transform fault across the Burdur-Fethiye region; however, hundreds of small faults showing normal and left-lateral oblique slip indicate the presence of a regionally extensive shear zone in southwestern Turkey, which plays an important role in the eastern Mediterranean tectonics. The 300-km-long, 75-90-km-wide NE-SW-trending Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone developed during the formation of Aegean back-arc extensional system and the thrusting of Western Taurides. Today, the left-lateral differential motion across the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone varies from 3 to 4 mm/yr in the north to 8-10 mm/yr in the south. This finding could be attributed to the fact that while the subduction of the African Plate is relatively fast beneath the western Anatolia at the Hellenic Trench, it is slow or locked beneath the Western Taurides. Therefore, the GPS vectors and their distributions on land indicate remarkable velocity differences and enable us to determine the left-lateral shear zone located between the extensional and compressional blocks. Furthermore, this active tectonic regime creates differences in topography. This study also demonstrates how deep structures, such as the continuation of the subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) fault between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs in the continental area, can come into play

  1. Morphological recognition of Globigerinoides ruber morphotypes and their susceptibility to diagenetic alteration in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontakiotis, G.; Antonarakou, A.; Mortyn, P. G.; Drinia, H.; Anastasakis, G.; Zarkogiannis, S.; Möbius, J.

    2017-10-01

    Planktonic foraminiferal geochemistry presents a valuable archive for paleoceanographic reconstructions. However in high salinity and carbonate super-saturated settings, precipitation of inorganic calcite onto foraminiferal tests can potentially alter the primary geochemical signal, biasing Mg/Ca ratios and ensuing paleoceanographic reconstructions. Here we utilize test biometrics (specifically related to the compression and elongation of the last chambers) to identify four distinct morphotypes (labelled A-D) of the paleoceanographically important planktonic foraminifer species Globigerinoides ruber, and further evaluate their susceptibility to diagenetic alteration from a suite of surface sediments in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The three distinguished morphotypes (A-C) correspond to previously recognized morphotypes (;Normal;, ;Platys;, ;Elongate; respectively) in the Mediterranean Sea, while the remaining (D or ;Twin;) was designated for the first time. We also compare Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations performed on four distinguished morphotypes, indicative of potential diagenetic alteration influence. We identified 3 different overgrowth stages (OGA1-OGA3), as a function of geography in the study area. The early diagenesis degrees (involving all the morphotypes) are only geographically distinct along the eastern Mediterranean (increasing to the south), since the morphology does not play a role in the likelihood of diagenetic alteration. Particularly, in the north Aegean Sea, SEM analyses reveal the absence or limited presence of an overgrowth imprint in all recognized morphotypes, while in the central-south Aegean and Levantine Seas they show higher amplitudes of diagenetic overprint supporting the general trend to advanced diagenetic alteration. The semi-enclosed oligotrophic nature and high salinity of this setting, in combination with the different degree of carbonate precipitation and calcite super-saturation between the sub-basins, could

  2. Trace elements in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean: A 10-years perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Goffman, Oz; Harlavan, Yehudit; Kress, Nurit; Morick, Danny; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Shefer, Edna; Kerem, Dan

    2016-08-15

    Concentrations of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and As, in kidney, liver, muscle and blubber from 7 specimens of Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast (IMC) from 2006 to 2011 (2011-series) were determined and compared to previous data on S. coeruleoalba from the IMC (2001-series). No differences were observed in essential and toxic elements concentrations, between the two series, except for hepatic Mn which was higher in the latter. Hg/Se molar ratios in blubber, kidney and liver increased linearly with log Hg concentrations, while muscle was more heterogenic in this respect. Means (±SD) of hepatic Hg concentrations (134±89 and 181±200mgkg(-1), from the 2011 and 2001 series, respectively) were similar to that found in 2007-2009 specimens from Spain, possibly reflecting the relatively high natural background levels of mercury in the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. Dynamics governing the collapse of the typical Etesians wind pattern over the eastern Mediterranean during summer 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrlis, Evangelos; Lelieveld, Jos

    2014-05-01

    The summer circulation over the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) is dominated by large-scale subsidence and a persistent northerly flow (Etesians) featuring a July-August maximum. Both phenomena are key ingredients of the characteristic Mediterranean-type climate and their annual recurrence is controlled by the summer South Asian monsoon. The large-scale signal induced by the monsoon is often enhanced or masked by higher frequency variability originating in the mid-latitudes. Thus, the summer EM circulation variability is a fusion of mid-latitude and direct tropical influences on various timescales. This study attempts to untangle the signal contributions from these two sources during the summer of 2002, an extreme case of collapse of the Etesians and subsidence over the EM especially during July. The daily evolution of the synoptic conditions leading to this collapse is investigated, while the use of daily indices allows the study of the detailed evolution of the intensity of the monsoon and the Etesians, as well as their relation. This major climatic anomaly coincided with prolonged spells of major failure of the Indian Monsoon. Under normal monsoon activity, frequent Rossby wave 'pulses' are triggered by outbreaks of deep convection over the region. This activity takes the form of sharply-defined warm anomalies associated with stronger than normal subsidence that travel westward and reach the EM within a week. During most of July and early August 2002 this activity is absent or very weak, which is indicative of the possible importance of the monsoon failure for the relaxation of subsidence over the EM. However, the mid-latitude dynamics appear to play a crucial role by controlling the exact timing of the collapse of EM subsidence and the Etesians that potentially enhance the monsoon induced signal. Frequent development of blocking anticyclones over northern Europe that often appear to retrogress towards the Atlantic are the dominant circulation feature during this

  4. Organic pollution and its effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Eastern Mediterranean coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Emmanouil, Christina; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadi-Psyllou, Asimina; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Okay, Oya; Machera, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    Persistent chemicals and emerging pollutants are continuously detected in marine waters and biota. Out of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are significant contaminants with decades of presence in the marine environment. The Mediterranean Sea is an ecosystem directly affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities including industry, municipal, touristic, commercial and agricultural. The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a filter feeder, which presents wide distribution. In this regard, the specific organism was used as a biological indicator for the monitoring and evaluation of pollution in the studied areas with focus on the mentioned chemical groups. Pristine Turkish sites with minimum effect from anthropogenic activities, in contrast with Greek sites which were subjected to heavy industrial and shipping activity, were selected. A gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method (GC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to monitor 34 compounds (16 EPA priority PAHs and 18 OCs). Analyses of mussel samples in 2011 from sites with the limited anthropogenic pollution shores have shown the occurrence of 11 pollutants (6 PAHs, 5 OCs), while in the samples from sites with intensive activity and expected pollution, 12 PAHs and 6 OCs were detected. Biochemical and biological responses studied only in mussels samples from the sites with the highest contamination showed a situation that was under strong seasonal influence. The intensity of the response was also influenced by deployment duration. Noteworthy correlations were detected among biochemical/biological effects and between mussel body burden and these effects. Continuous monitoring of priority pollutants of East Mediterranean Sea is vital both for ecological and human risk assessment purposes.

  5. Surveying Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species along the shores of the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. UKABI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species inhabiting intertidal and shallow subtidal areas along the Israeli Mediterranean shores were surveyed (i.e. presence/absence on a seasonal basis from 2007-2009. We recorded the presence of three speciesC. prolifera, C. mexicana, and C. scalpelliformis. These species were noticeable in autumn and inconspicuous during winter, thus, revealing seasonality and population dynamics. There were no indications of well-known invasive species such as Caulerpa racemosa var.cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia. This study is the first of a kind that assesses the geographical distribution and seasonality of the genus Caulerpa along the Israeli shores.

  6. A new alien bryozoan Celleporaria brunnea (Hincks, 1884 in the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferah Koçak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascophoran Bryozoa Celleporaria brunnea, a new record for the Mediterranean Sea, was found on Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in the inner part of Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea, Turkey in September 2004. The species was previously reported from the Pacific coast of the United States. Its occurrence in the polluted inner part of Izmir Bay, near Alsancak Harbour, suggests that it has been newly introduced to the area, possibly via ship hulls. The morphological, ecological and zoogeographical characteristics of the species are given and discussed.

  7. Surveying Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species along the shores of the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. UKABI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species inhabiting intertidal and shallow subtidal areas along the Israeli Mediterranean shores were surveyed (i.e. presence/absence on a seasonal basis from 2007-2009. We recorded the presence of three speciesC. prolifera, C. mexicana, and C. scalpelliformis. These species were noticeable in autumn and inconspicuous during winter, thus, revealing seasonality and population dynamics. There were no indications of well-known invasive species such as Caulerpa racemosa var.cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia. This study is the first of a kind that assesses the geographical distribution and seasonality of the genus Caulerpa along the Israeli shores.

  8. Distribution patterns of fish assemblages in an Eastern Mediterranean intermittent river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardakas L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of fish assemblages within streams can provide insights for river type classifications and may warrant specific conservation actions. However, there is limited knowledge of how fish assemblages assort along a longitudinal axis in Mediterranean intermittent streams. Patterns in spatial and temporal distribution of fish communities were analysed in a Mediterranean intermittent river (Evrotas River located in Southern Greece, hosting three endemic range restricted species of high conservation concern, during the period 2007−2009, with 80% of the river’s total length desiccating in the 2007 and 2008 droughts. The general trend was an increase in fish density and species richness along an upstream-downstream gradient. Fish assemblages from upstream to downstream were characterized by a decrease of the most rheophilic species (Squalius keadicus and an increase of the most stagnophilic species (Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus. Three river segments, characterized by a high degree of homogeneity were delineated. Habitat and environmental preferences for the studied fish species were identified, with elevation and low flowing habitats being the most important environmental factors affecting fish distribution patterns. The current study provides evidence that even in an intermittent river an assemblage pattern following a longitudinal gradient can be identified, mainly due to the lack of instream barriers that allows recolonization after flow resumption.

  9. Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida along the Alexandria coast, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. DORGHAM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shallow hard bottom and intertidal soft bottom polychaete assemblages of the Alexandria coast, southeastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea, were studied during a complete annual cycle in order to analyze spatial temporal patterns of variation in assemblages, and relevant factors related to polychaete distribution. The present study recorded a total of 73 species, belonging to Syllidae (22 species, Nereididae (9 species, Serpulidae (6 species, Eunicidae (5 species and other 19 families. The assemblages experienced pronounced spatial and temporal variation throughout the study area, but spatial variation appeared more important in determining the observed patterns. Polychaete distribution related to variation of grain size and sessile macrobenthos cover suggesting that these structural variables accounted more than the physical-chemical ones (namely BOD, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH in influencing the patterns of assemblages’ distribution. The present study is the southeastern-most one dealing with ecology and distribution patterns of hard bottom polychaetes from the Mediterranean Sea, as well as one of the few studies dealing with intertidal soft bottom polychaetes in the Levant Basin.

  10. Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida along the Alexandria coast, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. DORGHAM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shallow hard bottom and intertidal soft bottom polychaete assemblages of the Alexandria coast, southeastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea, were studied during a complete annual cycle in order to analyze spatial temporal patterns of variation in assemblages, and relevant factors related to polychaete distribution. The present study recorded a total of 73 species, belonging to Syllidae (22 species, Nereididae (9 species, Serpulidae (6 species, Eunicidae (5 species and other 19 families. The assemblages experienced pronounced spatial and temporal variation throughout the study area, but spatial variation appeared more important in determining the observed patterns. Polychaete distribution related to variation of grain size and sessile macrobenthos cover suggesting that these structural variables accounted more than the physical-chemical ones (namely BOD, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH in influencing the patterns of assemblages’ distribution. The present study is the southeastern-most one dealing with ecology and distribution patterns of hard bottom polychaetes from the Mediterranean Sea, as well as one of the few studies dealing with intertidal soft bottom polychaetes in the Levant Basin.

  11. Cold seep communities in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea: composition, symbiosis and spatial distribution on mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olu-Le Roy, Karine; Sibuet, Myriam; Fiala-Médioni, Aline; Gofas, Serge; Salas, Carmen; Mariotti, André; Foucher, Jean-Paul; Woodside, John

    2004-12-01

    Two mud volcano fields were explored during the French-Dutch MEDINAUT cruise (1998) with the submersible NAUTILE, one south of Crete along the Mediteranean Ridge at about 2000 m depth (Olimpi mud field) and the other south of Turkey between 1700 and 2000 m depth (Anaximander mud field) where high methane concentrations were measured. Chemosynthetic communities were observed and sampled on six mud volcanoes and along a fault scarp. The communities were dominated by bivalves of particularly small size, belonging to families commonly found at seeps (Mytilidae, Vesicomyidae, Thyasiridae) and to Lucinidae mostly encountered in littoral sulfide-rich sediments and at the shallowest seeps. Siboglinid polychaetes including a large vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp. were also associated. At least four bivalve species and one siboglinid are associated with symbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria, as evidenced by Transmission Electronic Microscopy and isotopic ratio measurements. Among the bivalves, a mytilid harbors both methanotrophic and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Video spatial analysis of the community distribution on three volcanoes shows that dense bivalve shell accumulations (mainly lucinids) spread over large areas, from 10% to 38% of the explored areas (2500-15000 m 2) on the different volcanoes. Lamellibrachia sp. had different spatial distribution and variable density in the two mud volcano fields, apparently related with higher methane fluxes in the Anaximander volcanoes and maybe with the instability due to brines in the Olimpi area. The abundance and richness of the observed chemosynthetic fauna and the size of some of the species contrast with the poverty of the deep eastern Mediterranean. The presence of a specialized fauna, with some mollusk genera and species shared with other reduced environments of the Mediterranean, but not dominated by the large bivalves usually found at seeps, is discussed.

  12. Data from investigation on seismic Sea-waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Birth of Christ to 500 A.D.

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    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Mediterranean has a long history of damaging seismic sea
    waves (Tsunamis but a great number of them which are locally generated are small. They have caused no serious damage to the coasts because their
    energy is confined by many islands of the Greek Archipelagos. However,
    some of them have been rather severe and destructive to property and
    human life.
    This paper is comprised of data from an investigation into the activity
    of seismic sea waves in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Birth of
    Christ to 500 A.D. It contains a great amount of information concerning
    earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and seismic sea waves.
    All the available information has been compiled from historical accounts,
    archives, press reports, magazines and related works.

  13. The presence of the Indo-Pacific symbiont-bearing foraminifer Amphistegina lobifera in Greek coastal ecosystems (Aegean Sea, Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. TRIANTAPHYLLOU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, hundreds of species of Indo-Pacific origin from the Red Sea have traversed the Suez Canal and settled in the Eastern Mediterranean. Nowadays, Amphistegina lobifera Larsen, is known to be a successful immigrant that is widely distributed in the coastal ecosystems of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Amphistegina is the most common epiphytic, symbiont- bearing large foraminifer. In this study we provide additional data on the presence of this species in the coastal ecosystems of Aegean Sea, Greece. The high relative abundance of A. lobifera is the result of very successful adaptation of this species to local conditions and suggests that it has become a significant part of the epiphytic foraminiferal fauna.

  14. Applicability of the Decision Matrix of North Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System to the Italian tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami catastrophe, UNESCO through the IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission sponsored the establishment of Intergovernmental Coordination Groups (ICG with the aim to devise and implement Tsunami Warning Systems (TWSs in all the oceans exposed to tsunamis, in addition to the one already in operation in the Pacific (PTWS. In this context, since 2005, efforts have begun for the establishment of TWSs in the Indian Ocean (IOTWS, in the Caribbean area (CARIBE EWS and in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAMTWS.

    In this paper, we focus on a specific tool that was first introduced in the PTWS routine operations, i.e., the Decision Matrix (DM. This is an easy-to-use table establishing a link between the main parameters of an earthquake and the possible ensuing tsunami in order to make quick decision on the type of alert bulletins that a Tsunami Warning Center launches to its recipients. In the process of implementation of a regional TWS for the NEAM area, two distinct DMs were recently proposed by the ICG/NEAMTWS, one for the Atlantic and the other for the entire Mediterranean area.

    This work applies the Mediterranean NEAMTWS DM to the earthquakes recorded in Italy and compares the action predicted by the DM vs. the action that should be appropriate in view of the observed tsunami characteristics with the aim to establish how good the performance of the Italian TWS will be when it uses the DM for future events. To this purpose, we make use of the parametric catalogue of the Italian earthquakes (CPTI04 compiled in 2004 and the most recent compilation of the Italian tsunami, based on the Italian Tsunami Catalogue of 2004 and the subsequent revisions. In order to better compare the TWS actions, we have identified four different kinds of action coding them from 0 to 3 according to the tsunami severity and have further considered three different distance ranges where

  15. Sea level changes according to data of tide gauge station and its relationship with elements of climate in eastern Mediterranean: 1972-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Zeynel Öztürk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean Sea is one of the areas that indicated the greatest increase in sea level rise during the 20th century. The eastern Mediterranean had also greatest increase in sea level with in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, sea level data observed at 11 tide gauge stations located in the Levantine Sea, Cretan Sea and south of the Aegean Sea and gridded climatological data were used in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In this frame, monthly and annual variations and trends in average, average maximum and average minimum sea levels data and mean air temperature, mean sea level pressure and total precipitation series were investigated. According to the results of analysis, there are statistically significant increase trends in temperature and all sea level series. These trend rates are of +1.57 mm/year in average sea level, +1.89 mm/year in average maximum, +1.36 mm/year in average minimum and 0.026 ºC/year in temperature. According to the long-term averages, annually amplitude is 14.9 cm, while, the highest and the lowest levels of amplitude are reached in August and March, respectively. According to the interannual average maximum and minimum sea level values, amplitude of 36.5 cm is seen.

  16. Investigation of hydrological drought using Cumulative Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI 30) in the eastern Mediterranean region (Damascus, Syria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhem, Boulos Abou; Kattaa, Bassam

    2016-07-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has been exposed to drought episodes, which have been occurring more frequently during the last decades. The objective of the present paper is to study the precipitation regime of the Damascus (Mazzeh) meteoric station by analysing drought characteristics using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and comparing this with the drought in Cyprus. The cumulative drought conceptis proposed to characterize long-term hydrologic drought, which affects the shallow groundwater productivity in terms of quantity and quality. Gamma probability distribution was fitted to the long-term annual precipitation in Damascus from 1918-1919 to 2007-2008 ( n = 90 years). Generally, a decreasing trend of 17% to the mean annual rainfall of Damascus and 13% to the mean annual rainfall of Cyprus was estimated between 1970 and 2000. The SPI identifies three major extended drought periods: (1) 9 years of severe drought (1954-1963) with an average 20% precipitation deficit per year compared to the mean. (2) 8 years of severe drought (1983-1991) with a 27% deficit per year on average. (3) 9 years of extreme drought (1993-2002) with a 31% deficit per year on average. The cumulative standardized precipitation index (SPI 30) demonstrates positive values for the first period and is indicative of having no effect on the global water balance. SPI 30 exhibits sensitive equilibrium with near zero values / a near zero value (±1.5) for the second period. For the third period, however, the SPI 30 decreases below -10 indicating an extreme hydrological drought that has negative consequences on the recent groundwater recharge. It is required to develop and implement a sustainable groundwater management strategy to reduce long-terms drought risks. Generally, the SPI 30 in Cyprus is parallel to that in Damascus with a 3-5 year delay. Thus, the central zone of the Eastern Mediterranean region is facing big challenges and has been suffering from three decades of moderate to

  17. Neogene sedimentary history of the Outer Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey, Tiffany; Akhun, Selin; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; Ćifçi, Günay

    2010-05-01

    The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focussed on erosion in the sediment source area, and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is intended to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we obtained km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic profiles radiating out from the river delta across the basin. Many of the profiles are processed and images of the data are presented. Interpretation of the available industry seismic reflection profiles show that during the the Miocene the northeastern Mediterranean, including the Cilicia Basin, experienced regional compression, which resulted in the formation of a broad and arcuate fold-thrust belt extending from the Taurides in the north, across the Troodos ophiolite complex into the Cyprus Arc in the south. Two prominent culminations were developed: one was located along the Misis-Kyrenia Fault Zone, another developed in the Amanos-Larnaka-Troodos Fault Zone. Stratigraphic and structural relationships demonstrated that the late Pliocene-Quaternary Cilicia-Adana Basin complex evolved as an asymmetric piggyback basin on the hanging-wall of the south-verging Misis-Kyrenia thrust culmination. Detailed mapping demonstrated that the S/SE-directed contraction culminated in the latest Miocene, and is followed in the early Pliocene by a progressive transition to partitioned contraction and extension related to the initiation of strike slip along the eastern Anatolian Transform Fault and its marine extensions. The shift in kinematics is expressed by the development of major NE-SW trending (Inner Cilicia Basin) and E-W trending (Outer Cilicia Basin) steep faults with extensional separations bounding the

  18. Investigation of hydrological drought using Cumulative Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI 30) in the eastern Mediterranean region (Damascus, Syria)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boulos Abou Zakhem; Bassam Kattaa

    2016-07-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has been exposed to drought episodes, which have been occurring morefrequently during the last decades. The objective of the present paper is to study the precipitation regimeof the Damascus (Mazzeh) meteoric station by analysing drought characteristics using the StandardizedPrecipitation Index (SPI) and comparing this with the drought in Cyprus. The cumulative droughtconcept is proposed to characterize long-term hydrologic drought, which affects the shallow groundwaterproductivity in terms of quantity and quality. Gamma probability distribution was fitted to the long-termannual precipitation in Damascus from 1918–1919 to 2007–2008 (n = 90 years). Generally, a decreasingtrend of 17% to the mean annual rainfall of Damascus and 13% to the mean annual rainfall of Cypruswas estimated between 1970 and 2000. The SPI identifies three major extended drought periods: (1)9 years of severe drought (1954–1963) with an average 20% precipitation deficit per year compared tothe mean. (2) 8 years of severe drought (1983–1991) with a 27% deficit per year on average. (3) 9 yearsof extreme drought (1993–2002) with a 31% deficit per year on average. The cumulative standardizedprecipitation index (SPI 30) demonstrates positive values for the first period and is indicative of havingno effect on the global water balance. SPI 30 exhibits sensitive equilibrium with near zero values / a nearzero value (±1.5) for the second period. For the third period, however, the SPI 30 decreases below −10indicating an extreme hydrological drought that has negative consequences on the recent groundwaterrecharge. It is required to develop and implement a sustainable groundwater management strategy toreduce long-terms drought risks. Generally, the SPI 30 in Cyprus is parallel to that in Damascus witha 3–5 year delay. Thus, the central zone of the Eastern Mediterranean region is facing big challengesand has been suffering from three decades of moderate to

  19. Particle water and pH in the eastern Mediterranean: source variability and implications for nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Nikolaou, Panayiota; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    Particle water (liquid water content, LWC) and aerosol pH are important parameters of the aerosol phase, affecting heterogeneous chemistry and bioavailability of nutrients that profoundly impact cloud formation, atmospheric composition, and atmospheric fluxes of nutrients to ecosystems. Few measurements of in situ LWC and pH, however, exist in the published literature. Using concurrent measurements of aerosol chemical composition, cloud condensation nuclei activity, and tandem light scattering coefficients, the particle water mass concentrations associated with the aerosol inorganic (Winorg) and organic (Worg) components are determined for measurements conducted at the Finokalia atmospheric observation station in the eastern Mediterranean between June and November 2012. These data are interpreted using the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic model to predict the pH of aerosols originating from the various sources that influence air quality in the region. On average, closure between predicted aerosol water and that determined by comparison of ambient with dry light scattering coefficients was achieved to within 8 % (slope = 0.92, R2 = 0.8, n = 5201 points). Based on the scattering measurements, a parameterization is also derived, capable of reproducing the hygroscopic growth factor (f(RH)) within 15 % of the measured values. The highest aerosol water concentrations are observed during nighttime, when relative humidity is highest and the collapse of the boundary layer increases the aerosol concentration. A significant diurnal variability is found for Worg with morning and afternoon average mass concentrations being 10-15 times lower than nighttime concentrations, thus rendering Winorg the main form of particle water during daytime. The average value of total aerosol water was 2.19 ± 1.75 µg m-3, contributing on average up to 33 % of the total submicron mass concentration. Average aerosol water associated with organics, Worg, was equal to 0.56 ± 0.37 µg m-3; thus, organics

  20. QUantifying the Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effect over Eastern Mediterranean from Satellites (QUADIEEMS): Overview and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Zanis, Prodromos; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kourtidis, Konstantinos A.; Alexandri, Georgia; Ntogras, Christos; Marinou, Eleni; Amiridis, Vassilis

    2013-04-01

    An overview and preliminary results from the research implemented within the framework of QUADIEEMS project are presented. For the scopes of the project, satellite data from five sensors (MODIS aboard EOS TERRA, MODIS aboard EOS AQUA, TOMS aboard Earth Probe, OMI aboard EOS AURA and CALIOP aboard CALIPSO) are used in conjunction with meteorological data from ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis and data from a global chemical-aerosol-transport model as well as simulation results from a regional climate model (RegCM4) coupled with a simplified aerosol scheme. QUADIEEMS focuses on Eastern Mediterranean [30oN-45No, 17.5oE-37.5oE], a region situated at the crossroad of different aerosol types and thus ideal for the investigation of the direct and indirect effects of various aerosol types at a high spatial resolution. The project consists of five components. First, raw data from various databases are acquired, analyzed and spatially homogenized with the outcome being a high resolution (0.1x0.1 degree) and a moderate resolution (1.0x1.0 degree) gridded dataset of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The marine, dust and anthropogenic fraction of aerosols over the region is quantified making use of the homogenized dataset. Regional climate model simulations with REGCM4/aerosol are also implemented for the greater European region for the period 2000-2010 at a resolution of 50 km. REGCM4's ability to simulate AOD550 over Europe is evaluated. The aerosol-cloud relationships, for sub-regions of Eastern Mediterranean characterized by the presence of predominant aerosol types, are examined. The aerosol-cloud relationships are also examined taking into account the relative position of aerosol and cloud layers as defined by CALIPSO observations. Within the final component of the project, results and data that emerged from all the previous components are used in satellite-based parameterizations in order to quantify the direct and indirect (first) radiative effect of the different

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of tropospheric ozone (O3) in the boundary layer above the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvarakis, G.; Vrekoussis, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kourtidis, K.; Rappenglueck, B.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Zerefos, C.

    2002-09-01

    To study the spatial and temporal variability of tropospheric ozone in the marine boundary layer over the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean), an O3 analyzer has been installed onboard of a passenger vessel traveling on a regular basis in the Aegean Sea (from Heraklion/Crete 35°30'N, 25°13'E to Thessaloniki 40°64'N, 22°97'E) during a period of 14 months (August 1999 to November 2000). In addition, O3 data have been obtained on a daily basis at the regional background station of Finokalia (Crete; 35°30'N, 25°70'E) since September 1997, short-term measurements of O3 were performed over Crete during the PAUR II campaign (May 1999), and the first O3 data from a rural area (40°32'N, 23°50'E) close to Thessaloniki at the north of Greece have been collected from March 2000 to January 2001. This survey extensive points out the existence of a well-defined seasonal cycle in boundary layer O3 with maximum in summer both above the Aegean Sea and at Finokalia. However, the seasonal signal (defined as the summer/winter ratio) is not constant and varies as a function of air mass origin from 1.33 to 1.15 for the N-NE and SW-S sectors, respectively, in line with the geographical location of the O3 precursor sources. Our data show the absence of any significant longitudinal gradient over Crete at least during spring and autumn and the absence of significant latitudinal gradient between the north and south Aegean Sea during all seasons for air masses having similar origin. The above results indicate that long-range transport is the main factor accounting for the elevated O3 levels above the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Thus (1) O3 data from Finokalia, where the longest time series are available for the area, have regional significance and (2) over the entire Aegean basin, ozone values are above the 32 ppbv European Union (EU) phytotoxicity limit throughout the year and above the 53 ppbv EU health protection limit most of the time during the dry season of the year. The very

  2. Calculating the water and heat balances of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological and ocean data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Omstedt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Mediterranean water and heat balances wereanalysed over 52 years. The modelling uses a process-orientedapproach resolving the one-dimensional equations of momentum,heat and salt conservation; turbulence is modelled using a two-equation model. The results indicate that calculated temperature and salinity follow the reanalysed data well. The water balance in the Eastern Mediterranean basin was controlled by the difference between inflows and outflows through the Sicily Channel and by net precipitation. The freshwater component displayed a negative trend over the study period, indicating increasing salinity in the basin.The heat balance was controlled by heat loss from the water surface, solar radiation into the sea and heat flow through the Sicily Channel. Both solar radiation and net heat loss displayed increasing trends, probably due to decreased total cloud cover. In addition, the heat balance indicated a net import of approximately 9 W m-2 of heat to the Eastern Mediterranean Basin from the Western Basin.

  3. Ecological quality assessment in the Eastern Mediterranean combining live and dead molluscan assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshno, Yael; Benjamini, Chaim; Edelman-Furstenberg, Yael

    2016-03-15

    The EU directive to quantify ecological quality by deviation from pre-impacted conditions often fails to be implemented because past information is usually incomplete or missing. Molluscan death assemblages, representing long-term accumulation of shells on the sea floor, average out short-term variability and can serve as a baseline for quality assessment. AMBI, Bentix and Shannon-Wiener indices were calculated for live and dead assemblages from polluted and control stations on the highly oligotrophic Levantine shallow shelf of Israel. Bentix successfully tracked deterioration over time, from moderate EcoQS in the dead to poor in the live assemblage. Additional modification of the ecological classification of species by scoring the naturally abundant Corbula gibba as pollution-sensitive improved the utility of the Bentix index in monitoring in this part of the Mediterranean. This adjustment of Bentix, and use of death assemblages for an ecological baseline, should therefore be incorporated in monitoring for compliance with EU directives.

  4. Lithospheric architecture of the Levant Basin (Eastern Mediterranean region): A 2D modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inati, Lama; Zeyen, Hermann; Nader, Fadi Henri; Adelinet, Mathilde; Sursock, Alexandre; Rahhal, Muhsin Elie; Roure, François

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses the deep structure of the lithosphere underlying the easternmost Mediterranean region, in particular the Levant Basin and its margins, where the nature of the crust, continental versus oceanic, remains debated. Crustal thickness and the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) as well as the crustal density distribution were calculated by integrating surface heat flow data, free-air gravity anomaly, geoid and topography. Accordingly, two-dimensional, lithospheric models of the study area are discussed, demonstrating the presence of a progressively attenuated crystalline crust from E to W (average thickness from 35 to 8 km). The crystalline crust is best interpreted as a strongly thinned continental crust under the Levant Basin, represented by two distinct components, an upper and a lower crust. Further to the west, the Herodotus Basin is believed to be underlain by an oceanic crust, with a thickness between 6 and 10 km. The Moho under the Arabian Plate is 35-40 km deep and becomes shallower towards the Mediterranean coast. It appears to be situated at depths ranging between 20 and 23 km below the Levant Basin and 26 km beneath the Herodotus Basin, based on our proposed models. At the Levantine margin, the thinning of the crust in the transitional domain between the onshore and the offshore is gradual, indicating successive extensional regimes that did not reach the beak up stage. In addition, the depth to LAB is around 120 km under the Arabian and the Eurasian Plates, 150 km under the Levant Basin, and it plunges to 180 km under the Herodotus Basin. This study shows that detailed 2D lithosphere modeling using integrated geophysical data can help understand the mechanisms responsible for the modelled lithospheric architecture when constrained with geological findings.

  5. Water column distribution of stable isotopes and carbonate properties in the South-eastern Levantine basin (Eastern Mediterranean): Vertical and temporal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisma-Ventura, G.; Yam, R.; Kress, N.; Shemesh, A.

    2016-06-01

    Water column distributions of the oxygen isotopic composition of sea-water (δ18OSW) and the stable carbon isotope ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC), total alkalinity (AT) and the pH (total scale) at 25 °C (25 °CpHTotal) were investigated along the Southeast Mediterranean (SE-Med) shelf and open water, during 2009-2010. While, the vertical profiles of δ18OSW lacked a clear depth signature, those of δ13CDIC were characterized by a structure that reflects the major water masses in the Levantine basin, with noticeable vertical gradients. The δ13CDIC Suess effect of the Levantine water column was estimated from the difference between the average profiles of 1988 and 2009-2010 (Δδ13CDIC). We observed δ13CDIC temporal change, which indicates propagation of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) to depth of about 700 m. The Modified Atlantic Water (MAW; 0-200 m) and the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW; 200-400 m) exhibited a depletion rate of - 0.13 ± 0.03 and - 0.11 ± 0.03‰ decade- 1, respectively, representing ~ 50% of the atmospheric change, while the deep water of the Adriatic source (700-1300 m) did not change during this period. A Δδ13CDIC depletion trend was also recognized below 1350 m, corresponding to the Aegean source deep water (EMDWAeg) and therefore associated to the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) event. Anthropogenic CO2 accumulation rate of 0.38 ± 0.12 mol C m- 2 yr- 1 for the upper 700 m of the SE-Med, over the last 22 yr, was estimated on the basis of mean depth-integrated δ13CDIC Suess effect profile. Our results confirm lower accumulation rate than that of the subtropical North Atlantic, resulting due to the super-saturation with respect to CO2 of the well-stratified Levantine surface water. High pCO2 saturation during summer (+ 150 μatm), in oppose to a small degree of under-saturation in winter (- 30 μatm) was calculated from surface water AT and 25 °CpHTotal data. However, the δ13CDIC depletion trend of the LIW and the

  6. Spatiotemporal variability and contribution of different aerosol types to the aerosol optical depth over the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Alexandri, Georgia; Kourtidis, Konstantinos A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Zanis, Prodromos; Pöschl, Ulrich; Levy, Robert; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Tsikerdekis, Athanasios

    2016-11-01

    This study characterizes the spatiotemporal variability and relative contribution of different types of aerosols to the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Eastern Mediterranean as derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Terra (March 2000-December 2012) and Aqua (July 2002-December 2012) satellite instruments. For this purpose, a 0.1° × 0.1° gridded MODIS dataset was compiled and validated against sun photometric observations from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). The high spatial resolution and long temporal coverage of the dataset allows for the determination of local hot spots like megacities, medium-sized cities, industrial zones and power plant complexes, seasonal variabilities and decadal averages. The average AOD at 550 nm (AOD550) for the entire region is ˜ 0.22 ± 0.19, with maximum values in summer and seasonal variabilities that can be attributed to precipitation, photochemical production of secondary organic aerosols, transport of pollution and smoke from biomass burning in central and eastern Europe and transport of dust from the Sahara and the Middle East. The MODIS data were analyzed together with data from other satellite sensors, reanalysis projects and a chemistry-aerosol-transport model using an optimized algorithm tailored for the region and capable of estimating the contribution of different aerosol types to the total AOD550. The spatial and temporal variability of anthropogenic, dust and fine-mode natural aerosols over land and anthropogenic, dust and marine aerosols over the sea is examined. The relative contribution of the different aerosol types to the total AOD550 exhibits a low/high seasonal variability over land/sea areas, respectively. Overall, anthropogenic aerosols, dust and fine-mode natural aerosols account for ˜ 51, ˜ 34 and ˜ 15 % of the total AOD550 over land, while, anthropogenic aerosols, dust and marine aerosols account ˜ 40, ˜ 34 and ˜ 26 % of the total AOD550 over the sea, based on

  7. Remote sensing and modelling analysis of the extreme dust storm hitting the Middle East and eastern Mediterranean in September 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomos, Stavros; Ansmann, Albert; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Patlakas, Platon; Marinou, Eleni; Amiridis, Vassilis

    2017-03-01

    The extreme dust storm that affected the Middle East and the eastern Mediterranean in September 2015 resulted in record-breaking dust loads over Cyprus with aerosol optical depth exceeding 5.0 at 550 nm. We analyse this event using profiles from the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), geostationary observations from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), and high-resolution simulations from the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The analysis of modelling and remote sensing data reveals the main mechanisms that resulted in the generation and persistence of the dust cloud over the Middle East and Cyprus. A combination of meteorological and surface processes is found, including (a) the development of a thermal low in the area of Syria that results in unstable atmospheric conditions and dust mobilization in this area, (b) the convective activity over northern Iraq that triggers the formation of westward-moving haboobs that merge with the previously elevated dust layer, and (c) the changes in land use due to war in the areas of northern Iraq and Syria that enhance dust erodibility.

  8. Monitoring the Wheat, Corn and Cotton Areas in AN Eastern Mediterranean Agricultural Basin Between 2007 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satir, O.; Yeler, O.

    2016-10-01

    Detecting the seasonal agricultural crop pattern accurately is a vital part of the agricultural planning. In this extent, Cukurova Region that is located in Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey was evaluated on agricultural landscape pattern. This region is the most productive agricultural region of Turkey also crop variability and yield are higher than many parts of the world. The main agricultural part of the area is called Lower Seyhan Plane (LSP) and it has been formed by the Seyhan, Ceyhan and Berdan rivers. The purpose of the study was to define the wheat, corn and cotton crop pattern using multi-temporal Landsat satellite images and object based classification approach for 2007 and 2013 cropping years. Three main crop's areal difference were evaluated and changes were monitored between 2007 and 2013. The accuracy of the classifications were obtained by the spatial kappa statistics. Overall kappa accuracy was derived to be 0.9. Classification results were shown that wheat areas were decreased 35% and corn and cotton areas were increased 49% and 69% respectively. Particularly, government subventions and market demands were impacted cropping pattern in the region significantly. In addition, multi-temporal Landsat images and object based classification were a great combination to define regional agricultural crop pattern with very good accuracy (>90%).

  9. Advancing Tobacco Dependence Treatment Services in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: International collaboration for training and capacity-building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras I. Hawari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use negatively affects health and is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Today, tobacco use ranks third among risk factors in North Africa and the Middle East in terms of disease burden. Despite the established need for these services, tobacco dependence treatment (TDT services are still inadequate in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. Among the main challenges hindering their expansion is the current lack of training opportunities. The provision of training and capacity-building—a key enabler of TDT—offers an excellent catalyst to launch TDT services in the region. This review discusses the need for TDT training in the EMR and describes a model for providing regional evidence-based training in line with international standards. The King Hussein Cancer Center in Amman, Jordan, is the regional host for Global Bridges, a worldwide TDT initiative. Using this model, they have trained 1,500 professionals and advocates from the EMR over the past three years.

  10. The Messinian/Early Pliocene transition in Eastern Mediterranean: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Kalamaki section (Zakynthos Island, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Tzortzaki, Evi; Filippidi, Amalia; Nikolaou, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    foraminiferal facies distribution in the studied part of the Kalamaki section is in accordance with isotope oxygen data from basins in the central and eastern Mediterranean basin which indicates the existence of a salinity gradient during this time span. Ostracod fauna is characterised by low diversity and abundance. It is consisting mainly of Bythocypris and Cytherella species, which confirm the bathyal depositional environment. The study of the late Messinian-Early Pliocene sediments in Zakynthos island (Kalamaki section) correlated with time equivalent sections in Crete (e.g. Drinia et al., 2007) and the comparison with the offshore coeval deposits drilled in the ODP Leg 160 boreholes, illustrate the environmental changes which occurred in the Eastern Mediterranean at the end of the salinity crisis. References Dermitzakis, M.D., 1978. Stratigraphy and sedimentary history of the Miocene of Zakynthos (Ionian Islands, Greece). Ann. Geol. Pays Hell., 29:47 186. Drinia, H., Antonarakou, A., Kontakiotis, G., 2007. On the occurrence of Early Pliocene marine deposits in the Ierapetra Basin, Eastern Crete, Greece. Bulletin of Geosciences, 83 (1), 63-78. Jorissen, F.J., 1988. Benthic foraminifera from the Adriatic Sea: principles of phenotypic variation. Utrecht Micropaleontological Bulletins, 37, 1-174. Murray, J., 2006. Ecology and applications of Benthic foraminifera. Cambridge University press, 426pp. Nikolaou, K.A., 1986. Contribution to the knowledge of the Neogene , the geology and the limits of the Ionian and Preapulian zones, in relation to the petroleum exploration , observations in Strofades , Zakynthos and Kefallinia islands. The doct. University of Athens. Pierre, C., Caruso, A., Blanc-Valleron, M., Rouchy, J. M., Orzsag-Sperber, F., 2006. Reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental changes around the Miocene-Pliocene boundary along a West-East transect across the Mediterranean. Sedimentary Geology 188-189, 319-340. The Messinian Salinity Crisis Revisited. Pujos, M., 1976

  11. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  12. Evidences of "Lago-Mare" episode around the Messinian-Pliocene boundary in eastern Tunisia (central Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigui, Mouna; Ben Youssef, Mohamed; Ouaja, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Eight stratigraphic sections, located in northeastern part of the Sahel area of Tunisia recorded evidences of "Lago-Mare" episode and events related to the Messinian-Late Pliocene interval. A comparison with previous studies carried on sections from neighboring areas and boreholes data drilled within the Gulf of Hammamet and the Gulf of Gabès, is conducted and gives useful information to characterize the Late Messinian to Late Pliocene events. The most notable feature distinguished in the studied area consists on the lack of gypsum, commonly recorded in relation with the crucial event of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. However, only lagoonal deposits, bearing messinian brackish fauna, are encountered. These sediments are usually attributed to the "Segui" formation or the so called "Mio-Pliocene continental". Thin sections samples and field observations have recognized sands, marls, clays, lacustrine limestone, some gypsum lenses, mud-cracks, lignite and Messinian brackish fauna. Similar deposits were previously described in the Kechabta basin from the Northern Tunisia and in some wells from the Gulf of Gabès and the Gulf of Hammamet. We suggest that all these facies belong to the coeval of the "Lago-Mare" facies within Eastern and Western Mediterranean basins (e.g. Sicily, Mallorca, Libya and Cyprus). Finally, four major erosional surfaces have been recorded within the Late Messinian-Late Pliocene deposits, aged post-Tortonian, intra-Messinian, Late Messinian and intra-Pliocene times. They seem to be the result of local tectonic uplifts and eustatic fluctuations.

  13. Assessment of channel changes in a Mediterranean ephemeral stream since the early twentieth century. The Rambla de Cervera, eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Beltrán, Francisca; Sanchis-Ibor, Carles

    2013-11-01

    An analysis of morphological changes during the last six decades is presented for a 16.5-km reach of the Rambla de Cervera, a Mediterranean ephemeral stream located in eastern Spain. Channel changes were analysed through a range of techniques, specifically the analysis of aerial photographs with geographical information systems (GIS) and comparison of topographic surveys. The gravel channel underwent a general decline over the study period, losing width (68.5%) and surface area (45.7%) caused by the development of established islands frequently attached to the floodplain. These morphological changes exhibit an interesting temporal variability, with a maximum decrease of the gravel channel in the period 1946-1956 and another narrowing stage between 1977 and 1991. Two periods (1956-1977 and 1991-2006) also had mixed performance. In addition, incision processes occurred along the entire study reach at an average depth of 3.5 m. Natural and human-induced factors producing contradictory effects are considered responsible for changes in the Rambla de Cervera.

  14. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-11-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance.

  15. Thessaloniki Mud Volcano, the Shallowest Gas Hydrate-Bearing Mud Volcano in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean

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    C. Perissoratis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed multibeam survey and the subsequent gravity coring carried out in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean, detected a new active gas hydrate-bearing mud volcano (MV that was named Thessaloniki. It is outlined by the 1315 m bathymetric contour, is 1.67 km2 in area, and has a summit depth of 1260 m. The sea bottom water temperature is 13.7∘C. The gas hydrate crystals generally have the form of flakes or rice, some larger aggregates of them are up to 2 cm across. A pressure core taken at the site contained 3.1 lt. of hydrocarbon gases composed of methane, nearly devoid of propane and butane. The sediment had a gas hydrate occupancy of 0.7% of the core volume. These characteristics place the gas hydrate field at Thessaloniki MV at the upper boundary of the gas hydrate stability zone, prone to dissociation with the slightest increase in sea water temperature, decrease in hydrostatic pressure, or change in the temperature of the advecting fluids.

  16. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Tsangaris; Vanessa, Moschino; Evangelia, Strogyloudi; Valentina, Coatu; Andreja, Ramšak; Rana, Abu Alhaija; Susana, Carvalho; Serena, Felline; Alisa, Kosyan; Yiota, Lazarou; Ioannis, Hatzianestis; Andra, Oros; Daniela, Tiganus

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  17. WHO Collaborating Centre for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altawalah, Haya; Al-Nakib, Widad

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated the Virology Unit of the Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, Kuwait University, Kuwait, a collaborating centre for AIDS for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO), recognizing it to be in compliance with WHO guidelines. In this centre, research integral to the efforts of WHO to combat AIDS is conducted. In addition to annual workshops and symposia, the centre is constantly updating and renewing its facilities and capabilities in keeping with current and latest advances in virology. As an example of the activities of the centre, the HIV-1 RNA viral load in plasma samples of HIV-1 patients is determined by real-time PCR using the AmpliPrep TaqMan HIV-1 test v2.0. HIV-1 drug resistance is determined by sequencing the reverse transcriptase and protease regions on the HIV-1 pol gene, using the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Assay on the OpenGene® DNA Sequencing System. HIV-1 subtypes are determined by sequencing the reverse transcriptase and protease regions on the HIV-1 pol gene using the genotyping assays described above. A fundamental program of Kuwait's WHO AIDS collaboration centre is the national project on the surveillance of drug resistance in human deficiency virus in Kuwait, which illustrates how the centre and its activities in Kuwait can serve the EMRO region of WHO.

  18. Species adaptive strategies and leaf economic relationships across serpentine and non-serpentine habitats on Lesbos, eastern Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C Adamidis

    Full Text Available Shifts in species' traits across contrasting environments have the potential to influence ecosystem functioning. Plant communities on unusually harsh soils may have unique responses to environmental change, through the mediating role of functional plant traits. We conducted a field study comparing eight functional leaf traits of seventeen common species located on both serpentine and non-serpentine environments on Lesbos Island, in the eastern Mediterranean. We focused on species' adaptive strategies across the two contrasting environments and investigated the effect of trait variation on the robustness of core 'leaf economic' relationships across local environmental variability. Our results showed that the same species followed a conservative strategy on serpentine substrates and an exploitative strategy on non-serpentine ones, consistent with the leaf economic spectrum predictions. Although considerable species-specific trait variability emerged, the single-trait responses across contrasting environments were generally consistent. However, multivariate-trait responses were diverse. Finally, we found that the strength of relationships between core 'leaf economic' traits altered across local environmental variability. Our results highlight the divergent trait evolution on serpentine and non-serpentine communities and reinforce other findings presenting species-specific responses to environmental variation.

  19. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

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    Nacide Kizildag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the soils sampled from the Tarsus-Karabucak Forest of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Turkey. Method: Carbon mineralization of all samples was measured by the CO2 respiration method over 30 d at 28�C and constant moisture. Results: There were no significant differences in the carbon mineralization among the soils. The average fungi count in 1 g of air dried soils of E. camaldulensis, P. pinea, and P. maritima were found to be a 72000 colony forming unit (cfu/g, 25300 cfu/g, and 28500 cfu/g, respectively. The total bacterial counts were 4x103 cfu/g, 10x103 cfu/g, and 7x103 cfu/g and the counts of anaerobic bacteria were 17800 cfu/g, 42900 cfu/g, and 27300 cfu/g, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that salt, as an ecological factor, had no effect on microbial activity. This may be as a result of heavy rains which decreased the salt concentrations of the soil in the sampling region.

  20. Methanogenic diversity and activity in hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Parkes, R John; Cragg, Barry A; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-08-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. The Napoli mud volcano, situated in the brine-impacted Olimpi Area of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, emits mainly biogenic methane particularly at the centre of the mud volcano. Temperature gradients support the suggestion that Napoli is a cold mud volcano with moderate fluid flow rates. Biogeochemical and molecular genetic analyses were carried out to assess the methanogenic activity rates, pathways and diversity in the hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano. Methylotrophic methanogenesis was the only significant methanogenic pathway in the shallow sediments (0-40 cm) but was also measured throughout the sediment core, confirming that methylotrophic methanogens could be well adapted to hypersaline environments. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway below 50 cm; however, low rates of acetoclastic methanogenesis were also present, even in sediment layers with the highest salinity, showing that these methanogens can thrive in this extreme environment. PCR-DGGE and methyl coenzyme M reductase gene libraries detected sequences affiliated with anaerobic methanotrophs (mainly ANME-1) as well as Methanococcoides methanogens. Results show that the hypersaline conditions in the centre of the Napoli mud volcano influence active biogenic methane fluxes and methanogenic/methylotrophic diversity.

  1. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

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    Recep Gundogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land covertypes and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissionand Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor imagery has been widely used in classificationprocess of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessingsatellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellitesensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study,an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance(TOA, was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination ofINformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover nomenclature, for an arearepresenting the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions inKahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data ofASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of83.2% and 0.79, respectively and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory forCORINE Land Cover Project.

  2. Paleotsunami deposits along the coast of Egypt correlate with historical earthquake records of eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Asem; Meghraoui, Mustapha; El Gabry, Mohamed; Maouche, Said; Hussein, Hesham; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Tsunami deposits are investigated along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt in the framework of the EC-Funded ASTARTE project (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839) and the French-Egyptian IMHOTEP project. The study area located west of Alexandria is selected according to historical earthquakes and related inundation events as recorded in archives. Field investigations include: 1) Coastal geomorphology along estuaries, wedge-protected and dune-protected lagunas, and terrace-platforms as potential sites for paleotsunami and boulder records, and 2) Investigations of paleotsunamis deposits and their spatial distribution using trenching and coring. In addition of 10 trenches (1.5-m-depth) and 16 (1 to 2.5-m-depth) core descriptions with detailed logging and Xrays, data collection includes geochemical analysis, magnetic susceptibility and radiocarbon dating necessary for the identification of tsunamis records. In stratigraphic successions of low energy marine and alluvial deposits, mixed sand, gravel and broken shells are interpreted as catastrophic layers correlated with tsunami deposits. The two selected sites at Kefret Saber 32-km west of Marsa-Matruh city and 10 km northwest of El Alamein village are inner lagunas protected by 2 to 40-m-high dunes parallel to the shoreline. A total of 50 samples of organic deposits and charcoal fragments were collected from both sites, among which 20 samples have been dated. Dated charcoal in deposits above and below the catastrophic layers lead us to correlate them with the 24 June 1870 (Mw 7.5), 8 August 1303 (Mw 8) and 21 July 365 (Mw 8 - 8.5), major earthquakes that generated tsunamis with the inundation of Alexandria harbor. Major tsunamigenic seismic sources being along the Hellenic subduction zone and Cyprus arc, our study of paleotsunami deposits and their distribution along the Egyptian coast will help in a better constraint of the size and recurrence of tsunamis, and

  3. Lithospheric architecture of the Levant Basin (Eastern Mediterranean region): A 2D modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inati, Lama; Zeyen, Hermann; Nader, Fadi-Henri; Adelinet, Mathilde; Sursock, Alexandre; Rahhal, Muhsin Elie; Roure, Francois

    2016-04-01

    One of the major uncertainties regarding the Levant Basin, known to be the site of rifting in the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic, concerns its deep crustal configuration despite numerous old and recent geophysical studies in this region. The aim of this study is to deduce the deep structure of the lithosphere underlying the easternmost Mediterranean region, in particular the Levant Basin and its margins, where the nature of the crust, continental versus oceanic, remains debated and has major implications on understanding the regional tectonic and thermal evolution, and on constraining potential petroleum systems. The algorithm used is a trial and error method that delivers the crustal thickness and the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) as well as the crustal density distribution by integrating surface heat flow data, free-air gravity anomaly, Geoid and topography data. Moho depth and crustal thickness were locally constrained by refraction data where available. The models representing two EW sections show a progressively attenuated crystalline crust in an EW direction (35 to 8 km). The SN section represents a 12 km thick crust to the south, thins to 9-7 km towards the Lebanese coast and reaches 20 km in the north. The crystalline crust is best interpreted as a strongly thinned continental crust under the Levant Basin, represented by two distinct components, an upper and a lower crust. Nevertheless, the Herodotus Basin shows a thin crust, likely oceanic, with a thickness between 6 and 10 kms. West of the Eratosthenes Seamount, a local crustal anomaly is interpreted to be the result of an underlying continental crust with a thickness of 13 kms. The Moho under the Arabian plate is 35-40 km deep and becomes shallower towards the Mediterranean coast. Within the Levant Basin, the Moho appears to be situated between 20 and 23 km, reaching 26 km in the Herodotus Basin. While depth to LAB is around 110 km under the Arabian and the Eurasian plates, it

  4. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Eastern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Esperança; Vallès, Joan

    2012-06-14

    This paper represents the first large-scale ethnobotanical study in the island of Mallorca, and provides significant information on pharmaceutical plant uses, built up from interviews with native people from this touristic hotspot, demonstrating its ethnopharmacological importance. To collect, analyse and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge concerning medicinal plants in a north-eastern Mallorcan area (municipalities of Artà, Capdepera and Son Servera; 298 km2, 31,764 inhabitants). We performed semi-structured interviews with 42 informants (mean age 77; 40% women, 60% men), identified the plant taxa reported and analysed the results, comparing them with those found in the current Mallorcan ethnobotanical information and in other territories. The informants reported data on 121 human medicinal plants representing 64 botanical families. Around 45 medicinal uses reported, concerning 37 species, have not or have very rarely been cited as medicinal. An index of medicinal importance is proposed. All efforts addressed to compiling ethnobotanical information in industrialised or touristised areas such as Eastern Mallorca are still valuable. New possibilities can be explored to give practical value to Mallorcan ethnobotanical data in the frame of considering traditional plant knowledge as part of the islanders’ lifestyle and healthy habits.

  5. The Temporal Dynamics of Coastal Phytoplankton and Bacterioplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

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    Ofrat Raveh

    Full Text Available This study considers variability in phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial abundances and production rates, in one of the most oligotrophic marine regions in the world-the Levantine Basin. The temporal dynamics of these planktonic groups were studied in the coastal waters of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea approximately every two weeks for a total of two years. Heterotrophic bacteria were abundant mostly during late summer and midwinter, and were positively correlated with bacterial production and with N2 fixation. Based on size fractionating, picophytoplankton was abundant during the summer, whereas nano-microphytoplankton predominated during the winter and early spring, which were also evident in the size-fractionated primary production rates. Autotrophic abundance and production correlated negatively with temperature, but did not correlate with inorganic nutrients. Furthermore, a comparison of our results with results from the open Levantine Basin demonstrates that autotrophic and heterotrophic production, as well as N2 fixation rates, are considerably higher in the coastal habitat than in the open sea, while nutrient levels or cell abundance are not different. These findings have important ecological implications for food web dynamics and for biological carbon sequestration in this understudied region.

  6. Surface heat fluxes and ecosystem function in the Cretan Sea (eastern Mediterranean: a modelling study

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    J. R. Siddorn

    Full Text Available As a component of the Mediterranean Forecast System Pilot Project, a data buoy was deployed in the Cretan Sea. A 1-D ecosystem model of the site has been used to investigate the role of surface heat fluxes in determining modelled ecosystem behaviour. The method of calculation of these fluxes, the quality of the data used, and the temporal resolution of the data all had an impact upon the modelled ecosystem function. The effects of the changes in heat flux formulation were substantial, with both annually averaged properties of the system and the seasonal evolution of the biology being affected. It was also found that the ecosystem model was extremely sensitive to the accuracy of the meteorological forcing data used, with substantial changes in biology found when offsets in the forcing data were imposed. The frequency of forcing data was relatively unimportant in determining the biological function, although lower frequency forcing damped high frequency variability in the biology. During periods of mixing the biology showed an amplified response to changes in physical dynamics, but during periods of stratification the variations in the physics were found to be less important. Zooplankton showed more sensitivity to physical variability than either phytoplankton or bacteria. The consequences for ecosystem modelling are discussed.

    Key words. Oceanography: physical (air-sea interactions; turbulence, diffusion, and mixing processes – Oceanography: biological and chemical (plankton

  7. Four new alien species on the coasts of Greece (Eastern Mediterranean

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    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports four alien polychaete species new to the marine fauna of Greece. These species are -Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata (family Spionidae,Paraprionospio coora (family Spionidae, Marphysa disjuncta (family Eunicidae, and Chaetozone corona(family Cirratulidae. Another species of Chaetozone, though not an alien one, Chaetozone gibber is reported here from Greek waters. All of them have been currently reported from the coasts of Turkey (Aegean or Levantine Seas. Pseudopolydorapaucibranchiata and Marphysa disjuncta, probably introduced to the region through ballast waters, seem to have been well established in the Mediterranean Sea. Chaetozone corona and Paraprionospio coorawere considered to be cryptogenic. Pseudolydora paucibranchiata was found in great densities in a very disturbed site, confirming the opportunistic character of this species. Chaetozone corona and Chaetozonegibber showed a wider distribution pattern, though their abundance increased in disturbed sites.Marphysa disjuncta was found in disturbed as well as in undisturbed sites along the coasts of Greece.Paraprionospio coora shows a distribution pattern indicating an opportunistic character. These new findings increase the number of polychaete species from the Hellenic Seas to 777 species.

  8. Sea surface temperatures and environmental conditions during the ;warm Pliocene; interval ( 4.1-3.2 Ma) in the Eastern Mediterranean (Cyprus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, M.; Bouloubassi, I.; Gogou, A.; Klein, V.; Dimiza, M. D.; Parinos, C.; Skampa, E.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.

    2017-03-01

    Organic geochemical (alkenones) and micropaleontological (nannofossil) data from the Pissouri South section (PPS) in the island of Cyprus provided a detailed description of the paleoclimatic (sea surface temperature-SST) and paleoenvironmental conditions during the ;warm Pliocene; (c. 4.1-3.25 Ma) in the Eastern Mediterranean. We found that the suite of sapropel events recorded in the studied interval took place under conditions of increased SST, enhanced water column stratification and development of a productive deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), as witnessed by the dominance of Florisphaera profunda species. Such conditions are similar to those prevailing during Quaternary sapropel formation, triggered by freshwater discharges from the N. African margin due to insolation-driven intensification of the African monsoon. The absence of F. profunda in Pliocene sapropels from central Mediterranean records highlights the sensitive response of the eastern basin to freshwater perturbations. Comparisons between alkenone and calcareous nannofossil assemblage patterns infer Pseudoemiliania lacunosa as the main alkenone producer in sapropel layers; yet Reticulofenestra spp. contribution cannot be ruled out. The first Pliocene alkenone-SST record in the E. Mediterranean presented here documents the ;warm Pliocene; period ( 4.1-3.25 Ma) characterized by mean SST of c. 26 °C. Distinct SST minima at 3.9 Ma, 3.58 Ma and between 3.34 and 3.31 Ma, correspond to the MIS Gi16, MIS MG12 and MIS M2 global cooling episodes, before the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Our findings imply that the peak of the MIS M2 cooling in the Eastern Mediterranean may be up to 40 kyrs older than the age attributed before to benthic stable oxygen isotopes records of this event.

  9. Altitudinal variation and bio-climatic variables influencing the potential distribution of Culicoides orientalis Macfie, 1932, suspected vector of Bluetongue virus across the North Eastern Himalayan belt of Sikkim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Emon; Hazra, Surajit; Saha, Goutam Kumar; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2017-09-19

    Culicoides orientalis was first recorded from Sikkim, in the year 1963, but no evidence based disease outbreak were available. In the last 50 years, 260 Bluetongue disease outbreaks caused by Culicoides species have been evidenced from India. Moreover, in recent years with increase of average temperature worldwide and increase in longevity of arthropod vectors like Culicoides along with a geographical range shift to new suitable warmer regions has increased the potentiality of vector borne disease outbreak throughout the world. The Himalayan range of Sikkim in India is a biodiversity hotspot and is extremely sensitive to such global climate changes. An attempt has been made to evaluate the altitude, climate and environmental data on selected study sites of Sikkim for a period of two years (2014-2015) for discerning potential distribution of C.orientalis in this region. The altitude, temperature, precipitation and potential distribution range maps of C. orientalis showed the areas of highest species abundance within the altitudinal range of 550-1830m, with some species extending its range up to 3750m, with average precipitation of 2010-2590mm and mean temperature of 11-18°C. The Maximum Entropy Modelling (MaxEnt) and the Jackknife test of the MaxEnt model further revealed that the major contributing factors governing C. orientalis distribution are annual precipitation (78.8%), followed by precipitation of driest quarter (8.3%) and mean temperature of the warmest quarter (3.3%). Accuracy of the study was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC=0.860). The Biplot on F1-F2 axes (N=16, α=0.05) in the PCA showed the linear depiction of all the variables considered in our study, major contributors were annual precipitation, precipitation of driest quarter and mean temperature of warmest quarter being the primary factors governing species distribution, as analogous to results of the MaxEnt model. This study would help in developing strategies for monitoring and

  10. Preliminary results of modeling fluid flow in the Hellenic accretionary complex, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufner, S. K.; Huepers, A.; Kopf, A.; Wenzel, F.

    2011-12-01

    Being the fastest growing accretionary complex in the world, the Mediterranean Ridge provides an excellent possibility to study the linkage between tectonic activity and fluid transport processes at convergent plate margins. Abundant mud volcanism provides evidence for mass transfer from depth to the ocean floor. Seismic and bathymetric profiles indicate active deformation in the entire region. We combine seismic data, laboratory measurements of hydrological properties and finite element modeling to characterize fluid migration and fluid pressures in a 2D cross-section perpendicular to the Hellenic trench. The results might give constraints on mass fluxes and mechanics in the upper portion of the Hellenic subduction zone including the up-dip limit of the seismogenic zone. At the Hellenic subduction zone the African plate subducts obliquely toward the northeast beneath the Eurasian lithosphere. The current subduction rate is about 16mm/year. The plate convergence between Africa and Eurasia led to the accretion of a sedimentary prism since approx. 19Ma. The upper part of ocean sediments was scraped off and accreted to the overriding Eurasian plate whereas the lower part was underthrust. Nowadays, in the central part of the Mediterranean Ridge, the prism is pushed over its backstop, because of initiated continent-continent collision, whereas a thick sequence of oceanic sediments still enters the subducting system in the east near the Island of Crete. We used a numerical model of fluid flow to estimate fluid fluxes and fluid pressures in the shallow part of the Hellenic subduction zone. The modeled domain in the present study comprises the accreted sediment section and the underthrust sequence. The wedge geometry is obtained from seismic cross-sections and bathymetric maps. Input into the hydro-geological model include the compaction fluid source, the dehydration source and sediment permeability. The compaction source is obtained from porosity-depth relationships

  11. 9 CFR 113.303 - Bluetongue Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bluetongue Vaccine. 113.303 Section 113.303 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. Two-years of NO3 radical observations in the boundary layer over the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vrekoussis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study that investigates the seasonal variability of nitrate (NO3 radicals in the marine boundary layer over the East Mediterranean Sea. An extensive data set of NO3 radical observations on the north coast of Crete for more than two years (June 2001–September 2003 is presented here. NO3 radicals follow a distinct seasonal dependency with the highest seasonally average mixing ratios in summer (5.6±1.2 pptv and the lowest in winter (1.2±1.2 pptv. Episodes with high NO3 mixing ratios have been encountered mainly in polluted air masses originating from mainland Greece, Central and East Europe, and Turkey. Ancillary measurements of ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and meteorological parameters have been conducted and used to reveal possible relationship with the observed NO3 variability. The acquired NO2 nighttime observations provide the up-to-date most complete overview of NO2 temporal variability in the area. The data show correlations of the NO3 nighttime mixing ratios with temperature (positive, relative humidity (negative and to a lesser extend with O3 (positive. As inferred from these observations, on average the major sink of NO3 radicals in the area is the heterogeneous reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 on aqueous particles whereas the homogeneous gas phase reactions of NO3 are most important during spring and summer. These observations support a significant contribution of NO3 nighttime chemistry to the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere.

  13. Bathymetric zonation of modern shelf benthic foraminifera in the Levantine Basin, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnaim-Katav, Simona; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Milker, Yvonne; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    2015-05-01

    Siliciclastic carbonate-poor sediments are common in southern and central parts of the inner Israeli shelf, part of the Nile littoral cell and in deeper water along the entire coast, while carbonate rich sediments occur in northern Israel and in submerged rocky environments. The distribution of benthic foraminifera, common components of these environments, was studied in surface sediment samples in order to identify their bathymetric zonation using multivariate statistical analyses. The dead foraminiferal assemblages exhibit a clear bathymetric zonation directly related to substrate type. A distinct faunal change has been found at approximately 40 m water depth coinciding with the shift from the shallow-water sand belt, distributed parallel to the Israeli coast up to Haifa Bay, to a silty-clayey belt relatively rich with organic matter extending westward along the entire SE Mediterranean shelf. Ammonia parkinsoniana, Ammonia sp. 1, Buccella granulata, Nubeculina divaricata and Adelosina sp. 1 predominating the shallow-water depths are positively related to sand content and negatively related to water depth. Other species, such as Asterigerinata mamilla, Hanzawaia rhodiensis, Reussella spinulosa, Triloculina marioni and Valvulineria bradyana, occurring between 40 and 100 m, exhibit a positive relationship with total organic carbon content and water depth. Beyond the Nile littoral cell and partly in its distal part Amphistegina lessonii, Peneroplis pertusus, Pseudoschlumbergerina ovata, Pseudoschlumbergerina sp. 1 and Quinqueloculina ungeriana dominate the rocky and coarse sand substrate, exhibiting a more positive relationship with higher carbonate content values. The distinct bathymetric zonation established in this study may prove to be useful in fossil records for accurate paleo-bathymetry reconstruction of Quaternary records in this dynamic system prone to frequent sea level fluctuations.

  14. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, I; Kraja, B; Bregu, A; Duraj, V; Sadiku, E; Hyska, J; Burazeri, G

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the association of a Mediterranean diet and gastroesophageal reflux disease among adult men and women in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe with a predominantly Muslim population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, which included a population-based sample of 817 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana, the Albanian capital (333 men; overall mean age: 50.2 ± 18.7 years; overall response rate: 82%). Assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease was based on Montreal definition. Participants were interviewed about their dietary patterns, which in the analysis was dichotomized into: predominantly Mediterranean (frequent consumption of composite/traditional dishes, fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and fish) versus largely non-Mediterranean (frequent consumption of red meat, fried food, sweets, and junk/fast food). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with the dietary patterns. Irrespective of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors including eating habits (meal regularity, eating rate, and meal-to-sleep interval), employment of a non-Mediterranean diet was positively related to gastroesophageal reflux disease risk (fully adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.5). Our findings point to a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in transitional Albania. Findings from this study should be confirmed and expanded further in prospective studies in Albania and in other Mediterranean countries. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  15. On some rarely caught fish in the southeastern Aegean Sea (Greece, Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corsini-Foka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The marine region of the Dodecanese Islands (Greece is heavily affected by climate changes, intensification of anthropogenic interferences and biological invasions. Its ichthyofauna diversity is still poorly known, despite the development of marine research during the last decades, both in shallow and deep waters, and the increasing interest of fishermen to biodiversity knowledge and conservation. Regardless of its oligotrophic character, with only 1-3 % of the total Greek fishery production (ELSTAT, 2015, at least 60 % of the total fish species known in the Hellenic seas (510 has been recorded in the area (Papaconstantinou, 2014. Between 2009 and 2014, 14 uncommon species - Alopias superciliosus, Gymnura altavela, Aulopus filamentosus, Sudis hyalina, Gymnothorax unicolor, Ophisurus serpens, Nemichthys scolopaceus, Lophotus lacepede, Naucrates ductor, Alectis alexandrinus, Brama brama, Pomadasys incisus, Schedophilus ovalis and Mola mola - were captured. The first records of P. incisus and S. ovalis in the area significantly enlarge their known distribution in the Hellenic Aegean waters (Papaconstantinou, 2014. The capture of L. lacepede (approx. 140 cm total length in Patmos (2011 confirms the occurrence of this rare species in the Dodecanese, given that a juvenile is preserved at the Hydrobiological Station of Rhodes since the 1950s, and constitutes the third official record in the Aegean waters, after Gökova Bay and Chalkidiki findings (Bilecenoğlu et al., 2001; Minos et al., 2013. The captures of S. hyalina (2011 and N. scolopaceus (2014 confirm their occurrence some years after their first reports in the same area in 2004 and 2002 respectively (Corsini-Foka, 2009. The occurrence of A. superciliosus, a species infrequent in local fishery, is poorly documented in the Mediterranean and the species is considered scarce or rare in the basin (Madiraca and Davidov, 2015. The scattered records of the remaining above species contribute to monitor

  16. Observations of Sprites and Elves Associated With Winter Thunderstorms in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, M.; Yair, Y.; Price, C.; Ziv, B.; Sherez, Y.; Greenberg, E.; Devir, A.; Yaniv, R.; Bor, J.; Satori, G.

    2006-12-01

    The results of the 2005-6 winter sprite campaign in Israel are reported. We conducted optical ground-based observations aiming to detect transient luminous events (TLEs) above winter thunderstorms in Israel and in the area over the Mediterranean Sea between Israel, Cyprus and Lebanon. We alternated between two observation sites: the Tel-Aviv University campus in central Tel-Aviv (32.5N, 34.5E) and the Wise astronomical observatory in the Negev desert, near Mitzpe-Ramon (30N, 34.5E). We used 2 WATEC cameras, mounted on a pan-and- tilt unit with GPS time-base and event-detection software (UFO-Capture). The system was remote-controlled via the Internet and targets were chosen in real-time based on lightning locations derived from a BOLTEK lightning detection system stationed in Tel-Aviv. Detailed weather forecasts and careful analysis of lightning probability allowed us to choose between the two observation sites. The optical campaign was accompanied by ELF and VLF electromagnetic measurements from the existing TAU array in southern Israel. During five separate winter storms (December 2005 through March 2006) we detected 31 events: 27 sprites (4 halo sprites) and 4 elves. Detection ranges varied from 250 to 450km. Sprites were found to occur almost exclusively over the sea, in the height range 44-105km. Most sprites were columnar, and the number of elements varied from 1 to 9 with lengths varying from 10 to 48km. The average duration of sprites was ~43ms. All TLEs were accompanied by distinct positive ELF transients, which were clearly identified by our ELF station in Mizpe-Ramon and by the ELF station near Sopron, Hungary (range ~2500km). Calculated charge moment values were 800-1870 C·km, with some events exceeding 2500 C·km. We employed different lightning location systems (Israel Electrical Company LPATS and TOGA, ZEUS global networks) to determine the ground location of the parent lightning and succeeded in geo-locating 7 events. Based on weather radar and

  17. Extreme dust storm over the eastern Mediterranean in September 2015: satellite, lidar, and surface observations in the Cyprus region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Ansmann, Albert; Nisantzi, Argyro; Solomos, Stavros; Kallos, George; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-11-01

    A record-breaking dust storm originating from desert regions in northern Syria and Iraq occurred over the eastern Mediterranean in September 2015. In this contribution of a series of two articles (part 1, observations; part 2, atmospheric modeling), we provide a comprehensive overview of the aerosol conditions during this extreme dust outbreak in the Cyprus region. These observations are based on satellite observations (MODIS, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Ångström exponent, surface particle mass (PM10) concentrations measured at four sites in Cyprus, visibility observations at three airports in southern Cyprus and corresponding conversion products (particle extinction coefficient, dust mass concentrations), EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) lidar observations of dust vertical layering over Limassol, particle optical properties (backscatter, extinction, lidar ratio, linear depolarization ratio), and derived profiles of dust mass concentrations. Maximum 550 nm AOT exceeded values of 5.0, according to MODIS, and the mass loads were correspondingly > 10 g m-2 over Larnaca and Limassol during the passage of an extremely dense dust front on 8 September 2015. Hourly mean PM10 values were close to 8000 µg m-3 and the observed meteorological optical range (visibility) was reduced to 300-750 m at Larnaca and Limassol. The visibility observations suggest peak values of the near-surface total suspended particle (TSP) extinction coefficients of 6000 Mm-1 and thus TSP mass concentrations of 10 000 µg m-3. The Raman polarization lidar observations mainly indicated a double layer structure of the dust plumes (reaching to about 4 km height), pointing to at least two different dust source regions. Dust particle extinction coefficients (532 nm) already exceeded 1000 Mm-1 and the mass concentrations reached 2000 µg m-3 in the elevated dust layers on 7 September, more than 12 h before the peak dust front on

  18. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Methods Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers’ abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Conclusion Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of

  19. Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves from remote sensing datasets: direct comparison of weather radar and CMORPH over the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Efrat; Marra, Francesco; Peleg, Nadav; Mei, Yiwen; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall frequency analysis is used to quantify the probability of occurrence of extreme rainfall and is traditionally based on rain gauge records. The limited spatial coverage of rain gauges is insufficient to sample the spatiotemporal variability of extreme rainfall and to provide the areal information required by management and design applications. Conversely, remote sensing instruments, even if quantitative uncertain, offer coverage and spatiotemporal detail that allow overcoming these issues. In recent years, remote sensing datasets began to be used for frequency analyses, taking advantage of increased record lengths and quantitative adjustments of the data. However, the studies so far made use of concepts and techniques developed for rain gauge (i.e. point or multiple-point) data and have been validated by comparison with gauge-derived analyses. These procedures add further sources of uncertainty and prevent from isolating between data and methodological uncertainties and from fully exploiting the available information. In this study, we step out of the gauge-centered concept presenting a direct comparison between at-site Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves derived from different remote sensing datasets on corresponding spatial scales, temporal resolutions and records. We analyzed 16 years of homogeneously corrected and gauge-adjusted C-Band weather radar estimates, high-resolution CMORPH and gauge-adjusted high-resolution CMORPH over the Eastern Mediterranean. Results of this study include: (a) good spatial correlation between radar and satellite IDFs ( 0.7 for 2-5 years return period); (b) consistent correlation and dispersion in the raw and gauge adjusted CMORPH; (c) bias is almost uniform with return period for 12-24 h durations; (d) radar identifies thicker tail distributions than CMORPH and the tail of the distributions depends on the spatial and temporal scales. These results demonstrate the potential of remote sensing datasets for rainfall

  20. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2012-05-06

    Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers' abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of opportunity for moving towards more evidence informed policymaking.

  1. Burden of Diarrhea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990–2013: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Colombara, Danny V.; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Troeger, Christopher; Daoud, Farah; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Rao, Puja C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Charara, Raghid; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; El Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Akseer, Nadia; Alam, Khurshid; Alasfoor, Deena; Ali, Raghib; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad Salem; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Awasthi, Ashish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Butt, Zahid A.; Danawi, Hadi; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Faghmous, Imad D. A.; Farid, Talha; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson; Gibney, Katherine B.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Jahanmehr, Nader; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B.; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kissoon, Niranjan; Koyanagi, Ai; Lal, Aparna; Latif, Asma Abdul Abdul; Lunevicius, Raimundas; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mehari, Alem; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Misganaw, Awoke; Mohamed, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim; Nachega, Jean B.; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Platts-Mills, James A.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Ur Rahman, Sajjad; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rana, Saleem M.; Ranabhat, Chhabi L.; Rao, Sowmya R.; Refaat, Amany H.; Riddle, Mark; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Setegn, Tesfaye; Sliwa, Karen; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Westerman, Ronny; Wubshet, Mamo; Yenesew, Muluken A.; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0–1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245–763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520–989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540–65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden. PMID:27928080

  2. An eastern Mediterranean analogue for the Late Palaeozoic evolution of the Pangaean suture zone in SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan Murphy, J.; Braid, James A.; Quesada, Cecilio; Dahn, Dustin; Gladney, Evan; Dupuis, Nicolle

    2014-05-01

    It has long been recognized that the Late Paleozoic evolution of SW Iberia preserves a record of collision and suturing between Laurussia (South Portuguese Zone) and Gondwana (Ossa Morena Zone), which is one of the key events in the development of the Variscan orogen and the amalgamation of Pangea. The suture zone (Pulo do Lobo Zone) is classically considered to be an accretionary complex and is characterized by an assemblage of greenschist facies, polydeformed and imbricated meta-sedimentary rocks, mélanges, and mafic complexes. However recent work has shown some of the metasedimentary rocks and mélange were likely derived from neither the upper or lower plates. Mafic complexes in the mélange have NMORB compositions, highly depleted Sm-Nd isotopic signatures and geochronological data imply that their protoliths probably formed between ca. 350 and 340 Ma. Geochronological data also imply that components of the mafic mélange contain a paucity of ancient continental detritus. The Pulo do Lobo Zone was also intruded by ca. 360-310 Ma composite plutons and related dykes ranging from gabbro to granite in composition. The oldest phases of these intrusions are syn- to late-tectonic with respect to the deformation. Taken together these recent observations suggest that much of the tectonic evolution of the Pulo do Lobo suture zone post-dates the onset of collisional tectonics elsewhere in the Variscan orogen, and is broadly analogous to the complex Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean oceanic tracts relative to the ongoing collision between the African, Eurasian and Arabian plates.

  3. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics.

  4. A simple simulation approach to generate complex rainfall fields conditioned by elevation: example of the eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriani, Fabio; Ohana-Levi, Noa; Straubhaar, Julien; Renard, Philippe; Karnieli, Arnon; Mariethoz, Grégoire; Morin, Efrat; Marra, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Stochastically generating realistic rainfall fields is useful to study the uncertainty related to catchment recharge and its propagation to distributed hydrological models. To this end, it is critical to use weather radar images as training data, being the single most informative source for rainfall spatial heterogeneity. Generating realistic simulations is particularly important in regions like the eastern Mediterranean, where the synoptic conditions can lead to rainfall fields presenting various morphology, anisotropy and non-stationarity. The Direct Sampling (DS) technique [Mariethoz2010] is proposed here as a stochastic generator of spatial daily rainfall fields relying on the simulation of radar imagery. The technique is based on resampling of a training data set (in this case, a stack of radar images) and the generation of similar patterns to the ones found in the data. The strong point of DS, which makes it an attractive simulation approach for rainfall, is its capability to preserve the high-order statistical features present in the training image (e.g., rainfall cell shape, spatial non-stationarity) with minimal parameterization. Moreover, factors influencing rainfall, like elevation, can be used as conditioning variables, without the need of a complex statistical dependence model. A DS setup for radar image simulation is presented and tested for the simulation of daily rainfall fields using a 10-year radar-image record from the central region of Israel. Using a synoptic weather classification to train the model, the algorithm can generate realistic spatial fields for different rainfall types, preserving the variability and the covariance structure of the reference reasonably well. Moreover, the simulation is conditioned using the digital elevation model to preserve the complex relation between rainfall intensity and altitude that is characteristic for this region. [Mariethoz2010] G. Mariethoz, P. Renard, and J. Straubhaar. The direct sampling method to

  5. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Bustins, J. A.; Pla, E.; Nadal, M.; Herralde, F. de; Save, R.

    2014-06-01

    Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on eco physiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO) (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain). We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years), which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume) is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change. (Author)

  6. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Albert Lopez-Bustins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on ecophysiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain. We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years, which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change.

  7. Functional diversity patterns of abyssal nematodes in the Eastern Mediterranean: A comparison between cold seeps and typical deep sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulou, V.; Keklikoglou, K.; Lampadariou, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial patterns in deep sea nematode biological trait composition and functional diversity were investigated between chemosynthetic and typical deep sea ecosystems as well as between different microhabitats within the chemosynthetic ecosystems, in the Eastern Mediterranean. The chemosynthetic ecosystems chosen were two mud volcanoes, Napoli at 1950 m depth and Amsterdam at 2040 m depth which are cold seeps characterized by high chemosynthetic activity and spatial heterogeneity. Typical deep sea ecosystems consisted of fine-grained silt-clay sediments which were collected from three areas located in the south Ionian Sea at 2765 to 2840 m depth, the southern Cretan margin at 1089 to 1998 m depth and the Levantine Sea at 3055 to 3870 m depth. A range of biological traits (9 traits; 31 categories) related to buccal morphology, tail shape, body size, body shape, life history strategy, sediment position, cuticle morphology, amphid shape and presence of somatic setae were combined to identify patterns in the functional composition of nematode assemblages between the two habitats, the two mud volcanoes (macroscale) and between the microhabitats within the mud volcanoes (microscale). Data on trait correspondence was provided by biological information on species and genera. A total of 170 nematode species were allocated in 67 different trait combinations, i.e. functional groups, based on taxonomic, morphological and behavioral characteristics. The Biological Trait Analysis (BTA) revealed significant differences between the mud volcanoes and the typical deep sea sediments indicating the presence of different biological functions in ecologically very different environments. Moreover, chemosynthetic activity and habitat heterogeneity within mud volcanoes enhance the presence of different biological and ecological functions in nematode assemblages of different microhabitats. Functional diversity and species richness patterns varied significantly across the different

  8. Burden of Diarrhea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Colombara, Danny V; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Troeger, Christopher; Daoud, Farah; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Bcheraoui, Charbel El; Rao, Puja C; Afshin, Ashkan; Charara, Raghid; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd El; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Akseer, Nadia; Alam, Khurshid; Alasfoor, Deena; Ali, Raghib; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad Salem; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Altirkawi, Khalid A; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Awasthi, Ashish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bensenor, Isabela M; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abdulhak, Aref A Bin; Butt, Zahid A; Danawi, Hadi; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Faghmous, Imad D A; Farid, Talha; Farvid, Maryam S; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson; Gibney, Katherine B; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Hsairi, Mohamed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Jahanmehr, Nader; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kissoon, Niranjan; Koyanagi, Ai; Lal, Aparna; Latif, Asma Abdul Abdul; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd El; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mehari, Alem; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Misganaw, Awoke; Mohamed, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim; Nachega, Jean B; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Platts-Mills, James A; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rana, Saleem M; Ranabhat, Chhabi L; Rao, Sowmya R; Refaat, Amany H; Riddle, Mark; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Setegn, Tesfaye; Sliwa, Karen; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Sykes, Bryan L; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Uthman, Olalekan A; Westerman, Ronny; Wubshet, Mamo; Yenesew, Muluken A; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Rabeeah, Abdullah A Al; Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-12-07

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0-1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245-763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520-989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540-65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden.

  9. Effects of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea circulation on the thermohaline properties as recorded by fixed deep-ocean observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensi, Manuel; Velaoras, Dimitris; Meccia, Virna L.; Cardin, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    Temperature and salinity time-series from three fixed observatories in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMed) are investigated using multi-annual (2006-2014), high-frequency (up to 3 h sampling rate) data. Two observatories are deployed in the two dense water formation (DWF) areas of the EMed (Southern Adriatic Sea, E2-M3A; Cretan Sea, E1-M3A) and the third one (Southeast Ionian Sea, PYLOS) lays directly on the intermediate water masses pathway that connects the DWF sources. The long-term variations of the hydrological characteristics at the observatories reflect the oscillating large-scale circulation modes of the basin (i.e. BiOS-Bimodal Oscillating System and internal thermohaline pump theories). In particular, between 2006 and 2014 an anti-correlated behaviour of the intermediate layer (200-600 m) salinity between the Adriatic and Cretan Sea observatories is verified. This behaviour is directly linked to reversals of the North Ionian Gyre, which appeared cyclonic during 2006-2011 and turned anticyclonic after 2011. Statistical analysis suggests that the travel time of the intermediate salinity maximum signal between the Cretan and Adriatic Sea is roughly 1.5 years, in good agreement with the analysis of additionally presented ARGO data as well as previous literature references. We argue that the understanding of such oscillations provides important foresight on future DWF events, as increased salinity may act as a crucial preconditioning factor for DWF processes. Additionally, energy spectrum analysis of the time-series revealed interesting short-term variability connected to mesoscale activity at the observatories. Hence, the sustain of permanent observatories able to monitor oceanic parameters at high sampling rates may play a key role in understanding both climatic and oceanic processes and trends.

  10. Consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents: a multi-national comparison of eleven countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ani, M F; Al Subhi, L K; Bose, S

    2016-03-28

    Regional cross-country profile of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This study examines the prevalence and differences of consuming F&V ≥5 times/d among adolescents in eleven EMR countries, and also describes differences in the proportions of taking F&V ≥5 times/d by sex, age and BMI. The study included 26 328 school adolescents (13-15 years) with complete data on consumption of F&V, age, sex, weight and height taken from the Global School-based Student Health Survey conducted in the EMR between 2005 and 2009. Overall, only 19·4 % of adolescents reported consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. The highest prevalence was reported in Djibouti (40·4 %) and the lowest was reported in Pakistan (10·0 %). Statistically significant differences in prevalence were observed across countries (P<0·05). With the exception of Oman, Libya and Djibouti, significantly more males than females ate F&V ≥5 times/d. Proportion of students consuming F&V ≥5 times/d also varied significantly in all counties based on BMI (P<0·0001), with students within normal BMI having the highest frequency. A negative trend was observed between age and the prevalence of taking F&V ≥5 times/d in most of the eleven EMR countries but Jordan, Djibouti and Morocco. The prevalence of adequate intake of F&V was low in the eleven EMR countries. There is a need for interventions to increase the prevalence of adolescents consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. Interventions should take into consideration psychosocial, environmental and socio-environmental factors influencing F&V intake within countries.

  11. What are the most fire-dangerous atmospheric circulations in the Eastern-Mediterranean? Analysis of the synoptic wildfire climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire management is closely linked to robust forecasts of changes in wildfire risk related to meteorological conditions. This link can be bridged either through fire weather indices or through statistical techniques that directly relate atmospheric patterns to wildfire activity. In the present work the COST-733 classification schemes are applied in order to link wildfires in Greece with synoptic circulation patterns. The analysis reveals that the majority of wildfire events can be explained by a small number of specific synoptic circulations, hence reflecting the synoptic climatology of wildfires. All 8 classification schemes used, prove that the most fire-dangerous conditions in Greece are characterized by a combination of high atmospheric pressure systems located N to NW of Greece, coupled with lower pressures located over the very Eastern part of the Mediterranean, an atmospheric pressure pattern closely linked to the local Etesian winds over the Aegean Sea. During these events, the atmospheric pressure has been reported to be anomalously high, while anomalously low 500hPa geopotential heights and negative total water column anomalies were also observed. Among the various classification schemes used, the 2 Principal Component Analysis-based classifications, namely the PCT and the PXE, as well as the Leader Algorithm classification LND proved to be the best options, in terms of being capable to isolate the vast amount of fire events in a small number of classes with increased frequency of occurrence. It is estimated that these 3 schemes, in combination with medium-range to seasonal climate forecasts, could be used by wildfire risk managers to provide increased wildfire prediction accuracy.

  12. Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi El-Jardali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Systems Thinking (ST has recently been promoted as an important approach to health systems strengthening. However, ST is not common practice, particularly in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs. This paper seeks to explore the barriers that may hinder its application in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR and possible strategies to mitigate them. Methods A survey consisting of open-ended questions was conducted with a purposive sample of health policymakers such as senior officials from the Ministry of Health (MoH, researchers, and other stakeholders such as civil society groups and professional associations from ten countries in the region. A total of 62 respondents participated in the study. Thematic analysis was conducted. Results There was strong recognition of the relevance and usefulness of ST to health systems policy-making and research, although misconceptions about what ST means were also identified. Experience with applying ST was very limited. Approaches to designing health policies in the EMR were perceived as reactive and fragmented (66%. Commonly perceived constraints to application of ST were: a perceived notion of its costliness combined with lack of the necessary funding to operationalize it (53%, competing political interests and lack of government accountability (50%, lack of awareness about relevance and value (47%, limited capacity to apply it (45%, and difficulty in coordinating and managing stakeholders (39%. Conclusion While several strategies have been proposed to mitigate most of these constraints, they emphasized the importance of political endorsement and adoption of ST at the leadership level, together with building the necessary capacity to apply it and apply the learning in research and practice.

  13. Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Adam, Taghreed; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2014-12-01

    Systems Thinking (ST) has recently been promoted as an important approach to health systems strengthening. However, ST is not common practice, particularly in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). This paper seeks to explore the barriers that may hinder its application in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and possible strategies to mitigate them. A survey consisting of open-ended questions was conducted with a purposive sample of health policy-makers such as senior officials from the Ministry of Health (MoH), researchers, and other stakeholders such as civil society groups and professional associations from ten countries in the region. A total of 62 respondents participated in the study. Thematic analysis was conducted. There was strong recognition of the relevance and usefulness of ST to health systems policy-making and research, although misconceptions about what ST means were also identified. Experience with applying ST was very limited. Approaches to designing health policies in the EMR were perceived as reactive and fragmented (66%). Commonly perceived constraints to application of ST were: a perceived notion of its costliness combined with lack of the necessary funding to operationalize it (53%), competing political interests and lack of government accountability (50%), lack of awareness about relevance and value (47%), limited capacity to apply it (45%), and difficulty in coordinating and managing stakeholders (39%). While several strategies have been proposed to mitigate most of these constraints, they emphasized the importance of political endorsement and adoption of ST at the leadership level, together with building the necessary capacity to apply it and apply the learning in research and practice.

  14. Bioaerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: abundance, speciation, seasonality, impact on nutrient cycles and role of airmass and meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almpani, Chara; Negron, Arnaldo; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios

    2017-04-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) are a ubiquitous component of the atmosphere. They are studied in part to understand their unique role in cloud formation by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) [1, 2], impacts on health and their role as nutrient supply for ocean ecosystems [3]. Little is known about the seasonal variability, lifecycle and survival mechanism in the atmosphere of PBAPs, in part due to challenges in available techniques for their detection. Our study aims to quantify the concentration of supermicron PBAPs at a remote marine ground site in the Eastern Mediterranean to help understand their potential impacts on cloud formation, and contribution to nutrient deposition to the surface ocean. Sampling took place in the Finokalia Station and in the city of Heraklion. Eight hour samples were collected using a Spincon II wet-walled cyclone sampler every two days over a 9-month period (May, 2016 - January 2017) and were subsequently analyzed using flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy protocols developed by Negron et al., 2017 [4]. Preliminary results show low biomass samples over Finokalia site and concentrations around 103 - 105 m-3, depending on the origin of the airmass. Further analysis of the samples focus on the influence of meteorological conditions on the relative abundance of bacteria, fungi, pollen, associated virues and biological debris. Estimates of the nutrient fluxes and the seasonality thereof are also provided, and compared against existing modeling estimates [3]. References: [1] Jaenicke, R. Science 308, 73. [2] Morris, C. E. et al., Glob Chang Biol 20(2): 341-351. [3] Myriokefalitakis et al., Biogeosciences, 13, 6519-6543 [4] Negron, A., et al., in preparation.

  15. Benthic community indicators over a long period of monitoring (2000-2012) of the Saronikos Gulf, Greece, Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simboura, N; Zenetos, A; Pancucci-Papadopoulou, M A

    2014-06-01

    An analysis of the results of the 12-year regular monitoring (2000-2012) of benthic communities in Saronikos Gulf and Elefsis Bay (Eastern Mediterranean, Greece) in relation to the functioning of the Psittalia Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and advances in treatment is presented. Benthic community indicators applied include the Bentix index adopted for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD); the diversity and species richness proposed in combination with the Bentix index for the evaluation of certain attributes of the Sea-floor Integrity descriptor for the marine waters of Greece, under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and the evenness index. The benthic and environmental data were treated according to the distance from the outfall, largely accounting for the variance of the indicators, to investigate trends along the monitoring. Results showed an upgrade of the condition of the benthic communities of Saronikos Gulf throughout the monitoring period mostly demonstrated by the Bentix and diversity indices. A change in the trends of most indices was especially evident after 2004, especially in the areas more adjacent to the outfall zones, when the advanced secondary biological treatment plant was completed and commissioned. Sediment parameters' trend patterns indicate a delayed reaction to recovery processes in relation to benthic indices. An evaluation of the current status of the benthic communities based on the indices applied showed a gradient from a moderate ecological status at stations up to a distance of 8,000 m from the outfalls to good environmental and ecological status at more remote stations. At shallower stations located at a distance of more than 4,000 m from the outfall, benthic communities also present good environmental status. In Elefsis Bay, the enclosed physiography, shallower depth and local pressures result in more adverse environmental conditions for benthic communities and a more complex influence from WWTP

  16. Origin and variability of volatile organic compounds observed at an eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec, Cécile; Sauvage, Stéphane; Gros, Valérie; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Leonardis, Thierry; Gaudion, Vincent; Depelchin, Laurence; Fronval, Isabelle; Pillet, Laetitia; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Baisnée, Dominique; Bonsang, Bernard; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) include a large number of species from various anthropic and natural sources. Their interest is linked to their toxicity and they are key players in photochemical processes leading to secondary pollutant formation such as ozone, oxygenated species and secondary organic aerosols. More than 7,000 atmospheric measurements of over eighty C2-C16 VOCs, including a wide range of tracers of different specific sources, have been conducted at a background site in Cyprus during a 29-day intensive field campaign held in March 2015 within the framework of ChArMEx and ENVI-Med "CyAr" programs. Primary anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), including a number of secondary oxidation products, were measured on-line thanks to flame ionization detection/gas chromatography and proton transfer mass spectrometry (2 GC-FID, time resolution 30 min, 1 PTR-QMS, time resolution 5 min). Additionally, more than 400 off-line 3h-integrated air samples were collected on cartridge and analyzed by GC-FID. Recovery of the different techniques, regular quality checks and uncertainty determination approach allow insuring a good robustness of the dataset. In order to study the variability and the origin of these VOCs, their time series were first analyzed here on the basis of meteorological data and clustering of air mass trajectories. Biogenic compounds appear mainly of local origin and present specific diurnal cycles such as daily maximum for isoprene and a nighttime maximum for monoterpenes. Long-lived anthropogenic compounds as well as OVOCs display higher mixing ratios under the influence of eastern and northern sectors (i.e. Middle East and Turkey) indicating that long-range transport significantly contributes to the VOCs levels in the area. A first factor analysis performed in order to examine different species co-variations allows discerning different source types (primary/secondary, anthropogenic/biogenic, local/regional).

  17. High oxygen consumption rates in the deep layers of the North Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SOUVERMEZOGLOU

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe winter meteorological conditions promote dense water formation over the shelves of the North Aegean Sea. The newly formed dense water fills the deep basins of the North Aegean Sea, contributing to their ventilation and the downward transport of organic and inorganic material. The great bathymetric variability imposes limitations on the deep circulation and the communication between the various basins and makes the North Aegean Sea an appropriate area for the monitoring of oxygen consumption in the deep layers. Historical hydrographic data suggest that there was extensive production of dense water in the North Aegean Sea on two occasions during the last decade, the winters of 1987 and 1992-1993. Our data series from August 1986 to September 1989 and from March 1997 to February 1999, permitted us to follow, step by step, the oxygen consumption and the nutrient regeneration in the deep basins of the northern Aegean Sea during these periods of isolation. The organic matter reaching the bottom layer just after the deep water formation event is rich in labile and easily oxidizable material and its decomposition leads to a significant oxygen uptake during the first year of stagnation. The further decomposition of the remaining semi-labile and refractory material turns over on greater time scales, by consuming lesser amounts of oxygen. A more significant oxygen decrease is recorded in the eastern basin (Lemnos Basin of the North Aegean Trough, than in the central (Athos Basin and the western (North Sporades Basin ones and is attributed to the irregular contribution of the Black Sea Water (BSW to the water masses formed on the different shelves of the North Aegean Sea. Our results and the existing data on the Turkish straits showed that dissolved organic matter is the major constituent responsible for this high oxygen consumption. The slightly different particulate organic carbon fluxes to these depressions play a secondary role.

  18. High oxygen consumption rates in the deep layers of the North Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SOUVERMEZOGLOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe winter meteorological conditions promote dense water formation over the shelves of the North Aegean Sea. The newly formed dense water fills the deep basins of the North Aegean Sea, contributing to their ventilation and the downward transport of organic and inorganic material. The great bathymetric variability imposes limitations on the deep circulation and the communication between the various basins and makes the North Aegean Sea an appropriate area for the monitoring of oxygen consumption in the deep layers. Historical hydrographic data suggest that there was extensive production of dense water in the North Aegean Sea on two occasions during the last decade, the winters of 1987 and 1992-1993. Our data series from August 1986 to September 1989 and from March 1997 to February 1999, permitted us to follow, step by step, the oxygen consumption and the nutrient regeneration in the deep basins of the northern Aegean Sea during these periods of isolation. The organic matter reaching the bottom layer just after the deep water formation event is rich in labile and easily oxidizable material and its decomposition leads to a significant oxygen uptake during the first year of stagnation. The further decomposition of the remaining semi-labile and refractory material turns over on greater time scales, by consuming lesser amounts of oxygen. A more significant oxygen decrease is recorded in the eastern basin (Lemnos Basin of the North Aegean Trough, than in the central (Athos Basin and the western (North Sporades Basin ones and is attributed to the irregular contribution of the Black Sea Water (BSW to the water masses formed on the different shelves of the North Aegean Sea. Our results and the existing data on the Turkish straits showed that dissolved organic matter is the major constituent responsible for this high oxygen consumption. The slightly different particulate organic carbon fluxes to these depressions play a secondary role.

  19. Early Islamic inter-settlement agroecosystems in coastal sand, Yavneh dunefield, eastern Mediterranean coast, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Taxel, Itamar

    2017-04-01

    assortment of Early Islamic artifacts but the relatively younger OSL ages of the underlying grey sand and absence of older Byzantine pottery suggests that the artifacts were rapidly dispersed upon the surface, probably from an abandoned and possibly partly pedogenized town dump dating to the 8th-10th century. The sites are interpreted to be part of an extensive agroecosystem comprised of berm-bordered agricultural plots in lows that allowed easy manual or root access to the high water table. The sites' character and ages closely resembles the well-preserved crisscross berms and inter-berm depressions south of ancient Caesarea that date to 0.86 ka (Roskin et al., 2015). The agricultural activity probably lasted no more than several decades to one century but its utility remains a question. The study documents a challenging attempt to utilize uncultivated sand sheets in a Mediterranean environment for agroecosystem expansion, income, control and "greening" of the terrain. This effort partly reminisces other Early Islamic agricultural water systems (e.g. qanats) in arid regions. It demonstrates that spatial agroecosystems can be developed in times that are not necessarily characterized by socio-political stability.

  20. Calculating the water and heat balances of the Eastern Mediterranean basin using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological, and ocean data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shaltout

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the Eastern Mediterranean water and heat balances over a 52-yr period. The modelling uses a process-oriented approach resolving the one-dimensional equations of momentum, heat, and salt conservation, with turbulence modelled using a two-equation model. The exchange through the Sicily Channel connecting the Eastern and Western basins is calculated from satellite altimeter data. The results illustrates that calculated surface temperature and salinity follow the reanalysed data well and with biases of −0.4 °C and −0.004, respectively. Monthly and yearly temperature and salinity cycles are also satisfactory simulated. Reanalysed data and calculated water mass structure and heat balance components are in good agreement, indicating that the air-sea interaction and the turbulent mixing are realistically simulated. The study illustrates that the water balance in the Eastern Mediterranean basin is controlled by the difference between inflows/outflows through the Sicily Channel and by the net precipitation rates. The heat balance is controlled by the heat loss from the water surface, sun radiation into the sea, and heat flow through the Sicily Channel, the first two displaying both climate trends. An annual net heat loss of approximately 9 W m−2 was balanced by net heat in flow through the Sicily Channel.

  1. Calculating the water and heat balances of the Eastern Mediterranean basin using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological, and ocean data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M.; Omstedt, A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper analyses the Eastern Mediterranean water and heat balances over a 52-yr period. The modelling uses a process-oriented approach resolving the one-dimensional equations of momentum, heat, and salt conservation, with turbulence modelled using a two-equation model. The exchange through the Sicily Channel connecting the Eastern and Western basins is calculated from satellite altimeter data. The results illustrates that calculated surface temperature and salinity follow the reanalysed data well and with biases of -0.4 °C and -0.004, respectively. Monthly and yearly temperature and salinity cycles are also satisfactory simulated. Reanalysed data and calculated water mass structure and heat balance components are in good agreement, indicating that the air-sea interaction and the turbulent mixing are realistically simulated. The study illustrates that the water balance in the Eastern Mediterranean basin is controlled by the difference between inflows/outflows through the Sicily Channel and by the net precipitation rates. The heat balance is controlled by the heat loss from the water surface, sun radiation into the sea, and heat flow through the Sicily Channel, the first two displaying both climate trends. An annual net heat loss of approximately 9 W m-2 was balanced by net heat in flow through the Sicily Channel.

  2. Examination of the atmospheric conditions associated with high and low summer ozone levels in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the observed high rural ozone levels in the Eastern Mediterranean area during summertime, vertical profiles of ozone measured in the period 1994–2008 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft over the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Cairo, Tel-Aviv, Heraklion, Rhodes, Antalya were analysed, focusing in the lower troposphere (1.5–5 km. At first, vertical profiles collected during extreme days with very high or very low tropospheric ozone mixing ratios have been examined together with the corresponding back-trajectories. Also, the average profiles of ozone, relative humidity, carbon monoxide, temperature gradient and wind speed corresponding to the 7% highest and the 7% lowest ozone mixing ratios for the 1500–5000 m height layer for Cairo and Tel-Aviv have been examined and the corresponding composite maps of geopotential heights at 850 hPa have been plotted. Based on the above analysis, it turns out that the lower-tropospheric ozone variability over the Eastern Mediterranean area is controlled mainly by the synoptic meteorological conditions, combined with local topographical and meteorological features. In particular, the highest ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere and subsequently in the boundary layer are associated with large scale subsidence of ozone rich air masses from the upper troposphere under anticyclonic conditions while the lowest ozone concentrations are associated with low pressure conditions inducing uplifting of boundary layer air, poor in ozone and rich in relative humidity, to the lower troposphere.

  3. A time series study on the effects of heat on mortality and evaluation of heterogeneity into European and Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities: results of EU CIRCE project

    OpenAIRE

    Dörbudak, Zeynep; Leone, Michela; D'Ippoliti, Daniela; De Sario, Manuela; Analitis, Antonis; Menne, Bettina; Katsouyanni, Klea; de'Donato, Francesca K.; Basagana, Xavier; Ben Salah, Afif; Casimiro, Elsa; Iniguez, Carmen; Peretz, Chava; Wolf, Tanja; Michelozzi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    RESEARCH Open Access A time series study on the effects of heat on mortality and evaluation of heterogeneity into European and Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities: results of EU CIRCE project Michela Leone1*, Daniela D’Ippoliti1, Manuela De Sario1, Antonis Analitis2, Bettina Menne3, Klea Katsouyanni2, Francesca K de’ Donato1, Xavier Basagana4,5,6, Afif Ben Salah7, Elsa Casimiro8, Zeynep Dörtbudak9, Carmen Iñiguez4,10,11, Chava Peretz12, Tanja Wolf3 and Paola Michelozzi1...

  4. The POSEIDON multi-platform observatory of the Eastern Mediterranean: from regional to global long-term sustained ocean observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, C.; Nittis, K.; Perivoliotis, L.; Ballas, D.; Kassis, D.; Petihakis, G.; Lykousis, V.; Chronis, G.; Papathanassiou, V.; Georgopoulos, D.; Pagonis, P.

    2011-12-01

    The POSEIDON integrated ocean monitoring and forecasting system for the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (www.poseidon.hcmr.gr) operates since 2000 and delivers information products and services for a variety of users and applications, ranging from maritime safety to marine environmental assessment. Originally designed for upper-layer metocean observations, the backbone of the system is the network of oceanographic buoys that deliver NRT data every 3 hours; a set of meteo-waves-hydrodynamics models produces 5 days forecasts on a daily basis. Through a series of RTD projects the system has been gradually upgraded with new monitoring (coastal radar, complex moorings, seabed platforms, profiling floats) and modeling components (ecosystem models, oil-spill and object drifts) representing today a major research infrastructure that offers observation and simulation capabilities for a variety of oceanic processes from the air-sea interface to the deep seabed. The system operates two multisensory deep sea observatories: the Poseidon-E1M3A station of the south Aegean Sea (1400m) and the Poseidon-PYLOS station of the south-east Ionian (1700m). E1M3A is designed for the delivery of physical data (T, S, currents) in the upper 1000m of the ocean, bio-optical data (chl-a, D.O., light attenuation, PAR, nutrients) in the euphotic zone (0-100m) as well as air-sea interaction parameters (T, P, wind, RH, precipitation, radiation). It also includes a pCO2 system that is currently under pre-operational testing and is expected to deliver soon the first routine measurements of CO2 in this area. The Poseidon-PYLOS observatory puts emphasis on deep water column physical parameters and near seabed multiparametric measurements. The mooring line hosts 9 CTDs in the upper 1000m as well as a Passive Aquatic Listener (PAL) at 500m depth. The later is used for the first time in the Mediterranean sea for rainfall and wind estimates as well as for marine mammal detection. A standalone seabed platform is

  5. The first bluetongue virus isolation in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuricić, B; Jermolenko, G; Milosević, B; Radojicić, S; Debeljak, Z; Tomić, A

    2004-01-01

    Catarrhal fever in sheep or bluetongue (BT) has not been recorded in Yugoslavia until recently. During the first incidence of BT disease in Serbia and Montenegro in 2001, the authors conducted field studies on suspected cases of the disease and collected samples for laboratory diagnosis. BT virus (BTV) was isolated and identified as serotype 9 by the Institute for Animal Health in Pirbright, United Kingdom (the Office International des Epizooties BT reference laboratory).

  6. First outbreak of bluetongue in goats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercksen, D.; Groot Nibbelink, N.; Paauwe, R.; Backx, A.; Rijn, van P.A.; Vellema, P.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time, bluetongue has been diagnosed in goats in the Netherlands and in Northwest-Europe. On the 17th of August 2006, bluetongue was for the first time diagnosed in sheep and a little later in cattle in The Netherlands. The clinical symptoms, diagnostics and differential diagnosis of

  7. Serological and molecular evidence of bluetongue in sheep and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Molalegne Bitew

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... on the basis of antibodies to VP7 protein of bluetongue virus by ... presence of BTV dsRNA and to isolate and characterize bluetongue virus ... of the monoclonal anti-VP7, which is the protein that distinguishes the BT serogroup from other Orbivirus serogroups, representing the preferred method to deter-.

  8. Eastern Mediterranean sea levels through the last interglacial from a coastal-marine sequence in northern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, D.; Sisma-Ventura, G.; Greenbaum, N.; Bialik, O. M.; Williams, F. H.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Rohling, E. J.; Frumkin, A.; Avnaim-Katav, S.; Shtienberg, G.; Stein, M.

    2016-08-01

    A last interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage, MIS5e) marine-coastal sequence has been identified along the Galilee coast of Israel, with the type section located at Rosh Hanikra (RH). The microtidal regime and tectonic stability, along with the detailed stratigraphy of the RH shore, make the study region ideally suited for determining relative sea level (RSL) through the MIS5e interval in the eastern Mediterranean. The sequence contains fossilized microtidal subunits at a few meters above the current sea level. Unfortunately, all fossils were found to be altered, so that U-Th datings cannot be considered to represent initial deposition. We contend that U-Th dating of Strombus bubonius shells (recrystallized to calcite) suffices to indicate a lower limit of ∼110 ± 8 ka for the time sea level dropped below the RH sedimentary sequence. The RH-section comprises three main subunits of a previously determined member (the Yasaf Member): (a) a gravelly unit containing the diagnostic gastropod Strombus bubonius Lamarck (Persististrombus latus), which was deposited in the intertidal to super-tidal stormy zone; (b) Vermetidae reef domes indicating a shallow-water depositional environment; and (c) coarse to medium-sized, bioclastic sandstone, probably deposited in the shallow sub-tidal zone. The sequence overlies three abrasion platforms that are cut by tidal channels at elevations of +0.8 m, +2.6 m and +3.4 m, and which are filled with MIS5e sediments. We present a detailed study of the sequence, with emphasis on stratigraphic, sedimentological, and palaeontological characteristics that indicate sea-level changes. Although without precise absolute dating, the stratigraphic sequence of RH through MIS5e allows us to identify a time-series of RSL positions, using the elevations of three stratigraphic subunits. Reconstructed RSL values range from +1.0 m to +7 m (with uncertainly GIA) modelling using multiple ice histories suggests that GIA corrections range between about -1.8 m

  9. Harnessing genomics to improve health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region – an executive course in genomics policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While innovations in medicine, science and technology have resulted in improved health and quality of life for many people, the benefits of modern medicine continue to elude millions of people in many parts of the world. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in EMR, the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics jointly organized a Genomics and Public Health Policy Executive Course, held September 20th–23rd, 2003, in Muscat, Oman. The 4-day course was sponsored by WHO-EMRO with additional support from the Canadian Program in Genomics and Global Health. The overall objective of the course was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in the region. This article presents the course findings and recommendations for genomics policy in EMR. Methods The course brought together senior representatives from academia, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics covered included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. Results A set of recommendations, summarized below, was formulated for the Regional Office, the Member States and for individuals. • Advocacy for genomics and biotechnology for political leadership; • Networking between member states to share information, expertise, training, and regional cooperation in biotechnology; coordination of national surveys for assessment of health biotechnology innovation systems, science capacity, government policies, legislation and regulations, intellectual property policies, private sector activity; • Creation in each member country of an effective National Body on genomics, biotechnology and health to: - formulate national biotechnology strategies - raise

  10. Sub-seasonally resolved coral records of northern Red Sea - eastern Mediterranean climate during the Holocene and the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, T.; Rimbu, N.; Al-Rousan, S.; Kuhnert, H.; Lohmann, G.; Kölling, M.; Pätzold, J.

    2012-04-01

    The northern Red Sea represents a unique location where ocean currents transport warm tropical waters northward, enabling coral reef growth at unusually high latitudes of up to 29 °N. Moreover, one of the world's northernmost complexes of uplifted Pleistocene reef terraces can be found here at Aqaba (Jordan). We present sub-seasonally resolved reconstructions of surface ocean conditions in the northern Red Sea derived from annually banded Porites corals. The Sr/Ca and δ18O variations in the aragonitic skeletons of our modern and fossil coral colonies provide proxy records of temperature, salinity and hydrologic balance at the sea surface during the last centuries and during time windows (40 to 100 years length) of the Holocene and the last interglacial period. Previous work has shown that seasonality and interannual to decadal climate variability in the northern Red Sea as documented in our coral records is strongly coupled to climate variations in the eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and Europe, reflecting the prominent role of atmospheric teleconnections of the Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in controlling regional climate on these timescales. New coral Sr/Ca data, in combination with δ18O, reveal an abrupt regime shift toward fresher surface ocean conditions in northern Red Sea surface waters at the end of the Little Ice Age. Possible mechanisms include a re-organization of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation. Sr/Ca records from a large number of fossil corals indicate a trend of decreasing temperature seasonality over the last 6000 years toward present-day. Such a trend is expected in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere from insolation changes on orbital timescales. Coral δ18O and Sr/Ca records suggest an increased seasonality in the hydrologic balance during time intervals around 4400, 4600 and 6000 years ago, which could result from both enhanced winter evaporation or increased summer precipitation

  11. Aerosol shortwave daily radiative effect and forcing based on MODIS Level 2 data in the Eastern Mediterranean (Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mean daily shortwave (SW radiation budget was computed on a 10 km × 10 km resolution above FORTH-CRETE AERONET station in Crete, Greece, for the 9-yr period from 2000 to 2008. The area is representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region, where air pollution and diminishing water resources are exacerbated by high aerosol loads and climate change. The present study aims to quantify the aerosol direct effect and forcing on the local energy budget. A radiative transfer model was used, with daily climatological data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. The radiative fluxes were computed at the surface, within the atmosphere and at the top of atmosphere (TOA. Downward surface fluxes and aerosol optical thickness (AOT were validated against ground measurements. Daily fluxes reveal the direct radiative effects of dust events, with mean daily values reaching up to −100, 55 and −30 W m−2 at the surface (cooling, within the atmosphere (warming and at TOA (cooling, respectively. Mean monthly values show a decreasing trend of the aerosol direct radiative effect, in agreement with a similar trend in AOT. The analysis of the contribution of anthropogenic and natural aerosol show major peaks of natural aerosol direct effect occurring mainly in spring, while a summer maximum is attributed to anthropogenic aerosol. During their peaks, anthropogenic aerosol forcing can reach values of −15 W m−2 at the surface, 8 W m−2 in the atmosphere and over −4 W m−2 at TOA (monthly mean values. The corresponding daily peak values for natural aerosol are over −10 W m−2, 6 W m−2 and −3 W m−2. Annual mean values and standard deviations (interannual variability of anthropogenic aerosol forcing are −10 ± 3 W m−2 at the surface, 5 ± 1 W m−2 in the atmosphere and −3 ± 1 W m

  12. Response of the Eastern Mediterranean microbial ecosystem to dust and dust affected by acid processing in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael David Krom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acid processes in the atmosphere, particularly those caused by anthropogenic acid gases, increase the amount of bioavailable P in dust and hence are predicted to increase microbial biomass and primary productivity when supplied to oceanic surface waters. This is likely to be particularly important in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS, which is P limited during the winter bloom and N&P co-limited for phytoplankton in summer. However, it is not clear how the acid processes acting on Saharan dust will affect the microbial biomass and primary productivity in the EMS. Here, we carried out bioassay manipulations on EMS surface water on which Saharan dust was added as dust (Z, acid treated dust (ZA, dust plus excess N (ZN and acid treated dust with excess N (ZNA during springtime (May 2012 and measured bacterioplankton biomass, metabolic and other relevant chemical and biological parameters. We show that acid treatment of Saharan dust increased the amount of bioavailable P supplied by a factor of ~40 compared to non-acidified dust (18.4 nmoles P mg-1 dust vs. 0.45 nmoles P mg-1 dust, respectively. The increase in chlorophyll, primary and bacterial productivity for treatments Z and ZA were controlled by the amount of N added with the dust while those for treatments ZN and ZNA (in which excessive N was added were controlled by the amount of P added. These results confirm that the surface waters were N&P co-limited for phytoplankton during springtime. However, total chlorophyll and primary productivity in the acid treated dust additions (ZA and ZNA were less than predicted from that calculated from the amount of the potentially limiting nutrient added. This biological inhibition was interpreted as being due to labile trace metals being added with the acidified dust. A probable cause for this biological inhibition was the addition of dissolved Al, which forms potentially toxic Al nanoparticles when added to seawater. Thus, the effect of anthropogenic acid

  13. Nutritional aspects of honey bee-collected pollen and constraints on colony development in the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Dorit; Hendriksma, Harmen P; Dag, Arnon; Uni, Zehava; Shafir, Sharoni

    2014-10-01

    Pollen is the main protein and lipid source for honey bees (Apis mellifera), and nutritionally impoverished landscapes pose a threat to colony development. To determine colony nutritional demands, we analyzed a yearly cycle of bee-collected pollen from colonies in the field and compared it to colony worker production and honey bee body composition, for the first time in social insects. We monitored monthly bee production in ten colonies at each of seven sites throughout Israel, and trapped pollen bi-monthly in five additional colonies at each of four of these sites. Pollen mixtures from each sampling date and site were analyzed for weight, total protein, total fatty acids (FAs), and FA composition. Compared to more temperate climates, the eastern Mediterranean allows a relatively high yearly colony growth of ca. 300,000-400,000 bees. Colonies at higher elevation above sea level showed lower growth rates. Queen egg-laying rate did not seem to limit growth, as peaks in capped brood areas showed that queens lay a prolific 2000 eggs a day on average, with up to 3300 eggs in individual cases. Pollen uptake varied significantly among sites and seasons, with an overall annual mean total 16.8kg per colony, containing 7.14kg protein and 677g fat. Overall mean pollen protein content was high (39.8%), and mean total FA content was 3.8%. Production cost, as expressed by the amount of nutrient used per bee, was least variable for linoleic acid and protein, suggesting these as the best descriptive variables for total number of bees produced. Linolenic acid levels in pollen during the autumn were relatively low, and supplementing colonies with this essential FA may mitigate potential nutritional deficiency. The essentiality of linoleic and linolenic acids was consistent with these FAs' tendency to be present at higher levels in collected pollen than in the expected nutrients in bee bodies, demonstrating a well-developed adjustment between pollinator nutritional demands and the

  14. WHEN IMPORTERS TURN TO EXPORTING OIL AND GAS — THE SHALE GAS HYPE AND CERTAIN GEOPOLITICAL CHANGES LIE AHEAD IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kneissl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East, the world’s only major source of low-cost oil, will remain at the core of the long-term prospects of the world oil market. The IEA went too far referring to the “shale hydrocarbon revolution born in the USA”. For the time being, the global energy landscape has not been turned upside down. It is China’s soaring energy consumption rather than the US’ rising production that will fundamentally shift the world energy order. Some analysts claim that the Sino-Russian relationship will truly shift global energy boundaries: pipelines are turning east. Global oil prices may fall if and when significant volumes of additional Iranian oil return to the market. A new petroleum frontier in the Eastern Mediterranean complicates the manifold conflicts, but opens up new chances for cooperation. There are huge opportunities created by the discovery of gas in the Eastern Mediterranean — not least for countries that are short of both money and energy. Developing these opportunities will require cooperation, and could be both a lucrative and politically rewarding confidence-building measure. 

  15. Characterization of a deep-sea microbial mat from an active cold seep at the Milano mud volcano in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijs, Sander K; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Forney, Larry J

    2005-09-01

    A white, filamentous microbial mat at the Milano mud volcano in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea was sampled during the Medinaut cruise of the R/V Nadir in 1998. The composition of the mat community was characterized using a combination of phylogenetic and lipid biomarker methods. The mat sample was filtered through 0.2 and 5-microm filters to coarsely separate unicellular and filamentous bacteria. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from the total community DNA from these fractions showed that similar archaeal populations were present in both fractions. However, the bacterial populations in the fractions differed from one another, and were more diverse than the archaeal ones. Lipid analysis showed that bacteria were the dominant members of the mat microbial community and the relatively low delta(13)C carbon isotope values of bulk bacterial lipids suggested the occurrence of methane- and sulfide-based chemo(auto)trophy. Consistent with this, the bacterial populations in the fractions were related to Alpha-, Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria, most of which were chemoautotrophic bacteria that utilize hydrogen sulfide (or reduced sulfur compounds) and/or methane. The most common archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were related to those of previously identified Archaea capable of anaerobic methane oxidation. Although the filamentous organisms observed in the mat were not conclusively identified, our results indicated that the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea microbial mat community might be sustained on a combination of methane- and sulfide-driven chemotrophy.

  16. Policy-Relevant Context of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among University Students in Six Countries Across the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Hamadeh, Randah; Thomas, Justin; Mostafa, Aya; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Macauda, Mark M; Theis, Ryan P; El Kadi, Lama; Johnson, Evan J; Darawad, Muhammad W; Nakkash, Rima

    2017-09-27

    Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean region are some of the highest worldwide, especially among young people. This study aimed to improve our knowledge of the policy-relevant context of waterpipe smoking among six countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted in Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates. Participants were young adult university students (18-29 years) from both genders who had ever smoked the waterpipe, recruited from universities participating in this study. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: A total of 53 in-depth interviews were conducted in Arabic in 2016. Findings were organized around 5 themes: waterpipe product characteristics; patterns of waterpipe smoking; the waterpipe café setting; perceived health consequences; and health warning labels. Waterpipe smoking was commonly perceived as a safe alternative to cigarettes. Waterpipe tobacco was reported to be widely accessible and affordable to young participants. There is a lack of knowledge among waterpipe smokers about the associated health effects. Warning labels are effective at communicating health risks associated with waterpipe smoking. Conclusions: Regulatory frameworks for waterpipe tobacco smoking should be developed and enforced, including waterpipe-specific health warning labels that elucidate the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. First ground-based observations of mesopause temperatures above the Eastern-Mediterranean Part I: Multi-day oscillations and tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Israel; Price, Colin; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael; Pecora, Emilio

    2017-03-01

    The mesopause region ( 90 km altitude) is the coldest region of our atmosphere, and is found at the boundary between the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Ground-based spectrometers, which are sensitive to the emissions from the hydroxyl (OH*) airglow layer (lying at 87 km altitude), are used to monitor the temperature variability within the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT), at high temporal resolution. The variability of the MLT region of the atmosphere is driven by momentum deposition from gravity waves, atmospheric tides and planetary waves. The displacement of air caused by these waves can produce strong temperature, wind and species concentration perturbations. In this study we present an analysis of 4-years of OH* rotational temperature data, acquired with the German Aerospace Center (DLR) GRIPS-10 (Ground Based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer) instrument, which was installed in Israel in November 2011. This instrument provided the first long-term ground-based observations of airglow emissions in the Eastern Mediterranean. We show the nocturnal mean temperature analysis, which includes time series as well as spectral analysis of the data. In addition, we obtain (migrating) tidal oscillation estimates from the high resolution (1 min) data, by using harmonic fitting, and we analyze the variability of planetary wave signatures in the residual temperature data, which are retrieved after the removal of the tidal harmonic fits from the data. In this analysis of the residual data we find a dominant quasi-5-7 day planetary wave influence on the mesopause temperatures above the Eastern Mediterranean.

  18. Discovering where bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, might go: using environmental and fishery data to map potential tuna habitat in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Damalas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on a dataset derived from commercial fisheries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in 1998-2005, we applied generalized additive models (GAMs to investigate the relative influence of a range of environmental factors on catch rates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus, 1785. GAM analyses were conducted by separately modelling (1 the probability of making a catch (encountering a school, and (2 the positive catch rates (school size. Results suggested intra-annual variations in tuna distribution and revealed interesting associations with some environmental features, lunar periodicity being the most distinctive one. Probability of encountering a school peaked in late spring months, eastwards, at water temperatures above 22°C and around the full moon. Size of school was more likely to be larger in northeasternmost regions and in the vicinity of land in late spring, when the percentage of lunar disc illumination was higher. A moderate but continuous annual decline in the probability of encountering a bluefin tuna school was detected from the models’ outputs. The models were used as an indication of preference or association for the selected environmental variables. Based on these associations, an indirect identification of the bluefin tuna potential habitat was obtained and used to map distributions in the eastern Mediterranean region.

  19. Ion concentrations of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean region: seasonal variation and source identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Saliba

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The annual averages of particulate matters (PM10, PM10–2.5 (coarse and PM2.5 (fine in a densely populated area of Beirut were measured and found to be 84±27, 53±20 and 31±9 μg m−3, respectively. Ion Chromatography (IC analysis of the collected PM Teflon filters showed that NaCl, CaSO4 and Ca(NO32 were predominant in the coarse particles, while (NH42SO4 was the main salt in the fine particles. Using the non destructive Fourier Transform Infra Red-Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR technique, CaCO3 was determined in the coarse filter. In addition, ATR measurements showed that inorganic salts present in the coarse particles are mostly water insoluble while salts found in fine particles are soluble. Concentrations of nitrates and calcium higher than the ones reported in neighboring Mediterranean countries were good indication of high traffic density and crustal dust abundance in Beirut, respectively. The study of the seasonal variation showed that long-range transport of SO2 from Eastern and Central Europe, sandy storms coming from Africa and marine aerosols are considered major sources of the determined inorganic ions. Considering the importance of the health and climate impacts of aerosols locally and regionally, this study constitutes a point of reference for eastern Mediterranean transport modeling studies and local regulatory and policy makers.

  20. THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF JULY 21, 365 AD IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA - Review of Impact on the Ancient World - Assessment of Recurrence and Future Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence indicating that on July 21, 365 AD a great earthquake near the west coast of the Island of Crete generated a mega-tsunami, which was responsible for extensive destruction throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, but particularly on Peloponnesus, the Greek Islands, Sicily, Libya, Cyprus, Palestine and Egypt. It is believed that the combined catastrophic impacts of the earthquake and tsunami were significant catalysts in furthering the declination of the Roman Empire and contributing to its subsequent final division between the East Roman and the West (Byzantine empires in 395 A.D. In view of subsequent earthquakes and tsunamis in the region and the high probability that a similar great disaster will occur again, the present study reviews and summarizes the seismo-tectonic and kinematic characteristics of the Aegean and Anatolian micro-plates, their interaction with the African and Eurasian tectonic plates and examines and evaluates the historical records pertaining to this 4th Century AD disaster as to the destructive impact it had on the ancient world. Additionally, the study reconciles the impact described in historical and recent records with results obtained by numerical modeling studies, provides a rough estimate of the recurrence frequency of great tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean region and assesses what the future impact may be in view of great increases in population densities along coastal areas.

  1. Thermohaline properties in the Eastern Mediterranean in the last three decades: is the basin returning to the pre-EMT situation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, V.; Civitarese, G.; Hainbucher, D.; Bensi, M.; Rubino, A.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, salinity and oxygen data collected during April and June 2011 (M84/3 and P414 cruises respectively) are analysed to derive the oceanographic characteristics of the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) basin. These observed characteristics are compared with those from previous cruises over the period 1987-2011. As a result, the interannual and decadal variability of the EM thermohaline properties are discussed in the context of the evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) and of the general circulation of the basin. We found that the state of the EM is still far from the pre-EMT conditions, though the 2011 results possibly indicate a slow return to this status. In particular, a comparison between thermohaline property evolution deriving from interannual variability of the preconditioning and air-sea interaction (heat fluxes) in the South Adriatic and the Cretan Seas reveals aspects of the alternation of the two dense water sources (Adriatic and Aegean) during the last three decades, which have strong implications for the hydrographic characteristics of the intermediate and deep layers of the Ionian and Levantine basins.

  2. Neogene sedimentary history of the Inner Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Susan; Kurtboǧan, Bahar; Akhun, Selin; Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy; Ćifçi, Günay

    2010-05-01

    The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focused on erosion in the sediment source area and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is focused to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we collected ~2000 km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic reflection profiles radiating out from the present-day mouth of the Göksu River across the basin. The Göksu River delta is located on a narrow shelf at the junction of the Inner and Outer Cilicia Basins. The Inner Cilicia Basin consists of a 40 km-wide shelf linking to the onshore Adana Basin and a slope down to the deeper water (~ 1 km) of the Outer Cilicia Basin. The shelf is built out of a >2.5 km-thick sequence of Pliocene-Quaternary sediment overlying Messinian evaporites or older Miocene sediments. The evaporites have been mobilised to move down slope during the Pliocene-Quaternary so that the shelf is located above an extensional fault fan, complemented by a salt-cored fold/thrust belt in deeper water (see poster by Piercey et al., this meeting). The 2008 seismic reflection profiles show that the western margin of the Inner Cilicia Basin seaward of the mouth of the Göksu River is constructed by numerous vertically stacked and east-prograded delta successions. Detailed mapping in this region revealed that the sediment input from the Göksu River can be readily distinguished from the larger influxes from the coalescing Tarsus, Seyhan and Ceyhan Rivers to the north. The bases of major delta packages supplied by the Göksu River are marked by strong reflections, defining shelf-crossing unconformities, which can be correlated across the Inner Cilicia Basin. Industry exploration wells in the

  3. Biomass-burning impact on CCN number, hygroscopicity and cloud formation during summertime in the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Bezantakos, Spiros; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kalivitis, Nikos; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Biskos, George; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and hygroscopic properties of particles influenced by biomass burning in the eastern Mediterranean and their impacts on cloud droplet formation. Air masses sampled were subject to a range of atmospheric processing (several hours up to 3 days). Values of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, were derived from CCN measurements and a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was also used to determine the chemical composition and mass concentration of non-refractory components of the submicron aerosol fraction. During fire events, the increased organic content (and lower inorganic fraction) of the aerosol decreases the values of κ, for all particle sizes. Particle sizes smaller than 80 nm exhibited considerable chemical dispersion (where hygroscopicity varied up to 100 % for particles of same size); larger particles, however, exhibited considerably less dispersion owing to the effects of condensational growth and cloud processing. ACSM measurements indicate that the bulk composition reflects the hygroscopicity and chemical nature of the largest particles (having a diameter of ˜ 100 nm at dry conditions) sampled. Based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the organic ACSM spectra, CCN concentrations follow a similar trend as the biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA) component, with the former being enhanced between 65 and 150 % (for supersaturations ranging between 0.2 and 0.7 %) with the arrival of the smoke plumes. Using multilinear regression of the PMF factors (BBOA, OOA-BB and OOA) and the observed hygroscopicity parameter, the inferred hygroscopicity of the oxygenated organic aerosol components is determined. We find that the transformation of freshly emitted biomass burning (BBOA) to more oxidized organic aerosol (OOA-BB) can result in a 2-fold increase of the inferred organic hygroscopicity; about 10

  4. Modelling tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Application to the Minoan Santorini tsunami sequence as a potential scenario for the biblical Exodus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periáñez, R.; Abril, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    A numerical model which simulates the propagation of tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean has been developed. Several tsunami sources have been considered: earthquakes associated to geological faults, submarine landslides, entry of pyroclastic flows into the sea and the collapse of a volcano caldera. The model has been applied to different past events for which historic data or previous simulations exist, to test its performance. Then it has been applied to simulate tsunamis triggered by the explosion of Santorini volcano (17th century BC) in the Aegean Sea. While the model accounts for run-ups in the Aegean coasts, it fails to explain the isochronous tsunamigenic deposits reported in eastern Sicily and the levantine coasts. A scenario of a sequence of intense tectonics strain release triggering a series of tsunamis could better fit the whole dataset. Thus, a submarine landslide at the Gulf of Sirte may explain the Augias megaturbidite and the sedimentary deposits reported in Augusta Bay (Sicily). Similarly, a sequential tsunami in the eastern Nile Delta may explain the tsunamigenic deposits found in Israel and Gaza. Considering the former coastline at 3500 years BP, it could also provide a plausible scenario for the biblical sea crossing related in the Exodus.

  5. The environmental, archaeological and historical evidence for regional climatic changes and their societal impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean in Late Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Adam; Pickett, Jordan; Roberts, Neil; Waliszewski, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the evidence for climatic changes in the Eastern Mediterranean for the period 200-800 AD and offers hypotheses on the role of climatic fluctuations in the societal developments that occurred in this region at the end of Antiquity. The geographical focus of the paper includes Anatolia and the Levant, two major regions of the Eastern Roman Empire that are rich in environmental, historical and archaeological data. The paper starts with the review of current research on the economic, settlement and vegetation history of the Eastern Mediterranean in Late Antiquity, which provides the necessary framework for the study of potential climate impacts. The core of the article is devoted to the analysis of the palaeoclimatic evidence, which is divided in two groups. The first one encompasses the direct evidence, that is palaeoclimate proxies and the textual record of extreme weather events, while the second includes indirect information on climate, in particular multi-proxy studies that include pollen analysis, archaeological evidence, and the historical evidence of subsistence crises. We conclude that during our study period there occurred three periods of substantially different climatic conditions. A late Roman drought ∼350-470 AD was followed by a dramatic shift to much wetter climatic conditions. These in turn changed into increasing dryness after ∼730 AD in Anatolia and ∼670 AD in the Levant. The lack of chronological precision in the dating of the archaeological evidence and of some climatic records makes it impossible at present to make conclusive observations regarding the societal responses to these climatic fluctuations. Nonetheless in all probability, the extended and - in some areas - severe late Roman drought did not cause any major social upheaval or economic decline in Anatolia or the Levant, although it appears to have contributed to a change in patterns of water use in the cities. In contrast, the increased availability of moisture

  6. Renewable Energies and Enhanced Energy Efficiencies: Mitigation/Adaptation Measures to Climate Change Impacts on Cyprus and in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean in general and Cyprus in particular are considered "hot spots" of future climate change. This will become manifest through an increase in the number and duration of drought events and extended hot-spells. The need to cope with the impacts of climate change will lead to enhanced requirements for cooling of private and public housing and growing demands for potable water derived from seawater desalination. This in turn will cause increasing pressures on electricity production and will result in additional strain on the energy sector in the region. For Cyprus, the current electricity production is entirely based on fossil-fuel fired power plants. However, the use of conventional energy sources is clearly an undesirable option. It enhances the economic burden on energy consumers and at the same time increases Cyprus' dependency on external providers of petroleum products. Moreover, it leads to growing emissions of carbon dioxide and thereby worsens Cyprus' already challenged greenhouse gas emission budget. While current emissions amount to about 9.9 Mill. t of CO2, the total allowance according to EU regulations lies at 5.5 Mill. t. The current building stock on Cyprus lacks basic measures for energy efficiency. This is particularly noteworthy with regard to insufficient insulation of buildings, which causes significant amounts of energy to be expanded for cooling. In light of these facts, an increased use of renewable energies and measures to enhance energy efficiencies in the built environment constitute important elements of a stringent and effective mitigation/adaptation strategy to climate change. The Eastern Mediterranean is among the most suitable location for the utilization of solar energy in Europe. A global direct normal irradiance of more than 1 800 kWh/m2 on Cyprus offers a renewable electricity potential of app. 20 to 23 TWh/yr when concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is employed. With regard to enhanced energy efficiency

  7. Obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (eastern Tunisia) and the PIXE elemental compositions of the Mediterranean peralkaline obsidians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier, E-mail: Francois-Xavier.Le-Bourdonnec@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr [Institut de Recherche sur les Archéomatériaux (IRAMAT), Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquée à l’Archéologie (CRP2A), UMR 5060, CNRS-Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cédex (France); Poupeau, Gérard [Institut de Recherche sur les Archéomatériaux (IRAMAT), Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquée à l’Archéologie (CRP2A), UMR 5060, CNRS-Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cédex (France); UMR 7194 CNRS et Département de Préhistoire du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Place du Trocadéro, 75016 Paris (France); Boussofara, Ridha, E-mail: ridha57@yahoo.fr [The National Heritage Institute, 4 Place du Château, 1008 Tunis (Tunisia); and others

    2015-09-01

    The provenance of 37 obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (central Mediterranean Sea) was determined by PIXE. It is shown that they came from the two main obsidian sources, Balata dei Turchi and Lago di Venere, of the Pantelleria Island. A comparison of the PIXE elemental composition of geological vs. archaeological obsidians of central and western Mediterranean shows that their sources present elemental compositions homogeneous enough to make possible sourcing studies. However, a comparison between the distributions of geological and archaeological obsidians chemistry shows that the PIXE source qualifications do not cover yet the whole of their internal variations.

  8. Obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (eastern Tunisia) and the PIXE elemental compositions of the Mediterranean peralkaline obsidians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier; Poupeau, Gérard; Boussofara, Ridha; Dubernet, Stéphan; Moretto, Philippe; Compin, Matthieu; Mulazzani, Simone

    2015-09-01

    The provenance of 37 obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (central Mediterranean Sea) was determined by PIXE. It is shown that they came from the two main obsidian sources, Balata dei Turchi and Lago di Venere, of the Pantelleria Island. A comparison of the PIXE elemental composition of geological vs. archaeological obsidians of central and western Mediterranean shows that their sources present elemental compositions homogeneous enough to make possible sourcing studies. However, a comparison between the distributions of geological and archaeological obsidians chemistry shows that the PIXE source qualifications do not cover yet the whole of their internal variations.

  9. The use of cattle to protect sheep from bluetongue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, E M

    1978-07-01

    Studies on the host preferences of Culicoides imicola, the vector of bluetongue virus in South Africa, are reviewed. There is agreement that this species prefers to feed on cattle but will also feed on other bovidae and sheep. Over a seven year period cattle kept near sheep on a Natal farm appear to have appreciably reduced the incidence of bluetongue in the sheep. In addition to immunization this "decoy" approach is therefore recommended to assist in the protection of stock from insect borne diseases such as bluetongue and possibly African horsesickness and Rift Valley fever.

  10. Solar forcing of Nile discharge and sapropel S1 formation in the early to middle Holocene eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357286081; Jilbert, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835714; Schnetger, B.; de Lange, G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073930962

    2014-01-01

    We present high-resolution records for oxygen isotopes of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoidesruber (δ18Oruber) and bulk sediment inorganic geochemistry for Holocene-age sediments from the southeastMediterranean. Our δ18Oruberrecord appears to be dominated by Nile discharge rather than basin-sca

  11. Comparative Reproduction Aspects of the Deep-water Shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus (Decapoda, Aristeidae in the Greek Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kapiris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the eastern Ionian Sea, the deep-water shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus constitute a virgin fishing resource, since their maximum abundance depth exceeds commercial exploitation depths. The two sympatric species share a number of common reproductive features, such as summer reproduction. A slight temporal shift in mating activity, ovarian maturation, and spawning period was observed between species. The most notable difference was the more pronounced seasonality in reproductive activity of Aristeus antennatus compared to that of A. foliacea as evidenced by the frequency of inseminated females and functionally mature males, as well as by the shorter ovarian maturation period. Nevertheless, regarding the whole life span, both sexes of Aristeus antennatus exhibit a more extended reproductive activity in comparison to A. foliacea. No notable differentiation of both species existed in comparison to other Mediterranean regions.

  12. Variations in the geomagnetic field strength in the 5th 3rd centuries BC in the eastern Mediterranean (according to narrowly dated ceramics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Il'Ina, T. A.

    2008-06-01

    The magnetization of ceramics from the eastern Mediterranean dated within a short period (mostly shorter than ±20 years) has been studied, which made it possible to specify the geomagnetic field variations on the time interval 5th 3rd centuries BC. The 11-year time series of the geomagnetic field strength values has been constructed. The field strength changes have been considered, which indicated that the centennial variation with a characteristic time of ˜130 years (according to the obtained data) is observed on this time interval as well as during the last two millennia. The ceramic material from the Mayskaya Gora archeological site (Taman), the preparation succession of which was established based on the shape of pottery but the problem of absolute dating was not solved, has been dated.

  13. Efficacy of constitutional support to enhance access to essential medicines as a human right to health in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, L M

    2012-01-01

    Access to essential medicines is an element of the international agreements on the human right to health. This review summarizes the current situation concerning access to medicines in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) by examining the policies, constitutional provisions and other legal instruments of the Member States. The constitutions of 18 out of 22 EMR countries enshrine health as a human right (8 countries have a duty statement, 5 have a programmatic statement and 5 specify entitlement); only 4 EMR countries do not enshrine health as a human right in a clause in their constitution. More than half the countries (i.e. 12) have an official national medicines policy, 4 have a draft policy and 6 have no national medicines policy. A total of 11 countries operate an essential medicines list. Realization of this right to health necessitates that duty bearers take all necessary legislative measures to respect, protect and fulfil this right.

  14. Molecular characterization of bacteria associated with the trophosome and the tube of Lamellibrachia sp., a siboglinid annelid from cold seeps in the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperron, Sébastien; de Beer, Dirk; Zbinden, Magali; Boetius, Antje; Schipani, Vanessa; Kahil, Nacera; Gaill, Françoise

    2009-09-01

    Specimens of Lamellibrachia (Annelida: Siboglinidae) were recently discovered at cold seeps in the eastern Mediterranean. In this study, we have investigated the phylogeny and function of intracellular bacterial symbionts inhabiting the trophosome of specimens of Lamellibrachia sp. from the Amon mud volcano, as well as the bacterial assemblages associated with their tube. The dominant intracellular symbiont of Lamellibrachia sp. is a gammaproteobacterium closely related to other sulfide-oxidizing tubeworm symbionts. In vivo uptake experiments show that the tubeworm relies on sulfide for its metabolism, and does not utilize methane. Bacterial communities associated with the tube form biofilms and occur from the anterior to the posterior end of the tube. The diversity of 16S rRNA gene phylotypes includes representatives from the same divisions previously identified from the tube of the vent species Riftia pachyptila, and others commonly found at seeps and vents.

  15. Geomagnetic field intensity in the eastern Mediterranean region in the second half of the 1st millennium BC and the beginning of our era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Il'Ina, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    The magnetization of ceramic material manufactured in the eastern Mediterranean is studied. Data on the variation in geomagnetic field intensity in the time interval from the fourth-quarter of the 6th century BC through the 2nd century AD are obtained. The main tendency of the variation in the field intensity until approximately the middle of this interval is its decrease, after which the average intensity level varied insignificantly over the three next centuries. Variations with characteristic times of a few tens to a few hundreds of years are superimposed on the smooth variation in the field intensity approximated by a sinusoid with a period of 1600 yr. The data obtained in this work confirm the previously derived conclusion that short-term intensity variations have been permanently present in the geomagnetic field in the recent millennia.

  16. High xenodiversity versus low native diversity in the south-eastern Mediterranean: bryozoans from the coastal zone of Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. HARMELIN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of its location in the warmest corner of the Mediterranean, its proximity to the northern entrance of the Suez Canal, i.e. the gateway for massive exotic biota introduction into the Mediterranean, the occurrence of high shipping activity and strong human pressure, the Lebanese coastal zone is an area that is exceptionally well-suited for investigating the effects of these extreme conditions on Mediterranean biodiversity. Bryozoans, which are among the main components of sessile communities, reflect dramatically the impact of these particular conditions. Their assemblages, sampled by diving along the whole coast of Lebanon during a pluriannual programme, mainly between 1999 and 2003, consist of 93 species (12 Cyclostomata, 2 Ctenostomata, 79 Cheilostomata. The native part of this bryozoan fauna exhibits low diversity, with an unexpected absence of many taxa, from family to species level, which are very common in the rest of the Mediterranean. It is also characterized by a high proportion of endemic species, in contrast with the general eastward trend of decreasing endemicity observed in the Mediterranean, and by the strong presence of 'southern' thermophilic species. With 27 non-indigenous species, xenodiversity is exceptionally high, particularly in the cheilostome pool (26 species, but was likely undersampled. Moreover, one may assume that new non-indigenous bryozoans (NIB are now established along the Levantine coasts. This trend is expected to increase in the near future with the intensification of surface water warming and boost of shipping activity and propagule flux generated by the expansion of the Suez Canal.

  17. Levels and congener profiles of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in blue shark (Prionace glauca) liver from the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Storelli, Arianna; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2011-01-01

    Liver of blue shark (Prionace glauca) specimens from the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including coplanar congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). PCBs were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs and PCDDs. The pattern of PCB congener concentrations in the hepatic tissue was dominated by higher chlorinated compounds. The specific profile of toxic PCDD/F congeners was characterized mainly by 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDD, followed by 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF. The total 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent (TEQs) was 149 pg g⁻¹ lipid wt. The profile of TEQ shows that PCDDs present the greatest risk to this species contributing to total toxicity with a percentage approximately of 60%, while the contribution of PCDFs and DL-PCBs is almost the same being 22.4% and 21.6%, respectively. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize the PCDD/Fs contamination levels not only in elasmobranch fish but in all Mediterranean marine biota. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The sea surface temperature field in the Eastern Mediterranean from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data. Part I. Seasonal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marullo, S.; Santoleri, R.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, P.; Bergamasco, A.

    1999-04-01

    A ten-year dataset of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR-SST) with 18-km space resolution and weekly frequency is used to study the seasonal variability of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea surface field. Three main objectives are addressed in this study. The first is to define the time and space scales of the surface temperature distributions. The second objective is to relate the SST features to the upper thermocline circulation and the third is to compare these features with the observational evidence of the Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM) Programme. The time analysis reveals the presence of a strong seasonal signal characterized by two main seasonal extremes, winter and summer. The transition between the overall zonal distribution of the isotherms (winter) and the mostly meridional pattern of the fronts (summer) occurs very rapidly in May and October. The space analysis shows that the dominant scale is the sub-basin scale and the sub-basin gyres are very well resolved allowing the identification of permanent and semipermanent structures. The results for the two further objectives can be summarized together. The seasonal and monthly SST distributions are strongly correlated with the dynamical structure of the basin upper thermocline circulation. A direct comparison of the September 1987 SST pattern with the corresponding surface temperature map of the POEM-87 survey proves this correlation quantitatively. Furthermore, comparison of the SST monthly climatologies with the POEM circulation scheme shows that all the major currents and the sub-basin gyres are also found consistently in our patterns, with the only exception of the anticyclonic Mersa-Matruh Gyre.

  19. Airborne study of a multi-layer aerosol structure in the eastern Mediterranean observed with the airborne polarized lidar ALEX during a STAAARTE campaign (7 June 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dulac

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of tropospheric aerosol transport in the eastern Mediterranean, based on airborne measurements obtained south of Greece on 7 June 1997. Airborne observations (backscattering lidar at 0.532 mm with polarization measurements, in situ particle counters/sizers, and standard meteorological measurements are complemented by monitoring with Meteosat visible and infrared images and a ground-based sun-photometer, air-mass back-trajectory computations, and meteorological analyses. As already observed from ground-based lidars in the Mediterranean region, the vertical structure of the lower troposphere appears complex, with a superposition of several turbid layers from the surface up to the clean free troposphere which is found here above 2 to 4 km in altitude. The aircraft observations also reveal an important horizontal variability. We identify the presence of depolarising dust from northern Africa in the most elevated turbid layer, which is relatively humid and has clouds embedded. The lowermost troposphere likely contains pollution water-soluble aerosols from eastern continental Greece, and an intermediate layer is found with a probable mixture of the two types of particles. The column optical depth at 0.55 mm estimated from Meteosat is in the range 0.15-0.35. It is used to constrain the aerosol backscattering-to-extinction ratio needed for the backscattering lidar data inversion. The column value of 0.017 sr -1 is found applicable to the various aerosol layers and allows us to derive the aerosol extinction vertical profile. The aerosol extinction coefficient ranges from 0.03 km-1 in the lower clean free troposphere to more than 0.25 km-1 in the marine boundary layer. Values are -1 in the elevated dust layer but its thickness makes it dominate the aerosol optical depth at some places.

  20. External N inputs and internal N cycling traced by isotope ratios of nitrate, dissolved reduced nitrogen, and particulate nitrogen in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; Mara, Paraskevi; Schlarbaum, Tim; MöBius, Jürgen; DäHnke, Kirstin; Struck, Ulrich; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Krom, Michael

    2010-12-01

    The eastern Mediterranean Sea is an unusually nutrient-poor ocean basin where the 15N/14N isotope ratios in many compartments of reactive nitrogen are lower than in comparable oceanic settings. To elucidate possible reasons, we determined stable isotope ratios in nitrate, suspended particulate nitrogen (PN), and total dissolved reduced nitrogen for stations across the eastern Mediterranean Sea occupied in January and February 2007; sinking PN was collected at one of the stations in the period from February to September 2007. The δ15N levels of all reactive N compartments in waters of the basin are very low (grand average 2.6‰) compared to other oceanic environments. Deep water nitrate below 500 m water depth (δ15N = 2.2 ± 0.3‰) was more depleted in 15N than nitrate generally found in deep water nitrate pools of other oceans (δ15N ranges from 4.7 to 5.4‰), whereas 15N was enriched in suspended particulate N (δ15N = 7.3 ± 0.8‰) and reduced dissolved N (δ15N = 5.7 ± 3.8‰) compared to nitrate and sinking particulate N intercepted in sediment traps (δ15N = 0.9 ± 0.8‰). We infer that extensive mineralization is the cause of the isotopic makeup of reactive N in deep water, in concert with the lack of water column denitrification. Nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in nitrate of the mixed layer suggest an external source of nitrate depleted in 15N, probably anthropogenic NOx rather than fixed nitrogen. To explain the observed isotope anomaly in the mixed layer, either the ammonium formed by the breakdown of organic matter must be predominantly nitrified, or atmospheric NOx characteristically enriched in 18O was present.

  1. Bluetongue: control, surveillance and safe movement of animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The performance of different bluetongue control measures related to both vaccination and protection from bluetongue virus (BTV) vectors was assessed. By means of a mathematical model, it was concluded that when vaccination is applied on 95% of animals even for 3 years, bluetongue cannot...... it was highlighted that under the current surveillance policy bluetongue circulation might occur undetected. For the safe movement of animals, newborn ruminants from vaccinated mothers with neutralising antibodies can be considered protected against infection, although a protective titre threshold cannot...... be identified. The presence of colostral antibodies interferes with the vaccine immunisation in the newborn for more than 3 months after birth, whereas the minimum time after vaccination of animal to be considered immune can be up to 48 days. The knowledge about vectors ecology, mechanisms of over...

  2. Molecular epidemiology of foot and mouth disease, bluetongue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Client

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... bluetongue and pest de petites ruminants in Algeria: Historical .... The livestock population (cattle, sheep and goat) at risk for FMD during the 1999 .... included fever, blisters, lameness and mammary lesions. (OIE, 2016).

  3. Hydrology in a Mediterranean mountain environment, the Vallcebre Research basins (North Eastern Spain). IV. Testing hydrological and erosion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallart, F.; Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Martinez-Carreras, N.

    2009-07-01

    Three modelling exercises were carried out in the Vallcebre research basins in order to both improve the understanding of the hydrological processes and test the adequate of some models in such Mediterranean mountain conditions. These exercises consisted of i) the analysis of the hydrological role of the agricultural terraces using the TOPMODEL topographic index, ii) the parametrisation of TOPMODEL using internal basin information, and iii) a test of the erosion model KINEROS2 for simulating badlands erosion. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. Long-range atmospheric transport of PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs to the central and eastern Mediterranean and changes of PCB and PBDE congener patterns in summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Marie D.; Heil, Angelika; Kukučka, Petr; Kuta, Jan; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Lammel, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    The central and eastern Mediterranean is a receptor area for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted in western, central and eastern Europe, particularly during summer. Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, DDXs, PBDEs, penta- and hexachlorobenzene were measured during a ship-borne survey in the summer of 2010. The concentration of PCBs (sum of 7 congeners) was 3.61 (2.08-7.72) pg m-3, of which 6.7% was associated with the particulate phase. The mean concentration of DDT isomers and their metabolites, DDE and DDD, was 2.60 (0.46-7.60) pg m-3 (particulate mass fraction θ = 0.097), of penta- and hexachlorobenzene 0.22 (PBDEs (sum of 8 congeners) 7.31 (2.80-19.89) pg m-3. The air masses studied had been transported mostly across central Europe, some crossing western Europe. The observed changes of PCB congener patterns along transport routes are in agreement with the perception that the reaction with the OH radical is dominating PCB atmospheric lifetime, and indicate an overestimation of the second order gas-phase reaction rate coefficient of PCB153 with OH by structure-activity relationship.

  5. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif S. Al-Abri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR, with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV.

  6. The report of sequence analysis on familial Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV) in South-eastern Mediterranean region (Kahramanmaraş) of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Metin; Ganiyusufoglu, Eda; Sager, Hatice; Celik, Ahmet; Olgar, Seref; Cetin, Gozde Yildirim; Davutoglu, Mehmet; Altunoren, Orcun

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is defined as an inherited and autosomal recessive disease. Many researches have been done about this subject, and we believe that it should be necessary to focus on phenotype-genotype correlation, especially novel mutation types. We aim to announce the results of FMF sequence analysis in Kahramanmaras/Turkey. The number of participants is 380 males and 451 females who clinically diagnosed as FMF subjects of different age groups. Genomic sequences of exons 2 and 10 and in some cases exon 3 of the MEFV gene were scanned for mutations by sequence analyzer. The most common mutation identified in 230 (57.07 %) patients is heterozygous. The frequencies of mutation types in heterozygous subjects are R202Q (39.13 %), E148Q (18.70 %), M680I (16.52 %), M694V (13.91 %), and V726A (4.78 %), respectively. The most striking point among the compound heterozygous subjects is R202Q/M694V mutation type found at the highest rate (32 subjects). Fever and peritonitis are the most frequent signs of homozygous M694V and combine heterozygous mutations. Interestingly, the rate of homozygous mutation types (M694V/M694V+ R202Q/R202Q) is 96.70 % among all compound homozygous mutation types. The most frequent rate of homozygous patients is M680I mutation types (68.42 % in all homozygous mutation types). Two novel mutations were found in this study: N206K (p.Asn206Lys) and S208T (p.Ser208Tyr). Our findings in this study on the FMF sequence analysis are different from the results obtained from the other regions of Turkey.

  7. Role of charred wood, heat-shock and light in germination of postfire phrygana species from the eastern Mediterranean Basin

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    Keeley, Jon E.; Babr-Keeley, Melanie

    1999-01-01

    Seeds of 22 species collected from recently burned phrygana were tested for their response to fire-type cues of charred wood and heat-shock. All Cistus species were stimulated by brief heat-shock, as shown in previous studies; however, none responded to charred wood. Only one of the 22 species was stimulated by charred wood, and only in dark-inhibited seeds, and this response did not occur in the light. The lack of charred-wood-induced germination is in contrast to the substantial proportion of species with this germination response reported for mediterranean-type vegetation in California, the Cape region of South Africa, and Western Australia. Phrygana has many species with heat-shock-stimulated germination, primarily in the Fabaceae and Cistaceae. This germination cue is widespread in these two families, thus, the presence of heat-shock-stimulated germination is a result of homologous, rather than covergent, adaptations in mediterranean-climate ecosystems. Germination response to light was not randomly distributed with respect to fire-type response. Heat-shock-stimulated species were almost uniformly light neutral, in contrast to more opportunistic colonizing species with non-refractory seeds, in which half of the species responded positively or negatively to light.

  8. Shifts in microbial community structure and activity in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea driven by the deposition of Saharan dust and European aerosols

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    Cui Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric deposition of gases and particulates from the Sahara Desert and European landmass is an important source of nutrients for the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we investigated how such atmospheric input might affect bacterial metabolic activities and community dynamics in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Thus a mesocosm simulation experiment was conducted using pure Saharan dust (SD and mixed aerosols (A, polluted and desert origin. The cell specific bacterial production (BP was stimulated soon after the addition of SD and A, with a higher degree of stimulation being observed in the activity of Alphaproteobacteria than in Gammaproteobacteria, and this lead to significant increases in community BP. Subsequently, a shift between these two dominating classes was observed (such that the proportion of Gammaproteobacteria increased while that of Alphaproteobacteria decreased, along with significant increases in bacterial abundance and chlorophyll a concentration. After a few days, although the abundance of bacteria was still significantly higher in the SD- or A-treated groups, differences in the active community composition between the treatment and control groups were reduced. The altered activity of the two dominating Proteobacteria classes observed, might reflect their different strategies in responding to external nutrient input: with Alphaproteobacteria being more responsive to the direct dust input, whereas Gammaproteobacteria seemed to benefit more from the increase in phytoplankton biomass. In addition, the input of A had a stronger immediate effect and longer lasting influence on changing the active bacterial community composition than did that of SD. Our findings show that episodic atmospheric deposition events might affect the microbial community with regards to their abundance, activity and composition over a short period of time, and thus regulate the function of the microbial community and carbon cycling

  9. Live (Rose-bengal stained) foraminifera from deep-sea anoxic salt brine in the Eastern Mediterranean: toward understanding limit of life for single-celled eukaryotes (foraminifera)

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    Kitazato, H.; Ohkawara, N.; Iwasaki, A.; Nomaki, H.; Akoumianaki, I.; Tokuyama, H.

    2012-04-01

    What is a limit of life for the eukaryotes? Eukaryotes are thought to adapt and evolve under oxic environmental conditions. Recently, there are many exceptions for this hypothesis, as many eukaryotes including metazoan groups are found in anoxic environmental conditions. We found many rose-bengal stained foraminifera from a deep-hypersaline anoxic basin (DHAB) in the eastern Mediterranean. During KH06-04 cruise, we conducted oceanographic research at Medée Lake, the largest DHAB, that is located 100km southwest of Crete Island in the eastern Mediterranean. The lake situates at 2920m in water depth. Depth of saline water is 120m in maximum. Both water and sediment samplings were carried out both with Niskin bottles and multiple corer attached to camera watching sampling system at three sites, inside of the lake (CS), the edge of the lake (OMS) and the normal deep-sea floor (RS). Temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen concentrations at central saline lake are 15.27 oC, 328PSU, and 0.0 ml/L, respectively. Strong smell of hydrogen sulfide was detected from the lake sediment. Subsamples were conducted for multiple core samples using 3 subcores(φ 2.9cm) from each core tube (φ 8.2cm). Sediment samples were fixed with 4% formalin Rose Bengal solution on board. In laboratory, samples were washed with 32μm sieve. Rose Bengal stained specimens were picked under binocular stereomicroscope (Zeiss Stemi SV11) for surface 0.5cm layer, and identified with inverted microscope (Nikon ECLIPSE TE300). In total, 26 species belonging to 9 genera were identified from three sites. Six species belonging to two genera were identified in the center of the salt brine. Only a few species are common among three sites, even though the numbers of common species were 10 between OMS and RS sites. In DHAB, spherical organic-walled species, such as allogromiid and psammosphaerid, are dominant. In contrast, tube-like chitinous foraminifera, such as Resigella, Conicotheca and Nodellum, are

  10. Description of the first Lessepsian squid migrant, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (CEPHALOPODA: Loliginidae, in the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean

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    E. LEFKADITOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Loliginid squids of the Sepioteuthis lessoniana complex are widely spread in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, where they constitute a commercially important resource for neritic fisheries. Sepioteuthis lessoniana is the only Lessepsian squid migrant till now, recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean in 2002 along the Turkish Levantine coasts. Two maturing males, with mantle lengths 193 mm and 244 mm, have been recently caught near the coasts of Rhodes Island (SE Aegean, extending the species distribution northward, into Hellenic waters. Their identity was confirmed by comparison of the main body, beak characteristics and morphometric measurements with those available in the literature for this species. Suspected expansion of the Lessepsian loliginid into the Aegean Sea, due to the gradual warming of the sea, is discussed.

  11. [First outbreak of bluetongue in goats in The Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercksen, D; Groot Nibbelink, N; Paauwe, R; Backx, A; van Rijn, P; Vellema, P

    2007-10-15

    For the first time, bluetongue has been diagnosed in goats in the Netherlands and in Northwest-Europe. On the 17th of August 2006, bluetongue was for the first time diagnosed in sheep and a little later in cattle in The Netherlands. The clinical symptoms, diagnostics and differential diagnosis of bluetongue (BT) in goats in the Netherlands are described. The most obvious clinical signs were an acute drop in milk production and high fever (up to 42 degrees C). Clinical signs were less obvious than usually seen for clinically diseased sheep and cattle. A few goats showed oedema of the lips and the head, some nasal discharge and scabs on the nose and lips. Further erythema of the skin of the udder and small subcutaneous hemorrhages were seen. Just like one year ago, for the very first suspicion of bluetongue in Northwest-Europe, a good collaboration between practitioners, specialists of the Animal Health Service (GD Deventer), the Specialist Team of the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA), and the Central Institute for animal Disease Control (CIDC-Lelystad) in The Netherlands, led to the first and rapid notification and confirmation of the suspicion of bluetongue.

  12. Case study of a multi-layer aerosol structure in the eastern Mediterranean observed with the airborne polarized lidar ALEX during a STAAARTE campaign (7 June 1997

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    F. Dulac

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of tropospheric aerosol transport in the eastern Mediterranean, based on airborne measurements obtained south of Greece on 7 June 1997. Airborne observations (backscattering lidar at 0.532 mm with polarization measurements, in situ particle counters/sizers, and standard meteorological measurements are complemented by monitoring with Meteosat visible and infrared images and a ground-based sun-photometer, air-mass back-trajectory computations, and meteorological analyses. The vertical structure of the lower troposphere appears complex with horizontal variability and a superposition of several turbid layers from the surface up to the clean free troposphere which is found above 2 to 4 km in altitude. We identify the presence of depolarising dust from northern Africa in the most elevated turbid layer, which is relatively humid and has clouds embedded. The lowermost troposphere likely contains pollution water-soluble aerosols from eastern continental Greece, and an intermediate layer is found with a probable mixture of the two types of particles. The column optical depth at 0.55 mm estimated from Meteosat is in the range 0.15–0.35. It is used to constrain the aerosol backscattering-to-extinction ratio needed for the backscattering lidar data inversion. The column value of 0.017 sr−1 is found applicable to the various aerosol layers and allows us to derive the aerosol extinction vertical profile. The aerosol extinction coefficient ranges from 0.03 km−1 in the lower clean free troposphere to more than 0.25 km−1 in the marine boundary layer. Values are <0.1 km−1 in the elevated dust layer but its thickness makes it dominate the aerosol optical depth at some places.

  13. Ibaraki disease and its relationship to bluetongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, U

    1975-04-01

    Ibaraki disease, an epizootic disease of cattle in Japan resembling bluetongue, is characterized by fever and lesions affecting the mucous membranes, the skin, the musculature and vascular system. Degeneration of striated muscular tissue is observed in the oesophagus, larynx, pharynx, tongue and the skeletal muscles. Oedema and haemorrhage are marked in the mouth, lips, abomasum, around the coronets, etc., and are occasionally followed by degeneration of the epithelium leading to erosions or ulcerations. Severe lesions affecting the oesophageal and laryngopharyngeal musculature cause difficulty in swallowing which in turn produces dehydration and emaciation, and occasionally the aspiration pneumonia, which constitute the major causes of death of affected animals. These clinical and pathological findings indicate the similarity of the disease to bluetongue in sheep and cattle. Ibaraki disease was first recognised in Japan in 1959 and 1960. Seasonally its occurrence is limited to late summer and autumn, and geographically to the central and western parts of Japan, roughly south of 37 degrees north latitude. It is absent from the higher altitudes. The seasonal and geographical incidence suggests the possibility of an arthropod vector; but direct evidence for such a vector is still lacking. Serological data suggest the presence of Ibaraki virus on Bali Island in Indonesia and in Taiwan. The disease can be transmitted serially in calves by the intravenous inoculation of blood obtained at the height of a febrile reaction. Ibaraki virus can be isolated in bovine cell cultures from both natural and experimentally produced cases of the disease. The virus multiplies and induces cytopathic effects in primary cultures of bovine, sheep and hamster lung origin, and L cells; but it does not grow in primary cultures of horse and swine kidney nor in HeLa cell cultures. The virus is readily passaged serially in 4 to 5-day-old eggs by yolk-sac inoculation and incubation at 33

  14. Pelagic-benthic coupling and diagenesis of nucleic acids in a deep-sea continental margin and an open-slope system of the Eastern Mediterranean.

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    Dell'anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Stavrakakis, Spyros; Lykousis, Vasilis; Danovaro, Roberto

    2005-10-01

    Downward fluxes of nucleic acids adsorbed onto settling particles play a key role in the supply of organic phosphorus and genetic material to the ocean interior. However, information on pelagic-benthic coupling, diagenesis, and processes controlling nucleic acid preservation in deep-sea sediments is practically nonexistent. In this study, we compared nucleic acid fluxes, sedimentary DNA and RNA concentrations, and the enzymatically hydrolyzable fraction of DNA in a bathyal continental margin (North Aegean Sea) and an open-sea system (South Aegean Sea) of the Eastern Mediterranean. The two systems displayed contrasting patterns of nucleic acid fluxes, which increased significantly with depth in the North Aegean Sea and decreased with depth in the South Aegean Sea. These results suggest that in continental margin and open-ocean systems different processes control the nucleic acid supply to the sea floor. Differences in nucleic acid fluxes were reflected by nucleic acid concentrations in the sediments, which reached extremely high values in the North Aegean Sea. In this system, a large fraction of DNA may be buried, as suggested by the large fraction of DNA resistant to nuclease degradation and by estimates of burial efficiency (ca. eight times higher in the North than in the South Aegean Sea). Overall, the results reported here suggest that the preservation of DNA in deeper sediment layers may be favored in benthic systems characterized by high sedimentation rates.

  15. Hindcast, GIS and susceptibility modelling to assist oil spill clean-up and mitigation on the southern coast of Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-01

    This study uses new oil-spill models, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of distinct oil spill scenarios on the southern coast of Cyprus, Eastern Mediterranean. This approach results from the urgent need to predict oil spill dispersion after new oil terminals and depots were built at Vasilikos, southern coast of Cyprus. The terminals have been able to receive tankers with 500,000 deadweight tonnes from November 2014. The new geomorphological and geological data in this work show the shoreline of Cyprus to be of high susceptibility due to: (a) the presence of a narrow continental shelf capable of trapping large quantities of hydrocarbons; (b) the existence of uplifted wave-cut platforms, coastal lagoons and pools forming natural traps for oil, and (c) the presence of important tourist and Natura 2000 sites. Under particular weather and oceanographic conditions, oil spills offshore Larnaca Bay will quickly spread and reach the shoreline 46 h after the initial accident. Significantly, the models in this paper show a reduction from 84% to 19% in the volume of oil trapped on the coast if dispersants are applied, with the latter 19% being potentially kept at bay using booms and mechanical removal techniques. Based on these results, we suggest the early use of dispersants, booms and mechanical removal procedures to prevent the spreading of oil spilt in the broad area of Larnaca Bay.

  16. Comparison of the level of organic contaminants in bile and muscle of Mugil spp. following a major oil spill in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    Elie K. Barbour

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH and the total polychlorinated biphenyls (TPCB that originate from oil spills in sea and ocean waters are toxic to fish and their offspring. The authors compare the levels of organic contaminants (TPAH and TPCB recovered from the bile versus the dorsal muscles of 120 individual Mugil spp. that were harvested from six sites in the eastern Mediterranean following a significant heavy oil spill. Results showed an insignificant difference between the mean of means of TPAH and TPCB (six means of individual Mugil spp. from six respective sites in bile versus dorsal muscle. In addition, the correlation equation between the level of bile TPAH and the level of bile carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (cPAH was established. This data suggests the possibility of substituting the analysis of organic contaminants in muscles by using the liquid bile of Mugil spp., thus eliminating the time-consuming steps of lyophilisation and homogenisation of muscle. In addition, the bile cPAH could be predicted from the bile TPAH by a regression relationship.

  17. Impact of dredged urban river sediment on a Saronikos Gulf dumping site (Eastern Mediterranean): sediment toxicity, contaminant levels, and biomarkers in caged mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kapsimalis, Vasilios

    2014-05-01

    Impacts of chemical contaminants associated with dumping of dredged urban river sediments at a coastal disposal area in Saronikos Gulf (Eastern Mediterranean) were investigated through a combined approach of sediment toxicity testing and active biomonitoring with caged mussels. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Cu, and Zn in combination with the solid phase Microtox® test were performed on sediments. Concentrations of PAHs, AHs, Cu, and Zn as well as multiple biomarkers of contaminant exposure and/or effects were measured in caged mussels. Sediments in the disposal and neighboring area showed elevated PAHs and AHs concentrations and were characterized as toxic by the solid-phase Microtox® test during and after dumping operations. Biomarker results in the caged mussels indicated sublethal effects mainly during dumping operations, concomitantly with high concentrations of PAHs and AHs in the caged mussel tissues. Cu and Zn concentrations in sediments and caged mussels were generally not elevated except for sediments at the site in the disposal area that received the major amount of dredges. High PAHs and AHs levels as well as sublethal effects in the caged mussels were not persistent after termination of operations. The combined bioassay-biomarker approach proved useful for detecting toxicological impacts of dredged river sediment disposal in sediments and the water column. Nevertheless, further research is needed to evaluate whether sediment toxicity will have long-term effects on benthic communities of the disposal area.

  18. 3D numerical modeling of mantle flow, crustal dynamics and magma genesis associated with slab roll-back and tearing: The eastern Mediterranean case

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    Menant, Armel; Sternai, Pietro; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between subduction dynamics and magma genesis have been intensely investigated, resulting in several conceptual models derived from geological, geochemical and geophysical data. To provide physico-chemical constraints on these conceptual models, self-consistent numerical simulations containing testable thermo-mechanical parameters are required, especially considering the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction systems. Here, we use a 3D high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical model to quantify the relative contribution of oceanic and continental subduction/collision, slab roll-back and tearing to magma genesis and transport processes. Our modeling results suggest that the space and time distribution and composition of magmas in the overriding plate is controlled by the 3D slab dynamics and related asthenospheric flow. Moreover, the decrease of the bulk lithospheric strength induced by mantle- and crust-derived magmas promotes the propagation of strike-slip and extensional fault zones through the overriding crust as response to slab roll-back and continental collision. Reduction of the lithosphere/asthenosphere rheological contrast by lithospheric weakening also favors the transmission of velocities from the flowing mantle to the crust. Similarities between our modeling results and the late Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic evolution across the eastern Mediterranean region suggest an efficient control of mantle flow on the magmatic activity in this region, which in turn promotes lithospheric deformation by mantle drag via melt-induced weakening effects.

  19. Atmospheric Dispersion of Radioactivity from Nuclear Power Plant Accidents: Global Assessment and Case Study for the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

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    Theodoros Christoudias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the contamination risks from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides released by severe nuclear power plant accidents using the ECHAM/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy atmospheric chemistry (EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model at high resolution (50 km. We present an overview of global risks and also a case study of nuclear power plants that are currently under construction, planned and proposed in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, a region prone to earthquakes. We implemented continuous emissions from each location, making the simplifying assumption that all potential accidents release the same amount of radioactivity. We simulated atmospheric transport and decay, focusing on 137Cs and 131I as proxies for particulate and gaseous radionuclides, respectively. We present risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations, deposition and doses to humans from the inhalation exposure of 131I. The estimated risks exhibit seasonal variability, with the highest surface level concentrations of gaseous radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere during winter.

  20. Did vaccination slow the spread of bluetongue in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioz, Maryline; Guis, Hélène; Pleydell, David; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier; Durand, Benoît; Ducrot, Christian; Lancelot, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most efficient ways to control the spread of infectious diseases. Simulations are now widely used to assess how vaccination can limit disease spread as well as mitigate morbidity or mortality in susceptible populations. However, field studies investigating how much vaccines decrease the velocity of epizootic wave-fronts during outbreaks are rare. This study aimed at investigating the effect of vaccination on the propagation of bluetongue, a vector-borne disease of ruminants. We used data from the 2008 bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) epizootic of southwest France. As the virus was newly introduced in this area, natural immunity of livestock was absent. This allowed determination of the role of vaccination in changing the velocity of bluetongue spread while accounting for environmental factors that possibly influenced it. The average estimated velocity across the country despite restriction on animal movements was 5.4 km/day, which is very similar to the velocity of spread of the bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic in France also estimated in a context of restrictions on animal movements. Vaccination significantly reduced the propagation velocity of BTV-1. In comparison to municipalities with no vaccine coverage, the velocity of BTV-1 spread decreased by 1.7 km/day in municipalities with immunized animals. For the first time, the effect of vaccination has been quantified using data from a real epizootic whilst accounting for environmental factors known to modify the velocity of bluetongue spread. Our findings emphasize the importance of vaccination in limiting disease spread across natural landscape. Finally, environmental factors, specifically those related to vector abundance and activity, were found to be good predictors of the velocity of BTV-1 spread, indicating that these variables need to be adequately accounted for when evaluating the role of vaccination on bluetongue spread.

  1. Did vaccination slow the spread of bluetongue in France?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryline Pioz

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the most efficient ways to control the spread of infectious diseases. Simulations are now widely used to assess how vaccination can limit disease spread as well as mitigate morbidity or mortality in susceptible populations. However, field studies investigating how much vaccines decrease the velocity of epizootic wave-fronts during outbreaks are rare. This study aimed at investigating the effect of vaccination on the propagation of bluetongue, a vector-borne disease of ruminants. We used data from the 2008 bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1 epizootic of southwest France. As the virus was newly introduced in this area, natural immunity of livestock was absent. This allowed determination of the role of vaccination in changing the velocity of bluetongue spread while accounting for environmental factors that possibly influenced it. The average estimated velocity across the country despite restriction on animal movements was 5.4 km/day, which is very similar to the velocity of spread of the bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic in France also estimated in a context of restrictions on animal movements. Vaccination significantly reduced the propagation velocity of BTV-1. In comparison to municipalities with no vaccine coverage, the velocity of BTV-1 spread decreased by 1.7 km/day in municipalities with immunized animals. For the first time, the effect of vaccination has been quantified using data from a real epizootic whilst accounting for environmental factors known to modify the velocity of bluetongue spread. Our findings emphasize the importance of vaccination in limiting disease spread across natural landscape. Finally, environmental factors, specifically those related to vector abundance and activity, were found to be good predictors of the velocity of BTV-1 spread, indicating that these variables need to be adequately accounted for when evaluating the role of vaccination on bluetongue spread.

  2. Flow in the shallow mantle in the westernmost Mediterranean: insights from xenoliths in Plio-Pleistocene alkali basalts from the eastern Betic Cordillera (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konc, Zoltán; Hidas, Károly; Garrido, Carlos J.; Tommasi, Andréa; Vauchez, Alain; Padrón Navarta, José Alberto; Marchesi, Claudio; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Szabó, Csaba; Varas-Reus, Maria Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Peridotite mantle xenoliths in Plio-Pleistocene alkali basalts of the eastern Betic Cordillera (Cartagena area, Murcia, SE Spain) provide a snapshot of the structure and composition of the lithospheric mantle at the northern limb of the Alpine Betic-Rif arched belt in the westernmost Mediterranean. The xenoliths are spinel and plagioclase lherzolite with minor harzburgite and wehrlite, displaying porphyroclastic to equigranular textures. Regardless of composition and texture, the Crystal Preferred Orientation (CPO) of olivine shows an axial-[100] pattern characterized by a strong alignment of [100]-axes near or parallel to the peridotite lineation and a girdle distribution of [010]-axes with a maximum normal to the peridotite foliation. This CPO pattern is consistent with ductile deformation accommodated by dislocation creep with dominant activation of the high temperature {0kl}[100] olivine slip system, indicative of deformation by simple shear or combinations of simple shear and pure shear with a transtensional component. Calculated seismic properties are characterized by fast propagation of P-waves and polarization of fast S-waves parallel to olivine [100]-axis, indicating the flow direction. SKS and Pn anisotropy in the eastern Betics can be explained by a lithospheric mantle peridotite with similar fabric to the one displayed by the studied mantle xenoliths. Considering the limited thickness of the mantle lithosphere in the Betics (40-80 km), the measured azimuths and delays of SKS waves in the eastern Betics are consistent with a steeply dipping mantle foliation and a subhorizontal lineation with ENE strike. This geometry of the lithospheric fabrics implies active or frozen mantle flow with a dominantly strike-slip component subparallel to the paleo-Iberian margin. Synkinematic overprinting of mineral assemblages from the garnet-spinel to the plagioclase facies demonstrates 36-40 km uplift continuously accommodated by ductile shear thinning of the

  3. The role of wildlife in bluetongue virus maintenance in Europe: lessons learned after the natural infection in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Sánchez-Matamoros, Almudena; Gortázar, Christian; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a re-emergent vector-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of the genus Orbivirus. A complex multi-host, multi-vector and multi-pathogen (26 serotypes) transmission and maintenance network has recently emerged in Europe, and wild ruminants are regarded as an important node in this network. This review analyses the reservoir role of wild ruminants in Europe, identifying gaps in knowledge and proposing actions. Wild ruminant species are indicators of BTV circulation. Excepting the mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), European wild ungulates do not develop clinical disease. Diagnostic techniques used in wildlife do not differ from those used in domestic ruminants provided they are validated. Demographic, behavioural and physiological traits of wild hosts modulate their relationship with BTV vectors and with the virus itself. While BTV has been eradicated from central and northern Europe, it is still circulating in the Mediterranean Basin. We propose that currently two BTV cycles coexist in certain regions of the Mediterranean Basin, a wild one largely driven by deer of the subfamily Cervinae and a domestic one. These are probably linked through shared Culicoides vectors of several species. We suggest that wildlife might be contributing to this situation through vector maintenance and virus maintenance. Additionally, differences in temperature and other environmental factors add complexity to the Mediterranean habitats as compared to central and northern European ones. Intervention options in wildlife populations are limited. There is a need to know the role of wildlife in maintaining Culicoides populations, and to know which Culicoides species mediate the wildlife-livestock-BTV transmission events. There is also a clear need to study more in depth the links between Cervinae deer densities, environmental factors and BTV maintenance. Regarding disease control, we suggest that research efforts should be

  4. Estimation of monthly global solar radiation in the eastern Mediterranean region in Turkey by using artificial neural networks

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    Sahan Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN model was used to estimate monthly average global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for selected 5 locations in Mediterranean region for period of 18 years (1993-2010. Meteorological and geographical data were taken from Turkish State Meteorological Service. The ANN architecture designed is a feed-forward back-propagation model with one-hidden layer containing 21 neurons with hyperbolic tangent sigmoid as the transfer function and one output layer utilized a linear transfer function (purelin. The training algorithm used in ANN model was the Levenberg Marquand back propagation algorith (trainlm. Results obtained from ANN model were compared with measured meteorological values by using statistical methods. A correlation coefficient of 97.97 (~98% was obtained with root mean square error (RMSE of 0.852 MJ/m2, mean square error (MSE of 0.725 MJ/m2, mean absolute bias error (MABE 10.659MJ/m2, and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 4.8%. Results show good agreement between the estimated and measured values of global solar radiation. We suggest that the developed ANN model can be used to predict solar radiation another location and conditions.

  5. Estimation of monthly global solar radiation in the eastern Mediterranean region in Turkey by using artificial neural networks

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    Sahan, Muhittin; Yakut, Emre

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was used to estimate monthly average global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for selected 5 locations in Mediterranean region for period of 18 years (1993-2010). Meteorological and geographical data were taken from Turkish State Meteorological Service. The ANN architecture designed is a feed-forward back-propagation model with one-hidden layer containing 21 neurons with hyperbolic tangent sigmoid as the transfer function and one output layer utilized a linear transfer function (purelin). The training algorithm used in ANN model was the Levenberg Marquand back propagation algorith (trainlm). Results obtained from ANN model were compared with measured meteorological values by using statistical methods. A correlation coefficient of 97.97 ( 98%) was obtained with root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.852 MJ/m2, mean square error (MSE) of 0.725 MJ/m2, mean absolute bias error (MABE) 10.659MJ/m2, and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 4.8%. Results show good agreement between the estimated and measured values of global solar radiation. We suggest that the developed ANN model can be used to predict solar radiation another location and conditions.

  6. Spatial distribution of tuna larvae in the Gulf of Gabes (Eastern Mediterranean in relation with environmental parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. KOCHED

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and ecology of the larvae of three tuna species (Thunnus thynnus, Auxis rochei and Euthynnus alletteratus were studied during an ichthyoplankton survey carried out in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia in June and July 2009. A total of 80 stations, distributed on a regular sampling grid, were sampled. The main objectives of this survey were to provide information on tuna larvae distribution in the Gulf of Gabes in relation to the environmental parameters. Regarding small tunas, larvae of A. rochei (bullet tuna showed the more widespread distribution, being found at both inshore and offshore stations. E. alletteratus (Atlantic black skipjack larvae were mainly found at the inshore stations covering the wide continental shelf of this region. On the other hand, larvae of the large migratory tuna T. Thynnus (Atlantic bluefin tuna, were mainly recorded at offshore stations, suggesting that spawning possibly takes place mainly near the shelf break. Regarding the biological and physical parameters examined, our results indicate that tuna larvae were mainly collected in oligotrophic and mixed waters resulting from the confluence of surface water of recent Atlantic origin and resident surface Mediterranean waters, as shown by their preference for lower chlorophyll a concentrations (from 1.4 to 2.5 mg m-3 and moderate salinity values (between 37.35 and 37.75. Significantly, tuna larvae seemed to avoid the more eutrophic and saltier waters of the gulf situated very close to the coast and around Kerkennah and Djerba islands.

  7. Hindcast of oil-spill pollution during the Lebanon crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean, July-August 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppini, Giovanni; De Dominicis, Michela; Zodiatis, George; Lardner, Robin; Pinardi, Nadia; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Bignami, Francesco; Hayes, Daniel R; Soloviev, Dmitry; Georgiou, Georgios; Kallos, George

    2011-01-01

    MOON (Mediterranean Operational Oceanography Network http://www.moon-oceanforecasting.eu) provides near-real-time information on oil-spill detection (ocean color and SAR) and predictions [ocean forecasts (MFS and CYCOFOS) and oil-spill predictions (MEDSLIK)]. We employ this system to study the Lebanese oil-pollution crisis in summer 2006 and thus to assist regional and local decision makers in Europe, regionally and locally. The MEDSLIK oil-spill predictions obtained using CYCOFOS high-resolution ocean fields are compared with those obtained using lower-resolution MFS hydrodynamics, and both are validated against satellite observations. The predicted beached oil distributions along the Lebanese and Syrian coasts are compared with in situ observations. The oil-spill predictions are able to simulate the northward movement of the oil spill, with the CYCOFOS predictions being in better agreement with satellite observations. Among the free MEDSLIK parameters tested in the sensitivity experiments, the drift factor appears to be the most relevant to improve the quality of the results.

  8. Dasyatispora levantinae gen. et sp. nov., a new microsporidian parasite from the common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca in the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Ariel; Goren, Menachem; Yokeş, M Baki; Galil, Bella S; Klopman, Yaelle; Huchon, Dorothée; Szitenberg, Amir; Karhan, S Unsal

    2010-09-02

    A new microsporidian infecting the Mediterranean common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758) is described from Iskenderun Bay, Turkey. The parasite invades the disc muscles, producing slender, spindle-shaped subcutaneous swellings that develop into massive, elongated, tumor-like protuberances measuring up to 11 x 4 cm. Severity of the infection may vary from light (1 or 2 small lesions) to intense, with large parts of the dorsal surface covered with lumps and protrusions. These masses contained a yellowish-white caseous substance consisting of degraded host tissue and microsporidian sporophorous vesicles, which in turn contained developing sporonts, sporoblasts and spores. The ripe spore contained a uni-nucleate sporoplasm and large posterior vacuole, and measured 3.8-4.3 x 2.6-2.8 microm. Infection prevalence was 21% in a sample of 143 host individuals examined. All the infected stingray individuals were within the weight class of 300 to 800 g (200 to 305 mm disc width). Phylogenetic analyses of rDNA sequences indicate that this microsporidian belongs to the Pleistophoridae and clusters with species of the genera Ovipleistophora Pekkarinen, Lom & Nilsen, 2002 and Heterosporis Schubert, 1969. However, the morphology, development and host differ distinctly from all reported species, including those belonging to these 2 genera, and it is thus assigned to a newly erected genus and named Dasyatispora levantinae gen. et sp. nov. This is the first record of a microsporidian infection in a batoid. It is also the first microsporidian species to be formally described from an elasmobranch.

  9. Oxygenated compounds in aged biomass burning plumes over the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence for strong secondary production of methanol and acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Holzinger

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of acetone, methanol, PAN, acetonitrile (by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry, and CO (by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy have been performed during the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidants Study (MINOS, August 2001. In the course of the campaign 10 biomass burning plumes, identified by strongly elevated acetonitrile mixing ratios, were found. The characteristic biomass burning signatures obtained from these plumes reveal secondary production of acetone and methanol, while CO photochemically declines in the plumes. Mean excess mixing ratios – normalized to CO – of 1.8%, 0.20%, 3.8%, and 0.65% for acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and PAN, respectively, were found in the plumes. By scaling to an assumed global annual source of 663–807 Tg CO, biomass burning emissions of 25–31 and 29–35 Tg/yr for acetone and methanol are estimated, respectively. Our measurements suggest that the present biomass burning contributions of acetone and methanol are significantly underestimated due to the neglect of secondary formation. Median acetonitrile mixing ratios throughout the troposphere were around 150 pmol/mol; this is in accord with current biomass burning inventories and an atmospheric lifetime of ~6 months.

  10. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  11. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  12. Spatial distribution of tuna larvae in the Gulf of Gabes (Eastern Mediterranean in relation with environmental parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. KOCHED

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and ecology of the larvae of three tuna species (Thunnus thynnus, Auxis rochei and Euthynnus alletteratus were studied during an ichthyoplankton survey carried out in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia in June and July 2009. A total of 80 stations, distributed on a regular sampling grid, were sampled. The main objectives of this survey were to provide information on tuna larvae distribution in the Gulf of Gabes in relation to the environmental parameters. Regarding small tunas, larvae of A. rochei (bullet tuna showed the more widespread distribution, being found at both inshore and offshore stations. E. alletteratus (Atlantic black skipjack larvae were mainly found at the inshore stations covering the wide continental shelf of this region. On the other hand, larvae of the large migratory tuna T. Thynnus (Atlantic bluefin tuna, were mainly recorded at offshore stations, suggesting that spawning possibly takes place mainly near the shelf break. Regarding the biological and physical parameters examined, our results indicate that tuna larvae were mainly collected in oligotrophic and mixed waters resulting from the confluence of surface water of recent Atlantic origin and resident surface Mediterranean waters, as shown by their preference for lower chlorophyll a concentrations (from 1.4 to 2.5 mg m-3 and moderate salinity values (between 37.35 and 37.75. Significantly, tuna larvae seemed to avoid the more eutrophic and saltier waters of the gulf situated very close to the coast and around Kerkennah and Djerba islands.

  13. Modelling spread of Bluetongue in Denmark: The code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare

    This technical report was produced to make public the code produced as the main project of the PhD project by Kaare Græsbøll, with the title: "Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies".......This technical report was produced to make public the code produced as the main project of the PhD project by Kaare Græsbøll, with the title: "Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies"....

  14. The molecular biology of Bluetongue virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Avnish; Roy, Polly

    2014-03-01

    The members of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family are arthropod-borne viruses which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. Bluetongue virus (BTV) which causes disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle) has been in the forefront of molecular studies for the last three decades and now represents the best understood orbivirus at a molecular and structural level. The complex nature of the virion structure has been well characterised at high resolution along with the definition of the virus encoded enzymes required for RNA replication; the ordered assembly of the capsid shell as well as the protein and genome sequestration required for it; and the role of host proteins in virus entry and virus release. More recent developments of Reverse Genetics and Cell-Free Assembly systems have allowed integration of the accumulated structural and molecular knowledge to be tested at meticulous level, yielding higher insight into basic molecular virology, from which the rational design of safe efficacious vaccines has been possible. This article is centred on the molecular dissection of BTV with a view to understanding the role of each protein in the virus replication cycle. These areas are important in themselves for BTV replication but they also indicate the pathways that related viruses, which includes viruses that are pathogenic to man and animals, might also use providing an informed starting point for intervention or prevention.

  15. Seroprevalence of bluetongue in ruminants of Jharkhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Tigga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to assess the presence of anti-bluetongue (BT antibodies in sheep, goat and cattle of different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from apparently healthy as well as suspected sheep, goat and cattle from different districts of Jharkhand covering different agro-climatic zones. Serum samples were screened by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA for detecting anti-BT antibodies. Results: Out of a total of 480 animal serum samples (sheep-190, goats-210 and cattle-80 screened, 83 (43.68% of sheep, 91 (43.33% of goat and 46 (57.50% of cattle sera were found positive. The % positivity ranged between 41% and 51% in different agro-climatic zones. The results showed slight higher seroprevalence, although not significantly, in cattle than sheep and goats in different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand. Conclusions: The above data indicate widespread prevalence of BT virus antibodies in studied areas. The incidence of BT is not detected officially, so far. The present seroprevalence status of BT in Jharkhand indicates presence of BT infection in the state for the first time.

  16. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in South Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkendu Halder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: With the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (BT in the southern part of West Bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of BT along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., Culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 1509 (sheep-504, goat-1005 samples were collected from three different agroclimatic zones of South Bengal viz. new alluvial, red laterite and coastal saline. To detect anti-BT antibodies in the collected serum samples, indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA was performed. Culicoides midges were collected from those agro-climatic zones of South Bengal for species identification. The meteorological parameters, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum, rainfall and relative humidity of three agro-climatic zones of South Bengal were analyzed for the months of July to December during 2010-2013. Results: The overall seropositivity was 33.13% and 30.24% in sheep and goat, respectively as assessed by i-ELISA. In South Bengal, the predominant species of Culicoides found were Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides palpifer and Culicoides definitus. Conclusion: Since virus transmitting species of Culicoides midges could be detected in South Bengal, besides high seropositivity in ruminants, the possibility of circulating BT virus in South Bengal is quite imminent.

  17. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sciare

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term (5-yr measurements of Black Carbon (BC and Organic Carbon (OC in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island. A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques was applied for these BC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols have shown to poorly contribute (+17% on a yearly average to light absorption coefficient (babs measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer. Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March–April and July–September. The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of BC and OC has shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis, although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and is expected a high intra and inter annual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the Spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45±0.12, suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A.D.<1.5 μm showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26±5%.

  18. Land Change in Eastern Mediterranean Wood-Pasture Landscapes: The Case of Deciduous Oak Woodlands in Lesvos (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan; Plieninger, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high—especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area remained stable with marginal losses in one study site and gains in the other one. Oak canopy cover increased by 8 and 9 %. Spatial hotspots of change were mountainous and peripheral phrygana areas with expanding oak stands, as well as river valleys and near urban areas with expanding olive groves and grass- and shrublands in former complex cultivation and oak stands. We conclude that the parallel processes of abandonment of crop cultivation and intensification of livestock grazing have been less detrimental to oak woodlands than supposed. To ensure long-term persistence of oak woodlands in the face of ongoing rural depopulation and land-use intensification, environmental and agricultural policies should better address their specificities as anthropogenic habitats.

  19. Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum – a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schmiedl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nine thousand years ago, the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration with a minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of the "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated in the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular a subsurface warming in the Cretan and Western Levantine areas. The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and the reconstructions from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. However, a reinterpretation of the reconstructions is proposed, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column. Such a depth-integrated approach accounts for the vertical range of preferred habitat depths of the foraminifera used for the reconstructions and strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal. The subsurface warming is recorded by both model and proxies, with a light shift to the south in the model results. The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the Western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region.

  20. Upper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum – a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adloff

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nine thousand years ago (9 ka BP, the Northern Hemisphere experienced enhanced seasonality caused by an orbital configuration close to the minimum of the precession index. To assess the impact of this "Holocene Insolation Maximum" (HIM on the Mediterranean Sea, we use a regional ocean general circulation model forced by atmospheric input derived from global simulations. A stronger seasonal cycle is simulated by the model, which shows a relatively homogeneous winter cooling and a summer warming with well-defined spatial patterns, in particular, a subsurface warming in the Cretan and western Levantine areas.

    The comparison between the SST simulated for the HIM and a reconstruction from planktonic foraminifera transfer functions shows a poor agreement, especially for summer, when the vertical temperature gradient is strong. As a novel approach, we propose a reinterpretation of the reconstruction, to consider the conditions throughout the upper water column rather than at a single depth. We claim that such a depth-integrated approach is more adequate for surface temperature comparison purposes in a situation where the upper ocean structure in the past was different from the present-day. In this case, the depth-integrated interpretation of the proxy data strongly improves the agreement between modelled and reconstructed temperature signal with the subsurface summer warming being recorded by both model and proxies, with a small shift to the south in the model results.

    The mechanisms responsible for the peculiar subsurface pattern are found to be a combination of enhanced downwelling and wind mixing due to strengthened Etesian winds, and enhanced thermal forcing due to the stronger summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Together, these processes induce a stronger heat transfer from the surface to the subsurface during late summer in the western Levantine; this leads to an enhanced heat piracy in this region, a process never

  1. Investigating the coastal paleo-seismic and paleo-tsunami records using vermetid benches in the Eastern Mediterranean: case of the Palm Islands reserve -Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vermetid benches or reefs are thick bio-constructions of marine shells of the Vermetidae group that thrive at sea-level and are used as proxy for crustal tectonic deformation, sea-level changes, paleoclimate reconstruction or paleo-Tsunami markers in different regions especially around the Mediterranean Sea. The Palm Islands Reserve located 5km offshore northern Lebanon in the Eastern Mediterranean, on the hanging wall of a submarine, active thrust fault - the Rankine-Abdeh fault - hold abundant vermetid bio-constructions that are still relatively well preserved. It is an exceptional site for testing and investigating hypothesis on the use of the vermetid benches. We surveyed the surface and shorelines of the Palm Island, the largest of the Islands. The fossil vermetid bio-constructions are present as uplifted benches on its northern side. Also, many of the large boulders mostly found on the south-western shore of the islands still hold vermetid bio-constructions originally from the intertidal position before the boulders were uplifted and thrown over the surface of the island away from the shoreline by powerful waves. Two continuous vertical sections of these bio-constructions, 7 and 13cm thick were sampled for radiocarbon dating. Of the 21 large boulders we surveyed 10 had their vermetid crusts sampled for 14C dating. Their measured radiocarbon ages are spread over many centuries and do not cluster around any single date that could correspond with that of a tsunami or storm event responsible for their transport. On another hand the radiocarbon ages from the uplifted benches show that the last co-seismic rupture of the underlying and offshore Rankine-Abdeh thrust took place after the 9th century AD and resulted in the tectonic uplift of the Palm Islands shoreline, by around 80cm. Interpretation of the morphology and ages of the vermetid bio-constructions found on the overthrown boulders suggest that another such co-seismic event happened towards the end of the

  2. Ancient settlements are significant sources of nutrients in Eastern Mediterranean ecosystems - the case of Tel Burna, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smejda, Ladislav; Hejcman, Michal; Shai, Itzhaq

    2016-04-01

    ecosystems and this process of nutrients dispersion will continue in the future. Human activities certainly have (and always have had) a long-term effect on soils, but not all these impacts are negative in the sense of environmental pollution. Especially in the semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems, where some key nutrients like P, K, S, Zn, Cu may be deficient in contemporary soils, the immediate surroundings of archaeological sites are clearly enriched from local reservoirs of such elements represented by archaeological sites. This demonstrates that archaeological sites are not only important cultural heritage, but also an essential part of local ecosystems, playing significant yet under-studied role in their long-term sustainability.

  3. The role of watercourse versus overland dispersal and niche effects on ostracod distribution in Mediterranean streams (eastern Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Escrivà, Andreu; Rueda, Juan; Zamora, Laia; Hernández, Ramón; Moral, Mónica del; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc

    2016-05-01

    The processes behind the heterogeneous distribution of species involve a combination of environmental and spatial effects. In the spatial context, stream networks constitute appropriate systems to compare the relative importance of two dispersal modes in aquatic organisms: overland and watercourse dispersal. In the present study, we analyzed the distribution of ostracod species in a river network in the eastern Iberian Peninsula, with variation partitioning between environmental and spatial factors, using Moran and Asymmetric Eigenvector Maps (MEMs, AEMs) as spatial variables. Our aims were to determine the relative importance of environmental and spatial control and to compare the importance of overland and watercourse dispersal for species distribution of passively-dispersing aquatic organisms. Our results suggest that watercourse was the most important dispersal mode, favoring mass-effects. The role of species sorting was significant and related to temperature, stream width and water quality, measured as a biotic index (IBMWP). These results stress the major importance of connectivity, besides niche-related factors, in structuring riverine communities of passively-dispersing aquatic organisms.

  4. Potential role of ticks as vectors of bluetongue virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwknegt, C.; Rijn, van P.A.; Schipper, J.M.J.; Holzel, D.R.; Boonstra, J.; Nijhof, A.; Rooij, van E.M.A.; Jongejan, F.

    2010-01-01

    When the first outbreak of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV8) was recorded in North-West Europe in August 2006 and renewed outbreaks occurred in the summer of 2007 and again in 2008, the question was raised how the virus survived the winter. Since most adult Culicoides vector midges are assumed not

  5. The behaviour of the extended HFSE group (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, W, Mo) during the petrogenesis of mafic K-rich lavas: The Eastern Mediterranean case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchenbaur, M.; Münker, C.

    2015-09-01

    In arc lavas, elements of the extended high field strength element group (HFSE; Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, W, and Mo) are valuable tracers to unravel magma source processes. These elements can also help to identify residual mineral assemblages in subducting slabs and in the mantle. Most high-precision studies on HFSE behaviour to date only focused on intra-oceanic arc suites and data for mafic lavas of the K-rich series (medium-K, high-K and shoshonitic) are scarce. Arguably, K-rich series are the most incompatible element-rich end-members of subduction zone magmatism, and they often record sediment recycling into the mantle. Understanding HFSE fractionation in K-rich lavas can therefore provide important insight into the global HFSE budget. Here we present a comprehensive extended HFSE dataset obtained by isotope dilution on well-characterised K-rich lavas from the Eastern Mediterranean, also including subducting sediment samples drilled during DSDP Leg 13 and ODP Leg 160 South and West of Crete. The volcanic samples include mafic calc-alkaline lavas from the active Aegean Island arc (Santorini) and post-collisional Tertiary lavas from SE Bulgaria. The Santorini lavas record a hydrous sediment melt-mediated source overprint of a depleted mantle source by components from the subducting African plate. The Bulgarian lavas tap lithospheric mantle sources that were overprinted by fluid- and melt-like subduction components during Eocene subduction of the African Plate. The sediments in this study comprise silts/sands, marl oozes, limestones and clay-rich debris flows and approximate the bulk sediment subducted beneath the Hellenic arc. The marked enrichment of all HFSE in the lavas is controlled by the composition of the subducted sediments as shown by low 176Lu/177Hf (0.008630-0.02433) and Zr/Nb (11.3-29.4), combined with variable εHf (-3 to +11) and elevated W contents (up to 2.45 ppm) in the lavas. Nevertheless, the lavas display unfractionated ratios of Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf of 12

  6. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%. Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2% and policymakers in the government (40.5%. Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%, disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%, interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%, and involved them in their research (19.8%. Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%, practical constraints to implementation (66%, non-receptive policy environment (61.3%, and politically sensitive findings (57.7% hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Conclusions Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to

  7. The Agia Marina Xyliatou Observatory: A remote supersite in Cyprus to monitor changes in the atmospheric composition of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciare, Jean

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region has been identified as one of the hot spot region in the world strongly influenced by climate changes impacts. This region is characterized by rapidly growing population with contrasting economic development, strong environmental gradients and climate extremes. However, long-term observations of the atmospheric constituents (gaseous and particulate) of the atmosphere at a remote site representative of EMME is still missing making difficult to assess current and future impacts on air quality, water resources and climate. In collaboration with the Department of Labour Inspection and in the frame of French research programs (ChArMEx and ENVI-Med "CyAr") and the EU H2020 "ACTRIS-2" (2015-2019) project, CyI and CNRS are putting unprecedented efforts to implement at a rural site of Cyprus (Agia Marina Xyliatou) a unique infrastructure to monitor key atmospheric species relevant to air quality and climate. A large set of real-time instrumentations is currently deployed to characterize reactive gases (incl. O3, CO, NOx, SO2, VOC), in-situ aerosol properties (mass, size distribution, light scatt./absorption/extinction coef. and chemistry) and as well as integrated optical properties (sunphotomer, solar flux). Through Transnational access (H2020 ACTRIS2), this station is offering to (non-)EU partners (Research, SMEs) a new atmospheric facility to monitor long range transported clean/polluted air masses from 3 different continents (Europe, Africa, Middle East) and investigate aerosol-cloud interactions through the use of UAV and a mountain site (Troodos, 1900m asl). We will present here an overview of this new research infrastructure and provide a first glance of key features observed from gas/aerosol measurements obtained in 2015

  8. Detection and molecular characterization of 9,000-year-old Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a Neolithic settlement in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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    Israel Hershkovitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the principal etiologic agent of human tuberculosis. It has no environmental reservoir and is believed to have co-evolved with its host over millennia. This is supported by skeletal evidence of the disease in early humans, and inferred from M. tuberculosis genomic analysis. Direct examination of ancient human remains for M. tuberculosis biomarkers should aid our understanding of the nature of prehistoric tuberculosis and the host/pathogen relationship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used conventional PCR to examine bone samples with typical tuberculosis lesions from a woman and infant, who were buried together in the now submerged site of Atlit-Yam in the Eastern Mediterranean, dating from 9,250-8,160 years ago. Rigorous precautions were taken to prevent contamination, and independent centers were used to confirm authenticity of findings. DNA from five M tuberculosis genetic loci was detected and had characteristics consistent with extant genetic lineages. High performance liquid chromatography was used as an independent method of verification and it directly detected mycolic acid lipid biomarkers, specific for the M. tuberculosis complex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human tuberculosis was confirmed by morphological and molecular methods in a population living in one of the first villages with evidence of agriculture and animal domestication. The widespread use of animals was not a source of infection but may have supported a denser human population that facilitated transmission of the tubercle bacillus. The similarity of the M. tuberculosis genetic signature with those of today gives support to the theory of a long-term co-existence of host and pathogen.

  9. A study of the cloud cover and cloud top pressure weekly cycle over the region of Eastern Mediterranean with the use of MODIS satellite data

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    Dalampiras, Pashalis; Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Alexandri, Georgia; Meleti, Charoula

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the spatiotemporal variability of cloud cover (CC) and cloud top pressure (CTP) over the region of Eastern Mediterranean is presented. The analysis is based on level-2 data from MODIS TERRA and AQUA satellite sensors for the period 3/2000-12/2012 and 7/2002-12/2012, respectively. The data used here are from the 0.1-degree aerosol-cloud gridded dataset that was compiled within the framework of QUADIEEMS project for the investigation of the aerosol indirect effects. The Weekly Cycle Index (WCI) and the day of weekly maximum/minimum patterns are calculated on a seasonal basis and their possible connections with local aerosol sources and the regional aerosol patterns are investigated. To generalize our results, the day-of-the-week variability of CC and CTP for 9 sub-regions with different aerosol characteristics is examined. Among the most striking features is a summer CC midweek minimum over the Balkan Peninsula. Contrasting this, a weekend CC minimum appears over the Aegean and the Black Sea. In spring, we observe a statistically significant weekend CC maximum over the Balkan Peninsula and the sea regions around it. The synergistic use of various satellite, model and reanalysis products indicates that these regions are characterized by a strong presence of anthropogenic aerosols. The opposite behaviour is observed for CTP; however, the statistically significant weekly maxima and minima appear mostly over land. The QUADIEEMS project is co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF) and national resources under the operational programme Education and Lifelong Learning (EdLL) within the framework of the Action "Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers".

  10. Causal links between Nile floods and eastern Mediterranean sapropel formation during the past 125 kyr confirmed by OSL and radiocarbon dating of Blue and White Nile sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. A. J.; Duller, G. A. T.; Williams, F. M.; Woodward, J. C.; Macklin, M. G.; El Tom, O. A. M.; Munro, R. N.; El Hajaz, Y.; Barrows, T. T.

    2015-12-01

    It has long been hypothesised that beds of highly organic mud or sapropels seen in marine sediment cores retrieved from the floor of the eastern Mediterranean accumulated during times of high Nile fluvial discharge. Our recent fieldwork in the valleys of the Blue Nile, the White Nile and the main Nile has for the first time revealed a sequence of extreme flood episodes synchronous with sapropel units S5 (124 kyr), S4 (102 kyr), S3 (81 kyr), S2 (55 kyr) and S1 (13.5-6.5 kyr). There are more weakly defined links with Nile floods and sapropel units S9 (240 kyr), S8 (217 kyr), S7 (195 kyr), S6 (172 kyr), but the dating error terms are too large to allow us to be too definite. During times of extreme floods over the past 125 kyr, wide distributary channels of the Blue Nile flowed across the Gezira alluvial fan in central Sudan and transported a bed load of sand and gravel into the lower White Nile valley. The sands were reworked by wind to form source-bordering dunes, all of which contain heavy minerals of Ethiopian provenance. These source-bordering dunes were active at 115-105 kyr, 60 kyr and 12-7 kyr, all times of extreme Blue Nile floods. The flood and dune sediments were dated using a combination of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon analyses. The Quaternary record of Nile floods discussed here shows a precessional signal and reflects episodes of stronger summer monsoon and more northerly seasonal movement of the ITCZ, linked to times of higher insolation in northern tropical latitudes. Progressive aggradation of Holocene Nile channels in northern Sudan has had a profound influence upon human settlement in the last 8 kyr.

  11. Comparison of the effects of public and private health expenditures on the health status: a panel data analysis in eastern mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Vahedi, Sajad; Teimourizad, Abedin; Esmaeilzadeh, Firooz; Hadian, Mohamad; Torabi Pour, Amin

    2013-08-01

    Health expenditures are divided in two parts of public and private health expenditures. Public health expenditures contain social security spending, taxing to private and public sectors, and foreign resources like loans and subventions. On the other hand, private health expenditures contain out of pocket expenditures and private insurances. Each of these has different effects on the health status. The present study aims to compare the effects of these expenditures on health in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). In this study, infant mortality rate was considered as an indicator of health status. We estimated the model using the panel data of EMR countries between 1995 and 2010. First, we used Pesaran CD test followed by Pesaran's CADF unit root test. After the confirmation of having unit root, we used Westerlund panel cointegration test and found that the model was cointegrated and then after using Hausman and Breusch-Pagan tests, we estimated the model using the random effects. The results showed that the public health expenditures had a strong negative relationship with infant mortality rate. However, a positive relationship was found between the private health expenditures and infant mortality rate (IMR). The relationship for public health expenditures was significant, but for private health expenditures was not. The study findings showed that the public health expenditures in the EMR countries improved health outcome, while the private health expenditures did not have any significant relationship with health status, so often increasing the public health expenditures leads to reduce IMR. But this relationship was not significant because of contradictory effects for poor and wealthy peoples.

  12. Ecological characteristics of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea – a case study from Rhodes

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    S. KALOGIROU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ecological and societal impact of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus on coastal habitats of an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Rhodes Island was investigated. Seasonal quantitative samplings in two common coastal habitats were used to investigate habitat use of different life-stages. Sandy areas were found to be highly important for the early life stages of L. sceleratus. In contrast, Posidonia oceanica habitats were mainly preferred by larger (> 29 cm reproductive adults, not exceeding 64 cm. Lagocephalus sceleratus was found to feed on invertebrates and fish while size classification revealed a tendency for a diet shift with increased size. During early life stages, L. sceleratus inhabits sandy bottoms where it feeds on various invertebrates. The predominant molluscan species found in the diet of larger (> 20 cm L. sceleratus individuals were the economically important Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris. The size at which 50% of individuals reach maturity was estimated to 19 cm. With increased size, habitat shift to seagrass meadows most possibly occurs to meet both the increased demand in prey availability and requirement of appropriate spawning ground. Condition factor of L. sceleratus showed significantly higher values during summer than all other seasons and this was attributed to spawning season and increase in feeding. Societal impacts were alarming due to increased public attention concerning its lethal effects (presence of tetrodotoxin, if consumed. Its high abundance in the coastal fish communities of the studied area combined with ecological and societal impacts, clearly classify L. sceleratus a pest for fisheries and potential threat for biodiversity.

  13. Ecological characteristics of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea – a case study from Rhodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KALOGIROU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ecological and societal impact of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus on coastal habitats of an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Rhodes Island was investigated. Seasonal quantitative samplings in two common coastal habitats were used to investigate habitat use of different life-stages. Sandy areas were found to be highly important for the early life stages of L. sceleratus. In contrast, Posidonia oceanica habitats were mainly preferred by larger (> 29 cm reproductive adults, not exceeding 64 cm. Lagocephalus sceleratus was found to feed on invertebrates and fish while size classification revealed a tendency for a diet shift with increased size. During early life stages, L. sceleratus inhabits sandy bottoms where it feeds on various invertebrates. The predominant molluscan species found in the diet of larger (> 20 cm L. sceleratus individuals were the economically important Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris. The size at which 50% of individuals reach maturity was estimated to 19 cm. With increased size, habitat shift to seagrass meadows most possibly occurs to meet both the increased demand in prey availability and requirement of appropriate spawning ground. Condition factor of L. sceleratus showed significantly higher values during summer than all other seasons and this was attributed to spawning season and increase in feeding. Societal impacts were alarming due to increased public attention concerning its lethal effects (presence of tetrodotoxin, if consumed. Its high abundance in the coastal fish communities of the studied area combined with ecological and societal impacts, clearly classify L. sceleratus a pest for fisheries and potential threat for biodiversity.

  14. Evaluation of the twenty-first century RCM simulations driven by multiple GCMs over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önol, Barış; Bozkurt, Deniz; Turuncoglu, Ufuk Utku; Sen, Omer Lutfi; Dalfes, H. Nuzhet

    2014-04-01

    In this study, human-induced climate change over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region has been analyzed for the twenty-first century by performing regional climate model simulations forced with large-scale fields from three different global circulation models (GCMs). Climate projections have been produced with Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2, A1FI and B1 scenarios, which provide greater diversity in climate information for future period. The gradual increases for temperature are widely apparent during the twenty-first century for each scenario simulation, but ECHAM5-driven simulation generally has a weaker signal for all seasons compared to CCSM3 simulations except for the Fertile Crescent. The contrast in future temperature change between the winter and summer seasons is very strong for CCSM3-A2-driven and HadCM3-A2-driven simulations over Carpathians and Balkans, 4-5 °C. In addition, winter runoff over mountainous region of Turkey, which feeds many river systems including the Euphrates and Tigris, increases in second half of the century since the snowmelt process accelerates where the elevation is higher than 1,500 m. Moreover, analysis of daily temperature outputs reveals that the gradual decrease in daily minimum temperature variability for January during the twenty-first century is apparent over Carpathians and Balkans. Analysis of daily precipitation extremes shows that positive trend is clear during the last two decades of the twenty-first century over Carpathians for both CCSM3-driven and ECHAM5-driven simulations. Multiple-GCM driven regional climate simulations contribute to the quantification of the range of climate change over a region by performing detailed comparisons between the simulations.

  15. 3D modelling of the active normal fault network in the Apulian Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean Sea): Integration of seismic and bathymetric data with implicit surface methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Pellegrini, Caludio; Savini, Alessandra; Marchese, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The Apulian ridge (North-eastern Ionian Sea, Mediterranean), interposed between the facing Apennines and Hellenides subduction zones (to the west and east respectively), is characterized by thick cretaceous carbonatic sequences and discontinuous tertiary deposits crosscut by a penetrative network of NNW-SSE normal faults. These are exposed onshore in Puglia, and are well represented offshore in a dataset composed of 2D seismics and wells collected by oil companies from the '60s to the '80s, more recent seismics collected during research projects in the '90s, recent very high resolution seismics (VHRS - Sparker and Chirp-sonar data), multibeam echosounder bathymetry, and sedimentological and geo-chronological analyses of sediment samples collected on the seabed. Faults are evident in 2D seismics at all scales, and their along-strike geometry and continuity can be characterized with multibeam bathymetric data, which show continuous fault scarps on the seabed (only partly reworked by currents and covered by landslides). Fault scarps also reveal the finite displacement accumulated in the Holocene-Pleistocene. We reconstructed a 3D model of the fault network and suitable geological boundaries (mainly unconformities due to the discontinuous distribution of quaternary and tertiary sediments) with implicit surface methods implemented in SKUA/GOCAD. This approach can be considered very effective and allowed reconstructing in details complex structures, like the frequent relay zones that are particularly well imaged by seafloor geomorphology. Mutual cross-cutting relationships have been recognized between fault scarps and submarine mass-wasting deposits (Holocene-Pleistocene), indicating that, at least in places, these features are coeval, hence the fault network should be considered active. At the regional scale, the 3D model allowed measuring the horizontal WSW-ENE stretching, which can be associated to the bending moment applied to the Apulian Plate by the combined effect

  16. Dew is a major factor affecting vegetation water use efficiency rather than a source of water in the eastern Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Asher, Jiftah; Alpert, Pinhas; Ben-Zvi, Arie

    2010-10-01

    The purpose here is to reexamine the ecological importance of dew in arid and semiarid regions with a focus on the eastern Mediterranean area. This reevaluation is of particular importance under the controversial perspective that dew is insufficient as a source of water for plants but is sufficient to promote the spread of plant diseases. Adana, Turkey, was selected as an appropriate semiarid test ground with well-documented meteorological data and a newly developed photosynthesis and transpiration rate monitor (PTM), which was used to detect the response of transpiration and photosynthesis to the presence of dew on the leaves. A convolution theoretical model was used to simulate no-dew days; simultaneously, PTM measurements were used to obtain actual situations with dew. Contrary to expectations, we detected separate, early peaks of photosynthesis and late peaks of transpiration, leading to an average ratio of about 2:1 units of water use efficiency (WUE) for dew-affected versus no-dew conditions. The impressive performance of the dew-affected WUE was explained by a synergy between (1) low transpiration during dew-affected morning hours and (2) high CO2 gradient toward the canopy. The first resulted from dew formation that created a humid environment in the near vicinity of the leaf followed by a low leaf to air vapor pressure deficit, which minimized transpiration. The second resulted from night respiration that induced a high CO2 gradient from the air toward the canopy. This synergy resulted in intensive carbon intake at a low water cost and explained the ecological importance of dew.

  17. Integrating the impact of cigarette and waterpipe tobacco use among adolescents in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a cross-sectional, population-level model of toxicant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Roderick, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Waterpipe smoking is more prevalent than cigarette smoking among adolescents in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); however, simple prevalence masks complex waterpipe smoking patterns and makes uncertain its contribution to risk of tobacco-related harm. This study aimed to integrate the impact of cigarette and waterpipe tobacco use on toxicant exposure among EMR adolescents. A cross-sectional model made equivalent individual-level toxicant exposure data for cigarettes and waterpipes, and aggregated it to 23 countries in the EMR using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The waterpipe model adjusted for estimated frequency of use, session duration and sharing behaviours. The final model included 60 306 12-17-year olds, and modelled as outcomes nicotine, carbon monoxide (CO) and 14 carcinogens. Sensitivity analyses substantially reduced session duration and proportion of solo use. Our model suggests waterpipe use may contribute a median of 36.4% (IQR 26.7-46.8%, n=16) of the total toxicant exposure from tobacco, and may reach up to 73.5% and 71.9% of total CO and benzene exposure, respectively. Sensitivity analyses reduced all values by 4.3-21.0%, but even the most conservative scenarios suggested over 50% of benzene and CO exposure was from waterpipe use. Between 69.2% and 73.5% of total toxicant exposure derived from dual cigarette and waterpipe users, who smoked cigarettes and waterpipe more frequently and intensely than single users. More research is warranted to refine our model's parameters. Tobacco control researchers should consider a move towards a single unit of measure for cigarette and waterpipe tobacco exposure in order to better inform health policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Assessment of the environmental status in Hellenic coastal waters (Eastern Mediterranean: from the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive.

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    N. SIMBOURA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A  methodology is presented to assess the environmental status sensu the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive (MSFD based on data obtained from the monitoring of water quality in the Hellenic coastal waters within the Water Framework Directive (WFD.   An adapted decision tree used for integrating the results of the WFD in the Basque country was applied. Modifications lie to the evaluation of the physicochemical status based on a eutrophication index developed for Eastern Mediterranean waters. Results on hydromorphological, physicochemical and biological elements are presented. The chemical status was evaluated based on measurements of heavy metals in water. The evaluation of the biological quality was based on the use of metrics developed for phytoplankton biomass, benthic macroinvertebrates and macroalgae updated to accommodate MSFD needs. Results on the integrative status of the water bodies were validated by correlating classification results with a pressure index and environmental indicators in water column and sediment. Following this decision tree the majority of stations expected to be at risk of achieving the good status were found in moderate status. Benthos was found to be the element with the closest agreement with the integrated final status having an increased weighting in the decision tree. The quality of benthos and in some  limited cases  the eutrophication index determined largely the final status. The highest disagreement with the integrative classification was produced by macroalgae. All indicators used correlated with water and sediment parameters but benthos correlated better with sediment factors while phytoplankton and eutrophication index with water column parameters.

  19. Assessment of the environmental status in Hellenic coastal waters (Eastern Mediterranean: from the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A  methodology is presented to assess the environmental status sensu the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive (MSFD based on data obtained from the monitoring of water quality in the Hellenic coastal waters within the Water Framework Directive (WFD.   An adapted decision tree used for integrating the results of the WFD in the Basque country was applied. Modifications lie to the evaluation of the physicochemical status based on a eutrophication index developed for Eastern Mediterranean waters. Results on hydromorphological, physicochemical and biological elements are presented. The chemical status was evaluated based on measurements of heavy metals in water. The evaluation of the biological quality was based on the use of metrics developed for phytoplankton biomass, benthic macroinvertebrates and macroalgae updated to accommodate MSFD needs. Results on the integrative status of the water bodies were validated by correlating classification results with a pressure index and environmental indicators in water column and sediment. Following this decision tree the majority of stations expected to be at risk of achieving the good status were found in moderate status. Benthos was found to be the element with the closest agreement with the integrated final status having an increased weighting in the decision tree. The quality of benthos and in some  limited cases  the eutrophication index determined largely the final status. The highest disagreement with the integrative classification was produced by macroalgae. All indicators used correlated with water and sediment parameters but benthos correlated better with sediment factors while phytoplankton and eutrophication index with water column parameters.

  20. Air quality modelling over the Eastern Mediterranean using the WRF/Chem model: Comparison of gas-phase chemistry and aerosol mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Christoudias, Theodoros; Proestos, Yiannis; Kushta, Jonilda; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the performance of three coupled gas-phase chemistry and aerosol mechanisms included in the WRF/Chem model has been performed over the Eastern Mediterranean focusing on Cyprus during the CYPHEX campaign in 2014, using high temporal and spatial resolution. The model performance was evaluated by comparing calculations to measurements of gas phase species (O3, CO, NOx, SO2) and aerosols (PM10, PM2.5) from 13 ground stations. Initial results indicate that the calculated day-to-day and diurnal variations of the aforementioned species show good agreement with observations. The model was set up with three nested grids, downscaling to 4km over Cyprus. The meteorological boundary conditions were updated every 3 hours throughout the simulation using the Global Forecast System (GFS), while chemical boundary conditions were updated every 6 hours using the MOZART global chemical transport model. Biogenic emissions were calculated online by the the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1). Anthropogenic emissions were based on the EDGAR HTAP v2 global emission inventory, provided on a horizontal grid resolution of 0.1o × 0.1o. Three simulations were performed employing different chemistry and aerosol mechanisms; i) RADM2 chemical mechanism and MADE/SORGAM aerosols, ii) CBMZ chemical mechanism and MOSAIC aerosols, iii) MOZART chemical mechanism and MOSAIC aerosols. Results show that the WRF/Chem model satisfactorily estimates the trace gases relative concentrations at the background sites but not at the urban and traffic sites, while some differences appear between the simulated concentrations by the three mechanisms. The resulting discrepancies between the model outcome and measurements, especially at the urban and traffic sites, suggest that a higher resolution anthropogenic emission inventory might help improve fine resolution, regional air quality modelling. Differences in the simulated concentrations by the

  1. [Bluetongue disease in Swiss sheep breeds: clinical signs after experimental infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worwa, G; Thür, B; Griot, C; Hofmann, M; MacLachlan, J N; Chaignat, V

    2008-10-01

    Clinical disease of bluetongue (BT) in sheep may differ depending on breed, age and immunity of infected sheep and may also vary between serotype and strain of BT virus (BTV). Since there are no data available on the susceptibility of Swiss sheep breeds for BT, we performed experimental infection of the 4 most common Swiss sheep breeds and the highly susceptible Poll Dorset sheep with the BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) circulating in Northern Europe since 2006. Clinical signs were assessed regarding severity, localisation, progression and time point of their appearance. The results clearly show that the Swiss sheep breeds investigated were susceptible to BTV-8 infection. They developed moderate, BT-characteristic symptoms, which were similar to those observed in Poll Dorset sheep. Regardless of breed, the majority of infected animals showed fever, swelling of the head as well as erosions of the mouth and subcutaneous haemorrhages.

  2. Flow in the western Mediterranean shallow mantle: Insights from xenoliths in Pliocene alkali basalts from SE Iberia (eastern Betics, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidas, Károly; Konc, Zoltán.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Tommasi, Andréa.; Vauchez, Alain; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Marchesi, Claudio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Szabó, Csaba; Varas-Reus, María. Isabel; Gervilla, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Mantle xenoliths in Pliocene alkali basalts of the eastern Betics (SE Iberia, Spain) are spinel ± plagioclase lherzolite, with minor harzburgite and wehrlite, displaying porphyroclastic or equigranular textures. Equigranular peridotites have olivine crystal preferred orientation (CPO) patterns similar to those of porphyroclastic xenoliths but slightly more dispersed. Olivine CPO shows [100]-fiber patterns characterized by strong alignment of [100]-axes subparallel to the stretching lineation and a girdle distribution of [010]-axes normal to it. This pattern is consistent with simple shear or transtensional deformation accommodated by dislocation creep. One xenolith provides evidence for synkinematic reactive percolation of subduction-related Si-rich melts/fluids that resulted in oriented crystallization of orthopyroxene. Despite a seemingly undeformed microstructure, the CPO in orthopyroxenite veins in composite xenoliths is identical to those of pyroxenes in the host peridotite, suggesting late-kinematic crystallization. Based on these observations, we propose that the annealing producing the equigranular microstructures was triggered by melt percolation in the shallow subcontinental lithospheric mantle coeval to the late Neogene formation of veins in composite xenoliths. Calculated seismic properties are characterized by fast propagation of P waves and polarization of fast S waves parallel to olivine [100]-axis (stretching lineation). These data are compatible with present-day seismic anisotropy observations in SE Iberia if the foliations in the lithospheric mantle are steeply dipping and lineations are subhorizontal with ENE strike, implying dominantly horizontal mantle flow in the ENE-WSW direction within vertical planes, that is, subparallel to the paleo-Iberian margin. The measured anisotropy could thus reflect a lithospheric fabric due to strike-slip deformation in the late Miocene in the context of WSW tearing of the subducted south Iberian margin

  3. Relationships between suspended sediment concentrations and discharge in two small research basins in a mountainous Mediterranean area (Vallcebre, Eastern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Montserrat; Latron, Jérôme; Gallart, Francesc

    2008-06-01

    The relationships between suspended sediment concentrations and discharge were studied at the Can Vila (0.56 km 2) and Ca l'Isard (1.32 km 2) sub-basins of the Vallcebre research area (Eastern Pyrenees) during a period of 5 years that included 67 events of diverse magnitude. Abandoned agricultural fields and forests are the main land use in the Can Vila basin, whereas the Ca l'Isard basin is mainly forested, though there are also some heavily eroded landscapes (badlands). The most frequent events were of a single discharge peak, although double and multiple peaked events were also recorded. Clockwise (positive) hysteretic loops occurred in both catchments, mainly during the wet seasons when precipitation was of moderate intensity (average of 18 mm h - 1) and baseflow before the event was rather high (average for Ca l'Isard 8.1 l s - 1 km - 2, and for Can Vila 11.76 l s - 1 km - 2); the bulk of stream discharge came from saturated areas, whereas sediments came mainly from the stream channels. Counter-clockwise (negative) hysteretic loops were much more frequent in the Ca l'Isard basin, mainly in summer when rainfall intensity was high (average of 32.5 mm h - 1) and baseflow was low (average for Ca l'Isard 0.94 l s - 1 km - 2 and for Can Vila 0.73 l s - 1 km - 2); most of the water and sediment came from the badlands. Eight-shaped loops occurred in transition periods, mainly in the Ca l'Isard basin.

  4. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) I. 20 years of investigations of hydrological dynamics; Hidrologia de un ambiente Mediterraneo de montana. Las cuencas de Vallcebre (Pirineo Oriental) I. 20 anos de investigaciones hidrologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Solar, M.; Poyatos, R.; Rubio, C.; Muzylo, A.; Martinez-Carreras, N.; Delgado, J.; Regues, D.; Catari, G.; Nord, G.; Gallart, F.

    2009-07-01

    Investigations started 20 years ago in the Vallcebre research basins with the objectives of better understanding the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains basins. The Vallcebre basins (0.15-4.17 km{sup 2}) are located in a Mediterranean mountain area of the Pyrenean ranges (1300 m.a.s.l., North Eastern Spain) Average annual precipitations 862{+-} 260 mm and potential evapotranspiration is 823{+-}26mm. Climate is highly seasonal leading to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations in the basins are related to rainfall interception, evapotranspiration, soil moisture spatio-temporal dynamics, runoff response and runoff processes, suspended sediment dynamics and model application both at the plot and basin scales. (Author) 15 refs.

  5. Epidemiological characteristics and clinicopathological features of bluetongue in sheep and cattle, during the 2014 BTV serotype 4 incursion in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis-Dimitrios; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Chaintoutis, Serafeim C; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Kiossis, Evangelos; Tsousis, Georgios; Psychas, Vassilios; Vlemmas, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Theologos; Papadopoulos, Orestis; Zientara, Stéphan; Karatzias, Harilaos; Boscos, Constantinos

    2016-03-01

    During 2014, an outbreak of Bluetongue virus (BTV) infections attributed to serotype 4 occurred in Greece and spread to south-eastern Europe. In the present article, the clinical and epidemiological data of 15 sheep flocks and 5 dairy cattle herds affected in Greece are described. In sheep, the most frequent clinical signs observed were fever, hyporexia, and edema of the face. A number of clinically affected sheep had chronic laminitis resulting in chronic lameness. Confirmation of suspect clinical cases was performed using BTV-specific real-time RT-PCR, and serotype 4-specific RT-PCR. The average morbidity of bluetongue in the sheep flocks was estimated to be 15.3 % (95 % C.I. 6.8-23.8 %) and the average mortality and case fatality were 4.5 % (95 % C.I. 1.5-7.6 %) and 32.0 % (95 % C.I. 18.1-42.9 %), respectively. The BTV seroprevalence and the ratio of clinical manifestations-to-infections determined in seven of these flocks, were on average 36.5 % (95 % C.I. 15.7-57.3 %) and 24.6 % (95 % C.I. 12.8-36.3 %). BTV ratio of clinical manifestations-to-infections was higher in the imported western European sheep breeds examined compared to the local ones. In dairy cattle, the average herd prevalence of viremia was 48.8 % (95 % C.I. 15.3-82.4 %) and none had signs associated with bluetongue. The results of this study indicate that the 2014 Greek BTV-4 has significant impact on the health status and the viability of sheep in affected flocks but does not cause clinical signs in cattle, despite the high prevalence of viremia.

  6. Estimating front-wave velocity of infectious diseases: a simple, efficient method applied to bluetongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pioz Maryline

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding the spatial dynamics of an infectious disease is critical when attempting to predict where and how fast the disease will spread. We illustrate an approach using a trend-surface analysis (TSA model combined with a spatial error simultaneous autoregressive model (SARerr model to estimate the speed of diffusion of bluetongue (BT, an infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV and transmitted by Culicoides. In a first step to gain further insight into the spatial transmission characteristics of BTV serotype 8, we used 2007-2008 clinical case reports in France and TSA modelling to identify the major directions and speed of disease diffusion. We accounted for spatial autocorrelation by combining TSA with a SARerr model, which led to a trend SARerr model. Overall, BT spread from north-eastern to south-western France. The average trend SARerr-estimated velocity across the country was 5.6 km/day. However, velocities differed between areas and time periods, varying between 2.1 and 9.3 km/day. For more than 83% of the contaminated municipalities, the trend SARerr-estimated velocity was less than 7 km/day. Our study was a first step in describing the diffusion process for BT in France. To our knowledge, it is the first to show that BT spread in France was primarily local and consistent with the active flight of Culicoides and local movements of farm animals. Models such as the trend SARerr models are powerful tools to provide information on direction and speed of disease diffusion when the only data available are date and location of cases.

  7. Estimating front-wave velocity of infectious diseases: a simple, efficient method applied to bluetongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioz, Maryline; Guis, Hélène; Calavas, Didier; Durand, Benoît; Abrial, David; Ducrot, Christian

    2011-04-20

    Understanding the spatial dynamics of an infectious disease is critical when attempting to predict where and how fast the disease will spread. We illustrate an approach using a trend-surface analysis (TSA) model combined with a spatial error simultaneous autoregressive model (SAR(err) model) to estimate the speed of diffusion of bluetongue (BT), an infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides. In a first step to gain further insight into the spatial transmission characteristics of BTV serotype 8, we used 2007-2008 clinical case reports in France and TSA modelling to identify the major directions and speed of disease diffusion. We accounted for spatial autocorrelation by combining TSA with a SAR(err) model, which led to a trend SAR(err) model. Overall, BT spread from north-eastern to south-western France. The average trend SAR(err)-estimated velocity across the country was 5.6 km/day. However, velocities differed between areas and time periods, varying between 2.1 and 9.3 km/day. For more than 83% of the contaminated municipalities, the trend SAR(err)-estimated velocity was less than 7 km/day. Our study was a first step in describing the diffusion process for BT in France. To our knowledge, it is the first to show that BT spread in France was primarily local and consistent with the active flight of Culicoides and local movements of farm animals. Models such as the trend SAR(err) models are powerful tools to provide information on direction and speed of disease diffusion when the only data available are date and location of cases.

  8. Mediterranean Outflow Mixing Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    tugal. G. Parrnlla is at Instituto EspaWol Oceanografia , Fig. 2A. [Adapted from (36)] (C) The maximum observed velocity of outflow currents in the eastern...its sur- Oceanografia Fisica del Estrecho de Gibraltar, J. of Mediterranean water that we observed at the roundings (34) and retains its chemical L

  9. Seismotectonics of the Antalya Basin and surrounding regions in eastern Mediterranean from 8 to 28 December 2013 Mw 5.0-5.8 earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgün, Ethem; Kalafat, Doğan; Kekovalı, Kıvanç

    2016-05-01

    The 8-28 December 2013 Mw 5.0-5.8 Antalya Basin earthquake sequence in eastern Mediterranean is examined. Centroid moment tensors for 16 earthquakes with moment magnitudes (Mw) between 3.6 and 5.8 are determined by applying a waveform inversion method. All earthquakes are shallow focus thrust events at a depth of 40-45 km. The seismic moments (Mo) of the earthquakes are estimated as 4.10 × 1016-5.54 × 1017 N m and rupture durations of the mainshocks are 20-22 s. The focal mechanisms of the aftershocks are mainly thrust faulting with a strike-slip component and reveal NW-SE trending direction of T-axis in the entire activated region. According to high-resolution hypocenter relocation of the Antalya earthquake sequence, seven main clusters are revealed. The aftershock activity in the observation period between 1 December 2013 and 23 January 2015 extends in an N to S direction. A seismic cross-section indicates that a complex pattern of the hypocenter distribution with the activation of seven segments. The westernmost cluster (cluster 1) is associated with a fault plane trending mainly WNW-ESE and dipping vertical, while the cluster 5 is related to a fault plane trending NNE-SSW and dipping towards SSE. The best constrained focal depths indicate that the aftershock sequence is mainly confined in the crust (depth < 40 km) and are operating in the approximate depth range from 3 to 110 km. A stress tensor inversion of focal mechanism data is performed to obtain a more precise picture of the Antalya Basin stress field. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant thrust stress regime with a NE-SW oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress (SH). According to variance of the stress tensor inversion, to first order, the Antalya Basin is characterized by a homogeneous interplate stress field. The Coulomb stress change associated with two mainshocks are also investigated to evaluate any significant enhancement of stresses along the Antalya Basin and

  10. Human resources for health planning and management in the Eastern Mediterranean region: facts, gaps and forward thinking for research and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ahmad

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early decades of the 21st century are considered to be the era of human resources for health (HRH. The World Health Report (WHR 2006 launched the Health Workforce Decade (2006–2015, with high priority given for countries to develop effective workforce policies and strategies. In many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR, particularly those classified as Low and Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs, the limited knowledge about the nature, scope, composition and needs of HRH is hindering health sector reform. This highlights an urgent need to understand the current reality of HRH in several EMR countries. The objectives of this paper are to: (1 lay out the facts on what we know about the HRH for EMR countries; (2 generate and interpret evidence on the relationship between HRH and health status indicators for LMICs and middle and high income countries (MHICs in the context of EMR; (3 identify and analyze the information gaps (i.e. what we do not know and (4 provide forward thinking by identifying priorities for research and policy. Methods The variables used in the analysis were: nurse and physician density, gross national income, poverty, female literacy, health expenditure, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR, Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR, Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR and Life Expectancy (LE. Univariate (charts, bivariate (Pearson correlation and multivariate analysis (linear regression was conducted using SPSS 14.0, besides a synthesis of HRH literature. Results Results demonstrate the significant disparities in physician and nurse densities within the EMR, particularly between LMICs and MHICs. Besides this, significant differences exist in health status indicators within the EMR. Results of the Pearson correlation revealed that physician and nurse density, as well as female literacy in EMR countries were significantly correlated with lower mortality rates and higher life expectancy. Results of the regression

  11. Relationships between lake-level changes and water and salt budgets in the Dead Sea during extreme aridities in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiro, Yael; Goldstein, Steven L.; Garcia-Veigas, Javier; Levy, Elan; Kushnir, Yochanan; Stein, Mordechai; Lazar, Boaz

    2017-04-01

    Thick halite intervals recovered by the Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project cores show evidence for severely arid climatic conditions in the eastern Mediterranean during the last three interglacials. In particular, the core interval corresponding to the peak of the last interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage 5e or MIS 5e) contains ∼30 m of salt over 85 m of core length, making this the driest known period in that region during the late Quaternary. This study reconstructs Dead Sea lake levels during the salt deposition intervals, based on water and salt budgets derived from the Dead Sea brine composition and the amount of salt in the core. Modern water and salt budgets indicate that halite precipitates only during declining lake levels, while the amount of dissolved Na+ and Cl- accumulates during wetter intervals. Based on the compositions of Dead Sea brines from pore waters and halite fluid inclusions, we estimate that ∼12-16 cm of halite precipitated per meter of lake-level drop. During periods of halite precipitation, the Mg2+ concentration increases and the Na+/Cl- ratio decreases in the lake. Our calculations indicate major lake-level drops of ∼170 m from lake levels of 320 and 310 m below sea level (mbsl) down to lake levels of ∼490 and ∼480 mbsl, during MIS 5e and the Holocene, respectively. These lake levels are much lower than typical interglacial lake levels of around 400 mbsl. These lake-level drops occurred as a result of major decreases in average fresh water runoff, to ∼40% of the modern value (pre-1964, before major fresh water diversions), reflecting severe droughts during which annual precipitation in Jerusalem was lower than 350 mm/y, compared to ∼600 mm/y today. Nevertheless, even during salt intervals, the changes in halite facies and the occurrence of alternating periods of halite and detritus in the Dead Sea core stratigraphy reflect fluctuations between drier and wetter conditions around our estimated average. The halite intervals include

  12. U-Pb LA-SF-ICP-MS zircon geochronology of the Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece: palaeotectonic constraints for Gondwana-derived terranes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, Guido; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Frei, Dirk; Himmerkus, Felix; Reischmann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    of occurrences of Avalonia- and Armorica-derived terranes in the Eastern Mediterranean and moreover help to clarify palaeogeographic reconstructions for the peri-Gondwana realm in the Early Palaeozoic.

  13. The Influence of Climate and Micro-climate (aspect) on Soil Creep Efficiency: cinder cone morphology and evolution along the eastern Mediterranean Golan Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Asher, Matan; Haviv, Itai; Roering, Joshua. J.; Crouvi, Onn

    2017-04-01

    Although hillslope evolution has occupied geoscientists for over a century, the effect of climate on the morphology of soil-mantled hillslopes remained poorly-constrained. In this study we utilize numerical simulations of volcanic cinder cones in the Golan Heights (Eastern Mediterranean) to estimate soil creep efficiency across a strong north-to-south gradient in mean annual precipitation (1100-500 mm). Our model utilizes the initial cinder cone profile (constrained by the dip of the ash layers), the current hillslope profile (measured with cm scale accuracy) and the known eruption age (40Ar-39Ar constraints) to predict the best-fit value of the soil creep diffusion coefficient ('diffusivity'). Our results indicate that the best-fit diffusivity coefficient varies from 0.5 to 6 m2/ka among the seven cinder cones we have analyzed. Soil diffusivity varies with both climate (precipitation) and aspect-related microclimate: diffusivity values are higher on south facing hillslopes, and decrease with mean annual precipitation. This climate dependency likely reflects an increase in the apparent soil cohesion (or resistance to disturbance-driven transport) at higher precipitation rates due to higher density of vegetation coverage (root network) which co-varies with rainfall and aspect. We demonstrate this significant co-variance utilizing the spatial distribution of NDVI vegetation index calculated from ASTER images and show that aspect-related hillslope asymmetry becomes established over time on cinder cones as well as in other landforms. In addition, our results show that 750-850 ka cinder cones display lower diffusivity values relative to late Pleistocene cinder cones (120-150 ka). This temporal variance in diffusivity may reflect either rapid transport associated with climatic conditions of the last glacial and inter-glacial period or time-dependent material properties that influence transport efficiency. Analysis of previously studied cinder cones in the US extends our

  14. The isolation of bluetongue virus from field populations of the Obsoletus Complex in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, G; Goffredo, M; Monaco, F; Di Gennaro, A; de Santis, P; Meiswinkel, R; Caporale, V

    2004-01-01

    Between July and September 2002, bluetongue (BT) virus (BTV) serotypes 2 and 9 caused mortalities amongst sheep in the communities of San Gregorio Magno (Salerno, Campania), Laviano (Salerno, Campania) and Carpino (Foggia, Puglia), central Italy. On three of the affected farms, approximately 10,000 specimens of Culicoides were captured, representing fifteen species. Not a single specimen of the classical Afro-Asiatic BT vector, C. imicola Kieffer, was found; species of the Obsoletus Complex dominated the light-trap collections (90%) and included C. obsoletus (Meigen), C. scoticus Downes and Kettle and C. dewulfi Goetghebuer. Fifty-eight pools of the Obsoletus Complex (excluding C. dewulfi), each numbering 100 individuals per pool, and containing only parous and gravid females, were assayed for virus. BTV serotype 2 (BTV-2) was isolated from three pools (San Gregorio and Carpino) and BTV-9 from one (Laviano). These results indicate clearly that a species other than C. imicola is involved in the current re-emergence of BT in the Mediterranean Basin, but whether this is only C. obsoletus sensu stricto, or only C. scoticus, or both together, has yet to be established.

  15. Virus and host factors affecting the clinical outcome of Bluetongue Virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caporale, M.; Gialleonorado, L.; Janowicz, A.; Wilkie, G.; Shaw, A.; Savini, G.; Rijn, van P.A.; Mertens, P.; Ventura, M.; Palmarini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue is a major infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by Culicoides. Here, we assessed virus and host factors influencing the clinical outcome of BTV infection using a single experimental framework. We investigated how mammalian host species

  16. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue disease in small ruminants of north-east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Najarnezhad

    2013-06-01

    Conclusions: The results showed that the majority of animals in the north-east of Iran are infected with bluetongue virus. High correlation between abortion history and seroposivity emphasize the economical importance of bluetongue virus in the sheep herds of the region.

  17. Duration of protective immunity after a single vaccination with a live attenuated bivalent bluetongue vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhugunissov, Kuandyk; Yershebulov, Zakir; Barakbayev, Kainar; Bulatov, Yerbol; Taranov, Dmitriy; Amanova, Zhanat; Abduraimov, Yergali

    2015-12-01

    The prevention of bluetongue is typically achieved with mono- or polyvalent modified- live-attenuated virus (MLV) vaccines. MLV vaccines typically elicit a strong antibody response that correlates directly with their ability to replicate in the vaccinated animal. They are inexpensive, stimulate protective immunity after a single inoculation, and have been proven effective in preventing clinical bluetongue disease. In this study, we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a bluetongue vaccine against Bluetongue virus serotypes 4 and 16 in sheep. All the animals remained clinically healthy during the observation period. The vaccinated animals showed no clinical signs except fever (>40.8 °C) for 2-4 days. Rapid seroconversion was observed in the sheep, with the accumulation of high antibody titers in the vaccinated animals. No animal became ill after the challenge, indicating that effective protection was achieved. Therefore, this vaccine, prepared from attenuated bluetongue virus strains, is safe, immunogenic, and efficacious.

  18. Βιβλιοκρισία του: T. C. LOUNGHIS,Byzantium in the Eastern Mediterranean: Safeguarding East Roman Identity (407 – 1204, Nicosia (Cyprus Research Centre. Texts and Studies in the History of Cyprus, LXIII 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore COSENTINO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Βιβλιοκρισία του: T. C. LOUNGHIS, Byzantium in the Eastern Mediterranean: Safeguarding East Roman Identity (407 – 1204, Nicosia 2010 (Cyprus Research Centre. Texts and Studies in the History of Cyprus, LXIII, pp. IX-XXXIV, 1-220, ISBN: 978-9963-0-8118-9.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium Alcanivorax dieselolei KS-293 Isolated from Surface Seawater in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2015-12-10

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Alcanivorax dieselolei KS-293, a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium isolated from the Mediterranean Sea, by supplying diesel oil as the sole carbon source. This strain contains multiple putative genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways and that are highly similar to those described in A. dieselolei type strain B5.

  20. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  1. Quasi-Stationary SST Estimation in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea Using Marine Gravity, GOCE/GRACE Gravity Information and Recent Altimetry Missions Through the Multiple Input/Multiple Output System Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andritsanos, Vassilios D.; Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2016-08-01

    The Multiple Input / Multiple Output System (MIMOS) Theory is used in the spectral combination of marine and satellite data for Quasi-stationary Sea Surface Topography (QSST) estimation. 15 years (2000 - 2015) of altimetric data from ERS2, GEOSAT FOLLOW-ON, ENVISAT and SARAL / Altika satellites are optimally combined with in situ marine gravity observations. The repeated character of the altimetric missions provides more than one sample of Sea Surface Height (SSH) data sets, and the approximation of the input signal and output error power spectral densities is feasible using this successive information. The assimilation of low frequency global gravity information from GOCE/GRACE satellites is considered in data reductions. The geodynamically active area of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is chosen as test area and the evolution of yearly SST is presented.

  2. The paleoclimate of the Eastern Mediterranean during the transition from early to mid Pleistocene (900 to 700 ka) based on marine and non-marine records: An integrated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    2011-04-01

    Climate change is frequently considered an important driver of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. The role of climate change in the last phase (900-700 ka) of the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) in the Levant and northeast Africa was examined, using marine and non-marine records. During the MPT the global climate system shifted from a linear 41 k.yr. into a highly non-linear 100 k.yr. system, considerably changing its global modulation. Northeast Africa aridity further intensified around 950ka, as indicated by a sharp increase in dust flux, and a jump to overall higher levels thereafter, coinciding with a lack of sapropels in the deep eastern Mediterranean (930-690ka). The increased dust flux centering at ∼800ka corresponds to the minima in 400 k.yr. eccentricity, a minima in 65 °N solar forcing and in the weakest African monsoon precession periodicity. This resulted in expansion of hyper-arid conditions across North Africa, the lowest lake levels in eastern Africa and the lowest rainfall in the Nile River headwaters. In the eastern Mediterranean an increasing continental signature is seen in glacial stages 22 (∼880ka) and 20 (∼800ka). Lower arboreal pollen values also indicate arid conditions during these glacial stages. The southern and eastern parts of the Negev Desert, unlike its northern part, were hyper-arid during the MPT, making them highly unsustainable. The fluctuations in the stands of Lake Amora follow global climate variability but were more moderate than those of its last glacial Lake Lisan successor. In the northern Jordan-Valley Hula Lake, frequent fluctuations in lake level coincide with both global climate changes and minor changes in water salinity varying from fresh to oligohaline. It appears therefore that the most pronounced and widespread deterioration in climate occurred in northeast Africa from 900 to 700ka, whereas in the Levant the corresponding climatic changes were more moderate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. An analysis of socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountain Villages in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey, with consideration of gender roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davran, Müge K; Ocak, Sezen; Secer, Arzu

    2009-10-01

    This paper aims to reveal socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountains' villages in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey: with consideration of gender roles. Goat production sector is the most important livelihood activity in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. According to various new regulations of the Ministry of Forestry, goat production in the mountainous villages of Taurus Mountains has been banned for recent year for various reasons such as; the destruction of shoots and branches in trees, forest degradation and erosion. Therefore, goat production is decreasing dramatically in that region. Data were collected in 4 districts of 8 villages in which goat production has been done intensively (two villages in each district) by face to face interview with 52 women and 58 men. Data were analyzed in Statistical Program of Social Science (SPSS). According to our findings, goat production has different affects on the lives of men and women and the sustainability of the sector is dependent on social factors, primarily education.

  4. Subclinical bluetongue virus infection in domestic ruminants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fan; Ting, Lu-Jen; Jong, Ming-Hwa; Chang, Wei-Ming; Wang, Fun-In

    2010-05-19

    Bluetongue is an arthropod-borne viral disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants. Taiwan, with the Tropic of Cancer crossing through it, was considered free of bluetongue virus (BTV) before 2001. The goals of this study are to identify the serotype and phylogeny of Taiwan BTV isolates and to understand the serological status and chronology of BTV infection. Analysis of the S10 gene segment revealed that Taiwan BTV isolates are closely related to Chinese strains. Seropositive results were found in 32.7% of the cattle and 8.2% of the goats by head, and 90.7% of the cattle herds and 28.9% of the goat flocks. Anti-BTV antibodies have existed in goat sera since 1989 and in bovine sera since 1993, and over the years, the seropositive rates in rapidly urbanized districts have decreased, most likely due to the loss of vector habitats. Seropositive rates for sheep were variable, due to a small sample size and a small sheep population. Thus far, all natural BTV infections have been subclinical, consistent with experimental sheep inoculation, revealing that the Taiwan isolate is of low virulence.