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Sample records for eastern mare imbrium

  1. Geology, tectonism and composition of the northwest Imbrium region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Li, Lin; Luo, Xiaoxing; Lu, Yu; Chen, Yuan; Pieters, Carle M.; Basilevsky, Alexander T.; Head, James W.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the regional geology of the northwest Imbrium region in which the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) landing site is located. CE-3 successfully landed on December 14, 2013 on the unsampled Eratosthenian basalts whose study is important for understanding the evolution of the Moon. New geologic and structural maps of the research area were produced through the integrated analysis of diverse datasets. The highlands surrounding Imbrium differ from typical Farside Highlands Terrain (FHT). The Iridum highland region (as well as the surrounding Imbrium region) exhibits elevated concentrations of Fe, and abundant local exposures of low-Ca pyroxene and olivine bearing lithologies. In this study these highlands are named as mafic highlands (MH). Our dating results using crater size-frequency distributions (CSFDs) show that the Iridum basin (hosting Sinus Iridum) was formed ∼3.8 Ga, shortly following the Imbrium basin formation and before the last large multiringed basin, Orientale. The Eratosthenian period of lunar basalt eruptions, which lasted longer than other stratigraphic units, is suggested to divide into the Lower Eratosthenian mare (LEm) and Upper Eratosthenian mare (UEm) units. This subdivision is based on whether lava fronts can be clearly seen or not and the age separating the units is 2.35 Ga. The mafic mineralogy of the mare basalts in Imbrium is characterized by abundant olivine in the Eratosthenian-aged basalts and average pyroxene compositions near pigeonite to sub-calcic augite in the Imbrian and Em1 units. The thickness of individual lava for UEm units is 8-11 m, indicative of high effusion rates. The thickness of the Em3 unit ranges from ∼17 m to ∼45 m with lesser thickness to the west and greater thickness in the interior and to the east. The estimated volume and average flux of the Eratosthenian-aged basalts are greater than previously thought. The presence of these youngest basalts in the Procellarum-KREEP terrain (PKT) is

  2. Impact melts of the Orientale and Imbrium basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudis, P.

    2014-12-01

    The largest impacts on the Moon - those that form the multi-ring basins - can produce thousands of cubic kilometers of melt. This melt is largely concentrated inside the basin, although some is ejected along with the clastic materials that make up the continuous ejecta blanket that surrounds basins. Impact melt is important because it contains information on the crustal target for basins as well as being the most suitable material to date basin-forming events. New geological mapping of the lunar Orientale and Imbrium impact basins has identified likely deposits of both types of impact melt. The Orientale basin (930 km diameter) is well preserved and only partly flooded by later mare basalts. The basin interior melt sheet is represented by the Maunder Formation, a smooth-to-cracked surface unit that covers the innermost basin ring. Study of the composition of the Maunder Fm. as determined by remote sensing shows that it is remarkably uniform both laterally and vertically, with no evidence of differentiation. Surrounding the basin are vast ejecta deposits, most of which are probably made up of clastic material. However, a few isolated deposits contained within basin secondary craters appear melt-like, with low albedo and a cracked surface texture (e.g., Struve L, 20.7° N, 76° W). The larger (1160 km diameter) and slightly older Imbrium basin is mostly filled with mare basalt lava, concealing most of the basin floor. The Imbrium basin exterior shows isolated deposits of melt-like material in several locales, including on the floors of the craters Parrot C (18.5° S, 1.2° E) and Murchison (5.1° N, 0.1° W). These deposits have low albedo and show cracked surfaces, with evidence of ground flow after deposition. Their composition is remarkably similar to highland basaltic impact melts found in the Apollo collections, such as the Apollo 17 impact melts. These features offer the possibility of examining basin impact melt at distances far removed from basin interiors or

  3. HORMONETHERAPY IN MARE

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    A. L. M. Marinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When compared with other domestic animals the equine species is that present the minors reproductive indices. Besides some parameters of estrous cycle are variable to we consider each mare individually, what hinders the reproductive handling, these females respond the alterations of seasonality, this fact limits in reproduction its potential. Therefore, the uses of innovative reproductive biotechnologies and hormonal protocols have shown indispensable for the producers who wish to increase the reproductive rate of this species. Hormontherapy has shown great efficiency in handling the estrous cycle of these females. Thus, this literature review aimed to perform an update regarding hormonal protocols used in the equine species. Dealt with the main hormones used to control the estrous cycle of mares, as prostaglandin F2a (PGF2α, estrogens, progestogens, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, equine pituitary extract (EPE, the purified equine follicle stimulating hormone (eFSH and oxytocin. It became evident that the knowledge of hormontherapy applied in equine reproduction is of utmost importance, allowing higher profitability by improving the reproductive efficiency of animals of high genetic value, generating benefits for both the professional as to the owner

  4. Hielke Miguel Haak Mares

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    Leonardo Romero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El 25 de junio de 2004 falleció el Dr. Hielke Haak, un destacado colega que fue muy considerado no sólo por su trayectoria académica sino además por su calidad personal. Hielke Miguel Haak Mares nació el 21 de mayo de 1948 y luego de seguir sus estudios en nuestra Alma Mater, en 1974 obtuvo el Grado Acadé- mico de Bachiller en Biología, luego en 1975 obtuvo el Título Profesional de Biólogo y en 1976 el Grado Académico de Magíster en Bioquímica, siendo becario de la Fundación Kellogg. Posteriormente en 1989 se graduó de Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas.

  5. Mare Tralla noore kunstnikuna Saksamaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    19. juulist 30. augustini Lüübekis kunstisihtasutuse Overbeck-Gesellschaft korraldusel toimuval noortrnäitusel osalevad Yael Davids Iisraelist, Helena Hietanen Soomest, Koji Tanada Jaapanist, Thorvaldur Thorsteinsson Islandilt ja Mare Tralla Eestist.

  6. Soome kooli kitsaskohad / Mare Leino

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leino, Mare, 1961-

    2016-01-01

    Helsingi ülikooli professorite Liisa Keltikangas-Järvineni ja Sari Mullola raamatust "Maailma parim kool?" (ilmunud 2016. aastal Mare Leino tõlkes ka Eestis), kus Soome kooli puudusi päevavalgele tuuakse

  7. Lunar mare TiO2 abundances estimated from UV/Vis reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Robinson, Mark S.; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Denevi, Brett W.; Hapke, Bruce; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Hiesinger, Harald

    2017-11-01

    The visible (400-700 nm) and near-infrared (700-2800 nm) reflectance of the lunar regolith is dominantly controlled by variations in the abundance of plagioclase, iron-bearing silicate minerals, opaque minerals (e.g., ilmenite), and maturation products (e.g., agglutinate glass, radiation-produced rims on soil grains, and Fe-metal). The same materials control reflectance into the near-UV (250-400 nm) with varying degrees of importance. A key difference is that while ilmenite is spectrally neutral in the visible to near-infrared, it exhibits a diagnostic upturn in reflectance in the near-UV, at wavelengths shorter than about 450 nm. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) filters were specifically designed to take advantage of this spectral feature to enable more accurate mapping of ilmenite within mare soils than previously possible. Using the reflectance measured at 321 and 415 nm during 62 months of repeated near-global WAC observations, first we found a linear correlation between the TiO2 contents of the lunar soil samples and the 321/415 nm ratio of each sample return site. We then used the coefficients from the linear regression and the near-global WAC multispectral mosaic to derive a new TiO2 map. The average TiO2 content is 3.9 wt% for the 17 major maria. The highest TiO2 values were found in Mare Tranquillitatis (∼12.6 wt%) and Oceanus Procellarum (∼11.6 wt%). Regions contaminated by highland ejecta, lunar swirls, and the low-TiO2 maria (e.g., Mare Frigoris, the northeastern units of Mare Imbrium) exhibit very low TiO2 values (maps (Lucey et al., 2000) have systematically higher values relative to the WAC estimates. The Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) TiO2 map is consistent with the WAC TiO2 map, although there are local offsets possibly due to the different depth sensitivities and large pixel scale of the GRS relative to the WAC. We find a wide variation of TiO2 abundances (from 0 to 10 wt%) for early mare volcanism (>2

  8. Apollo 15 impact melts, the age of Imbrium, and the Earth-Moon impact cataclysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1992-01-01

    The early impact history of the lunar surface is of critical importance in understanding the evolution of both the primitive Moon and the Earth, as well as the corresponding populations of planetesimals in Earth-crossing orbits. Two endmember hypotheses call for greatly dissimilar impact dynamics. One is a heavy continuous (declining) bombardment from about 4.5 Ga to 3.85 Ga. The other is that an intense but brief bombardment at about 3.85 +/- Ga was responsible for producing the visible lunar landforms and for the common 3.8-3.9 Ga ages of highland rocks. The Apennine Front, the main topographic ring of the Imbrium Basin, was sampled on the Apollo 15 mission. The Apollo 15 impact melts show a diversity of chemical compositions, indicating their origin in at least several different impact events. The few attempts at dating them have generally not produced convincing ages, despite their importance. Thus, we chose to investigate the ages of melt rock samples from the Apennine Front, because of their stratigraphic importance yet lack of previous age definition.

  9. Galileo observations of post-imbrium lunar craters during the first Earth-Moon flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Neukum, Gerhard; Hoffmann, Harald; Pieters, Carle M.; Head, James W.

    Copernican-age craters are among the most conspicuous features seen on the far side and western limb of the Moon in the Galileo multispectral images acquired in December 1990. Among the new morphologic observations of far-side craters are bright rays, continuous ejecta deposits, and dark rings associated with probable impact-melt veneers. These observations suggest that the mapped age assignments of several large far-side craters (Ohm, Robertson, and possibly Lowell and Lenz) need revision. New crater size-frequency measurements on Lunar Orbiter images suggest the following age reassignments: Hausen (170 km diameter), Pythagoras (120 km), and Bullialdus (61 km) from Eratosthenian to Upper Imbrian, and Carpenter (60 km) and Harpalus (39 km) from Copernican to Eratosthenian. Colors and albedos of craters (away from impact-melt veneers) are correlated with their geologic emplacement ages as determined from counts of superposed craters; these age-color relations are used to estimate the emplacement age (time since impact event) for other Copernican-age craters. These age-color relations indicate a probable Copernican age for 27 far-side or western limb craters larger than 10 km diameter that were not previously mapped as Copernican. The apparent deficiency of Copernican craters on the far side compared with the near side in published geologic maps is not present in our data. Age-color trends differ between mare and highland regions and between the interiors and continuous ejecta of the craters. Similar trends are established for color and albedo versus soil-maturity indices for the returned lunar samples, with distinct trends for mare and highland soils. However, the mare versus highland offsets are reversed in the two comparisons. These relations can be explained by variations in regolith thicknesses and rates of mixing with relatively fresh, crystalline ejecta. Therefore, the soil-maturity trends represent longer geologic time periods in regions with thinner

  10. Inflammation and fertility in the mare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Troedsson, Mats H.T.

    2017-01-01

    -inflammatory factors is required for resolving the breeding-induced inflammation within 24–36 hr in the reproductively healthy mare, whereas a subpopulation of mares is susceptible to development of a persistent infection that can interfere with fertility. The aetiology of persistent endometritis can be either...

  11. Tracey Emin - 20 aastat vabadust / Mare Tralla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tralla, Mare, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Edinburghi kunstifestivali "Fringe" raames Šoti moodsa kunsti rahvusgaleriis kuni 9. XI avatud Tracey Emini retrospektiivist "Tracey Emini 20 aastat". Kunstnikust ja tema loomingust. Festivali programmi oli valitud ka Mare Tralla projekt "Kaitstud"

  12. Tundetargad meeskonnad on head suhtekorraldajad / Mare Pork

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare

    2003-01-01

    Psühholoogiaprofessor Mare Pork defineerib meeskonna emotsionaalse intelligentsuse mõiste ja kirjeldab kõrge EQ-ga meeskonna tunnuseid. Lisad: Mis arendab meeskonna EQ-d?; Meeskonna emotsionaalne intelligentsus EQ nelja komponendi järgi

  13. Sotsiaaltöö koolis / Mare Leino

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leino, Mare, 1961-

    2000-01-01

    Rets. rmt. : Leino, Mare. Õpetaja sotsiaaltöö tegijana : sotsiaalpedagoogika : monograafia = Teacher as a social worker : social pedagogic : a monograph / Mare Leino ; Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool. Tallinn : Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli Kirjastus, 2000. 146 lk. : ill. - (Acta Universitatis Scientiarum Socialium et Artis Educandi Tallinnensis. A, Humaniora =Proceedings of the Tallinn University of Social and Educational Sciences. A, Humaniora = Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli toimetised. A, Humaniora, 1023-1064 ; 18). Bibliogr. lk. 136-146. Kokkuv. inglise keeles

  14. Assessment of Endometritis in Arabian Mare

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, MA; Al-Hizab, FA; Ghoneim, IM; Al-Dughaym, AM; Al-Hashim, HJ

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to employ different methods for diagnosis of endometritis in Arabian mare. The study was conducted on 88 barren Arabian mares. After establishing the breeding history and completing the clinical examination, 50 of them were diagnosed as endometritis. Two swabs were obtained for bacteriological culture and cytological smears. Biopsy specimens were taken from the endometrium for histological examination. The results revealed that the ageing and the abnormal vulvar conformation ...

  15. VARIAZIONI DELLE COSTANTI ARMONICHE DELLE MAREE COL LIVELLO DEL MARE

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    SILVIO POLLI

    1955-06-01

    Full Text Available L'oscillazione della marea può essere considerata
    quale somma di oscillazioni elementari sinusoidali. Le più importanti
    di queste sono la componente lunare semidiurna principale M2, la
    solare semidiurna principale S2, la lunisolare declinazionale diurna
    Kl, la lunare diurna principale 01, la solare diurna principale PI e
    la lunare semidiurna ellittica maggiore N2. Per caratterizzare la marea
    in un dato posto si determinano le costanti armoniche delle maree
    componenti. Esse sono i valori delle semiampiezze H (in cm delle
    singole onde componenti e le corrispondenti situazioni vere o assolute
    / (in gradi, che rappresentano il ritardo dell'alta marea rispetto al
    passaggio al meridiano di Greenwich dell'astro che produce quella
    marea. Invece della situazione vera y si usa, per maggior comodità,
    la situazione adattata g, cioè riferita al meridiano sul quale è regolata
    l'ora locale.

  16. Mare and foal survival and subsequent fertility of mares treated for uterine torsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoormakers, T.J.P.; Graat, E.A.M.; Braake, ter F.; Stout, T.A.E.; Bergman, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: Previous surveys have reported that mare and foal survival after correction of uterine torsion (UT) varies from 60 to 84% and from 30 to 54%, respectively. Furthermore, resolution via a standing ¿ank laparotomy (SFL) has been associated with better foal, but not mare,

  17. Mare and foal survival and subsequent fertility of mares treated for uterine torsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoormakers, T J P; Graat, E A M; Ter Braake, F; Stout, T A E; Bergman, H J

    2015-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Previous surveys have reported mare and foal survival after correction of uterine torsion varies from 60-84% and 30-54%, respectively. Furthermore, resolution via a standing flank laparotomy (SFL) has been associated with better foal, but not mare, survival. OBJECTIVES:

  18. Lunar impact basins: New data for the nearside northern high latitudes and eastern limb from the second Galileo flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Belton, M.; Greeley, R.; Pieters, C.; Fischer, E.; Sunshine, J.; Klaasen, K.; Mcewen, A.; Becker, T.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    During the December 1992 Galileo Earth/Moon encounter the northern half of the nearside, the eastern limb, and parts of the western farside of the Moon were illuminated and in view, a geometry that was complementary to the first lunar encounter in December, 1990, which obtained images of the western limb and eastern farside. The Galileo Solid State Imaging System (SSI) obtained multispectral images for these regions during the second encounter and color ratio composite images were compiled using combinations of band ratios chosen on the basis of telescopic spectra and laboratory spectra of lunar samples. Ratios of images taken at 0.41 and 0.76 micron are sensitive to changes in the slope in the visible portion of the spectrum, and ratios of 0.99 and 0.76 micron relate to the strength of near-infrared absorptions due to iron-rich mafic minerals (0.76/0.99 ratio) such as olivine and pyroxene. Results of the analyses of the compositional diversity of the crust, maria, and Copernican craters are presented elsewhere. Primary objectives for lunar basin analysis for the second encounter include analysis of: the north polar region and the Humboldtianum basin; the characteristics of the Imbrium basin along its northern border and the symmetry of associated deposits; the origin of light plains north of Mare Frigoris and associated with several other basins; the nature and significance of pre-basin substrate; the utilization of the stereo capability to assess subtle basis structure; the identification of previously unrecognized ancient basins; basin deposits and structure for limb and farside basins; and assessment of evidence for proposed ancient basins. These data and results will be applied to addressing general problems of evaluation of the nature and origin of basin deposits, investigation of mode of ejecta emplacement and ejecta mixing, analysis of the origin of light plains deposits, analysis of basin deposit symmetry/asymmetry, investigation of basin depth of

  19. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

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    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (IEEE ICRA [6] Strawser et al. (2014) J. Hydrogen Energy. [7] Dubowsky et al. (2007) Proc. CLAWAR.

  20. Serum Mineral Profile in Various Reproductive Phases of Mares

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    Farah Ali1, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi*2, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi2, Ijaz Ahmad2 and Riaz Hussain1

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the trace mineral profile in fertile, subfertile and pregnant mares kept under different management conditions. For this purpose the blood samples were collected without anticoagulant from 100 field mares and 100 farm mares for serum separation. All animals were grouped according to their history and rectal examination. Serum manganese levels in pregnant mares were significantly (P<0.05 higher than all other mares. Serum iron levels showed no significant difference between the groups and within the groups. Pregnant mare in field conditions showed significantly (P<0.05 higher serum copper level than farm animals. Serum zinc levels in estrual group of mares under field conditions showed significantly (P<0.05 lower levels compared with rest of the three groups and from farm maintained groups. Serum zinc levels in estrual mares under farm condition were significantly (P<0.05 higher as compared to their counterparts under field conditions. Fertile, subfertile and pregnant mares under field conditions differed significantly (P<0.05 from one another, pregnant mares showed significantly (P<0.05 higher levels compared with rest of three groups under same condition. Pregnant mares under field conditions showed significantly (P<0.05 higher serum selenium levels when compared with the farm animals. It can be concluded that deficiency of manganese, iron, zinc, copper and selenium might be possible causes of infertility in mares.

  1. 33 CFR 334.1100 - San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part of the Navy Yard, Mare Island, south of the causeway between the City of Vallejo and Mare Island... Commander, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, shall navigate, anchor or moor in this area. ...

  2. Management and fertility of mares bred with frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, J C

    2001-12-03

    Semen quality, mare status and mare management during estrus will have the greatest impact on pregnancy rates when breeding mares with frozen semen. If semen quality is not optimal, mare selection and reproductive management are crucial in determining the outcome. In addition to mare selection, client communication is a key factor in a frozen semen program. Old maiden mares and problem mares should be monitored for normal cyclicity and all, except young maidens, should have at least a uterine culture and cytology performed. Mares with positive bacterial cultures and cytologies should be treated at least three consecutive days when in estrus with the proper antibiotic. With frozen semen, timing the ovulation is highly desirable in order to reduce the interval between breeding and ovulation. The use of ovulation inducing agents such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or the GnRH analogue, deslorelin, are critical components to accurately time the insemination with frozen semen. Most hCG treated mares ovulate 48h post-treatment (12-72h) while most deslorelin (Ovuplant) treated mares ovulate 36-42h post-treatment. However, mares bred more than once during the breeding cycle appear to have a slight but consistent increase in pregnancy rate compared to mares bred only once pre- or post-ovulation. In addition, the "capacitation-like" changes inflicted on the sperm during the process of freezing and thawing appear to be responsible for the shorter longevity of cryopreserved sperm. Therefore, breeding closer to ovulation should increase the fertility for most stallions with frozen semen. Recent evidence would suggest that breeding close to the uterotubal junction increases the sperm numbers in the oviduct increasing the chances of pregnancy. Post-breeding examinations aid in determining ovulation and uterine fluid accumulations so that post-breeding therapies can be instituted if needed. Average pregnancy rates per cycle of mares bred with frozen semen are between 30 and

  3. Mare and foal survival and subsequent fertility of mares treated for uterine torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoormakers, T J P; Graat, E A M; ter Braake, F; Stout, T A E; Bergman, H J

    2016-03-01

    Previous surveys have reported that mare and foal survival after correction of uterine torsion (UT) varies from 60 to 84% and from 30 to 54%, respectively. Furthermore, resolution via a standing flank laparotomy (SFL) has been associated with better foal, but not mare, survival. To compare the success of SFL with other correction methods (e.g. midline or flank laparotomy under general anaesthesia; correction per vaginam). Retrospective analysis of clinical records. Data on correction technique, stage of gestation, degree of rotation, survival and subsequent fertility for 189 mares treated for UT at 3 equine referral hospitals in The Netherlands during 1987-2007 were analysed. Mean stage of gestation at diagnosis was 283 days (range 153-369 days), with the majority of UTs (77.5%) occurring before Day 320 of gestation. After correction of UT, 90.5% of mares and 82.3% of foals survived to hospital discharge, between 3 and 39 days later, and to foaling. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that correction method and stage of gestation at UT affected survival of foals and mares. For foals, survival was 88.7% after SFL compared with 35.0% after other methods (P = 0.001). When UT occurred at foals survived, compared with 56.1% at ≥320 days (P = 0.007). For mare survival, an interaction between stage of gestation and correction method was detected (P = 0.02), with higher survival after SFL (97.1%) than other methods (50.0%) at <320 days of gestation (P<0.01). When UT occurred at ≥320 days, mare survival did not differ between techniques (76.0 vs. 68.8%; P = 0.6). Of 123 mares that were bred again, 93.5% became pregnant; fertility did not differ between mares treated by SFL (93.9%) and other techniques (87.5%; P = 0.9). Standing flank laparotomy is the surgical technique of choice for resolving uncomplicated equine UT (i.e. with no coexisting gastrointestinal lesions) except when the stage of gestation exceeds 320 days. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  5. Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummins C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal. Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane. Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support. Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased.

  6. Trakehner breed mares reproduction properties analysis in Vilnius stud Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Greblikas, Rokas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of Master’s thesis: To analyse Trakehner breed mares reproduction properties. Tasks of Master’s thesis: To examine the indicators of the Trakehner breed mares reproduction - fertility, a number of abortion, embryonic period in Vilnius stud. 1. To examine the impact of various factors on mares reproduction properties. Methods used to conduct a research: 1) Zootechnical - documentary analysis, 2) Analytical analysis, 3) Statistical analysis. The research relies on data...

  7. Embryo transfer in competition horses: Managing mares and expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M L H

    2014-01-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) is an accepted and successful technique for obtaining foals from mares without interrupting their competition careers. Recent research, however, suggests that the potential of factors including heat, exercise, repeated embryo flushing and repeated manipulation of the reproductive cycle using exogenous hormones to have a negative impact on fertility may have been underestimated. This paper reviews the evidence base for involvement of these factors in repeated failures to recover embryos from nongeriatric competition mares without obvious clinical or pathological indications of reproductive abnormalities. It concludes that, for some mares at least, a cessation of exercise for the periovulatory period and the period between ovulation and embryo flushing, combined with careful management of flushing-induced endometritis, and minimal hormonal manipulation of the reproductive cycle, may be necessary to optimise embryo recovery rates. Mare owners may have been encouraged to request ET for their mares following high-profile examples in the media of elite mares that have produced foals by ET whilst competing. The veterinarian should educate mare owners about the multiple factors that may affect the chances of recovering an embryo from their mares, and should manage the expectations of mare owners so that they do not approach ET programmes in the expectation that there will be no disruption to their training and competition plans. PMID:25977596

  8. Thicknesses of Mare Basalts from Gravity and Topograhy

    Science.gov (United States)

    GONG, S.; Wieczorek, M.; Nimmo, F.; Kiefer, W.; Head, J.; Smith, D.; Zuber, M.

    2015-10-01

    Mare basalts are derived from partial melting of the lunar interior and are mostly located on the near side of the Moon [1, 2]. Their iron-rich composition gives rise to their dark color, but also causes their density to be substantially higher than normal crustal rocks. The total volume of mare basalts can provide crucial information about the Moon's thermal evolution and volcanic activity. Unfortunately, the thicknesses of the mare are only poorly constrained. Here we use gravity data from NASA's GRAIL mission to investigate the thickness of mare basalts.

  9. Mare Pork: emotsionaalsed kangid on kõige tõhusamad / Mare Pork

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare, 1950-

    2010-01-01

    Kliinilise psühholoogia professor Mare Pork tutvustab vestluses raamatut: Neale, Stephen; Spencer-Arnell, Lisa; Wilson, Liz. Emotsionaalse intelligentsuse treening : kuidas tõsta tippjuhi, arengutreeneri ja iseendaga tehtava töö tulemuslikkust. [Tallinn] : Äripäev, 2009

  10. Mare Pork : Koolitus olgu puhkus ja pingutus / Mare Pork ; interv. Urve Vilk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 12. märts lk. 16-17. Koolitaja Mare Pork leiab, et töös võiks olla rohkem lõbu ja loovust ning koolitus võiks olla nii korralik pingutus kui ka korralik puhkus täis-ümberlülitusega

  11. Villa Rocca al Mares = Villa in Rocca al Mare / Raul Vaiksoo ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaiksoo, Raul, 1955-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Loigu t. 3 asuva villa arhitektuursest lahendusest. Majas on kasutatud palju klaasi, konstruktsioonid on avatud. Arhitekt Raul Vaiksoo, kaasautor Kristo Vaiksoo, sisearhitektid Raul Vaiksoo ja Krista Aren (Raul Vaiksoo Arhitektuuribüroo). Raul Vaiksoo pälvis Rocca al Mare villa eest EK arhitektuuri sihtkapitali 2010. a. arhitektuuripreemia

  12. Impact of reproductive efficiency over time and mare financial value on economic returns among Thoroughbred mares in central Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, K A; Powell, D; Neibergs, J S; Shelton, B; Zent, W

    2009-12-01

    There have been no studies reporting the impact of reproductive efficiency and mare financial value on economic returns. To explore the economic consequences of differences in reproductive efficiency over time in the Thoroughbred mare. Complete production records for 1176 mares were obtained. Production history and drift in foaling date were calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors influencing the probability of producing a registered foal in 2005. The 'net present value' and 'internal rate of return' were calculated for economic scenarios involving different initial mare financial values, levels of reproductive efficiency, and durations of investment. Among mares that did not produce a foal every year (63%), the mean time before failing to produce a registered foal was 3.4 years. The majority of mares drifted later in their foaling dates in subsequent foaling seasons. Increasing mare age, foaling after 1st April, needing to be mated multiple times during the season, and producing a lower number of foals in continuous sequence during previous years decreased the probability of producing a registered foal. Over a 7 year investment period, live foals must be produced in all but one year to yield a positive financial return. Profitability was highest among mares of greatest financial value. Mares are long-term investments due to the extended period before there is a return on the investment. Improving our understanding of mare, stallion and management factors that affect the likelihood of producing a live foal are critical to ensuring a positive financial return. Additional work is needed to test the robustness of the study's conclusions when the cost and revenue assumptions are varied. This information can assist in assessing mare profitability and developing management strategies to maximise profitability.

  13. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  14. Jules Verne Mare Soils as Revealed by Clementine UVVIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Head, J. W.

    1999-03-01

    To determine the nature of potentially low-Ca pyroxene (noritic) spectra in six South Pole-Aitken basin mare deposits, we undertake a multispectral analysis of a representative of these deposits, that associated with Jules Verne crater.

  15. Mare Tralla noore kunstnikuna Saksamaal / Barbi Pilvre, Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvre, Barbi, 1963-

    1998-01-01

    19. juulist 30. augustini Lüübekis kunstisihtasutuse Overbeck-Gesellschaft korraldusel toimuval noortenäitusel osalevad Yael Davids Iisraelist, Helena Hietanen Soomest, Koji Tanada Jaapanist, Thorvaldur Thorsteinsson Islandilt ja Mare Tralla Eestist

  16. Rocca al Mare kooli lapsed saavad lisavaheaja / Hanneli Rudi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rudi, Hanneli

    2011-01-01

    Rocca al Mare kooli õpilased saavad talvel ühe lisavaheaja juurde, seetõttu lõpeb nende kooliaasta aga alles 15. juunil, ka Hugo Treffneri gümnaasium palub linnavõimudelt luba pikendada kooliaastat

  17. Integrating Diverse Datasets to Assess Approaches for Characterizing Mare Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitrick, S. R.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-10-01

    This research utilizes new LROC data to re-evaluate the composition of the mare basalt flows in the Marius Hills Volcanic Complex to provide new insights about the relative ages of the low shields and surrounding flows.

  18. Aquatic macrophytes from Danube Delta lagoons Musura Bay and Zatonul Mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava D.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Danube Delta, a unique, young and continuing to grow region situated in the eastern part of Europe, is the largest continuous marshland and the second largest delta on the continent, and also a favorable place for developing a unique flora and fauna in Europe, with many rare and protected species. The predominance of the aquatic environment, led to the existence of a particular macrophytic flora. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of aquatic macrophytes. The present study took place over two years, between 2013-2014, and in each year a number of expeditions were made in the two lagoons (Musura Bay and Zătonul Mare in different seasons, in order to observe the diverse flora, because, due to seasonal variation in water quality, there might be a significantly seasonality of the vegetation also.

  19. Miks tuli "Kevade" läinud aastal teisiti / Mare Müürsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Mare

    2008-01-01

    "Aasta rosina" auhinna võitnud Oskar Lutsu "Kevade" kommenteeritud kooliväljaandest "Kui Arno isaga koolimajja jõudis..." (Tallinn : Ilo, 2007), mille koostasid Aili Kalavus ja Mare Müürsepp ning illustreeris Mare Hunt

  20. Fetal maceration and retention of fetal bones in a mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, T E; Card, C E

    2000-09-15

    A 19-year-old Quarter Horse mare was evaluated because of bloody vaginal discharge that was apparent immediately following breeding. On transrectal ultrasonography, it was evident that the uterus was filled with fluid containing echogenic particles; linear hyperechoic structures were also visible. Endoscopy was performed, which revealed a number of bones adhered to the cranial wall and floor of the right uterine horn as well as purulent fluid in both uterine horns. Bacterial endometritis and fetal maceration were diagnosed. The mare was treated with antibiotics, and the fetal bones were manually removed from the uterus. Fetal maceration with intrauterine retention of bones is rare in mares. Use of hysteroscopy supplements ultrasonography in the diagnosis of uncommon conditions of the uterus. Macerated bones may be adhered to the endometrium, thereby requiring manual removal.

  1. Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

  2. Reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta and manual removal of the placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Because the incidence of retained placenta in Friesian mares is estimated to be high, and no reports have been published on the reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta, we studied postpartum reproductive performance in Friesian brood mares with (n = 54) and without (n =

  3. The MARES AUV, a Modular Autonomous Robot for Environment Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Nuno A.; Matos, Anibal C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design aspects and the development of the MARES AUV, a 1.5m long vehicle, weighting 32kg, designed and built at the University of Porto, Portugal. This vehicle is highly maneuverable, with the ability to move in the vertical plane, controlling pitch and vertical velocity; forward velocity can also be determined, anywhere between 0 and 2 m/s. MARES can easily integrate any new payload within reason, finding applications in a wide range or areas, such as pollution ...

  4. MARES: Navigation, Control and On-board Software

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2009-01-01

    MARES, or Modular Autonomous Robot for Environment Sampling, is a 1.5m long AUV, designed and built by the Ocean Systems Group. The vehicle can be programmed to follow predefined trajectories, while collecting relevant data with the onboard sensors. MARES can dive up to 100m deep, and unlike similar-sized systems, has vertical thrusters to allow for purely vertical motion in the water column. Forward velocity can be independently defined, from 0 to 2 m/s. Major application areas include pollu...

  5. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.; Carson, John M., III

    2017-01-01

    On December 11, 1972, Apollo 17 marked the last controlled U.S. lunar landing and was followed by an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. The Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides scientific measurement of the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau and the first post-Apollo U.S. soft lunar landing. It includes the first demonstration of a crew survivability-enhancing autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  6. Time of foaling in Arabian mares raised in Tiaret, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliani, Samia; Benallou, Bouabdellah; Halbouche, Miloud; Haddouche, Zohra

    2013-01-01

    Objective To enhance effectiveness of reproduction management in Arabian mares, factors influencing the time of foaling were investigated in this study. Methods Data were collected at the National Haras of Tiaret in Algeria from 2003 to 2010. The foaling time of 255 Arabian pure bred mares, aged from 3 to 20 years were used for this study. Results A total of 78.07% of foaling happens between 7 pm and 6 am. Conclusions The influence of the month of foaling and the sex of the foal, on the time of foaling was statically significant. PMID:23835758

  7. Experimental reduction of lunar mare soil and volcanic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Morris, Richard V.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    We have reduced high-titanium lunar mare soil and iron-rich lunar volcanic glass with hydrogen at temperatures of 900-1100 C. Ilmenite is the most reactive phase in the soil, exhibiting rapid and complete reduction at all temperatures. Ferrous iron in the glass is extensively reduced concurrent with partial crystallization. In both samples pyroxene and olivine undergo partial reduction along with chemical and mineralogical modifications. High-temperature reduction provides insight into the optical and chemical effects of lunar soil maturation, and places constraints on models of that process. Mare soil and volcanic glass are attractive feedstocks for lunar oxygen production, with achievable yields of 2-5 wt%.

  8. Factors affecting live foal rates of Thoroughbred mares that undergo manual twin elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnobrich, M R; Riddle, W T; Stromberg, A J; LeBlanc, M M

    2013-11-01

    Mares diagnosed with twin vesicles at 13-17 days after ovulation commonly have one of 2 vesicles manually reduced. It is not known whether vesicle location (adjacent vs. nonadjacent), mare age, mare reproductive status, parity, month of breeding or mare plasma progesterone concentration affects live foal rates. To determine factors associated with a positive outcome (live foal) in mares undergoing manual twin reduction between 13 and 17 days post ovulation when performed by a single operator. Retrospective case-control study. Breeding records and the Jockey Club records of registered Thoroughbreds were used to evaluate factors affecting the outcome of pregnancies in mares undergoing twin elimination and mares with singleton pregnancies. Thoroughbred mares with twin pregnancies (n = 129) were matched by age, parity, farm location and month bred with mares diagnosed with a singleton pregnancy (n = 127). The effects of location of embryonic vesicles, mare age, reproductive status, parity, month of breeding, vesicle size and plasma progesterone concentration at pregnancy diagnosis on live foal rate were examined. Position of embryonic vesicles at time of manual elimination, parity and month bred had no effect on live foal rate. Live foal rates in mares >9 years of age were lower (71.8%) than in all mares ≤9 years (87.1%; P9 years of age that had a twin reduced lost more pregnancies (34.8%) than age-matched control mares (20.0%; Pfoal. Mare age of >9 years is associated with decreased pregnancy rate after twin reduction. Furthering the understanding of factors that affect live foal outcome following manual twin elimination in mares. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Five tips for good office spirometry | Maree | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 105, No 9 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Five tips for good office spirometry. DM Maree. Abstract. No Abstract.

  10. The effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) injection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the importance of lambing rate to profitability of sheep holders, this trial investigated the effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) injection a day prior or at controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device (CIDR) removal on multiple births in synchronized Afshari ewes. 16 cycling, multiparous fat-tailed ...

  11. Klõsheiko, Mare Vint, effid / Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivrand, Harry, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna Kinomajas esilinastusid 28. okt. kolm uut dokumentaalfilmi eesti kunstnikest : "F.F.F.F. läheb laiali" (Kuukulgur Film 2005, rezh. Marko Raat, "Mare Vint" (Exitfilm 2005, rezh. Anri Rulkov) ja "Jaan Klõsheiko" (Estonia Film 2005, rezh.-d Eve Ester, Igor Ruus)

  12. Mass envenomation of a mare and foal by bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N; Racklyeft, D J

    2014-05-01

    The clinical course of toxic envenomation of a mare and her foal after an attack by a swarm of bees in the Upper Hunter Valley of New South Wales is described. Early agitation and urticaria were followed by more severe systemic clinical signs within 18 h. There was severe, generalised angioedema, rhabdomyolysis, hypovolaemia, gastrointestinal stasis and renal injury. A particular feature in the mare was almost maniacal behaviour during the first 48 h. Clinical pathological examination showed evidence of haemoconcentration, intravascular haemolysis, thrombocytopenia, azotaemia, rhabdomyolysis and hypoproteinaemia. Symptomatic treatment was initiated using intravenous fluids, anti-inflammatory drugs, histamine antagonists, analgesia and antibiotics. The foal responded within 12 h, but management of the mare was complicated by severe pain, generalised oedema, intrauterine haemorrhage, renal injury and later, recurrent fever. The most severe, acute effects of mass envenomation lasted for 3-4 days. Neither mare nor foal suffered any known lasting systemic effects of envenomation, although localised dermal necrosis resulted in white hairs at some sting sites and deformed ear tips in the foal. Early recognition of clinical signs and treatment of toxic envenomation with an understanding of the physiological effects of hymenoptera venom can lead to a favourable outcome in horses receiving a non-lethal dose. Further case reports of the treatment of affected horses are needed to expand knowledge of how best to approach this rare, but serious intoxication. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Juhid otsustavad saatuste üle / Mare Pork

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Spekter, nr. 1, 2002, lk. 25-26. Psühholoogiaprofessor ja juhtimiskonsultant Mare Pork sellest, et tunded mõjutavad juhte rohkem, kui nad seda tajuvad ning, et juhid mõjutavad omakorda inimsaatusi. Erinevatest meetoditest juhtide hindamiseks, 360o tagasiside meetod

  14. The effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) injection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... According to the importance of lambing rate to profitability of sheep holders, this trial investigated the effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) injection a day prior or at controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device (CIDR) removal on multiple births in synchronized Afshari ewes. 16 cycling,.

  15. Reproductive Performance of Arabian and Thoroughbred Mares under Subtropical Conditions of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Warriach

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Breeding records of 57 Arabian and 66 Thoroughbred mares were analysed to assess their reproductive performance under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan. The Arabian mares showed significantly higher conception rates (p<0.05 in second mated oestrus and foal heat mated oestrus compared to Thoroughbred mares. However, conception rates for first lifetime mated oestrus were similar in both breeds of mares. Age at first mating (1,301±40 vs 1,500±32 days was significantly (p<0.05 less in Arabian compared to Thoroughbred mares. Both breeds of mares showed significantly (p<0.05 higher frequencies of oestrous cycles and conception rates during the winter (October to March compared to summer (June to August months. Age of mares affected the conception rates, as mares at ages 3 to 7 and 8 to 12 years of ages had significantly higher conception rates (p<0.05 than those ≥18 years old in both breeds. This study demonstrates that i reproductive performance in Arabians is better than Thoroughbred mares under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan, ii mares remain cyclic throughout the year and iii conception rates were higher in mares bred during winter compared to summer months.

  16. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. II. Growth of foals, body mass of mares and serum protein concentration of mares during the anovulatory, transitional and pregnant periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 4 different diets, in terms of protein quantity and quality, on total serum protein (TSP, albumin and globulin was investigated. Non-pregnant mares that were not lactating (n = 36, pregnant mares that had foaled (n = 24 and their foals (n = 24 were used in this study. Daily total protein intake had no effect on blood protein concentrations in the mares. Total protein intake and quality (available essential amino-acids did affect the body mass of mares during lactation. When mares were fed the minimum recommended (National Research Council 1989 total daily protein, foal mass decreased by approximately 25 % at weaning compared to the foals whose dams were on a higher level of protein intake. The TSP concentrations of foals at birth were on average 10 g/ℓ lower than those of the mares. Albumin concentrations of foals during the first 60 days of life were on average 2-3 g/ℓ lower than those of the mares. Globulin concentrations of foals were approximately 5 g/ℓ lower than those of mares at weaning.

  17. Post-partum concentrations of serum progesterone, oestradiol and prolactin in Arabian mares demonstrating normal maternal behaviour and Arabian mares demonstrating foal rejection behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, D; Steinman, A; Raz, T

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate possible endocrine components to foal rejection behaviour in post-partum Arabian mares. Arabian mares were divided into two groups based on their maternal behaviour: (1) mares with normal post-parturient behaviour (8 mares); and (2) mares that demonstrated foal-rejecting behaviour post-partum (15 mares). Most mares were visited and sampled twice, in the first and third days post-partum. Serum samples were used for measurement of progesterone, oestradiol and prolactin concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences in oestradiol, progesterone or prolactin concentrations between the groups. In the rejecting mares, there was a statistically significant decrease in the progesterone (mean±standard deviation, SD, 3.14±6.2ng/dL on day 1 and 0.49±0.18ng/dL on day 3) and prolactin (mean±SD 216.2±325.4ng/mL on day 1 and 145.2±311.4ng/mL on day 3) concentrations between days 1 and 3, while the oestradiol concentration did not change significantly. In the non-rejecting mares, progesterone concentrations decreased significantly (mean±SD 0.8±0.23ng/dL on day 1 and 0.43±0.22 on day 3) while the oestradiol and prolactin concentrations did not change significantly. The oestradiol to progesterone ratio was significantly higher in non-rejecting mares on day 1 (mean±SD 114.8±140.2 on day 1 and 143.4±72.6 on day 3) and this ratio increased significantly from days 1 to 3 in the rejecting mares (mean±SD 47.3±21.1 on day 1 and 122.1±123.7 on day 3). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Reduced anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in mares with hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozlou, F; Akbarinejad, V; Youssefi, R; Masoudifard, M; Hasani, N

    2014-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has been observed to decrease with the development of hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAFs) in mares. Two studies were conducted to evaluate AMH concentration in mares with HAFs compared to seasonally anoestrous and cyclic mares, and to elucidate changes of AMH with the development of luteinised unruptured follicles (LUFs). In study 1, AMH and progesterone were evaluated in seasonally anoestrous, anovulatory (with HAF) and cyclic mares (at mid luteal phase). In study 2, mares in control and LUF groups were treated with 1500 IU/case hCG when they had a ≥32-mm follicle and an endometrial oedema score of three (day 0). Mares in the control group received no further treatment. Mares in the LUF group received 1.7 mg/kg flunixin meglumine at the time of hCG administration, and 12, 24 and 36 h after it. Ultrasonography and blood collection for AMH and progesterone measurement were performed on days 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8. In study 1, AMH concentration was lower in seasonally anoestrous and HAF mares than cyclic mares (P0.05). In study 2, AMH was not different between LUF and control mares (P>0.05); however, progesterone had a lower concentration and a delayed rise after hCG administration in LUF mares compared with the control group (P<0.05). The results indicated that similar to seasonally anoestrous mares, AMH concentrations decreased in mares with HAFs. LUFs were also found to be functionally different from HAFs. PMID:27175127

  19. Ovarian Histopathological Changes in Mares with Uterine Endometrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katkiewicz Maria

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find out the relationship between the progression of endometrosis and the appearance of the structural microscopic changes in mares’ ovaries. The investigation was performed on slaughtered mares of various age and breed. Four groups each received a portion of the specimens, and designation to group was according to the stage of endometrosis determined on the basis of Kenney’s classification. Uterine and ovarian sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results of the microscopic evaluation were compared between mares classified into specific Kenney’s categories. It was shown that an increase in ovarian follicular cysts was related to mares’ ages and correlated with significant progression of the endometrosis. These observations suggest that the same aetiological factors may take part both in triggering disorders of ovarian oo/folliculogenesis and in spurring uterine endometrosis. Further more detailed methods of investigation are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of both disease processes.

  20. Improving Information Management at Mare Island Naval Shipyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    600,000 drawings as well as records for modified drawings and documents specifically for Mare Island. e. Engineering Analisis This system is used for...Install radio modems. Radio modems exist at 2400 bps and could be used for remote site ternnals (such as onboard a ship with work in progress) with...of the Shipyard Local Area Network. 0 Purchase new disk packs to increase virtual memory. • Install radio modems. p Iprove credibility - Remove

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SUMBAWA MARE MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sujaya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to isolate and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB from the Sumbawa mares milk The Isolation of LAB was conducted in Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar. The isolates were characterized by standard methods, such as Gram staining, cell morphology study and fermentation activities. The ability of the isolates to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria was studied by dual culture assay. Isolates showing the widest spectrum of inhibiting pathogenic bacteria were further identified using API 50 CHL. The results showed that Sumbawa mare milk was dominated by lactobacilli and weisella/leuconostoc. As many as 26 out 36 isolates belong to homofermentative lactobacilli and another 10 isolates belong to both heterofermentative lactobacilli and weissella or leuconostoc. Twenty four isolates inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli 25922, Shigela flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus 29213. Two promising isolates with the widest spectrum of inhibiting pathogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus sp. SKG34 and Lactobacillus sp. SKG49, were identified respectively as Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus ramnosus SKG49. These two isolates were specific strains of the sumbawa mare milk and are very potential to be developed as probiotic for human.

  2. Hemoperitoneum secondary to cecocolic dilation in a pregnant mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro R. Palomar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum is known as the abnormal accumulation of blood within the abdominal cavity, most commonly caused by gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal abscesses, liver tumors, migration of parasitic larvae (Strongylus vulgaris, direct trauma and blood clotting disorders. Lethargy, anorexia, weakness, muscle twitching, sweating, hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and the accumulation of free fluid in the abdomen were the most commonly recorded signs. In this report, a pregnant mare was diagnosed with hemoperitoneum secondary to cecocolic dilatation, due to corn ingestion. The protocol for clinical treatment and tests varies in similar reported cases. Due to this, the present report discusses the outcome of a clinical case and suggests a medical protocol -based on evidence – for treatment in a pregnant mare. The treatment was aimed to stop the bleeding, while normalize or maintain a stable blood pressure and provide supportive therapy. The mare presented colic pains due to fermentation of the corn, which were solved in few hours. The final abdominal ultrasonogram showed intra-abdominal hypoechoic fluid and living fetus.

  3. [Evaluation of immunoglobulin G concentration in colostrum of mares by ELISA, refractometry and colostrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Monica; Markus, R G; Strutzberg-Minder, K; Nogai, K; Beyerbach, M; Klug, E

    2008-01-01

    In 360 samples of colostrum and 36 samples of blood of warmblood mares, the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was evaluated in the post partal period with an ELISA and the results were compared to values obtained with 2 field methods--refractometry and colostrometry. A significant correlation (p refractometry (r = +0.93). So both field-methods seem suitable for evaluation of the colostral IgG-concentration in mares. Further the kinetic of the IgG concentration in colostrum, the volume of colostrum and the total amount of IgG was measured in the 12 hours post partum (p.p.) in each half udder of 36 mares of different parity. Immediately p.p. primiparous mares have a greater mean concentration of IgG (68 mg/ml) than multiparous mares (51 mg/ml). However, multiparous mares have a mean colostral volume of 1020 ml whereas, in primiparous mares, a mean volume of 527 ml was determined within the first three hours p.p. As a result of this the total amount of IgG was lower in primiparous (31.5 g) than in multiparous mares (48.5 g). A significant decrease of IgG concentration was measured in multiparous mares in the 1.5 hours following partum versus 3 hours in primiparous mares. The mean IgG concentration in the blood serum of the 36 mares immediately p.p. was 13.4 +/- 3.6 mg/ml. No significant correlation was observed between values of IgG concentration in the blood and in the colostrum of the mares.

  4. Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of Mare Australe: The North Australe Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Stopar, J. D.; Ostrach, L. R.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; Giguere, T. A.; Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    A key goal of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is to investigate volcanic processes at different temporal and physical scales, with one emphasis being the characterization of ancient (meaning, greater than 3.9 Ga) volcanic units. One such ancient volcanic terrain is Mare Australe, a loosely-circular collection of mare basalts centered at approximately 38.9 deg S, 93 deg E (Fig. 1). Mare Australe is a complex, extensive, and poorly understood volcanic region.

  5. Luteoprotective role of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) during pregnancy in the mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Flores, G; Velázquez-Cantón, E; Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2014-06-01

    The effects of repeated cloprostenol administration were compared in mares impregnated by horses and mares impregnated by donkeys in order to assess the role of eCG on the development of pregnancy-associated resistance to the luteolytic and abortifacient effects of PGF2α. Eleven mares impregnated by donkey (mule pregnancy) and 9 mares impregnated by horse (horse pregnancy) were used. Six mares with mule pregnancy and four with horse pregnancy were injected with cloprostenol (0.25 mg) when they were between day 65 and day 75 of pregnancy, and the treatment was repeated 48, 72 and 96 h latter. The rest of the mares remained as controls. Concentrations of eCG were 10 times higher (p < 0.001) in mares impregnated by horses than in mares impregnated by donkeys, and they were not affected by cloprostenol treatment. Luteolysis was completed 30 h after the first cloprostenol injection in mule pregnancies, while mares with horse pregnancies required 96 h and three cloprostenol injections to complete luteolysis. Regression analysis revealed significant associations between eCG concentrations at time 0 and the time required for completion of luteolysis (p < 0.001), foetal death (p < 0.01) and foetal expulsion (p < 0.05). It is concluded that high eCG concentrations in mares impregnated by horses protect the corpora lutea of pregnancy against the luteolytic effects of PGF2α. Low eCG concentrations in mares carrying mule foetuses afford them less protection against the luteolytic effect of PGF2α, and this may be a cause of the increased foetal mortality that occurs between days 60 and 90 of pregnancy in these mares. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Cervical wedge resection for treatment of pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions in six mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Carolyn E; Brinsko, Steven P; Varner, Dickson D

    2015-06-15

    6 mares with pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions were examined. Reasons for hospital admission included infertility (5 mares) and acute colic (1 mare). In the 6 mares, palpation per rectum of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention, and transrectal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of echogenic fluid accumulation within the uterus. Cervical palpation during vaginal speculum examination indicated transluminal cervical adhesions. Three mares had severe distortion of the cervix as a result of diverticula and fibrosis. All 6 mares had a diagnosis of pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions. Initially, the cervical adhesions were manually broken down to establish a patent cervical lumen to accommodate a uterine lavage catheter. A sample of the uterine content was obtained for bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the uterus was lavaged with 0.05% povidone-iodine solution to remove the mucopurulent exudate. Once the uterus was evacuated, cervical surgery was performed in standing mares following sedation and caudal epidural anesthesia. A full-thickness wedge-shaped defect was made in the dorsolateral aspect of the cervix that created a permanent opening to the uterus. Postoperative care included applying topical medication to the cervix to reduce the recurrence of adhesion formation. All 6 mares had patent cervices and resolution of pyometra following surgery. Cervical wedge resection enabled treatment of pyometra in mares with transluminal cervical adhesions, without the need for ovariohysterectomy.

  7. Lateral heterogeneity of lunar volcanic activity according to volumes of mare basalts in the farside basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masako; Morota, Tomokatsu; Kato, Shinsuke

    2017-07-01

    Estimates for volumes of mare basalts are essential to understand the thermal conditions of the lunar mantle and its lateral heterogeneity. In this study, we estimated the thicknesses and volumes of mare basalts within five farside basins, Apollo, Ingenii, Poincare, Freundlich-Sharonov, and Mendel-Rydberg, using premare craters buried by mare basalts and postmare craters that penetrated/nonpenetrated mare basalts employing topographic and multiband image data obtained by SELENE (Kaguya). Furthermore, using the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory crustal thickness model and the mare volumes estimated by this and previous studies, we investigated the relationship between the volumes of the mare basalts and the crustal thicknesses. The results suggest that the minimum crustal thicknesses within the basins were a dominant factor determining whether magma erupted at the surface and that the critical crustal thicknesses for magma eruption were 10 km on the farside and >20 km on the nearside. The total areas of the regions in which magmas could erupt at the surface are 10 times larger on the nearside than on the farside. A comparison between the mare volumes within the mare basins on the nearside and the farside shows that magma production in the farside mantle might have been 20 times smaller than that in the nearside mantle, implying a stronger dichotomy than previously estimated. These results suggest that the mare hemispherical asymmetry should be attributed to both the difference in the crustal thickness distribution and the difference in the quantity of magma production between the nearside and farside mantles.

  8. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. VI. Serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab mares aged 6-12 years were used, of which 40 were non-lactating and 24 lactating. Foals from these 24 mares were weaned at the age of 6 months. Non-lactating and lactating mares were divided into 4 dietary groups each. The total daily protein intake and the protein quality (essential amino-acid content differed in the 4 groups of non-lactating and 4 groups of lactating mares. The mares were covered and the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary protein on serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy was studied. A sharp decline in serum progestagen concentrations was recorded in all dietary groups from Days 18 to 40 of pregnancy, with some individual mares reaching values of less than 4 ng/mℓ. Serum progestagen concentrations recorded in some of the non-lactating mares on the low-quality protein diet increased to higher values (p<0.05 than those of mares in the other 3 dietary groups at 35-140 days of pregnancy. A similar trend was observed for the lactating mares on a low-quality protein diet at 30-84 days of pregnancy. No such trends were observed in any of the other dietary groups. High-quality protein supplementation increased serum progestagen concentrations during the 1st 30 days of pregnancy. Lactation depressed serum progestagen concentrations until after the foals were weaned.

  9. Inflammatory response in chronic degenerative endometritis mares treated with platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghini, Maria Fernanda S; Ramires Neto, Carlos; Segabinazzi, Lorenzo G; Castro Chaves, Maria Manoela B; Dell'Aqua, Camila de Paula F; Bussiere, Maria Clara C; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio; Papa, Frederico O; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio

    2016-07-15

    Degenerative changes of the endometrium are directly related to age and fertility in mares. Chronic degenerative endometritis (CDE) is correlated with uterine fluid retention and reduced ability to clear uterine inflammation. Recent research in the areas of equine surgery and sports medicine has shown that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment acts as an immunomodulator of the inflammatory response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if the uterine infusion of PRP could modulate the local inflammatory response and modify the intrauterine NO concentrations after artificial insemination (AI) in both normal mares and those with CDE. Thirteen mares with endometrium classified as grade III on the histology (mares with CDE) and eight mares with endometrial histological classification I or II-a normal mares were selected to investigate the effect of PRP therapy. The mares were inseminated with fresh semen in two consecutive cycles in a crossover study design. Thereby, each mare served as its own control and the treatment was performed with intrauterine PRP infusion four hours after AI. The percentage of neutrophils in uterine cytology (CIT, %), uterine fluid accumulation observed on ultrasonography (FLU, mm) and nitric oxide concentration of uterine fluid (NO, μM) were analyzed before and 24 hours after AI. The results reported that mares with CDE (CIT, 68.3 ± 3.27, FLU, 10.7 ± 1.61) have a higher (P  0.05) between categories of mares. In treated cycles with PRP, the intrauterine inflammatory response decrease (P PRP was effective in modulating the exacerbated uterine inflammatory response to semen in mares with CDE but did not reduce NO concentrations in intrauterine fluid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Baia Mare accident--brief ecotoxicological report of Czech experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldán, P; Pavonic, M; Boucek, J; Kokes, J

    2001-07-01

    On 30 January 2000, following the breach in the tailing dam of the Aurul SA Baia Mare Co., a major spill of about 100,000 m(3) of cyanide and metal-rich liquid waste was released into the river system near Baia Mare in northwest Romania. The pollutants flowed via different tributaries into the Tizsa (Tisa) river and finally through the Danube river into the Black Sea. Along the way pollutants (especially cyanides) caused rapid death of aquatic organisms and animals living close to the poisoned rivers. Following request from the governments of Romania, Hungary, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, United Nations sent international mission experts to the area of accident. The Czech team of four experts took very active part in this mission. Samples of surface water collected by this team 3 weeks after the accident showed high toxicity in the rivers on the Romanian territory. Due to this impact, water from the Szamos river and a large area of the Tisza river in Hungarian territory was still medially toxic. Improvement of this situation was detected only in downstream areas of the Tisza/Tisa river. The high toxicity of surface water from the locality of the Lapos river upstream of the accident indicated the possibility of toxic pollution from other sources in the area. Aquatic sediments were highly toxic only in the Aurul reservoir and its surrounding area. Rapid decline of their toxicity indicated more limited adverse impact of the "Aurul pollution" in comparison with surface water. From ecotoxicological results it is evident that there is an urgent need to start abatement activities in the Baia Mare area because the possibility of future accidents still exists (this hypothesis was proved by further accidents on 10.3.2000 and the beginning of May 2000). Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Toonart Rääski ja Aivar Riisalu firma ostab Rocca al Mare Suurhalli / Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 22. okt. lk. 7. Rocca al Mare Suurhalli aktsionärid otsustasid müüa suurhalli hotelliärimehe Toonart Rääski ja meelelahutusettevõtja Aivar Riisaluga seotud firmale Neckman Group. Diagramm: Lemminkäinen Eesti, Neckman Groupi, Eesti riigi ja Tallinna linna osalused Rocca al Mare Suurhallis

  12. Epidemiology and reproductive outcomes of EHV-1 abortion epizootics in unvaccinated Thoroughbred mares in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulman, M. L.; Becker, A.; van der Merwe, B. D.; Guthrie, A. J.; Stout, T. A E

    2015-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is one of the most common causes of infectious abortion in mares. Analysing the demography of outbreaks and detailing subsequent reproductive performance of affected mares will assist in the management of future (threatened) epizootics.

  13. Inflammatory responses to induced infectious endometritis in mares resistant or susceptible to persistent endometritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffersen Mette

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to evaluate the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-1 receptor antagonist [ra] and serum amyloid A (SAA in endometrial tissue and circulating leukocytes in response to uterine inoculation of 105 colony forming units (CFU Escherichia coli in mares. Before inoculation, mares were classified as resistant or susceptible to persistent endometritis based on their uterine inflammatory response to infusion of 109 killed spermatozoa and histological assessment of the endometrial quality. Endometrial biopsies were obtained 3, 12, 24 and 72 hours (h after bacterial inoculation and blood samples were obtained during the 7 day period post bacterial inoculation. Expression levels of cytokines and SAA were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR. Results Compared to levels in a control biopsy (obtained in the subsequent estrous, resistant mares showed an up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α at 3 h after E. coli inoculation, while susceptible mares showed increased gene expression of IL-6 and IL-1ra. Susceptible mares had a significant lower gene expression of TNF-α,IL-6 and increased expression of IL-1ra 3 h after E. coli inoculation compared to resistant mares. Susceptible mares showed a sustained and prolonged inflammatory response with increased gene expression levels of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-1ra and IL-1β:IL-1ra ratio throughout the entire study period (72 h, whereas levels in resistant mares returned to estrous control levels by 12 hours. Endometrial mRNA transcripts of IL-1β and IL-1ra were significantly higher in mares with heavy uterine bacterial growth compared to mares with no/mild growth. All blood parameters were unaffected by intrauterine E. coli infusion, except for a lower gene expression of IL-10 at 168 h and an increased expression of IL-1ra at 48 h observed in susceptible

  14. Evidence for Recent Extension and Volcanism inside the Southern Margin of Mare Frigoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Edward F.; Harris, R. Scott

    2014-11-01

    We report the identification of possible recent volcanic activity inside the southern margin of Mare Frigoris. Evidence includes two elliptical constructs with associated dark flows found at 56.6° N, - 19.7° W, north of the La Condamine J impact crater. They were discovered on high resolution (0.5 m/pixel) LROC WAC and NAC imagery (e.g., M188379739R and M142393589L) by the first author while performing a systematic geologic overview of the area.The constructs occur along a 3.2 km lineament trending southwest to northwest. The southwestern construct is the largest, measuring approximately 1.4 km in diameter by 65 m in height while the northeastern structure measures 1.2 km wide by 40 m high. The summits appear to be concave and contain well-defined pits 190 m and 120 m in diameter, respectively, each encircled by a deposit of raised material. Distinct dark deposits, exhibiting flow lobes, emanate from the pits. In addition, rubbly, flow-like dark deposits are found sporadically along the flanks of each feature.We interpret these structures as low profile steep-sided volcanic domes. Hawke et al. (2014) discussed volcanic constructs in the eastern part of Mare Frigoris; however, the features described in this study appear to be significantly younger. The domes may represent upwelling along a localized rift. Continued extension on the flanks appears to have released discrete dark flows. Well-defined flows crossing the floors of summit pits appear to have flowed uphill. We suggest that the evacuation of the magma chambers beneath these flows caused subsidence, forming the pits and giving the illusion that the lava flowed up and over the rims. Although the age of these constructs and flows is unknown, the paucity of impact craters suggests that they are relatively young. These could represent very recent eruptions of evolved magma on the Moon, similar to those reported by Jolliff et al. (2011). References: B. R. Hawke et al., 2014, LPSC, 45, 1318. Jolliff et al., 2012

  15. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. 334.1160 Section 334.1160 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  16. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : reproductive performance after foal heat breeding versus breeding in a subsequent heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Postpartum reproductive performance was studied in 54 Friesian brood mares with and 50 without retained placenta. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. The group of mares with retained placenta was subdivided into mares

  17. Influence of stage of lactation and year season on composition of mares' colostrum and milk and method and time of storage on vitamin C content in mares' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz-Kęszycka, Maria; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Wójtowski, Jacek; Jóźwik, Artur; Pankiewicz, Radosław; Łęska, Bogusława; Krzyżewski, Józef; Strzałkowska, Nina; Marchewka, Joanna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-08-30

    Mares' milk is becoming increasingly popular in Western Europe. This study was thus aimed at investigating the impact of stage of lactation and season on chemical composition, somatic cell count and some physicochemical parameters of mares' colostrum and milk, and at developing a method for the determination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in mares' milk and to determine its content in fresh and stored milk. The analysis conducted showed an effect of the stage of lactation on contents of selected chemical components and physicochemical parameters of mares' milk. In successive lactation periods levels of fat, cholesterol, energy value, citric acid and titratable acidity decreased, whereas levels of lactose and vitamin C, as well as the freezing point, increased. Analysis showed that milk produced in autumn (September, October, November) had a higher freezing point and lower concentrations of total solids, protein, fat, cholesterol, citric acid and energy value in comparison to milk produced in summer (June, July, August). Mares' milk was characterised by low somatic cell count throughout lactation. In terms of vitamin C stability the most advantageous method of milk storage was 6-month storage of lyophilised milk. In general, the results confirmed that mares' milk is a raw material with a unique chemical composition different from that produced by other farm animals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Reproductive performance measures among Thoroughbred mares in central Kentucky, during the 2004 mating season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, K A; Powell, D; Shelton, B; Zent, W

    2009-12-01

    To improve efficiency at the farm level, a better understanding of how farm management factors impact reproductive performance is important. To assess reproductive efficiency and effectiveness among Thoroughbred mares in central Kentucky. A cohort of 1011 mares on 13 farms in central Kentucky was followed during the 2004 mating and 2005 foaling season. Information on farm level practices was collected via interviews with farm managers. Reproductive records were collected for each mare mated to obtain information on mare characteristics. The influence of mare age and status (maiden, foaling, barren) on Days 15 and 40 post mating pregnancy rates, foaling rates and total effective length of the mating season were assessed. The influence of stallion book size on reproductive performance measures was also examined. Per season pregnancy rates on Days 15 and 40 post mating and live foal rate were 92.1, 89.3 and 783%, respectively. Per cycle rates for the same time periods were 64.0, 583 and 50.8%. There were no significant associations between stallion book size and reproductive performance outcomes. The mean +/- s.d. interval from the beginning of the mating season to the last mating of the mare was 36.5 +/- 26.1 days. Mare age had a significant impact on efficiency of becoming pregnant, maintaining pregnancy and producing a live foal. Overall, fertility did not decrease among stallions with the largest book sizes. Total interval length of the mating season can be reduced if managers ensure maiden and barren mares are mated at the beginning of the season and foaling mares are mated at the earliest oestrus after acceptable uterine involution has been achieved. Measures identified in the study can be used by owners, farm managers and veterinarians to improve mare reproductive performance and identify parameters to assist with the implementation of effective culling practices.

  19. Alkali norite, troctolites, and VHK mare basalts from breccia 14304

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Warren, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    Six pristine rocks, two mare basalts, and four nonpristine highlands rocks were separated from breccia 14304 for consortium study. The pristine highlands rocks include representatives of the Mg troctolite-anorthosite and alkali suites of the Apollo 14 site. Two troctolite clasts have olivine and plagioclase compositions similar to one group of Apollo 14 troctolites and one also contains spinel. Incompatible element abundances in one are similar to those of 14305 troctolites, although the heavy rare earth elements pattern is distinct among Apollo 14 troctolites. Alkali lithologies include an alkali anorthosite and an alkali norite, the latter having a pristine igneous texture and resembling alkali gabbronites from Apollo 14 and 67975 in mineralogy and mineral compositions. It is suggested that Apollo 14 alkali lithologies and PO4-bearing Mg anorthosites formed from Mg-rich magmas that assimilated various amounts of material rich in P and REE. Another pristine clast from 14304 is an Mg-gabbronorite. The two mare basalt clasts are very high potassium basalts, whose parent magmas could have formed from a typical low-Ti, high-Al basaltic magmas by assimilation of K-rich material. Nonpristine 14304 clasts include melt-textured anorthosites and an augite-rich poikilitic melt rock.

  20. José Fuentes Mares, un historiador adelantado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Velasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de una valoración de la obra historiográfica de José Fuentes Mares. El material de trabajo está constituido por los cuatro libros que escribió acerca de Benito Juárez y tres textos más donde expresó sus conceptos sobre teoría y filosofía de la historia. El punto de partida es el análisis de ocho de los elementos que caracterizaron su labor historiadora: conciencia de la propia historicidad, dinámica interpretativa, actitud sobre esencialismos, humanización de la historia, estilo narrativo, posición anímica ante lo historiado, información de detalles y contingencias y el uso de recursos de la dramaturgia. El resultado del análisis plantea una hipotética "teoría de la historia de Fuentes Mares". Finalmente se expone una semblanza del entorno adverso que el historiador tuvo que enfrentar para desarrollar su labor exitosamente.

  1. Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    The Baia Mare Urban System is located in the north-western part of Romania, with around 200,000 inhabitants and represents one of the most important former mining areas in the country, whose socioeconomic profile and environmental conditions have greatly changed over the last 20 years during the transition and post-transition period. Currently the mining is closed in the area, but the historical legacy of this activity has implications in terms of economic growth, social and cultural developments and environmental quality. Baia Mare city lies in an extended depression, particularly sheltered by the mountain and hilly regions located in the north and respectively, in the south-south-eastern part of it, which explains the high frequency of calm conditions and low airstream channeling occurrences. This urban system has a typically moderate temperate-continental climate, subject to frequent westerly airflows (moist), which moderate the thermal regime (without depicting severe extremes, both positive and negative) and enhance the precipitation one (entailing a greater frequency of wet extremes). During the reference period (1971-2000), the climate change signal in the area is rather weak and not statistically significant. However, since the mid 1980s, the warming signal became more evident from the observational data (Baia Mare station), showing a higher frequency of dry spells and positive extremes. The modelling experiments covering the 2021-2050 time horizon using regional (RM5.1/HadRM3Q0/RCA3) and global (ARPEGE/HadCM3Q0/BCM/ECHAM5) circulation models carried out within the ECLISE FP7 project suggest an ongoing temperature rise, associated to an intensification of temperature and precipitation extremes. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate how the local authorities consider and include climate change in their activity, as well as in the development plans (e.g. territorial, economic and social development plans). Individual interviews have been

  2. Experimental exposure of pregnant mares to the asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Paweska

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, virological and serological responses were evaluated in 10 pregnant mares after different challenge exposures to the asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV. The outcome of maternal infection on the progeny was also investigated. Mares were inoculated intranasally (n = 4, intramuscularly (n = 2, intravenously (n = 1, or contact-exposed (n = 3. All inoculated mares developed pyrexia, 5 showed mild clinical signs related to EAV infection and 2 remained asymptomatic. Viraemia was detected in all the inoculated animals and shedding of virus from the respiratory tract occurred in 6. Five mares were re-challenged intranasally 7 and 15 weeks after inoculation. Clinical signs of the disease in these mares were limited to mild conjunctivitis. After re-challenge, virus was recovered from buffy coat cultures of 2 mares 2-6 days after re-infection. EAV was not recovered from colostrum and milk samples during the 1st week post partum. All inoculated mares seroconverted to EAV 8-12 days post inoculation and also seroconverted after re-challenge. No clinical signs of EAV infection were observed in the 3 mares kept in close contact during the post-inoculation and re-challenge periods. Serum neutralising antibody to the virus was detected in 1 in-contact mare only, while a detectable concentration of specific IgG was found by ELISA in the colostrum of 1 of the other in-contact mares. Eight of the mares gave birth to clinically normal foals, although 1 was born prematurely. Shortly after birth, 7 foals developed fever and variable clinical signs; 5 foals became septicaemic and 3 of them died 2-5 days after birth, while the remaining 2 were euthanased at 1 month of age. EAV was not recovered from the placenta, from buffy coat fractions of blood collected from foals immediately after birth and 1-3 days later, or from a range of tissues taken from the 3 foals that died and 2 that were euthanased. Virus was not isolated from tissues collected from

  3. The Concentrations of Circulating Plasma Oxytocin and the Pattern of Oxytocin Release in Mare during Oestrus and after Ovulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Eun

    Mares susceptible to persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) accumulate intrauterine fluid after mating. One of the factors causing delayed uterine clearance is thought to be impaired uterine contractility. Oxytocin is central in controlling myometrial contractility. The objective of the present study was to describe peripheral oxytocin release during estrus and in the early postovulatory period in reproductively-normal mares and to compare the baseline circulating oxytocin concentrations in reproductively-normal mares and mares with PMIE. Blood samples were collected from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) from day -5 of estrus to day 2 postovulation and every 5 min for 30 min from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) and mares with PMIE (n=5) on day 3 of estrus. Pulsatile secretion of oxytocin was observed in all mares. Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (Poxytocin concentrations tended to increase. On day 3 of estrus, plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (Poxytocin concentrations between mares to PMIE. The low plasma oxytocin concentrations in mares with PMIE may contribute to predisposing factors in their poor uterine clearance in these mares.

  4. Hemostatic profile during late pregnancy and early postpartum period in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, M; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Marafioti, S; Giudice, E; Piccione, G

    2014-03-01

    Hemostasis is a physiological process that prevents excessive blood loss and represents a protective mechanism at the time of delivery. Peripartum hemorrhage is a recurring hazardous condition to mare's health; therefore, we aimed to study mares' hemostatic profile to investigate whether physiological adjustments occur during late pregnancy and early postpartum. Fifteen pregnant mares have been monitored from the 34th week of pregnancy until the third week after foaling. Fifteen nonpregnant mares were used as control group. Jugular blood samples were analyzed for platelet count (Plt), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and fibrinogen (Fb). Platelet count showed significant changes at foaling (P postpartum. Prothrombin time changed (P postpartum. The shortening in PT recorded in the imminence of parturition along with the increase in Plt and Fb at foaling might reflect a physiological hypercoagulable state that constrains excessive bleeding, enhancing mares' odds of surviving. Our research improves the knowledge about blood coagulation in periparturient mares providing specific information on routine coagulation tests that may support in monitoring mare's hemostatic profile during late pregnancy and early postpartum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBIAL PADA SUSU KUDA SUMBAWA [Antimicrobial Activity of the Sumbawa Mare Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermawati D1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives where to verify the antimicrobial activity of mare milk from Sumbawa island and to further study the characteristics of the antimicrobial compound. The experiments were conducted involving 115 milk samples of Sumbawa mare and three different groups of control milk i.e. from 20 milk samples of working/ cart mares from Java, 2 samples of racing mares from Tangerang horse farm and 15 samples of dairy cows from Bogor.The results concluded that all milk samples of Sumbawa mares contained strong antimicrobial activity as tested to 9 species of bacteria. All control samples did not show antimicrobial activity, except milk samples from racing mares which showed low antibacterial activity. The racing mares were then indentified as crossbred between male Thoroughbred and female Sumbawa horse. This finding supports and suggests that the native Sumbawa horses have genetic potential to the antimicrobial activity in their milk produced. Polarity tests using 5 organic solvents of different polarity indicated that the antimicrobial activity compound was very polar but had lower polarity than water. The bioactive coumpound did not dissolve in non polar hexane but strongly dissolved in the polar methanol solvent.

  6. Histological features of the placenta and their relation to the gross and data from Thoroughbred mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Pazinato

    Full Text Available Abstract: The placenta is a transitory organ that originates from maternal and fetal tissues, the function of which is transporting nutrients from the mother to the fetus. The aim of this study was describe the histological features of placentas in healthy Thoroughbred mares at foaling and evaluate their relation with the gross placental and data of these mares. For this study 188 Thoroughbred mares were used. It was performed clinical observation for signs of placentitis during daily health checks and ultrasonic examination monthly to assess the fetus and placenta. All of the mares that exhibited clinical signs of placentitis were treated during gestation. The parturition was assisted, the placentas were grossly evaluated and samples were collected immediately after expulsion. The following data were considered for each mare: age, gestational age, number of parturition, time for placental expulsion, umbilical-cord length, placental weight and clinical signs of placentitis. Histological evaluation of the placentas revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial areolar cells, presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hypoplasia-atrophy of the microcotyledons. Most of the gross placental findings were consistent with the histological results. In conclusion the mares with a vacuolated placental chorionic epithelium were older and had experienced a larger number of births. Great part of the mares with inflammatory infiltrates did not showed any clinical signs of placentitis during gestation.

  7. Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a mare and her foal with foal heat diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrucci, Stefania; Buggiani, Claudia; Sgorbini, Micaela; Cerchiai, Isabella; Otranto, Domenico; Traversa, Donato

    2011-12-15

    Cryptosporidium infection was molecularly investigated in mares and in their neonatal foals for which the occurrence of foal heat diarrhoea was also assessed. Thirty-seven mare/foal pairs were included in the study. All foals were born in the same stud farm during 2006-2008 breeding seasons. Two faecal samples, one prior to and one after delivery were collected from each mare, whereas three faecal samples were taken from each foal, i.e. at 8, 10 and 12 days of age. All samples (74 from mares and 111 from foals) were divided into two aliquots, one of which was examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium by a commercially available microplate ELISA kit, while the second aliquot of all ELISA-positive samples was molecularly examined. Nine out of 37 examined foals presented foal heat diarrhoea and one of them scored positive for Cryptosporidium, together with its mare. More specifically, four samples belonging to the same mare/foal pair resulted positive for Cryptosporidium upon both ELISA and PCR. The sequence analysis of the COWP gene showed the occurrence of the zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum. The possibility that foal heat diarrhoea-like episodes may be due to neonatal cryptosporidiosis and their relevance for the health of horses and of humans handling diarrhoeic neonatal foals and their mares are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microscopic examination of endometrial biopsies of retired sports mares: an explanation for the clinically observed subfertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgenstein, Helen J; Schöniger, Sandra; Schoon, Doris; Schoon, Heinz-Adolf

    2015-04-01

    After their retirement from sports, performance mares often show a poor breeding success. The objective of this study was the microscopic evaluation of endometrial biopsies of retired sports mares (n = 189) to search for alterations that may explain subfertility. Mares of this study aged 3-23 years showed endometritis (30%) and endometrosis (77%); mild forms predominated. In regard to those mares biopsied during the breeding season (n = 99), 50% had glandular differentiation disorders, i.e. glandular inactivity (8%) or irregular glandular differentiation (42%). Compared to literature data retrieved from mainly non-performance mares, the sports mares of this study showed a similar prevalence of endometrosis and endometritis, but a much higher prevalence of glandular differentiation disorders. The most common cause of the latter is an ovarian dysfunction. Results of this study indicate an association between glandular maldifferentiation of the endometrium and the clinically observed reduced fertility of retired sports mares. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Management Strategies Aiming to Improve Horse Welfare Reduce Embryonic Death Rates in Mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malschitzky, E; Pimentel, A M; Garbade, P; Jobim, Mim; Gregory, R M; Mattos, R C

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of management strategies aiming to improve animal well-being on pregnancy and embryonic death (ED) rates. Breeding records of a cohort of 1206 Thoroughbred mares brought to a stallion station facility, to be bred with the stallions housed there, were evaluated during ten breeding seasons. Mares were blocked according to management strategies in two groups: Stress and Relax. Strategies used to improve animal well-being (Relax group) were as follows: stopping the teasing routine, reducing or eliminating stall confinement, reducing the number of mares per group and maintaining herd stability during the breeding season. In barren mares, the pregnancy rate was higher in the Relax group (91.8%) when compared to the observed in Stress group (84.7%). However, no difference in pregnancy rates were observed (Stress = 85.2% vs. Relax = 86.2) in foaling mares. ED rate was higher in barren and foaling mares of the Stress group mares (25.5% and 26.8%, respectively) compared with the Relax group (16.1% and 14.7%, respectively). No significant differences were observed on foal heat pregnancy rate between groups; yet, the embryo loss on foal heat was significant reduced in Relax mares (Relax = 8.7% vs Stress = 24.5%). In conclusion, management strategies aimed to reduce social stress can reduce early pregnancy losses and the average cycles per pregnancy, improving reproductive performance in mares. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Investigations on the endometrial response to intrauterine administration of N-acetylcysteine in oestrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkus, E; Witte, T; Walter, I; Heuwieser, W; Aurich, C

    2013-08-01

    In mares, mating-induced persistent endometritis contributes to low fertility. The condition is in part related to delayed clearance of mucus accumulated within the uterine lumen. The objective of this study was to investigate the endometrial response of healthy mares to intrauterine (i.u.) treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Oestrous mares (n = 12) were randomly assigned to a treatment (TM) or control (C) group and received an i.u. infusion of 5% NAC and saline (total volume 140 ml), respectively. Endometrial biopsies were collected in five of the mares 24 h after treatment, in the remaining seven mares 72 h after treatment. Endometrial biopsies were evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). The integrity of endometrial epithelial cells was not affected by treatment (no statistical differences between groups or times). At 24 h after treatment, the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies from NAC- and C-mares did not differ, but at 72 h after treatment, number of PMN was significantly higher (p NAC-treated mares (2.3 ± 0.2 PMN/field). At 72 h after treatment, the intensity of staining for COX2 was significantly higher after saline than after NAC treatment (p NAC-treated mares than in C-mares 72 h after treatment (p mucus in deep uterine glands differed significantly between groups at 24 h after treatment (p NAC does not adversely affect the endometrial function. Moreover, an anti-inflammatory effect on the equine endometrium was observed. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Temporal Feeding Pattern May Influence Reproduction Efficiency, the Example of Breeding Mares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhajali, Haifa; Ezzaouia, Mohammed; Lunel, Christophe; Charfi, Faouzia; Hausberger, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares), night and day for the “continuous feeding” group (CF mares). The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets). Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002) and more fertility (p = 0.024) in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares). Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding. PMID:24098636

  12. Clinical Trials during Late Pregnancy in Mares: Prevention of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill PLEMYASHOV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper observed the influence of the integrated treatment of abortion in mares with the supplement Haemobalans® to replace high-turnover vitamins, amino acids and minerals; and probiotics BF-15® which contains Bifidobacterium bifidum. The aims of this study were to prove the application of Haemobalans and BF-15 as adaptogens during late gestation. We examined 60 healthy adult Thoroughbred mares that were divided into four equal groups (n=15 on the 270 - 300th days of gestation. Test animals received the following treatment: 1 intramuscular injection of Haemobalans in 3 days, in a dose of 1 ml per 45 kg of body weight. BF-15 was also given for 10 days: 20 ml of the oral solution with oats two times per day. Reflex-1 group was treated with the same dose of Haemobalans. Reflex-2 group was treated with the same dose of BF-15. Control animals were also examined. Blood samples were taken before the treatment and two weeks after it. First examination showed the basic level of investigated sources, the last one showed the result of the treatment. The difference between the data (which were obtained before and after treatment was compared in each group. In case of significant differences between the data of the test group relative to the other three groups, we talked about the reliability of the outcomes. Tissue of placentae were taken after delivery, fixed with neutral formalin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Zones of pathological changes were identified. Database of categorical data was created in placental study. Number of cases for markers of placental insufficiency (PI was determined. In the personal database of one animal the presence of a pathological case was marked (1 and the absence was marked (0. The objective excess of (1 was regarded as PI. The concentrations of glucose, total protein, creatinine, hemoglobin, vitamin B12, ESR, count of lymphocyte and MCHC in the test group were significantly higher: 16.4%; 10.78%; 17.87%; 11

  13. RECURRENT, IDIOPATHIC URTICARIA IN A TONGA PONY MARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahmad, G. Muhammad and M. H. Hussain

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-Yearold tonga (a light wheeled horse cart pony mare was presented for the treatment of a condition characterized by generalized urticarial wheals, anemic mucous membranes, concentrated urine, inappetance and unilateral chemosis. Haematological alterations included a marked leucocytosis (WBC = 14x103/ul with monocytosis (2.5x109/L and moderate anemia (RBC count = 4.lx1012/L; PCV = 18; hemoglobin = 8.2 gm/dl. There was no history of exposure to agents known tQtrigger urticaria. Parental administration of a corticosteroid preparation (prednisolone plus dexamethasone and antihistamine (pheniramine maleate in 4 rounds of treatment over a 16 days period was associated with rebounding of signs of urticaria after cessation of each round oftherapyo

  14. Chemical dispersion among Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham; Steele, Alison

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts for major and minor elements suggests that the hypothesis that the coarser-grained varieties (olivine microgabbros) consist of two chemical groups is incorrect. Instead, it is found that there is a single group including vesicular, coarse-grained, and fine-grained basalts. For the entire suite, the dispersion of compositions along the olivine trend is too great to be explained by short-range unmixing of an unfractionated flow. It is suggested that the general trend for the suite is olivine separation, probably through crystal settling. The textures, mineralogical characteristics, and chemical variation of the olivine-normative basalts are shown to be consistent with a sequence of thin fractionating flows, all from a common parent.

  15. Bilateral hydrosalpinx in a mare - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Rechsteiner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During a research visit for tissue collection at an abattoir located in Pelotas, Brazil, one female genital tract showed both enlarged oviducts. The reproductive tract was collected and analyzed. Occluded uterine tubes and an increase in the organ volume due to the large amount of fluid in the organ lumen were the macroscopic findings. Three samples, corresponding to isthmus, ampulla and infundibulum from each uterine tube and one sample from the endometrium were collected. Samples were fixed in Bouin's solution and processed in light microscopy. Microscopically a decrease in the number of folds and also an increase in the lumen of the organ were observed, mainly in the ampulla and infundibulum. The epithelial lining of the uterine tubes ranged from ciliated to simple squamous. Inflammatory cells were observed between the epithelial cells and in the lamina propria. Hydrosalpinx is difficult to diagnose and can be a cause of infertility in the mare.

  16. Neutrino mass calorimetric searches in the MARE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Nucciotti, A

    2010-01-01

    The international project ``Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment'' (MARE) aims at the direct and calorimetric measurement of the electron neutrino mass with sub-electronvolt sensitivity. Calorimetric neutrino mass experiments measure all the energy released in a beta decay except for the energy carried away by the neutrino, therefore removing the most severe systematic uncertainties which have plagued the traditional and, so far, more sensitive spectrometers. Calorimetric measurements are best realized exploiting the thermal detection technique. This approach uses thermal microcalorimeters whose absorbers contain a low transition energy Q beta decaying isotope. To date the two best options are 187Re and 163Ho. While the first beta decays, the latter decays via electron capture, but both have a Q value around 2.5 keV. The potential of using 187Re for a calorimetric neutrino mass experiment has been already demonstrated. On the contrary, no calorimetric spectrum of 163Ho has been so far measured wit...

  17. Mares prefer the voices of highly fertile stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, Alban; Remeuf, Kévin; Trabalon, Marie; Cuir, Frédérique; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that stallion whinnies, known to encode caller size, also encoded information about caller arousal and fertility, and the reactions of mares in relation to type of voice. Voice acoustic features are correlated with arousal and reproduction success, the lower-pitched the stallion's voice, the slower his heart beat and the higher his fertility. Females from three study groups preferred playbacks of low-pitched voices. Hence, females are attracted by frequencies encoding for large male size, calmness and high fertility. More work is needed to explore the relative importance of morpho-physiological features. Assortative mating may be involved as large females preferred voices of larger stallions. Our study contributes to basic and applied ongoing research on mammal reproduction, and questions the mechanisms used by females to detect males' fertility.

  18. Mares prefer the voices of highly fertile stallions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Lemasson

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility that stallion whinnies, known to encode caller size, also encoded information about caller arousal and fertility, and the reactions of mares in relation to type of voice. Voice acoustic features are correlated with arousal and reproduction success, the lower-pitched the stallion's voice, the slower his heart beat and the higher his fertility. Females from three study groups preferred playbacks of low-pitched voices. Hence, females are attracted by frequencies encoding for large male size, calmness and high fertility. More work is needed to explore the relative importance of morpho-physiological features. Assortative mating may be involved as large females preferred voices of larger stallions. Our study contributes to basic and applied ongoing research on mammal reproduction, and questions the mechanisms used by females to detect males' fertility.

  19. Invasive ductal carcinoma of the mammary gland in a mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, K; Honda, Y; Sako, T; Okamoto, M; Tsunoda, N; Tagami, M; Taniyama, H

    2003-01-01

    A 21-year-old thoroughbred mare had a 35 x 14 x 10 cm mass involving the mammary gland. Metastases were found in the kidneys, lungs, skeletal muscles, and regional lymph nodes. Histopathologic examination of the tumor revealed a ductal solid carcinoma with extensive intraductal and intralobular involvement and focal infiltration of the adjacent stroma. The intralobular neoplasms were divided into irregularly shaped islands and sheets of polygonal and spindle-shaped epithelial cells by thick or thin fibrous connective tissue bundles. The neoplastic cells had a small or moderate amount of cytoplasm that stained faintly with eosin and round or oval hyperchromatic nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for Lu-5, weakly positive for AE1/AE3, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and negative for cytokeratin 8, cytokeratin 14, alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and S100. The neoplasm was diagnosed as an invasive ductal carcinoma of the mammary gland with multiple metastases.

  20. Casereport - Agalactia of mare, agammaglobulinemia and arthritis in foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactation is physiological state of the organism and the final process of the female reproductive cycle. Milk in the first days after birth (colostrum, in addition to the necessary nutrients contains antibodies, with whose ingesting only a newborn individual receives passive immunity that protects it from various infections over time. Mammary gland dysfunction and a lack of breast milking is called agalactia. Due to the occurrence of agalactia in mother, newborn animal is denied of intake of colostrum in its body. Thus prevents ingestion of nutrients and passive immunity, which results in the occurrence of various diseases especially infectious etiology. This paper describes the treatment of agammaglobulinemia in foal after ascertaining the occurrence of primary agalactia in mare. There is described the possibility of substitution, ie. benefits of breast milk substitutes, and the procedure of diagnosis and treatment of carpal arthritis in foal.

  1. Regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W., III; Adams, J. B.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Zisk, S.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing and Luna 24 sample data are used to develop a summary of the regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium. Laboratory spectra of Luna 24 samples, telescopic reflectance spectra in the 0.3 to 1.1 micron range and orbital X-ray data have identified three major basalt groups in the region. Group I soil is derived from iron- and magnesium-rich titaniferous basalts and was apparently emplaced over the majority of the basin, however is presently exposed as a shelf in the southwest part. Group II soils, derived from very low titanium ferrobasalts, were emplaced in two stages subsequent to Group I emplacement and now appear as part of the outer shelf and topographic annulus. Subsidence of the basin interior preceded and continued after the emplacement of the third basalt group, a soil derived from a low titanium ferrobasalt. The Luna 24 site is found to be within a patch of Group II material.

  2. Effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the endometrial inflammatory response to induced infectious endometritis in susceptible mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Woodward, Elizabeth; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory therapy (glucocorticoids (GC) and mycobacterium cell wall extract (MCWE)) on the endometrial gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in susceptible mares with induced infectious endometritis. Endometrial gene expr...

  3. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... may contact the City of Vallejo via the same telephone number to schedule drawspan operation. (b) The...

  4. Vorm on kolmedimensioonilise kunsti pärisosa / Mare Mikoff ; intervjueerinud Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikof, Mare, 1941-

    2011-01-01

    Mare Mikoff oma näitusest "Linnaskulptuur" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis, linnaskulptuurist, õnnestunud ja ebaõnnestunud linnaskulptuuri näiteid, linnakeskkonnast ja linnaskulptuuridest Tallinnas, oma loomingust, kaasaegse skulptuuri ja vormi suhtest

  5. Tekstiili pioneerid / Mare Kelpman, Kärt Ojavee ; intervjueerinud Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelpman, Mare, 1958-

    2011-01-01

    EKA tekstiilidisaini osakonna professor Mare Kelpman ning kunsti- ja disainidoktorant Kärt Ojavee uutest ja tarkadest tekstiilidest, uutest tehnoloogiatest, vanade tehnoloogiate toomisest tänapäeva, omamaisest tootmisest, disaineri vastutusest, oma loomingust, tagasivaade 2011. aastale

  6. Effects of uterine flushing on post-partum conception rate in throughbred mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Medianeira Deprá

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of uterine lavage with a 0.9% NaCl or 0.4% povidine iodine solution was evaluated on the foal heat conception rate of 93 thoroughbred mares. Their conception rate were compared to the conception rate of 27 Thoroughbred mares without any manipulation of the uterus. Another 15 mares with p.p. retained placenta were submited to uterine lavage with the same solutions and their reproductive performance were accompanied. It was observed that the p.p. uterine lavage, independent of the solution used, impaired the uterine involution and the conception rates; because of its inflammatory action it is suggested that the uterine lavage could be indicated only in mares with retained placenta and, if the procedure is performed until day 3 or 4 after foaling.

  7. Positiivsust saab õppida / Mare Pork ; intervjueerinud Signe Rummo ; kommenteerinud Toivo Aavik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare, 1950-

    2014-01-01

    Intervjuu Tallinna Ülikooli psühholoogiaprofessor Mare Porkiga positiivsest psühholoogiast ja raamatust Boniwell, Ilona. Positiivne psühholoogia : tõhusa toimimise põhitõed. Tallinn : Äripäev, 2014.

  8. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (P<0.05) than the 5% observed in mares impregnated with horse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (P<0.05) than those of mares with normal pregnancies with equine fetuses. The concentrations of eCG were less (P<0.05) in mule pregnancies from Week 6. Estrone sulphate concentrations were only different (P<0.05) between types of pregnancy on Weeks 13 and 14, being in this case greater with the mule pregnancies. Most of the abortions of mule fetuses were associated with lesser progesterone concentrations than the average for mares with successful mule pregnancies. Four of the abortions of mule fetuses and the only abortion of horse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased

  9. High fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk reduces the toxic effects of mercury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Al-Dekheil, Ali; Babkr, Ali; Farahna, Mohammed; Mousa, Hassan M

    2010-12-01

    Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, we have all been unfortunately exposed to an increasingly toxic and polluted world. Among the most dangerous of these pollutants is mercury, which is considered to be the most toxic non-radioactive heavy metal. Fermented foods may help cleanse the body of heavy metals. Fermentation breaks down the nutrients in foods by the action of beneficial microorganisms and creates natural chelators that are available to bind toxins and remove them from the body. The current study was designed to determine the impact of feeding a high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk on the biological effects of mercury toxicity in rat model. The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was prepared and its sensory properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity were determined. A rat model of mercury toxicity was used. The effect of feeding the high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk to rats, along with mercury ingestion, was determined by the analysis of several biochemical markers in serum and histopathological examinations of brain and kidney. The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was found to be acceptable by all test panels and volunteers. Mercury ingestion was found to cause biochemical and histopathological alterations in rat serum and tissues. The mercury-treated rats showed a decrease in body weight and an increase in kidney weight. Sera of the mercury treated rats showed alterations in biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes in brain and kidney. However, the rats fed high fiber fermented mare`s milk along with mercury ingestion showed improved histopathology of kidney and brain, and there was restoration of the biochemical parameters in serum to almost normal values. Feeding high fiber fermented mare`s milk may reduce the toxic effects of mercury.

  10. Evaluation of chlorhexidine hydrochloride treatment on endometrial health of normal mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Natalie S; Johnson, Aime K; Wilborn, Robyn R; Dujovne, Ghislaine A; Nuehring, Leland

    2017-01-15

    Chlorhexidine gluconate solution is a potent antimicrobial and therefore could be used effectively for treatment of endometritis, but historically this substance has been implicated as irritating to mucous membranes, including the endometrium of the mare. The use of chlorhexidine hydrochloride suspension (Nolvasan Suspension, Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ, USA) was evaluated in the uterus of normal mares to determine if adverse effects on endometrial health were noted. Twelve healthy, adult light breed mares were included in this study. Procedures were approved by the Auburn University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. All mares were determined to be reproductively normal by evaluation of endometrial histopathology, cytology, and bacterial culture. Mares were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups (n = 6 per group). Each mare was treated during estrus with an intrauterine infusion of 1 g (28 mLs per tube; 35.7 mg/mL) of chlorhexidine hydrochloride suspension (treatment group) or an equal volume of lactated ringer's solution (control group) once daily for 3 consecutive days. Biopsy and cytology samples were taken 3, 7, and 14 days after completion of treatment. Cytology and biopsy samples were read by a board-certified pathologist (L.N.) blinded to treatments, and biopsy samples were graded using a standardized Kenney-Doig score. There was no difference with respect to biopsy grade, degree of endometrial fibrosis, or presence of cytologic inflammation comparing control and treatment groups (P = 0.55, 0.7, and 0.06, respectively), neither when accounting for sampling day. The suspension was visible within the uterine lumen when mares were examined with transrectal ultrasonography for up to 4 days after treatment. Treatment with chlorhexidine hydrochloride in this formulation and at this concentration does not appear to have a deleterious effect on short term endometrial health in mares. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Stratigraphy and structural evolution of southern Mare Serenitatis - A reinterpretation based on Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Head, J. W., III

    1983-01-01

    Two subsurface reflecting horizons have been detected by the Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment (ALSE) in the southern Mare Serenitatis which appear to be regolith layers more than 2 m thick, and are correlated with major stratigraphic boundaries in the southeastern Mare Serenitatis. The present stratigraphic boundaries in the southeastern Mare Serenitatis. The present analysis implies that the lower horizon represents the interface between the earliest mare unit and the modified Serenitatis basin material below. The depth of volcanic fill within Serenitatis is highly variable, with an average thickness of mare basalts under the ALSE ground track of 1.6 km. Comparisons with the Orientale basin topography suggests that a major increaae in load thickness could occur a few km basinward of the innermost extent of the traverse. The history of volcanic infilling of Mare Serenitatis was characterized by three major episodes of volcanism.

  12. The consanguinity of the oldest Apollo 11 mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. P.; Coish, R. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    The textural, mineralogical, and chemical relationships between three of the oldest dates lunar mare basalt samples returned by Apollo 11 (10003, 10029 and 10062) were investigated. Very strong resemblances were noted between the modal minerologies of 10003 and 10029. Significantly more modal olivine and cristobalite was observed in 10062 than in the other basalt samples. A detailed examination of mineral-chemical relationships among the samples revealed similarities between 10003 and 10062 and differences between these two rocks and 10029, the most significant of which is the presence of akaganeite in 10029, implying that lawrencite was present in the pristine sample of 10029 but not in 10003 and 10062. Results of a Wright-Doherty mixing program used to test various fractional crystallization schemes show that 10062 can be derived from a liquid with the composition of either 10003 or 10029 by removing 2-5% ilmenite and 5% olivine. By removing about 6% plagioclase, 10003 can be derived from a liquid with the bulk composition of 10062. It is concluded that 10003 and 10029 may have come from different basaltic flows, whereas it is possible that 10003 and 10062 were derived from the same parental magma by near-surface fractionation of olivine plus ilmenite or of plagioclase plus or minus olivine.

  13. PROBIOTIC POTENCY OF LACTOBACILLUS SPP. ISOLATED FROM SUMBAWA MARE MILK

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    I Nengah Sujaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was deigned to elucidate the potency of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from sumbawa mare milk to be developed as a probiotic. Sixteen lacobacilli were screened based on their resitancy to a model of gastric juice at pH 2, 3, and 4, then followed by their resistncy to small intestional fluid model containing deoxycholic. Three lactobacilli i.e. Lactobacillus sp. SKA13, Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were found to be resistentent to gastric juice at pH 3 and 4. However, there were no lactobacilli resisted to pH 2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were able to reach the colon even after being expossed to a model of intestinal fluid containing 0,4 mM deoxycholate and pancreatine. Therefore, these isolates have a potency to be developed as probiotic lactobacilli. Nevertherless, these lactobcailli could probably transform cholic acid into secondary bile acids, which were not expected to be found in the probiotic, and this capability is not appropriate for probiotic. This character is worthly to be studied since it has never been reported in lactobacilli.

  14. The Front-End System For MARE In Milano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Claudio; Pessina, Gianluigi

    2009-12-01

    The first phase of MARE consists of 72 μ-bolometers composed each of a crystal of AgReO4 readout by Si thermistors. The spread in the thermistor characteristics and bolometer thermal coupling leads to different energy conversion gains and optimum operating points of the detectors. Detector biasing levels and voltage gains are completely remote-adjustable by the front end system developed, the subject of this paper, achieving the same signal range at the input of the DAQ system. The front end consists of a cold buffer stage, a second pseudo differential stage followed by a gain stage, an antialiasing filter, and a battery powered detector biasing set up. The DAQ system can be used to set all necessary parameters of the electronics remotely, by writing to a μ-controller located on each board. Fiber optics are used for the serial communication between the DAQ and the front end. To suppress interference noise during normal operation, the clocked devices of the front end are maintained in sleep-mode, except during the set-up phase of the experiment. An automatic DC detector characterization procedure is used to establish the optimum operating point of every detector of the array. A very low noise level has been achieved: about 3nV/□Hz at 1 Hz and 1 nV/□Hz for the white component, high frequencies.

  15. Massimo Gezzi (Sant’Elpidio a Mare, 1976

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    Paolino Nappi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Gezzi ha publicado los libros de poesía Il mare a destra (Edizioni Atelier, 2004, L’attimo dopo (Luca Sossella Editore, 2009, Premios Metauro y Marazza Giovani, Il numero dei vivi (Donzelli, 2015, Premio Carducci, Premio Tirinnanzi y Premio suizo de literatura 2016 y Uno di nessuno. Storia di Giovanni Antonelli, poeta (Edizioni Casagrande, 2016, además del opúsculo en tres idiomas In altre forme/En d’autres formes/In andere Formen, con traducciones al francés de Mathilde Vischer y de Jacqueline Aerne al alemán (Transeuropa, 2011. Sus poemas han sido traducidos al inglés, castellano, francés, alemán, croata y polaco. Ha realizado una edición comentada de Diario del ’71 e del ’72 de Eugenio Montale (Mondadori, 2010 y ha editado el volumen Poesie 1975-2012 de Franco Buffoni (Mondadori, 2012. En Tra le pagine e il mondo (Italic Pequod, 2015 ha recopilado diez años de entrevistas a poetas y reseñas de libros de poesía. Vive en Lugano, donde trabaja como profesor de italiano en el Liceo 1.

  16. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Nutritional programming and the impact on mare and foal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, J A; Hammer, C J; Walter, K W

    2015-07-01

    Many environmental factors can alter the phenotype of offspring when applied during critical periods of early development. In most domestic species, maternal nutrition influences fetal development and the fetus is sensitive to the nutrition of the dam during pregnancy. Many experimental models have been explored including both under- and overnutrition of the dam. Both nutritional strategies have yielded potential consequences including altered glucose tolerance, pancreatic endocrine function, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and colostrum quality. Although the impact of maternal nutrition on fetal development in the equine has not been thoroughly investigated, overnutrition is a common occurrence in the industry. Work in our laboratory has focused on effects of maternal overnutrition on mare and foal performance, mare DMI, foaling parameters, colostrum quality and passive transfer of immunity, and glucose and insulin dynamics. Over several trials, mares were fed either 100 or 140% of NRC requirements for DE, and supplemental Se and arginine were added to diets in an attempt to mitigate potential intrauterine growth retardation resulting from dams overfed during the last third of pregnancy. As expected, when mares were overfed, BW, BCS, and rump fat values increased. Foal growth over 150 d was also not influenced. Maternal nutrition did not alter colostrum volume but influenced colostrum quality. Maternal overnutrition resulted in lower colostrum IgG concentrations but did not cause failure of passive transfer in foals. Supplemental Se and arginine were unable to mitigate this reduction in colostrum IgG. Additionally, mare and foal glucose and insulin dynamics were influenced by maternal nutrition. Mare glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) increased with increased concentrate supplementation. Foal insulin AUC and peak insulin concentrations were increased when mares were fed concentrate and, in a later trial, foal peak glucose values were reduced

  17. CONCEIVING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF OAȘ AREA, SATU MARE COUNTY, ON THE BASIS OF NATURAL CAPITAL ASSESSMENT

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    OLIMPIA NEAGU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development essentially depends on natural capital or environment assets and conceiving a sustainable development strategy at local level means first to evaluate it, through inventorying all types of natural resources: vegetable, animal, protected areas, forest and water resources, crops and farming resources, land and pastures and meadows. The area called Țara Oașului, located in the north-eastern part of Satu Mare county has some particular features: a wealth of natural resources (such as forests, stone, mineral water, wild flora and fauna, population with a high level of income and luxurious but uninhabited houses, a high level of migration for work abroad (from the very beginning of nineties, a lack of labour force and active population, a reduced life expectancy, and specific popular traditions (costume, events and culture. We carried out a field reseach, by applying a questionnaire to local population, authorities and experts in order to obtain an estimation of natural resources, as volumes and ways of exploitation (for own consumption or market selling and the main trends in local traditional employment. The research conclusions are valuable in order to conceive the sustainable development strategy of the area, taking into consideration the local capabilities to use the existing natural resources by protecting the environment, to build an appropriate social capital and to attract the required for economic growth human and financial resources.

  18. Leukocyte modifications during the first month after foaling in mares and their newborn foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, G; Rizzo, M; Arfuso, F; Giannetto, C; Di Pietro, S; Bazzano, M; Quartuccio, M

    2015-01-01

    During early post-partum period both neonatal foals and peripartum mares are most susceptible to diseases. The aim of this study was to establish physiologic modifications of leukogram during the first month after foaling in mares and their newborn foals. To this end blood samples were collected from nine mares and nine foals (T0-T10), every three days from the 1st day until the 30th day after foaling. Samples were analysed for white blood cell (WBC) count and differential leucocyte counts. Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed, in postpartum mares WBC showed significant higher values at T0 (9.02±0.76) in respect to other time points, and at T2 (8.08±0.53) and T3 (7.92±0.59) compared to T1 (6.98±0.43), whereas in foals lower WBC values at T0 (6.11±0.49) compared to other experimental periods except T1 (6.90±0.94), and at T1 compared to T8 (7.95±0.61) and T10 (7.90±0.36) were observed. The differential leucocyte counts showed significant modifications in the percentage of neutrophils (πleukogram of periparturient mares and reveal WBC dynamics in newborn foals during the first month post-partum.

  19. Moon - 2 Views of Orientale Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    These pictures of the Moon were taken by the Galileo spacecraft at (right photo) 6:47 p.m. PST Dec.8, 1990 from a distance of almost 220,000 miles, and at (left photo) 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, 1990 at a range of more than 350,000 miles. The picture on the right shows the dark Oceanus Procellarum in the upper center, with Mare Imbrium above it and the smaller circular Mare Humorum below. The Orientale Basin, with a small mare in its center, is on the lower left near the limb or edge. Between stretches the cratered highland terrain, with scattered bright young craters on highlands and maria alike. The picture at left shows the globe of the Moon rotated, putting Mare Imbrium on the eastern limb and moving the Orientale Basin almost to the center. The extent of the cratered highlands on the far side is very apparent. At lower left, near the limb, is the South Pole Aitken basin, similar to Orientale but very much older and some 1,200 miles in diameter. This feature was previously known as a large depression in the southern far side; this image shows its Orientale like structure and darkness relative to surrounding highlands.

  20. Moon taken by Galileo after completing its first Earth Gravity Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft images of the Moon were taken at (right photo) 6:47 pm Pacific Standard Time (PST), 12-08-90, and at (left photo) 9:35 am PST, 12-09-90, at a range of more than 350,000 miles. The picture on the right shows the dark Oceanus Procellarum in the upper center, with Mare Imbrium above it and the smaller circular Mare Humorum below. The Orientale Basin, with a small mare in its center, is on the lower left near the limb or edge. Between stretches the cratered highland terrain, with scattered bright young craters on highlands and maria alike. The picture at left shows the globe of the Moon rotated, putting Mare Imbrium on the eastern limb and moving the Orientale Basin almost to the center. The extent of the cratered highlands on the far side is very apparent. At lower left, near the limb, is the South-Pole-Aitken basin, similar to Orientale but very much older and some 1,200 miles in diameter. This feature was previously known as a large depression in the southern far side

  1. COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF LIPPIZANER MARES IN STUD FARM RAISING AND ON FAMILY FARMS

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    Tomo Rastija

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at determination of defferences in morphological and reproductive properties of Lippizaner breed blood mares raised in stud farm Đakovo and on family farms. Results of morphological properties investigation indicate better development of investigated body measures of a stud farm mares, except chest width that was more pronounced in family farm mares. Significant differences were determined with withers height (cattle tape, back height and cannon bone circumference whereas differences of withers height (stick, small of the back height, chest depth and chest width were highly significant. As for reproductive properties stud farm raising mares were older at first fertilization and first foaling compared to the family farm mares. Statistically very significant differences in pregnancy duration were determined only at 5-12 pregnancy of stud farm raising mares. First, second, fourth and 5-12 service period lasted longer in stud farm raising mares whereas longer duration of the second and third service period was determined with family farm mares.

  2. 33 CFR 334.1170 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; gunnery range, Naval Inshore Operations Training Center, Mare Island...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... range, Naval Inshore Operations Training Center, Mare Island, Vallejo. 334.1170 Section 334.1170... Operations Training Center, Mare Island, Vallejo. (a) The Danger Zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay delineated..., Vallejo, California, will conduct gunnery practice in the area during the period April 1 through September...

  3. Evaluation of dexamethasone on fetal maturation and delivery in mares when administered on days 305 to 307 of gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many species corticosteroids are administered to the dam to induce precocious fetal maturation when the pregnancy is at risk; however in the mare this has met with mixed results. Previously we showed that 24 mg betamethasone administered to pregnant mares on d305 to 307 of pregnancy tended to...

  4. Maternal Lineage of Warmblood Mares Contributes to Variation of Gestation Length and Bias of Foal Sex Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, J; Stock, K F; Wulf, M; Aurich, C

    2015-01-01

    Maternal lineage influences performance traits in horses. This is probably caused by differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transferred to the offspring via the oocyte. In the present study, we investigated if reproductive traits with high variability-gestation length and fetal sex ratio-are influenced by maternal lineage. Data from 142 Warmblood mares from the Brandenburg State Stud at Neustadt (Dosse), Germany, were available for the study. Mares were grouped according to their maternal lineage. Influences on the reproduction parameters gestation length and sex ratio of offspring were analyzed by simple and multiple analyses of variance. A total of 786 cases were included. From the 142 mares, 119 were assigned to six maternal lineages with n≥10 mares per lineage, and 23 mares belonged to smaller maternal lineages. The mean number of live foals produced per mare was 4.6±3.6 (±SD). Live foal rate was 83.5%. Mean gestation length was 338.5±8.9 days (±SD) with a range of 313 to 370 days. Gestation length was affected by maternal lineage (pfoal (pfoals born alive at term, 48% were male and 52% female. Mare age group and maternal lineage significantly influenced the sex ratio of the foals (pfoal sex ratio in horses. In young primiparous and aged mares, the percentage of female offspring is higher than the expected 1:1 ratio.

  5. The geology of Mare Acidalium quadrangle Mars. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbeck, N. E.

    1982-01-01

    The Mare Acidalium quadrangle is described. Mare Acidalium quadrangle lies between 30 - 60 N latitude and 0 - 60 W longitude. Materials that were used in mapping the quadrangle include Mariner and Viking single-frame images and photomosaics. Preliminary geologic mapping was done on five 1:2,000,000-scale photomosaics and selected higher resolution photomosaics. The data were then compiled on one sheet at a scale of 1:5,000,000. The Mariner 9 mission revealed a striking planetary dichotomy; high-standing, heavily-cratered terrain in the south that contrasts with low-lying, lightly-cratered terrain in the north. Both of these terrain types occur in Mare Acidalium quadrangle. The boundary separating the elevated cratered plateau from the lower plains is, in many places, an escarpment 1-2 km-high, however, in a few places where there is no escarpment, plains materials embay and overlap the heavily-cratered plateau material.

  6. Digestibility and nutrient intake in Mangalarga Marchador mares supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during aerobic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Resende Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effect of yeast supplementation on the digestibility and intake of nutrients of Mangalarga Marchador horses in training. Fourteen Mangalarga Marchador mares were divided into two groups: Probiotic (horses supplemented with 20 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae daily and Control. The diet consisted of commercial concentrate and roughage in the ratio of 50:50. The mares were trained for six weeks, Monday to Saturday, and the exercise performed daily alternating work on a treadmill and automatic walker. Nutrient digestibility was assessed using the indicator LIPE® (6 days end fecal collection was performed for five days. Was analyzed DM, NDF, ADF, CP, GE, hemicelluloses and dry matter intake. There was not difference (P>0,05 in any of the variables analyzed. Supplementation with 20 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not affect the digestibility and nutrient intake in mares Mangalarga Marchador submitted six weeks of aerobic training.

  7. Le vie del mare: i servizi di trasporto marittimo per la fruizione della costa

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    Enrica Papa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo affronta il tema dei servizi di trasporto marittimo come esempio di governo integrato e sostenibile trasporti-territorio. Le vie del mare possono costituire occasione di riqualificazione di intere fasce costiere, promuovere forme di mobilità alternative all’auto privata e favorire la valorizzazione e lo sviluppo dell’attività turistica di un’area. I servizi di trasporto marittimo possono consentire infatti un più agevole accesso alle mete turistiche sul mare o nelle zone più interne, attraverso forme di integrazione con altri sistemi di trasporto pubblico, con conseguente incremento del flusso turistico e, contestualmente, una riduzione del traffico veicolare su gomma sulle arterie principali. Partendo da queste considerazioni, l’articolo definisce teorie e metodi per la messa in servizio delle vie del mare lungo la costa e analizza cinque casi di studio nazionali evidenziando punti di forza e di debolezza delle diverse esperienze.

  8. Alfred-Louis de Prémare (1930-2006

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    Antoine Borrut

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfred-Louis de Prémare a eu plusieurs vies et plusieurs carrières. Je n’ai pas compétence pour les évoquer toutes. Alfred-Louis de Prémare, juillet 2004 Né en 1930 à Tours, Alfred-Louis de Prémare a grandi au Maroc où sa famille s’était établie alors qu’il avait deux ans, à la suite de la nomination de son père comme magistrat. C’est là qu’il fait ses premières armes d’arabisant et poursuit des études de langue et littérature arabes à l’Institut des hautes études marocaines et à l’universit...

  9. The use of electrochemically activated saline as a uterine instillation in pony mares : article

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    C.H. Annandale

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Twelve pony mares were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group and inseminated with fresh, raw semen from a single stallion of known fertility in a cross-over trial design. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound 12-14 days post-ovulation and then terminated by administration of a luteolytic dose of cloprostenol. Treatment mares received a uterine instillation of 100 m of electrochemically activated (ECA saline 4-12 hours post-insemination. Control mares received no treatment post-insemination. Per cycle pregnancy rate was 58.3 % in the control group and 50 % in the treatment group. There was no statistical difference (P = 1.000 in pregnancy rate between the 2 groups. The principles of ECA and applications of ECA saline are discussed.

  10. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P coconut oil lowered P4 levels in diestrus in a dose-dependent fashion and did not prolonged the luteal phase of the mares. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of β-carotene integration to Italian trotter mares in peripartum

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    A. Falaschini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy trotter horses begin racing activity in the summer, two years after their birth year, so that the foals born in the first months of the year are better developed than those born in late spring-summer. As it is known, mares are characterised by an oestrus cyclic activity, which founds its best time in spring. The management of trotter mares tries to anticipate the foaling at first months of the year and therefore the next oestrus cycle, too...

  12. Endometritis associated with Enterococcus casseliflavus in a mare: A case report

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    Francesca Paola Nocera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious endometritis is one of the main causes of subfertility/infertility in the mare. In this report, we present the first case of endometritis in mare associated with a strain of Enterococcus casseliflavus, an unusual gram-positive bacterium which can also be a zoonotic agent. Furthermore, the isolated strain showed a worrying multidrug-resistant profile. The accurate finding of a successful antimicrobial treatment and consequently, the pregnancy diagnosis indicate the importance to isolate, identify and define the antibiotic resistance profile of bacteria associated with endometritis.

  13. Comparison of endoscopic, ultrasound and microbiological examinations in diagnosis of reproductive disorders in mares

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    Kosec M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopyc examinations were performed on 37 mares of different breeds. All examined mares had reproductive problems. During the examination, the following pathological changes were found: inflammation of endometrium in 19 cases (64.9%, uterus adhesions in 4 cases (10.8%, exudate in uterus lumen in 13 cases (32.4%, thin fibrin exudate in 8 cases (21.6% and lymphatic cysts in 12 cases (32.4%. In one case adhesions in the cervical wall were found, and in one case there was hair encapsulated in the cervical mucus as a consequence of fetotomy. These changes were found in 2.7% of cases.

  14. Comparison of Lidocaine and Lidocaine-Meperidine Combination for Caudal Epidural Analgesia in Mares

    OpenAIRE

    BİRİCİK, Halil Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare some haemodynamic and clinical parameters and the analgesic, sedative effects of lidocaine and a lidocaine-meperidine combination for caudal epidural analgesia in mares. This study was performed on 12 thoroughbred mares aged 13-24 years. Time to onset of analgesia in the combination group (6.67 ± 0.42 min) was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than in the lidocaine group (12.17 ± 1.05 min). However, duration of analgesia was significantly (P &a...

  15. LANDSLIDES INCIDENCE IN THE PIEDMONT OF BAIA MARE URBAN AREA (CASE STUDIES

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    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The landslides incidence in the piedmont of baia mare urbana area cae studies. The General Urban Plan (GUP of Baia Mare municipality requires the study of expected susceptibility for landslides in order to build infrastructure within sustainable development conditions. The complexity and diversity of local geographic area factors, strongly affected by the human pressure, favours the triggering and extension of slope processes in the municipality’s piedmont area. To prevent some major imbalances it is imperative to implement some adequate measures based on in-depth studies.

  16. [Profiles of estrone, estrone sulfate and progesterone in donkey (Equus asinus) mares during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, B; Bernhardt, A W; Failing, K; Schuler, G

    2014-01-01

    To gain further data on the hormonal control of pregnancy in the donkey and to obtain reference values for hormonal pregnancy testing. Blood samples were collected at monthly intervals from 23 donkey mares with normal singleton pregnancies. Further samples were obtained from six mares displaying pregnancies with clinical disorders. Progesterone (P4), total estrone (TE), free (E) and conjugated estrone (ES) were determined using radioimmunoassay. Mean duration of pregnancy was 372 ± 16 days. It was longer (p 5 ng/ml being indicative for pregnancy. At present, monitoring of P4 and estrone during pregnancy does not allow the prediction of clinical disorders.

  17. Supplementary corpora lutea monitoring allows progestin treatment interruption on day 70 of pregnancy in non-cyclic recipient mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E S M; Frade, S C F; Ignácio, F S; Pantoja, J C F; Puoli Filho, J N P; Meira, C

    2014-01-30

    The present study evaluated the effect of altrenogest treatment during 70 or 120 days of gestation on pregnancy maintenance in non-cyclic recipient mares and correlated the hormonal interruption findings with number, supplementary corpora lutea (SCL) formation period, and plasma progesterone (P4). Twenty five mares were used as recipients during anestrus, transitional or ovulatory phase and were assigned into groups according to altrenogest treatment period (70ALT, 120ALT or Control groups) or reproductive status at beginning of treatment (Anestrus, Transition or Cyclic/Control groups). Mares were evaluated by ultrasonography and quantification of plasma progesterone to monitor pregnancy status, SCL formation and P4 profile. After hormonal withdrawal, abortion was only observed on group 70ALT. The days of first SCL formation were similar (p=0.32) in the 70ALT and 120ALT groups and greater (pperiod occurred later during gestation in the anestrus group than in the transitional or cyclic mares. Progesterone synthesis in non-cyclic mares occurred in more advanced gestational period and showed lower concentration during the 120 days in relation to cyclic mares. It is suggested that progestin treatment interruption in non-cyclic recipient mares at 70 days of gestation allows pregnancy maintenance when SCL are observed and at 120 days enables maintenance in all recipient mares. In addition, the first SCL development period occurs in different gestational phases during pregnancy among anestrus, transitional and cyclic mares. This study improves the understanding of pregnancy physiology and enables progestins treatment interruption on day 70 of pregnancy in non-cyclic pregnant recipient mares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal Lineage of Warmblood Mares Contributes to Variation of Gestation Length and Bias of Foal Sex Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kuhl

    Full Text Available Maternal lineage influences performance traits in horses. This is probably caused by differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA transferred to the offspring via the oocyte. In the present study, we investigated if reproductive traits with high variability-gestation length and fetal sex ratio-are influenced by maternal lineage. Data from 142 Warmblood mares from the Brandenburg State Stud at Neustadt (Dosse, Germany, were available for the study. Mares were grouped according to their maternal lineage. Influences on the reproduction parameters gestation length and sex ratio of offspring were analyzed by simple and multiple analyses of variance. A total of 786 cases were included. From the 142 mares, 119 were assigned to six maternal lineages with n≥10 mares per lineage, and 23 mares belonged to smaller maternal lineages. The mean number of live foals produced per mare was 4.6±3.6 (±SD. Live foal rate was 83.5%. Mean gestation length was 338.5±8.9 days (±SD with a range of 313 to 370 days. Gestation length was affected by maternal lineage (p<0.001. Gestation length was also significantly influenced by the individual mare, age of the mare, year of breeding, month of breeding and sex of the foal (p<0.05. Of the 640 foals born alive at term, 48% were male and 52% female. Mare age group and maternal lineage significantly influenced the sex ratio of the foals (p<0.05. It is concluded that maternal lineage influences reproductive parameters with high variation such as gestation length and foal sex ratio in horses. In young primiparous and aged mares, the percentage of female offspring is higher than the expected 1:1 ratio.

  19. Comparison between two ovulation-inducing drugs in mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cardoso de Almeida Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Silva P.C.A., Oliveira J.P., Sá M.A.F., Paiva S.O., Caram D.F., Junqueira R.G.C. & Jacob J.C.F. [Comparison between two ovulation-inducing drugs in mares.] Comparação entre dois agentes indutores da ovulação em éguas. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.2:45-48, 2016. Departamento de Reprodução e Avaliação Animal, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: paulinha_calmeida@hotmail.com Hormonal control of the ovulation is an effective tool to improve reproductive performance and reduce costs in equine breeding programs. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of lower doses of hCG and Deslorelina than doses traditionally used, evaluating the follicular parameters and time between induction and ovulation. Induction of ovulation was performed according to the groups, 1000 IU of hCG (G1, 0.75mg of Deslorelin (G2, and 1.0ml of saline solution (G3. Twenty-four hours after administration, ovaries were evaluated by ultrasound every six hours until detection of ovulation.  The percentage of ovulation within 36 hours was 34.4%, 13.3% and 8.7%, and up to 42 hours was 96.9%, 70% and 17.4% for G1, G2 and G3, respectively, showing a significant increase (p ˂ 0.0001 in G1 compared to other groups. In G2 there was a significant increase (p ˂ 0.0001 of ovulation after 42 hours from the induction, and G3 after 48 hours. Until 48 hours the percentage of induction of ovulation was 96.8% (31/32 90% (27/30 and 30.4% (7/23, respectively, for G1, G2 and G3. Thus, the lower doses of ovulation-inducing drugs were effective in inducing ovulation within 48 hours, however hCG was faster than deslorelin, which might reduce costs and help the reproduction management.

  20. Sexual behavior and ejaculate characteristics in Pêga donkeys (Equus asinus) mounting estrous horse mares (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canisso, I F; Carvalho, G R; Morel, M C G Davies; Guimarães, J D; McDonnell, S M

    2010-01-01

    The objectives were to (i) characterize sexual behavior of donkey stallions (jacks; Equus asinus) during on-farm semen collection using estrous horse mares (mares; Equus caballus); (ii) compare behavior of young (less experienced) versus older (more experienced) jacks; (iii) determine whether semen suitable for artificial insemination (AI) could be collected using mares; and (iv) determine the suitability of using mares in field collection of semen from jacks. Six Pêga jacks (3.5 to 16 yr old), previously conditioned to breed mares, were used. Mount mares were confirmed in estrus by a teaser horse stallion (stallion) and a jack. Semen was collected with an artificial vagina, at intervals of 48 to 72h (180 collections). The mean+/-SD (young [3.5 yr] vs. old [14 to 16 yr]) were Flehmen response frequency, 7.4+/-5.8 (8.1+/-3.0 vs. 7.0+/-2.0); number of mounts without erection, 1.1+/-1.3 (2.1+/-1.4 vs. 1.2+/-0.4, P<0.05); latency from first exposure to mare to full erection on the ejaculatory mount, 18.3+/-17.7min (25.3+/-21.3 vs. 12.2+/-6.2, P<0.05); latency from erection to insertion, 5.1+/-3.5sec (5.3+/-3.8 vs. 4.8+/-3.2); and duration of copulation from insertion to dismount after ejaculation, 25.4+/-7.8sec (22.1+/-2.9 vs. 28.1+/-9.3). In all jacks, sexual behavior was generally normal, with the notable absence of open mouth behavior. Mare estrous behavior was markedly less intense than that in the presence of a stallion and usually absent. Semen characteristics were gel free volume, 47.3+/-28.7mL; gel volume, 71.8+/-54.8mL; total motility, 84.3+/-6.0%; progressive motility, 74.3+/-74.5%; sperm vigor, 3.9+/-0.5 (scale 1 to 5); sperm concentration, 253x10(6) cells/mL; and total number of sperm, 10.3x10(9) cells. Copulation duration was significantly correlated with gel free volume (r=0.9) and gel volume (r=0.7). We concluded that (i) the sexual behavior of jacks during semen collection using mares was similar to that reported for natural mating to jennies, (ii

  1. Eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.G.; Roliff, W.A.; Sealey, R.; Palonen, P.A.

    1981-10-01

    Uncertainty of increased taxation of petroleum revenues proposed under the Canadian national energy program effected a minor slowdown of the rapid exploration in 1980. Total numbers of wells drilled in eastern Canada were: Ontario, 224; Quebec, 3; Nova Scotia, 1; and the Atlantic offshore, 13. Much of the Ontario drilling, 123 wells, was for development purposes. The success ratio on exploratory drilling in Ontario was 34.7, while all Quebec and Nova Scotia wells were dry. Production of oil and gas declined by 16.8% and 18.5% in New Brunswick. Oil production in Ontario increased by 1.2%. The increase in gas production of 14.3% to almost 443,535.5 x 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/ was due almost entirely to development of known fields underlying Lake Erie. The exploration of offshore eastern Canada continued at a stable rate, with 12 wells completed. Of these, 2 were in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 3 on the Grand Banks, 6 on the Labrador Shelf, and 1 in Davis Strait. All wells were abandoned or suspended at year end, although discoveries of hydrocarbon were made in Davis Strait and the Grand Banks. The early exploration stage, combined with record water depths, prevented any of these wells from being put into production, although testing will be continued on the most promising shows. Seismic exploration increased to approximately 30,000 km in the Atlantic offshore areas. In addition, 1,420.94 km was shot in Lake Erie. Onshore seismic exploration accounted for 1,078.67 km in Ontario, 350 km in Nova Scotia and 242.76 km in Quebec. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  2. Foal with Overo lethal white syndrome born to a registered quarter horse mare

    OpenAIRE

    Lightbody, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    A 16-hour-old white foal, born to a registered quarter horse mare, was examined for signs of colic. The foal had Overo lethal white syndrome, which causes ileocolonic agangliosis. This was confirmed by DNA testing. Since there is no treatment for Overo lethal white syndrome, the foal was euthanized.

  3. Foal with Overo lethal white syndrome born to a registered quarter horse mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbody, Tamara

    2002-09-01

    A 16-hour-old white foal, born to a registered quarter horse mare, was examined for signs of colic. The foal had Overo lethal white syndrome, which causes ileocolonic agangliosis. This was confirmed by DNA testing. Since there is no treatment for Overo lethal white syndrome, the foal was euthanized.

  4. Baia Mare Mining Area. Effects of the Policy of Disadvantaged Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA-MIHAELA ROGOJAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The policy of the disadvantaged areas was a component of the regional development policy in Romania between 1998 and 2010. It aimed to delineate those areas that underwent serious economic and social issues that were mainly generated by industrial restructuring in order to take specific measures to revive them. Baia Mare mining area is one of the 38 disadvantaged areas that were identified in Romania. The present article aims to emphasize the results of such a policy within Baia Mare mining area, the way in which the status of disadvantaged area had effects on the economic development of the city of Baia Mare and on the other localities included. Therefore, the companies that invested in the area once it was declared a “disadvantaged area” were analyzed, along with the new jobs, the facilities for companies, the total value of investments and the way these influenced (in a positive or negative manner the decrease in the unemployment rate and the economic revival through activities from new economic domains. The conclusion is that a high number of companies had investments during its existence as a disadvantaged area, yet the effects they had on the economic development are evident particularly in the city of Baia Mare. The poor quality of the transport infrastructure and of the business infrastructure restricts the economic potential of the other localities that are part of the area, therefore they registered few investments.

  5. Tall-building development process in downtown Maringá-PR, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Roberto Machado; César Miranda Méndes

    2012-01-01

    ..., in the context of the tallbuilding development at its main economic axis, the city center. This research aims to conduct an in-depth analysis of the role played by the housing industry in the development of tall buildings at downtown Maringá...

  6. Assessment of Pregnancy in the Late Gestation Mare Using Digital Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate use of digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) to determine whether surface temperature gradient differences exist between pregnant and nonpregnant mares as a noncontact method to determine pregnancy status. On the day measurements were collected, each ...

  7. Kuidas möödus vaheaeg? / Sulev Valdmaa, Alli Lunter, Epp-Mare Kukemelk ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Kuusalu keskkooli õpetaja-metoodik Sulev Valdmaa, Viljandi maagümnaasiumi eesti keele õpetaja Alli Lunter, Tallinna 37. keskkooli ja Tallinna Lilleküla gümnaasiumi meediaõpetaja Epp-Mare Kukemelk, haridus- ja teadusministeeriumi kommunikatsioonibüroo konsultant Rein Joamets ja Unipiha algkooli õpetaja Lembit Jakobson

  8. Ceftiofur derivates in serum and endometrial tissue after intramuscular administration in healthy mares.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, T.S.; Bergwerff, A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023553; Scherpenisse, P.; Drillich, M.; Heuwieser, W.

    2010-01-01

    Endometritis is one of the major problems in the horse breeding industry. The use of antibiotics for treatment of endometritis in the mare is recommended as best practice. The intrauterine application of antibiotics, however, has been under discussion over the last years because of concerns about

  9. A Reflective Conversation with Kobus Maree, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy Lynne; Maree, Kobus

    2013-01-01

    Always regarded as somewhat of an "outsider" (the child of an English-speaking (Catholic) mother and an Afrikaans (Protestant) father in an exclusively Afrikaans milieu) and growing up extremely poor, seeing the hardship of others and realising how much talent was going to waste, Kobus Maree took a particular interest in gifted…

  10. The mare as a model for luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome : intrafollicular endocrine milieu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Tazawa, S P; Tarso, S G S; Hales, D B; Cuervo-Arango, J; Baerwald, A R; Gastal, E L

    2016-01-01

    Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome is a recurrent anovulatory dysfunction that affects up to 23% of women with normal menstrual cycles and up to 73% with endometriosis. Mechanisms underlying the development of LUF syndrome in mares were studied to provide a potential model for human

  11. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : incidence, risk factors, therapy, and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns incidence, risk factors, therapy and consequences of retained placenta after normal foalings in Friesian mares. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. Incidence of retained placenta was studied in 495

  12. Foal with Overo lethal white syndrome born to a registered quarter horse mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbody, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    A 16-hour-old white foal, born to a registered quarter horse mare, was examined for signs of colic. The foal had Overo lethal white syndrome, which causes ileocolonic agangliosis. This was confirmed by DNA testing. Since there is no treatment for Overo lethal white syndrome, the foal was euthanized. PMID:12240532

  13. Does Clinical Treatment with Phenylbutazone and Meloxicam in the Pre-ovulatory Period Influence the Ovulation Rate in Mares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A G; Costa, L C B; Alvarenga, M A; Martins, C B

    2015-10-01

    The presence of anovulatory haemorrhagic follicles during the oestrous cycle of mares causes financial impacts, slowing conception and increasing the number of services per pregnancy. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as meloxicam and phenylbutazone are used in the treatment of several disorders in mares, and these drugs can impair the formation of prostaglandins (PGs) and consequently interfere with reproductive activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment with NSAIDs on the development of pre-ovulatory follicles in mares. In total, 11 mares were studied over three consecutive oestrous cycles, and gynaecological and ultrasound examinations were performed every 12 h. When 32-mm-diameter follicles were detected, 1 mg of deslorelin was administered to induce ovulation. The first cycle was used as a control, and the mares received only a dose of deslorelin. In the subsequent cycles, in addition to receiving the same dose of deslorelin, each mare was treated with NSAIDs. In the second cycle, 4.4 mg/kg of phenylbutazone was administered, and in the third cycle, 0.6 mg/kg of meloxicam was administered once a day until ovulation or the beginning of follicular haemorrhage. All of the mares ovulated between 36 and 48 h after the induction in the control cycle. In the meloxicam cycle, 10 mares (92%) did not ovulate, while in the phenylbutazone cycle, nine mares (83%) did not ovulate. In both treatments, intrafollicular hyperechoic spots indicative of haemorrhagic follicles were observed on ultrasound. Thus, our results suggested that treatment with meloxicam and phenylbutazone at therapeutic doses induced intrafollicular haemorrhage and luteinization of anovulatory follicles. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Effect of month of conception on fertility of mares inseminated with jackass semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rossi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertility obtained by cross-breeding mares (Equus caballus with jackasses (Equus asinus was evaluated. Two extenders, containing skim milk-glucose or egg yolk-glycine were used to study the fertility of mares inseminated with diluted jackass semen (T1 and T2 or diluted and cooled semen at 5°C for 12 hours (T3 and T4. A total of 272 cycles of 208 mares of undefined breeds were evaluated, being uniformly distributed between groups. The cycles were controlled by transrectal palpation and teasing, and mares were inseminated every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday (three times/week, from the detection of a follicle with 3.0 to 3.5cm diameter in one of the ovaries until ovulation. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal palpation, teasing and ultrasound exams every 14 days. The extenders had no effect on fertility (P>0.05. Pregnancy rates for the first cycle were 64.52%, 61.11%, 50.72% and 54.17% and pregnancy rates/cycle were 63.64%, 54.55%, 52.69% and 47.06%, respectively, for T1, T2, T3 and T4. Differences in pregnancy loss rates between groups and effect of month of conception on fertility were found. Pregnancy loss rates were significantly higher (P<0.05 in January (38.46% and in February and March (52.38%, with an average of 33.09%. The results indicate that mares conceiving at the end of the physiological reproduction time, carrying a mule embryo, are more susceptible to pregnancy loss.

  15. A chemical model for generating the sources of mare basalts - Combined equilibrium and fractional crystallization of the lunar magmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Neal, Clive R.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical model for simulating the sources of the lunar mare basalts was developed by considering a modified mafic cumulate source formed during the combined equilibrium and fractional crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO). The parameters which influence the initial LMO and its subsequent crystallization are examined, and both trace and major elements are modeled. It is shown that major elements tightly constrain the composition of mare basalt sources and the pathways to their creation. The ability of this LMO model to generate viable mare basalt source regions was tested through a case study involving the high-Ti basalts.

  16. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. IV. Serum progestagen, FSH, LH and melatonin concentrations during the anovulatory, transitional and ovulatory periods in the non-pregnant mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of total protein intake and protein quality on the serum concentrations of certain reproductive hormones during the anovulatory, transitional and ovulatory periods were studied in 36 Anglo-Arab mares. High-quality protein stimulated FSH and LH production during the late transitional period. Serum progestagen and melatonin concentrations were unaffected by the quality of protein nutrition during the anovulatory period. Mares receiving high-quality protein exhibited a 10-14-day cyclical pattern of FSH release approximately 4-6 weeks earlier than the mares fed the lower-quality protein diet, and also ovulated 3-4 weeks earlier than the mares on the lower-quality protein diet. Progesterone concentrations during the 1st oestrous cycle after the anovulatory period were unaffected by protein quality in the diet.

  17. Uterine involution in colombian fine pace mares, measured by ultrasonography and endometrial cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ramírez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, there still exists a controversial issue, as to the high incidence of early embryonic death in mares, mated on the first post partum oestrus. The purpose of this study was first, to determine the post partum period of uterine involution in fine pace Colombian mares using endometrial cytology and ultra sonograph. Secondly, to determine the relation between the neutrophil percentages found in cytology and the echogenicity of accumulated intrauterine fluid during the first 30 post partum days. Twenty (n=20 mares were examined beginning on the 6th post partum day and on alternate days, up to the 30th day. All subjects were grazing Kikuyo grass (Pennisetum clandestinum at la Sabana de Bogotá, 2.600 meters over sea level, 4 º north latitude and with an average temperature of 13 º C. From the 3rd postpartum day, all 20 mares were exposed to 2 healthy stallions, to establish their heat behaviour. Ten of them, following complete randomization, were inseminated on the first postpartum heat, while the others were inseminated on the second post partum heat. Genital examination was carried out by a technician, who did not know the reproductive history of any of the experimental mares. Examinations included rectal palpation, ultra sonograph (Pie Medical 480, linear array, 5 MHz, vaginal swabs and endometrial cytology. Uterine dimension was recorded by rectal palpation and ultra sonograph, it was included the uterine horn dimensions (tip, middle, and corporo-cornual junction of previously gravid and non gravid uterus. Intrauterine fluid detection was performed by the use of an echogenicity scale. Ovaric structures were recorded (preovulatory follicles and ovulation. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on day 15 post ovulation and then confirmed on day 40. Endometrial cytology samples were taken from uterus after the perineal area was disinfected using non covered isopos with a Pollanski speculum. Smears specimens were fixed with metil alcohol for 15

  18. Evaluation of the safety of vaccinating mares against equine viral arteritis during mid or late gestation or during the immediate postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaddus, Charles C; Balasuriya, Udeni B R; White, Jena L R; Timoney, Peter J; Funk, Rebecca A; Holyoak, G Reed

    2011-03-15

    To determine whether it is safe to vaccinate pregnant or postpartum mares with a commercial modified-live virus vaccine against equine viral arteritis (EVA). Design-Randomized controlled study. Animals-73 mares and their foals. Mares were vaccinated during mid gestation, during late gestation, or 2 or 3 days after parturition with a commercial modified-live virus vaccine or were not vaccinated. Foaling outcomes were recorded, and serum, blood, milk, and nasopharyngeal samples were obtained. All mares vaccinated during mid gestation foaled without any problems; 21 of 22 mares in this group had antibody titers against EAV at the time of foaling. Of the 19 mares vaccinated during late gestation, 3 aborted; antibody titers against EAV were detected in 13 of 15 mares from which serum was obtained at the time of foaling. All postparturient vaccinates were seronegative at foaling; all of them seroconverted after vaccination. No adverse effects were detected in any of their foals. When faced with a substantial risk of natural exposure to EAV, it would appear to be safe to vaccinate healthy pregnant mares up to 3 months before foaling and during the immediate postpartum period. Vaccinating mares during the last 2 months of gestation was associated with a risk of abortion; this risk must be weighed against the much greater risk of widespread abortions in unprotected populations of pregnant mares naturally infected with EAV.

  19. The uniform K distribution of the mare deposits in the Orientale Basin: Insights from Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Hua; Chang, Jin; Xie, Minggang; Fritz, Jörg; Fernandes, Vera A.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Ma, Tao; Xu, Aoao

    2015-05-01

    The composition of mare basalt units in the Orientale Basin are investigated by using the potassium (K) map derived from Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (CE-2 GRS) and FeO map derived from Clementine UV-Vis data set. Together with crater retention ages of the mare basalts from literature data, we aim to investigate possible magma sources underneath the Orientale Basin and their chemical evolution over time. Analyses of the chemical composition of the resurfaced mare basalts together with the reported eruption ages suggest a unique magma generating process for the resurfaced mare deposits. The early mare basalts in the central Mare Orientale and the later resurfaced mare deposits probably derived from magma generated by heat release due to high radioactive element concentrations. Based on forward modeling, the similar K abundances observed in the small mare deposits of the SW polygon area, Lacus Veris, and Lacus Autumni and those in the central Mare Orientale imply the same heat source for these lava eruptions. The chemical similarities (e.g., K, FeO, and TiO2) of these regions suggest that mare basalts within the Orientale Basin are a result of multiple eruptions from a relatively homogeneous source underneath the Basin.

  20. Specific Immune Response of Mares and their Newborn Foals to Actinobacillus spp. Present in the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternberg S

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral swab samples, serum and colostrum was taken from 15 mares and 14 of their foals, within 24 h of birth. The presence of antibody against Actinobacillus spp. isolated from the oral cavity was investigated using agar gel immunodiffusion. Antibodies against 48 out of the 77 Actinobacillus isolates from all horses in the study were present in the respective sera of 13 mares and 9 foals. In 11 mother-foal pairs, the antibody content of the foal serum was similar to that of the mare, and in 9 cases this was reflected in the antibody content of colostrum from the mare. The results indicate that an immune response to Actinobacillus spp. colonising the oral cavity is present in many adult horses and that this immune response can be transferred from mother to foal via colostrum.

  1. A preliminary study on the induction of dioestrous ovulation in the mare – a possible method for inducing prolonged luteal phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindahl Hans

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong oestrous symptoms in the mare can cause problems with racing, training and handling. Since long-acting progesterone treatment is not permitted in mares at competition (e.g. according to FEI rules, there is a need for methods to suppress unwanted cyclicity. Spontaneous dioestrous ovulations in the late luteal phase may cause a prolongation of the luteal phase in mares. Methods In this preliminary study, in an attempt to induce ovulation during the luteal phase, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG (3000 IU was injected intramuscularly in four mares (experimental group in the luteal phase when a dioestrous follicle ≥ 30 mm was detected. A fifth mare included in this group was not treated due to no detectable dioestrous follicles ≥ 30 mm. Four control mares were similarly injected with saline. The mares were followed with ultrasound for 72 hours post injection or until ovulation. Blood samples for progesterone analysis were obtained twice weekly for one month and thereafter once weekly for another two to four months. Results Three of the hCG-treated mares ovulated within 72 hours after treatment and developed prolonged luteal phases of 58, 68 and 82 days respectively. One treated mare never ovulated after the hCG injection and progesterone levels fell below 3 nmol/l nine days post treatment. Progesterone levels in the control mares were below 3 nmol/l within nine days after saline injection, except for one mare, which developed a spontaneously prolonged luteal phase of 72 days. Conclusion HCG treatment may be a method to induce prolonged luteal phases in the mare provided there is a dioestrous follicle ≥ 30 mm that ovulates post-treatment. However, the method needs to be tested on a larger number of mares to be able to draw conclusions regarding its effectiveness.

  2. Differences in ability of jennies and mares to conceive with cooled and frozen semen containing glycerol or not

    OpenAIRE

    Vidament, Marianne; Vincent, P.; Martin, F.X.; Magistrini, Michèle; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    A suitable method for the cryopreservation of donkey semen would be very valuable for the ex situ management of genetic diversity in this species. This report uses a variety of observation and trials to evaluate the effect of cryoprotectants in per-cycle pregnancy rates (PC) in equids females (jennies (donkey) and mares (horse)). This was explored by (1) comparing the results of insemination of jennies and mares with cooled or frozen donkey semen, (2) examining the possible toxic effect of th...

  3. Identification of periparturient mare and foal associated predictors of post parturient immunoglobulin A concentrations in Thoroughbred foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, C; Caraguel, C; Howarth, G B; Riley, C B

    2012-12-01

    Prior to the start of endogenous production of immunoglobulins (Igs), absorption of maternal Igs is important to protect against pathogens in the early neonatal period. It is possible that mare- or foal-associated factors may influence neonatal IgA concentrations. The temporal relationships among serum and milk IgA concentrations in Thoroughbred mare-foal pairs were explored to determine if periparturient mare- and foal-associated factors contribute to the prediction of foal serum IgA concentrations. Blood and milk samples as well as complete veterinary records, were collected for 84 Thoroughbred mare-foal pairs from one month before to 2 months after parturition. Samples were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for concentrations of IgA. Pairwise correlation coefficients were estimated (P foal risk factors and foal serum IgA concentration at 12 h. Backwards, stepwise elimination of nonsignificant factors was used to create a final model. There were significant temporal relationships among mare serum IgA and among colostrum and milk IgA concentrations within mares (P foal serum IgA concentrations at all time points and with colostrum and milk IgA concentrations. Mare serum IgA at -28 days and parity were associated with foal serum IgA concentration at 12 h (P foal serum IgA concentrations. Mare serum and colostrum IgA concentrations may be useful peripartum predictors of neonatal mucosal immune status, enabling earlier intervention to prevent the consequences of mucosal infections.

  4. Experimental partitioning of rare earth elements and scandium among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and mare basalt liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, A. J.; Merrill, R. B.; Singleton, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to measure partition coefficients for two rare-earth elements (Sm and Tm) and Sc among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and liquid coexisting in a system modeled on high-Ti mare basalt 74275. This 'primitive' sample was chosen for study because its major and trace element chemistry as well as its equilibrium phase relations at atmospheric pressure are known from previous studies. Beta-track analytical techniques were used so that partition coefficients could be measured in an environment whose bulk trace element composition is similar to that of the natural basalt. Partition coefficients for Cr and Mn were determined in the same experiments by microprobe analysis. The only equilibrium partial melting model appears to be one in which ilmenite is initially present in the source region but is consumed by melting before segregation of the high-Ti mare basalt liquid from the residue.

  5. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for equine chorionic gonadotropin/pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (eCG/PMSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, F; Combarnous, Y

    1992-01-01

    A simple, accurate, sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has been developed that permits the measurement of equine Chorionic Gonadotropin activity in pregnant mare plasmas or serums as well as in commercial and highly-purified preparations. This assay is specific for eCG and eLH which share the same polypeptide structure but differ in their oligosaccharidic chains. The more important result is that this EIA has been found to be give data in very close agreement with the in vivo assay. Therefore this very rapid and convenient assay can be used to measure the activity of eCG/PMSG in pregnant mares serums in in-field conditions as well as in crude or highly-purified preparations.

  6. Luteogenic and luteotropic effects of eCG during pregnancy in the mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2012-01-01

    The role of eCG during pregnancy was evaluated through the study of the temporal relationships between changes in eCG and progesterone concentrations and the formation of supplementary corpora lutea (SCL) in mares impregnated with donkey semen (mule pregnancies) or with horse semen (equine pregnancies). Concentrations of eCG were higher (p0.05). It is concluded that eCG stimulates both the development of new SCL and the function of existing CL. While these effects are clearly expressed in mares impregnated by horses, the low eCG concentrations during mule pregnancies reduce the impact of this hormone on CL formation and function. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Whole-genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a Quarter Horse mare.

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, Ryan

    2012-02-17

    BACKGROUND: The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs), and copy number variants (CNVs) in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse\\'s genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids.

  8. The Mares Conference on Marine ecosystem Health and Conservation 2016: key themes

    OpenAIRE

    Deprez, Tim; Brownlie, Katherine; Officer, Rick A.; Cunha,Marina; Erzini, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Marine environments are generally considered as highly valuable and their health and conservation status are seen as key priorities. However, marine wildlife and habitats are facing multiple threats ranging from eutrophication to overfishing and ocean acidification, all of which directly or indirectly affect the biodiversity of marine ecosystems. The Mares Conference 2016 aims to address the main issues of marine ecosystems health and conservation. To do this, six thematic subjects will be ex...

  9. Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalts - New bulk compositional data, magma types, and petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Conrad, G. H.; Northrop, H. R.; Barker, S.; Keil, K.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R.

    1979-01-01

    Bulk compositional and mineral chemical data for 28 previously unanalyzed samples support the classification of Apollo-17 high-Ti mare basalts into three-types (A, B, and C), defined on the basis of analyses of fine-grained basalts. The most MgO- and TiO2-rich fine-grained basalts of these types appear to be the best choices for representing the compositions of the parent magmas.

  10. Klaasikunstnikus on koos kunstnik ja disainer! / Mare Saare ; intervjueerinud Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saare, Mare, 1955-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia klaasikunsti osakonna juhataja Mare Saare pälvis Jaapanis Kanazawa klaasinäitusel tööga "Laine sünonüümid" ühe neljast hõbemedalist. Kristiina Uslar märgiti ära töö "+-" eest. Kanazawa näitusest, Euroopa klaasinäitustest, eesti klaasikunsti olukorrast ja tulevikust, klaasitööstusest, Olustvere majanduskooli plaanist hakata õpetama klaasimeistreid, klaasikunsti õpetamisest kunstiakadeemias

  11. The seahorse, the almond, and the night-mare: elaborative encoding during sleep-paralysis hallucinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's proposal that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming reflects elaborative encoding mediated by the hippocampus ("seahorse") offers an interesting perspective for understanding hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP; "night-mare"). SP arises from anomalous intrusion of REM processes into waking consciousness, including threat-detection systems mediated by the amygdala ("almond"). Unique aspects of SP hallucinations offer additional prospects for investigation of Llewellyn's theory of elaborative encoding.

  12. The solubility of sulfur in high-TiO2 mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckwerth, P. A.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of the solubility of sulfur of the high-TiO2 mare basalt 74275 at 1 atm, 1250 C. The data indicate that at saturation, 74275 is capable of dissolving 3400 ppm sulfur at 10 to 15 degrees below its liquidus. The analyzed samples of 74275 show sulfur contents of 1650 ppm S, which indicates that 74275 was 50% undersaturated at the time of eruption.

  13. Oxytocin treatment does not change cardiovascular parameters, hematology and plasma electrolytes in parturient horse mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Christina; Trenk, Lisa; Wulf, Manuela; Ille, Natascha; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine

    2017-03-15

    In mares, foaling is associated with changes in hematology, plasma electrolytes, blood pressure and heart rate and it has been hypothesized that these are induced by oxytocin. To test this hypothesis, mares (n = 8-14/group) were treated with oxytocin (OT; 20 I.U.) or saline (CON) at 1 h (test A) and 12 h after foaling (test B) and during first postpartum diestrus (test C). Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), atrioventricular blocks, salivary cortisol concentration, blood pressure, plasma electrolytes and blood count were determined. Heart rate decreased from test A to C (P oxytocin. Cortisol concentration decreased from test A to C (P Oxytocin induced a cortisol release in test B (time x treatment P Oxytocin treatment had no effect on skin temperature. In conclusion, except for a limited effect on cortisol release, oxytocin was without effect and the hypothesis of oxytocin-induced alterations in cardiac parameters, plasma electrolytes and hematology of foaling mares was not verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of mare obesity and endocrine function on foal birthweight in Thoroughbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Marr, C M; Dunnett, C; Menzies-Gow, N J

    2017-07-01

    Birthweight of Thoroughbred foals has increased in recent years. It is unknown whether this is associated with increased broodmare obesity or endocrine dysfunction. To determine insulin, leptin and triglyceride concentrations in Thoroughbred mares throughout gestation and investigate their association with obesity and foal birthweight. Cohort study. A total of 66 mares were included from 40 days post-breeding. Body condition score (BCS), weight and blood samples were obtained every 60 days throughout gestation. Serum/plasma insulin, leptin and triglyceride concentrations and foal birthweight were recorded. Associations between hormone/triglyceride concentration with BCS, stage of gestation and birthweight were analysed using a linear mixed effects model. Serum insulin concentrations were greater at 1-60 days (4.31 μiu/mL) compared with 241-300 days (3.13 μiu/mL) and 61-120 days (5.33 μiu/mL) compared with 181-240, 241-300 and 301-360 days (3.78, 3.13, 3.37 μiu/mL) gestation (PFoal birthweight was weakly positively correlated with BCS (r = 0.13, Pfoal birthweight; obese mares had heavier foals. Significant hyperinsulinaemia was not identified in this population. Increased leptin concentration in early and late gestation was associated with decreased foal birthweight. Further work is required to establish whether leptin concentration in late gestation could predict foal birthweight. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  15. How does the suppression of energy supplementation affect herbage intake, performance and parasitism in lactating saddle mares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collas, C; Fleurance, G; Cabaret, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Cortet, J; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology opens up new perspectives for the design of sustainable farming systems by using the stimulation of natural processes to reduce the inputs needed for production. In horse farming systems, the challenge is to maximize the proportion of forages in the diet, and to develop alternatives to synthetic chemical drugs for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. Lactating saddle mares, with high nutritional requirements, are commonly supplemented with concentrates at pasture, although the influence of energy supplementation on voluntary intake, performance and immune response against parasites has not yet been quantified. In a 4-month study, 16 lactating mares experimentally infected with cyathostome larvae either received a daily supplement of barley (60% of energy requirements for lactation) or were non-supplemented. The mares were rotationally grazed on permanent pastures over three vegetation cycles. All the mares met their energy requirements and maintained their body condition score higher than 3. In both treatments, they produced foals with a satisfying growth rate (cycle 1: 1293 g/day; cycle 2: 1029 g/day; cycle 3: 559 g/day) and conformation (according to measurements of height at withers and cannon bone width at 11 months). Parasite egg excretion by mares increased in both groups during the grazing season (from 150 to 2011 epg), independently of whether they were supplemented or not. This suggests that energy supplementation did not improve mare ability to regulate parasite burden. Under unlimited herbage conditions, grass dry matter intake by supplemented mares remained stable around 22.6 g DM/kg LW per day (i.e. 13.5 kg DM/al per day), whereas non-supplemented mares increased voluntary intake from 22.6 to 28.0 g DM/kg LW per day (13.5 to 17.2 kg DM/al per day) between mid-June and the end of August. Hence total digestible dry matter intake and net energy intake did not significantly differ between supplemented and non-supplemented mares during the

  16. Comparative analysis of some serum proteins and immunoglobulin G concentration in the blood of Yugoslav Trotter mares and newborn foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of some serum protein concentrations was performed on 12 Yugoslav Trotter mares and their newborn foals. The mares included in the evaluation were divided into two groups of 6 each. The mares in the first group were vaccinated against equine herpes virus 1 and 4, in the 5th, 7th and 9th month of pregnancy, while mares in the second group were not vaccinated at all. Pregnant mares were clinically observed during the last stage of pregnancy and blood for biochemical evaluations was sampled immediately after foaling. Foals were clinically observed for seven days after birth and blood samples were collected immediately after foaling (before nursing, and 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after birth. Foals included in the evaluation were divided into two groups according to the group allocation of the respective mares. All mares gave birth to normal foals in expected terms. Biochemical examination revealed slightly lower total gammaglobulin and IgG values in tested mares compared to the values obtained in other horse breeds. The antibody titres against equine herpes virus-1 reached the level that provides sufficient protection in vaccinated mares. Gammaglobulin and traces of IgG were present in the blood serum of foals tested immediately after birth and before nursing. A significant increase of IgG and gammaglobulin concentration was revealed in all foals after the first 24 hours of life. The observed first day increase of concentration was followed by stagnation of gammaglobulin and IgG levels in all foals. Total protein values showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake of colostrum in all foals. Immunoglobulin G concentration established by semiquantitative test was considered low positive in 16.67% and in 33.34% of foals from vaccinated and unvaccinated mares, respectively. Turbidimetric analyses of the same samples revealed sufficient Ig transfer, i.e. Ig concentration over 8 g/L. Comparison of the results obtained by the

  17. THE QUANTITATIVE COMPONENT’S DIAGNOSIS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION CONDITION IN BAIA MARE URBAN AREA

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    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric precipitation, an essential meteorological element for defining the climatic potential of a region, presents through its general and local particularities a defining influence for the evolution of the other climatic parameters, conditioning the structure of the overall geographic landscape. Their quantitative parameters sets up the regional natural setting and differentiation of water resources, soil, vegetation and fauna, in the same time influencing the majority of human activities’ aspects, through the generated impact over the agriculture, transportation, construction, for tourism etc. Especially, through the evolution of the related climatic parameters (production type, quantity, duration, frequency, intensity and their spatial and temporal fluctuations, the pluviometric extremes set out the maxim manifestation of the energy gap of the hydroclimatic hazards/risks which induce unfavourable or even damaging conditions for the human activities’ progress. Hence, the production of atmospheric precipitation surpluses conditions the triggering, or reactivation of some intense erosion processes, landslides, and last but not least, floods. Just as dangerous are the adverse amounts of precipitation or their absence on longer periods, determining the appearance of droughts, aridity phenomena, which if associated with the sharp anthropic pressure over the environment, favours the expansion of desertification, with the whole process of the arising negative effects. In this context, this paper aims to perform the diagnosis of atmospheric precipitation condition in Baia Mare urban area, through its quantitative component, in multiannual condition (1971-2007, underlining through the results of the analyzed climatic data and their interpretation, the main characteristics that define it. The data bank from Baia Mare station from the National Meteorological Administration network, representative for the chosen study area, was used. Baia

  18. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. VII. Embryonic development, early embryonic death, foetal losses and their relationship with serum progestagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab mares aged 6-12 years were randomly allocated to 4 dietary groups and fed diets that differed in the total protein content and quality (essential amino-acids. Forty mares were non-lactating and 24 lactating. Eight mares were withdrawn from the investigation owing to injuries or gynaecological pathology. An overall conception rate of 94.6%and a foaling rate of 80%was achieved. Five of 14 (35.7 % mares (Group 1 fed a low-quality protein diet suffered from early embryonic loss before 90 days of pregnancy compared to 3 of 41 (7.3 % mares in the remaining groups that received the higher-quality protein in their diets. Serum progestagen concentrations of mares in Group 1 that suffered foetal loss were indicative of luteal function insufficiency during the 1st 40 days post-ovulation. Non-lactating mares in all 4 groups gained on average approximately 30 kg in mass during the 90 days before the breeding period. Lactating mares in Group 1 (low-quality protein lost on average 25 kg in mass during lactation, with no weight loss observed among the lactating mares in the other 3 groups. No difference in the diameter of the embryonic vesicle was found between dietary groups until Day 35 of pregnancy.

  19. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anaphylaxis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome induced by inadvertent intravenous administration of mare's milk in a neonatal foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcott, Cody J; Wong, David M

    2010-12-01

    To describe the diagnostic procedures, therapeutic management and successful outcome of a case of anaphylaxis induced by the inadvertent intravenous (IV) administration of mare's milk to a neonatal foal. A 3-day-old Thoroughbred colt was presented for treatment of bilateral flexural limb deformities of the forelimbs. Because the foal was unable to ambulate initially, mare's milk was administered via nasoesophageal tube feedings during treatment of the musculoskeletal disorder. Anaphylaxis resulted after unintentional administration of a bolus of 150mL of mare's milk through a jugular catheter. Aggressive therapy for anaphylaxis and careful monitoring resulted in the successful recovery of the foal after 9 days of intensive care. This case is the first published report to describe the effects of accidental IV administration of mare's milk to a neonatal foal. Medical errors are commonly reported in pediatric medicine; the intent of this report is to raise awareness of medical errors and student education in equine medicine as well as describe the therapy and outcome of anaphylaxis induced by IV administration of mare's milk in a neonatal foal. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2010.

  1. Duração da gestação e do parto em éguas Puro Sangue Árabe Length of gestation and parturition in Arabian Thoroughbred mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valente

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The length of gestation and parturition in 147 Arabian Thoroughbred mares were studied. Length of gestation averaged 330 days and was influenced by the age of mare. They were 335, 330 and 328 days for mares aged up to 4 years, 5 to 9 years and over 10 years, respectively. Parturition lasted 56 minutes on average and was not influenced by the reproductive condition of the mare. Most births occurred at night.

  2. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology and genealogy of mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Depaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of two Apollo 11 mare basalts, high-K basalt 10072 and low-K basalt 10062, are reported. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages are in good agreement and indicate an extensive time interval for filling of the Sea of Tranquility, presumably by thin lava flows, in agreement with similar observations for the Ocean of Storms. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions on Apollo 11 basalts reveal at least two parent sources producing basalts. The Sm-Nd isotopic data demonstrate that low-K and high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 derived from distinct reservoirs, while low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalt sources have Sm/Nd similar to the sources of Apollo 11 basalts. Groupings of mare basalt based on Ti content and on isotopic data do not coincide.

  3. Effects of age, parity, and pregnancy abnormalities on foal birth weight and uterine blood flow in the mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewitz, Jutta; Struebing, Corinna; Rohn, Karl; Goergens, Alexandra; Martinsson, Gunilla; Orgies, Florian; Probst, Jeanette; Hollinshead, Fiona; Bollwein, Heinrich; Sieme, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Color Doppler sonography has become routine for the evaluation of high-risk pregnancies in human medicine. Previous studies documenting uterine blood flow parameters in the pregnant mare have found a decrease in peripheral blood flow resistance in the first pregnancy weeks and an increase in uterine blood flow, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. However, these studies involved only a small number of mares. No naturally occurring pregnancy abnormalities occurred that would allow blood flow changes to be retrospectively examined and analyzed. The objective of the present study was to monitor the diameter of the uterine artery, uterine blood flow, and the combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) throughout gestation in a large number of pregnant mares of different age and parity. In the present study, 51 warmblood mares were examined by ultrasonography on Days 16 and 30, at monthly intervals until Day 300, and then every 10 days from Day 300 until parturition. After localization of the uterine artery ipsilateral and contralateral to the conceptus, the diameter of each artery, the uterine blood flow (pulsatility index [PI], blood flow volume [BFV], and the presence of early diastolic notch), and the CTUP were measured and correlated to placental and foal birth weight after delivery. Furthermore, the effect of age (3-7 years [n = 16], 8-11 years [n = 17], 12-16 years [n = 18]) and parity (0-2 foals [n = 22], 3-4 foals [n = 15], 5-8 foals [n = 14]) on these parameters were analyzed. The diameter of the uterine artery increased more than threefold in the ipsilateral artery (0.40 ± 0.07-1.33 ± 0.08 cm) and 2.7-fold in the contralateral artery (0.39 ± 0.07-1.07 ± 0.08 cm [P foal weight was 52.6 kg. Mares with heavier foals (>52.6 kg) had a 1.38-fold higher BFV in the last 2 months (P foals. Pulsatility index decreased 2-fold until completion of placentation at around Day 150 and continued to decline until Day 240

  4. The role of relaxin in mare reproductive physiology: A comparative review with other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Relaxin is a peptide hormone best known for its action during the latter half of pregnancy, in particular for its softening effect on pelvic ligaments that aids in preparation of the birth canal for the impending delivery of the fetus. The source of relaxin during early pregnancy varies across species, with the CL being the main source in a number of species. The main source of relaxin during late equine pregnancy is the placenta. In mares with impaired placental function, circulating relaxin levels decline before abortion. During early pregnancy, relaxin promotes endometrial angiogenesis through upregulating endometrial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. The horse is unique in that the equine conceptus expresses relaxin messenger RNA as early as 8 days after ovulation, with levels increasing as conceptus development proceeds. Although secretion of functional relaxin has not been verified, it is likely, given that the embryo also expresses transcripts coding for enzymes processing the prohormone to yield the mature hormone. Furin, an enzyme which belongs to the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family known to process preprorelaxin, appears to be the foremost convertase expressed by equine conceptuses. Conceptus-derived relaxin could drive endometrial angiogenesis and also act in an autocrine fashion to promote the embryo's own development. Relaxin is also expressed by ovarian structures during the nonpregnant estrous cycle. In the mare, follicular expression of relaxin is comparable among follicles of varying size and has been localized to granulosa and theca cells. In women and pigs, relaxin appears to promote follicular development. In the rat, multiple lines of evidence indicate that relaxin is involved in the ovulatory process. In the mare, relaxin might play a similar role in the ovulatory process, as in equine ovarian stromal cells relaxin promotes the secretion of gelatinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases; local proteolysis

  5. Los Mares Interiores. (Libro de Poemas del Académico Juan Mendoza Vega)

    OpenAIRE

    Efraim Otero Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    (Presentación del libro en la Fundación Santillana para Iberoamérica, Bogotá, Noviembre 23, 2001).

    Ha querido la deferencia del señor  exPresidente Belisario Betancur, Presidente de la Fundación Santillana para lberoamérica, que sea yo quien les presente el libro "Los mares interiores" del médico, periodista y poeta Juan Mendoza Vega. Tarea que acometo con singular afecto, nacido de una amistad que supera ya los 40 años y de una admiraci...

  6. Effect of the use dinoprost tromethamine on pregnancy rate in Mangalarga Marchador mares

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    Flávia Crespo Vieira de Leal Fonseca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Fonseca F.C.V.L., Jacob J.C.F., Sá M.A.F., Dutra G.A., Guerson Y.B. & Jesus V.L.T. [Effect of the use dinoprost tromethamine on pregnancy rate in Mangalarga Marchador mares.] Efeito do uso de dinoprost trometamina sobre a taxa de gestação em éguas da raça Mangalarga Marchador. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.2:164-168, 2016. Departamento de Reprodução e Avaliação Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: fvieira.vet@hotmail.com The aim of this study was to determine if the use of Dinoprost Tromethamine during diestrus affected the pregnancy rate in Mangalarga Marchador mares. A retrospective study through analyzing records of 173 Mangalarga Marchador mares totaling 669 estrous cycles. The data were separated into four groups: group I (n = 53 cycles: not submitted to hormonetherapy (control; Group II (n = 86 cycles: cycles submitted induction of ovulation using 1000 IU of hCG; Group III (n = 222 cycles: cycles submitted to oestrus induction with 5.0 mg of Dinoprost Tromethamine; Group IV (n = 308 cycles: estrus cycles induced with 5.0 mg Dinoprost tromethamine and ovulation induced using 1000 IU of hCG. Induction of ovulation occurs when the dominant follicle reached ≥ 35mm diameter. The use of PGF2a was from the seventh day after ovulation. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 15 days after the ovulation detection in matrix mares. For embryo donors, was considered as a positive result the uterine washed resulting in embryo recovery. Was used the chi-square test (5% significance and Fisher exact test, when recommended. The pregnancy rate obtained in the group I was 54.71% (29/53 in group II 59.3% (51/86 in group III 49.55% (110/222 and Group IV 59, 41% (183/308. There was no statistical difference (p = 0.132 for the pregnacy rate among the groups. Thus, use of Dinoprost Tromethamine in the seventh day after ovulation did not influence the

  7. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  8. Association of antibodies against Neospora caninum in mares with reproductive problems and presence of seropositive dogs as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, R A; Weiss, R R; Thomaz-Soccol, V; Locatelli-Dittrich, R; Laskoski, L M; Bertol, M A F; Koch, M O; Alban, S M; Green, K T

    2014-05-28

    Sera from 112 mares from 5 horse-breeding farms was examined for the presence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), as well as from dogs and cattle present on these properties for the presence of antibodies to N. caninum. Among the 112 mares, 35 had a history of reproductive problems in the last breeding season and 77 had no reproductive problems. The rates of seroprevalence of N. caninum in mares with and without a history of reproductive problems were 25.71% and 6.49% and from T. gondii 2.85% and 1.29%, respectively. In dogs and cattle, the rates of seroprevalence of N. caninum were 10.52% and 15.55%, respectively. A positive correlation was found between the presence of antibodies against N. caninum (p=0.010) in mares and the occurrence of reproductive problems using the Fisher's exact test. Significantly higher seroprevalence for N. caninum in mares was observed on the farm that had seropositive dogs (p=0.018). Cattle on this farm were also seropositive. No significant differences in seropositivity were found on farms where dogs were seronegative, or absent. This result suggests, for the first time, the presence of seropositive dogs as a risk factor for N. caninum in mares and the necessity for further investigation of the epidemiology of this parasite in horse-breeding farms with reproductive problems and the presence of cattle and dogs. This is the first report on the occurrence of antibodies against N. caninum in horses from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment on pancreatic β cell function in the pregnant mare and post natal foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, O A; Jellyman, J K; Allen, V L; Holdstock, N B; Fowden, A L

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are used to treat inflammatory conditions in horses. In other pregnant animals, glucocorticoids are given to stimulate fetal maturation with long-term metabolic consequences for the offspring if given preterm. However, their metabolic effects during equine pregnancy remain unknown. Thus, this study investigated the metabolic effects of dexamethasone administration on pregnant pony mares and their foals after birth. Experimental study. A total of 3 doses of dexamethasone (200 μg/kg bwt i.m.) were given to 6 pony mares at 48 h intervals beginning at ≈270 days of pregnancy. Control saline injections were given to 5 mares using the same protocol. After fasting overnight, pancreatic β cell responses to exogenous glucose were measured in the mares before, during and after treatment. After birth, pancreatic β cell responses to exogenous glucose and arginine were measured in the foals at 2 and 12 weeks. In mares during treatment, dexamethasone but not saline increased basal insulin concentrations and prolonged the insulin response to exogenous glucose. Basal insulin and glucose concentrations still differed significantly between the 2 groups 72 h post treatment. Dexamethasone treatment significantly reduced placental area but had little effect on foal biometry at birth or subsequently. Foal β cell function at 2 weeks was unaffected by maternal treatment. However, by 12 weeks, pancreatic β cell sensitivity to arginine, but not glucose, was less in foals delivered by dexamethasone- than saline-treated mares. Dexamethasone administration induced changes in maternal insulin-glucose dynamics, indicative of insulin resistance and had subtle longer term effects on post natal β cell function of the foals. The programming effects of dexamethasone in horses may be mediated partially by altered maternal metabolism and placental growth. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN TERRITORY. CASE STUDY: DRINKING WATER SUPPLY IN DÂNGĂU MARE, CLUJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ALEXE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of technical infrastructure in territory. Case study: drinking water supply in Dângău Mare, Cluj County. Water represents an important element in life. Accessibility, water quantity and quality show the standard of living of one community. This article presents a case study, the one of water supply in Dângău Mare from Cluj County. The purpose of this analysis is to reveal the benefits of applying some measures regarding water supply in the rural area, as well as the dysfunction abilities which derive from a bad management (eg. lack of sewage system. Dângău Mare lies near the Gilău Mountains and possesses important and rich resources of surface and underground waters varying under qualitative ratio. The hydrological resources of Dângău Mare are made up of river/rivulet networks (Mireş, Blidaru, Agârbiciu, phreatic waters and natural springs. The identification and delimitation of the Dângău Mare territory represents the first stage of this study, followed by the consultation of bibliographic and cartographic sources, field surveys, to obtain the qualitative and quantitative pieces of information. The second stage consists in the analyzation and classification of information, the integrated study of phenomena and elaboration of cartographic models using GIS. At the end of this study we have made the SWOT analysis to emphasize the characteristics of favourability, the anomalies and the opportunities to improve and develop the territory of Dângău Mare from Cluj County.

  11. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  12. Effects of oral treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the viscosity of intrauterine mucus and endometrial function in estrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, T S; Melkus, E; Walter, I; Senge, B; Schwab, S; Aurich, C; Heuwieser, W

    2012-10-01

    Persistent breeding-induced endometritis is ranked as the third most common medical problem in the adult mare and leads to enormous economic loss in horse breeding. In mares suffering from persistent breeding-induced endometritis, increased amounts of intrauterine (i.u.) fluid or viscous mucus in estrus or after breeding may act as a barrier for sperm and can contribute to low fertility. Current therapies of these mares aim to eliminate i.u. fluid and mucus by uterine lavage and/or administration of ecbolic drugs. Recently, i.u. administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to support therapy in mares with endometritis. It was the objective of the present study to investigate effects of an oral administration of NAC on the viscosity of i.u. fluid in estrous mares. It was hypothesized that oral treatment with NAC reduces the viscosity of i.u. fluid and has a positive effect on the inflammatory response of the endometrium. Mares (n = 12) were included in the study as soon as estrus was detected (ovarian follicle >3.0 cm and endometrial edema), which was defined as Day 1. They were randomly assigned to a treatment (10 mg/kg NAC on Days 1-4) or a control group (no treatment). On days 1 and 5 i.u. mucus was collected and its rheologic properties were accessed. On Day 5, endometrial biopsies were obtained and evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the treatment group, viscosity of i.u. mucus increased significantly between Days 1 and 5 (P NAC treatment the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies was significantly lower compared to mares of the control group (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.8 ± 0.4; P NAC treatment compared to control mares (P mucus in deep uterine glands differed significantly between groups (both P NAC treatment does not reduce viscosity of uterine mucus but has an

  13. MOTIVATIONAL PRACTICES USED BY EMPLOYERS FROM THE COUNTIES OF SATU MARE AND BIHOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the motivation of human resources in the companies from counties of Satu Mare and Bihor. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire to 114 companies located in the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, within the project HURO/0901/264/2.2.2 implemented in partnership by "Vasile Goldis" Western University and University of Debrecen and financed by European Union through ERDF under Hungary-Romania 2007- 2013 Programme. Data were processed and analyzed by using the SPSS soft. We found that employers perceived as most efficient the following motivation instruments: a good communication between employees, basic wage, partial delegation of managerial tasks and optimal working conditions. The efficiency of the motivation instruments in the view of employers differs significantly across activity sectors. Thus, using the ANOVA test, we found that the variation of variables related to basic wage, performance rewarding, bonuses, partial delegation of managerial tasks, work competencies, fear of job loss, need for affiliation to a workgroup, the prestige outside the organisation, working a good reputation organisation, social benefits, home distance can be explained in a proportion ranged from 23,5% to 42,9% by the variation of variable associated to the activity sector.

  14. POTENTIAL OF WINE TOURISM IN ROMANIA. CASE STUDY: DEALU MARE VINEYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEDELCU ADRIAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wine sector can contribute to the rediscovery of Romania as a possible tourist destination, and the multiplication of interest in this area can offer a wide range of experiences (through rural tourism, wine tourism, active holidays and even business opportunities. The development of tourist destinations is closely linked to their natural environment, cultural distinctiveness, social interaction, security and wellbeing of local populations. These characteristics make wine tourism the driving force for the conservation and development of the tourist destinations in the Dealu Mare vineyard, the largest vineyard in the most important wine-growing area of the country. Romania has a remarkable wine heritage, both on a European and global economic confirmed statistics every year. Wine tourism is on an incipient phase in Romania, compared to other countries with significant wine heritage, but is likely sufficiently sustained development, especially wine-growing potential value resulting from the studies undertaken to implementation of European Union wine reform. Dealu Mare is a vineyard where wine tourism could potentially increase the flow of tourists as well as improve their quality.

  15. THE NITROGEN REGIME OF THE SASAR RIVER, IN BAIA MARE SECTION, THE PERIOD 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA MUNTEAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baia Mare city - the residence of Maramures county, is known as one of the most polluted cities from Romania, following a long history of mining activities and ores processing. The improper treatment of wastewater from flotation and treatment with cyanide ores and their discharge into the river Sasar led, slowly, but surely destroying the ecosystem. In addition to mining activities have contributed of course, and the metallurgical activities in the area. One of constant pollutions is and disposal of sewage waste water (treated poorly or not at all in the mass water of the Sasar river. The nitrogen regime may provide clues as to the possibility of developing various forms of life, being an indicator of the nutrient regime of aquatic life. This study aims at assessing the quality of the nitrogen regime of Sasar river, in the section upstream and downstream of Baia Mare, in the period 2000-2010, with reference to the Order 161/2006 - regarding the classification of surface water quality to determine the ecological status of water bodies .

  16. Effects of supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and aerobic training on physical performance of Mangalarga Marchador mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Resende Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the performance of Mangalarga Marchador equines and to verify the effectiveness of the aerobic training protocol adopted. The study used 14 Mangalarga Marchador mares in a completely randomized split-plot design. The plots were made up of two treatments (groups Probiotic and Control and the split plots comprised two maximal-effort physical tests applied both before and after the six weeks of training. The animals' spirometric parameters, heart rate, and plasma lactate levels were assessed. No difference was found between the Probiotic and Control groups in any of the parameters assessed. A difference was found in the physical tests for time-to-fatigue, aerobic and anaerobic thresholds, speed at which plasma lactate levels reached 2 and 4 mmol/L, speed at which the heart rate reached 200 bpm, and the lactate level at 30 min of the recovery period. Supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae has no effect on physical conditioning of Mangalarga Marchador mares and the aerobic training protocol adopted increases the animals' aerobic and anaerobic capacity.

  17. Management of Stakeholders in Urban Regeneration Projects. Case Study: Baia-Mare, Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina M. Rădulescu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of regeneration of abandoned areas or deteriorated structures in the cities of Romania has become a strategy of urban-integrated development. Conversions and/or regeneration of facilities in the form of assets, with different destinations, are part of the new trend of urban regeneration and a strategy used to attract investment capital. The disappearance of mining industry sites in Maramures County, Romania, has allowed the expansion and planning of new spaces for public use and/or semipublic, and most cities have opened new development perspectives. The study is based on empirical research conducted on the brownfields of Baia-Mare City. This research investigates how stakeholders of an urban regeneration project can be more actively involved in the decision-making processes with regard to the strategic elements of the renewal project of Cuprom, as a former mining industry area. This research contributes to the development of the investigation of new types of knowledge of stakeholder analysis and improves the available practices for stakeholder salience. Social networks created and consolidated by stakeholders of an urban regeneration project are the object of analysis, evaluation, and monitoring of the equilibrium between project management and grant of resources and capital. This paper studies the salience of stakeholders of the SEPA-CUPROM project from Baia-Mare using the social networking approach. Visualization by graphical methods of social networking analysis is a useful instrument in the decision-making process of brownfield projects as part of sustainable strategies in Romania.

  18. Integrated Pressure-Fed Liquid Oxygen / Methane Propulsion Systems - Morpheus Experience, MARE, and Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric; Morehead, Robert; Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matt

    2016-01-01

    An integrated liquid oxygen (LOx) and methane propulsion system where common propellants are fed to the reaction control system and main engines offers advantages in performance, simplicity, reliability, and reusability. LOx/Methane provides new capabilities to use propellants that are manufactured on the Mars surface for ascent return and to integrate with power and life support systems. The clean burning, non-toxic, high vapor pressure propellants provide significant advantages for reliable ignition in a space vacuum, and for reliable safing or purging of a space-based vehicle. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Morpheus lander demonstrated many of these key attributes as it completed over 65 tests including 15 flights through 2014. Morpheus is a prototype of LOx/Methane propellant lander vehicle with a fully integrated propulsion system. The Morpheus lander flight demonstrations led to the proposal to use LOx/Methane for a Discovery class mission, named Moon Aging Regolith Experiment (MARE) to land an in-situ science payload for Southwest Research Institute on the Lunar surface. Lox/Methane is extensible to human spacecraft for many transportation elements of a Mars architecture. This paper discusses LOx/Methane propulsion systems in regards to trade studies, the Morpheus project experience, the MARE NAVIS (NASA Autonomous Vehicle for In-situ Science) lander, and future possible applications. The paper also discusses technology research and development needs for Lox/Methane propulsion systems.

  19. dataMares - An online platform for the fast, effective dissemination of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. F.; Aburto-Oropeza, O.; Moreno-Báez, M.; Giron-Nava, A.; Lopez-Sagástegui, R.; Lopez-Sagástegui, C.

    2016-02-01

    One of the current challenges in public policy development, especially related to natural resource management and conservation, is that there are very few tools that help easily identify and incorporate relevant scientific findings and data into public policy. This can also lead to a repetition of research efforts and the collect of information that in some cases might already exist. The key to addressing this challenge is to develop collaborative research tools, which can be used by different sectors of society including key stakeholder groups, managers, policy makers and the public. Here we present an "open science" platform capable of handling large data and disseminating results to a wide audience quickly. dataMares uses business intelligence software to allow the dynamic presentation of data quickly to a range of users online. dataMares provides Robust and up-to-date scientific information for decision-makers, resource managers, conservation practitioners, fishers, community members, and regional and national level decision-makers in a nutshell. It can also be used in the training of young scientists and allows quick and open connections with the journalism industry.

  20. Ocorrência de onicomicose em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Occurrence of the onychomycosis in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Martelozo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Onicomicoses são infecções fúngicas que atingem as unhas e acometem cerca de 30% da população. Recentemente tem sido relatado aumento dessas infecções e também alterações em sua etiologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência das onicomicoses e perfil dos pacientes acometidos em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Entre janeiro de 1999 a junho de 2003 foram analisadas, no Laboratório de Micologia do Lepac (Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Análises Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, um total de 435 amostras de pacientes com suspeita clínica de onicomicose. Destas amostras 74,25% (N=323 foram positivas, sendo 15,48% confirmadas por exame direto (N=50, 20,43% exclusivamente por cultura (N=66 e 64,09% por exame direto e cultura (N=207. As mulheres foram mais afetadas que os homens (72,67% e 27,33%, respectivamente, e a maior prevalência foi em indivíduos com mais de 40 anos. As unhas dos pés foram mais acometidas que as unhas das mãos (65,90% e 34,10%, respectivamente. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentes foram as leveduras (52,17% isoladas especialmente das unhas das mãos. Os fungos filamentosos foram prevalentes nas unhas dos pés, destacando-se os dermatófitos responsáveis por 33,85% das onicomicoses e os não dermatófitos (FFND por 13,97%.Onychomycosis are fungal infections that reach the nails and affect about 30% of the population. Recently has been observed increase of these infections and also alterations in its etiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of these mycosis and profile of the patients attacked in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Between January 1999 to June 2003 were analyzed at the Mycological Laboratory from the Teaching and Research Laboratory in Clinical Analyses (Lepac a total of 435 samples of patients with clinical symptoms of onychomycoses. Of those samples 74,25% (N=323, were positive, being 15,48% confirmed by direct examination (N=50

  1. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  2. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the Ea...

  3. Paratethyan ostracods in the Spanish Lago-Mare : More evidence for interbasinal exchange at high Mediterranean sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoica, Marius; Krijgsman, Wout|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/148529763; Fortuin, Anne; Gliozzi, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    A gigantic cascade of Atlantic waters, filling the deep desiccated Mediterranean basin at the beginning of the Pliocene, has commonly been envisaged to end the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The Mediterranean lowstand during its final "Lago-Mare" phase, however, has long been subject to major

  4. 78 FR 38835 - Safety Zone: City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Mare Island Strait, Vallejo, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Mare Island Strait, Vallejo, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... near Vallejo, CA in support of the City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks Display on July 4, 2013...

  5. 77 FR 39418 - Safety Zone: Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Vallejo, Mare Island Strait...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... the City of Vallejo, Mare Island Strait, Vallejo, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Island Strait near Vallejo, CA in support of the Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Vallejo on July 4, 2012. This safety zone is established to ensure the safety of participants and...

  6. Töö problemaatikast nüüdisajal / Mare Merimaa, Enno Oidermaa, Merle Tambur, Tiia-Edith Tammeleht ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Psühholoogiline vägivald töökohal / Merle Tambur. Desünkronoos töö kontekstis / Maria Teiverlaur. Kohtunike töökoormus ja selle mõju kohtulahendi kvaliteedile / Mare Merimaa. Streigitont Eesti tööturul / Tiia-Edith Tammeleht. Ehitusnõuete rikkumisest tulev haldus- ja kriminaalvastutus / Enno Oidermaa

  7. Variability of plasma melatonin level in pony mares (Equus caballus), comparison with the hybrid: mules and with jennies (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Daniel; Zarazaga, Luiz A; Malpaux, Benoît; Chemineau, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    In long-day breeders like horses, the length of nocturnal melatonin secretion is the main messenger of photoperiod. Previous studies have shown that the nocturnal jugular melatonin concentration is lower in horses, than in mules but is unknown in donkeys. The aim of this study was to estimate the inter-animal variability of plasma melatonin concentration in domestic mares and to compare this concentration with those observed in domestic jennies and in their hybrid mules. In the autumn, blood samples were collected at 22 h, 23 h, 0 h and 1 h during 2 nights at 3 weeks intervals, in 110 pony mares, 10 jennies and 6 mules maintained under natural photoperiod. Melatonin was assayed by a validated RIA method. The statistical analysis of the measures was done with a specific unbalanced analysis of variance model. The effect of species and individuals (nested under species) was highly significant. The mean melatonin concentration was 24 pg.mL(-1) in mares and was significantly lower than in jennies and in mules which were 90 pg.mL(-1) and 169 pg.mL(-1) respectively. The melatonin plasma concentration was higher in jennies than in mares. These results suggest that the melatonin concentration is genetically determined.

  8. A viable foal obtained by equine somatic cell nuclear transfer using oocytes recovered from immature follicles of live mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Ho; Norris, Jody D; Velez, Isabel C; Jacobson, Candace C; Hartman, David L; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2013-03-15

    The presence of heterogenous mitochondria from the host ooplast affects the acceptance of offspring obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer. This might be avoided by obtaining oocytes from selected females, but is then complicated by low numbers of available oocytes. We examined the efficiency of equine somatic cell nuclear transfer using oocytes recovered by transvaginal aspiration of immature follicles from 11 mares. Use of metaphase I oocytes as cytoplasts and of scriptaid (a histone deacetylase inhibitor) treatment during oocyte activation were evaluated to determine if these approaches would increase blastocyst production. In experiment 1, blastocyst development was 0/14 for metaphase I oocytes and 4/103 (4%) for metaphase II oocytes. Three blastocysts were transferred to recipient mares, resulting in two pregnancies and one live foal, which died shortly after birth. In experiment 2, blastocyst development was 2/47 (4%) for control oocytes and 1/83 (1%) for scriptaid-treated oocytes. No foals were born from two blastocysts transferred in the control group. The blastocyst from the scriptaid treatment resulted in birth of a live foal. In conclusion, this is apparently the first report of production of a viable cloned foal from oocytes collected from immature follicles of live mares, supporting the possibility of cloning using oocytes from selected mares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE ŞOMUZU MARE RIVER WATER QUALITY IN THE DOLHEŞTI MONITORING SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerations On The Evolution Of The Şomuzu Mare River Water Quality In The Dolheşti Monitoring Section. The paper deals with changes in indicators of quality physical - chemical, selected to present the main environmental impact of existing pressures in the river Siret. The main sources of pollution in the Siret basin are ranked according to: the impact of the pollutant toxicity and the maximum permissible value set for the evacuated pollutants. The study looked at water quality monitoring Siret River and it’s tributaries in different sections of the monitoring study period was from 2009 to 2010. Based on the monitoring indicators agreed levels, grade falls into water courses. For knowing the quality of water flowing from the Siret River Basin during the years 2009 and 2010 were collected from river water samples Şomuzu Mare Dolheşti city. The main sources of pollution in the catchment area have influenced the state of its river water quality. After analyzing the variation in quality indicators increased physical - chemical river water quality Şomuzu Mare Dolheşti monitoring section in 2010, decreased compared with 2009, due to nitrite indicator, inducing a weak class quality Şomuzu Mare River , falling in the fourth grade of quality. Objectives and guidelines for water management strategy of the Siret River Basin aimed at achieving good water quality status, as required by the WFD.

  10. Intrafollicular treatment with prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2α inhibits the formation of luteinised unruptured follicles and restores normal ovulation in mares treated with flunixin-meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Boví, R; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-03-01

    Haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle is the most common pathological anovulatory condition in the mare, but its cause remains unknown. An experimental model to induce luteinised unruptured follicles (LUF) with flunixin-meglumine (FM) has been developed. Luteinised unruptured follicles share similar morphological and hormonal characteristics with haemorrhagic anovulatory follicles. To test the effect of intrafollicular administration of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2α during the periovulatory period on ovulation and pregnancy in FM-treated mares. In vivo experiment in a crossover design. Five mares were followed during 2 oestrous cycles each. All mares were given FM at 1.7 mg/kg bwt i.v. every 12 h from Hour 0 (Hour 0 = human chorionic gonadotrophin treatment) to Hour 36. In treatment cycles (n = 5), at Hour 32 the preovulatory follicle was punctured and 0.5 ml of a solution containing 500 μg of PGE2 and 125 μg of PGF2α was deposited within the follicle. In control cycles, water for injection was administered into the follicle at the same time. In 3 control and 3 treatment cycles, mares were also inseminated at Hour 24. Diagnosis of ovulation/LUF formation and pregnancy was performed by ultrasound examination between Hours 36 and 72 and 14 days after ovulation/LUF formation, respectively. During the treatment cycles, all mares ovulated normally (100% ovulation rate) 36-48 h after human chorionic gonadotrophin, while in 4 of 5 control cycles the mares developed an LUF (80%, P<0.05). All 3 inseminated mares became pregnant in the treatment cycles, but not in the control cycles. Intrafollicular treatment with PGE2 and PGF2α overcame the anovulatory effect of FM. This sheds new insights into the knowledge on the possible therapeutic options for ovulatory failure in the mare. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Infezioni gastroenteriche e fonti di rischio da balneazione nel mare Adriatico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Schinaia

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: gli obiettivi generali della ricerca sono stati: stimare un eccesso di rischio di insorgenza di gastroenterite a seguito di attività di balneazione o consumo di prodotti ittici nel mare Adriatico; misurare nuovi parametri microbiologici di inquinamento marino.

    Metodi: sono stati condotti i seguenti studi: 1 caso controllo; 2 uno studio di prevalenza (beach survey per descrivere la frequenza di alcune patologie (dell’orecchio, delle vie aeree superiori, della cute rispetto alla balneazione o meno; 3 identificazione di nuovi patogeni nelle acque di balneazione (quali virus o Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Risultati: l’analisi dei fattori di rischio nello studio caso controllo non ha evidenziato un aumento di gastroenterite associata a balneazione. Gli episodi gastroenterici osservati nei casi erano prevalentemente sostenuti da Salmonella sp. e la modalità di infezione era legata ad alcuni alimenti quali la maionese. Il risultato principale dello studio di beach survey è stato che la balneazione nel mare Adriatico non è associata ad un aumento significativo di patologie serie, quali gastroenterite acuta.

    Tuttavia, è stato possibile evidenziare un aumento di rischio statisticamente significativo per forme morbose lievi, quali congiuntivite e dermatite aspecifica, fra chi ha fatto il bagno in mare e chi no. Tale aumentato rischio è stato soprattutto osservato nei bambini e ragazzi al di sotto di 15 anni. I risultati di microbiologia sperimentale dimostrano il ruolo svolto dalle acque marine quale pabulum idoneo alla sopravvivenza delle oocisti di C. parvum. Sono stati validati protocolli di diagnostica molecolare per l’identificazione di enterovirus, rotavirus e reovirus nelle acque di balneazione.

    Conclusioni: l’epidemiologia può contribuire a studiare i rapporti fra balneazione e salute all’interno di una visione generale di salute

  12. Evaluation of superovulatory treatment with extract of equine hypophysis in creole mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Abril Abril

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the super-ovulatory answer in creole mares which were administered with equine hypophysis extract (EHE in two different doses, compared to FSH of porcine origin (Folltropin V. Twenty cyclical Colombian creole mares were taken whose ages oscillated between 2 and 8 years (5,3 years on average which were randomly selected and assigned to the following four groups: Group 1 also called control group (T1: This group was administered with 5cc of saline solution IM (a.m. , p.m.; Group 2 (T2: 6,25 mg of Foltropin- v (FSH-P IM (a.m., p.m.; Group 3 (T3: 8,3mg EHE IM (a.m., p.m.; Group 4 (T4: 12,5 mg EHE IM (a.m., p.m.. The treatments started seven days after the detection of an ovulation by ultrasound, the 8th day 12,5mg PgF2alfa were administered intramuscular (IM via. The treatment with EHE was canceled when most of the follicles reached a size ≥ 35 mm, at that point 2500 UI of hCG were administered IV (intravenous via, followed by artificial insemination. Between the 7th or 8th day the embryos were collected by means of intrauterine pumping. A one way variance analysis (ANOVA was done specifying the follicular growing between the day of the beginning of treatment and the ovulation, the number of pre-ovulatory follicles sized ≥ 35mm, the number of treatment days and the quantity of embryos collected on each group. A rank test or Duncan multiple comparison was carried out to see differences between the groups, and the condition and the quality of the embryos on each kind of treatment to determine the viability was determined through a relation analysis. The results showed that T4 group developed a higher number of follicles ≥ 35 mm in comparison to the rest of the groups (p<0.005 in 7,4 days of treatment, higher rate of follicle growing (3,01mm/day, higher number of ovulations per treatment (2,8 and a higher number of collected embryos per mare (1,6. So, T4 showed the best results in comparison to the results of the other groups in

  13. Effect of collection-maturation interval time and pregnancy status of donor mares on oocyte developmental competence in horse cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, A; Andrés, G; Jarazo, J; Javier, J; Karlanian, F; Florencia, K; De Stéfano, A; Salamone, D F

    2014-02-01

    The current limitations for obtaining ovaries from slaughterhouses and the low efficiency of in vivo follicular aspiration necessitate a complete understanding of the variables that affect oocyte developmental competence in the equine. For this reason, we assessed the effect on equine oocyte meiotic competence and the subsequent in vitro cloned embryo development of 1) the time interval between ovary collection and the onset of oocyte in vitro maturation (collection-maturation interval time) and 2) the pregnancy status of the donor mares. To define the collection-maturation interval time, collected oocytes were classified according to the slaughtering time and the pregnancy status of the mare. Maturation rate was recorded and some matured oocytes of each group were used to reconstruct zona free cloned embryos. Nuclear maturation rates were lower when the collection-maturation interval time exceeded 10 h as compared to 4 h (32/83 vs. 76/136, respectively; P = 0.0128) and when the donor mare was pregnant as compared to nonpregnant (53/146 vs. 177/329, respectively; P = 0.0004). Low rates of cleaved embryos were observed when the collection-maturation interval time exceeded 10 h as compared to 6 to 10 h (11/27 vs. 33/44, respectively; P = 0.0056), but the pregnancy status of donor mares did not affect cloned equine blastocyst development (3/49 vs. 1/27 for blastocyst rates of nonpregnant and pregnant groups, respectively; P = 1.00). These results indicate that, to apply assisted reproductive technologies in horses, oocytes should be harvested within approximately 10 h after ovary collection. Also, even though ovaries from pregnant mares are a potential source of oocytes, they should be processed at the end of the collection routine due to the lower collection and maturation rate in this group.

  14. Some thoughts on the origin of lunar ANT-KREEP and mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, H.; Laul, J. C.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that a series of ANT (anorthosite-norite-troctolite)-KREEP type rocks and the source material for mare basalts sampled by Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 may have been derived from a common magmatic differentiation. This differentiation is studied on the basis of a model which proposes that, in the early history of the moon, extensive melting occurred in the outer lunar shell and a magma layer of 100-200 km was formed. The presence of a residual liquid which has not yet been sampled is suspected between high-K KREEP and the Apollo 11 basalt materials. This residual liquid would have a FeO/MgO ratio greater than one and would be significantly enriched in apatite, zircon, K-feldspar, and ilmenite minerals.

  15. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, Jens; Schougaard, Hans

    2007-01-01

    and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were......The reproduction rate of horses is one of the lowest within domestic livestock despite advances the veterinary medicine. Infertility in horses may be due mainly to the lack of suitable selection criteria in the breeding of horses. However, acquired infertility due to genital, bacterial infections...... may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...

  16. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.

    2006-01-01

    and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were......The reproduction rate of horses is one of the lowest within domestic livestock despite advances the veterinary medicine. Infertility in horses may be due mainly to the lack of suitable selection criteria in the breeding of horses. However, acquired infertility due to genital, bacterial infections...... may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...

  17. Det Kandriska språket : Rösternas uttryck i Mare Kandres roman Aliide, Aliide

    OpenAIRE

    Stjernfeldt, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    I Mare Kandres genombrottsroman Aliide, Aliide (1991) lyfts ofta det starka inifrånperspektivet fram som ett karakteristiskt stildrag, även om romanen berättas utifrån tredje person. Denna stilistiska undersökning analyserar rösternas uttryck i syfte att erbjuda en mer detaljerad och djupgående förståelse för Kandres komplexa berättarteknik, och fokuserar huvudsakligen på att klarlägga ett systematiskt mönster över hur Kandre låter huvudkaraktären Aliide komma till tals. Analysen genomförs me...

  18. THE PRESSURE OF ANTHROPIC ACTIVITIES ON NATURAL CAPITAL OF SATU MARE COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA BRAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between man and the natural environment, that provides the most valuable resources for existence, has transformed over time into an artificial and destructive manifestation. The encrease of the standard of living of society has been achieved through the drastic reduction of natural resources and the demage of the environment, endangering the welfare of future generations. Activities such as discharges of waste in the rivers, inappropriate use of land, uncontrolled deforestation, fragmentation of habitats due to infrastructure development pose the greatest risks to natural capital. This article aims to analyze by statistical methods, on the basis of the documents studied, the negative effects of anthropogenic activities on the natural capital of Satu Mare County.

  19. Risk factors associated with the incidence of foal mortality in an extensively managed mare herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, S D; Bristol, F; Card, C E

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal mortality in a large, extensively managed mare herd and what risk factors were involved in foal mortality. For a 6 wk period between April 18, 1994, and May 31, 1994, 334 foals were born, of which 74 died before reaching 10 d of age, giving an overall mortality of 22% for this period. Seventy four percent of the foal deaths occurred within 48 h of parturition. The major causes of foal mortality included starvation/exposure 27%, septicemia 26%, and dystocia 20%. Weekly incidences varied significantly, ranging from 67% for week 1 to 14% for week 5 (P foal death included failure of passive transfer (P foal sex were not significant risk factors for foal survival (P > 0.1). Further studies are required to determine if changing management procedures will be effective in reducing the incidence of neonatal foal mortality in this extensively managed herd. PMID:8640655

  20. MARE-WINT. New Materials and Reliability in Offshore Wind Turbine Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides a holistic, interdisciplinary overview of offshore wind energy, and is a must-read for advanced researchers. Topics, from the design and analysis of future turbines, to the decommissioning of wind farms, are covered. The scope of the work ranges from analytical, numerical...... and experimental advancements in structural and fluid mechanics, to novel developments in risk, safety & reliability engineering for offshore wind. The core objective of the current work is to make offshore wind energy more competitive, by improving the reliability, and operations and maintenance (O&M) strategies...... of wind turbines. The research was carried out under the auspices of the EU-funded project, MARE-WINT. The work seeks to bridge the gap between research and a rapidly-evolving industry....

  1. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only ... EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin ...

  2. Plasma Progesterone and Some Uterine and Embryonic Characteristics in Early Gestation of Colombian Mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Paredes Higuera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four Colombian mares from 4 to 14 years of age were inseminated artificially. Progesterone (P4 plasma levels were quantified by the technique of solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA; corpus luteum (CL, the uterus and uterine edema were evaluated by ultrasonography from ovulation until day 40 post-ovulation. Pregnancy was diagnosed upon detecting a conceptus; it was evaluated daily from that moment until day 40. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics with mean values and standard deviation (SD. Pregnancy diagnosis was made on day 10.4 ± 0.8 (mean ± SD. The conceptus growth rate was 1.65 ± 0.1 mm / day; attachment to the uterus occurred on day 16.8 ± 1.5. The embryo was visualized within the gallbladder on day 20.8 ± 1.7; its growth rate was 0.8 ± 0.3 mm/day. Heartbeat was detected from day 23.9 ± 1.3. 100 % of the embryos had normal development until day 40 of gestation. 62.5 % of the CL was located in the right ovary and 33.3 % in the left; one animal had double ovulation. 66.6 % of the conceptus was located in the right utero corneal junction and 33.3 % in the left;79.1 % ipsilateral to the CL. Pregnancy in the mare shows physiological characteristics similar to those described in literature. The data presented here are important for clinical evaluations and provide a starting point for future studies.

  3. Experimental petrology of ancient lunar mare basalt Asuka-881757: Spinel crystallization as a petrologic indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoko, Arai; Hiroshi, Takeda; Masamichi, Miyamoto

    The paucity of titanian chromites in lunar-meteorite basalt Asuka (A)-881757 is unusual compared to the general occurrence of co-existing chromites and ulvospinels in the Apollo and Luna mare basalts. The unique spinel crystallization of A-881757 is expected to hold a key to elucidate the crystallization and cooling episodes of the basalt. In this study, we investigated the possible reason for the missing chromite by conducting isothermal and cooling experiments on the bulk-rock composition of A-881757 and discuss the petrogenesis of the ancient low-Ti mare basalt in light of spinel crystallization. A series of isothermal experiments showed the A-881757 basalt magma is not saturated with chromite under the expected lunar oxygen fugacity condition (IW???IW-1). A peritectic reaction among chromite, melt, and pyroxene is present for A-881757 basalt magma under the more oxidized condition which is one or two log unit higher than the lunar condition. The cooling experiment successfully reproduced the chromian ulvospinels with similar compositions to those in A-881757. The result of the cooling experiments further implies that ulvospinels solely crystallized from highly-fractionated interstitial melts in the late crystallization stage. The disparity in the crystallization of the liquidus chromite between the low-Ti and very low-Ti basalts might reflect the difference of bulk Cr_2O_3 concentration. The low liquidus temperature and the paucity of the liquidus olivine in A-881757 infer that the A-881757 basalt represents a liquid derived from near-surface fractionation processes. Chromites might possibly have been present during that near-surface fractionation episode prior to the eruption of the magma.

  4. Evaluation of circulating miRNAs during late pregnancy in the mare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavahn C Loux

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs which are produced throughout the body. Individual tissues tend to have a specific expression profile and excrete many of these miRNAs into circulation. These circulating miRNAs may be diagnostically valuable biomarkers for assessing the presence of disease while minimizing invasive testing. In women, numerous circulating miRNAs have been identified which change significantly during pregnancy-related complications (e.g. chorioamnionitis, eclampsia, recurrent pregnancy loss; however, no prior work has been done in this area in the horse. To identify pregnancy-specific miRNAs, we collected serial whole blood samples in pregnant mares at 8, 9, 10 m of gestation and post-partum, as well as from non-pregnant (diestrous mares. In total, we evaluated a panel of 178 miRNAs using qPCR, eventually identifying five miRNAs of interest. One miRNA (miR-374b was differentially regulated through late gestation and four miRNAs (miR-454, miR-133b, miR-486-5p and miR-204b were differentially regulated between the pregnant and non-pregnant samples. We were able to identify putative targets for the differentially regulated miRNAs using two separate target prediction programs, miRDB and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The targets for the miRNAs differentially regulated during pregnancy were predicted to be involved in signaling pathways such as the STAT3 pathway and PI3/AKT signaling pathway, as well as more endocrine-based pathways, including the GnRH, prolactin and insulin signaling pathways. In summary, this study provides novel information about the changes occurring in circulating miRNAs during normal pregnancy, as well as attempting to predict the biological effects induced by these miRNAs.

  5. Potential demographic and genetic effects of a sterilant applied to wild horse mares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Wild horse populations on western ranges can increase rapidly, resulting in the need for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to remove animals in order to protect the habitat that horses share with numerous other species. As an alternative to removals, BLM has sought to develop a long-term, perhaps even permanent, contraceptive to aid in reducing population growth rates. With long-term (perhaps even permanent) efficacy of contraception, however, comes increased concern about the genetic health of populations and about the potential for local extirpation. We used simulation modeling to examine the potential demographic and genetic consequences of applying a mare sterilant to wild horse populations. Using the VORTEX software package, we modeled the potential effects of a sterilant on 70 simulated populations having different initial sizes (7 values), growth rates (5 values), and genetic diversity (2 values). For each population, we varied the treatment rate of mares from 0 to 100 percent in increments of 10 percent. For each combination of these treatment levels, we ran 100 stochastic simulations, and we present the results in the form of tables and graphs showing mean population size after 20 years, mean number of removals after 20 years, mean probability of extirpation after 50 years, and mean heterozygosity after 50 years. By choosing one or two combinations of initial population size, population growth rate, and genetic diversity that best represent a herd of interest, a manager can assess the likely effects of a contraceptive program by examining the output tables and graphs representing the selected conditions.

  6. Seasonal and pulsatile dynamics of thyrotropin and leptin in mares maintained under a constant energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buff, P R; Messer, N T; Cogswell, A M; Johnson, P J; Keisler, D H; Ganjam, V K

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if seasonal and/or pulsatile variations occur in plasma concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH) and leptin in mares while maintaining a constant energy balance. Blood samples were collected every 20 min during a 24h period in winter and again in summer from six Quarter Horse type mares. Plasma concentrations of TSH, leptin, and T(4) were determined by radioimmunoassay. No differences were observed in body weight between winter (388.1+/-12.5 kg) and summer (406.2+/-12.5 kg; P=0.11). Plasma concentrations of TSH were greater in the summer (2.80+/-0.07 ng/ml) when compared to winter (0.97+/-0.07 ng/ml; P<0.001). Pulse frequency of TSH was not different between winter (6.17+/-0.78 pulses/24h) and summer (5.33+/-0.78 pulses/24h; P=0.49). Mean TSH pulse amplitude, pulse area, and area under the curve were all greater in summer compared to winter (3.11+/-0.10 ng/ml versus 1.20+/-0.10 ng/ml, 24.86+/-0.10 ng/ml min versus 13.46+/-1.90 ng/ml min, 3936+/-72.93 ng/ml versus 1284+/-72.93 ng/ml, respectively; P<0.01). Mean concentrations of leptin were greater in summer (2.48+/-0.17 ng/ml) compared to winter (0.65+/-0.17 ng/ml; P<0.001). Pulsatile secretion patterns of leptin were not observed in any horses during experimentation. Mean concentrations of T(4) were greater in winter (20.3+/-0.4 ng/ml) compared to summer (18.2+/-0.4 ng/ml; P<0.001). These seasonal differences between winter and summer provide evidence of possible seasonal regulation of TSH and leptin.

  7. Pre-infection frequencies of equine herpesvirus-1 specific, cytotoxic T lymphocytes correlate with protection against abortion following experimental infection of pregnant mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydd, J H; Wattrang, E; Hannant, D

    2003-12-15

    In general, vaccines containing inactivated equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) fail to prevent abortion in pregnant mares following infection with a virulent strain of EHV-1. We have tested the hypothesis that resistance to EHV-1-induced abortion in pregnant mares is associated with high frequencies of EHV-1 specific, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in the circulation. To test this theory, three groups of pregnant mares were assembled with varying backgrounds of infection or vaccination in an attempt to mimic the immune status of the general population. Group 1 mares (n=9) were untreated controls selected at random. Group 2 mares (n=5) were vaccinated three times intramuscularly with inactivated EHV-1. Group 3 mares (n=3) had been infected with EHV-1 on four previous occasions. The frequency of CTL in blood leucocytes was measured by limiting dilution analysis at three time points; at the beginning of pregnancy (approximately 28 weeks before infection) in the Group 2 and Group 3 mares (4-7 weeks of gestation) (Group 1 was unavailable for sampling) and then 2 weeks before (30-40 weeks of gestation) and 3 weeks after experimental infection in all the mares. Serum samples were collected to monitor complement fixing (CF) antibody titres. Mares in all three groups were infected experimentally with EHV-1 strain Ab4/8 by the intranasal route after which they were monitored clinically to determine the outcome of pregnancy and samples were collected to determine the duration of nasopharyngeal shedding and cell-associated viraemia. The untreated control mares showed low pre-infection CTL. After experimental infection, they all seroconverted, aborted and demonstrated expected clinical and virological signs. Some vaccinated mares (3/5) had elevated titres of CF antibody prior to their first vaccination. All the vaccinated mares seroconverted after vaccination and exhibited higher CTL frequencies than controls before infection

  8. Cultura Política e Polos Regionais: comparando Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ com Maringá ampliada (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes in comparative perspective the similarities and differences between the political culture of the population resident in Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ and Maringá, Paysandú and Sarandi, set of municipalities that we call Maringá magnified. On the comparative analysis between the Regional Poles two major theoretical questions that unify the proposal of this work are prioritized. The first corresponds to the classical concerns relating to the operation of democracy and citizens’ participation in the public life. The second refers to the impacts that the processes of change, differentiation and trajectory of life impacted in different groups, personal values that present, in different ways, an arc that goes from traditional conservatism to the legitimization of new habits and posture.

  9. La narrativa histórica de José Fuentes Mares: imaginar el pasado, vivir el presente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Salazar Quintana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ofrece una interpretación de la narrativa histórica de José Fuentes Mares a la luz de la tesis de Hayden White sobre los modos de explicación del campo histórico, al tiempo que integra el concepto de carnaval de Mijail Bajtin como mecanismo de subversión. A partir de esta formulación teórica, se intenta probar el carácter satírico así como el enfoque antropológico-cultural del relato histórico de Fuentes Mares, que están en la base de su visión crítica respecto del proyecto de identidad nacional que caracteriza la historiografía generada en el discurso oficial.

  10. ASSESSING THE TOURISTIC POTENTIAL VALUE IN SATU MARE (ROMANIA AND SZABOLCS-SZATMÁR-BEREG (HUNGARY COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Maria BÂTEA (BOTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to provide an assessment of the touristic potential value from the two adjoined counties of Satu Mare (Romania and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (Hungary. The endeavour has pursued to create an image of the regional tourism assets, granting scores for the three major categories of resources involved (namely the natural and anthropic touristic potential, as well as the related infrastructure. Cumulatively, the scores achieved by all micro-regions give an accurate image of the existent situation in the territory. Thus, the proposed assessment framework has lead to establishing different levels of touristic attractiveness, accessibility and infrastructural development in the analysed area. Hence, the application of this quantification model has revealed that the two county seats, Satu Mare and Nyíregyháza, due to their well-preserved cultural heritage values and adapted balneary establishments, represent defining elements in creating the region’s touristic offer.

  11. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  12. A ground-based comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Hackney, Kyle J.; De Witt, John K.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Goetchius, Elizabeth L.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2013-11-01

    IntroductionInternational Space Station (ISS) crewmembers perform muscle strength and endurance testing pre- and postflight to assess the physiologic adaptations associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity. However, a reliable and standardized method to document strength changes in-flight has not been established. To address this issue, a proprietary dynamometer, the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) has been developed and flown aboard the ISS. The aims of this ground-based investigation were to: (1) evaluate the test-retest reliability of MARES and (2) determine its agreement with a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer previously used for pre- and postflight medical testing. MethodsSix males (179.5±4.7 cm; 82.0±8.7 kg; 31.3±4.0 yr) and four females (163.2±7.3 cm; 63.2±1.9 kg; 32.3±6.8 yr) completed two testing sessions on a HUMAC NORM isokinetic dynamometer (NORM) and two sessions on MARES using a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over design. Peak torque values at 60° and 180° s-1 were calculated from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF) for each session. Total work at 180° s-1 was determined from the area under the torque versus displacement curve during 20 maximal repetitions of KE and KF. ResultsIntraclass correlation coefficients were relatively high for both devices (0.90-0.99). Only one dependent measure, KE peak torque at 60° s-1 exhibited good concordance between devices (ρ=0.92) and a small average difference (0.9±17.3 N m). ConclusionMARES demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability and thus should serve as a good tool to monitor in-flight strength changes. However, due to poor agreement with NORM, it is not advisable to compare absolute values obtained on these devices.

  13. Comparison of pH and refractometry index with calcium concentrations in preparturient mammary gland secretions of mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Kotoyori, Yasumitsu; Tsujimura, Koji; Nambo, Yasuo

    2013-01-15

    To test the usefulness of measuring pH and refractometry index, compared with measuring calcium carbonate concentration, of preparturient mammary gland secretions for predicting parturition in mares. Evaluation study. 27 pregnant Thoroughbred mares. Preparturient mammary gland secretion samples were obtained once or twice daily 10 days prior to foaling until parturition. The samples were analyzed for calcium carbonate concentration with a water hardness kit (151 samples), pH with pH test paper (222 samples), and refractometry index with a Brix refractometer (214 samples). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for each test were calculated for evaluation of predicting parturition. The PPV within 72 hours and the NPV within 24 hours for calcium carbonate concentration determination (standard value set to 400 μg/g) were 93.8% and 98.3%, respectively. The PPV within 72 hours and the NPV within 24 hours for the pH test (standard value set at 6.4) were 97.9% and 99.4%, respectively. The PPV within 72 hours and the NPV within 24 hours for the Brix test (standard value set to 20%) were 73.2% and 96.5%, respectively. Results suggested that the pH test with the standard value set at a pH of 6.4 would be useful in the management of preparturient mares by predicting when mares are not ready to foal. This was accomplished with equal effectiveness of measuring calcium carbonate concentration with a water hardness kit.

  14. Energy and mass balance observations on La Mare Glacier (Ortles-Cevedale, European Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carturan, L.; Cazorzi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2009-04-01

    An experimental site was setup in 2005 on the ablation area of La Mare Glacier, at 2990 m a.s.l., to study the energy and mass balance exchanges between the glacier surface and the atmosphere and to investigate the climatic sensitivity of this particular glacier. An Automatic Weather Station was operated, in the framework of a monitoring network which has been implemented in the Upper Val de La Mare experimental watershed (Trentino, Italy). This basin was selected for a study of climate change effects on cryosphere and hydrology at high-altitude catchments. The 36.2 km2 wide basin has an average altitude of 2906 m a.s.l. and at present the 25% of its surface is glacierized; the annual runoff regime is dominated by snow and ice melt. Direct mass balance measurements have been performed since 1967 on Careser glacier (2.83 km2) and since 2003 on La Mare glacier (3.97 km2). The AWS is mounted on a tripod which stands freely on the glacier surface and is solar-powered. The variables measured are: air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed and direction, shortwave and longwave incoming and outgoing radiation, precipitation and surface height. All the data are sampled at five-minute intervals as average values, with the exception of surface height which is sampled at hourly intervals, as instantaneous values. The collected data were used to calculate the point energy and mass balance and to compare the results with similar investigations carried out on glaciers and available in literature. In particular, our attention has been focussed on some processes which regulate the response to climate changes. The relative importance of the energy balance components was examined and a clear predominance of shortwave radiation inputs was found to exist during melt conditions. Given the relevance of the shortwave net balance, the ice albedo temporal variability (values ranging from 0.1 to 0.5) has been investigated and correlated with meteorological variables. Furthermore, a

  15. GN and C Subsystem Concept for Safe Precision Landing of the Proposed Lunar MARE Robotic Science Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Johnson, Andrew E.; Anderson, F. Scott; Condon, Gerald L.; Nguyen, Louis H.; Olansen, Jon B.; Devolites, Jennifer L.; Harris, William J.; Hines, Glenn D.; Lee, David E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar MARE (Moon Age and Regolith Explorer) Discovery Mission concept targets delivery of a science payload to the lunar surface for sample collection and dating. The mission science is within a 100-meter radius region of smooth lunar maria terrain near Aristarchus crater. The location has several small, sharp craters and rocks that present landing hazards to the spacecraft. For successful delivery of the science payload to the surface, the vehicle Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystem requires safe and precise landing capability, so design infuses the NASA Autonomous precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) and a gimbaled, throttleable LOX/LCH4 main engine. The ALHAT system implemented for Lunar MARE is a specialization of prototype technologies in work within NASA for the past two decades, including a passive optical Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) sensor, a Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) velocity and range sensor, and a Lidar-based Hazard Detection (HD) sensor. The landing descent profile is from a retrograde orbit over lighted terrain with landing near lunar dawn. The GN&C subsystem with ALHAT capabilities will deliver the science payload to the lunar surface within a 20-meter landing ellipse of the target location and at a site having greater than 99% safety probability, which minimizes risk to safe landing and delivery of the MARE science payload to the intended terrain region.

  16. THE VULNERABILITY OF THE BAIA MARE URBAN SYSTEM (ROMANIA TO EXTREME CLIMATE PHENOMENA DURING THE WARM SEMESTER OF THE YEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOTĂ CARMEN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The geographical position of the Baia Mare Urban System (intra-hilly depression favours the occurrence of a wide range of extreme climate phenomena which, coupled with the industrial profile of the city (non-ferrous mining and metallurgical industry triggering typical emissions (CO2, SOX, particulate matters and Pb, might pose a significant threat to human health. The article is aiming to assess the occurrence, frequency and amplitude of these extreme climate phenomena based on monthly and daily extreme climatic values from Baia Mare weather station in order to identify the areas more exposed. A GIS-based qualitative-heuristic method was used, each extreme climatic hazard being evaluated on a 1 to 3 scale according to its significance/impact in the study area and assigned with a weight (w and a rank (r, resulting the climate hazard map for the warm semester of the year. The authors further relate the areas exposed to the selected extreme climatic events to socio-economic aspects: demographic and economic in order to delineate the spatial distribution of the environmental vulnerability in the Baia Mare Urban System.

  17. Concurrent lactation and pregnancy: pregnant domestic horse mares do not increase mother-offspring conflict during intensive lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Bartošová

    Full Text Available Lactation is the most energy demanding part of parental care in mammals, so parent-offspring conflict arises over milk provided by the mother. In some species females commonly become pregnant shortly after parturition of previous young. This further intensifies mother-offspring conflict due to concurrent pregnancy and lactation. In equids it has been well established that pregnant females wean their foals earlier than non-pregnant ones. Intensified mother-offspring conflict was presumed to associate with pregnancy also during the period of intensive lactation, i.e., before the weaning process starts. We investigated the effect of pregnancy on suckling behaviour characteristics as indicators of mother-offspring conflict in domestic horses. Contrary to expectation, here we provide evidence of a decreased mother-offspring conflict related to pregnancy in lactating females during first two trimesters of pregnancy. Pregnant mares provided longer suckling bouts and did not reject or terminate suckling of their foals more often than non-pregnant mares. Our results suggest that pregnant mares cope with parallel investment into a nursed foal and a foetus through enhancing nursing behaviour in early stages of pregnancy before the initially low requirements of the foetus increase. They compensate their suckling foal with the perspective of its early weaning due to ongoing pregnancy.

  18. Effects of coitus and the artificial insemination of different volumes of fresh semen on uterine contractions in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M L H; England, G C W

    2006-12-16

    Uterine contractions may play an important role in the transportation of spermatozoa towards the site of fertilisation in the oviduct of mares. M-mode ultrasound was used to measure the number, amplitude and duration of uterine contractions in each uterine horn and the uterine body of oestrous mares for four minutes before and four minutes after either coitus, or the artificial insemination of either 80.0 ml of fresh semen or 10.0 ml of fresh semen. The direction of the uterine contractions in each uterine horn and the uterine body was measured before and after coitus. Coitus and the insemination of 80.0 ml semen significantly increased the total number, mean amplitude and mean duration of contractions in all parts of the uterus. The insemination of 10.0 ml of semen did not affect the total number or the mean duration of contractions in the uterine horns. Their mean amplitude was increased, but largely owing to the results from one mare; it also did not affect the contractions in the uterine body. There was no significant difference between the percentage of contractions moving in a cervicotubal or tubocervical direction after coitus in any part of the uterus examined.

  19. The Evaluation of Small Intestinal Volvulus Caused by PathogenicMicroorganisms in a Thoroughbred Mare

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    Javad Javanbakht

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small intestinal (SI volvulus is defined as a rotation of greater than 180 degrees about its mesentery of a segment of jejunum or ileum. Horses of all ages have been affected. There is typically an acute onset of signs of mild to severe pain. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial pathogens of the duodenum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum (feces in associated with volvulus horse, and to determine whether rectal (fecal samples are representative of proximal segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Materials and Methods: A brown 26 years old mare, BCS (body condition score 4 was found dead in stall in the morning. It was moved to a suitable area to conduct a post-mortem exam. The mare was examined in hanging position and then left lateral-recumbent. Advanced abdominal tympany was present. Clinical signs, laboratory data, surgical or necropsy findings, clinic-histopathological findings and outcome for horse with SI volvulus was obtained from medical records, and identified by manual review. Horsefeces and colon were collected in autopsy. Fecal material was scooped from the center of a freshly defecated bolus into sterile sample cups, which were placed into plastic anaerobe jars with PackAnaero sachets (Mitsubishi Gas Co. via Remel, Lenexa, KS and transported to the laboratory. Alternatively, colon contents were collected from horse at the autopsy by direct incision into the colon immediately after the horse was autopsied. The samples were transported anaerobically to the laboratory. Results: On opening the abdominal cavity; a large quantity of sanguineous, foul-smelling fluid with pus exited the perforated bowel wall (hemoperitoneum. Additionally, signs of an acute diffuse peritonitis were visible. The blood vessels of the stomach and intestines were distended. Small intestinal volvulus was observed in several segments (360 degree rotation involving the mesentery. This information may aid diagnosis and

  20. Mammary adenocarcinoma in a mare Adenocarcinoma mamário em égua

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    Marilene de Farias Brito

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A non-lactating 17-year-old grey barren Mangalarga Marchador mare was referred to the Large Animal Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ, presenting enlargement of the mammary gland. The owner reported that the animal had a lesion in the mammary gland for at least two years, diagnosed and treated as chronic mastitis. Initially only the right gland was involved, presenting ulceration and exudation on the cutaneous surface. After 20 months, the left gland also became affected. The diagnosis of tubulo-papillary adenocarcinoma was based on the typical microscopic lesions. This work shows the importance of the histopathological examination in the differential diagnosis between the neoplasms and the chronic inflammation in the mammary gland of mares, as well as, to show that the cytological examination cannot detect the tumor, in case the puncture is made in areas of secondary infection.Uma égua tordilha, Mangalarga Marchador, de 17 anos, não-lactante e não-prenhe, foi encaminhada ao Hospital de Grandes Animais da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, com histórico de mastite crônica há dois anos. No início da lesão, apenas a glândula mamária direita estava muito aumentada, com exsudação sero-hemorrágica e ulcerada. Após 20 meses, a mama esquerda também estava comprometida. A égua foi tratada para mastite crônica, porém o exame histopatológico revelou tratar-se de um adenocarcinoma túbulo-papilar. Este trabalho evidencia a importância do exame histopatológico no diagnóstico diferencial entre neoplasias e inflamação crônica da mama de éguas, uma vez que o exame citopatológico pode não detectar o tumor, quando a punção é feita em áreas de infecção secundária.

  1. Differences in ability of jennies and mares to conceive with cooled and frozen semen containing glycerol or not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidament, Marianne; Vincent, Pierrick; Martin, François-Xavier; Magistrini, Michele; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2009-05-01

    A suitable method for the cryopreservation of donkey semen would be very valuable for the ex situ management of genetic diversity in this species. This report uses a variety of observation and trials to evaluate the effect of cryoprotectants in per-cycle pregnancy rates (PC) in equids females (jennies (donkey) and mares (horse)). This was explored by (1) comparing the results of insemination of jennies and mares with cooled or frozen donkey semen, (2) examining the possible toxic effect of the cryoprotectant (CPA) glycerol in these two species and (3) studying alternative solutions. Donkey and horse semen was either used immediately, or cooled according to some steps of the pre-freezing procedure or frozen and thawed. The pre-freezing procedure included semen dilution, centrifugation, resuspension in milk or in INRA82+2% egg yolk+various % CPA (expressed as final concentrations in extended semen (v/v)) and then cooling to 4 degrees C. PC was similar in mares and jennies inseminated with donkey semen cooled to 4 degrees C in milk. However, the PC was significantly higher in mares than in jennies when donkey semen was frozen with 2.2% glycerol (36%, n=50 cycles vs. 11%, n=38 cycles; Pfertility obtained in jennies with cooled donkey semen (PC: 67%, n=12 cycles) but did not increase the fertility obtained with frozen-thawed donkey semen (PC: 11%, n=28 cycles with dimethylformamide vs. 0%, n=16 cycles with glycerol). In conclusion, this study clearly shows that the ability of jennies to conceive after AI with donkey frozen semen is lower than that of mares. Glycerol affects the fertility of donkey and stallion spermatozoa as early as during the pre-freezing procedure. In consequence, the glycerol level must be low in frozen equine semen to provide good fertility. The toxic dose of glycerol for donkey spermatozoa seems to be almost half that for stallion spermatozoa. Whether this greater sensitivity of donkey spermatozoa to glycerol is responsible for the low success of

  2. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  3. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  4. Production of bacteriocin by Leuconostoc mesenteroides 406 isolated from Mongolian fermented mare's milk, airag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulijideligen; Asahina, Takayuki; Hara, Kazushi; Arakawa, Kensuke; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Taku

    2012-10-01

    The purification and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain 406 that was isolated from traditional Mongolian fermented mare's milk, airag, were carried out. Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain 406 was identified on the basis of its morphological and biochemical characteristics and carbohydrate fermentation profile and by API 50 CH kit and 16S ribosomal DNA analyses. The neutral-pH cell-free supernatant of this bacterium inhibited the growth of several lactic acid bacteria and food spoilage and pathogenic organisms, including Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum. The bacteriocin was heat-stable and not sensitive to acid and alkaline conditions, but was sensitive to several proteolytic enzymes such as pepsin, pronase E, proteinase K, trypsin, and α-chymotrypsin, but not catalase. Optimum bacteriocin production (4000 activity units/mL) was achieved when the strain was cultured at 25°C for 24-36 h in Man Rogosa Sharpe medium. The bacteriocin was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (80% saturation), dialysis (cut-off MW: 1000), and gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the bacteriocin had a molecular weight of approximately 3.3 kDa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of a bacteriocin-producing Leuconostoc strain from airag. An application to fermented milks would be desired. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. SEDIMENTS POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS. CASE STUDY: BAIA MARE MINING AREA.

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    PIŞTEA IOANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to assess the degree of sediments contamination with heavy metals. In December 2013, 8 sediments samples were collected from several areas from Baia Mare. Each of the collected sediment samples was analyzed for pH, redox potential (ORP, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS and salinity with a portable multiparameter (WTW 3210i. In laboratory, using an ICP-OES, all the sediment samples were analyzed for iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and manganese (Mn.According to Romanian legislation the level of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exceeded the maximum permissible limit (0.8 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, 85 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg.Heavy metals are not removed from aquatic ecosystem by self purification and they can accumulate in suspanded particulates and sediments, as a consequence they are a real threath for the human health and ecosystem via food chain accumulation.

  6. USING THE FOURNIER INDEXES IN ESTIMATING RAINFALL EROSIVITY. CASE STUDY - THE SECAŞUL MARE BASIN

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    M. COSTEA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the Fournier Index in Estimating Rainfall Erosivity. Case Study - The Secaşul Mare Basin. Climatic aggressiveness is one of the most important factors in relief dynamic. Of all climatic parameters, rainfall is directly involved in versant dynamic, in the loss of soil quality and through pluvial denudation and the processes associated with it, through the erosivity of torrential rain. We analyzed rainfall aggressiveness based on monthly and annual average values through the Fournier's index (1970 and Fournier's index modified by Arnoldus (1980. They have the advantage that they can be used not only for evaluating the land susceptibility to erosion and the calculation of erodibility of land and soil losses, but also in assessing land susceptibility to sliding (Aghiruş, 2010. The literature illustrates the successful use of this index which provides a summary assessment of the probability of rainfall with significant erosive effects. The results obtained allow observation of differences in space and time of the distribution of this index.

  7. Reproductive efficiency of asymptomatic Theileria equi carriers mares submitted to an embryo transfer program

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    Luciana L. Bezerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and evaluate the effects of Theileria equi infection on embryonic recovery, gestation and early embryonic loss. Thirteen Mangalarga Marchador Theileria equi positive donors (diagnosed through nested-PCR and 40 embryos receptors were used. Donors were submitted to two embryo collections in two consecutive estrous cycles (GId; after, the same mares were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (1.2mg/kg IM. in order to collect more embryos in two more estrous cycles (GIId. Receptors were divided into two groups (control and with treated with 20 animals each, where one group was the control (GIr and the other one (GIIr treated with 1.2mg/kg IM of imidocarb dipropionate assessing the gestation rate at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. After 52 embryo collections, the embryonic recovery rates were 53.84% (14/26 and 65.38% (17/26 (p> 0.05 for GId and GIId, respectively. The gestation rate was 70% (14/20 (p>0.05 at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days in group GIr and for GIIr was 85% (17/20 (p>0.05 at 15 days, 80% (16/20 (p>0.05 at 30, 45 and 60 days. The treatment with imidocarb dipropionate did not cause significant improvement in the reproductive efficiency at an ET program.

  8. Evaluation in Physical Education: an analysis in state and municipal schools in Maringá-PR

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    Saray Giovana dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to evaluation deal with many issues that Physical Education, as a pedagogical subject, has been facing. In order to investigate these aspects, this study has as its aim to analyse how and with purpose, the professionals from the area of Physical Education are evaluating studentes from the 5th to the 8th forms in state and municipal schools in Maringá. A questionnaire was used. The sample was formed by 30 teachers from 12 schools: 15 teachers from state schools and 15 from municipal schools. Descriptive statistics at simple frequency level and non-parametric test (χ2 were used. Results show that evaluation in the subject Physical Education is performed only to follow the norms, without planning and consequently without pre-defined educational objectives showing, thus, the contradictions and confusions inherent to evaluation modalities by the professionals of this area. These professionals demonstrated the precaroiusness of the understanding of evaluation role in teaching-learning process.

  9. Environmental risks of abandoning a mining project already started: Romaltyn Mining Baia Mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, I.; Duma, S.; Gusat, D.; Pasca, I.; Bud, A.

    2016-08-01

    The history of mining activity, which has been the economy engine in the region and has contributed to the formation of many localities, has been deleted too quickly. During all this time, in the world countries which have invested in mining sector have made considerable progress. The paper brings in question, within the framework of the theme, the implications arising from the abandonment of the Romaltyn project which mainly affects two objectives: Central Tailing Pond and Aurul Tailing Pond. The Central tailing pond constitutes an unfortunate source of pollution for groundwater, surface water, soil and air on a large area around it, because its location upstream of Baia Mare city and in the vicinity of a agricultural production zone. The consequences of the tailing pond maintenance in the current situation are: presence of sclerozing dust with sulphurs content scattered over large agricultural area; soil pollution by acidification; heavy metals release which enter in food chain and will be found in food. The final disposal of the pollution source is the only solution really safe in long term. Abandoning Aurul tailing pond in the current phase of construction involves high environmental risks. Taking in consideration the potential and the huge soil volume which are necessary for rehabilitation, isolation and rehabilitation of this area involve extremely high costs and the realization is, technically, almost impossible in the current context.

  10. Intermittent Haemoptysis due to an Aortobronchial Fistula in a Warmblood Mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versnaeyen, H; Saey, V; Vermeiren, D; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R

    2016-01-01

    A 7-year-old warmblood mare showed sudden onset of mild intermittent haemoptysis. Clinical examination revealed no significant abnormalities. Haematological examination showed mild anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and neutrophilia. Coagulation tests were normal. Endoscopic examination revealed unilateral pulmonary haemorrhage with blood clots in the bronchi and trachea. Treatment with antibiotics was started and the horse was given stable rest. Two weeks later, the horse was found dead with blood and frothy sputum leaking from the nostrils. Post-mortem examination revealed a large thoracic aortic aneurysm communicating with a pseudoaneurysm that had formed a fistula into a right bronchial branch. Microscopical examination of the aneurysm showed extensive medial fibrosis with prominent degeneration, fragmentation and mineralization of the elastic fibres and deposition of mucoid material in the tunica media. The pseudoaneurysm was lined by collagen bundles admixed with fibroblasts and a small amount of adipose tissue. Aortobronchial fistula is a rare condition in man that is usually associated with primary aortic pathology, most often aneurysms. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of a fatal aortobronchial fistula in a horse or any other animal species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Qualitative evaluation of trauma delays in road traffic injury patients in Maringá, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anjni; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Hocker, Michael; Molina, Enio; Gil, Nelly Moraes; Staton, Catherine

    2017-12-02

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the eighth leading cause of death worldwide, with an estimated 90% of RTIs occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) like Brazil. There has been minimal research in evaluation of delays in transport of RTI patients to trauma centers in LMICs. The objective of this study is to determine specific causes of delays in prehospital transport of road traffic injury patients to designated trauma centers in Maringá, Brazil. A qualitative method was used based on the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) approach. Eleven health care providers employed at prehospital or hospital settings were interviewed with questions specific to delays in care for RTI patients. A thematic analysis was conducted. Responses to primary causes of delay in treatment to RTI patients fell into the following categories: 1) lack of public education, 2) traffic, 3) insufficient personnel/ambulances, 4) bureaucracy, and 5) poor location of stations. Suggestions for improvement in delays fell into the categories of 1) need for centralized station/avoid traffic, 2) improving public education, 3) Increase personnel, 4) increase ambulances, 5) proper extrication/rapid treatment. Our study found varied responses between hospital and SAMU providers regarding specific causes of delay for RTI patients; SAMU providers cited primarily traffic, bureaucracy, and poor location as primary factors while hospital employees focused more on public health aspects. These results mirror prehospital system challenges in other developing countries, but also provide solutions for improvement with better infrastructure and public health campaigns.

  12. The Mare Model to Study the Effects of Ovarian Dynamics on Preantral Follicle Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Kele A.; Alves, Benner G.; Gastal, Gustavo D. A.; de Tarso, Saulo G. S.; Gastal, Melba O.; Figueiredo, José R.; Gambarini, Maria L.; Gastal, Eduardo L.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian tissue collected by biopsy procedures allows the performance of many studies with clinical applications in the field of female fertility preservation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive phase (anestrous vs. diestrous) and ovarian structures (antral follicles and corpus luteum) on the quality, class distribution, number, and density of preantral follicles, and stromal cell density. Ovarian fragments were harvested by biopsy pick-up procedures from mares and submitted to histological analysis. The mean preantral follicle and ovarian stromal cell densities were greater in the diestrous phase and a positive correlation of stromal cell density with the number and density of preantral follicles was observed. The mean area (mm2) of ovarian structures increased in the diestrous phase and had positive correlations with number of preantral follicles, follicle density, and stromal cell density. Biopsy fragments collected from ovaries containing an active corpus luteum had a higher follicle density, stromal cell density, and proportion of normal preantral follicles. In conclusion, our results showed: (1) the diestrous phase influenced positively the preantral follicle quality, class distribution, and follicle and stromal cell densities; (2) the area of ovarian structures was positively correlated with the follicle and stromal cell densities; and (3) the presence of an active corpus luteum had a positive effect on the quality of preantral follicles, and follicle and stromal densities. Therefore, herein we demonstrate that the presence of key ovarian structures favors the harvest of ovarian fragments containing an appropriate number of healthy preantral follicles. PMID:26900687

  13. Reproductive phenology of Creole horses in Ecuador in the absence of photoperiod variation: The effects of forage availability and flooding affecting body condition of mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Yoong, Washington A; Mateos, Concha; Caño Vergara, Belén; Gómez, Chian L; Macías, Verónica

    2017-12-01

    Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares' conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares' conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year. Mares' conditions increased after a period of vegetation growth and thus appeared negatively associated with the increment of grass greenness (normalized difference vegetation index data). Seasonal flooding of some pasturelands during March and April appeared to seriously impair mares' conditions and probably influenced the timing of foaling toward the dry season. Our results evidenced that horse breeding in these equatorial areas tended to be seasonal and point to some key factors that influence phenology by affecting body condition of mares, which may have implications for horse biology and management. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Gender Check - veel kord soolisusest Ida-Euroopa kunstis / Mare Tralla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tralla, Mare, 1967-

    2010-01-01

    Novembris 2010 Viinis toimunud konverentsist, kus analüüsiti näituse "Gender Check. Feminiinsus ja maskuliinsus Ida-Euroopa kunstis" kogemust ning sellele eelnenud ja järgnenud uurimistöö tulemusi. Esitleti artiklite kogumikku "Gender check: a reader : art and theory in Eastern Europe". "Gender Checki" projekti edasisest saatusest ja mõjust

  15. Perfil do consumo de leite e produtos derivados na cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná = Profile of milk and its products consumption in Maringá, Paraná State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Molina; Franciele Maria Pelissari; Andresa Carla Feihrmann

    2010-01-01

    Os dados coletados na cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, referentes ao consumo e à aceitação do leite e seus derivados foram utilizados para se traçar o perfil do consumo desses produtos, gerando subsídios para entendimento mais amplo sobre o mercado consumidor de leite. Trezentos indivíduos responderam à pesquisa que avaliou o grau de aceitação e frequência de consumo do leite e produtos derivados. Observou-se que o mais importante para o consumidor, no momento da compra, encontra-se na re...

  16. MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare: an interactive and multidisciplinary approach to Geosphere sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Fanelli, Emanuela; Furia, Stefania; Garau, Daniela; Merlino, Silvia; Musacchio, Gemma; Carla Centineo, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that Earth and Marine Sciences are not properly treated in scholastic programs and in textbooks are included in a superficial way. These topics are interdisciplinary and experimental (biology, ecology, oceanography and geology) and the recent advance in these fields is strictly linked to technologic improvement. School cannot keep up with the huge advances of knowledge experimented in the last 20 years, also for the lack of didactic laboratories sufficiently updated to support experimental activities. In this context, in 2014-15 three Italian Research Institutes (INGV, ISMAR-CNR and ENEA-CRAM) have decided to support the Unified School District "ISA 10"of Lerici (Liguria, Italy) - comprehensive of kindergartner, primary and middle schools - to develop the project MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare (Planet Earth and Sea). The acronym MATER (MARe and TERra) has also a gender value, as people involved in the projects were women, mostly researchers and teachers, which have worked side by side with other women belonging to environmental and cultural associations of the territory. This heterogeneous group has a common objective: to promote the diffusion of a scientific culture and to sensitize students from 3 to 14 years towards problems occurring in marine and terrestrial environments, fostering the settlement of a sustainable attitude to the exploitation of natural resources and consciousness to natural hazards, such as earthquakes and floods, quite common in the Ligurian region. MATER has been considered as one of the best projects funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research) inside the Dissemination of Scientific and Technological Culture call for the year 2014. Natural hazards (Planet Earth) and the chemical-physical aspects and resources of the marine environment (Planet Sea) were the two modules of the project. Planet Earth developed through Piovono Idee! (Cloudy with a chance of Ideas!), an interactive exhibition on

  17. CPR evolution of kilometer-scale craters on the lunar mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Isabel; Fassett, Caleb; Thomson, Bradley J.; Minton, David A.; Watters, Wesley A.

    2016-10-01

    This study analyzes the 12.6-cm radar signature of kilometer-scale craters using data from the Mini-RF instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. We examine the circular polarization ratio (CPR), which is sensitive to rockiness and surface roughness at the decimeter scale, to determine if there is a relationship between CPR signature and age for craters on the lunar mare. The craters come from an existing dataset of >13,000 craters ranging 800 m to 5 km in diameter that have previously determined degradation states based on their topography. The locations of craters in the original data set were manually co-registered to Mini-RF level 2 observations from the PDS, and for each crater, radial CPR profiles were extracted. In total, there were 5,142 unique craters with Mini-RF observations; 914 craters had repeat measurements that were used to assess uncertainties in CPR profiles. To characterize the time evolution of CPR, the craters were analyzed by finding the median profiles for groups of craters sorted by age and diameter. The highest CPR values are found in the interiors of the craters, and for craters ≤2 km, the freshest craters have the highest CPR values. In the ejecta, fresh craters exhibit the highest CPR, and this decreases with time until an equilibrium is reached. As expected from theory, larger craters' profiles evolve less quickly, with only minor changes in CPR inside their rim and a slower decrease of CPR in their ejecta. In conjunction with other datasets like topography, optical maturity, and rockiness, these data are important for constraining models of regolith evolution and crater degradation on the Moon.

  18. Elemental and Topographic Mapping of Lava Flowstructures in Mare Serenitatis on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhler, C.; Grumpe, A.; Rommel, D.; Bhatt, M.; Mall, U.

    2017-07-01

    The detection of lunar lava flows based on local morphology highly depends on the available images. The thickness of lava flows, however, has been studied by many researchers and lunar lava flows are shown to be as thick as 200 m. Lunar lava flows are supposed to be concentrated on the northwestern lunar nearside. In this study we present elemental abundance maps, a petrological map and a digital terrain model (DTM) of a lava flow structure in northern Mare Serenitatis at (18.0° E, 32.4° N) and two possible volcanic vents at (11.2° E, 24.6° N) and (13.5° E, 37.5° N), respectively. Our abundance maps of the refractory elements Ca, Mg and our petrological map were obtained based on hyperspectral image data of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument. Our DTM was constructed using GLD100 data in combination with a shape from shading based method to M3 and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) image data. The obtained NAC-based DEM has a very high effective resolution of about 1-2 m which comes close to the resolution of the utilized NAC images without requiring intricate processing of NAC stereo image pairs. As revealed by our elemental maps and DEM, the examined lava flow structure occurs on a boundary between basalts consisting of low-Ca/high-Mg pyroxene and high-Ca/low-Mg pyroxene, respectively. The total thickness of the lava flow is about 100 m, which is a relatively large value, but according to our DEM the lava flow may also be composed of two or more layers.

  19. Effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin injection on litter size in young Etawah-cross does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M Artiningsihi

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of twins and/or multiple births in 20 heads of young Etawah-cross does was studied following oestrous synchronization using intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterorle acetate (Repromap for 15 days . Twenty four hours priorto sponges withdrawal, the does were injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG at dose rates of 0 (Group A, 10 (Group B, 15 (Group C and 20 iu/kg (Group D body weight. Amature buck fitted with an apron was used to detect the onset of oestrus at every four hours. The oestrous doe was naturally mated twice, 12 hours after onset of oestrus and 10 hours later. About 3-5 days after oestrus, all does were subjected to mid-ventral laparoscopy to detect ovulation rate . Two months after mating all does were subjected to pregnancy test using diagnostic ultrasonography. Results showed that all does exhibited clear sign of oestrus. The onset of oestrus occurred 15-43 hours after sponges withdrawal or 39-59 hours after PMSG injection. Does injected with PMSG (Groups B, C and D showed oestrus 16-21 hours earlier (P0 .05 than that of control (Group A . However, there was no significant differences among the PMSG-treated groups . Ovulation rates increased from 1.0 in Group Ato 1.8 in Group B and 2.6 in bah Groups Cand D. Average litter size in Groups A, B, C and D were 1.0, 1.8, 2.4 and 1.0, respectively. It was concluded that injection of 15 iu PMSG/kg body weight gave the best result for increasing litter size in young Etawah-cross does .

  20. Petrology and geochemistry of the Muntele Mare granitoid (Northern Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucretia Ghergari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings new data on the petrography and geochemistry of the Muntele Mare Granitoid (MMG, from its northernmost outcropping area (Mănăstireni-Bedeci area, Gilău Massif, Apuseni Mountains, where MM\\G is are actively quarried for quartz and feldspar that are used in the ceramics industry. The MMG mined in the Bedeci quarry has a pegmatitic hypidiomorphous – inequigranular fabric, and a low melanocratic index (ca. 7%. It consists of quartz, plagioclase (two generations: acidic andesine-basic oligoclase (34-35% An, and albite (9-11% An, orthoclase ± perthite in various substitution stages by microcline (intermediary, as well as microcline maximum, muscovite and biotite. Accessories include: apatite, zircon, magnetite, rutile and titanite. Garnets occur in contact areas, and local concentrations of apatite and tourmaline are found in areas affected by metasomatic processes. Micas underwent micronization, iron leaching and hydration. Three textural varieties are identified: equigranular, microgranular, and gneissic granite. Subsequent alkaline metasomatism, cataclastic deformation, and silicification transformed these varieties into a pegmatitic granite. The contact of the MMG with the overlying Someş lithogroup is marked by a 0.5–1.0m thick biotite hornfels. Away from the contact, the hornfels gradually turns into granitic gneiss affected by metasomatic processes. The major element distribution in the Bedeci Valley granitoid is characteristic to a peraluminous, subalkaline, medium-potassic granite, affected by dominantly sodic alkaline metasomatism, and Al enrichment. Geochemical processing of the analytical data (major elements; 296 samples suggests that the granite has been formed in a collision environment, which contrasts with the post-collision environment inferred by other authors. We state that this contradiction is to be explained by chemistry changes caused by metasomatism and silicification processes.

  1. Changes in expression pattern of selected endometrial proteins following mesenchymal stem cells infusion in mares with endometrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisley I Mambelli

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs due to their self-renewal potential and differentiation capacity are useful for tissue regeneration. Immunomodulatory and trophic properties of MSCs were demonstrated suggesting their use as medicinal signaling cells able to positively change local environment in injured tissue. Equine endometrosis is a progressive degenerative disease responsible for glandular alterations and endometrial fibrosis which causes infertility in mares. More precisely, this disease is characterized by phenotypic changes in the expression pattern of selected endometrial proteins. Currently, no effective treatment is available for endometrosis. Herein, we aimed at the evaluation of expression pattern of these proteins after allogeneic equine adipose tissue-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (eAT-MSCs infusion as well as at testing the capacity of these cells to promote endometrial tissue remodeling in mares with endometrosis. eAT-MSC (2 × 10(7/animal were transplanted into mares' uterus and control animals received only placebo. Uterine biopsies were collected before (day 0 and after (days 7, 21 and 60 cells transplantation. Conventional histopathology as well as expression analysis of such proteins as laminin, vimentin, Ki-67-antigen, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and cytokeratin 18 (CK18 have been performed before and after eAT-MSCs transplantation. We demonstrated that eAT-MSCs induced early (at day 7 remodeling of endometrial tissue microenvironment through changes observed in intra cellular and intra glandular localization of aforementioned proteins. We demonstrated that eAT-MSCs were able to positively modulate the expression pattern of studied secretory proteins as well as, to promote the induction of glandular epithelial cells proliferation suggesting local benefits to committed endometrial tissue environment after eAT-MSCs transplantation.

  2. Acute injection and chronic perfusion of kisspeptin elicit gonadotropins release but fail to trigger ovulation in the mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decourt, Caroline; Caraty, Alain; Briant, Christine; Guillaume, Daniel; Lomet, Didier; Chesneau, Didier; Lardic, Lionel; Duchamp, Guy; Reigner, Fabrice; Monget, Philippe; Dufourny, Laurence; Beltramo, Massimiliano; Dardente, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    Kisspeptin has emerged as the most potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretagogue and appears to represent the penultimate step in the central control of reproduction. In the sheep, we showed that kisspeptin could be used to manipulate gonadotropin secretion and control ovulation. Prompted by these results, we decided to investigate whether kisspeptin could be used as an ovulation-inducing agent in another photoperiodic domestic mammal, the horse. Equine kisspeptin-10 (eKp10) was administered intravenously as bolus injections or short- to long-term perfusions to Welsh pony mares, either during the anestrus season or at various stages of the cycle during the breeding season. In all the experimental conditions, eKp10 reliably increased peripheral concentrations of both luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The nature of the response to eKp10 was consistent across experimental conditions and physiological states: the increase in gonadotropins was always rapid and essentially transient even when eKp10 was perfused for prolonged periods. Furthermore, eKp10 consistently failed to induce ovulation in the mare. To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms, we used acute injections or perfusions of GnRH. We also cloned the equine orthologues of the kisspeptin precursor and Kiss1r; this was justified by the facts that the current equine genome assembly predicted an amino acid difference between eKp10 and Kp10 in other species while an equine orthologue for Kiss1r was missing altogether. In light of these findings, potential reasons for the divergence in the response to kisspeptin between ewe and mare are discussed. Our data highlight that kisspeptin is not a universal ovulation-inducing agent.

  3. Catastrophic complication following injection and extracorporeal shock wave therapy of a medial femoral condyle subchondral cystic lesion in a 14 year old Arabian mare

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    Darla K. Moser

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This report describes fibrous cyst lining injection and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT of a medial femoral condyle (MFC subchondral cystic lesion (SCL resulting in catastrophic MFC fracture in an Arabian mare. The mare was presented for evaluation of a severe hind limb lameness of approximately 4 months duration. On presentation, a non-weight bearing lameness of the left hind limb with severe effusion and soft tissue swelling of the stifle region was noted. Radiographic evaluation of the stifle revealed a large SCL of the MFC with associated osteoarthritis. Arthroscopic guided intra-lesional injection of the SCL with corticosteroids and autologous bone marrow concentrate was performed followed by ESWT of the MFC. The mare was discharged walking comfortably 48-hours post-operatively. An acute increase in lameness was noted 14 days post-operatively. Imaging revealed catastrophic fracture of the left MFC. Possible mechanisms leading to failure of the MFC secondary to the described treatment are discussed.

  4. Catastrophic complication following injection and extracorporeal shock wave therapy of a medial femoral condyle subchondral cystic lesion in a 14 year old Arabian mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Darla K.; Schoonover, Mike J.; Sippel, Kate M.; Dieterly, Alix M.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Wall, Corey R.

    2017-01-01

    This report describes fibrous cyst lining injection and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) of a medial femoral condyle (MFC) subchondral cystic lesion (SCL) resulting in catastrophic MFC fracture in an Arabian mare. The mare was presented for evaluation of a severe hind limb lameness of approximately 4 months duration. On presentation, a non-weight bearing lameness of the left hind limb with severe effusion and soft tissue swelling of the stifle region was noted. Radiographic evaluation of the stifle revealed a large SCL of the MFC with associated osteoarthritis. Arthroscopic guided intra-lesional injection of the SCL with corticosteroids and autologous bone marrow concentrate was performed followed by ESWT of the MFC. The mare was discharged walking comfortably 48-hours post-operatively. An acute increase in lameness was noted 14 days post-operatively. Imaging revealed catastrophic fracture of the left MFC. Possible mechanisms leading to failure of the MFC secondary to the described treatment are discussed. PMID:28616392

  5. Molecular Characterization and Serology of Leptospira kirschneri (Serogroup Grippotyphosa) Isolated from Urine of a Mare Post-Abortion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamond, C; Martins, G; Bremont, S; Medeiros, M A; Bourhy, P; Lilenbaum, W

    2016-05-01

    A strain of Leptospira kirschneri (serogroup Grippotyphosa) was cultured from urine of a mare post-abortion in Brazil and characterized by serogrouping, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, PGFE, and sequencing of genes rrs and secY. Strains of L. kirschneri have apparently never been recovered from horses in tropical area, only in Europe and USA. Knowledge of local epidemiology is important to interpret genetic profiles of leptospires circulating in an area. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Pre-foaling period in Trotter mares – 2: variations of protein fractions in pre-colostrum secretion

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    A. Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mare has a diffuse epitheliochorial placenta that does not allow the transplacental passage of maternal antibodies to the foetus. As a consequence, newly-born foals are immunologically dependent on the absorption of colostral maternal immunoglobulins (Ig. Therefore, the newborn foal should immediately suckle an adequate quantity of colostrum to reach an haematological IgG concentration of 400 mg/dl which prevent the occurrence of Failure of Passive Transfer (FPT, disease which can be fatal to the foal (Jeffcott, 1972; Curadi and Orlandi, 1998.

  7. Lunar mare deposits associated with the Orientale impact basin: New insights into mineralogy, history, mode of emplacement, and relation to Orientale Basin evolution from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, J.; Head, J.W.; Staid, M.; Pieters, C.M.; Mustard, J.; Clark, R.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.L.; Taylor, L.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) image and spectral reflectance data are combined to analyze mare basalt units in and adjacent to the Orientale multiring impact basin. Models are assessed for the relationships between basin formation and mare basalt emplacement. Mare basalt emplacement on the western nearside limb began prior to the Orientale event as evidenced by the presence of cryptomaria. The earliest post-Orientale-event mare basalt emplacement occurred in the center of the basin (Mare Orientale) and postdated the formation of the Orientale Basin by about 60-100 Ma. Over the next several hundred million years, basalt patches were emplaced first along the base of the Outer Rook ring (Lacus Veris) and then along the base of the Cordillera ring (Lacus Autumni), with some overlap in ages. The latest basalt patches are as young as some of the youngest basalt deposits on the lunar nearside. M3 data show several previously undetected mare patches on the southwestern margins of the basin interior. Regardless, the previously documented increase in mare abundance from the southwest toward the northeast is still prominent. We attribute this to crustal and lithospheric trends moving from the farside to the nearside, with correspondingly shallower density and thermal barriers to basaltic magma ascent and eruption toward the nearside. The wide range of model ages for Orientale mare deposits (3.70-1.66 Ga) mirrors the range of nearside mare ages, indicating that the small amount of mare fill in Orientale is not due to early cessation of mare emplacement but rather to limited volumes of extrusion for each phase during the entire period of nearside mare basalt volcanism. This suggests that nearside and farside source regions may be similar but that other factors, such as thermal and crustal thickness barriers to magma ascent and eruption, may be determining the abundance of surface deposits on the limbs and farside. The sequence, timing, and elevation of mare basalt deposits

  8. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... for Eastern Jutland.  This process relies on the municipalities in Eastern Jutland reaching consensus on a common vision for the city region.   The key issue in spatial planning in Eastern Jutland is a conflict between preserving the high quality of landscape and maintaining the divide between the countryside...

  9. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  10. Eastern equine encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Daniel; Gilani, Ahmed I; Grewal, Amrit K; Fowkes, Mary

    2017-10-01

    We describe a patient who died from a fulminant presentation of encephalitis. After an exhaustive search, we found no treatable cause. Postmortem PCR analysis of brain tissue led to a diagnosis of eastern equine encephalitis. We have identified several clinical pearls that may assist others in making the diagnosis earlier in the disease course. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. AN ATTEMPT TO DETERMINE THE RELATION BETWEEN HUCUL HORSES CONFORMATION ASSESSMENT, MOVEMENT AND COURAGE TEST RESULTS PART II. MARE FAMILIES

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    Jadwiga TOPCZEWSKA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine the relationship between evaluation of conformation and motion indicators and results of the Huculs’ path and also to ascertain the courage (basic and elimination of Hucul horses with their classification into mare families being taken account of. The scores of 116 horses presented for the evaluation of their exterior (championship breeding were analyzed. The assessment covered the type, body conformation, movement in walk and trot as well as overall impression and preparedness for the exhibition. Measurements of length of steps, frequency and rate of the walk and trot were performed during the tests for courage. The estimated correlation coefficients exhibited the existence of some interesting trends i.e., there was positive correlation between values for type, body conformation, movement in walk and trot and the length of steps in walk and trot in individuals representing most of mare families. The reverse was the case with horses from the Sroczka and Wyderka families. Amongst the Wrona, however, negative correlations between the grade for walk and frequency of steps in walk was observed while that of between the result of path and utility tests was positive.

  12. Induction of ovulation in quarter horse mares through the use of deslorelin acetate and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG

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    Tatiana Figueiredo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to compare two protocols of induction for ovulation by desloreline acetate and hCG in Quarter Horse mares. The choice of the animals was based on the observations by the estrus, by rectal palpation of the ovaries and by ultrassonography of the follicular dynamics. After estrus detection and follicle control, the measurement of the follicles and the classification of uterus were carried out. The animals that had dominant follicle (diameter more than 35 mm and swollen uterus were used. In these conditions, the mares received hCG or desloreline acetate. Once ovulation occurred, the artificial insemination was carried. Two groups were performed: G1 (20 animals received 1.5 mg desloreline acetate and G2 (20 animals received 1700 IU of hCG. Following 6h intervals, the control follicular was performed by ultrasonography. The follicular average diameter was 42.6 cm for the groups and set up a score of 0 to 3 of uterine edema displayed by the device as well as the time of ovulation. In conclusion, the desloreline acetate showed better performance than hCG, because the ovulation was induced in less time (nine hours than hCG (p<0.05.The pregnancy rate was 80 and 75 %, respectively in G1 and G2.

  13. Technogenic Ecological Sequences in Tailing Pond from Căpușu Mare, Built between 1975-1981

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    Aurel MAXIM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, all actions related to mining management are found in “Strategy of the mining industry for 2012-2035”. Today, numerous tailing ponds have  remained outside rehabilitation operations, and they are becoming more natural, as is the case of the tailing pond in Capusu Mare. The vegetation study was conducted in 2015, at the tailing pond III in Căpușu Mare that was operational between 1975-1981. The following phytopopulation and phytocenotic indices were calculated: presence, frequency, class of presence, abundance-dominance and average abundance-dominance (ADm of species. Floral studies show the presence of 40 plant species. The wood species with the highest mean dominant abundance are Hippophäe rhamnoides (14.78% and Salix alba (10.55%, and of herbaceous species stands Phragmites communis with 7.49%. After 34 years from the heap closure, the degree of vegetation coverage is 77%. Wood species occupy about 32% of the heap surface.

  14. Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin. Rapid chromatographic procedures for the purification of intact hormone and isolation of subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W T; Ward, D N

    1980-07-25

    A method exploiting hydroxylapatite chromatography was developed to purify pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG or eCG) to high biological activity from partially purified commerical preparations. In addition, an alternative method utilizing chromatography on quaternary aminoethyl (QAE)-Sephadex and Sephadex G-200 is also presented. Both procedures are capable of producing, from commerical material with a potency of approximately 2,500 IU/mg, a product in excess of 12,000 IU/mg. If care is taken in the selection of fractions from the hydroxylapatite chromatography, essentially purified material may be obtained in a single step. The best fraction from the QAE-Sephadex and G-200 chromatography procedure contains a minor impurity. Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin subunits were purified by a single chromatographic step from the foregoing preparations utilizing 6 M guanidine hydrochloride for dissociation, followed by chromatography on Sephadex G-75. Analytical data, including amino acid composition, carbohydrate composition. NH2-terminal amino acid determinations, and electrophoretic behavior of the subunits in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are presented.

  15. Study of olivine-rich dark halo crater - Beaumont L in Mare Nectaris using high resolution remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Chauhan, Prakash; Rajawat, A. S.; Kumar, A. S. Kiran

    2015-05-01

    Study of dark-haloed craters (DHCs) can provide important information about the geology, mineralogy and evolution of certain hidden mare deposits known as cryptomare. Some DHCs have been identified in the Mare Nectaris region of the near side of the Moon. Beaumont L represents one such DHC situated on the western flank of the Nectaris basin. Moon Mineralogical Mapper (M3) images were used to investigate the composition of DHCs. Morphological investigations have been carried out using Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera images. The morphological details captured by TMC and LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images provide evidence that Beaumont-L is of impact origin and do not show evidence of a volcanic origin. The compositional analysis using M3 data indicates the presence of an olivine rich cryptomare unit excavated due to the Beaumont L impact. Our study also confirms that the band I feature in the reflectance spectra of Beaumont L is completely attributable to olivine deposits without contribution from any type of glass/melt deposits. The presence of olivine in Beaumont L suggests either excavation of olivine-rich cryptomare or a subsurface mafic pluton.

  16. La verticalización como resultado material de incorporación inmobiliaria en Maringá-Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo presentar el proceso de urbanización de la ciudad de Maringá, en el contexto de la verticalización, en su principal eje económico, el centro de la ciudad, además de aprender y analizar más profundamente el papel desempeñado por las sociedades en la creación de la verticalización, que se constituye en una nueva forma de vivir, en los edificios en la zona 1 (centro en Maringá, así como también conocer el origen de los capitales de tal proceso, y el porqué de la opción por el edificio en la zona 1 (centro, abordando también, algunas cuestiones de orden ambiental y de infraestructura en el transcurso de ese proceso.

  17. THE DESULTORY POLITICS OF MOBILITY AND THE HUMANITARIAN-MILITARY BORDER IN THE MEDITERRANEAN. MARE NOSTRUM BEYOND THE SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tazzioli

    Full Text Available Abstract This article investigates the reshaping of the military-humanitarian border in the Mediterranean, focusing on the Italian military-humanitarian mission Mare Nostrum, that started for rescuing migrants at sea after the deaths of hundreds of migrants in October 2013 near the coasts of the island of Lampedusa. The main argument is that in order to understand the working of the military-humanitarian border at sea and its impacts, we must go beyond the space of the sea, and analysing it in the light of the broader functioning of migration governmentality. The notion of desultory politics of mobility is deployed here for describing the specific temporality of the humanitarian border working and its politics of visibility. In particular, an analytical gaze on the military-humanitarian operations at sea to rescue-and-control of migrants’ movements shows that what is at stake is the production of some practices of mobility as exceptional. Then, this article takes on Mare Nostrum operation for exploring the ways in which the military and the humanitarian are rearticulated and how they currently work together.

  18. Injuries and their probable causes in undergraduates of the Physical Education course at the State University of Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Saturno Madureira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to analyse the occurrence of injuries in undergraduates of the Physical Education Course at the State University of Maringá. Types of injuries were diagnosed, the opinion of students and professors with regard to their probable causes was taken and the factors that could render injuries less damaging were identified. Research was carried out in the second semester of 1991 when 231 students were regularly enlisted. Data were collected by means of questionnaires for professors and for students. Forty injury cases were verified, 13 with males and 27 with females. The most common type of injury was bruises (55% followed by strain (18%. The inferior members were the most affected region. Judo was the subject in which the greatest number of injuries occurred. Students stated that salient probable causes were: agressivity of colleages in practical exercises (33% and defective sports facilities (25%. In the professors opinion, however, the two chief causes were: students’ distraction (20% and physical inability (20%. The establishment of an Internal Commission for the Prevention of Accidents has been suggested made up of professors, under graduate students and personnel of the Physical Education Department at the State University of Maringá. Its aims are to carry out a following up of this situation, to promote the prevention of injuries and to suggest possible improvements in the premises.

  19. Heavy metals in soils from Baia Mare mining impacted area (Romania) and their bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Carmen; Baciu, Calin; Rosu, Cristina; Pistea, Ioana; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: heavy metals, soil contamination, bioavailability, Romania The fate of various metals, including chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, mercury, cadmium, and lead, and metalloids, like arsenic, antimony, and selenium, in the natural environment is of great concern, particularly in the vicinity of former mining sites, dumps, tailings piles, and impoundments, but also in urban areas and industrial centres. Most of the studies focused on the heavy metal pollution in mining areas present only the total amounts of metals in soils. The bioavailable concentration of metals in soil may be a better predictor for environmental impact of historical and current dispersion of metals. Assessment of the metal bioavailability and bioaccessibility is critical in understanding the possible effects on soil biota. The bioavailability of metals in soil and their retention in the solid phase of soil is affected by different parameters like pH, metal amount, cation-exchange capacity, content of organic matter, or soil mineralogy. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the total fraction and the bioavailable fraction of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn from soil in a well-known mining region in Romania, and to evaluate the influence of soil pH on the metal bioavailability in soil. The heavy metal contents and their bioavailability were monitored in a total of 50 soil samples, collected during June and July 2014 from private gardens of the inhabitants from Baia-Mare area. The main mining activities developed in the area consisted of non-ferrous sulphidic ores extraction and processing, aiming to obtain concentrates of lead, copper, zinc and precious metals. After 2006, the metallurgical industry has considerably reduced its activity by closing or diminishing its production capacity. The analysed soil samples proved to have high levels of Pb (50 - 830 mg/kg), Cu (40 - 600 mg/kg), Zn (100 - 700 mg/kg) and Cd (up to 10 mg/kg). The metal abundance in the total fraction is

  20. Los Mares Interiores. (Libro de Poemas del Académico Juan Mendoza Vega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Otero Ruiz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available

    (Presentación del libro en la Fundación Santillana para Iberoamérica, Bogotá, Noviembre 23, 2001.

    Ha querido la deferencia del señor  exPresidente Belisario Betancur, Presidente de la Fundación Santillana para lberoamérica, que sea yo quien les presente el libro "Los mares interiores" del médico, periodista y poeta Juan Mendoza Vega. Tarea que acometo con singular afecto, nacido de una amistad que supera ya los 40 años y de una admiración continua por las dotes intelectuales y artísticas que lo colocan en un sitial especial entre los médicos de Colombia.

    Nacido en Chinácota y bachiller en Pamplona, su infancia y adolescencia transcurrieron en esos paisajes idílicos que se extienden entre el río Pamplonita y las colinas de Iscalá, donde ha trasegado la vida de muchos hijos ilustres del Norte de Santander. Después cursó sus estudios de Medicina en la Universidad
    Nacional, en Bogotá, entre 1952 y 1957, habiéndose graduado de médico en 1960 a los dos años de haber iniciado su especialización en neurología y neurocirugía, temas que constituirían la mayor dedicación de su vida. Pues de ahí saltó a la cátedra de la especialidad en la Facultad de Medicina del Rosario entre 1969 y 1985, siendo además iniciador de la cátedra y profesor de Historia de la Medicina en la misma Universidad desde 1980 hasta el presente; al tiempo, ha sido profesor de Etica Médica allí mismo desde 1983. A estas actividades de planta ha unido su participación como catedrático invitado en numerosas instituciones y universidades de dentro y fuera del país. Y la autoría de 55 publicaciones científicas en revistas nacionales e internacionales sobre temas de neurología y neurocirugía, ética médica e historia de la medicina...


  1. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below these mo...

  2. Forest industries of eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall; Donald R. Gedney; Robert B. Forster

    1966-01-01

    A sawmill, built in 1872, marked the beginning of the forest industry in eastern Washington -- almost half a century after the emergence of the lumber industry in western Washington. Since then, this industry has increased in importance to eastern Washington's economy, now furnishing about one-fifth of the total manufacturing employment and wages paid—in...

  3. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  4. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF FORESTS VEGETATION FROM THE SUPERIOR MOUNTAIN LEVEL OF HĂŞMAŞUL MARE MASSIF (EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARDARI CONSTANTIN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological conditions specific to the researched territory have favoured installation of a wooden vegetation represented by mountain beech forests, beech and resinous mixed forests and pure spruce-fir forests. Locally, on limited areas and superficial soils, relict pine phytocoenosis have been identified. Two plant communities from Vaccinio – Piceetea Br.-Bl. 1939 and Erico – Pinetea Horv. 1959 classes are presented and analysed in this paper from the bioforms, floristic elements and ecological requests perspectives.

  5. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from genital tract of the Arabian mares affected with genital tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. AL-Abidy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infectionof the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected maressuffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulentdischarge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortioncases, and from mares suffered from tetanus disease symptoms during the period between October 2007 to April 2008 in studfarms breeding mares in Mosul. The samples were collected by swabs from the clitoris, clitorial fossa and the vagina. Isolationof bacteria was performed using aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques. Results of the present study showed a total ofisolation 75% from all samples taken with a high percentage isolation of Clostridium tetani (16.6%, followed by Archanobacterium pyogenes (10.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, (6.7% for each Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiellapneumonia, Streptococcus dysagalactiae subsp equisimilis, and (5.3% for each bacteria Actinobacillus equilli, Streptococcuszooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, then Proteus vulgaris (2.6%, and Escherichia coli (1.3%. The most bacterial isolateswere resistant to amoxicillin (100%, ampicillin (90.9 %, and erythromycin (65.9%, while the most isolates were sensitive tokanamycin (70.4%. It could be concluted that the most important bacteria causing genital tract infection of mares could beClostridium tetani and Archanobacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most bacterial isolates were resistant toamoxicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

  6. The Effectiveness of Anti-R. equi Hyperimmune Plasma against R. equi Challenge in Thoroughbred Arabian Foals of Mares Vaccinated with R. equi Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Erganis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012 inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA, as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares’ foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA, interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ, total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL, lung samples (CFU/gr, and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares’ foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge.

  7. The period of the follicular phase during which the uterus of mares shows estrus-like echotexture influences the subsequent pregnancy rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateu-Sánchez, S; Newcombe, J R; Garcés-Narro, C; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-01-01

    The interval from both spontaneous and prostaglandin (PGF)-induced luteolysis to ovulation is greatly variable in mares. Several reports have shown a positive association between the length of the interval from PGF treatment to ovulation (ITO) and the subsequent pregnancy rate (PR). However, it is

  8. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. V. Endocrine changes and conception during the early post partum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant Anglo-Arab and Thoroughbred mares (n = 24 were divided randomly according to age and breed into 4 groups of 6 mares each from approximately 6 weeks before their expected foaling date. Diets received by the 4 groups varied in essential amino-acid and total protein contents. Serum progestagen, FSH and LH concentrations were determined from the day of parturition until foal heat and during the 1st oestrous cycle following foal heat. Serum progestagen, FSH and LH concentrations did not differ between the treatment groups. Progestagen concentrations were high (c = 7.0: 5.2-16.4 ng/mℓ at parturition but decreased rapidly within 48 h. As progestagen concentrations decreased LH concentrations increased from Days 3-6 post partum to reach maximum values at, or the day after ovulation. FSH concentrations declined 3-4 d after parturition and increased 2-3 d before ovulation at foal heat. The duration of elevated progestagen concentrations during the luteal phase of the subsequent oestrous cycle affected the interovulatory period. A 12-14 d FSH cyclical releasing pattern occurred. Season/photoperiod affected the resumption of normal oestrous cyclicity during the post partum period. The duration of the 1st oestrous cycle after foal heat in mares fed a low-quality protein diet showed a greater range (13-30 d compared to mares fed a high-quality protein diet (18-26 d.

  9. Successful induction of lactation in a barren Thoroughbred mare: growth of a foal raised on induced lactation and the corresponding maternal hormone profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Harada, Takehiro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Nambo, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that a barren parous Thoroughbred mare with lactation induced by hormonal treatment can be introduced to an orphan foal at the same farm and that the mare can become pregnant after the end of the hormonal treatment. An additional purpose was to investigate the changes in the plasma concentrations of prolactin, estradiol-17β, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone before, during, and after hormonal treatment. The difference in body weight between the adopted foal and the control foals, which were at the same farm and raised by their natural mothers, was 17 kg at 24 weeks old, when the foals were weaned. However, the adopted foal and the control foals had almost the same weight at 35 weeks old and later. The first ovulation after hormonal treatment was confirmed 10 days after the end of hormonal treatment and then the normal estrous cycle resumed. Furthermore, the changes in plasma progesterone, estradiol-17β, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone showed regular patterns after the first ovulation. Conception was confirmed in the fifth ovulation. Meanwhile, another study demonstrated that conception was confirmed in the first ovulation after hormonal treatment. The present study is the first to demonstrate the hormonal profiles during and after induction of lactation in a Thoroughbred mare. This approach is useful for solving the economic and epidemic problems of introducing a nurse mare to an orphan foal.

  10. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  11. Effect of insemination volume on uterine contractions and inflammatory response and on elimination of semen in the mare uterus-scintigraphic and ultrasonographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnemaa, L; Järvimaa, T; Lehmonen, N; Mäkelä, O; Reilas, T; Sankari, S; Katila, T

    2005-11-01

    The effect of artificial insemination (AI) volume on uterine contractility and inflammation and on elimination of semen in the reproductive tract of mares was examined for 4 h after AI using two methods, scintigraphy and ultrasonography. The same doses were used in both methods: 2 and 100 ml of skim milk-extended frozen semen. In the scintigraphic study, the number of reproductively normal mares was four per group and in the ultrasonographic study five per group. For scintigraphy, the semen was radiolabelled with technetium-99m. The static scintigrams were acquired immediately before and 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after AI. The activities in the vagina and uterus were calculated and the values for sperm that had been discharged from the mare were obtained by subtracting the counts for the uterus and vagina from the total radioactivity. The dynamic scintigrams were taken continuously for the first 30 min after AI and in 5-min periods immediately after having acquired the static scintigrams. The uterine contractions were counted. In the ultrasonographic study, the mares were scanned before AI and at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min after AI, for at least 1 min each time. The examinations were videotaped and contractions counted per minute. More contractions were observed with the ultrasonographic method than with the scintigraphic method. No difference was present in the number of contractions between the groups, except in the ultrasonographic study at 4 h, when the mares inseminated with 100 ml showed more contractions than did the mares inseminated with 2 ml. The intraluminal fluid was sampled with a tampon and by uterine lavage 4 h after AI in the ultrasonographic study. The numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and spermatozoa were counted, but the differences between the groups were not significant. Under our experimental conditions and with the number of mares examined, the volume of the AI dose had an insignificant effect on

  12. Administration of RRR-α-tocopherol to pregnant mares stimulates maternal IgG and IgM production in colostrum and enhances vitamin E and IgM status in foals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondo, Tine; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of a vitamin E supplement given to pregnant mares on immunoglobulins (Ig) levels in foals. In addition, the fatty acid (FA) content and composition of the mares’ milk was assessed. Milk α-tocopherol concentrations were compared between pregnant Danish Warmblood mares...... (n = 17) given a daily oral supplement of 2500 international units (IU) RRR-α-tocopherol in the last 4 weeks of pregnancy and a group of unsupplemented mares (n = 17) receiving 170–320 IU vitamin E daily originating from the feed. Milk α-tocopherol was higher in supplemented mares (36.7, 12.4 and 9.......8 μmol/l respectively) in relation to control mares (13.1, 6.4 and 5.8 μmol/l on days 1, 2 and 3 respectively; p Milk IgG was higher on days 2 and 3 post-partum (PP) in supplemented mares (1.03 and 0.73 mg/ml respectively) in relation to control mares (0.79 and 0.56 mg/ml respectively; p

  13. Inferno Chasm Rift Zone, Idaho: A Terrestrial Analog for Plains-style Volcanism in Southeastern Mare Serenitatis on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, W. B.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic features aligned along a linear graben in southeastern Mare Serenitatis (19°N, 27.5°E) on the Moon resemble a series of effusive basaltic landforms erupted along the Inferno Chasm rift zone within Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve (COTM), Idaho (42°58'00"N, 113°11'25"W). This region in Idaho is the type-locale for terrestrial plains-style volcanism. Examples of lunar plains-style volcanism have previously been described within Orientale Basin at Lacus Veris and Lacus Autumni, but this eruption style has not been used to describe the site in Mare Serenitatis. The SSERVI FINESSE team (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) has documented the features along Inferno Chasm rift using a LiDAR, Differential Global Positioning Systems, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to compare with Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Narrow-Angle Camera images and digital terrain models. The region in southeastern Mare Serenitatis provides one of the best concentrations of features representative of lunar plains-style volcanism. On the Moon, these features include a cone (Osiris), a flat-topped dome, a rille-like channel (Isis), a vent, and a possible perched lava pond. In Idaho, the analog features include a dome (Grand View Crater), a rille-like channel (Inferno Chasm), vents (Cottrells Blowout, Horse Butte), and a perched lava pond (Papadakis). Both the scale and morphology of the features on the Moon are similar to the features in Idaho. For example, the channel in Isis is ~3 km long, 283 m-wide, and 25 m deep compared to Inferno Chasm which is ~1.7 km long, 100 m wide, and 20 m deep. The slope of the channel in Isis is -1.2°, while the channel in Inferno Chasm has a slope of -0.33°. The alignment of landforms on the Moon and Idaho are both consistent with dike emplacement. Observations of the flow stratigraphy for features in Idaho will inform the potential eruption conditions of the individual features on the Moon.

  14. Os sistemas atmosféricos e a variação do tempo em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Atmosphere systems and weather variations in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Marcon da Silveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O município de Maringá, atravessado pelas coordenadas de 23º27´S e51º57´W, situa-se no Norte do Estado do Paraná - Brasil. Verifica-se aí acentuada variação do tempo atmosférico, decorrente da alternância de sistemas atmosféricos tropicais e extratropicais. O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar as variações diárias doselementos climáticos à superfície em Maringá e suas relações com os sistemas atmosféricos geradores dos diferentes tipos de tempo que atuaram durante o outono e o inverno de 1996. Objetivou também averiguar as relações entre a atuação da Frente Polar Atlântica (FPA e a pluviosidade local. Elegeu-se o ano de 1996 por apresentar neutralidade em relação aos fenômenos El Niño e La Niña. Esse estudo apoiou-se na concepção dinâmica de clima e na metodologia da análise rítmica. Constatou-se que, durante o período em estudo, todas aschuvas decorreram, direta ou indiretamente, da Frente Polar Atlântica (FPA. Constatou-se também que a pluviosidade esteve mais relacionada com a duração dos sistemas frontais do que com o número de passagens desses sistemas pela região. As temperaturas muito baixas decorreram principalmente das incursões de sistemas polares interiorizados e geralmente ocorreram quando as frentes não promoveram chuva.The municipality of Maringá, 23°27' S and 51°57' W, lies in the north State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Pronounced atmosphere variations are due to alternations in tropical and extra-tropical atmosphere systems. Daily variations of surface climate factors in Maringá and their relationships with atmospheric systems which cause different types of weather during autumn and winter of 1996 have been investigated. The relationship between the activities of the Atlantic Polar Front (APF and local rainfall has also been analyzed. The year 1996 has been chosen because of the absence of the El Niño and LaNiña phenomena. The analysis was based on the dynamic

  15. Photoadvisory: the photography in the press advisory body in the Maringá City Hall Administration Fotoassessorismo: a imagem fotográfica na assessoria de imprensa da Prefeitura Municipal de Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Abdo Rodella

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the methodological perspective of analytical deconstruction, this work analyses photographic images from Maringa´s Prefecture press advisory. It seeks to answer to the following question: What strategies of senses do the photographic images build in the press advisement? In this attempt, it aims to: 1 To conceptualize the aspect of communicational intentionality; 2 To infer about its use on press advisory services; 3 To analyze if formats and genres of photographic image in journalism remain in the press advisory body. As a discourse, the photographic image in the press advisory body aims to build positive senses for the advised. In this case, with technical and photographic language domain, photojournalists intent to build elements, objects and characters to build up concepts, values and positive representation of the advised. For analysis of the photojournalists’ intentionality, they were used photographs taken from the site of the press advisory body of Maringá (PR Prefecture, referring to several articles.

  16. Monitoring of toxic chemical in the basin of Maringá stream=Monitoramento de compostos químicos tóxicos na bacia do ribeirão Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Granhen Tavares

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to track the spatial and temporal variations of toxic chemical compounds, such as the metals Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn and the pesticide glyphosate, in Maringá stream and in a stretch of Pirapó river. The results pointed out that, in the case of metals, one of the possible sources of these elements is associated to agricultural activities. For glyphosate, were not found concentrations above those established by the Brazilian Water Quality Legislation (CONAMA 357/2005. Concerning this, we emphasized that the impact caused by the agrochemical on water quality should be evaluated considering the adverse effects to the environment caused by its degradation, that produces recalcitrant and surfactant compounds that may be even more toxic for humans and aquatic environment. Esse estudo teve por objetivo monitorar a variação espaço-temporal de compostos químicos tóxicos, como os metais Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn e o defensivo agrícola glifosato, nas águas do ribeirão Maringá e de um trecho do rio Pirapó. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que no caso dos metais uma das possíveis fontes destes elementos na bacia está vinculada às atividades agrícolas. Para o defensivo glifosato, neste trabalho não foram encontradas concentrações acima do permitido pela legislação (CONAMA 357/2005. Sobre esse aspecto, ressalta-se que o impacto dos produtos agrícolas sobre a qualidade da água deve ser avaliado do ponto de vista dos efeitos adversos ao ambiente causados por sua degradação, gerando, por sua vez, compostos recalcitrantes e surfactantes e que podem ser muito mais tóxicos à vida aquática e ao homem.

  17. A Dedicated dual energy X-ray tomography/radiography equipment on-board of R/V Mare Nigrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovea, M.; Neagu, M. [Accent Pro 2000, Ltd, Bucharest (Romania); Duliu, O.G. [Bucharest Univ., Dept. of Atomic and Nuclear Physics (Romania); Oaie, G. [National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology, Bucharet (Romania); Mateiasi, G. [Bucharest Politehnica Univ. (Romania)

    2007-07-01

    An X-ray dual-energy computer tomograph provided with a double set of X-ray detectors arrays separated by a copper foil was projected, assembled and commissioned to be used on-board of the R/V Mare Nigrum. By using a variant of filtered back projections reconstruction algorithm together with a set of calibrated standard samples, it was possible do determine on-board and with a precision of 3.5 % the density and 2.5 % the effective atomic number distribution of various unconsolidated sediments core. The same computer tomograph was used to obtain free of parallax dual energy digital radiography, allowing a spatial resolution of about 0.5 mm. (authors)

  18. Studies on the dynamics of the macrozoobenthic invertebrate groups in the thermal lake Ochiul Mare natural reserve (Bihor county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana CUPSA

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In the thermal lake from Ochiul Mare the environmental conditions and especially the temperature of the water which do not drop under 200C in the substrate even in winter period determine a different dynamics of the macrozoobenthic populations than in other natural waters. Also the major groups in the communities differ from those of the non thermal waters. For these reasons we have studied the dynamics of the macroinvertebrate groups from the benthos to find out if they adapted their life cycles to the thermal environment. Also we wanted to find out which are the groups which have the greatest densities in the thermal environment and for which this environment is a limitating factor of the development.

  19. Empreendedorismo Digital. Estudo do Projeto Negócios Digitais Realizado pelo Sebrae-PR em Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiane Aparecida Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Doing business in digital form has become popular across the telecommunications infrastructurecheapening and this competitiveness environment becomes increasingly difficult. In order to supportthe micro and small entrepreneurs in the process, Sebrae Paraná conceived the Digital Business Project, which was operated later by municipal units, as Sebrae Maringá. Thus, the aim of thisstudy is to understand how the Digital Business Project developed by Sebrae Maringa support inthe development of digital entrepreneurship in micro and small enterprises. For this, we made aqualitative research through semi-structured interviews with project managers and monitoring ofthree companies that participated. We also made a quantitative descriptive research to characterizethe participating profile. Therefore, the results show that the participant’s motivations was related toseeking knowledge about tools and strategies used in the digital environment, but lack of time andfinancial resources hinder this process. In addition, we indicate the importance of initiatives such asProject and suggestions for improve it.

  20. FROM BROWNFIELD TO GREENFIELD. MAJOR ECOLOGICAL IMBALANCES IN BAIA MARE. SĂSAR MINE RECLAMATION AND RECONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA CONDOR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From Brownfield to Greenfield. Major Ecological Imbalances in Baia Mare. Săsar Mine Reclamation and Reconversion. This article is an extract of a more exhaustive study of the Săsar mine based on a multi-level approach of the environmental degradation caused by the long-lasting activities of the mining industry in the city of Baia Mare and the reconversion methods of the underutilized and contaminated properties into green spaces. The presence of brownfields in this city is a matter of great concern to the administrative bodies due to insufficient and ineffective measures for environmental protection, precarious expertise and lack of initiative to regenerate former mining sites. Furthermore, the industrial pillars refuse to get involved and take responsibility for the problems many of them have caused despite state efforts to ease liability fears. But viable projects and solid action are indispensable for overcoming this hurdle. As such, this work is an attempt to cover these exact issues as follows: after setting on the legal framework and the fundamental regulatory considerations, the vulnerability of the enviroment will be assesed in order to determine the level of pollution in the area surrounding the Săsar mine. Then the premises for a cultural landscape reconversion will be established through direct field observations and interpretations, the examination of scholarly studies and the use of GIS tools and social data. This project will try to offer a coherent transformational model of a brownfield area into a useful space for the community and the environment in compliance with the economic purposes.

  1. La concezione di "mare" presso gli Ittiti tra simbolo e realtà

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    of water space was for the Hittites, as well as for other ancient Near Eastern civilizations, an indispensable element in the definition of the geographical areas in which they exercised their jurisdiction and power. The reaching of land borders, “crossing mountains and waters”, is the expression...... of the ability to spread the beneficial effects of the established order over the world limits. These boundaries are shifted and extended as they are reached. Although the Hittites are rightly called “the civilization of the rocks”, the concept of sea and the knowledge of water space are not entirely alien...... to these people. The Hittite word for sea is well attested in various religious, mythological, historical and political texts. Research to date suggests, however, that the Hittites did not have a word for “island”. This paper will briefly review the perception of water space (symbolic or not) in the Hittite world...

  2. Eastern and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdler-brown, B

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa. It includes Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The literature focuses separately on AIDS or migration. HIV/AIDS is widespread and prevalent in these regions. The major concern is that migrants are at risk due to their migration and HIV infection is spread after a return to their home countries. Populations at risk include rural-to-urban migrants, displaced persons in the Sudan and in the Horn of Africa, refugees crossing borders, and pastoralists moving within rural areas. In 1997, there were an estimated 1.3 million refugees in east African countries and 5 million internally displaced due to conflicts in Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa. Risk factors among migrant groups include high rates of partner change, unprotected sexual intercourse, nonuse of condoms, prior sexually transmitted diseases, IV drug use, and residence in a high HIV-prevalence community. Confounding factors may be age, gender, occupation, and mobility. Health services for migrants vary between countries. There are successful models for prevention of HIV. 13 targeted interventions are identified.

  3. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  4. Occurrence of bacteria and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in fetal compartments at parturition; relationships with foal and mare health in the peripartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberg, E; Einarsson, S; Kútvölgyi, G; Lundeheim, N; Bagge, E; Båverud, V; Jones, B; Morrell, J M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship of the health of the newborn foal and (1) number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) in the amniotic fluid, (2) bacteria present in the amniotic fluid and the venous umbilical blood, and (3) bacteria present in the uterus of the newly foaled mare. A further aim was to investigate relationships between the bacteriologic findings in the amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, and uterus postpartum. Samples were taken from 50 Standardbred trotter foaling mares from a well-managed stud in Sweden. Parturition was spontaneous in all cases. Length of pregnancy, parturition and postpartum complications, health status of the foal, the time between foaling and the expulsion of the placenta, and the number of postfoaling mares becoming pregnant after insemination were recorded. Amniotic fluid was collected when the amniotic vesicle was clearly visible; it was analyzed for bacteriology and occurrence of PMNLs. Umbilical blood was analyzed for the presence of bacteria and the concentration of serum amyloid A. The uterus of the mare was swabbed for bacteriology 6 to 17 hours postpartum. A blood sample was taken from the foal before administering plasma. The foals were divided into two groups: group 1 required up to 2 hours to rise after birth (≤2 hours; 31 foals) and group 2 required more than two hours (>2 hours; 19 foals). The length of gestation varied between 332 and 356 days; there was no significant difference in gestation length between the two foal groups. Partus and postpartum complications occurred in a significantly higher proportion of mares giving birth to group 2 foals than group 1 foals (P = 0.02), although uterine culture postpartum and the subsequent pregnancy rate per season were not different between the groups. Compromised health status was significantly higher among foals belonging to group 2 than group 1 (P = 0.001). Most of the amniotic samples contained 5% or less PMNLs. Only three samples contained more than 30

  5. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  6. Experiência de farmacovigilância no Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá, Estado do Paraná Pharmacovigilance at Regional University Hospital in Maringá, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Feitoza Bohm

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a experiência da investigação dos casos suspeitos de reações adversas registrados no Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Descreve-se o procedimento para a coleta dos dados e a estratégia das visitas domiciliares utilizadas tanto para o esclarecimento do diagnóstico, como para que as medidas de orientação do uso e armazenamento correto de medicamentos sejam fornecidas a estas pessoas e aos seus familiares. No período de 1996 a 2000, foram registrados 316 casos suspeitos de reações adversas, dos quais foi possível realizar visita domiciliar em 105. A aplicação do algoritmo de Naranjo permitiu classificar os casos suspeitos em casos provados (4,8%, prováveis (56,7%, possíveis (34,6% e duvidosos (3,9%. Verificou-se também que a maioria das notificações são provenientes de busca ativa nos prontuários e que as notificações voluntárias ainda são mínimas. Portanto, estratégias visando ao aumento das notificações voluntárias por parte dos profissionais de saúde, independentemente da gravidade dos casos suspeitos ou das reações serem conhecidas ou não, deverão ser elaboradasThis work describes the investigative experience of suspected cases of adverse drug reactions reported at Regional University Hospital of Maringá. Data collection and home visit procedures are described as both - a way to clarify the diagnosis; a way to provide these people and their family information about using and storage of medication. From 1996 to 2000, 316 cases of suspicious adverse drug reactions were registered. From the total, in only 105 cases the home visit was carried out. The application of the Algorithm of Naranjo allowed classifying the suspicious cases in evident cases (4,8%, probable (56,7%, possible (34,6% and doubtful (3,9%. It was also verified that most of the notifications originate from active search in medical files and that the spontaneous reporting are still few. Therefore

  7. Perfil do consumo de leite e produtos derivados na cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná = Profile of milk and its products consumption in Maringá, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Molina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os dados coletados na cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, referentes ao consumo e à aceitação do leite e seus derivados foram utilizados para se traçar o perfil do consumo desses produtos, gerando subsídios para entendimento mais amplo sobre o mercado consumidor de leite. Trezentos indivíduos responderam à pesquisa que avaliou o grau de aceitação e frequência de consumo do leite e produtos derivados. Observou-se que o mais importante para o consumidor, no momento da compra, encontra-se na relação entre preço e qualidade do produto, e aproximadamente metade dos entrevistados (48,17% tem preferência pelo leite integral, seguido pelo desnatado com 26,20%. Entretanto,constatou-se que 8,73% dos entrevistados declararam não consumir leite, e a maior parte dos casos justifica-se por possuírem algum nível de intolerância à lactose. Enquanto isso, o iogurte e os queijos foram apontados como os derivados com maior percentual defrequência de consumo e aceitação. De forma geral, os dados coletados permitem concluir que o leite e seus derivados são produtos consumidos com regularidade e seus derivados foram apontados com alto percentual de frequência de consumo e aceitação.Data collected in Maringá, Paraná State, on the acceptance and consumption of milk and its products were used to delineate the profile of consumption of these products, generating benefits for a better understanding of the consumer market for milk. A total of 300 people answered the survey that assessed the degree of acceptance and frequency of consumption of milk and its products. It was observed that the most important to the consumer at the time of purchase, is the relationship between price and quality of product, and approximately half of respondents (48.17% prefer whole milk, followed by skimmed milk with 26.20%. However, it was found that 8.73% of respondents reported that do not consume milk, with the majority of cases justified by some level of

  8. Caracterização dos traumas abdominais em pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá, 2006 = Abdominal trauma at the University Hospital of Maringá, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Ribeiro Prado Filho

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available De todas as mortes por causas externas por trauma, metade poderia ser evitada, e um terço delas é dito potencialmente evitável. Objetiva-se determinar as características comuns referentes ao paciente com traumatismo abdominal. Realizou-se um estudo de 57 casos de pacientes com traumatismo abdominal atendidos no Hospital UniversitárioRegional de Maringá, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2006. Constatou-se que a maioria das vítimas é do sexo masculino; a faixa etária mais acometida é a terceira década de vida; o trauma abdominal aberto mostrou-se discretamente mais frequente, sendo o ferimento por arma branca mais comum; a maioria das contusões abdominais se deveu aacidentes de trânsito; a realização de intervenção cirúrgica supera o tratamento conservador nos traumas abdominais abertos; nos traumas contusos, o baço e os rins foram os órgãos mais acometidos, enquanto nos ferimentos abertos a víscera mais acometida foi o intestinodelgado; a evolução para óbito predominou nos traumas abdominais abertos. Em virtude da prevalência, gravidade e importância do tema, sugere-se que mais estudos sejam realizados para que, assim, seja possível estabelecer condutas cada vez mais apropriadas à realidade doSistema Único de Saúde.Of all the deaths due to external cause trauma, half could be avoided, and a third are potentially preventable. The objective of this study was to determine the common characteristics related to patients with abdominal trauma. A study was conducted of 57 cases of abdominal trauma at the University Hospital of Maringá, during the period from January to December 2006. The majority of victims are male; the most affected age group is in its third decade oflife; open abdominal trauma proved to be slightly more prevalent, and wounds from cold steel weapons were the most common; most abdominal injuries were due to traffic accidents; the conduct of surgical intervention overcomes conservative treatment in

  9. Biodiversité des mares et étangs: impact du réchauffement climatique et de l'eutrophisation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosset, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Les mares et étangs et les réseaux qu’ils constituent collectivement, sont des milieux remarquables ayant une forte valeur écologique, sociale et économique. Ils abritent une biodiversité unique qui est souvent plus riche que celle présente dans les eaux courantes ou les lacs. Malgré cette biodiversité exceptionnelle, les mares et étangs ont été et sont encore fortement altérés par les activités humaines. Les objectifs du présent travail sont (1) de déterminer l’impact du réchauffement climat...

  10. Comparison of palmar digital neurectomy by the guillotine technique and palmar digital neurotomy associated with end-to-side neurorrhaphy in mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Brito Santana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Five mares were submitted to palmar digital neurectomy by the guillotine technique and palmar digital neurotomy followed by end-to-side neurorrhaphy (right and left thoracic limbs, respectively. Mares were checked for local pain sensation using hoof tester and submitted to lameness workup at 15-day intervals. No evidence of painful neuroma formation was detected. Palmar digital nerve (PDN stump segments were collected within 60 days of surgery. Mean left and right limb PDN stump thickness corresponded to 5.96 mm and 7.16 mm, respectively. Schwann cells prevailed over connective healing tissue in all PDN stumps studied. Well-formed nerve-like structures with better organized nervous tissue and predominance of parallel nerve fiber orientation were documented in left limb PDN stumps. End-to-side neurorrhaphy tended to promote tissue organization, potentially reducing the chances of neuroma formation.

  11. La verticalización como resultado material de la incorporación inmobiliaria en Maringá-Paraná.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo presentar el proceso de urbanización de la ciudad de Maringá, en el contexto de la verticalización, en su principal eje económico, el centro de la ciudad, además de aprender y analizar más profundamente el papel desempeñado por las sociedades en la creación de la verticalización, que se constituye en una nueva forma de vivir, en los edificios en la zona 1 (centro en Maringá, así como también conocer el origen de los capitales de tal proceso, y el porqué de la opción por el edificio en la zona 1 (centro, abordando también, algunas cuestiones de orden ambiental y de infraestructura en el transcurso de ese proceso.

  12. GIS UTILITY FOR HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT EVALUATION CAUSED BY DAMAGES OF WATER SUPPLY NETWORK IN RURAL AREAS. APPLICATIONS IN BAIA MARE DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU ALEXANDRU MARIAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available GIS utility for hydrological impact evaluation caused by damages of water supply network in rural areas. Applications in Baia Mare Depression. Occurrence of a failure within the water supply network is an element of risk with important hydrological implications. Although at first glance you might think that a pipe diameter of only 20 cm can generate large effects, however, in case of significant damage or even burst pipe, a good part of high water flow in the pipe (approx. 25 m3/h on average in the Baia Mare associated with a long duration of failure (several hours may be in the drain area, impact on the local community. Regarding rural settlements, surface drainage allow a quantity of water retention tank underground infiltration but in many cases lack of a sewage system effectively contribute to increased negative consequences related to such damage (flooding farms, roads, crops compromise of flooding or drought in the event of damage to the hot water supply pipe and so on. This paper focuses on the role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS to assess the impact of runoff induced by damages in rural areas. The study therefore spatial aspect, through GIS, on the one hand runoff along the flow path with the start point of the network fault location and view previous hydrological conditions of the terrain, and on the other hand the impact of runoff the rural community. Study area Dumbrăviţa settlement located in Baia Mare Depression. This village is part of water supply system to the south and southeast of Baia Mare.

  13. Eruption of magmatic foams on the Moon: Formation in the waning stages of dike emplacement events as an explanation of ;irregular mare patches;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W.

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions on the Moon take place in conditions of low gravity and negligible atmospheric pressure, very different from those on Earth. These differences lead to characteristic lunar versions of hawaiian and strombolian explosive activity, and to the production of unusual eruption products neither predicted nor observed on Earth in the terminal stages of eruptions. These include the unusual mounds and rough (hummocky, blocky) floors of some small-shield summit pit crater floors, elongate depressions and mare flows (similar to those named ;irregular mare patches;, IMPs, by Braden et al., 2014). We examine the ascent and eruption of magma in the waning stages of the eruptive process in small-shield summit pit crater floors and show that many IMP characteristics can be plausibly explained by basaltic magma behavior as the rise rate of the ascending magma slows to zero, volatiles exsolve in the dike and lava lake to form a very vesicular foam, and the dike begins to close. Stresses in the very vesicular and porous lava lake crust produce fractures through which the foam extrudes at a rate determined by its non-Newtonian rheology. Waning-stage extrusion of viscous magmatic foams to the surface produces convex mounds whose physical properties inhibit typical impact crater formation and regolith development, creating an artificially young crater retention age. This mechanism for the production and extrusion of very vesicular magmatic foams is also applicable to waning-stage dike closure associated with pit craters atop dikes, and fissure eruptions in the lunar maria, providing an explanation for many irregular mare patches. This mechanism implies that IMPs and associated mare structures (small shields, pit craters and fissure flows) formed synchronously billions of years ago, in contrast to very young ages (less than 100 million years) proposed for IMPs by some workers.

  14. 2011 ESTCP Live Site Demonstrations, Vallejo CA, ESTCP MR-1165, Demonstration Data Report, Former Mare Island Naval Shipyard, MTADS Discrimination Array, (TEMTADS) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6110--12-9397 2011 ESTCP Live Site Demonstrations Vallejo , CA ESTCP MR-1165 Demonstration...b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 2011 ESTCP Live Site Demonstrations Vallejo , CA ESTCP MR-1165 Demonstration...Hertz IVS Instrument Verification Strip (f)MINSY (former) Mare Island Naval Shipyard, located in Vallejo , CA MR Munitions Response MTADS Multi-sensor

  15. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  16. A non-invasive technique for standing surgical repair of urinary bladder rupture in a post-partum mare: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen JO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An 11-year-old mare presented 36 hours after foaling with a ruptured bladder. Uroperitoneum was diagnosed on ultrasound and from the creatinine concentration of the peritoneal fluid. Bladder endoscopy demonstrated tissue necrosis and a rent in the dorsocranial aspect of the bladder. Following stabilisation, including abdominal drainage and lavage, the mare was taken to standing surgery. Under continuous sedation and epidural anaesthesia, and after surgical preparation, a Balfour retractor was placed in the vagina. Using sterile lubricant and moderate force, it was possible to insert a hand into the bladder. The tear was easily palpable on the dorsal portion of the bladder. Two fingers were inserted through the tear and used to provide traction to evert the bladder completely into the vagina where it could grasped with the surgeons other hand to prevent further trauma. A second surgeon could then visualise the entire tear and repaired this using a single layer of size zero PDS suture in a single continuous pattern. As soon as the bladder was repaired, it was replaced via the urethra. The mare did well after surgery and was discharged after 48 hours, apparently normal. This report is the first describing repair of the bladder without an abdominal incision or incision into the urethral sphincter. This greatly reduces the chance of possible complications such as urine pooling after surgery with the previously described standing technique or bladder trauma due to traction with abdominal surgery.

  17. Chemistry and petrology of Luna 24 lithic fragments and less than 250-micron soils - Constraints on the origin of VLT mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Lange, D. E.; Keil, K.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported on a combined INAA-petrologic study of 17 small (0.2-1.5 mg) Luna 24 lithic and mineral fragments and INAA study of 5 bulk soils and mineral separates from gabbro 24170. Lithic and mineral fragments are classified into VLT mare basalts (ferrobasalt and metabasalts), low-Ti, variolitic mare basalt, gabbros, melt rock and soil breccia. Data indicate 5 possible magma types, represented by: (1) VLT ferrobasalt and gabbro fragments, with low-TiO2 (about 1%), slightly bow-shaped REE pattern, and low REE concentrations (5-10X chondritic); (2) a ferrobasalt (Laul et al., 1978) and metabasalt fragments with major and trace element contents similar to (1), but positive Eu anomalies; (3) one gabbro fragment with distinctive pyroxene compositional trend (increasing Ti with nearly constant Fe/Fe + Mg) and highest REE contents of any Luna 24 mare basaltic sample, (4) a gabbro fragment with considerably less V and Cr2O3 than ferrobasalt and metabasalt fragments; and (5) variolitic basalt fragment with higher Ti2(2.3%) than other Luna 24 basalts and pyroxene that has increasing then decreasing Ti with increasing Fe/Fe + Mg. Trace element data place constraints on the nature of the source region and possible parent magmas for the Luna 24 VLT ferrobasalt.

  18. A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallardo, Karina; Nizza, Sandra; Fiorito, Filomena; Pagnini, Ugo; De Martino, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase-negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95% CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses.

  19. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  20. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 34 of 34 ... Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home > Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramureş county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles

  3. In vivo effect of interleukin-1beta and interleukin-1RA on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation, ovulation, and early embryonic development in the mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Nadine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A growing body of evidence suggests that the interleukin-1 system is involved in periovulatory events. Previous work from our lab demonstrated that in the mare, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta increases the ovulatory rate of metaphase II oocytes. The present study was conducted to analyze in vivo the effect of IL-1 on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation, ovulation and pregnancy rate. In the present work, IL-1beta (experiment 1, n = 13; experiment 2, n = 25 and interleukin-1RA (IL-1RA; experiment 1, n = 25 were injected intrafollicularly by using the transvaginal ultrasound-guided injection method. Injections were performed on cyclic mares when the diameter of the growing dominant follicle reached 30–34 mm. In experiment 1, mares were inseminated the day of the treatment and all the other day until ovulation. The time of ovulation was determined and a pregnancy diagnosis was performed 14 days after ovulation of the injected follicle. In experiment 2, the cumulus-oocyte complex from each injected follicle was collected by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration 38 h after the intrafollicular injection. Oocyte nuclear stage and oocyte cytoplasmic maturation were assessed by analyzing chromatin configuration, cortical granules migration and mitochondria distribution under a confocal microscope. The results from experiment 1 confirm that an intrafollicular injection of 1 microgram IL-1beta induces ovulation in the mare whereas IL-1RA has no effect at the dose used in the present study. Furthemore, we demonstrated, that in our experimental conditions, IL-1beta and IL-1RA induced a decrease in embryo development. Experiment 2 leads us to observe that IL-1beta is unable to induce cortical granules migration and remodelling of mitochondria, that commonly occurs during oocyte maturation, whereas it acts on nuclear maturation. This result may explain the decrease in embryo development we observed after IL-1beta intrafollicular injection. In conclusion

  4. Lunar Smooth Plains Identification and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.; Mahanti, P.; Lawrence, S. J.; Spudis, P.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Smooth plains are widespread on the Moon and have diverse origins. The maria comprise the majority of the smooth plains and are volcanic in origin. Highland smooth plains are patchy, and tend to fill large craters and basins; their origins have eluded unambiguous classification. Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, many workers thought that highland plains were volcanic, possibly more silicic than the maria. However, as the Apollo 16 samples are mostly impact breccias, the highland smooth plains were re-interpreted basin impact ejecta, most likely from the Imbrium and possibly Orientale basins. Conversely, some known non-mare volcanic units, such as the Apennine Bench Formation, contain light plains. These interpretations do not rule out alternate origins for a subset of highland smooth plains, including impact melt or volcanic origins (effusive or pyroclastic). We developed an algorithm to identify smooth plains using topographic parameters from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM) (GLD100), sampled at 333 m/pixel. We classify the smooth plains using the Clementine UVVIS FeO map and photometrically corrected Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images. Terrain with slopes less than 2° (1 km baseline) and standard deviation of slope less than 0.75° (1 km x 1 km box, n=9) are defined as smooth plains. Highland smooth plains are distinguished from basaltic smooth plains using the following criteria: LROC WAC 643 nm normalized reflectance > 0.056, LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio 0.77 is termed blue maria and a ratio ≤ 0.77 is termed red maria. The automatic classification was limited to the 87% of the Moon covered by photometrically normalized WAC data (60°S to 60°N). The differences between the maria and highland smooth plains deposits were more ambiguous in regions where the Clementine data had gores and albedo of the maria was elevated (i.e. Mare Frigoris and eastern Imbrium basin). For example, Schickard crater hosts a

  5. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  6. gion of the Eastern C

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Despite being known as the Wild Coast, owing to its rough seas and treacherous coastline, the Transkei re- gion of the Eastern Cape attracts both recreational and commercial skiboat fishers, who are drawn there by reports of big fish and large catches. However, unlike the adjacent regions of KwaZulu-Natal (Penney et al.

  7. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  8. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  9. Eastern hemlock: a market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Howard; Paul Sendak; Claudia Codrescu

    2000-01-01

    Although it is an important component of the northern forest, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is a secondary species in its regions' markets. In this paper, we examine the markets for hemlock, analyze price trends for stumpage, and suggest implications of market forces for management of forests containing hemlock. The...

  10. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  11. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  12. Molecular detection of toxigenic potential of fungi in peanut samples collected in retail shops in Maringá/PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Valéria de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many foods are susceptible to fungal contamination. Grains, such as peanuts, are commonly affected, with consequences including compromised integrity and infeasibility for human and animal consumption. Furthermore, some fungi may pose a health risk, largely due the production of mycotoxins. Among these, aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus produce various carcinogenic, teratogenic, immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Molecular techniques have been used to identify and distinguish fungal species in foods. The objective of this study was molecular detection of Aspergillus species in peanut samples collected in stores in Maringá-PR, by amplification of fungal genetic material with specific primers for the intergenic spacer aflR-aflJ and later cutting with restriction enzymes. Of the 50 peanut samples analyzed, 27 were positive for the intergenic spacer aflR-aflJ, seven of which were identified as Aspergillus flavus. Our results demonstrate that peanuts sold in retail stores in this region have potential for contamination with toxigenic fungi.

  13. In vitro safety assessments and antimicrobial activities of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from a fermented mare's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Yamasaki, Eiki; Kurazono, Hisao; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Safety and probiotic characteristics such as antimicrobial activities of three Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, FSMM15, FSMM22 and FSMM26, previously isolated as potential probiotics from fermented mare's milk were investigated. The three FSMM strains were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, whereas they were resistant to erythromycin (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 4-8 µg/mL) and clindamycin (MIC = 4 µg/mL); bioconversion of bile salts, hemolytic activity and mucin degradation activity were negative; enzymatic activities of α-chymotrypsin and β-glucosidase were detected, but those of α-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, were undetectable. Among the strains, strain FSMM15 was chosen as a safer probiotic candidate due mainly to the lack of plasminogen binding ability. Despite lower acid production of strain FSMM15 than others, its cell-free culture supernatant inhibited growths of Salmonella Typhimurium LT-2, Shigella sonnei, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157 with comparable levels of ampicillin, suggesting a favorable aspect of strain FSMM15 as a probiotic strain. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE BAIA MARE AREA METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN THE LAST 5 YEARS WITH HELP OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cioruţa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever since “the environment” gained its place in the public international agenda (environmental legislation, sustainable development or disaster and hazard management it has been bundled with data, information, knowledge and information systems. Environmental Monitoring Systems (EMSs, Environmental Monitoring and Analyzing Systems (EMASs and especially Environmental Information Systems (EISs are integrated part of what we call Environmental Informatics (EI platform.In this context, as we speak, the are of EI is becoming more complex due to the current context and trend of making the EISs available to the public and end-users access; this phenomena is based on the assumption that public and environmental information end-users awareness, participation and acting is improved by the rate of access to the environmental information to solve the complex problematic covered by the research, engineering and environmental protection fields. The aim of the present paper is to introduce and describe an innovative possibilities of forecasting and monitoring the environment meteorological specific conditions in Baia Mare urban area using a specialized EISs software.

  15. El Mare Nostrum digital: Mito, ideología y realidad de un imaginario sociotécnico

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    Francisco García García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el imaginario social de la Red ha aparecido con fuerza el dibujo de una nueva generación formada por jóvenes nacidos en un entorno esencialmente digital. Bajo términos contrastantes como el de ""nativos digitales"" se engloba a un vasto grupo poblacional relacionado estrechamente con las TIC y que ha hecho de las redes un espacio social y personal básico de su actividad, de su forma de habitar y relacionase con el mundo. Pero, ¿cuáles son realmente las características que los definen?, ¿son un grupo realmente homogéneo?, ¿disponen de competencias, habilidades y conductas similares?, ¿cuál es la frontera real que separa a los nativos y a los inmigrantes digitales? ¿Son estos términos apropiados para definir esta nueva realidad social? ¿Responde la realidad social de Internet a este concepto bipolar?Tomando como referencia los principales estudios realizados hasta la fecha, el artículo realiza un ejercicio metafórico dirigido a repensar los rasgos de este universo (nuestro Mare Nostrum Digital con la finalidad de acotar, interpretar y arrojar luz sobre este relevante fenómeno de nuestra actualidad.

  16. Epistemologia sobre amputações e desbridamentos de membros inferiores realizados no Hospital Universitário de Maringá Epistemology of lower limb amputations and debridements at Hospital Universitário de Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Cristina Seidel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Não há estatísticas precisas sobre o número de amputações realizadas anualmente, mas é conhecido o comprometimento da qualidade de vida desses indivíduos e a necessidade de uma equipe multiprofissional para sua reabilitação. OBJETIVO: Analisar todas as amputações de membros inferiores realizadas pelo Serviço de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular do Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá entre 2000 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo e retrospectivo a partir dos prontuários de pacientes submetidos a amputação ou desbridamento cirúrgico de membros inferiores por trauma ou doença vascular. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 116 procedimentos, sendo 84,5% amputações e 15% desbridamentos cirúrgicos, em 111 pacientes, sendo 78 homens e 33 mulheres, cuja média das idades foi de 63,4 anos (4 a 100 anos, sendo os principais fatores etiológicos: doenças vasculares (92,8% e trauma (7,2%. As comorbidades e fatores de risco mais prevalentes foram: hipertensão arterial sistêmica (66%, diabetes melito (60%, tabaco (28% e arritmia cardíaca (0,9%. Quanto à escolaridade, se observou que 52,2% dos pacientes cursaram apenas o ensino fundamental, 6,5% fizeram o ensino médio, completo ou incompleto, e 41,3% eram analfabetos. A percentagem de pacientes submetidos à amputação primária foi de 94,9%, e secundárias, 5,1%. No entanto, houve diminuição progressiva do coeficiente desses procedimentos a cada ano. CONCLUSÕES: Este trabalho permite inferir que a incidência de amputação de membros inferiores foi maior no sexo masculino e teve como principal causa a doença aterosclerótica, mas apresentou uma redução progressiva.BACKGROUND: There are no precise data on the number of amputations performed every year. However, the decrease in quality of life of patients submitted to amputation is well-known, as is the need to involve a multidisciplinary team in the rehabilitation of these individuals. OBJECTIVE: To analyze all lower limb

  17. Determination of the antipsychotics prescribed in Maringá Municipal Hospital Determinação dos antipsicóticos prescritos no Hospital Municipal de Maringá

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    Eliane Aparecida Campesatto Mella

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic class of antipsychotic is among the most used medicines for the treatment of schizophrenia and may be divided in typical and atypical. Schizophrenia causes a severe disruption of the brain along with an impairment of the individual’s capacity for work or interpersonal relationships. This present study meant to quantifying the prescription of typical and atypical antipsychotics in Maringá Municipal Hospital Dra. Thelma Villanova Kasprowicz in the year of 2005. The information for theoretical foundation was obtained from databases such as CAPES, Pubmed, Scielo, and from textbooks and articles from the COMUT service. It was verified that the most used class of the antipsychotics was the typical ones. This result was already expected because it refers to a public hospital where economical considerations are a matter of choice. Another important factor about the atypical medicines under this research was the fact that the risperidone drug is the only standardized medication in the institution; the others are only used through free samples that doctors are given by the pharmaceutical laboratories. Most people, predominately female, who suffer from the disruption of psychosis, are between 22 and 50 years old. A classe terapêutica dos antipsicóticos faz parte dos medicamentos mais utilizados para o tratamento da esquizofrenia, e eles são divididos em típicos e atípicos. A esquizofrenia é causadora de um severo transtorno do funcionamento cerebral e leva à incapacitação ou desvio de personalidade do indivíduo, comprometendo seu lado profissional e suas relações interpessoais. O estudo realizado teve como objetivo quantificar a prescrição dos antipsicóticos típicos e atípicos no Hospital Municipal de Maringá “Dra Thelma Villanova Kasprowicz”, no ano de 2005. A busca de informações para embasamento teórico foi realizada por meio do banco de dados CAPES, Pubmed, Scielo e artigos obtidos do serviço COMUT, bem como

  18. A mulher e o acidente de trânsito: caracterização do evento em Maringá, Paraná Women and traffic accidents: characterization of occurrences in Maringá, Paraná

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    Pedro Paulo Davantel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes de trânsito são atualmente a primeira causa de mortalidade no conjunto de causas externas entre as mulheres. A mulher atual, pelas mudanças em seu papel na sociedade, vem se expondo a novos riscos. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a mulher envolvida em acidente de trânsito, assim como os eventos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal, com dados secundários obtidos nos Boletins de Ocorrência de Acidente de Trânsito - BOAT, do 4º Batalhão da Polícia Militar de Maringá, Setor de Trânsito. Os dados foram categorizados e analisados por meio de testes não-paramétricos, de correlações (Spearman e teste de independência entre as variáveis (qui-quadrado. As mulheres envolvidas em acidente de trânsito eram em sua maioria solteiras (34,0%, com idade entre 21 e 30 anos (49,0%, nível de escolaridade acima do ensino médio (58,0% e predominantemente condutoras (65,0%. Os eventos ocorreram principalmente em dias úteis e nos período da tarde e da noite. As lesões foram mais frequentes em mulheres até os 20 anos e acima dos 51. Maior envolvimento em colisões com automóveis (69,%, com grande proporção de atropelamentos (14,2%, envolveram mulheres acima dos 50 anos e com menor nível de escolaridade. Foram mais atentas ao uso de dispositivos de segurança quando casadas e com maior nível de escolaridade. Estes dados sugerem novo perfil da mulher no trânsito, devendo o acompanhamento destas características e das consequências destes acidentes serem mais constantes em pesquisas, direcionando medidas e campanhas preventivas.Today traffic accidents are the first cause of morbidity in the group of external causes among women. Modern women have changed their role, exposing themselves to new risks. So, this study had as its purpose, characterize women involved in traffic accidents and to describe these accidents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with information obtained from the Traffic Accident Report

  19. A description of the tides in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul, Enrique Alvarez; Gómez, Begoña Pérez; Sánchez-Arévalo, Ignacio Rodríguez

    A description of the Eastern North Atlantic tidal dynamics (in a region spanning from 20°N to 48°N in latitude and from 34°W to 0° in longitude) is obtained by means of new in situ measurements and numerical modelling based on TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived data sets. The main source of measurements is the tide gauge network REDMAR (RED de MAReógrafos de Puertos del Estado), operative since July 1992 and managed by Clima Marítimo (Puertos del Estado). Results derived from the harmonic analysis of the first years of measurements are presented and compared with model results. In order to obtain a global picture of the tides in the region, a large compilation of harmonic constants obtained from other institutes is included. The availability of new TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived harmonic constants data sets provides a chance to include the benefits derived from satellite altimetry in high resolution regional applications of numerical models. Richard Ray's tidal model (Ray et al., 1994), based on a response type tidal analysis of TOPEX/POSEIDON data, was employed within a model of the studied area. The numerical model employed is HAMSOM, a 3-D finite difference code developed both by the Institut für Meereskunde (Hamburg University) and Clima Marítimo. Results from simulations of seven major harmonics are presented, providing a comprehensive view of tidal dynamics, including current information. The results of tidal simulations show good agreement between semidiurnal harmonic components and the values measured by both coastal and pelagic tidal gauges and by current meters. The modelled diurnal constituents show larger relative differences with measurements than semidiurnal harmonics, especially concerning the phase lags. The non-linear transfer of energy from semidiurnal to higher order harmonics, such as M 4 and M 6, was mapped. Those transfers were found to be important only in two areas: the French continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay and the widest part of the African

  20. Peningkatan Produktivitas Domba pada Skala Peternakan Rakyat Melalui Pemberian Hormon Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (IMPROVEMENT OF SMALL HOLDER FARMS SHEEP PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPHIN

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    Andriyanto .

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The administration of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG hormone to stimulate superovulation has been proven to improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth anddevelopment, milk production, litter size, as well as pre and post weaning growth. This study was conductedto apply the administration of PMSG hormone technology in small-holder farms. One hundred ewes weredivided into two groups. Group I (control: 50 ewes ewes without administration of PMSG and Group 2(treatment: 50 ewes ewes with administration of PMSG to stimulate super ovulation and improveendogenous secretion of pregnant hormones. The application of PMSG increased the numbers of lamb bornby 26.8% (69 vs. 87 with average litter size of 20.7% (1.38 vs. 1.74. The lamb weight at birth was alsoincreased by 25.7% (2.76 ± 0.33 vs. 3.47 ± 0.35 kg. The milk production of the dam was also increased by29.7% (0.64 ± 0.25 vs. 0.91 ± 0.22 L/ewe/day. Lambs born to ewes administered PMSG had better weaningweight 22.1% (12.32 ± 2.44 vs. 15.04 ± 1.11 kg/ewe. The number of survival lamb to reach weaning age washigher compared to the control group. The weight at weaning age was almost twice (628.4 kg vs. 1202.8 kgcompared to the control group. Using simple economic analysis calculation, the application of this hormonetechnology could increase gross revenue by Rp 294.280- per ewes. It was concluded that the administrationof PMSG is economically feasible to be applied in to the small-holder farms.

  1. Pemberian Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin Sebelum Perkawinan dan Jamu Selama Kebuntingan untuk Memperbaiki Performa Anak Domba (ADMINISTRATION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN AND JAMU DURING GESTATION TO IMPROVE FOR LAMB PERFOMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto .

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Administration of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG hormone prior to mating increasesquality of lamb born on one and two litter sizes, but in three litter size the motality is higher. Administrationof traditional herbal medicine “jamu” consisting of ginger,green chiretta, cinnamon, Zingiberzerumbet, andpepper during gestation increases performance of lambs. This research was conducted to explore theeffectivity of PMSG injection prior to mating and jamu administration during gestation to increase lambsperformance. Eighteen priangan fat-tail ewes with weight around 20-25 kg were injected with PGF2á at adose of 10 mg/ewe twice with 11 days interval to synchronize estrous cycle. Injection of PMSG at a dose of200 IU/ewe was conducted at the second PGF2á injection. The experimental ewes were mated naturally anddivided into a randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement with three replications. The firstfactor was dose of PMSG with two levels i.e., 0 and 200 IU/ewe. The second factor was dose of jamu withthree levels i.e., 0, 15, and 30 mL/ewe. Jamu was administered orally every week during gestation. Injectionof PMSG and administration of jamu decreased prenatal mortality, increased ratio of lamb per ewe, increased total lamb born with average birth weight and total birth weight were higher in jamu at a doseof 15 and 30 mL/ewe by 30.02 and 31.76%, repectively. During the first month postnatal, lambs born toewes injected by PMSG and administered jamu had higher number of lambs survive, average weight, totalweight around 3 times as compared to control. It was concluded that injection of PMSG prior to mating andadministration of jamu during pregnancy increase lamb birth weight and improve the quality of lamb.

  2. Photoadvisory: the photography in the press advisory body in the Maringá City Hall Administration Fotoassessorismo: a imagem fotográfica na assessoria de imprensa da Prefeitura Municipal de Maringá

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    Cibele Abdo Rodella

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims the study of the photographic image in the press advisory body. It puts the press advisory body into the field of organizational communication. It seeks to answer to the following question: What strategies of senses do the photographic images build in the press advisement? In this attempt, it aims to: 1 To conceptualize photojournalism and the aspect of intentionality inherent to the production of this type of image; 2 To infer about the photographer’s intention in the photographic image produced for the purpose of press advisory body, 3 To analyze if the formats and genres of photographic image in journalism remain in the press advisory body. This work is guided by the methodological perspective ofanalytical deconstruction of photographic images in Boni (2000, as it assumes that the photographic image has its own language, with meaning and a written form that can be read, and therefore it appears as discourse. As a discourse, the photographic image in the press advisory body aims to build positive senses for the advised. The photojournalist of the press advisory body in the photographic language intends to have elements, objects and characters in order to build up concepts, values and positive representations of the advised. For analysis of the photojournalists’ intentionality, they were used 24 photographs taken from the site of the press advisory body of the Prefecture2 of Maringá-PR, referring to several articles. The first material is about the deliver of a community vegetable garden to the population of Tuiuti area. The second one refers to the construction of the Northern border route- the road that will divert truck traffic from central area. The last material shows the meeting of the community of Jardim Paraíso area with the mayor during Espaço da Cidadania, a government program created to provide the administration services to the population and also to divulge their actions. It can be affirmed that the press

  3. Rhinoplasty for Middle Eastern noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ghavami, Ashkan

    2009-04-01

    Rhinoplasty remains one of the most challenging operations, as exemplified in the Middle Eastern patient. The ill-defined, droopy tip, wide and high dorsum, and thick skin envelope mandate meticulous attention to preoperative evaluation and efficacious yet safe surgical maneuvers. The authors provide a systematic approach to evaluation and improvement of surgical outcomes in this patient population. A retrospective, 3-year review identified patients of Middle Eastern heritage who underwent primary rhinoplasty and those who did not but had nasal photographs. Photographs and operative records (when applicable) were reviewed. Specific nasal characteristics, component-directed surgical techniques, and aesthetic outcomes were delineated. The Middle Eastern nose has a combination of specific nasal traits, with some variability, including thick/sebaceous skin (excess fibrofatty tissue), high/wide dorsum with cartilaginous and bony humps, ill-defined nasal tip, weak/thin lateral crura relative to the skin envelope, nostril-tip imbalance, acute nasolabial and columellar-labial angles, and a droopy/hyperdynamic nasal tip. An aggressive yet nondestructive surgical approach to address the nasal imbalance often requires soft-tissue debulking, significant cartilaginous framework modification (with augmentation/strengthening), tip refinement/rotation/projection, low osteotomies, and depressor septi nasi muscle treatment. The most common postoperative defects were related to soft-tissue scarring, thickened skin envelope, dorsum irregularities, and prolonged edema in the supratip/tip region. It is critical to improve the strength of the cartilaginous framework with respect to the thick, noncontractile skin/soft-tissue envelope, particularly when moderate to large dorsal reduction is required. A multitude of surgical maneuvers are often necessary to address all the salient characteristics of the Middle Eastern nose and to produce the desired aesthetic result.

  4. Museology History of Eastern Siberia

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    Natalia D. Firer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the aspects of the establishment of the first museums and libraries in Eastern Siberia. The author considers the role of the museum in development of culture and public education in Minusinsk, Yeniseysk, notes the valuable contribution of the activities of merchants and intelligentsia to the museum business, as well as the reflection of the present and past of museums in Siberia.

  5. Tackling pollution in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental conditions in many of the central and eastern European countries have improved since the collapse of communism, with some drastic reductions in pollution being registered. But the most important cause of these improvements has been the drop in output that came after economic restructuring. Western help has been useful in the transition to a market economy - but there are encouraging signs that the countries themselves are taking matters in hand. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. [Ecology of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani in an urban area in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Ueslei; Alberton, Dayane; Kühl, João Balduíno; dos Santos, Elcio Silvestre; dos Santos, Demilson Rodrigues; dos Santos, Ademar Rodrigues; Oliveira, Otílio de; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana

    2003-10-01

    To study the fauna, hours of activity and seasonality of phlebotomines in forest animal habitats in the Ingá Park, on the urban perimeter of the municipality of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Phlebotomines were collected on the urban perimeter using Shannon traps from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. and Falcão traps from 8:00 p.m. to 12:00 midnight, on two nights per month from October 1998 to September 2000. The Shannon traps were installed close to forest animal habitats and on the banks of the Moscados stream; the Falcão traps were placed in shelters for captive birds, forest mammals and reptiles. The Shannon traps yielded 13,656 phlebotomines, with predominance of Lutzomyia whitmani (98.7%). The Falcão traps yielded 4,040 phlebotomines, with L. whitmani again predominating (96.3%). L. whitmani was most frequently found between 12:00 midnight and 2:00 a.m. in the Shannon traps. This species was most frequently collected in the months of August (55.1%) in the Shannon traps, and in March 1999 (19.2%), November 1999 (15.9%) and August 2000 (20.6%) in the Falcão traps. More phlebotomines were collected in Falcão traps installed in shelters for captive mammals (84.0%). There was a clear predominance of L. whitmani in the Ing Park. The greatest frequency of L. whitmani was in August from Shannon traps, and in March and November from Falcão traps. The peak activity of L. whitmani took place between 12:00 midnight and 2:00 a.m.

  7. Ovarian response to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and porcine pituitary extract in gilts actively immunized against gonadotropin releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, K L

    1987-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of exogenous gonadotropins on follicular development in gilts actively immunized against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Four gilts, which had become acyclic after immunization against GnRH, and four control gilts were given 1,000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG), while four additional control gilts were given saline. Control animals were prepuberal crossbred gilts averaging 100 kg body weight. Control gilts given saline had ovaries containing antral follicles (4 to 6 mm in diameter). Control gilts given PMSG exhibited estrus and their ovaries contained corpora hemorrhagica and corpora lutea. PMSG failed to stimulate follicular growth in gilts immunized against GnRH, and ovaries contained regressed corpora albicantia and small antral follicles (less than 1 mm in diameter). Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol-17 beta (E2) were non-detectable in gilts immunized against GnRH and given PMSG. In the second experiment, five gilts actively immunized against GnRH were given increasing doses of PMSG every third day until unilateral ovariectomy on d 50. PMSG failed to stimulate follicular growth, and concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), E2 and LH were not detectable. Six weeks later, gilts were given a booster immunization and then were given 112 micrograms LH and 15 micrograms FSH intravenously every 6 h for 9 d. The remaining ovary was removed on d 10. Although LH and FSH concentrations were elevated, administration of gonadotropins did not stimulate follicular growth or increase E2 concentrations. These results indicate that neither PMSG or exogenous LH and FSH can induce E2 synthesis or sustain follicular development in gilts actively immunized against GnRH.

  8. Corpo, festa e ludicidade: a cultura maringaense retratada em telas Body, party and ludic way: the Maringá culture reported in paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Castilho Teixeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O texto analisa como corpo, festa e ludicidade aparecem na pintura em telas da artista plástica Lilia Lobo e como sua arte traduz a memória cultural da cidade de Maringá-PR. Com base no método iconológico, o intuito do estudo é apresentar obras que retratam a cultura nesta cidade, notadamente, aquelas que tematizam as festas. Os dados atentam para a materialização imagética da cultura maringaense, ressaltada em detalhes que expressam um corpo lúdico num campo festivo singular. As investigações apontam para a necessidade de contribuir para a difusão/valorização de artistas que se tornam esquecidos e que produzem importante documento iconográfico da cultura da cidade.The text analyses how body, party and ludic way appear in the oil painting of the artist Lilia Lobo and how her art translate the Maringá city, Paraná state, cultural memory. Using the iconological method, the purpose of this study is to present a work that reports the culture in this city, mainly the ones that have parties as subject. The data focus the imagnetic materialization of the Maringá culture, remarked in details that express a ludic body in a singular party field. The investigations point to the need to contribute with a diffusion/valorization of artists that become forgotten and that produce important iconographical documents of the city culture.

  9. Determination of the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and evaluation of molecular characterization of Escherichia coli (E-coli separated of them in mares repeat breeder in Yazd province

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    Taktaz Hafshejani Taghi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli are known as the most common cause of reproductive tract infection in mare. Due to the progressive process of antibiotics use and increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, the aim of this study is evaluate the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and antibiotic resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated. In this study, 60 mares were used with infertility background. Diagnosis of endometritis was performed using history and ultrasonography. Cytology, culture, Antibiogram were done of samples and PCR test was used to examine the gene virulence and antibiotic resistance. E-coli bacteria was isolated 48/33 % from sample culture. In PCR test 66/21 % of bacteria had virulence gene. It was determined, the lowest resistance to chloramphenicol about 38/15% and greatest resistance into ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin with 23/69 percent, respectively. 93% samples cytology had neutrophil more than two and the agent of 50% showed E. coli. The cause of half of subclinical endometritis in infertile maresis E-coli bacteriaEscherichia coli are known as the most common cause of reproductive tract infection in mare. Due to the progressive process of antibiotics use and increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, the aim of this study is evaluate the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and antibiotic resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated. In this study, 60 mares were used with infertility background. Diagnosis of endometritis was performed using history and ultrasonography. Cytology, culture, Antibiogram were done of samples and PCR test was used to examine the gene virulence and antibiotic resistance. E-coli bacteria was isolated 48/33 % from sample culture. In PCR test 66/21 % of bacteria had virulence gene. It was determined, the lowest resistance to chloramphenicol about 38/15% and greatest resistance into ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin with 23/69 percent, respectively. 93% samples cytology had

  10. O processo de rotação de pessoal da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM): causas e conseqüências

    OpenAIRE

    Shigunov Neto, Alexandre; Faculdade Central de Cristalina (FACEC); Assumpção, Gislaine P.; UEM

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo primordial tentar elucidar alguns questionamentos acerca do processo de rotatividade de pessoal verificado na Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM). Os dados coletados junto à Pró-Reitoria de Recursos Humanos e Assuntos Comunitários serviram de parâmetro para que pudéssemos analisar as principais causas e conseqüências que induzem, muitas vezes, a uma alta rotatividade de pessoal. Cabe salientar que uma política de recursos humanos adequada caracteriza-se com...

  11. ESTRATEGIAS DE ENSEÑANZA-APRENDIZAJE EN EL ÁMBITO DE EDUCACIÓN SECUNDARIA OBLIGATORIA DEL COLEGIO MARE DE DÉU DE LA SERRA

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Roca, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    La sociedad actual requiere que los estudiantes sean capaces de aplicar los conocimientos adquiridos en distintas situaciones, por lo que las estrategias de enseñanza-aprendizaje son una parte fundamental del proceso de aprendizaje, es por ello que en los últimos años han sido una de línea de investigación que ha ido en aumento. En el presente trabajo, se pretende analizar las estrategias de aprendizaje utilizadas por el alumnado del Colegio Mare de Déu de la Serra. Las estrategias de apre...

  12. Onboard Science Insights and Vehicle Dynamics from Scale-Model Trials of the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Capsule at Laguna Negra, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D; Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2016-11-21

    A scale model of the proposed Titan Mare Explorer capsule was deployed at the Planetary Lake Lander field site at Laguna Negra, Chile. The tests served to calibrate models of wind-driven drift of the capsule and to understand its attitude motion in the wave field, as well as to identify dynamic and acoustic signatures of shoreline approach. This information enables formulation of onboard trigger criteria for near-shore science data acquisition. Key Words: Titan-Vehicle dynamics-Science autonomy-Lake. Astrobiology 17, xxx-xxx.

  13. GIS UTILITY FOR HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT EVALUATION CAUSED BY DAMAGES OF WATER SUPPLY NETWORK IN RURAL AREAS. APPLICATIONS IN BAIA MARE DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    RADU ALEXANDRU MARIAN; IONEL HAIDU; AUGUSTIN IONUŢ CRĂCIUN; BOGDAN VĂDUVA

    2012-01-01

    GIS utility for hydrological impact evaluation caused by damages of water supply network in rural areas. Applications in Baia Mare Depression. Occurrence of a failure within the water supply network is an element of risk with important hydrological implications. Although at first glance you might think that a pipe diameter of only 20 cm can generate large effects, however, in case of significant damage or even burst pipe, a good part of high water flow in the pipe (approx. 25 m3/h on average ...

  14. Kant and Eastern Europe in Vienna 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zákutná

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The text deals with the theme of Kant and Eastern Europe at the University of Vienna in 2015. Except the section of contributions to the theme “Kant and Eastern Europe” at the 12th International Kant Congress, it focuses on other activities of the organizers connected with the theme, namely the exhibition and publication “Detours. Approaches to Immanuel Kant in Vienna, in Austria, and in Eastern Europe”.

  15. Region 1 Acoustic Bat Inventory: National Wildlife Refuges in Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington, and Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bat species were inventoried on National Wildlife Refuges in Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington, and Idaho using acoustic methods. Samples were collected between...

  16. Fermentation characteristics and angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus helveticus isolate H9 in cow milk, soy milk, and mare milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jicheng; Li, Changkun; Xue, Jiangang; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Yongfu

    2015-06-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus isolate H9 demonstrated high angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity in previous research. Here, we evaluated the fermentation characteristics (pH, titratable acidity, free amino nitrogen, and viable bacterial counts), ACE-inhibitory activity, and contents of Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) peptides of stored yogurt (4°C for 28 d) fermented by L. helveticus isolate H9 (initially inoculated at 4 concentrations), from cow, mare, and soy milks. During storage, the pH and titratable acidity remained stable in yogurts produced from all milk types and all inoculation concentrations. The viable bacterial counts in all stored yogurts ranged between 10(6.72) and 10(8.59) cfu/g. The highest ACE-inhibitory activity (70.9-74.5%) was achieved at inoculation concentrations of 5×10(6) cfu/mL. The ACE-inhibitory tripeptides VPP and IPP as determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were not produced in yogurt made from soy milk or mare milk. These evaluations indicate that L. helveticus H9 has good probiotic properties and would be a promising candidate for production of fermented food with probiotic properties. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Non-Reciprocal Autosomal Translocation 64,XX, t(4;10)(q21;p15) in an Arabian Mare with Repeated Early Embryonic Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Das, P J; Avila, F; Thwaits, B K; Chowdhary, B P; Raudsepp, T

    2016-02-01

    Balanced autosomal translocations are a known cause for repeated early embryonic loss (REEL) in horses. In most cases, carriers of such translocations are phenotypically normal, but the chromosomal aberration negatively affects gametogenesis giving rise to both genetically balanced and unbalanced gametes. The latter, if involved in fertilization, result in REEL, whereas gametes with the balanced form of translocation will pass the defect into next generation. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of REEL, identification of translocation carriers is critical. Here, we report about a phenotypically normal 3-year-old Arabian mare that had repeated resorption of conceptuses prior to day 45 of gestation and was diagnosed with REEL. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that the mare had normal chromosome number 64,XX but carried a non-mosaic and non-reciprocal autosomal translocation t(4;10)(q21;p15). This is a novel translocation described in horses with REEL and the first such report in Arabians. Previous cases of REEL due to autosomal translocations have exclusively involved Thoroughbreds. The findings underscore the importance of routine cytogenetic screening of breeding animals. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. CONDIŢIONĂRI GEOMORFOLOGICE ALE DEZVOLTĂRII RURALE ŞI URBANE ÎN JUDEŢUL SATU MARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN FILIP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphological conditioning of rural and urban development in Satu Mare County. The interaction between the human and the geomorphological component involves specific aspects, due to the high intensity of the interferences between the two components, despite the relatively short period of time when they have taken place. The manner of materialization of these interactions has been directly influenced by the favourable or restrictive characteristics of the relief, manifested through the mediation of static (locational or dynamic featuresThe geological, morphometric, climatic and land use features determined the manifestation of a large range of geomorphological processes in Satu Mare county. The type, intensity and manner of action of these processes reflects the way in which the environmental components relate between each other. The quantitative assessment of the stability of geomorphological areas as the landslides are concerned has been accomplished according to a computerized algorithm based on the model of infinite stability of slopes, conceived by relating the forces which tend to undermine the stability of the slopes (gravity and the ones that maintain the stability (the force of friction and the cohesion of rocks. The main result of this working algorithm is the stability index, defined as the probability for an area to be stable in relation to the mass movement processes, when the parameters are equally distributed. The values obtained from the computerized analysis have been grouped into 5 stability classes.

  19. Using different satellite imagery and classification techniques to assess the contribution of trees outside forests in the municipality of Maringá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Doubrawa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest cover of the Maringá municipality, located in northern Parana State, was mapped in this study. Mapping was carried out by using high-resolution HRC sensor imagery and medium resolution CCD sensor imagery from the CBERS satellite. Images were georeferenced and forest vegetation patches (TOFs - trees outside forests were classified using two methods of digital classification: reflectance-based or the digital number of each pixel, and object-oriented. The areas of each polygon were calculated, which allowed each polygon to be segregated into size classes. Thematic maps were built from the resulting polygon size classes and summary statistics generated from each size class for each area. It was found that most forest fragments in Maringá were smaller than 500 m². There was also a difference of 58.44% in the amount of vegetation between the high-resolution imagery and medium resolution imagery due to the distinct spatial resolution of the sensors. It was concluded that high-resolution geotechnology is essential to provide reliable information on urban greens and forest cover under highly human-perturbed landscapes.

  20. Destino do metal pesado chumbo de rejeitos urbanos de Maringá, Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervim Lenzi

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos da ação antrópica são um permanente desafio ambiental. Neste sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o metal pesado Pb no esgoto (afluente e efluente e lodo das ETEs de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. As amostras de esgoto foram digeridas em meio ácido nítrico com redução de volume e as de biossólido foram digeridas com água régia. As leituras das concentrações de chumbo foram feitas pelo método de espectrometria de absorção atômica. O pH foi determinado e o N e o C foram analisados pelos respectivos métodos clássicos. Os resultados em valor médio global foram os seguintes, respectivamente: a Pb, em µg.mL-1, para o esgoto afluente 0,089 e para o esgoto efluente 0,070. b para o biossólido: Pb = 388,8 µg.g-1; pH = 3,38; N = 3,24%; C = 24,5% e MO = 42,1%. Pelos resultados conclui-se que o esgoto efluente está em conformidade com a legislação, e o lodo das ETEs: apresenta valores médios de pH; N, C e MO, que, em nível de 5% e 1%, não têm diferença significativa entre si, tanto nas ETEs (local quanto ao período das coletas, respectivamente. Os resultados analíticos para o Pb dos biossólidos apresentaram diferença significativa. O teor de matéria orgânica e as relações C:N dos lodos das ETEs recomendam seu uso agrícola

  1. Heavy metal content in vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania) and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Carmen; Roşu, Cristina; Piştea, Ioana; Ozunu, Alexandru; Baciu, Călin

    2016-04-01

    Information about heavy metal concentrations in food products and their dietary intake are essential for assessing the health risk of local inhabitants. The main purposes of the present study were (1) to investigate the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in several vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania); (2) to assess the human health risk associated with the ingestion of contaminated vegetables and fruits by calculating the daily intake rate (DIR) and the target hazard quotient (THQ); and (3) to establish some recommendations on human diet in order to assure an improvement in food safety. The concentration order of heavy metals in the analyzed vegetable and fruit samples was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The results showed the heavy metals are more likely to accumulate in vegetables (10.8-630.6 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.4-196.6 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.2-155.7 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.03-6.61 mg/kg dw for Cd) than in fruits (4.9-55.9 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.9-24.7 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.04-8.82 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.01-0.81 mg/kg dw for Cd). Parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce proved to be high heavy metal accumulators. By calculating DIR and THQ, the data indicated that consumption of parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce from the area on a regular basis may pose high potential health risks to local inhabitants, especially in the area located close to non-ferrous metallurgical plants (Romplumb SA and Cuprom SA) and close to Tăuții de Sus tailings ponds. The DIR for Zn (85.3-231.6 μg/day kg body weight) and Cu (25.0-44.6 μg/day kg body weight) were higher in rural areas, while for Pb (0.6-3.1 μg/day kg body weight) and Cd (0.22-0.82 μg/day kg body weight), the DIR were higher in urban areas, close to the non-ferrous metallurgical plants SC Romplumb SA and SC Cuprom SA. The THQ for Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd was higher than 5 for health risks.

  2. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  3. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  4. Exotic pests of eastern forests conference proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry O. Britton

    1998-01-01

    Invasive exotic pest plants, diseases, and insects, have had a dramatic impact on the health and composition of the Eastern forests for many decades. Chestnut blight was discovered in the United States in 1904. Since then, it has virtually destroyed the chestnut population, which once occupied 25 percent of the eastern forest. In the 1860's, the gypsy moth was...

  5. Geographic distribution of Gryllotalpa stepposa in south-eastern Europe, with first records for Romania, Hungary and Serbia (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Puskás, Gellért; Ivković, Slobodan; Borisov, Simeon; Gavril, Viorel Dumitru; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Described from the steppe zones north of the Black Sea, Caucasus, and central Asia, Gryllotalpa stepposa Zhantiev was recently recorded from a few localities in Greece, R. Macedonia, and Bulgaria. In May 2015, several specimens were collected from Ivrinezu Mare in Romania, which suggested a continuous distribution area of the species, stretching from the central Balkans to central Asia. Thus, to reveal its actual range of occurrence, a survey of several Orthoptera collections became mandatory and, as expected, a large number of misidentified specimens of Gryllotalpa stepposa were discovered, providing new data on the species distribution in south-eastern Europe, including also the first records of this mole cricket in Serbia and Hungary. Here a full locality list is presented of this species west of Ukraine and Moldova and the current geographic distribution of the genus Gryllotalpa in the Balkans is revised. A key for distinguishing the mole crickets in south-eastern Europe and a distribution map for this region are presented.

  6. Mare Tralla : Stories of a "disgusting girl" : küberfeministlik ja trans/natsionaalne tehno-naer = Stories of a "disgusting girl" : cyberfeminist and trans/national techno-laughter / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Mare Tralla kunstnikuteest 1990-ndatel performance'i- ja videokunstniku, feministi ning kuraatorina. Tema kunsti iseloomustab ühiskonnakriitika ja eneseirooniline nostalgia ning "väike feministllik revolutsioon ühiskonna harmoonilisema ja õiglasema arengu tarvis". Alates 1996. aastast elab ja tegutseb peamiselt Londonis

  7. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) follicular signalling is conserved in the mare ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sally E; Upton, Rose M O; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Sutherland, Jessie M

    2017-09-26

    The mare ovary is unique in its anatomical structure; however, the signalling pathways responsible for physiological processes, such as follicular activation, remain uncharacterised. This provided us with the impetus to explore whether signalling molecules from important folliculogenesis pathways, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), are conserved in the mare ovary. Messenger RNA expression of six genes important in follicle development was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and protein localisation of key pathway members (PI3K, AKT1, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), JAK1, STAT3 and suppressor of cytokine signalling 4 (SOCS4)) was compared in tissue from fetal and adult mare ovaries. Tissue from adult ovaries exhibited significantly increased levels of mRNA expression of PI3K, AKT1, PTEN, JAK1, STAT3 and SOCS4 compared with tissue from fetal ovaries. PI3K, AKT1, JAK1 and STAT3 demonstrated redistributed localisation, from pregranulosa cells in fetal development, to both the oocyte and granulosa cells of follicles in the adult ovary, whilst negative feedback molecules PTEN and SOCS4 were only localised to the granulosa cells in the adult ovary. These findings suggest that the PI3K/AKT and JAK/STAT signalling pathways are utilised during folliculogenesis in the mare, similarly to previously studied mammalian species, and may serve as useful biomarkers for assessment of ovary development in the horse.

  8. Il mare per comunicare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Elena Carnemolla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1885 the Italian government entered into contract with Pirelli for the construction and maintenance of twelve cables to connect various islands with the mainland. For the execution of the contract, Pirelli built a cable-sheathing factory at San Bartolomeo, near La Spezia, ordering to Thompson yard the cable-ship Città di Milano, which worked also beyond national borders. It wrecked at Filicudi in 1919. In 1944 Ernesto Del Grande, a Pirelli cableman, wrote a story on this, also organizing a portfolio with seventy-two images. The two sources, belonging respectively to the Archivio Storico Pirelli and the Biblioteca Sormani, are published for the first time, with a selection of thirty-six images of the last one.

  9. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...... of a medico-legal homicide autopsy rate close to 100%. Regional differences might exist however, due to the fact that the catchment area of the department is dominated by the city of Copenhagen. Conclusions: The strength of the database includes a long running time, near complete regional coverage...

  10. Avaliação do controle de qualidade realizado nas farmácias de manipulação e homeopáticas de Maringá, Estado do Paraná = Evaluation of quality control in drug-manipulation and homeopathic pharmacies in Maringá, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heveline Kronbauer Martinelli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O controle de qualidade realizado nas farmácias de manipulação e homeopáticas é de suma importância para assegurar a qualidade microbiológica e físico-química das matériasprimas e produtos acabados, garantindo eficácia, segurança e credibilidade dos medicamentos dispensados à população. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos realizar uma pesquisa sobre o número de farmácias de manipulação e homeopáticas da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná,que estão realizando o controle de qualidade de acordo com o estabelecido pela Vigilância Sanitária na Resolução de Diretoria Colegiada (RDC33; diagnosticar quais os testes mínimos realizados; observar a adequação das técnicas empregadas e quais as maiores dificuldades encontradas pelas farmácias para implantar o controle de qualidade. Com base nas diretrizes da RDC33 foi formulado um questionário, o qual foi utilizado como suporte para a realização dapesquisa direta em 25 farmácias de manipulação e homeopáticas, que aceitaram participar do estudo, de um total de 30 farmácias da cidade de Maringá. A partir das análises realizadas, concluiu-se que a maioria das farmácias de manipulação e homeopáticas da cidade de Maringá está se adequando às exigências estabelecidas pela Anvisa. Porém, encontram dificuldades como recursos financeiros e humanos para realizarem o controle de qualidade mínimo necessário paraa manutenção da eficácia, estabilidade e segurança dos medicamentos manipulados e matériasprimas utilizadas.The quality control in compounding and homeopathic pharmacies is of highest importance to assure the microbiological and physicalchemicalquality of drugs and compounding preparations, guaranteeing effectiveness, safety and credibility of the released medicines to the population. The objective of the present work was to verify the number of compounding and homeopathic pharmacies of the city ofMaringá, Paraná State, which are doing the quality

  11. Uterine clinical findings, fertility rate, leucocyte migration, and COX-2 protein levels in the endometrial tissue of susceptible mares treated with platelet-rich plasma before and after AI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segabinazzi, Lorenzo G; Friso, Aime M; Correal, Sebastian B; Crespilho, André M; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio; Miró, Jordi; Papa, Frederico O; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) results in decreased fertility in horses, thereby causing a significant impact in the horse market. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a modulator of the inflammatory response, has been largely used in veterinary medicine. Here, we investigated the effects of PRP on uterine inflammation, conception rate, endometrial polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration, and COX-2 protein levels in the endometrial tissue. Thirteen PMIE-susceptible mares were used for artificial insemination (AI). The mares were inseminated with fresh semen in three consecutive cycles in a cross-over study design. The following cycle classifications were used: control cycle, no pharmacological interference; pre-AI, 20 mL of PRP was infused 24 h before AI; and post-AI, 20 mL of PRP was infused four h after AI. Follicular dynamics were monitored daily by transrectal ultrasound. When a follicle larger than 35 mm was detected, ovulation was induced with deslorelin acetate (1 mg, im). AI was performed 24 h after ovulation induction. Intrauterine fluid (FLU) was evaluated by ultrasonography before and 24 h after AI. PMNs in uterine cytology (CYT) and biopsy (HIS) were also observed before and 24 h after AI. Pregnancy was determined within 14 days after ovulation. Number of COX-2 positive cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Both PRP treatments resulted in a decrease of PMNs in the CYT after breeding when compared to controls. FLU did not differ between cycles; however, the conception rates were significantly higher in the PRP mares. Mares positive for endometritis decreased in both treatment groups, and a more intense positive COX-2 labeling was observed in the control group when compared to the two treatment groups. In conclusion, PRP beneficially reduces inflammatory response in PMIE mares independent of when treatments were administered, thus increasing chances of successful pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of risk factors for breast neoplasm in the city of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para el cáncer de mama en el municipio de Maringá, en el estado de Paraná, Brasil Prevalência de fatores de risco para o câncer de mama no município de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Carvalho de Matos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of the risk factors for breast cancer among women between 40 and 69 years old in the city of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. An analytical, exploratory and cross-sectional study was carried out through a population research at homes in Maringá. The sample was composed of 439 women between 40 and 69 years old. The data were collected by home interviews, stored using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software and presented in tables as absolute and relative frequency. The predominant ethnical group was Caucasian with an average age of 52 years. Among risk factors identified in the present study, an expressive number of overweight women were found. It is important and necessary to put in practice actions that identify the modifiable risk factors for the development of breast tumors in order to reduce morbidity and mortality levels due to this pathology.Ese estudio pretendió identificar la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo para el cáncer de mama en mujeres de 40 la 69 años, en el municipio de Maringá. Fue realizado un estudio analítico, exploratorio, de corte transversal, tipo encuesta poblacional domiciliar. El estudio fue realizado con 439 mujeres entre 40 y 69 años. Los datos fueron recolectados durante entrevistas domiciliares, almacenados en el programa Statisitical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS y presentados en forma de frecuencia absoluta y relativa. La mayor parte de las mujeres estudiadas pertenecía a la raza blanca, con promedio de edad de 52 años. Entre los factores de riesgo identificados se destaca el gran número de mujeres con sobrepeso. Se resalta la importancia de la implementación de acciones que tengan por objetivo identificar los factores de riesgo modificables para el desarrollo del cáncer de mama para, con eso, disminuir el número de nuevos casos y de muerte por esa patología.Esse estudo pretendeu identificar a prevalência dos

  13. Soil water balance simulated by CROPGRO-Drybean model for edaphoclimatic conditions in Maringá Balanço da água no solo simulado pelo modelo CROPGRO-Drybean para as condições edafoclimáticas de Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivanildo Dallacort

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the CROPGRO-Drybeans model for the prediction of soil water balance, as well as growth components and bean crop yield, was assessed using data from two field experiments conducted at the State University of Maringá Irrigation Technical Center, Paraná - Brazil, (latitude 23º27'S, longitude 51º57' and altitude 542 m, during the 2005 and 2006 growing season. The model simulations correlated well with measured soil moisture (r > 0.7 for both experiments. However, there were high discrepancies between measured and simulated soil moisture values on the days after rainfall. In addition, it was found that the model exaggerates the effect of water stress during the flowering phase, which leds to underprediction (19 and 29% of crop yield.O desempenho do modelo CROPGRO-Drybeans para predição do balanço de água no solo, componentes de crescimento e produtividade, foram avaliados por meio de dados de dois experimentos de campo conduzidos no Centro Técnico de Irrigação da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, localizado em Maringá, PR (latitude 23º 25' S, longitude de 51º 57' O, altitude de 542 m, nos os anos agrícolas de 2005 e 2006. Concluiu-se que o modelo simulou estresse hídrico maior que o real na fase de florescimento, subestimando o rendimento em 19 e 29%. Os valores de umidade do solo medidos no campo e simulados pelo CROPGRO, foram bem correlacionados (r > 0,7, porém houve discrepância acentuada nos valores medidos e simulados no dia posterior à ocorrência da precipitação.

  14. Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses of adult healthy warm-blooded mares following feeding with Jerusalem artichoke meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatter, M; Bochnia, M; Goetz, F; Gottschalk, J; Koeller, G; Mielenz, N; Hillegeist, D; Greef, J M; Einspanier, A; Zeyner, A

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of the supplementation of a pre-biotic compound [Jerusalem artichoke meal (JAM)] on the glycaemic and insulinaemic response in healthy, non-obese warm-blooded horses. Six adult mares [mean body weight (bwt) 529 ± 38.7 kg; body condition score 5.1 ± 0.49/9] were used. In two equal meals per day, the horses received crushed oat grains (1 g starch/kg bwt per day) and meadow hay (2 kg/100 kg bwt per day) which together were likely to meet the energy recommendation for light work (GfE, ). Additionally, they received either 0.15 g fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin (FOS+INU)/kg bwt per day via commercial JAM or maize cob meal without grains as control (CON) in 2 × 3-week periods according to a crossover design. Blood was collected on d21 of the feeding period at different ante- and postprandial (PP) time points (-60, 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min), and the plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were determined. Feeding JAM vs. CON did not change the PP peak of glucose or insulin (glucose: 6.3 ± 0.40 vs. 7.0 ± 0.87 mmol/l; insulin: 0.508 ± 0.087 vs. 0.476 ± 0.082 nmol/l) nor did it cause different AUCs until 120 and 300 min PP for glucose and insulin, respectively (AUC120 , glucose: 997 ± 41.6 vs. 1015 ± 41.63 mmol/l per minute, insulin: 49 ± 6.3 vs. 42 ± 6.3 nmol/l per minute; AUC300 , glucose: 1943 ± 142.3 vs. 2115 ± 142.3 mmol/l per minute, insulin: 94 ± 14.8 vs. 106 ± 14.8 nmol/l per minute; p > 0.05). Following JAM vs. CON feeding, glucose and insulin levels declined more rapidly until 240 min PP and tended to be lower (p = 0.053 and p = 0.056, respectively) at this time point. This result might be promising and should further be studied more detailed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. A gênese da escassez de chuva em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, durante os meses de maio de 2003 e maio de 2005 = The genesis of scanty rainfall in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, during the months of May 2003 and May 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Marcon da Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar os sistemas atmosféricos geradores da escassez de chuvas durante os meses de maio de 2003 e maio de 2005, em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Para atingir os objetivos propostos, utilizaram-se dados meteorológicos de superfície referentes às variações diárias dos elementos climáticos, com os quais se elaborou uma tabela para cada um dos meses em estudo, eleitos como amostragem de meses de maio secos. Para identificar os sistemas atmosféricos promotores dos diferentes tipos de tempo, tais tabelas foram analisadas concomitantemente à análise de cartas sinóticas meteorológicas de superfície, também diárias, e de imagens de satélite. Constatou-se que a escassez de chuva em Maringá durante os períodos estudados decorreu da atuação de anticiclones frios, que penetraram na retaguarda dos sistemas frontais, e da atuação do Sistema Tropical Atlântico sobre o continente, o qual geralmente bloqueava as frentes frias próximo à latitude de 30°S, de modo que estas se deslocavam para o Atlântico antes de alcançarem a área em estudo. The atmospheric systems accountable for scanty rainfall during May 2003 and May 2005 in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, are identified. Surface meteorological data on daily variables of climatic elements have been employed for the creation of a table for each month under analysis. They were chosen as dry May samplings. Tables were analyzed concomitantly with an investigation on daily surface meteorological synoptic charts and on satellite photos, so that the atmosphericsystems causing different types of climate might be identified. Results show that scanty rainfall in Maringá during the periods under analysis was caused by cold anti-cyclone activities which followed after frontal systems and by the activities of Atlantic TropicalSystem on the South American subcontinent. The latter normally blocks out cold fronts near latitude 30°S which, in turn

  16. Flebotomíneos coletados em matas remanescentes e abrigos de animais silvestres de zoológico no perímetro urbano de Maringá, sul do Brasil. Estudo preliminar Phlebotomines collected in remaining florests and wild animal shelters in zoological garden in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, shoutern Brazil. Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Um caso de leishmaniose tegumentar com provável infecção em uma das áreas de matas remanescentes no perímetro urbano de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, o desconhecimento da fauna e do comportamento de flebotomíneos nestas matas despertaram o interesse desta investigação. Os flebotomíneos foram coletados com armadilhas de Falcão instaladas em matas remanescentes do Parque do Ingá, Bosque Dois e Horto Florestal, de junho a setembro de 1995, no período noturno. Nestas áreas coletaram-se 3.532 flebotomíneos, prevalecendo Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939 com 3.395 (96,1% exemplares. No Parque do Ingá, onde as coletas também foram feitas em abrigos de animais silvestres, mantidos em zoológico, foram coletados 2.907 flebotomíneos, dos quais 1.723 nestes abrigos. Os resultados mostram melhor adaptação de Lutzomyia whitmani nas matas remanescentes no perímetro urbano de Maringá e sua freqüência nos abrigos dos animais silvestres mantidos em cativeiro.The present study was undertaken after the detection of one case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with presumed infection in one of the three remaining wooded areas in the urban area of the city of Maringá, Southern Brazil; also in view of the lack of knowledge about sand flies and their behavior. From June to September, 1995, sand flies were caught with Falcão traps during the night in the remaining wooded areas (Parque do Ingá, Bosque Dois and Horto Florestal. A total of 2,907 sand flies were caugth in Parque do Ingá; 1,723 of them were aught in forest traps and 1,184 in wild animal shelter traps at the zoo. The results show that Lutzomyia whitmani is better adapted to the three areas under study and that it frequently occurs in wild animal shelters within the urban perimeter of Maringá.

  17. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass: Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, S.S.; Schmitt, R.A.; (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA)); Delano, J.W. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass is one of twenty-five, high Mg, primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. Forty spherules of this glass were individually analyzed by electron microprobe and INAA for major- and trace-elements. The abundances demonstrate that this primary magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models are developed to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas as being products of hybridization involving three ancient differentiated components of a primordial lunar magma ocean: (a) early olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene cumulates; (b) late-stage clinopyroxene + pigeonite + ilmenite + plagioclase cumulates; and (c) late-stage inter-cumulus liquid.

  18. Monitoring of toxic chemical in the basin of Maringá stream - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.10302

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Freire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to track the spatial and temporal variations of toxic chemical compounds, such as the metals Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn and the pesticide glyphosate, in Maringá stream and in a stretch of Pirapó river. The results pointed out that, in the case of metals, one of the possible sources of these elements is associated to agricultural activities. For glyphosate, were not found concentrations above those established by the Brazilian Water Quality Legislation (CONAMA 357/2005. Concerning this, we emphasized that the impact caused by the agrochemical on water quality should be evaluated considering the adverse effects to the environment caused by its degradation, that produces recalcitrant and surfactant compounds that may be even more toxic for humans and aquatic environment. 

  19. O MOVIMENTO ESTUDANTIL NA UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE MARINGÁ - UEM (1970-1987 O Movimento Estudantil na Universidade Estadual de Maringá - UEM (1970-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Benedito Dias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto aborda a história do DCE e do movimento estudantil da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, no período compreendido entre a fundação da instituição e a implantação da gratuidade do ensino. Focalizando a singular gênese da UEM, ocorrida no auge da ditadura militar, a análise tem o objetivo de demonstrar como o movimento estudantil, em um processo de médio prazo, contribuiu para a pavimentação do caminho que levou à democratização da instituição e à conquista da gratuidade do ensinoEste texto aborda a história do DCE e do movimento estudantil da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, no período compreendido entre a fundação da instituição e a implantação da gratuidade do ensino. Focalizando a singular gênese da UEM, ocorrida no auge da ditadura militar, a análise tem o objetivo de demonstrar como o movimento estudantil, em um processo de médio prazo, contribuiu para a pavimentação do caminho que levou à democratização da instituição e à conquista da gratuidade do ensino

  20. Milk of Italian Saddle and Haflinger nursing mares: physico – chemical characteristics, nitrogen composition and mineral elements at the end of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Martuzzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was to investigate nursing mares milk characteristics at the end of lactation (D and to make a comparisonwith milk taken during early lactation (3 to 30 d post partum (E. The survey was carried out on 17 Italian Saddlemares (IS (193 days in milk; 147 pregnancy days and on 12 Haflinger mares (H (174 days in milk; 146 pregnancydays. N fractions were determined by means of Kjeldahl; fat and lactose by means of mid infrared lectures; mineral elementswere determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry; P by colorimetry. Data referring to 58 individual milksamples were analyzed by ANCOVA. Significant variations, similar in both breeds, were observed (E vs D for density at15°C (1.036 vs 1.034, pH (6.94 vs 7.24, titratable acidity (3.56 vs 1.70 °SH, fat (1.17 vs 0.76% g/100g of milk,crude protein (2.31 vs 1.68% g/100g, casein number (52.37 vs 46.59 and ash (0.50 vs 0.30% g/100g; similarly(mg/100g for non casein N (172.31 vs 142.05, non protein N (34.43 vs 29.09, P (61.30 vs 32.48, Ca (112.88 vs54.42, Mg (8.40 vs 4.38 and K (60.77 vs 41.31. Freezing point, lactose and Na showed no significant variations. Atthe end of lactation, milk resulted poorer in all main organic components, except lactose, and in all mineral components,except Na. Only freezing point and phosphorus variations differed in IS from H. Breed significantly affected fat, casein Nand ash mean contents.

  1. REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE COHESION FUND: THE CASE OF THE WATER AND WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE COUNTY OF SATU MARE

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    Claudiu Porumbacean

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the entry into force of the Treaty of Maastricht in November 1993, strengthening the economic and social cohesion has officially become one of the main objectives of the new European Union, alongside with the establishment of the internal market and the creation of the Economic and Monetary Union. In 1994 the European Union members states decided to create the Cohesion Fund which aims to support projects in the field of environment protection and transport infrastructure in less developed member states. The biggest project currently being implement ed in the County of Satu Mare is co-financed from the Cohesion Fund via the “Environment” Operational Program and aims to improve the quality and access to water and wastewater infrastructure, a sector in deep need of investments in post-communist Romania. The project, having a total value of more than €100 million, continues the investments made from the ISPA measure in the pre-accession period and will be followed during the next financial programming period by a new application. In this context, the paper aims to assess the evolution of the funds allocated from the Cohesion Fund for major investments in the water and wastewater sector in the County of Satu Mare using the data provided by the regional operator and the analyses made by the Managing Authority. Furthermore, we consider important to underline the main obstacles and problems that beneficiaries have to face with when they apply for and implement projects that lead in the end to regional sustainable development.

  2. Heme controls ferroportin1 (FPN1) transcription involving Bach1, Nrf2 and a MARE/ARE sequence motif at position -7007 of the FPN1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marro, Samuele; Chiabrando, Deborah; Messana, Erika; Stolte, Jens; Turco, Emilia; Tolosano, Emanuela; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2010-08-01

    Macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system play a key role in recycling iron from hemoglobin of senescent or damaged erythrocytes. Heme oxygenase 1 degrades the heme moiety and releases inorganic iron that is stored in ferritin or exported to the plasma via the iron export protein ferroportin. In the plasma, iron binds to transferrin and is made available for de novo red cell synthesis. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms that control the transcriptional response of iron export protein ferroportin to hemoglobin in macrophages. Iron export protein ferroportin mRNA expression was analyzed in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in response to hemoglobin, heme, ferric ammonium citrate or protoporphyrin treatment or to siRNA mediated knockdown or overexpression of Btb And Cnc Homology 1 or nuclear accumulation of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-like. Iron export protein ferroportin promoter activity was analyzed using reporter constructs that contain specific truncations of the iron export protein ferroportin promoter or mutations in a newly identified MARE/ARE element. We show that iron export protein ferroportin is transcriptionally co-regulated with heme oxygenase 1 by heme, a degradation product of hemoglobin. The protoporphyrin ring of heme is sufficient to increase iron export protein ferroportin transcriptional activity while the iron released from the heme moiety controls iron export protein ferroportin translation involving the IRE in the 5'untranslated region. Transcription of iron export protein ferroportin is inhibited by Btb and Cnc Homology 1 and activated by Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-like involving a MARE/ARE element located at position -7007/-7016 of the iron export protein ferroportin promoter. This finding suggests that heme controls a macrophage iron recycling regulon involving Btb and Cnc Homology 1 and Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-like to assure the coordinated degradation of heme by heme oxygenase 1, iron storage and

  3. Preservation of natural values along the cross-border area of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties

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    Cătălina-Maria BÂTEA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at emphasizing the importance of cross-border cooperation in protecting the natural values along the Romanian-Hungarian border and the way in which these resources can be exploited for tourism. The analysed area comprises the two adjacent counties of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, with focus on the rich natural heritage and the shared effort made in order to ensure its conservation. The anthropic activities (agriculture, development of settlements, infrastructure investment have gradually led to habitat reduction, having a negative impact on biodiversity. The Natura 2000 network, initiated by the European Union, is a program launched with the objective to preserve natural habitat, plant species and wildlife in a unitary system. A number of ten Natura 2000 sites (Special Protection Areas for birds, Special Areas of Conservation and Sites of Community Importance are located in the cross-border region of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties. In the present case, a study upon the natural values of the area cannot be limited by borderline. Moreover, a cross-border approach is being preferred in order to highlight the sites of special interest, the necessity to elaborate and implement joined strategies. Natural values can become a part of the touristic offer but only to a certain extent, according to which only those forms of tourism should be developed which have a less impact on the environment, namely the practice of sustainable tourism, with emphasis on ecotourism. This type becomes viable in the context of a stricter organization of the tourist flow, the existence of a process with informative and training role for visitors regarding the importance of preserving biodiversity. To conclude, the paper draws attention to the fact that recreational activities can be developed in special protection areas provided that the sustainable aspect is always kept in sight

  4. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  5. Eastern Pacific Ocean Purse-seine Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data sets from U.S.A.-flagged purse-seine vessels fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These purse seiners...

  6. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... important. Product quality comes in third followed by trustworthiness of the supplier and marketing support offered. Price and quality plus marketing support offered seem to be relatively more important to wholesalers than retailers. The majority of Eastern European retailers use central buying departments....... Only a minority combine local and central buying. Apparently, buying functions are organised differently in the Baltic countries than in the Central European countries. This seems partly to be attributable to size differentials as Baltic retail chains are smaller than Central European retailers...

  7. Social Epidemiology and Eastern Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Eric; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Cable, Noriko; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Social epidemiology is the field of study that attempts to understand the social determinants of health and the dynamics between societal settings and health. In the past 3 decades, large-scale studies in the West have accumulated a range of measures and methodologies to pursue this goal. We would like to suggest that there may be conceptual gaps in the science if Western research models are applied uncritically in East Asian studies of socioeconomic, gender, and ethnic inequalities in health. On one hand, there are common concerns, including population aging and gendered labor market participation. Further, international comparison must be built on shared concepts such as socioeconomic stratification in market economies. On the other hand, some aspects of health, such as common mental disorders, may have culturally specific manifestations that require development of perspectives (and perhaps novel measures) in order to reveal Eastern specifics. Exploring and debating commonalities and differences in the determinants of health in Oriental and Occidental cultures could offer fresh inspiration and insight for the next phase of social epidemiology in both regions. PMID:22790787

  8. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  10. Trabalhar com famílias no Programa de Saúde da Família: a prática do enfermeiro em Maringá-Paraná Trabajar con familias en el Programa de Salud de la Familia: la práctica del enfermero en Maringá-Paraná Working with families within the Family Health Program: nurse's practice in Maringá-Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gusmão Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF propõe-se a atender a família integralmente em seu espaço social o que requer uma nova postura profissional. Este estudo tem como objetivo conhecer a prática do trabalho realizado com famílias pelos enfermeiros que atuam no PSF em Maringá, Paraná. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, utilizando, para a coleta de dados, entrevistas, observação e análise documental. Os dados foram analisados, segundo o referencial teórico de Bardin. Os resultados revelaram três categorias: atividades com indivíduos, atividades na comunidade e atividades no domicílio. Concluiu-se que, apesar de os enfermeiros considerarem a família em seu espaço domiciliar, por meio de visitas domiciliares, de coleta de dados e da educação em saúde, ainda centralizam a doença e o indivíduo, e a sua postura não tem estimulado a participação e a autonomia das famílias no que se refere à assistência e ao serviço.El Programa de Salud de la Familia (PSF se propone atender a la familia integralmente en su espacio social lo que requiere de una nueva postura profesional. En este trabajo se tuvo como objetivo conocer la práctica del trabajo realizado con familias por los enfermeros que actúan en el PSF en Maringá, Paraná. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo exploratorio con abordaje cualitativo, utilizando para la recolección de datos, entrevistas, observación y análisis documental. Los datos fueron analizados según el referencial teórico de Bardin. Los resultados revelaron tres categorías: actividades con individuos, actividades en la comunidad y actividades en el domicilio. Se concluye que a pesar de que los enfermeros consideran a la familia en su espacio domiciliario, por medio de visitas domiciliarias, de recolección de datos y de la educación en salud, aun centralizan la enfermedad y al individuo, y su postura no ha estimulado la participación y la autonomía de las

  11. ANTIBODIES DETECTION TO RHODOCOCCUS EQUI IN VACCINATED MARES AND FOALS BY INDIRECT ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY DETECÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS ANTI-Rhodococcus equi EM ÉGUAS VACINADAS E POTROS PELO ENSAIO IMUNOENZIMÁTICO INDIRETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Braga Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The humoral immune response in ‘Brasileiro de Hipismo’ (BH breed and Breton mares was compared after using the Rhodococcus equi vaccine, and the effect of maternal immunoprophylaxis on antibody transfer to newborn foals through the colostrum was evaluated. Blood samples were obtained from 16 pregnant mares vaccinated against R. equi, 16 foals (offspring from vaccinated mares, 8 unvaccinated pregnant mares and 8 foals (offspring from control mares. R equi serum antibody titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA after the immunization of pregnant mares using two different antigens, APTX and the commercial vaccine. There was no difference in antibody production between the two breeds. Significant increase in R. equi antibody titers was observed in mares after vaccination (p<0.01, reaching a peak at foaling. Afterward, titers tended to decrease for up to 60 days after birth (dab and then remained constant until 150 dab. Significant antibody transfer to the vaccinated mares newborn foal occurred through the colostrum. A slight reduction in antibody titer was observed at 60 dab, after which titers remained constant for up to 150 dab. The commercial antigen detected significantly higher antibody titers than did APTX (p<0.01.

    KEY WORDS: Antibodies, ELISA, Rhodococcus equi, immunization, foals.
    Comparou-se a resposta imune humoral em éguas da raça Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH e Bretão, após a imunização com a vacina anti-Rhodococcus equi, bem como avaliou-se o efeito da imunoprofilaxia ativa materna na transferência de anticorpos pelo colostro em equinos recém-nascidos. Coletaram-se amostras sanguíneas de dezesseis éguas prenhes vacinadas contra R. equi, dezesseis potros filhos das éguas vacinadas, oito éguas prenhes não vacinadas e oito potros filhos das éguas não vacinadas. Determinou-se a titulação de anticorpos anti-R. equi utilizando-se o ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA com os dois

  12. Programas de Contra Turno Social para crianças e adolescentes na cidade de Maringá/PR: características e funções (Supplementary Activities Outside class time for children and adolescents in Maringá city - Paraná state: features and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marçal Natali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo tem o objetivo de apresentar as características e funções dos programas de contra turno social os quais atendem crianças e adolescentes em situação de risco, na cidade de Maringá-PR, que foram implantados no início dos anos 90. Este estudo faz parte de uma pesquisa de mestrado que analisa os Programas de Contra Turno Social na cidade de Maringá-PR, mais especificamente no que se refere à questão do papel do lúdico inserido no currículo destes programas de contra turno social. Esta forma de atendimento foi legitimada pelo Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente no que diz respeito às políticas de atendimento em regime de apoio sócio-educativo em meio aberto. Nesta pesquisa qualitativa, no primeiro momento apresentaremos um breve panorama das políticas de atendimento à criança e ao adolescente no Brasil, partindo da promulgação do Código de Menores de 1927 e chegando ao Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente de 1990. Em um segundo momento, relataremos as representações dos órgãos governamentais e da sociedade civil sobre como os programas sociais de contra turno vem sendo realizados na cidade de Maringá através de entrevistas com funcionárias da Secretaria de Assistência Social e Cidadania do município e membros do Conselho Municipal da Criança e do Adolescente. Entendemos que as representações sobre o contra turno social na cidade de Maringá são carregadas de elementos técnicos e burocráticos e muito incipientes em relação aos fundamentos pedagógicos e filosóficos deste atendimento que são elementos primordiais para a efetivação dos direitos à criança e ao adolescente em situação de risco fundamentada na concepção do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente de sujeito de direito que busque a participação popular e que tenha um projeto emancipatório.Abstract: This paper aims to present the features and functions of the programmes of supplementary activities offered outside of

  13. Fatores associados à realização da prevenção secundária do câncer de mama no Município de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil Factors associated with secondary breast cancer prevention in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Carvalho de Matos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou a prevalência e os fatores associados à realização da prevenção secundária do câncer de mama em mulheres de 40-69 anos do Município de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Realizou-se um estudo exploratório de corte transversal, tipo inquérito populacional, no Município de Maringá. A prevalência observada de realização do autoexame das mamas foi de 64,5%, do exame clínico das mamas, 71,5%, e de mamografia, 79%. Os fatores que influenciaram na realização dessas ações foram: idade, escolaridade, raça, classe econômica, religião e realização de terapia hormonal. A classe econômica e a escolaridade influenciaram significativamente na realização das práticas preventivas, ou seja, quanto maior o nível socioeconômico, maior a realização. A orientação e realização das práticas preventivas devem estar ao alcance de todas as mulheres na faixa etária de maior risco, diminuindo, dessa maneira, o diagnóstico tardio e mortes desnecessárias e aumentando as chances de cura do câncer de mama.This study analyzed the prevalence of secondary breast cancer prevention and associated factors in women 40 to 69 years of age in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Prevalence was 64.5% for breast self-examination, 71.5% for clinical examination, and 79% for mammography. The data suggest that age, schooling, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, and prior hormone replacement therapy influenced the rates of the three types of examination. Preventive practices were significantly more common among women of higher socioeconomic status. Proper orientation and performance of preventive measures and tests should be at the reach of all women in the highest-risk age bracket, thereby decreasing late diagnosis and avoidable deaths and increasing the odds of curing breast cancer.

  14. Casas de estilo: arquitetura moderna e edificações residenciais em Maringá, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v25i2.2198

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Leão Rego

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa casas construídas nas décadas de 1950 e 1960 em Maringá com afinidades e vínculos formais com o Movimento Moderno em arquitetura. Elencados os princípios e as normas que definiam a arquitetura moderna, foi possível delinear semelhanças, divergências e distorções entre a conformação dessas casas e aquilo que pregava o novo estilo arquitetônico. O que se pôde notar é que a arquitetura residencial em Maringá não deixou de reproduzir formas reconhecidamente modernas, muitas vezes desprovidas do seu sentido original, livres do seu aspecto mais ortodoxo e desvinculadas daquelas condições técnicas que propiciaram seu surgimento. Configurou-se a casa modernista em Maringá a partir de certas manobras projetuais e do emprego de alguns artifícios emblemáticos menos compromissados com a essência da arquitetura moderna do que com sua aparência.

  15. Mental health reforms in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, T

    2001-01-01

    To describe the background in general culture, public and professional discourse against which mental health care reform initiatives in Eastern Europe need to be seen. An account of some key aspects of sociopolitical and cultural transition in Eastern European countries is given, and core results of a research project on attitudes and needs assessment in psychiatry in six Eastern European countries are reported. In post-totalitarian cultures mental health reforms impinge on imagination in ways which are not easy to predict. Some of the reasons for this are traced to the psychiatric practices under the system of total control, e.g. dispensary care, political abuse, reification of classificatory terms. Data on a study of attitudes suggest that institutions had replaced community life in those parts of Europe. It is predicted that with time trust in the capacity of community to contain mental illness will be regained.

  16. Foggy Diaspora: Romanian Women in Eastern Serbia

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    Sorescu-Marinković Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on ethnographic and anthropological research on the Romanian communities in Eastern Serbia, this article seeks to contribute to the global scholarship on diaspora and migration. It reveals interesting differences between the well defined and intensely studied notion of “diaspora” on the one hand, and the understudied, but useful concept of “near diaspora” on the other. First, the presence of Romanians in Eastern Serbia is looked at from a gender perspective, in the wider context of feminization of international migration. Second, the paper argues that the Romanian women in Eastern Serbia adopt the strategy of living in the “social fog”, thus becoming what can be termed “foggy diaspora”.

  17. A influência das condições termo-pluviométricas nos indicadores do comércio de Maringá, Estado do Paraná: um ensaio metodológico na perspectiva da valoração ambiental = The influence of thermopluviometric conditions in the commerce indicators of Maringá city, state of Paraná: a methodological essay in the environmental valoration perspective

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    Lays Regina Andriucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o grau da influência termo-pluviométrica em algunsindicadores do comércio de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Para isso foram estudados os elementos climáticos, temperatura e precipitação, bem como os indicadores econômicos: ICMS, SCPC, Vídeo-Cheque, Consumo e Consumidores de Energia Elétrica. Realizaramse análises gráficas, e aplicações estatísticas de correlação e regressão, bem como, o exame de um estudo de caso. Considera-se que os grupos investigados apresentaram variações nas formas de correlações. Os resultados apresentados neste trabalho possuem o caráter de testes preliminares por ser uma primeira tentativa de aproximação real entre as variáveis do clima (temperatura e precipitação com alguns indicadores do comportamento do comércio da cidade de Maringá.This article analyzes the degree of thermopluviometric influence on certain indicators in the commerce of Maringá, state of Paraná. To that end, climate elements, such as the temperature and precipitation as well as certain economic indicators, namely: ICMS (taxes, SCPC, Video-Check, Consumption and Consumers of Electric Energy were studied. Graphical analyses along with statistical applications of correlation and regression were performed, as well as the examination of a case study. It is believed that the groups investigated showed variations in the forms of correlation. The results herein presented are in the manner of a preliminary trial, representing a first attempt at measuring the actual relationship between the climaticvariables (temperature and precipitation with certain behavioral indicators of commerce in the city of Maringá.

  18. Resposta cutânea a alérgenos ambientais em indivíduos atendidos em serviço de pneumologia, Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Cutaneous response to environmental allergens in patients attended in pulmonology service of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Gustavo Falavigna Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As alergias respiratórias, comumente as rinites e a asma, vêm se tornando cada vez mais frequentes. Considerando que no Noroeste do Paraná há poucos dados referentes ao assunto, propusemos a verificar os agentes causadores de alergias respiratórias e suas intercorrências em indivíduos atendidos em serviço privado de pneumologia do município de Maringá, Paraná. Estudo tipo observacional transversal, retrospectivo, realizado de janeiro/2004 a dezembro/2005. Os participantes foram avaliados clinicamente e realizado o teste de hipersensibilidade imediata, Punctura – Prick TestR. De cada indivíduo foram anotados os seguintes dados: idade, positividade ao teste, principais alérgenos reagentes, presença ou ausência de atopia, rinite ou asma. De 396 indivíduos, 236 (59,3% apresentaram positividade para um ou mais alérgenos, sendo que 80 (20,2% reagiram a três antígenos, 85 (21,5% a quatro ou mais. A reatividade dos indivíduos foi mais frequente à poeira doméstica (207, Dermatophagoides pteronyssimus (184, Dermatophagoides farinae (158 e Blomia tropicalis (95. Inclusive, poeira domiciliar, D. pteronyssimus e D. farinae ocorreram principalmente em indivíduos com moderada a severa atopia. Aproximadamente 70% dos indivíduos com idade entre seis a 20 anos apresentaram atopia. Considerando o elevado nível de atopia nos pacientes atendidos pelo serviço de pneumologia em Maringá, é imprescindível realizar programas de controle no meio ambiente, juntamente com o acompanhamento e o tratamento médico dos indivíduos atópicos.Respiratory allergies, especially rhinitis and asthma, are becoming increasingly common. Given that in northwestern Paraná there is little data on the subject, our objective was to verify the causative agents of respiratory allergies and their complications in patients treated at a private pulmonology service in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná. The study was observational, retrospective, lasting from

  19. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Site Map

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  20. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Journal Sponsorship

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  1. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: About this journal. Journal Home > Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map

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    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Journal Home > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Ações desenvolvidas pelo enfermeiro junto aos adolescentes no Programa Saúde da Família em Maringá/Paraná

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    Ieda Harumi Higarashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las acciones de prevención de enfermedades, promoción y recuperación de los adolescentes realizadas por los enfermeros del Programa Salud de la Familia (PSF en el municipio de Maringá/PR. Participaron de la investigación, ocho enfermeros, representando las cinco micro- regiones que componen el municipio. Los datos fueron recogidos a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, en el mes de mayo de 2009, teniendo como referencial metodológico el enfoque cualitativo, por análisis de contenido. Los resultados del estudio demostraron que los enfermeros desarrollan acciones para prevención de enfermedades y promoción de la salud, por medio de orientaciones individuales, pláticas en las escuelas y con grupo de adolescentes, especialmente relacionados con la sexualidad y las drogas. Se percibió, un vacío asistencial atribuido a la baja demanda de adolescentes que busquen espontáneamente el servicio de salud, la ausencia de acciones sistematizadas dirigidas a esta clientela y la falta de recursos formativos que soporten la acción más efectiva de los profesionales de salud en esta área.

  5. Factores Socio-Ambientales y su Influencia en la Flora Cultivada en Patios de la Región Metropolitana de Maringá (Paraná, Brasil

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    Fabio Angeoletto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Patios urbanos tienen un potencial considerable para la conservación de la biodiversidad y la mejora de la seguridad alimentaria. Sin embargo, estos espacios no son planificados, y existe poca información sobre la diversidad de la flora presente en los patios de las diferentes clases sociales. Hemos cuantificado y comparado la diversidad vegetal de los patios de dos barrios de la zona metropolitana de Maringá (Paraná, Brasil, mediante el cálculo de  índices de diversidad, correlaciones bivariadas y del potencial de plantíos, y trazamos directrices de planificación, con el objetivo de aumentar la presencia de la vegetación arbórea, fortalecer la seguridad alimentaria y contribuir a la conservación de la diversidad biológica, incluyéndose  la conservación de las especies de plantas en peligro de extinción.  

  6. Changes in genetic structure of Posidonia oceanica at Monterosso al Mare (Ligurian Sea) and its resilience over a decade (1998-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Carla; Cupido, Roberta; Lombardi, Chiara; Belmonte, Alessandro; Peirano, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Genetic differences in the Posidonia oceanica meadow of Monterosso al Mare (NW Mediterranean, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) "Cinque Terre") were compared in three stations, at an increasing distance from a source of impact (beach nourishment) in the recent decade. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed a higher genetic variability (>20 %) in the area directly subjected to the stress, increasing with time. Clone integration, confirmed by phenotypic analysis, showed increases both in shoot density and leaf length connected to genetic differences observed in DNA fingerprints of new shoots. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 45 % individual differences within populations and 54 % among the populations. The fixation index (F (ST) = 0.54), of the genetic differentiation, showed a marked difference between the populations at different temporal scales. Over a decade AMOVA indicated genetic variations from 28 % (1998) to 54 % (2009). These results make it clear that in the P. oceanica population examined the environment had, in ten years, selected those clones which were more resistant to the anthropogenic impact, despite being subjected to the effects of the resuspension of fine sediments. These findings could help to explain both the survival of the regressed Mediterranean P. oceanica meadows in areas subjected to moderate impacts and the extreme variability in success of revegetation experiments. Management of the ecological disturbance here described indicates also the timescale in population response to stress and its increased resilience in MPAs.

  7. Ricerca di Vibrio splendidus e delle specie correlate in esemplari di Chamelea gallina prelevati nel tratto di mare Adriatico antistante la regione Abruzzo

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    Marina Torresi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Le specie del genere Vibrio, ampiamente diffuse nell’ambiente marino, sono potenzialmente patogene per vertebrati e invertebrati marini. Il presente studio ha avuto l’obiettivo di identificare le specie di Vibrio, in particolare Vibrio splendidus e specie ad esso correlate, in campioni di Chamelea gallina (vongola prelevate nel tratto di mare Adriatico antistante la regione Abruzzo nel periodo Maggio-Ottobre 2007. I microrganismi isolati dai 37 campioni sono stati caratterizzati fenotipicamente e classificati come specie appartenenti al genere Vibrio. In particolare, per l’identificazione di V. splendidus sono state effettuate analisi biochimiche secondo lo schema di Alsina. Per confermare gli isolati caratterizzati biochimicamente e per identificare V. splendidus e le specie ad esso correlate sono stati utilizzati rispettivamente analisi molecolari della regione intergenica 16S-23S e sequenziamento del gene recA. Tutti i campioni sono risultati contaminati da specie di Vibrio alofile; è stata riscontrata una maggior frequenza di isolamento per V. alginolyticus, V. splendidus e specie ad esso correlate e V. mediterranei. Le analisi molecolari effettuate hanno confermato l’impossibilità di identificare tutte le specie del genere Vibrio con la caratterizzazione fenotipica. I risultati ottenuti hanno dimostrato come il sequenziamento del gene recA consenta una discriminazione maggiore rispetto a quello del 16S rDNA. L’attribuzione delle specie nel gruppo V. splendidus-related risulta tuttavia ancora controversa.

  8. Effects of the rate of insulin infusion during isoglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp procedures on measures of insulin action in healthy, mature thoroughbred mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschel, K L; Escobar, J; McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the rate of insulin infusion during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedures affected measures of insulin action, including glucose disposal and plasma non-esterified fatty acid, endothelin-1, and nitric oxide concentrations, in mature, healthy horses. Eight thoroughbred mares were studied during a 2-h hyperinsulinemic clamp procedure, conducted at each of 4 rates of insulin infusion: 0 (CON), 1.2 (LOWINS), 3 (MEDINS), and 6 (HIGHINS) mU · kg(-1) · min(-1). The infusion rate of a dextrose solution was adjusted throughout the clamp procedures to maintain blood glucose levels within 10% of baseline glucose concentrations. Plasma insulin concentrations were measured throughout the clamp procedures, and used with the rate of glucose infusion to calculate the plasma insulin concentration-to-rate of glucose infusion ratio, a measure of insulin action on glucose disposal. The rate of glucose infusion increased with rate of insulin infusion (P clamp procedures in the LOWINS, MEDINS, and HIGHINS treatments (P 0.05). The data indicate that it is important to standardize insulin infusion rate if data are to be compared between hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study Around the Lead and Copper-Zinc Smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, Employing the Moss Biomonitoring Technique, ENAA and FAAS

    CERN Document Server

    Culicov, O A; Steinnes, E; Okina, O S; Santa, Z; Todoran, R

    2001-01-01

    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three years' growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-20 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). A total of 30 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals known to be released into the air from this kind of industry. Obtained concentrations for As and Cu are comparable with those observed in Karabash, South Ural Mountains, one of the most polluted regions in Europe. Besides, these two elements correlate very well with each other. The mean values for Zn (136 ppm) and Pb (41 ppm) are substantially higher than those normally found in the literature. The highest value for Pb (175 ppm) was obs...

  10. Serological survey for Leishmania sp. infection in wild animals from the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil

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    EM Voltarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania sp. infection was investigated in wild animals from the Ingá Park, in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil, where American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease. Sixty-five mammals, comprising Didelphis albiventris, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua, were captured. Blood samples were collected for parasite cultivation. Antibodies were investigated by direct agglutination test (DAT using Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis as antigen. Flagellates were observed in blood cultures of 14 (35.9% Didelphis albiventris. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 31 (51.6% specimens of Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua. These results suggest that Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex vetulus (crab-eating fox, Cebus apella (capuchin monkey, Dasyprocta azarae (agouti, Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon and Nasua nasua (coati play an important role in the ACL transmission cycle in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

  11. Lunar meteorite LaPaz Icefield 04841: Petrology, texture, and impact-shock effects of a low-Ti mare basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.; Taylor, L. A.; Floss, C.; Liu, Y.

    2009-03-01

    Found during the 2004 U.S. Antarctic Search for Meteorites season, LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 04841 represents an addition to the LaPaz lunar basalts suite and brings the total mass collected to 1.93 kg. The presence of FeNi grains, troilite, and the anorthositic composition of plagioclase are evidence for the lunar origin of this meteorite. Pyroxene and olivine Mn/Fe values plot along the trend set for lunar basalts. Analyses of chromite grains provide a V/(Al + Cr) ratio of 1.33 ± 13, translating to an fO2 one log unit below the IW buffer, in accordance with previous fO2 estimates for lunar basalts. Application of the Zr-cooling speedometer, for ilmenite and ulvöspinel pairs, gives a cooling rate of 5.2 °C/day, matching previous estimates of cooling rates for the LaPaz lunar meteorites and Apollo mare basalts. Mineral modes and chemistries, as well as trace-element patterns, provide compelling evidence for pairing of this meteorite to others in the LaPaz lunar basalt suite.

  12. TYPES OF TOURISM ASSOCIATED WITH GROUND-WATER RESOURCES IN THE ADJOINING COUNTIES OF SATU MARE AND SZABOLCS-SZATMÁR-BEREG

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    BÂTEA (BOTA CĂTĂLINA MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearing a long and unceasing history based on harnessing the healing effects of thermal and mineral springs, curative tourism represents one of the earliest forms of travel. Due to its multiple facets of medical, social and economic nature, this form has been aligned on a global upward trend, marking thus a shift towards health tourism. At present, the spectrum of health tourism comprises both the medical and wellness dimensions reuniting several specific types (surgical, therapeutic, medical wellness, leisure and holistic, however the practice of such activities strongly depends on the destination components (natural assets, general and tourism infrastructure. In the case of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties, spas and localities endowed with therapeutic factors (mineral and thermal springs completed with the bioclimatic component tardily undertake this trend in an attempt to reorganise their touristic offer. Within this context, the present paper aims to explore the prespectives for health tourism development through ground-water resources by emphasising the touristic potential of thermal and mineral springs from the two neighbouring counties. Furthermore, the study has revealed that therapeutic and wellness tourism represent viable directions to generate revenue and revitalise the economy of the area.

  13. Effect of GnRH and hCG on progesterone concentration and ovarian and luteal blood flow in diestrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L F C; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Ginther, O J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of reproductive hormones (GnRH, hCG, LH and progesterone) on the regulation of corpus luteum (CL) and ovarian blood flow. Diestrous mares received a single treatment of saline, 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH), or 1500IU hCG 10days after ovulation. Plasma LH and progesterone concentrations, resistance index (RI) for ovarian artery blood-flow, and percentage of corpus luteum (CL) with color-Doppler signals of blood flow were determined immediately before treatment (hour 0) and at hours 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. In the GnRH group, LH increased (PhCG groups. Progesterone concentration was not different among groups. In the GnRH group, RI tended (PhCG group, two transient RI decreases (PhCG group. The similarity among groups in progesterone concentration indicated that changes in progesterone were not involved in the GnRH and hCG stimulation of ovarian vascular perfusion. Effects of treatment might have been mediated through LH; however, since hCG biological activity is primarily LH-like, the differences in timing and degree of ovarian and luteal blood flow changes after GnRH or hCG administration in the present study suggest that GnRH might have a direct effect on ovarian blood vessels and vascular control. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Análisis del impacto de fenómenos meteorológicos en Costa Rica, América Central, originados en los mares circundantes

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    Eric J. Alfaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron en este estudio fuentes de información histórica locales, como los boletines producidos por el Instituto Meteorológico Nacional, para cuantificar los eventos climáticos relevantes y los impactos asociados a ellos en Costa Rica. Dentro de los fenómenos meteorológicos que fueron consideradas como objeto de estudio están los frentes fríos o empujes polares, las ondas tropicales o del este y los ciclones tropicales, de 1977 al 2012, originados en los mares circundantes de América Central. Los impactos climáticos asociados con los frentes fríos (ciclones tropicales se localizaron principalmente sobre la vertiente Caribe (Pacífica de Costa Rica, mientras que aquellos asociados con las ondas del este tuvieron una distribución espacial más homogénea a lo largo del país.

  15. Zirconium, hafnium, and rare earth element partition coefficients for ilmenite and other minerals in high-Ti lunar mare basalts - An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, G.; Wagstaff, J.; Yang, S.-R.

    1986-01-01

    Partition coefficients were determined for Gd, Lu, Hf and Zr among ilmenite, armalcolite, and synthetic high-Ti mare basaltic melts at temperatures from 1122 deg to 1150 deg, and at oxygen fugacities of IW x 10 exp 0.5, by in situ analysis with an electron microprobe, using samples doped to present concentration levels. Coefficients for Zr were also measured for samples containing 600-1600 ppm Zr using this microprobe. In addition, coefficients were determined for Hf and Zr between chromian ulvospinel and melt, for Hf between pigeonite and melt, and for Lu between olivine and melt by microprobe analysis of samples doped to present levels. Values measured using the microprobe were in agreement with the values measured by analyzing mineral separates from the same run products by isotope dilution. Coefficient values for ilmenite are less than 0.01 for the LREE, are around 0.1 for the HREE, and are several times greater than this for Zr and Hf.

  16. VITICULTURAL POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT AND NATURAL TERROIR UNITS DELINIATION USING ENVINRONMENTAL CRITERIA SPECIFIC TO ROMANIAN VITICULTURE. CASE STUDY: URLAŢI WINE-GROWING CENTER, DEALUL MARE VINEYARD

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    Quenol Herve

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is Urlaţi wine growing centre - Dealul Mare vineyard (Prahova County, Romania. The aim of the research is the assessment of viticultural potential and delineation of natural terroir units by using a new GIS based multicriteria methodology that includes environmental criteria specific to Romanian viticulture. The viticultural potential revealed by the methodology is expressed as types of wines that can be produced in a given area in accordance with its ecological suitability. The spatial distribution of the environmental parameters and the computation of their joint influence were achieved by using GIS. The results show that Urlaţi wine-growing centre has the viticultural potential to produce red and white quality wines. The wine production directions revealed by the research are similarl to those traditionally practised in Urlaţi wine growing centre that validates the methodology. The map of viticultural potential reveals the existence of three distinct natural terroir units: a natural terroir unit suitable for red quality wines production (73.16% from the assessed area; a natural terroir unit suitable for white quality wines and red table wines production (25.41% from the assessed area; a natural terroir unit suitable exclusively for white quality wines production (1.42% from the assessed area.

  17. Stress Response of Veterinary Students to Gynaecological Examination of Horse Mares - Effects of Simulator-Based and Animal-Based Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, C; Ille, N; Erber, R; Aurich, C; Aurich, J

    2015-10-01

    Invasive procedures in animals are challenging for veterinary students who may perceive a gynaecological examination of mares as stressful. Simulator-based training may reduce stress. In this study, students received equine gynaecology training 4 times either on horses (group H; n = 14) or a teaching simulator (group SIM; n = 13). One day and 14 days thereafter, their diagnostic skills were tested on horses (skills tests 1 and 2). During the skills tests, the students' stress response was analysed by heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters SDRR (standard deviation of beat-to-beat [RR] interval) and RMSSD (root-mean-square of successive RR differences), and salivary cortisol. In addition, students answered a questionnaire on their perceived stress. Sympathetic activation with increased heart rate (p students (time × group p students of both groups (p students (between groups and time × group p students was higher in skills test 1 vs 2 (p students felt more stressed than SIM students (p students, which was more evident after simulator-based than animal-based training. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Gordura corporal e eficiência reprodutiva em éguas doadoras de embrião Mangalarga Marchador Body fat and reproductive efficiency of Mangalarga Marchador embryo donor mares

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    Paula Gomes Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi comparado o julgamento do escore de condição corporal (ECC com a espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGS e sua relação com a eficiência reprodutiva de éguas Mangalarga Marchador doadoras de embrião. O experimento foi conduzido com 56 éguas doadoras entre os meses de agosto/08 e abril/09. O ECC foi maior em éguas mais velhas e aumentou com os dias de permanência no experimento. Houve correlação positiva entre peso e tempo de experimento. O peso não foi associado à idade, porém aumentou ao longo do experimento. A EGS na região da cauda e entre a 12ª e 13ª costelas aumentou com a idade e diminuiu com os dias de permanência no experimento. Houve correlação positiva entre EGS e ECC para a cauda e costela. O diâmetro do folículo dominante aumentou ao longo do ciclo estral, e foi menor em éguas com ECC abaixo de 6,5. O diâmetro folicular não foi influenciado pela idade. O diâmetro médio do folículo ovulatório foi 38,43 ± 3,09 mm. A recuperação embrionária não foi afetada pela idade ou ECC, mas foi menor (41% eméguas que ovularam folículos menores que 40 mm quando comparados às que ovularam folículos maiores que 40 mm (59%. A idade da doadora não foi associada à taxa de gestação dos embriões nas receptoras. A gordura corporal afetou a eficiência reprodutiva das éguas, além disso, a ultrassonografia parece ser essencial para a avaliação precisa e correta do escore de condição corporal.Body condition scoring (BCS was compared to an ultrasound subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT determination in relation to the reproductive efficiency of Mangalarga Marchador embryo donor mares. Fifty six barren mares were studied throughout the 2008/2009 breeding season (August through April and the experiment was designed in a completely randomized scheme. BCS was higher in older mares and increased with time in the experiment, and there was a positive interaction between weight and time. Weight was not associated with age

  19. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led t...

  20. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  1. Biomass productivity improvement for eastern cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Robison; Randy J. Rousseau; Jianwei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Eastern cottonwood ( Populus deltoides Marsh.) is grown in plantations by MeadWestvaco for use at its Wickliffe Kentucky Fine Papers Mill1. Genetic and productivity research over the past two decades have led to significant increases in biomass yield while reducing production costs.Initially, genetic research identified fast growing...

  2. THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POT ENTIAL FOR CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN THE BATHURST RÉGION OF. THE EASTERN CAPE ... Cassava (Manihot escrtlenta) is a minor crop in South Africa that has had periodic rises in interest since it was first cultivated in the country. Interest .... Hardened tissue culture plants were used to establish this trial due to ...

  3. Educational Film Guide for Middle Eastern Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Joseph; Joachim, Ann

    This annotated guide lists 16mm. films on the Middle East for use in grades K-12 and with adults. The Middle East refers to a vast area extending from eastern Afghanistan and the northern Caucasus to the western coast of Morocco and the southern periphery of the Sahara. The guide does not list films according to their merits. Rather, it includes…

  4. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Juniper for Streambank Stabilization in Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy R. Sheeter; Errol W. Claire

    1989-01-01

    Cut juniper trees (Juniperous osteosperma Hook.) anchored along eroded streambanks proved beneficial in stabilizing 96 percent of the erosion on eight streams evaluated in eastern Oregon over a 14-year-period. Juniper revetment was a successful substitute for costly rock structures on straight or slightly curved banks, but failed when placed on outside curves or when...

  6. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development (EAJRD) is now going to be jointly published by the Ugandan Agricultural Economics Association - a professional body for Agricultural Economists and those interested in agricultural economics and rural development issues - and the Department of Agricultural Economics ...

  7. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development (EAJRD) is now going to be jointly published by the Ugandan Agricultural Economics Association - a professional body for Agricultural Economists and those interested in agricultural economics and rural development issues - and the Department of ...

  8. The Younger Dryas in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, S

    1995-01-01

    The Younger Dryas period is traced in pollen diagrams of the Eastern Mediterranean by means of radiocarbon dates. The biostratigraphy in terms of pollen assemblages is compared with the absolute time scale. The Younger Dryas as a pollen assemblage zone is at best vaguely visible in those parts that

  9. Oil Pollution and Eastern Obolo Human Ecology,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    In the environment are other organisms of flora and fauna whose importance to ... environment. The different types of rigs used to drill the exploratory wells in. Eastern Obolo include drill ships and jack-up rigs. These rigs were able to ... instance, the initial 360 spills in the 1970s released 1.426 million barrels of crude oil into ...

  10. pandemic in the eastern Mediterranean region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, infected wild birds, especially wild ducks, could migrate to other regions, such as the eastern. Mediterranean region, and spread the virus. Fourth, Guan et al. (1) reported that viral hepatitis infection, especially hepatitis B, could be a possible risk factor for influenza A(nrH7N9) infection in humans (1). Countries from the ...

  11. The eastern larch beetle in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner

    1986-01-01

    The eastern larch beetle (Dendroctonus simplex LeConte) exists throughout the range of tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) in interior Alaska where it has a 1-year life cycle. Beetles overwinter as adults in the bark of the trunk below snowline in infested trees. Tamarack trees that are slow growing because of repeated...

  12. Laptop Circulation at Eastern Washington University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Doris; Malia, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, Eastern Washington University's Libraries began a laptop circulation program with seventeen laptops. Today, there are 150 laptops in the circulation pool, as well as seventeen digital cameras, eleven digital handycams, and thirteen digital projectors. This article explains how the program has grown to its present size, the growing pains…

  13. Timber resource of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton L. Essex; John S. Jr. Spencer

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows that there was a substantial gain in the volume of growing stock and smaller but sizable gain in the volume of sawtimber between 1959 and 1972; however, the area of commercial forest land declined slightly. This report gives statistical highlights and tables presenting detailed...

  14. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    for the right place' and potential distribution maps of the useful woody species that occur in eastern Africa. To navigate this site, please use the menu on the left. For the latest news and updates, check out our Google+ page. And if you want to contact us for questions, comments or any other reason, please...

  15. Anemia among school children in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Tamang, Man Kumar; Shakya, Prem Raj; Lamsal, Madhab; Baral, Nirmal

    2015-06-01

    Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in developing countries like Nepal. This study was done to find the prevalence of anemia among the children aged 4-13 years in eastern Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in four districts (Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam) of eastern Nepal to find the prevalence of anemia among the school children of eastern Nepal. Children aged 4-13 years were selected randomly from different schools of above districts and 618 venous blood samples were collected. Hemoglobin level was estimated by using cyanmethemoglobin method. The mean hemoglobin level was 12.2 ± 1.82 gm/dl. About 37.9% (n = 234) children were found anemic. Anemia prevalence was 42.4% (n = 78), 31.6% (n = 60), 45.3% (n = 48) and 34.8% (n = 48) among school children of Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam district, respectively. The study finds anemia as a significant health problem among the school children of eastern Nepal. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sawlog grades for eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Robert L. Brisbin; Robert L. Brisbin

    1971-01-01

    In 1957, the USDA Forest Service Log Grade Committee recommended a service-wide action program in log- and tree-grade research. Approval of the program in 1958 resulted in the establishment of five species-oriented timber-quality research projects covering several groups of commercially important timber species. The eastern softwood timber-quality project was activated...

  17. Numerical modeling of eastern connecticut's visual resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Civco

    1979-01-01

    A numerical model capable of accurately predicting the preference for landscape photographs of selected points in eastern Connecticut is presented. A function of the social attitudes expressed toward thirty-two salient visual landscape features serves as the independent variable in predicting preferences. A technique for objectively assigning adjectives to landscape...

  18. Trauma care – the Eastern Cape story

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    natural deaths in the Eastern Cape are worryingly higher than the national average, i.e. 11.6% v. 11% and 15.7% v. 10.2%, respectively. The values are in keeping with the higher levels of poverty in the province. ... The huge burden of disease, together with poor ... Prevention in South Africa: Developments and Challenges.

  19. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  20. Recovery of eastern Cape heathland after fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. F. G. Jacot Guillarmod

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available In parts of the eastern Cape, fire is increasing in frequency and intensity in heathland, due mainly to the presence of adventive exotic tree species. These adventives also smother the indigenous vegetation under a dense canopy or with leaf litter. This heathland* flora requires a long period to reach its climax and under present conditions, this is rarely attained.

  1. Undrained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    of frictional materials during monotonic loading. The tests conducted includes undrained and constant volume tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. All the tests are performed on reconstituted loose to medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  2. Fire in Eastern North American Oak Ecosystems: Filling the Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian (Morgan) Varner; Mary Arthur; Stacy Clark; Daniel C. Dey; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Fire Ecology is focused on the fire ecology of eastern USA oak (Quercus L.) forests, woodlands, and savannas. The papers were presented as part of the Fifth Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA, in 2015. The topic of fire in eastern oak ecosystems is one that has received insufficient interest from the...

  3. Importance of the Eastern Arc Mountains for vascular plants | Lovett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term 'Eastern Arc' was introduced in 1985 to describe an exceptionally rich area of restricted range plant species on the crystalline mountains of eastern Tanzania and south-east Kenya. About a third of the Eastern Arc flora is composed of restricted¬-range species. Qualitative and quantitative data are used to ...

  4. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Satish, Karthyayani Priya; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Ibrahim, Halah

    2016-08-19

    Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restrict, health information access and utilization for those with low literacy. By employing expert panel, Delphi technique, focus group methodologies, and pre-testing using participants (N = 900) from the UAE and India, a survey construct to the Eastern-Middle Eastern cultures was developed. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α and validity using Factor analysis. Kiaser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) sampling adequacy and Bartlett's tests were used to assess the strength of the relationship among the variables. Inclusion of non-health related items were found to be critical in the authentic assessment of health literacy in the Eastern and Middle Eastern population given the influence of social desirability. Thirty-two percentage of the original 19-item construct was eliminated by the focus group for reasons of relevance and impact for the local culture. Field pretesting participants from two countries, indicated overall construct reliability (Cronbach's α =0.85), validity and consistency (KMO value of 0.92 and Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant). The Eastern-Middle Eastern Adult Health Literacy (EMAHL13), screening instrument is brief, simple, a useful indicator of whether or not a patient can read. It assessespatients' ability to comprehend by distinguishing between health and non-health related items. The EMAHL13 will be a useful too for the reliable assessment of health literacy in countries, where culture plays a significant impact. This will be the first steptowards providing

  5. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  6. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  7. Monitoring Glacial and Periglacial Environments in the Ortles-Cevedale (Eastern Italian Alps) Using the Sfm-Mvs Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, P.; Piermattei, L.; Carturan, L.; de Blasi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.; Vettore, A.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the development of a new photogrammetric technique, called Structure from Motion (SfM), has generated a great interest in the field of glaciology, as well as in glacial and periglacial geomorphology. This technique, coupled with dense image matching algorithms such as multi-view stereo (MVS), allows to obtain high resolution three-dimensional models of the surface employing sequences of overlapping images shot with common uncalibrated digital cameras. This study investigates the potential of the SfM-MVS approach in reconstructing the surface of a glacier and a neighbouring rock glacier located in Alta Val de La Mare (Ortles-Cevedale, Eastern Italian Alps). The photos were taken from the ground using a consumer-grade SLR camera and processed using the computer vision-based software package Agisoft PhotoScan in order to generate the 3D models. A contemporaneous DTM surveyed by LiDAR provided high-resolution terrain information which was used to locate the GCPs needed to georeference the photogrammetric 3D model. The LiDAR DTM was also used as a reference for estimating the accuracy of the photogrammetric DTMs. The results highlight that from a series of digital images taken from the ground it is possible to reconstruct the surface of both glaciers and rock glaciers, with good accuracy. The effectiveness of the photogrammetric method was also evaluated in light of the different substrata (fresh snow, old snow, firn, ice and debris) which were present at the moment of surveys, and of spatial characteristics as the distance from the camera and the terrain gradient. The new digital photogrammetric methods proved to be well suited for low-budget research and application in remote areas, thus becoming potential alternatives to the efficient but also expensive and logistically-demanding LiDAR technologies for the evaluation of the glacier mass balance with the geodetic method, and for the assessment of the surface displacement of rock glaciers.

  8. Utilização de métodos contraceptivos entre as usuárias da rede pública de saúde do município de Maringá-PR Contraceptive methods in the public health service ("Sistema Único de Saúde" in Maringá-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Maria Matarezi de Souza

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os métodos contraceptivos adotados e o perfil das usuárias da rede pública de saúde do município de Maringá-PR, em relação às orientações para o seu uso, indicações, contra-indicações e razões para interrupção dos métodos. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, descritivo, obtido por 284 entrevistas domiciliares de mulheres selecionadas das 62 equipes do Programa de Saúde da Família, mediante consentimento livre e esclarecido. O questionário foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo seres humanos da Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Os questionários utilizados foram pré-testados e então aplicados, interessando para este estudo as seguintes seções: caracterização da entrevistada; indicadores socioeconômicos; métodos contraceptivos. Análise estatística das distribuições de freqüências, pelo Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versão 12.0. RESULTADOS: a maioria das mulheres eram de etnia branca, casadas, tinham idade entre 35 e 49 anos, escolaridade em nível médio, exerciam trabalho não remunerado e foram classificadas na classe econômica D e E. Quanto aos hábitos, 22,5% eram fumantes e 4,9% usuárias de bebida alcoólica. A pílula foi adotada em 50,3%, preservativo em 28,1% e laqueadura em 32%. A orientação quanto ao uso de métodos anticoncepcionais geralmente foi dos profissionais da área de saúde. Os motivos de interrupção dos métodos foram: desejo de engravidar, preferência por método definitivo e efeitos colaterais da pílula. O fator de risco mais prevalente para uso de pílula foi o tabagismo. Apenas 35,9% das entrevistadas iniciaram o uso da pílula após consulta prévia e quase a mesma proporção, 33,6%, não a fizeram antes do início de seu uso. CONCLUSÕES: observou-se que as indicações do uso do método contraceptivo e as orientações realizadas por profissionais da área de saúde foram satisfatórias, apesar das elevadas taxas de laqueadura

  9. Grandi e piccoli eventi nelle città di mare per mutamenti urbani sostenibili: i casi studio di Lorient e Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Clemente

    2012-12-01

    basato sulla sua cultura di città di mare. Le attività legate al mare sono stati potenziate, creando spazi per la vela e la nautica da diporto, che ha portato alla riqualificazione delle aree dismesse e dell'area portuale. Questo processo di riqualificazione, legato alla sua identità storica, la costruzione di nuove infrastrutture e dei nuovi attrattori economici e funzionali, stanno garantendo la sua candidatura come sede di Mega eventi velici. I risultati sono stati una migliore qualità della vita per i residenti, sviluppo economico e del turismo.Il secondo caso riguarda la città di Valencia. Rappresenta un esempio emblematico perché la designazione come città ospitante la 32° America’s Cup ha avviato un lungo processo di rigenerazione urbana. Questo evento ha proiettato la città sulla scena internazionale e ha consolidato alcuni processi e strategie già avviati.La riabilitazione della zona del porto storico per la 32° America’s Cup, insieme a interventi importanti come La Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias e il circuito di Formula 1, ha dato un nuovo volto alla città negli ultimi decenni. La metamorfosi della città è avvenuta con il contributo di importanti architetti contemporanei.Il recupero del waterfront è stato progettato non solo per la competizione velica, ma, soprattutto, come occasione per dotare la città di nuove attrezzature formative, culturali, ricreative e del tempo libero, per promuovere il turismo e l'ospitalità.L'importanza e il valore emblematico del caso Valencia ha attirato l'interesse di esperti, non solo pianificatori e architetti, ma anche specialisti del marketing turistico e della gestione degli eventi sportivi.

  10. Porti, trasporti e cultura del mare nelle città d’Italia, per i 150 anni dall’Unità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Moretti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Le celebrazioni per i 150 anni dell’Unità d’Italia offrono anche l’occasione per interrogarsi sulla storia e lo sviluppo di questo Paese, in particolare in riferimento alla cultura del mare e al sistema dei trasporti via acqua. In un paese peninsulare come l’Italia, con i suoi 7.500 chilometri di fronte d’acqua, la presenza dei porti è sempre stata elemento determinante per la crescita economica e per la sua affermazione sui mercati internazionali. Ma, dalla seconda metà del Novecento, le città e i loro porti sono andati progressivamente separandosi, determinando situazioni di forti contrasti e di continue tensioni. Solo più recentemente – a seguito della legge n. 84 del 1994 – nuove forme di ‘dialogo’ hanno consentito, in talune occasioni, di riavviare politiche di concertazione sui piani di sviluppo delle aree portuali e sul miglioramento della situazione delle zone urbane prossime ai porti. Per tutti questi motivi, l’occasione del 150esimo anniversario dell’Unità d’Italia può rappresentare un momento significativo per riprendere la riflessione sul ruolo dei porti italiani nella storia del nostro paese, ed, eventualmente, sul potenziale rafforzamento che essi possono subire, alla luce dei dati positivi ed incoraggianti dell’intero cluster marittimo in questi ultimi anni, almeno fino alla crisi congiunturale del 2008.Al tempo stesso, si può analizzare la complessa relazione porto-città, in un’ottica di mutuo riconoscimento delle rispettive esigenze e della volontà di sviluppare le proprie attività in un quadro di concreto ed efficace spirito di collaborazione, che richiede sia una maggiore conoscenza reciproca, così come una più efficace definizione degli obiettivi per il raggiungimento di una qualità urbana sostenibile e duratura.La progressiva globalizzazione dell’economia e la liberalizzazione del mercato hanno determinato una generale crescita degli scambi commerciali a livello mondiale e in

  11. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states......’ and internationally minded ‘new citizens’ has left some in poverty, unemployment and social insecurity, leading them to rely on normative coping and semi-autonomous strategies for security and social guarantees. This anthology explores how grey zones of governance, borders, relations and invisibilities affect...

  12. Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders in an Adult Brazilian Community Population Using the Research Diagnostic Criteria (Axes I and II) for Temporomandibular Disorders (The Maringá Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progiante, Patrícia Saram; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Lawrence, Herenia P; Goya, Suzana; Grossi, Patrícia Krieger; Grossi, Márcio Lima

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and comorbid factors (sleep bruxism and headaches). This study was a cross-sectional population survey in the city of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. Axes I and II of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) were used for assessment of TMD signs and symptoms. The population was users of the Brazilian public health system (SUS), of both sexes, between the ages of 20 and 65 years, and not seeking treatment for TMD. The selected population (N = 1,643) was composed mostly of (a) women (65.9%), (b) married or single individuals (90.6%), (c) Caucasians (70.1%), (d) individuals aged 32.7 ± 10.3 years, (e) individuals earning a medium income (75.1%), and (f) those who had completed a high school education or higher (79.9%). According to the chronic pain grade classification (CPG) in the RDC/TMD Axis II, 36.2% of the population had some degree of TMD pain (CPG I to IV); however, only 5.1% had severe limitation due to pain (CPG III or IV). In the RDC/TMD Axis I diagnoses, 29.5% presented with muscle disorders (group I), 7.9% with disk displacements (group II), and 39.1% with other joint disorders (group III). Headaches were present in 67.9% and awake and sleep bruxism in 30% and 33.4% of the population, respectively. The prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMD was high in this population, but with low disability; however, the proportion of patients in need of treatment was much lower.

  13. Consumo alimentar e avaliação nutricional: caracterização de escolares no município de Maringá - Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Dayane Pereira Cadamuro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar o estado nutricional dos escolares com relação ao consumo alimentar. Método: estudo transversal, realizado com 82 crianças de 5 a 7 anos, matriculadas em quatro escolas municipais de Maringá, estado do Paraná. Para a avaliação nutricional foi aferida a estatura e o peso atual dos escolares. Utilizou-se o cálculo do índice de massa corporal (IMC e os escolares foram classificados conforme o IMC e por idade em escore-z do sistema de vigilância alimentar e nutricional. Foi aplicado aos pais o questionário de consumo alimentar do sistema de vigilância alimentar nutricional. Resultados: a proporção de crianças do sexo feminino foi de 48,78% e 51,21% do sexo masculino. A maioria encontrava-se com o IMC adequado (78.04%; 21,95% dos escolares estavam acima do peso. A frequência do consumo alimentar demonstrou que 74,37% consumiam alimentos saudáveis mais de três vezes na semana e para os alimentos não saudáveis, 58,53% das crianças consumem até três vezes na semana. Considerações finais: conclui-se que a maior parte das crianças avaliadas da rede municipal de ensino possuem IMC adequado e consomem alimentos saudáveis na maioria dos dias da semana, o que pode ser fator protetor para obesidade nesta população. Porém, há um percentual considerável acima do peso, o que requer cuidados e orientações especiais da escola e órgãos públicos de saúde e educação.

  14. Aborto e placentite micótica por Aspergillus fumigatus em uma égua Mycotic placentitis and abortion due to Aspergillus fumigatus in a mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Driemeier

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available É descrito um caso de placentite micótica e aborto em uma égua com 7 meses de gestação. Alterações macroscópicas incluíam subdesenvolvido, áreas brancas na placenta e espessamento da membrana cório-alantóide. No pulmão fetal havia duas nodulações com 1 cm de diâmetro. Microscopicamente as lesões placentárias eram predominantemente necrótico-purulentas com focos de mineralização na placenta e trombose com inflamação purulenta no pulmão do feto. Hifas fúngicas septadas e ramificadas estavam presentes na placenta e também nos nódulos pulmonares. Aspergillus fumigatus foi isolado das lesões placentárias. O diagnóstico baseou-se nos achados histopatológicos e no isolamento do agente.A case of mycotic placentitis with abortion in a mare in the 7th month of gestation is described. Gross changes included an underdeveloped fetus, patch whitish areas in the placenta and thickenning of the allantochorion. In the fetal lungs there were nodules of 1 cm diameter. Histopathological changes consisted mainly of necrosupurative placentitis with multifocal mineralization on the placenta and thrombosis with focal supurative inflamation in the fetal lung. Branching, septaded fungal hyphae could be demonstrated in the placental lesions and in the lungs of the fetus. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the placental lesions. Diagnosis was based on the histopathology and isolation of the agent.

  15. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during mono...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  16. On The New Russian Eastern Policy

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    Anatoly V. Torkunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the new Eastern foreign policy of Russia, which has been developing since 2011, and the realization of various projects within this policy. The author posits that world is undergoing profound and dynamic changes, which boil down to two interconnected processes: 1 economic power shift towards Asia-Pacific region, which will define in the near future the shape of the world system; 2 shift of the main political, economic and military contradictions in world politics to this region. These core changes in world politics are also effected by trends in development of Russia and its near abroad. For more than a quarter of the century Russia has been pursuing a regional leadership in building among post-soviet states a mutual space for common interests open for other members of international community. This policy became known as "new Russian Eastern policy" or a policy of Eurasian integration. Its main goal is to establish Eurasian economic union by 2015 which will open boarders of the member states for unrestricted movement of goods, services, capital and workers within the emerging regional market with the total volume of 170-180 million people. Russian leaders look forward to discussing with their European partners prospects for merging Eurasian and European unions into a single economic space stretching from Lisbon to Vladivostok. Conceptually the strategy of Eurasian integration stems from a belief in unity of economic, cultural, civilizational interests of the Eurasian member states with state interests in Asia and Asia-Pacific. Realization of the new Eastern policy will be accompanied by the long awaited development of the Russian Eastern regions.

  17. Ocorrência de onicomicose em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v27i2.1425 Occurrence of the onychomycosis in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v27i2.1425

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Onicomicoses são infecções fúngicas que atingem as unhas e acometem cerca de 30% da população. Recentemente tem sido relatado aumento dessas infecções e também alterações em sua etiologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência das onicomicoses e perfil dos pacientes acometidos em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Entre janeiro de 1999 a junho de 2003 foram analisadas, no Laboratório de Micologia do Lepac (Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Análises Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, um total de 435 amostras de pacientes com suspeita clínica de onicomicose. Destas amostras 74,25% (N = 323 foram positivas, sendo 15,48% confirmadas por exame direto (N=50, 20,43% exclusivamente por cultura (N=66 e 64,09% por exame direto e cultura (N=207. As mulheres foram mais afetadas que os homens (72,67% e 27,33%, respectivamente, e a maior prevalência foi em indivíduos com mais de 40 anos. As unhas dos pés foram mais acometidas que as unhas das mãos (65,90% e 34,10%, respectivamente. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentes foram as leveduras (52,17% isoladas especialmente das unhas das mãos. Os fungos filamentosos foram prevalentes nas unhas dos pés, destacando-se os dermatófitos responsáveis por 33,85% das onicomicoses e os não dermatófitos (FFND por 13,97%Onychomycosis are fungal infections that reach the nails and affect about 30% of the population. Recently has been observed increase of these infections and also alterations in its etiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of these mycosis and profile of the patients attacked in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Between January 1999 to June 2003 were analyzed at the Mycological Laboratory from the Teaching and Research Laboratory in Clinical Analyses (Lepac a total of 435 samples of patients with clinical symptoms of onychomycoses. Of those samples 74,25% (N=323, were positive, being 15,48% confirmed by direct examination (N=50

  18. Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.

    2002-01-01

    Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (similar to230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled...... and pelleted preparation (P). Ad libitum access to the study diet (gross energy 17.2 MJ/kg dry matter (DM)) was attained over 2 weeks. In the following 4 weeks, groups 1 (no. = 3) and 2 (no. 4) received pelleted and chaff-based diets respectively. Dietary forms were exchanged during week 5 and ad libitum...

  19. La influencia de la presión atmosférica y el viento en la variabilidad del nivel del mar en el mareógrafo de Bonanza (Cádiz)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Alba, Mónica; Fraile Jurado, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    En esta comunicación se analiza la influencia de la presión atmosférica y el viento en la variabilidad del nivel del mar en el mareógrafo de Bonanza (Cádiz) mediante modelos de regresión lineal con el objeto de caracterizar y cuantificar el peso de las variables climáticas sobre los valores y la variabilidad del nivel del mar. This paper analyses the influence of air pressure and wind on sea level trough the data provided by tidal gauge of Bonanza (Cádiz) by means of linear regression...

  20. A formação de estratégias no contexto universitário : análise de um caso : a universidade estadual de Maringá

    OpenAIRE

    Osmar Gasparetto

    1990-01-01

    O estudo descreve o processo de criação da Universidade examinando a formação e o tipo de estratégias utilizadas, no ambiente universitário, através da análise de um caso. Para desenvolvimento do estudo foi utilizada a Universidade Estadual de Maringá - Pr. O trabalho desenvolvido, consistiu em pesquisar a Universidade do ponto de vista da formação de suas estratégias, ao longo da sua história, especificamente de 1960 a 1988. Foi usada a metodologia de pesquisa de estratégias proposta por Min...

  1. Sistema de Información y Educación Superior: análisis de datos y caracterización de la “Universidade Estadual de Maringá”

    OpenAIRE

    Altoé, Neusa; Neves de Azevedo, Mário Luiz; Portero Batilana, Adelia; Aráujo de Carvalho, César; Lúcia Mesti, Regina

    2014-01-01

    [EN] This work is the result of compiling and analyzing the "database" of “Universidade Estadual de Maringá”, an institution associated with "INFOACES: System Integral de Información sobre las Instituciones de Educación Superior de América Latina", coordinated by the University of Valencia (Spain) involving 33 institutions, located in 23 different countries, including 18 in Latin America and 5 in Europe. The project is supported by the ALFA III Programme (Cooperation between Highe...

  2. Towards a typology of the mares sandstone of Mallorca Concept, characterization and stratigraphy; Hacia una tipología de la piedra de marés de Mallorca. Concepto, caracterización y estratigrafía

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas Gornals, C.

    2017-09-01

    The mares sandstone has traditionally been the most representative and characteristic building stone on the island of Mallorca, used practically exclusively as construction material for centuries, since the abandonment of stone-and-mortar walls, until its progressive disuse with the appearance of the re-enforced concrete, which finally eclipsed its use. Such emblematic buildings for the island, as Bellver Castle, the Cathedral, La Lonja or the old city walls of Palma, bear witness to this. In Mallorca, the mares sandstone is quarried in the open air or in subterranean galleries. Vernacular architecture has always used the most accessible appropriate materials, and in the case of the mares sandstone, its abundance, sufficient softness, which facilitates its extraction, Together with sufficient hardness to confer solidity and durability in constructions, converge. The lack of specific scientific and geological data published about the different types of mares in Mallorca, added to the recent resurgence of technical, applied and landscape interest in this stone, have made a revision of its definition, characterization and classification necessary. [Spanish] Se definen el concepto y naturaleza de la piedra calcarenita denominada marés de la isla de Mallorca, a partir d sus características intrínsecas y de uso. Se realiza una clasificación y caracterización tipológica a partir de la cronoestratigrafía y contexto geológico de esta piedra utilizada como material de construcción. Se proporcionan datos históricos y etnológicos sobre su producción y aplicaciones. El marés de Mallorca, junto con las canteras donde se extrae, además de constituir un valioso patrimonio histórico-etnológico-cultural, constituyen también un importante patrimonio geológico-natural que registra y nos permite seguir la evolución y la historia geológica de la isla de Mallorca a través de los últimos 15 millones de años, desde el Mioceno medio (Langhiense-Serravalliense) hasta

  3. A função das áreas verdes em parques industriais: o caso de Maringá, Estado do Paraná = The function of green areas in the industrial parks: the case of Maringá, state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Luiz Domingos De Angelis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa, desenvolvida em seis parques industriais da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, teve por objetivo desenvolver uma metodologia que permitisse a convivência harmoniosa da vegetação nas suas diversas manifestações, em uma área específica e comcaracterísticas particulares (poluição atmosférica e descarga de resíduos em corpos de água, nem sempre favoráveis ao desenvolvimento dessa vegetação. Trabalhou-se com os remanescentes vegetacionais existentes nos fundos de vales e nas áreas de preservação ambiental, além da escassa arborização viária. As seguintes propostas são apresentadas como resultado do trabalho: incremento das áreas florestadas, criação de cinturões verdes entre as zonas industriais e aquelas residenciais, implantação de parques lineares cujo objetivo é o lazer passivo e corredores de atração da avifauna, implantação de calçadas ecológicas, e implantação da arborização de acompanhamento viário. Conclui-se que há a possibilidade de se ter essas áreas industriais e conviver harmoniosamente com a vegetação, desde que subsidiados por princípios técnicos pertinentes.The present research, carried out in six industrial parks of Maringá, state of Paraná, aimed at to develop a methodology to allow an harmonious coexistence of vegetation, in its several manifestations, in a specific area with particular characteristics (atmospheric pollution and discharge of residues in bodies of water, not always favorable to the development of such vegetation. The object of investigation was the remainders of the existing vegetation, located in the bottom of valleys and in areas of environmental preservation, and also a scarce arboreal forestation existing along the roads. As a result of the study, different proposals emerged: development of arborized areas; creation of green belts dividing the industrial areas and residential ones; implantation of lineal parks, aiming at creating a

  4. Perfil das doadoras do banco de leite humano do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Human milk bank donors’ profile at Hospital Universitário de Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Campos Dias

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Amamentação exclusiva até os seis meses de idade é fato importante para a saúde e para a relação mãe e filho. Quando essa amamentação é prejudicada, o desmame precoce pode ocorrer. O objetivo da pesquisa foi investigar o perfil das doadoras do Banco de Leite Humano do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Foramentrevistadas 48 nutrizes doadoras de leite humano durante os meses de outubro e novembro de 2004. O estudo foi observacional transversal e os dados foram coletados utilizando-se um questionário estruturado. Observou-se que 41,7% das nutrizes tinham entre 20 e 29 anos, 33,3% ensino médio completo e 66,6% receberam informações sobre amamentação. A falta de informação, contudo, sobre mama ingurgitada (20,8%, estimulação para produção de leite (29,1% e outras funções do leite materno, além da alimentação (31,3%, foram relevantes. Apenas metade das nutrizes não tinha oferecido qualquer outro alimento para o bebê antes dos seis meses de vida. Dados apontam paraimportância de orientação das nutrizes de forma direcionada, ainda durante a gestação.Exclusive maternal breast feeding until six months of age is an important practice for health and mother and son’s relationship. However, when that exclusive maternal breast feeding is harmed, precocious weans may occur. This work aims at investigating the Human Milk Bank donors’ profile at Hospital Universitário de Maringá,State of Paraná. Forty-eight nursing mothers were interviewed during two months: October and November, 2004. A transversal and observational study was carried out and the data were collected by means of individual interviews conducted by structured questionnaire. 41.7% of the women were aged between 20 and 29, 33.3% had concluded secondary school and 66.6% had received information on breast-feeding. The lack of information on engorged breast (20.8%, on stimulation for milk production (29.1% and other maternal milk functions

  5. Estudo retrospectivo de janeiro de 1998 a maio de 2005, no Hospital Universitário de Maringá, sobre ferimentos por arma branca e arma de fogo = Retrospective study (january 1998 / may 2005 at the University Hospital of Maringá, on wounds caused by edged weapons and firearms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Valadão Fagundes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar as características dos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário de Maringá (HUM, com ferimento por arma branca (FAB e por arma de fogo (FAF, quanto ao sexo, idade, às regiões corporais, órgãos mais atingidos, tempo de internamento, complicações e mortalidade. Após análise de uma planilhaelaborada para a pesquisa, observou-se que 68% dos atendimentos foram por FAB e 32%, por FAF, sendo a maioria homens (mais de 90%, adultos jovens (2ª e 3ª década, por FAF e FAB, respectivamente. As regiões mais acometidas foram abdome e tórax. e os órgãos mais atingidos foram intestino delgado e fígado, na lesão por arma branca, e fígado e intestino delgado, no FAF. A complicação mais comum foi o choque hipovolêmico. Concluiu-se que os FAB ocorreram em maior número no sexo masculino, na terceira década de vida.The objective of this study is to determine the characteristics of patients assisted at the University Hospital of Maringá (HUM with wounds from edged weapons (EWW or firearms (FW, in regards to gender, age, wounded body areas, most affected body organs,length of hospitalization, complications and mortality rates. After the analysis of a worksheet elaborated for the study, it was observed that 68% of admissions had been for EWW and 32% for FW. The majority were men (90% and young adults (20s and 30s, for FW and EWW, respectively. The most affected body areas were the abdomen and thorax, and the most wounded organs were, in order: the small intestine and liver for EWW, and the liver and small intestine for FW. The most common complication was hypovolemic shock. It was concluded that EWW had occurred in larger numbers than FW, withpredominance in males in their 30s.

  6. Ocorrência de anorexia nervosa e distúrbio de imagem corporal em estudantes do ensino médio de uma escola da rede pública da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná = Occurrences of nervous anorexy and body image disorder in middleschool students in the city of Maringá, State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Pinho Freitas Kneube

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga a ocorrência de anorexia nervosa e distúrbio de imagem corporal em 187 estudantes do ensino médio da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. O Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC e a classificação do estado nutricional foram utilizados para a avaliação antropométrica. A análise das respostas do questionário Body ShapeQuestionnaire (BSQ demonstrou que 66,1% das estudantes do sexo feminino apresentaram distúrbios de imagem corporal e somente 18,6% dos estudantes do sexo masculino apresentaram tal distúrbio. Com relação às respostas ao questionário Teste de Atitudes Alimentares (EAT, verificou-se que 10% do sexo masculino e 32% do sexo femininoapresentaram sintomatologia anoréxica. Os resultados sugerem uma elevada incidência da anorexia nervosa na população estudada bem como uma significativa presença de distorção da imagem corporal. As informações são relevantes para estudos clínicos voltados paraorientação nutricional dos adolescentes visando à reeducação alimentar.This study investigates the occurrence of nervous anorexy and body image disorders in 187 middle school students in the city of Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil. Body Mass Index (BMI and the classification of the nutritional state were used to the anthropometrical evaluation. The analysis of the questionnaire BSQ answers demonstrated that 66.1% of female students presented the body image disorder, and only 18.6% of male students presented such disorder. Regarding the questionnaire EAT answers, the analysis showed that 32% female and 10% male sex presented anorexic symptoms. The obtained results indicated high incidence of nervous anorexy in the population studied as well as a significant presence of body image distortion.These results are relevant to clinic studies of teenagers, mainly those directing to future studies on nutritional orientation focusing on alimentary reeducation.

  7. Adaptação do modelo de emissão modal CMEM para a frota da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Adaptation of CMEM modal emission model to the fleet of the city of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Pinheiro Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve a adaptação do modelo de emissão modal CMEM à frota da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Foram adotados como parâmetros de referência os fatores médios ponderados de emissão e de consumo determinados para a cidade. Esses fatores ponderados foram obtidos para cada fase do Proconve por meio dos fatores médios de emissão, corrigidos pelos fatores de deterioração do AP-42 da EPA e de consumo. Para cada fase do Proconve, foi associado um veículo representativo. Para cada veículo representativo, os parâmetros do modelo CMEM foram ajustados para aproximar-se aos fatores de emissão e consumo de referência. Observou-se que os fatores do AP42 tendem a representar melhor a deterioração da frota, principalmente para veículos mais antigos. A comparação com resultados do ciclo FTP, desagregados por fase, demonstrou variações percentuais mais significativas do que no valor total do ciclo. This paper describes the CMEM modal emission model adaptation to the fleet of the city of Maringá, Parana state, Brazil. Weighted averagefactors of determined emission and consumption for the city were adopted as reference parameters. These weighed factors were obtained for each PROCONVE phase through consumption and emission average factors, the latter corrected by AP-42 deterioration factors. For each Proconve phase a composite vehicle was associated. For each composite vehicle, the CMEM model parameters were adjusted to approach emission and consumption reference factors. It was observed AP42 deterioration factors tend to better represent the deterioration of the fleet, especially old vehicles. The comparison with FTP cycleresults, disaggregated by phase, demonstrated more significant percentile variations than the total value of the cycle.

  8. O uso de praguicidas por trabalhadores do setor agrícola atendidos ambulatorialmente em Maringá no período de 2002 a 2003 - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v26i2.1583 Pesticide use by agricultural workers in outpatients attendance in Maringá in the periods of 2002 and 2003 - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v26i2.1583

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Machinski Junior

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Os impactos de origem ambiental e ocupacional, relacionados ao uso de praguicidas, têm como alvo imediato a saúde coletiva, pois os resíduos liberados do ambiente ou remanescentes nas culturas estão sendo progressivamente transferidos para a água, para os alimentos e para o homem. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a utilização de praguicidas por trabalhadores do setor agrícola, atendidos no Ambulatório de Toxicologia e Saúde do Trabalhador do Centro de Controle de Intoxicações de Maringá (CCI-Maringá, a fim de avaliar os impactos sobre o ambiente e a saúde dessa população. Durante o período de 2002 a 2003, foi realizado um estudo descritivo retrospectivo em vinte e cinco pacientes atendidos devido à intoxicação por praguicidas. Os resultados demonstraram que os praguicidas representam um importante risco à saúde da população estudada e ao meio ambiente.The environmental and occupational origin impacts concerning the use of pesticides have the public health as immediate target. The environment residues or remainders in the crops are being gradually transferred to water, food and human being. The purpose of this paper was to characterize the use of pesticides by agricultural workers in the outpatient’s attendance of the Toxicology and Worker Health Clinic of the Poisoning Control Center of Maringá (Brazil, in order to evaluate their impacts on the environment and on the population’s health. During the period 2002-2003, a retrospective descriptive study was carried out in twenty-five patients attended for pesticide poisoning. The results showed that the pesticides represent an important risk to the health of the studied population as well as to the environment.

  9. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandrasekhar Nair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restrict, health information access and utilization for those with low literacy. Methods By employing expert panel, Delphi technique, focus group methodologies, and pre-testing using participants (N = 900 from the UAE and India, a survey construct to the Eastern-Middle Eastern cultures was developed. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s α and validity using Factor analysis. Kiaser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO sampling adequacy and Bartlett’s tests were used to assess the strength of the relationship among the variables. Results Inclusion of non-health related items were found to be critical in the authentic assessment of health literacy in the Eastern and Middle Eastern population given the influence of social desirability. Thirty-two percentage of the original 19-item construct was eliminated by the focus group for reasons of relevance and impact for the local culture. Field pretesting participants from two countries, indicated overall construct reliability (Cronbach’s α =0.85, validity and consistency (KMO value of 0.92 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant. Conclusion The Eastern-Middle Eastern Adult Health Literacy (EMAHL13, screening instrument is brief, simple, a useful indicator of whether or not a patient can read. It assessespatients’ ability to comprehend by distinguishing between health and non-health related items. The EMAHL13 will be a useful too for the reliable assessment of health literacy in countries, where culture plays a

  10. Eastern Europe. On the centenary of the political project

    OpenAIRE

    Mezhevich Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the characteristics of Eastern Europe as a political pro-ject. The author considers the genesis of Eastern Europe as a political region and identifies several periods in its history. The author analyses key features of sover-eignization- desovereignization of the region and examines geopolitical projects of Intermarium. It is shown that Eastern Europe as such is an objective reality, whose history has not ended. At the same time, the author advances and proves the thesi...

  11. Emigration dynamics of eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase.

  12. Mapping crustal thinning beneath the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Chevrot, Sebastien; Verges, Jaume; Sylvander, Matthieu; Ruiz, Mario; Antonio-Vigil, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    The eastern termination of the Pyrenees is a complex region marked by two large tectonic events, the building of the Pyrenees during the Alpine orogeny and the Neogene extensional processes associated to the rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica block and the opening of the Valencia Trough. This complex tectonic history has left major imprints in crustal structures. Previous studies based on gravity data and active seismic profiles have documented a crustal thinning from 40-45 km about 80 km to the west of the Mediterranean coastline to less than 25 km beneath the eastern termination of the Pyrenees. To progress in the knowledge of the geometry of this transition, two passive seismic profiles have been acquired from mid 2015 to late 2016 within the OROGEN project, an academic-industrial collaboration between CNRS-Total-BRGM and CSIC. Up to 38 broad-band stations were deployed along two orthogonal lines, with an interstation spacing close to 10 km. First results of receiver function migration on the E-W profile suggest a smooth Moho thinning smoothly from 40 km beneath the western termination of the line to 23 km close to the coastline. The NNE-SSW profile shows a clearly defined Moho beneath Iberia, slightly deepening from 32 to 35 km northwards, a 28-30 km thick crust underneath the North Pyrenean Front Thrust and a complex geometry in the Axial Zone. Data from natural events located in the Gulf of Roses and near the intersecting point of the profiles have been recorded along the lines, hence allowing to produce wide angle reflection/refraction profiles providing additional constraints on the geometry of the crust/mantle boundary in the Eastern Pyrenees. These new results will be integrated with the available geophysical and geologic information for a more accurate geodynamical interpretation of the results. (Additional founding by the MISTERIOS project, CGL2013-48601-C2-1-R)

  13. Modelling the shelf circulation off eastern Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Herzfeld, Mike; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    The marine waters across Tasmanian's eastern continental shelf are biologically productive and home to economically important fisheries and aquaculture industries. However, the marine climate there is poorly understood. We use a high-resolution (∼2 km in the horizontal), three-dimensional ocean model for eastern Tasmania (ETAS) to examine the simulated mean state and seasonal cycle of temperature, salinity and three-dimensional flow field, and the evaluation of daily model outputs against in situ and remote observations for the 1993-2014 period. We also use the model to examine the roles of river input and tidal forcing. The model is evaluated against remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and in-situ observations of sea level and subsurface temperature, salinity, and currents. The mean state demonstrates the influence of two well-known boundary currents (the East Australian Current, EAC, and the Zeehan Current, ZC) as well as the effects of local freshwater input from river runoff. The EAC is dominant in summer and the ZC in winter; the influence of the EAC also increases northwards and in the offshore direction. In addition, the model indicates the presence of a semi-permanent subsurface (50-100 m depth) northward flow trapped near the coast. Cool freshwater runoff from the Derwent and Huon Rivers directly impacts the temperature and salinity in their estuaries but has little influence further across the shelf. Tidal forcing impacts the mean state through tide-river interactions which flush Frederick Henry Bay and Norfolk Bay with freshwater. Tidal forcing also impacts the variability of temperature all along the coastline, most likely due to changes in the turbulent mixing near to the coast. The ETAS model output data are available as a high-resolution representation of the mean state, seasonal variations, and interannual variability of Tasmania's eastern continental shelf marine climate.

  14. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  15. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...

  16. Roman attempts to control Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nappo, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The Roman Empire showed a very distinct interest for the Red Sea area along all its history. This was due to the crucial role played by such region in both military and commercial Roman plans to expand its own influence in the East. The first echo of a military attempt to conquer the north eastern shores of Africa beyond Egypt dates back to the age of Augustus, but it is with Trajan that such project seems to reach a new level of coherence and strategic view. Under the latter, in fect, we hav...

  17. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ’ and internationally minded ‘new citizens’ has left some in poverty, unemployment and social insecurity, leading them to rely on normative coping and semi-autonomous strategies for security and social guarantees. This anthology explores how grey zones of governance, borders, relations and invisibilities affect......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...

  18. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...... agreements. They gained strong influence over their surroundings, and ,albeit they had to give up substantil parts of de-facto sovereingty, they are much better off than before, in particular in terms of security. EU's "new politics" are a successful alternative model to the "old politics", represented e...

  19. Parabolic dunes in north-eastern Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, O; Bezerra, L J C; Herrmann, H J; Maia, L P

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present measurements of vegetation cover over parabolic dunes with different degree of activation along the north-eastern Brazilian coast. We are able to extend the local values of the vegetation cover density to the whole dune by correlating measurements with the gray-scale levels of a high resolution satellite image of the dune field. The empirical vegetation distribution is finally used to validate the results of a recent continuous model of dune motion coupling sand erosion and vegetation growth.

  20. Wooden Calendar Sticks in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Vesselina; Koleva, Svetlana

    Wooden calendar sticks have preserved an archaic time-keeping tradition, which, during the Middle Ages, was one of the tools for establishing and disseminating Christian chronology and the liturgical calendars of the Western and Eastern Churches. The calendars vary in size and shape, type of signs, and structure of the record. Christian symbols interwoven with signs and pictograms mark days of importance in the ritual and economic year cycle. The wooden calendars are considered one of the proofs of the syncretism between the pagan tradition and Christian rites in folk cultures.

  1. Eastern and western happiness in work behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kubátová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to clarify what motivates East Asian work behavior. The research question is: How can a Western manager better understand work behavior and motivation in East Asian cultures? Knowledge about national culture, motivation and the concept of happiness are connected via deductive and comparative methods, while pointing out their new connections and relations. We argue that work motivation in East Asian cultures can be explained using the self-concept-based motivation meta-theory as it corresponds to the East Asian concept of face and that the East Asian self-concept originates with the Eastern concept of happiness.

  2. 1.99 Ga mafic dykes of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland: An upper age limit for the Palaeoproterozoic Loch Maree Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas; Prave, Tony; Spencer, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Mafic dyke swarms are often used as geochronological markers, as they are widespread and emplaced over short timespans. The ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke swarm is one such example that has played a key role in understanding the complex tectonic and metamorphic history of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland (LGC), part of the North Atlantic Craton (NAC). The LGC consists of Archean and Palaeoproterozoic terranes that experienced polyphase deformation prior to their assembly at ca. 1.8 Ga. Zircons separated from a doleritic dyke from the Gairloch terrane have yielded a concordant U-Th-Pb age (1,989 +4.3 / -0.99 Ma) using the ID-TIMS method. The doleritic dyke is emplaced in Lewisian gneiss that experienced both granulite and amphibolite-facies metamorphism. Partial recrystallisation and amphibolitisation of the dyke demonstrate that it pre-dates the most recent (Laxfordian) amphibolite-facies metamorphic event. The age obtained from the dyke overlaps the U-Pb age of a previously dated olivine gabbro dyke from the Assynt terrane (1,992 Ma). These combined ages provide strong corroborating evidence for a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm event, distinct from the older ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke event known from elsewhere in the LGC. The existence of a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm provides an upper age limit for the Loch Maree Group (LMG), a Palaeoproterozoic succession of metasediment and metavolcanic rocks that overlie the LGC and which are not cross-cut by the Scourie dykes. This study proposes that a period of crustal extension took place in the region at ca. 2.0 Ga. Later, subduction may have resulted in the accretion of the LMG and the adjacent Ard Gneiss, which has previously been regarded as a magmatic arc. The ca. 1.9 Ga age of the earliest stage of the Laxfordian metamorphic event, which affected the LMG, could therefore mark the onset of collision. This sequence of events can be correlated with other coeval areas of the NAC, including the Nagssugtoqidian mobile belt of

  3. Earth-based 12.6-cm wavelength radar mapping of the Moon: New views of impact melt distribution and mare physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael; Chandler, John; Ghent, Rebecca R.; Ray Hawke, B.; Anderson, Ross F.; Wells, Kassandra

    2010-08-01

    We present results of a campaign to map much of the Moon's near side using the 12.6-cm radar transmitter at Arecibo Observatory and receivers at the Green Bank Telescope. These data have a single-look spatial resolution of about 40 m, with final maps averaged to an 80-m, four-look product to reduce image speckle. Focused processing is used to obtain this high spatial resolution over the entire region illuminated by the Arecibo beam. The transmitted signal is circularly polarized, and we receive reflections in both senses of circular polarization; measurements of receiver thermal noise during periods with no lunar echoes allow well-calibrated estimates of the circular polarization ratio (CPR) and the four-element Stokes vector. Radiometric calibration to values of the backscatter coefficient is ongoing. Radar backscatter data for the Moon provide information on regolith dielectric and physical properties, with particular sensitivity to ilmenite content and surface or buried rocks with diameter of about one-tenth the radar wavelength and larger. Average 12.6-cm circular polarization ratio (CPR) values for low- to moderate-TiO 2 mare basalt deposits are similar to those of rough terrestrial lava flows. We attribute these high values to abundant few-centimeter diameter rocks from small impacts and a significant component of subsurface volume scattering. An outflow deposit, inferred to be impact melt, from Glushko crater has CPR values near unity at 12.6-cm and 70-cm wavelengths and thus a very rugged near-surface structure at the decimeter to meter scale. This deposit does not show radar-brightness variations consistent with levees or channels, and appears to nearly overtop a massif, suggesting very rapid emplacement. Deposits of similar morphology and/or radar brightness are noted for craters such as Pythagoras, Rutherfurd, Theophilus, and Aristillus. Images of the north pole show that, despite recording the deposition of Orientale material, Byrd and Peary craters do

  4. Ecologia de Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani em área urbana do município de Maringá, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Ueslei

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudar a fauna, a freqüência horária e a sazonalidade de flebotomíneos em abrigos de animais silvestres, perímetro urbano.. MÉTODOS: No Parque do Ingá, perímetro urbano do município de Maringá, PR, foram coletados flebotomíneos com armadilha de Shannon (AS e com armadilhas de Falcão (AF. As coletas com AS foram feitas na margem do córrego Moscados, das 18h às 6h. As coletas com AF foram realizadas em abrigos de aves, mamíferos e répteis silvestres, das 20h às 24h. Com ambos os métodos as coletas foram feitas duas noites ao mês, de outubro de 1998 a setembro de 2000. RESULTADOS: Nas As coletaram-se 13.656 flebotomíneos, com predomínio de Lutzomyia whitmani (98,7%. Coletaram-se 4.040 flebotomíneos, prevalecendo novamente L. whitmani (96,3%. Nas AS L. whitmani foi mais freqüente entre 0h e 2h. Nas AS, esta espécie foi mais freqüente no mês de agosto (55,1%, e nas AF em março (19,2% e novembro (15,9% de 1999, e em agosto (20,6% de 2000. Coletaram-se mais flebotomíneos nas AF instaladas nos abrigos de mamíferos (84,0%. CONCLUSÕES: Foi nítido o predomínio de L. whitmani no Parque do Ingá; o pico maior de freqüência de L. whitmani em AS é no mês de agosto e nas AF, em março e novembro; o pico de atividade de L. whitmani ocorre entre 0h e 2h.

  5. Ovulações múltiplas em éguas abatidas em Pelotas-RS Multiple ovulation in slaughtered mares - Pelotas-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alves Pimentel

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a frequência de ovulações múltiplas em 3631 éguas, abatidas em Pelotas - RS, durante o período de janeiro de 1988 a setembro de 1989, com a predominância de sangue da raça Crioula. A maior frequência de ovulações múltiplas ocorreu no mês de fevereiro (19%, diminuindo progressivamente até setembro (0,4%. Este resultado mostra que o fotoperíodo exerce uma influência positiva sobre a atividadc ovariana, inclusive no que tange ao número de ovulações por ciclo. A frequência média geral de ovulações múltiplas foi 7,1% (257/3631. A taxa média de ovulações duplas foi de 6,5% (235/3631, tripla de 0,5% (19/3631 e quádrupla, 0,1% (3/3631. Os meses de dezembro a abril mostraram as maiores frequências sobre o total das ovulações múltiplas (65,5%. Estas informações podem representar um importante subsídio ao manejo reprodutivo da raça crioula, visando controlar o sério problema que as gestações gemelares representam na espécie equina.This paper describes the frequency of multiple ovulations in 3631 mares, slaughtered in Pelotas - RS, predominantly from Crioulo breed. The higher frequency of multiple ovulation ocurred in February (19%, decreasing progressively up to September (0.4%. This result shows that the photoperiod has a positive influence on the ovarian activity, even on the number of ovulations per cycle. The overall mean of multiple ovulation was 7.1% (257/3631. Double ovulations ocurred in 6.5% (235/3631, triple in 0.5% (19/3631 and quadruple in 0.1% (3/3631. The months from December to April presented the highest frequencies over all multiple ovulations (65.5%. These observations may represent an importante support to reproductive management of the Crioulo breed in order to control the serious problem that represents twin pregnancies in equine.

  6. Análise e reflexão sobre a educação especial inclusivo em Maringá/BR e em Guadalajara/ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Cano Miranda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é conhecer o percurso da Educação Especial em contextos distintos, cidade de Maringá/Brasil e Guadalajara/Espanha e analisar as bases que fundamentam a organização, estrutura e o funcionamento dessa modalidade de ensino tendo como ponto de partida o processo de escola inclusiva. Os pressupostos que embasam este trabalho fundamentam-se na concepção Histórico Cultural proposta por Vygotski que defende a existência de princípios essenciais que embasam o desenvolvimento da criança com deficiência. Se, por um lado, a deficiência impõe limitações ao indivíduo, dificultando seu desenvolvimento, por outro, justamente por ocasionar dificuldades, possibilita o movimento para a compensação, ampliando o desenvolvimento de outras capacidades. O déficit em si é o de menos. Portanto, trata-se de uma pesquisa de campo, realizada por meio de observações, pesquisa na literatura e análise documental em instituições de educação infantil visitadas, nas cidades já referidas. Os resultados mostraram que há peculiaridades quanto ao percurso, organização e funcionamento da Educação Especial em cada um dos contextos analisados. Referentemente ao movimento de educação inclusiva, evidencia-se que a Espanha é precursora desse processo, por consequência apresenta condições adequadas nas diferentes formas de conduzir o atendimento às crianças com necessidades especiais, e por outro lado, as escolas dispõem dos recursos humanos e materiais especializados de que necessitam. Enquanto no Brasil a operacionalização dessas medidas ocorre mais lentamente. Assim, podese dizer que esse processo de educação inclusiva não acontece de forma linear dentro das escolas regulares e tão pouco nas diferentes formas de ação da educação especial nos dois contextos analisados.

  7. Ecologia de Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani em área urbana do município de Maringá, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudar a fauna, a freqüência horária e a sazonalidade de flebotomíneos em abrigos de animais silvestres, perímetro urbano.. MÉTODOS: No Parque do Ingá, perímetro urbano do município de Maringá, PR, foram coletados flebotomíneos com armadilha de Shannon (AS e com armadilhas de Falcão (AF. As coletas com AS foram feitas na margem do córrego Moscados, das 18h às 6h. As coletas com AF foram realizadas em abrigos de aves, mamíferos e répteis silvestres, das 20h às 24h. Com ambos os métodos as coletas foram feitas duas noites ao mês, de outubro de 1998 a setembro de 2000. RESULTADOS: Nas As coletaram-se 13.656 flebotomíneos, com predomínio de Lutzomyia whitmani (98,7%. Coletaram-se 4.040 flebotomíneos, prevalecendo novamente L. whitmani (96,3%. Nas AS L. whitmani foi mais freqüente entre 0h e 2h. Nas AS, esta espécie foi mais freqüente no mês de agosto (55,1%, e nas AF em março (19,2% e novembro (15,9% de 1999, e em agosto (20,6% de 2000. Coletaram-se mais flebotomíneos nas AF instaladas nos abrigos de mamíferos (84,0%. CONCLUSÕES: Foi nítido o predomínio de L. whitmani no Parque do Ingá; o pico maior de freqüência de L. whitmani em AS é no mês de agosto e nas AF, em março e novembro; o pico de atividade de L. whitmani ocorre entre 0h e 2h.

  8. Sedative and antinociceptive effects of romifidine and xylazine in Thoroughbred mares Efeito sedativo e antinociceptivo da romifidina e xilazina em éguas Puro Sangue Inglês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Christovão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The sedative and antinociceptive effects of romifidine (0.1mg/kg and of xylazine (1.0mg/kg on Thoroughbred mares were studied. Sedation was evaluated by quantifying spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA and head height (HH in animals placed in automated individual behaviour stalls. Antinociception was determined utilizing a heat irradiation lamp recording the latency time for the hoof withdrawal reflex (HWRL and the latency time for the skin twitch reflex (STRL in a randomised block design with 10 replicates. Comparison of the sedative effects of romifidine and of xylazine on SLA showed a faster effect for xylazine. Regarding the sedative effect of the substances based on HH, romifidine caused a longer-lasting effect. Romifidine caused an increase in HWRL and STRL, and xylazine, an agent known for its analgesic effect, did not have an antinociceptive effect based on STRL result. The antinociceptive effect of romifidine was more pronounced than the xylazine effect.Compararam-se os efeitos sedativos e antinociceptivos da romifidina (0,1mg/kg e da xilazina (1,0mg/kg em éguas da raça Puro Sangue Inglês. A sedação foi quantificada por meio da atividade locomotora espontânea (ALE e altura da cabeça (AC em baias individuais automatizadas para o estudo do comportamento. A antinocicepção foi avaliada utilizando uma lâmpada de irradiação de calor registrando-se a latência para o reflexo de retirada do membro (LRRM e a latência para o reflexo do frêmito cutâneo (LRFC, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com 10 repetições. O efeito sedativo sobre a ALE foi de aparecimento mais rápido no grupo exposto à xilazina, ao passo que a ptose da cabeça foi mais prolongada no grupo que recebeu romifidina. A romifidina promoveu aumento da LRRM e LRFC e a xilazina não causou efeito antinociceptivo medido pela LRFC. O efeito antinociceptivo da romifidina foi mais pronunciado que o da xilazina.

  9. REMITTANCES AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT.A study of the South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries.

    OpenAIRE

    MALE, STELA

    2009-01-01

    Remittances were calculated to be approximately $318 billion in 2007, which is an increase of three times the amount of $102 billion in 1995, having these funds to become the second largest type of flows after foreign direct investment. The South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries welcomed 12% of the world’s remittances inflows in 2007, totalling $37 billion. The impact of remittances on financial development of the South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries for the period 1994 – 2007 i...

  10. Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian - Eastern North American disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang

    2017-12-01

    The intercontinental biogeography between eastern Asia and eastern North America has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Further insights into understanding the evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions have been hampered by the lack of studies on the intracontinental biogeography in eastern Asia, a region with complex geology, geography, climates and habitats. Herein we studied the biogeographic history of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct genus Panax with special emphasis on the investigation of its uneven diversification in Asia. This study reconstructs the diversification history of Panax and also emphasizes a large clade of Panax taxa, which has a wide distribution in eastern Asia, but was unresolved in previous studies. We examined the noncoding plastid DNA fragments of trnH-psbA, rps16, and psbM-trnD, the mitochondrial b/c intron of NAD1, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 356 samples from 47 populations. The results revealed the subtropical Northern Hemisphere origin (Asia or Asia and North America) of Panax in the Paleocene. Intercontinental disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America formed twice in Panax, once estimated in early Eocene for the split of P. trifolius and another in mid-Miocene for the divergence of P. quinquefolius. Intercontinental diversifications in Panax showed temporal correlation with the increase of global temperature. The evolutionary radiation of the P. bipinnatifidus species complex occurred around the boundary of Oligocene and Miocene. Strong genetic structure among populations of the species complex was detected and the populations may be isolated by distance. The backbone network and the Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a major evolutionary radiation centered in the Hengduan Mountains of western China. Our results suggested that the evolutionary radiation of Panax was promoted by geographic barriers, including mountain ranges

  11. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  12. Rocca al Mare kool = Rocca al Mare School / Piret Lindpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindpere, Piret, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Projekteerija Arhitektuuribüroo Urbel ja Peil. Arhitektid Emil Urbel, Indrek Erm, sisekujundaja Taso Mähar. Peatöövõtt: KMG Ehitus AS. Projekt 1999, hoone valmis 2000. 23 ill. Asendiplaan, korruste plaanid, pikilõiked, sise- ja välisvaated

  13. Fatores psicossociais e a infecção por HIV em mulheres, Maringá, PR Psychosocial aspects of HIV infection among women in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozilda Neves Alves

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a percepção do risco de infecção em mulheres infectadas pelo HIV, antes de elas receberem o resultado positivo para essa patologia. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório com entrevistas em profundidade em amostra de conveniência constituída de 26 mulheres que freqüentavam o ambulatório de um centro regional de saúde em Maringá, PR. A entrevista foi semidirigida com um roteiro de perguntas fechadas e abertas sobre características sociodemográficos, conhecimento sobre prevenção primária e secundária, percepção de risco antes do teste positivo para HIV, impacto do resultado em suas vidas -- inclusive a sexual -- depois de saberem ser portadoras do vírus. Os resultados foram analisados pela metodologia de análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Apesar de ter consciência de que essa doença pode atingir qualquer um, nenhuma das 26 mulheres estudadas acreditava estar infectada pelo HIV/Aids. Os mecanismos psicológicos, "negação", "evitação", "onipotência do pensamento" e "projeção" foram os que puderam ser identificados como aqueles que as mulheres mais utilizaram para lidar com as dificuldades e as ansiedades decorrentes da percepção de risco e das normas e relações de gêneros hegemônicas presentes na cultura brasileira. Verificou-se que, se o uso desses mecanismos alivia a angústia, por outro lado aumenta a vulnerabilidade das mulheres. Elas se sentem incapazes de atuar, e muitas mantêm relações sexuais desprotegidas com os parceiros, expondo-se à gravidez indesejada e à reinfecção. CONCLUSÕES: Os programas de prevenção do HIV devem considerar também aspectos psicológicos, socioeconômicos e culturais que interferem na vulnerabilidade das mulheres, antes e depois da infecção. Para haver maior alcance de suas ações, os programas devem ir além da distribuição massiva de informações e usar abordagens psicoeducativas em pequenos grupos que estimulem a conscientização das mulheres para al

  14. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  15. Changes in the Eastern Cape demersal inshore trawl fishery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the Eastern Cape demersal inshore trawl fishery between 1967 and 1995. AJ Booth, T Hecht. Abstract. Changes in the Eastern Cape demersal inshore trawl fishery operating out of Port Elizabeth over a 28-year period from 1967 to 1995 are described. The fishery is restricted to vessels operating between ...

  16. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Teachers (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. This was a continuation study for Eastern Kentucky that collected data on how men and women teachers and men and women administrators handle stress. A stress survey (Appendix C) was…

  17. Migration patterns of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We analysed migration strategies of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on the poorly studied Eastern European– East African flyway. Four adult birds were equipped with GPS-based satellite-transmitters or data-loggers in their breeding sites in Estonia (north-eastern Europe) and tracked to their wintering grounds in Africa and ...

  18. (DRLs) for radiography examinations in north eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is an essential optimization tool in radiography and radiological sciences. The objective of the study is to establish DRL for radiography examinations in north eastern Nigeria. A Prospective cross- sectional study conducted in two university teaching hospitals in north eastern Nigeria.

  19. Globally threatened biodiversity of the Eastern Arc Mountains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally threatened biodiversity of the Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Kenya and Tanzania. ... Journal of East African Natural History ... We present an account of the 909 globally threatened taxa (793 species, 74 subspecies, 42 varieties) of animals and plants in the Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests ...

  20. Who needs credit and who gets credit in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Popov, A.; Yesin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Based on survey data covering 8,387 firms in 20 countries we compare the access to bank credit for firms in Eastern Europe to that in selected Western European countries. Our analysis reveals five main results. First, the firm-level determinants of the propensity to apply are similar in Eastern and