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Sample records for eastern liguria italy

  1. Crop changes from the XVI century to the present in a hill/mountain area of eastern Liguria (Italy

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    Sgorbati Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronological information on the composition and structure of agrocenoses and detailed features of land cover referring to specific areas are uncommon in ethnobotanical studies, especially for periods before the XIX century. The aim of this study was to analyse the type of crop or the characteristics of soil cover from the XVI century to the present. Methods This diachronic analysis was accomplished through archival research on the inventories of the Parish of St. Mary and those of the Municipality of Pignone and from recent surveys conducted in an area of eastern Liguria (Italy. Results Archival data revealed that in study area the primary means of subsistence during the last five centuries, until the first half of the XX century, was chestnuts. In the XVIII and XIX centuries, crop diversification strongly increased in comparison with previous and subsequent periods. In more recent times, the abandonment of agricultural practices has favoured the re-colonisation of mixed woodland or cluster-pine woodland. Conclusion Ancient documents in the ecclesiastic or municipal inventories can be a very useful tool for enhancing the knowledge of agricultural practice, as well as of subsistence methods favoured by local populations during a particular time and for reconstructing land use change over time.

  2. Liguria

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    Roberto Gasparini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Liguria region 80% of women (aged 24-64 are screened regularly, meaning every 3 years. The analysis on cross-protective activity exercised by bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines shows that the bivalent vaccine could prevent more pre-cancerous lesions and cases of cervicocarcinoma than quadrivalent, and that the latter could prevent genital warts that are not prevented by bivalent. The major number of cases avoided by the bivalent make it possible to fully offset the cost savings related to warts associated with the quadrivalent vaccine. Furthermore, a cost-effectiveness analysis shows that, considering regional tariffs, the multiple cohort (12-year-old + 25-year-old women vaccination strategy with a 90% coverage could prevent 11 cases of cervicocarcinoma and 5 related deaths more than the vaccination of only 12-year-old girls, and thus proves to be cost-effective (11,122 €/QALY.

  3. Epidemiological and molecular approaches for management of a measles outbreak in Liguria, Italy.

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    Orsi, A; Alicino, C; Patria, A G; Parodi, V; Carloni, R; Turello, V; Comaschi, M; Moscatelli, P; Orengo, G; Martini, M; De Florentiis, D

    2010-06-01

    Since March 2010 a measles outbreak has been occurred in Genoa, Liguria, an administrative Region in Northern Italy. Epidemiological and molecular data on the outbreak, obtained from the passive mandatory notification system, the laboratory surveillance and an innovative syndrome surveillance system, were investigated. Overall 39 cases were reported in the urban area. Information about demography, vaccination status, hospitalization and geographic distribution of measles cases are available. 19 cases (48.7%) were laboratory-confirmed and were characterized by sequence analysis: 18 strains belonged to genotype D8, so identifying a new measles variant within the Liguria population. Adopted control measures seem to have limited viral circulation. The outbreak allowed to test the efficacy of the 3 surveillance systems active in Liguria, highlighting their advantages and some important limitations. More efforts are needed to collect and integrate any epidemiological and virological available data in order to better describe the local measles transmission dynamics.

  4. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy

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    Francesca Gori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1 followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats of taeniids in this area.

  5. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy)

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    Gori, Francesca; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Milanesi, Pietro; Serafini, Matteo; Magi, Marta; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1) followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents) and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats) of taeniids in this area. PMID:26042204

  6. The role of the sea on the flash floods events over Liguria (northwestern Italy)

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    Cassola, F.; Ferrari, F.; Mazzino, A.; Miglietta, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    The sensitivity to sea surface temperature (SST) of small-scale, flood-causing convective systems in Mediterranean coastal areas is analyzed by means of mesoscale numerical simulations. Two different SST initializations are considered: a coarse field provided by a global atmospheric model and a high-resolution multisatellite analysis. Quantitative precipitation forecasts are evaluated for a number of recent severe rainfall episodes in Liguria (northwestern Italy). In several cases, using a higher-resolution SST leads to more realistic precipitation estimates in the forecasting range 36-48 h. In the shorter range, the satellite SST has a limited, or even negative, impact, due to the relatively slow adjustment of initial atmospheric fields. In one case, the satellite SST is beneficial for the only run forced with accurate large-scale initial conditions. The results of this work suggest that a potentially significant improvement in severe precipitation forecasting in the Mediterranean could be achieved using realistic small-scale SST fields.

  7. Analysis of climate and topographic effect on wildfire regime in Liguria, Italy

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    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Degli Esposti, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire risk is particularly significant in Italy, both in summer and winter season due to the high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity of the territory. Liguria is one of the few regions in Italy affected by wildfires both in summer and winter. Most of the fires in Italy occur in summer season and the burned area is largely greater than in winter season. In Liguria, the number of wildfires and the burned area is higher in winter than in summer. Winter fire regime is mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north in condition of curing for most of the herbaceous species. Southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions. The availability of a mapping of fire perimeters spans almost 20 years (1996-2013), and this, combined with a detailed knowledge of topography, climate and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behavior. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November-April and May- October). Total precipitation and average air temperature obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 164 raingauges and 127 thermometers series were considered. The analysis was based on a recursive-quantiles subdivision of the territory in classes based on the different

  8. Study of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistant to carbapenems isolated from blood in eastern Liguria

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    Giulia Carnesecchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Study of multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from blood cultures collected from in-patients of hospitals located in eastern Liguria, and evaluation of the susceptibility to carbapenems and other antibiotics by E-test and automated methods. Methods. At the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, of Lavagna Hospital in eastern Liguria, 397 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were collected from in-patients from different wards of hospitals sites, during the year 2011. They included 115 isolates from blood cultures (aerobic and anaerobic and various biological materials. All strains were tested in the laboratory for their susceptibility to antibiotics. Results. Of the 115 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae collected from blood cultures 59.1% showed resistance to imipenem, ertapenem, meropenem. Conclusions. The data show a high incidence of resistance to carbapenems in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from blood cultures.This is important to implement surveillance programs for control and prevention, but also reduce the intake of antibiotics when they are not strictly necessary.

  9. The influence of the maintenance of terraced areas on slope stability during the November 2014 flood event in Liguria (northwestern Italy)

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    Giordan, Daniele; Poggi, Flavio; Baldo, Marco; Cignetti, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Terraced environments are a widespread feature of the coastal settlement of eastern Liguria (northwestern Italy) and they constitute a well-known favorable role in slope stability. In this region, starting from the twentieth century, the progressive abandonment of agriculture determines a progressively increasing lack of maintenance of the terraces, consequently raising the level of slope instability. Moreover, it should be taken into account not only the level of terraces maintenance, but also their interaction with several factors as i) geological and geomorphological conditions, ii) soil properties, iii) hydrological and hydrogeological conditions, and iv) land use, causing an increase in landslides occurrence. The definition of managed terraces effects on slope stability and their response to external stress like a flood event is rather complicated; a possible approach is a statistical analysis of the effects of a flood event over a large terraced area, distinguishing the maintained sectors from the abandoned ones. After the November 2014 flood event, which affected several sectors of the Liguria region, where a high number of shallow landslides were triggered, an airborne LiDAR survey of the damaged area was carried out. In particular, a high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) resampled to a lower density (1 square meter grid spacing) and a photogrammetric coverage of the area was performed, in order to create a landslide map of the flood event. The surveyed area covered more than 380 square kilometers, and over 1600 shallow landslides triggered by the flood event were identified and inventoried. The high resolution DTM allowed the identification of terraced areas also in wooded sectors and a sharp mapping of the extension of terraced slopes in this portion of Liguria region. By considering: i) the terraced areas recognized through DTM analysis, ii) the mapped landslides, and iii) the land use classification, a correlation between the presence of terraces

  10. LATEGLACIAL BATS FROM THE “M” LAYERS OF THE ARENE CANDIDE CAVE (LIGURIA, ITALY

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    LEONARDO SALARI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arene Candide Cave (Finale Ligure, Northern Italy is considered one of the most important prehistoric site in Italy. The archaeological excavations conducted by the “Istituto Italiano di Paleontologia Umana” of Rome revealed 3 different horizons: an upper horizon with Holocene human presence dated from the Neolithic to the Byzantine period, and two underlying Pleistocene horizons with Gravettian and Epigravettian lithic artefacts. The stratigraphical sequence of the upper Palaeolithic is divided in two groups of strata separated by a depositional gap: the “P” complex, divided in 13 layers, dated from 25,620 to 18,560 years BP, and the 5 “M” layers dated between 11,750 and 9,980 years BP (14C non-calibrated dating.In this paper the fossil bone remains of bats from “M” layers are described. Fifteen taxa, divided into 3 families and 6 genera have been identified: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. mehelyi, R. euryale, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. blythii, M. capaccinii, M. emarginatus, M. mystacinus s.l., Myotis sp. (small sized, Plecotus auritus s.l., Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. noctula, Barbastella barbastellus and Miniopterus schreibersii. Comments for each of these taxa on current ecological and geographical distributions are presented, together with some osteometric measures and recent data referred to Late Pleistocene fossils bats in Italy. Finally, the value of this bat tanathocoenoses as a microclimatic, environmental, and human activity indicators is discussed. SHORT NOTE

  11. Maintenance and recovery of agricultural terraces to reduce geo-hydrological hazards: the Santa Giulia in Centaura (Liguria, Italy) and Valstagna (Veneto, Italy) case studies

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    Giostrella, Paola; Ferrarese, Francesco; Faccini, Francesco; Brandolini, Pierluigi; Lazzeri, Riccardo; Melillo, Massimo; Mozzi, Paolo; Varotto, Mauro; Tarolli, Paolo; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the World, men have built terraced landscapes to gain ground suitable for cultivation in steep terrain. Beyond the historical and cultural importance of terraced slopes, terraces have played an important role for soil conservation and water management. In many areas, their abandonment has led to more frequent and/or abundant geo-hydrological hazards. We analyse two terraced areas in northern Italy, including (i) the Valstagna prealpine terraces (Veneto) where the Republic of Venice initiated the cultivation of tobacco in 1600, and (ii) the coastal terraces of Santa Giulia di Centaura (Liguria) where terraces host vineyards and olive groves since 2000 years. Using a combination of direct and indirect mapping methods and tools, including LiDAR topographic surveys, the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and the analysis of historical maps, we performed a systematic mapping of the terraces. Using the available maps, we determined statistics for the width, height and extent of stonewalls and we evaluated the historical evolution of the terraces for the past 50 years, considering changes in land use, the expansion of forest, and the changes in the precipitation regime. Finally, through a preliminary cost-benefit analysis, we propose good practices to help the recovery of the terraces in the two study areas.

  12. The response of the Liguria Region (Italy) to the pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1sv.

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    Amicizia, D; Cremonesi, I; Carloni, R; Schiaffino, S

    2011-09-01

    Influenza is a cause of acute respiratory disease. It has a typical epidemic nature during the winter season, but may also assume a pandemic pattern when a completely new virus spreads among humans. Influenza places a heavy economic and healthcare burden on both the National Health Service and society. During the 2009/2010 influenza pandemic season, the Liguria Region drew upon the specific skills of the various sectors of the Department of Health and Social Services. In collaboration with the Department of Health Sciences of the University of Genova, the Regional Health Agency (RHA) and other public organizations, steps were taken to address the issues of technical and scientific updating and the coordination of all the departments of Local Healthcare Units in Liguria. The main activities conducted at the regional level provided an adequate response to the influenza pandemic. These activities focused on Local and National Influenza Surveillance Systems, the regional Pandemic Plan, vaccination strategies for seasonal and pandemic influenza, and the communication of data from monitoring programs (sentinel physicians--syndromic surveillance). The prevention of influenza transmission and containment of epidemics and pandemics require effective communication strategies that should target the whole population.

  13. Feasibility of performing high resolution cloud-resolving simulations of historic extreme events: The San Fruttuoso (Liguria, italy) case of 1915.

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    Parodi, Antonio; Boni, Giorgio; Ferraris, Luca; Gallus, William; Maugeri, Maurizio; Molini, Luca; Siccardi, Franco

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies show that highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems represent one of the most dangerous flash-flood producing storms in the north-western Mediterranean area. Substantial warming of the Mediterranean Sea in recent decades raises concerns over possible increases in frequency or intensity of these types of events as increased atmospheric temperatures generally support increases in water vapor content. Analyses of available historical records do not provide a univocal answer, since these may be likely affected by a lack of detailed observations for older events. In the present study, 20th Century Reanalysis Project initial and boundary condition data in ensemble mode are used to address the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations with 1 km horizontal grid spacing of a historic extreme event that occurred over Liguria (Italy): The San Fruttuoso case of 1915. The proposed approach focuses on the ensemble Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model runs, as they are the ones most likely to best simulate the event. It is found that these WRF runs generally do show wind and precipitation fields that are consistent with the occurrence of highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems, although precipitation peak amounts are underestimated. Systematic small north-westward position errors with regard to the heaviest rain and strongest convergence areas imply that the Reanalysis members may not be adequately representing the amount of cool air over the Po Plain outflowing into the Liguria Sea through the Apennines gap. Regarding the role of historical data sources, this study shows that in addition to Reanalysis products, unconventional data, such as historical meteorological bulletins, newspapers and even photographs can be very valuable sources of knowledge in the reconstruction of past extreme events.

  14. Fifteen years of epidemiologic, virologic and syndromic influenza surveillance: A focus on type B virus and the effects of vaccine mismatch in Liguria region, Italy

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    Grammatico, Federico; Canepa, Paola

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to estimate the burden of influenza and to describe the genetic evolutionary pattern and antigenic variability of type B viral strains, data deriving from 3 surveillance systems active in Liguria region, Northern Italy, were described. Since the re-emergence of the Victoria lineage in 2001, the clinical-epidemiological and syndromic surveillances demonstrated the heavy burden of influenza like illness (ILI) syndrome. Focusing on type B influenza virus, it predominated or played a relevant epidemic role in the 50% of the evaluated influenza seasons. Furthermore, the virologic surveillance demonstrated the frequent co-circulation of both lineages an heterogeneous circulation of different influenza B strains, determining a partial or complete mismatch in at least 6 influenza seasons. The undemonstrated cross-reactivity between lineages and the unpredictability of predominant lineage arose the scientific debate about the opportunity to include the quadrivalent influenza vaccine among the preventive tools to improve the protection against type B viruses. The integration of different surveillance systems highly contribute to estimate the poorly evaluated burden of type B influenza virus and help to find variants to include in the vaccine formulation. PMID:27924684

  15. Assessment of the predisposing factors for shallow landslides activation in terraced areas: the case of the Rupinaro catchment, Liguria (northwestern Italy).

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    Cignetti, Martina; Godone, Danilo; Giordan, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    The shallow landslides occurrence is strongly correlated with climatic conditions and environmental settings. In the Liguria region (northwestern Italy), the landscape presents an ancient human intervention represented by terraces and, in the last century, by a general overbuilding, both in the few flat areas and in the steep slope hinterland. From the twentieth century, the progressive abandonment of agriculture generated a lack of maintenance of terraced areas, which associated to the urban and the road net development, supported the slope susceptibility to instability. This makes the assessment of the predisposing factors for shallow landslides a multidisciplinary task, combining natural and man-made issues. In this work, we try to define all the main predisposing factors of the Rupinaro catchment (southeast Liguria). We operate starting from a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) supplied by an airborne LiDAR survey carried out after the autumn 2014 rainfall events. From this DTM, we mapped a total amount of 96 landslides in the study area. Then, we implemented a classification methodology based on a simple parametric score. In GIS environment we overlaid several layers: i) lithological and hydrogeological map, ii) slope iii) aspect, iv) the land use information, available by the CORINE land cover, and iv) the presence of terraces. Each spatial data was than reclassified according a numerical code. The sum, by raster math, of these factors provided an overall score raster for the entire basin. This method allows the characterization of the entire watershed, gathering all the predisposing factors for the shallow landslides activation. A categorization of the landslides area mapped from the DTM and stored in a vector layer has been made. In particular, we estimated the most frequent code within each landslide polygon, obtaining a representative data of the most influential factors that triggered shallow landslides. The results showed the prevalent

  16. THE EARLY OLIGOCENE FLORA OF SANTA GIUSTINA (LIGURIA, ITALY - REVISION AND COMPARISON WITH THE FLORA OF THE TARD CLAY FORMATION

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    LILLA HABLY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on palaeobotanical material preserved at the University of Genoa, Italy (DIP.TE.RIS., a revision of the Early Oligocene flora of Santa Giustina, as well as the 1916 monograph of Principi, was undertaken. It is shown that apart from members of the Lauraceae family, Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis and Sloanea olmediaefolia were dominant in the flora, which was mainly composed of warmth-demanding species. The site is primarily characterized by remnants of the vegetation developed under warm and moist climate and abundant water supply. A few additional plants from the neighboring zonal vegetation are also present. The flora is quite reminiscent of that of the Tard Clay Formation, part of the Inner Carpathian Region, providing a proven link to the floristic relationships of these areas. Up to the Pre-Neogene, the Inner Carpathian Region and the surrounding Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaric Region was composed of a composite terrane that 1 existed independently from Stable Europe, and, 2 had a much more southerly position than today. This terrane collage was sharply bordered from all directions except west, as is supported by new evidences of the floristic affinities with the Santa Giustina flora. 

  17. Detailed rock failure susceptibility mapping in steep rocky coasts by means of non-contact geostructural surveys: the case study of the Tigullio Gulf (Eastern Liguria, Northern Italy

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    P. De Vita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an engineering geological analysis for the assessment of the rock failure susceptibility of a high, steep, rocky coast was developed by means of non-contact geostructural surveys. The methodology was applied to a 6-km coastal cliff located in the Gulf of Tigullio (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea between Rapallo and Chiavari.

    The method is based on the geostructural characterisation of outcropping rock masses through meso- and macroscale stereoscopic analyses of digital photos that were taken continuously from a known distance from the coastline. The results of the method were verified through direct surveys of accessible sample areas. The rock failure susceptibility of the coastal sector was assessed by analysing the fundamental rock slope mechanisms of instability and the results were implemented into a Geographic Information System (GIS.

    The proposed method is useful for rock failure susceptibility assessments in high, steep, rocky coastal areas, where accessibility is limited due to cliffs or steep slopes. Moreover, the method can be applied to private properties or any other area where a complete and systematic analysis of rock mass structural features cannot be achieved.

    Compared to direct surveys and to other non-contact methods based on digital terrestrial photogrammetry, the proposed procedure provided good quality data of the structural features of the rock mass at a low cost. Therefore, the method could be applied to similar coastal areas with a high risk of rock failure occurrence.

  18. Paleotsunamis Evidence In The Augusta Bay (Eastern Sicily, Italy)

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    Smedile, A.; de Martini, P.; Barbano, M. S.; Pantosti, D.; Gerardi, F.; Del Carlo, P.; Bellucci, L. G.; Gasperini, L.; Sagnotti, L.; Polonia, A.; Pirrotta, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Augusta Bay, in Eastern Sicily (Italy), was repeatedly hit by tsunami waves related to large historical earthquakes (e.g. 1908, 1693, 1169). The area is characterized by coastal lowlands or lagoons, and by a relatively wide continental shelf with a thick late-Holocene record that has been investigated through the acquisition of a tight grid of CHIRP-sonar profiles. Well targeted sediment samples have been collected both offshore and inland. The integrated interpretation of the geophysical and geological data has been carried out in order to recognize, date and correlate key-layers in the sediment column that may be directly or indirectly related to tsunami events. A total of 26 cores were collected inland at a maximum distance of 530 m from the present coastline. The clay and silt dominated stratigraphy is intercalated by at least 5 high-energy or anomalous depositional layers, repeatedly found in several cores. These layers are made of coarse to fine sand with sharp basal contacts and present a bioclastic component made of microfauna (foraminifera) and shell fragments both suggestive of a marine provenance. Chronological constraints on the age of these deposits is based on AMS radiocarbon datings and on the attribution of a tephra layer to the 122 BC Etna eruption (thanks to petro- chemical and morphoscopic analyses). Integrating these data, the inland sequence spans the last 4100 yrs and the two uppermost high-energy events could be related to the AD 1169 and 1693 historical tsunamis. The offshore record was studied from a 6.7 m-long piston-core collected at 70 m water depth. The homogeneous sequence of dark gray mud is interrupted at -3 m by the same Etna tephra deposit found inland. Through the analysis of tephrostratigraphy, radiocarbon datings, high resolution paleomagnetic analysis and radioactive tracers, the entire core sequence has been dated back to the last 4500 yrs. Moreover, the quantitative micropaleontological analysis on the benthic

  19. Landslide hazard prediction in the North-Eastern Apennines (Italy)

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    Disperati, L.; Guastaldi, E.; Rindinella, A.

    2003-04-01

    In order to assess the landslide hazard nearby the Pergola city (in the Northern-Eastern Apennines, Italy) a ground survey at a scale of 1:10,000 was performed for an extent of about 370 km^2 (Carmignani, 2001), and a GIS of landslides was built. Following statistical analysis allows to assess the correlation among landslide occurrences and causal factors related to the detachment zone (lithology, engineering geology, elevation, slope, aspect, bedding as related with slope face -RBS- and land use). Consequently, considering the morphological, lithological and anthropic characters of current slides, it was agreed to locate possible future landslides in those area actually stable but characterised by similar conditions. Because of that, a geostatistical analysis was performed. Comparing for every landslide the occurence of either single or combined causal factor, the analysis was carried out in grid format. The spatial analysis of the GIS data layers allowed building the unique condition regions (Chung et al., 1995) and creating statistical data on causal factors in relation of landslides. Afterwards, for every region the susceptibility to development of new occurrences (favourability mapping) was calculated by utilising the certainty factor (CF; Chung &Fabbri, 1993). For landslides where crown was identified, the main scarp was considered as occurrence; a buffer around the highest point of landslide was built for all the others (Disperati et al., 2002). Such procedure was applied both for slides (175 occurrences) and flows (464 occurrences). Furthermore, by the application of the procedure to causal factors and their combination, additional information regarding susceptibility to development of new occurrences was calculated. The selection of the most suitable factors combination can be done through the results accuracy assessment in relation of time and/or space (Chung, 1999), by utilising two different hazard information layers, respectively computed from a

  20. Overview of the first HyMeX Special Observation Period over Italy: observations and model results

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    R. Ferretti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the first Hymex campaign (5 September–6 November 2012 referred to as Special Observation Period (SOP-1, dedicated to heavy precipitation events and flash floods in Western Mediterranean, three Italian hydro-meteorological monitoring sites were activated: Liguria-Tuscany, North-Eastern Italy and Central Italy. The extraordinary deployment of advanced instrumentation, including instrumented aircrafts, and the use of several different operational weather forecast models has allowed an unprecedented monitoring and analysis of high impact weather events around the Italian hydro-meteorological sites. This activity has seen the strict collaboration between the Italian scientific and operational communities. In this paper, an overview of the Italian organization during the SOP-1 is provided, and selected Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs are described. A significant event for each Italian target area is chosen for this analysis: IOP2 (12–13 September 2012 in North-Eastern Italy, IOP13 (15–16 October 2012 in Central Italy and IOP19 (3–5 November 2012 in Liguria and Tuscany. For each IOP the meteorological characteristics, together with special observations and weather forecasts, are analyzed with the aim of highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the forecast modeling systems. Moreover, using one of the three events, the usefulness of different operational chains is highlighted.

  1. Large Human Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in North-Eastern Italy in 2012

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    Luisa Barzon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation.

  2. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis for Eastern Sicily (Italy)

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    Lorito, Stefano; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Basili, Roberto; Kastelic, Vanja; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Valensise, Gianluca; Selva, Jacopo

    2010-05-01

    We present preliminary results of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for the coast of eastern Sicily. We only consider earthquake-generated tsunamis. We focus on important cities such as Messina, Catania, and Augusta. We consider different potentially tsunamigenic Source Zones (SZ) in the Mediterranean basin, basing on geological and seismological evidences. Considering many synthetic earthquakes for each SZ, we numerically simulate the entire tsunami propagation, from sea-floor displacement to inundation. We evaluate different tsunami damage metrics, as for example maximum runup, current speed, momentum and Froude number. We use a finite difference scheme in the shallow-water approximation for the tsunami propagation at open sea, and a finite volumes scheme for the inundation phase. For the shoaling and inundation stages, we have built a bathy-topo model by merging GEBCO database, multibeam soundings, and topographic data at 10 m of resolution. Accounting for their relative probability of occurrence, deterministic scenarios are merged together to assess PTHA at the selected target sites, expressed as a probability of exceedance of a given threshold (e.g. 1 m wave height) in a given time (e.g. 100 yr). First order epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are accessed through a logic tree, accounting for changes in the variables judged to have a major impact on PTHA, and for eventual incompleteness of the SZs. The SZs are located at short, intermediate and large distances with respect to the target coastlines. We thus highlight, for different source-target distances, the relative importance of the different source parameters, and/or the role of the uncertainties in the input parameters estimation. Our results suggest that in terms of inundation extent the Hellenic Arc SZ has the highest impact on the selected target coastlines. In terms of exceedance probability instead, there is a larger variability depending not only on location and recurrence but also on

  3. Energy efficiency indicators. Case study, Liguria; Indicatori di efficienza energetica. Il caso Liguria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarallo, M.A. [ENEA, Divisione Promozione degli Usi Efficienti e Diversificazione dell' Energia, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The report examines the trend in the Liguria Region's energy requirements over the period 1988-1996. The trend was analysed using the regional energy balances and energy efficiency indicators, both in aggregate form and on a single sector basis. The residential sector, in particular, was singled out for an in-depth analysis using publishing and processed data. [Italian] Il presente rapporto esamina l'evoluzione delle caratteristiche energetiche della Regione Liguria attraverso l'analisi degli indicatori di efficienza energetica. Tale analisi e' stata svolta sia a livello aggregato che con riferimento ai singoli settori di attivita'. Particolare attenzione e' stata dedicata al settore residenziale, per il quale e' stato svolto un esame piu' approfondito attraverso un lavoro di raccolta e di elaborazione dati. Il periodo di riferimento va dal 1988 al 1966 dal momento che questo e' l'ultimo anno per il quale sono disponibili i dati economici Istat utilizzati per il calcolo degli indicatori.

  4. Integrated Archaeological and Geophysical Surveys in the Historical Center of Augusta (Eastern Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfitana, Daniele; Leucci, Giovanni; Fragalà, Giovanni; Cacciaguerra, Giuseppe; De Giorgi, Lara

    2013-04-01

    Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, Italy) and its vast hinterland played a crucial role in the economy of ancient Sicily, largely because of the management, exploitation and trade of agricultural supply. Nevertheless, the socio-economic aspects of its territorial management and the relation between the countryside and coastal centres in the complex system of the Mediterranean markets have not yet been analysed in depth by scholars. Despite the historical, monumental and economic importance of the surrounding area of Syracuse in the Antiquity, the knowledge of the roman and medieval landscape and archaeological sites are still limited. The research undertaken by Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - CNR of Catania (Sicily, Italy) attempted to remedy this omission by outlining a preliminary picture of the rich historical and archaeological heritage of Syracuse and its surrounding territory, which will be analysed using a multidisciplinary approach. Augusta, a town near Syracuse (Sicily), was founded by emperor Frederick of Suavia between 1232 and 1239. In medieval period, the area of Giardini Pubblici was the downtown and untill the XVII Cent. AD it was occupied by two urban blocks of buildings. In 1670 they were demolished to allow free area firing line from the near castle. Integrated archaeological and geophysical investigations allowed a wide range knowledge of the roman and medieval landscapes, archaeological sites and monumental remains. Particularly the geophysical surveys undertaken in the historical center of Augusta, by means Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR), allowed a 3D reconstruction of archaeological structures in the subsoil until the depth of about 4m. The geophysical survey has identified the building of medieval and modern urban settlement of Augusta and has allowed to recreate the urban plan and its transformation.

  5. Shear-wave polarization alignment on the eastern flank of Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vilardo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, with the improvement of three-component seismic networks, studies revealing anisotropic characteristics in different regions have assumed great interest. In a complex volcanic area like Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy, the existence of both iso-oriented fault systems and intrusive bodies consisting of olivine and clinopyroxene suggest the presence of anisotropic structures. In order to investigate this we analyzed the physical phenomenon of shear-wave splitting since under certain constraints, shear waves are less sensitive to local heterogeneity. The aims of this paper are: 1 to evaluate if in a structural complex situation like that at Mt. Etna the signal crossing an anisotropic volume could be enhanced in spite of effects due to undirectional properties along the source-receiver path; 2 to investigate the correlations, if any, between polarization direction of the leading shear wave and the patterns of compressive stress acting on the investigated area. Therefore we measured time-delays between the S-onsets on the horizontal components of 3D seismograms to reveal the possible seismic anisotropy in the Etnean region; moreover, we analyzed the polarization vector of shear-waves seismic data recorded during a survey carried out in the spring-summer 1988. We found clear evidence of splitting that we attributed to the presence of an anisotropic volume not homogeneously distributed on the eastern slope of Mt. Etna volcano.

  6. Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marsico

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maps of areas with different vulnerability degrees are an integral part of environmental protection and management policies. It is difficult to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of karst areas since the stage and type of karst structure development and its related underground discharge behaviour are not easy to determine. Therefore, some improvements, which take into account dolines, caves and superficial lineament arrangement, have been integrated into the SINTACS R5 method and applied to a karst area of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy. The proposed approach integrates the SINTACS model giving more weight to morphological and structural data; in particular the following parameters have been modified: depth to groundwater, effective infiltration action, unsaturated zone attenuation capacity and soil/overburden attenuation capacity. Effective hydrogeological and impacting situations are also arranged using superficial lineaments and karst density. In order to verify the reliability of the modified procedure, a comparison is made with the original SINTACS R5 index evaluated in the same area. The results of both SINTACS index maps are compared with karst and structural features identified in the area and with groundwater nitrate concentrations recorded in wells. The best fitting SINTACS map is then overlaid by the layout of potential pollution centres providing a complete map of the pollution risk in the area.

  7. The Upper Eocene crustose coralline algal pavement in the Colli Berici, north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bassi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A crustose coralline algal pavement, identified in Upper Eocene (Priabonian shallow water, middleramp carbonates in north-eastern Italy (Colli Berici, Southern Alps, represents a rare example of this facies.The crustose pavement consists of a coralline crust bindstone with a wackestone-packstone matrix, and is characterised by the dominance of crustose coralline thalli composed primarily of melobesioids (Lithothamnion and Mesophyllum and mastophoroids (Spongites, Lithoporella, Neogoniolithon. In places the coralline bindstone can be seen to develop from isolated encrusting-to-foliose thalli which bifurcate and join to form an open framework interbedded with matrix debris from crusts. Various forms of rhodoliths occur commonly within this facies. The largest discoidal rhodoliths (up to 12 cm of large diameter show an inner arrangement consisting of loosely packed laminar (encrusting-to-foliose coralline thalli with a high percentage of constructional voids (50-63%. Accessory components are represented by larger hyaline perforated foraminifera such as nummulitids and orthophragminids. This facies formed in a ramp palaeoenvironment characterised by relatively low hydrodynamic energy and low rates of sedimentation. Channelised structures present within the facies were formed by return currents which swept the middle ramp creating such distal structures. Further toward the distal middle-ramp the return currents decreased in energy and discharged nutrients allowing the mesotrophic crustose coralline algal pavement to develop.

  8. Combining literature review, acoustic mapping and in situ observations: an overview of coralligenous assemblages in Liguria (NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Cánovas Molina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A review and update of the existing knowledge on the coralligenous assemblages of Liguria (NW Italy was conducted as an essential step towards management measures for their conservation according to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. By combining a literature review, acoustic mapping and in situ observations on a geographic information systems platform, we were able to assess the distribution and heterogeneity of coralligenous assemblages and the main pressures affecting them. The reliability of the literature was previously estimated using a dependability index. The coralligenous assemblages cover an area of 130.9 ha and range from 10 to 113 m depth. Twelve different biological facies (five of them not included in the EUNIS list were identified and four main geomorphotypes (plungingcliffs, paleocliffs, rockfalls and shoals were recognized. Incident light values influenced the distribution of four facies in Portofino promontory. Pressures were found on 33% of the coralligenous assemblages investigated, mainly due to fishing activities, mass mortality events, invasive species and occasional mucilaginous events. Our results showed a high spatial, geomorphological and biological heterogeneity of coralligenous assemblages in Liguria.

  9. About the presence of Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, 1917 (Diptera: Psychodidae in Eastern Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Urso V.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The note reports the data of a three-year sand fly investigation (1997-99 carried out in Eastern Sicily (Italy with the aim to study the distribution of Phlebotomus sergenti. The survey involved a densely inhabited area at the foot of Mount Etna and the area of Iblei mounts. A total of 9,095 sand flies, of which 63.4 % males, were captured. Five species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (P. perniciosus, P. perfiliewi, P. neglectus, P. sergenti and P. papatasi and one to the genus Sergentomyia (S. minuta were identified. Both the prevalence and distribution of the species were different within the two areas studied. In Mount Etna area, P. perniciosus (77.7 % was the prevalent species followed by S. minuta (19.8 %, P. sergenti (2.0 %, P. neglectus (0.3 % and P. papatasi (0.2 %. While in Iblei mounts region S. minuta (84,5 % showed the highest prevalence, followed by P. perniciosus (14.4 %, P. perfiliewi (0,9 % and P. neglectus (0,1 %. Here, P. sergenti was a very rare species (‹ 0.02. P. sergenti was mostly associated to domestic habitats of peri-urban and urban zones located between two and 750 m a.s.l. The density values of P. sergenti. expressed as number of specimens/m2 of sticky trap, were between 0.3 and 5.5 with the highest value in the hilly collecting sites. The low observed abundance of P. sergenti does not allow to draw any prediction on the role that the species could play in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Sicily.

  10. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  11. Modelling of karst structures by geophysical methods. An example: the doline of S. Pietro dei Monti (Western Liguria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gambetta

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated geophysical investigations of karst structures were carried out in Liguria and Piedmont (NW Italy; this paper refers to the S. Pietro dei Monti doline, in the karst area of Mt. Carmo (Savona. The techniques used in the integrated study were magnetics, electromagnetics and seismic refraction. The target was to identify, without drilling, the nature of the doline, for example if it is of dissolution or collapse type. A preliminary susceptibility sampling of the outcrop and topsoil and the diffuse fractures with a probable water seepage suggested magnetics and VLF electromagnetics. Such methods applied in an area with an extremely low cultural noise allowed modelling of the buried structure of the doline.

  12. Seismic clusters analysis in North-Eastern Italy by the nearest-neighbor approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peresan, Antonella; Gentili, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    The main features of earthquake clusters in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (North Eastern Italy) are explored, with the aim to get some new insights on local scale patterns of seismicity in the area. The study is based on a systematic analysis of robustly and uniformly detected seismic clusters of small-to-medium magnitude events, as opposed to selected clusters analyzed in earlier studies. To characterize the features of seismicity for FVG, we take advantage of updated information from local OGS bulletins, compiled at the National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics, Centre of Seismological Research, since 1977. A preliminary reappraisal of the earthquake bulletins is carried out, in order to identify possible missing events and to remove spurious records (e.g. duplicates and explosions). The area of sufficient completeness is outlined; for this purpose, different techniques are applied, including a comparative analysis with global ISC data, which are available in the region for large and moderate size earthquakes. Various techniques are considered to estimate the average parameters that characterize the earthquake occurrence in the region, including the b-value and the fractal dimension of epicenters distribution. Specifically, besides the classical Gutenberg-Richter Law, the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes, USLE, is applied. Using the updated and revised OGS data, a new formal method for detection of earthquake clusters, based on nearest-neighbor distances of events in space-time-energy domain, is applied. The bimodality of the distribution, which characterizes the earthquake nearest-neighbor distances, is used to decompose the seismic catalog into sequences of individual clusters and background seismicity. Accordingly, the method allows for a data-driven identification of main shocks (first event with the largest magnitude in the cluster), foreshocks and aftershocks. Average robust estimates of the USLE parameters (particularly, b

  13. Autologous cord blood harvesting in North Eastern Italy: ethical questions and emerging hopes for curing diabetes and celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Parco, Fulvia VascottoInstitute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyBackground: The Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG, a region of North Eastern Italy, has passed legislation (Decree No 2324/2010 to regulate the banking of umbilical cord blood samples for personal, autologous, or family-directed use, and to implement the Agreement of the State-Regions Permanent Conference (Decree No 62/CSR/2010. This paper aims to identify the formalities and the reasons why families collect and bank their cord blood in foreign banks for both personal and private use.Methods: To this end, at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health of Trieste (the regional capital city of the FVG, Italy, which assists about 1800 pregnant women a year, 129 questionnaires, drafted from January 2010 to December 2011 and concerning the granting of authorization to export samples, were examined.Results: The collected data showed that 75% of involved families had resorted to anonymous public collection, which is available to anyone with therapeutic needs, and provided compatibility and hematologic protocols recognized by the scientific and international community (main indications: leukemia, hemoglobinopaties, and inherited hematologic and immunologic disorders. Conversely, 25.0% requested private storage at a foreign bank for personal or family-dedicated use. The principal motivation by disease was for treatment for diabetes (22.4% and celiac disease (19.7% (a multiorgan disease for which the FVG region has provided safeguards by approving a specific law granting support to families; Decree No 561/2007. For these two types of disease we found that information was received from the internet and not from general medical physicians, with a significant difference found using the χ2 test (P < 0.01.Conclusion: The indication of treating these diseases with cord blood stem cell transplantation appears to be well grounded and encouraging, and has recently

  14. A hypocystal archeopyle in a freshwater dinoflagellate from the Peridinium umbonatum group (Dinophyceae) from Lake Nero di Cornisello, South Eastern Alps, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tardio, Massimiliano; Ellegaard, Marianne; Lundholm, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Cornisello, a low-alkalinity high mountain lake of the Adamello mountain range (2233m above sea level, South Eastern Alps, Italy). The archeopyle is large, clearly hypocystal, polygonal, and slightly peanut-shaped. The species producing this cyst belongs to the Peridinium umbonatum group and is described...

  15. Etnopharmacognostic survey on the natural ingredients used in folk cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and remedies for healing skin deseases in the inland Marches, Central-Eastern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Quave, C.L.; Villanelli, M.L.; Mangino, P.; Sabbatini, G.; Santini, L.; Boccetti, T.; Profili, M.; Ciccioli, T.; Rampa, L.G.; Antonini, G.; Girolamini, C.

    2004-01-01

    An ethnopharmaceutical Study focused on domestic cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies to heal skin diseases traditionally used in the inland part of the Marches region (Central-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. At present, traditional knowledge concerning home-made phytocosmetics is represented

  16. Etnopharmacognostic survey on the natural ingredients used in folk cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and remedies for healing skin deseases in the inland Marches, Central-Eastern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Quave, C.L.; Villanelli, M.L.; Mangino, P.; Sabbatini, G.; Santini, L.; Boccetti, T.; Profili, M.; Ciccioli, T.; Rampa, L.G.; Antonini, G.; Girolamini, C.

    2004-01-01

    An ethnopharmaceutical Study focused on domestic cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies to heal skin diseases traditionally used in the inland part of the Marches region (Central-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. At present, traditional knowledge concerning home-made phytocosmetics is represented

  17. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Rötkees (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Nascimbene, Juri; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Rötkees yielded 31 lichen taxa (29 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Micarea incrassata Hedl. (Lecanorales) is new to Italy. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition.

  18. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Rötkees (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Nascimbene, Juri; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2014-11-28

    The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Rötkees yielded 31 lichen taxa (29 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Micarea incrassata Hedl. (Lecanorales) is new to Italy. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition.

  19. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Signorini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environ- mental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribu- tion of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30 and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt pre- diction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level charac- terised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveil- lance strategies.

  20. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Manuela; Cassini, Rudi; Drigo, Michele; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Pietrobelli, Mario; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environmental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribution of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM) and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30) and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt prediction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level) characterised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveillance strategies.

  1. Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in a leopard (Panthera pardus pardus housed in a zoological park in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frangipane di Regalbono Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine heartworm (cHW disease is now recognised as potential cause of serious disease in cats and other felids, especially in endemic areas. In March 2009, a 23-years-old male African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus housed in a zoological park located in the Province of Padova (Veneto Region, a cHW endemic area of the north-eastern Italy, died and was immediately necropsied. A cloth completely occluding the pyloric lumen was considered the presumptive cause of death. During necropsy, six nematodes (4 males and 2 females were found within the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary artery. Diagnosis of HW (Dirofilaria immitis infection was carried out by morphological features of adult worms and microfilariae, and then confirmed by detection of circulating HW antigens using a commercial SNAP kit (IDEXX Laboratories inc., USA. D. immitis infection was also confirmed by PCR amplification of the 5S ribosomal spacer region, performed on worm fragments and microfilaraemic blood samples obtained from the right ventricle of the heart. A glomerulonephritis of immuno-mediated origin and most likely associated with the HW infection is also reported. HW chemoprophylaxis and annual serological testing on wild felids housed outdoors in endemic cHW disease areas are recommended. This is the first diagnosis of D. immitis infection in an exotic felid in Italy.

  2. Linx individual B132 from north-eastern Switzerland sighted in Trentino (northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A subadult lynx was caught in February 2008 in the Swiss National Park, fitted with a Gps-Gsm radio-collar and later genetically identified as B132 - i.e., a male born in 2006 in North-Eastern Switzerland -. B132 is at present located in the western Trentino region, more than 200 km away from his mother's home range. This is the furthest dispersal ever documented outside of Scandinavia for a Eurasian lynx.

  3. Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

  4. Daytime habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus and native european hare Lepus europaeus in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Sandro; Montezemolo, Nicola Cordero di; Perrone, Aurelio

    2011-06-01

    We used radiotelemetry to investigate resting sites habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and native European hare (Lepus europaeus) under sympatric conditions. We tracked 24 hares and 34 cottontails in a protected area of northwestern Italy. Hares were found in different sites every week, while cottontails used the same site for two weeks, and occasionally for longer. It is supposed that this periodic nest switching reduces the risk of predation and parasitism. Hares and cottontails forms were located in different habitats and characterized by dense vegetation cover near the ground. This cover increased from winter to summer in both species, while in autumn it continued to increase in cottontails only, and decreased in hares. Cottontails selected shrubby habitats near the river, and avoided crop fields in all seasons. Hares were more adaptive in their search, using high herbs and shrubs all year round, wheat fields in spring, maize in spring and summer, and stubbles in winter. Arguably, partial niche differentiation is necessary to allow the coexistence of similar species. In our study area, hares and cottontails differentiated in the use of resting sites habitats, presumably so as not to compete in this part of their ecological niche.

  5. Neutrophil-rich gastric carcinoma in the integrated cancer registry of eastern Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieni, Antonio; Branca, Giovanni; Parisi, Antonino; Fedele, Francesco; Irato, Eleonora; Venuti, Antonio; Caruso, Rosario A

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil-rich carcinoma is a variant of gastric carcinoma that has not been well-studied or characterized. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the incidence and clinicopathological findings compared to ordinary gastric carcinoma. A population-based series of 430 gastric cancers, identified between 2003 and 2006 from the province of Messina (insular Italy; population, 662,450), was used. The number of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils was assessed in a semi-quantitative manner using the mean value of 20 non-overlapping high-power fields (magnification, 400; 0.08 mm(2)). Tumors with >10 neutrophils per 20 high-power fields were arbitrarily considered as neutrophil-rich gastric carcinomas. Moreover, MUC1 immunohistochemical expression was investigated to show possible correlation with neutrophil infiltration in gastric carcinomas. Among 193 gastric cancers resected for curative purposes, 30 (15.54%) were represented by neutrophil-rich gastric carcinomas. These tumors occurred more frequently in patients aged more than 72 years (pcarcinoma seems to represent a distinctive morphological variant of gastric carcinoma, although the true mechanism for the infiltration of neutrophils is still unclear. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Quaternary structural evolution of Terracina and Gaeta basins (Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, G.; Marsella, E.; Sacchi, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Naples (Italy). Ist. di Ricerca Geomare Sud

    2000-07-01

    In the Terracina and Gaeta basins (Italy) quaternary sediments are displaced by normal faults, which affect also Meso-Cenozoic tectonic units of the acoustic basement. The extensional tectonics is characterized by normal faults systems trending NE-SW and E-W. In the Terracina basin, roughly N-S oriented, half-graben structures are down thrown seaward through normal faults; the Gaeta extensional basin, E-W oriented, has two main depo centers and is bounded to the north and to the south by E-W trending normal faults and to the east by a NW-SE trending normal faults. [Italian] I bacini di Terracina e Gaeta mostrano un significativo controllo tettonico sulla sedimentazione quaternaria, causato dalla presenza di faglie normali: esse dislocano le unita' tettoniche meso-cenozoiche che rappresentano il basamento acustico. Sistemi di faglie normali ad andamento NE-SW e E-W determinano nel bacino di Terracina una struttura di tipo semi-graben orientata N-S- e ribassata verso mare da faglie dirette. Il bacino di Gaeta rappresenta un bacino estensionale ad andamento E-W, articolato in due principali depocentri e delimitato verso nord e verso sud da faglie normali ad andamento E-W e verso est da una faglia diretta ad andamento NW-SE.

  7. A 1D P-wave velocity model of the Gargano promontory (south-eastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Michele, Maddalena; Emolo, Antonio; Tallarico, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the elastic properties of the crust in the Gargano promontory, located in the northern part of the Apulia region (Southeastern Italy). Starting on April, 2013, a local-scale seismic network, composed of 12 short-period (1 Hz) seismic stations, was deployed on the Gargano promontory. Starting on October, 2013, the network was integrated with the recordings of nine seismic stations managed by the Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV). The network recorded more than 1200 seismic events in about 15 months of data acquisition, with more than 700 small magnitude events localized in the Gargano promontory and surrounding areas. A Wadati-modified method allowed us to infer VP/VS = 1.73 for the area. A subset of about 400 events having a relatively smaller azimuthal gap (inversion code. The preferred model was obtained from the average of ten velocity models, each of them representing the inversion result from given initial velocity models, calibrated on previous geological and geophysical studies in the area. The results obtained under the assumption that VP could decrease with depth are unstable, with very different depths of the top of low-velocity layers. Therefore, the velocity model was obtained from the average of the results obtained under the assumption that VP cannot decrease with depth. A strong reduction of both RMS (about 58%) and errors on the location of the events was obtained with respect to the starting model. The final velocity model shows a strong velocity gradient in the upper 5 km of the crust and a small increase (from 6.7 to 7 km) at 30 km of depth. The epicenters of relocated events do not show clear correlations with the surface projection of known seismic faults. A cluster of the epicenters of the relocated events intersects almost perpendicularly the Candelaro fault trace at the surface.

  8. Geological and geophysical evidences for mud diapirism in south-eastern Sicily (Italy) and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    A recent investigation on the northern margin of the Hyblean Plateau in south-eastern Sicily highlights the occurrence of a clayey diapiric intrusion into the foreland carbonate series. The piercing body, exposed along a ∼270 long and ∼30 m deep NE-SW elongated quarry, consists of serpentinite-bearing clayey material. As suggested by the internal contractional features and by its geometric relations with the adjacent rocks, the clayey body intruded in the foreland series producing on its flanks a set of domino-arranged normal faults which nucleated as a result of gravitative collapse. Taking into account previous petrological studies, which provided information about the origin of the mud, a deep geodynamic model for the northern part of the Hyblean Plateau is here presented. The mud diapirs originated from the uprising of pre-existing serpentinite bodies and others products of alteration probably developed along an ancient ridge-transform intersection where a hydrothermally altered mantle wedge occurred. This interpretation is supported by seismic, magnetic and gravimetric anomalies beneath the analyzed area and has implications on its geodynamic evolution.

  9. Human signatures derived from nighttime lights along the Eastern Alpine river network in Austria and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, Serena; Montanari, Alberto; Parajka, Juraj; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter; Laio, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how human settlements and economic activities are distributed with reference to the geographical location of streams and rivers is of fundamental relevance for several issues, such as flood risk management, drought management related to increased water demands by human population, fluvial ecosystem services, water pollution and water exploitation. Besides the spatial distribution, the evolution in time of the human presence constitutes an additional key question. This work aims at understanding and analysing the spatial and temporal evolution of human settlements and associated economic activity, derived from nighttime lights, in the Eastern Alpine region. Nightlights, available at a fine spatial resolution and for a 22-year period, constitute an excellent data base, which allows one to explore in details human signatures. In this experiment, nightlights are associated to five distinct distance-from-river classes. Our results clearly point out an overall enhancement of human presence across the considered distance classes during the last 22 years, though presenting some differences among the study regions. In particular, the river network delineation, by considering different groups of river pixels based on the Strahler order, is found to play a central role in the identification of nightlight spatio-temporal trends.

  10. Characterization of fluvial islands along three different gravel-bed rivers of North-Eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Picco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available River islands are defined as discrete areas of woodland vegetation located in the riverbed and surrounded by either water-filled channels or exposed gravels, exhibiting some stability and remaining exposed during bank-full flows. Islands are very important from both morphological and ecological points of view, representing the most natural condition of a fluvial system and are strongly influenced by human impacts. This study aims at analyzing the morphological and vegetation characteristics of three different typologies of islands (pioneer, young and stable in three distinct rivers in the NE of Italy, affected by different intensities of human pressure. The study was conducted on several sub-reaches of the Piave, Brenta and Tagliamento rivers. The first is a gravel-bed river, which suffered intense and multiple human impacts, especially due to dam building and in-channel gravel mining. The same alterations can also be observed in the Brenta river, which also presents bank protections, hydropower schemes and water diversions. On the other hand, the Tagliamento river is a gravel-bed river characterized by a high level of naturality and very low human pressures. The analyses were conducted using aerial photographs and LiDAR data acquired in 2010 in order to define and distinguish the three different island typologies and to obtain a characterization of ground and vegetation features. The results suggest that the fluvial islands lie at different elevations and this fact implies a different resistance capacity during flood events. Pioneer islands and young islands lie at lower elevations than stable islands causing a lower capacity to survive during considerable flood events, in fact in most cases those islands typologies were removed by ordinary floods. Stable islands lie at higher elevations and only intense and infrequent flood events (RI > 10-15 years are able to determine considerable erosions. Regarding the characteristics of vegetation, we can

  11. Geometry, lateral variability, and preservation of downlapped regressive shelf deposits, eastern Tyrrhenian Margin, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, M.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Trincardi, F. (Institute di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy))

    1990-05-01

    The shelf of the eastern Tyrrhenian margin changes substantially in width, shelf-break depth, and sea-floor steepness over relatively short distances, largely due to marked lateral changes in geologic structure. Remnants of late Pleistocene prograded coastal deposits are locally preserved on the middle and outer parts of this complex shelf. Through the authors studies of these prograded deposits they recognize two major controls on the distribution, lateral extent, thickness, and preservation potential. First, prograded (downlapped) deposits formed only where the physiographic shelf break was deeper than the lowstand shoreline, thus providing accommodation space for the lowstand deposits. Second, the proximity and relative size of sediment sources and the local coastal dispersal system influenced the geometry of the deposit. Mid-shelf and shelf-margin bodies composed of seaward-steepening downlapping reflectors were deposited as thin-to-thick continuous prograding sheets over an irregular eroded shelf surface and onto the shelf edge during the last fall and lowstand of sea level. A dearth of sediment at the end of lowstand conditions led to a switch from deposition to erosion. During sea level rise, shoreface erosion produced a major marine erosional (ravinement) surface landward of the 120-m isobath, and much, and in many places all, of the downlapping deposit was removed. Preservation of downlapping deposits is largely a function of their thickness. Thick continuous deposits are common on the shelf edge, whereas on the mid-shelf only thin remnants are preserved locally where depressions or morphologic steps were present in the shelf surface.

  12. Phytosociological and ecological study of springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro PETRAGLIA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociological survey of the crenic vegetation was made in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, combining the field method of the Braun-Blanquet approach with a numerical syntaxonomical analysis. A set of 139 phytosociological relevés, including vascular plants and bryophytes, were classified using cluster analysis. The vegetation types were assigned to 7 different phytosociological classes: Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae, Montio-Cardaminetea, Adiantetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae, Molinio- Arrhenatheretea, Galio-Urticetea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea. The classes Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae and Montio- Cardaminetea represent the core of crenic vegetation, including permanently or intermittently submerged plant communities, mostly made up of bryophytes, or non-submerged communities dominated by bryophytes or vascular plants. The other classes include chasmophytic bryophyte-rich communities and hygrophilous or tall herb communities lying around the periphery of the springs. 23 vegetation types were identified and, whenever possible, classified at the association level, or as phytocoena. The environmental parameters showed different ranges among vegetation types. A number of environmental variables were recorded during the vegetation survey, including altitude, shading, discharge, flow velocity, with exhaustive hydrochemical sampling. Conductivity, alkalinity and pH showed similar distribution patterns, clearly separating the vegetation types into two distinct groups, differing in the nature of the substratum. The altitudinal range was very broad and shading was also very variable. Nitrate and phosphate levels showed that the majority of vegetation types were irrigated by oligotrophic crenic waters. Finally, the bryophyte-dominated vegetation types belonging to the class Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae occurred in springs with the highest discharge values and variation. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the

  13. Cost per care of the first year of direct antiviral agents in the Liguria Region: a multicenter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenderello, Giovanni; Fanizza, Caterina; Marenco, Simona; Nicolini, Laura Ambra; Artioli, Stefania; Baldissarro, Isabella; Dentone, Chiara; De Leo, Pasqualina; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Despite the remarkable efficacy shown in clinical practice, concerns have been raised about the costs associated with direct antiviral agent (DAA) therapy. This article presents the real-life costs for DAA treatment sustained by the Italian National Health Service in the Liguria Region (Northern Italy). A retrospective analysis of the cost per care sustained for DAA treatment, relating to the period from January 1 to December 31, 2015 in five centers in Liguria was performed. All patients undergoing DAA-based treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were enrolled. On-treatment costs included: HCV treatment, laboratory test, outpatient services, attended visits, drugs used for the management of adverse events (erythropoietin, albumin or red blood cell packs) and inpatient service admissions. In total, 327 patients were enrolled. No difference in terms of sustained virologic response (SVR) rate among different treatments was reported. The majority (85.0%) of patients did not report any side effects and only 15 (4.6%) required hospital admission. Forty-two patients (12.8%) required high-cost drugs for the management of adverse events. The overall cost sustained was €14,744,433. DAA±ribavirin (RBV) accounted for the wide majority of this cost (98.9%; €14,585,123). Genotype (GT) 1, the most commonly treated GT, was associated with an average cost of €43,445 per patient. Detailed analysis of the costs for GT 1 showed the treatment based on ritonavir boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir + dasabuvir±RBV with an average cost of €24,978 (RBV+) and €25,448 (RBV-) per patient was the most cost-effective. The average cost per SVR was €48,184. Once again, the ritonavir boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir + dasabuvir regimen was associated with the lowest cost/SVR (€25,448/SVR [GT 1b] and similar results for other GTs). Antiviral regimen is the major contributor to costs in the treatment of HCV infection. Appropriate regimen selection could result in a major cost

  14. Temperature reconstruction from the length fluctuations of small glaciers in the eastern Alps (northeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecchetto, Stefano; Serandrei-Barbero, Rossana; Donnici, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a linear model computing the air temperature fluctuations from the measured glacier snout fluctuations has been applied, for the first time, to three small glaciers in the western Tauern Alps (eastern Alps) in the period 1929-2011. The considered glaciers, with areas between 0.2 and 1.3 km^2 , are characterized by relevant time variations of their morphology, length and slope. The model requires the knowledge of two parameters: the glacier climate sensitivity C_s and the glacier response time τ both depending on the glacier morphological characteristics and on the precipitation. Applied to the glaciers assuming C_s and τ as in the original formulation, it underestimates the temperature increase of {≈ } 1.8° C derived over the whole period from the in situ data. Given the characteristics of these small glaciers, these parameters have been recalibrated by means of a non-linear least-square regression using an independent set of glaciers. Their mean value is of about 210 m/K and 3.8 years respectively. With the recalibrated values of the new glacier climate sensitivity C^*_s and response time τ ^* , the temperature fluctuations derived by the model reproduce well those obtained from the observed temperatures computed over the hydrological year, with linear correlations between 0.8 and 0.9. The increase of the modeled mean temperature over the whole period fits in with that derived from observed temperature. Considering that the length fluctuations of these small glaciers affect significantly their slope and length, we tested the impact in the model of a time dependent formulation of C_s and τ : the results indicate slight improvements both in the values of the correlation between the reconstructed and the observed temperature fluctuations and in the global temperature increase. Given the above value of climate sensitivity, the large retreat of the small alpine glaciers threatens their survival within a few decades, but the morphological changes

  15. Characterization of the Vajont landslide (North-Eastern Italy) by means of reflection and surface wave seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Lorenzo; Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of the disastrous Vajont rockslide (North-Eastern Italy, October 9, 1963) have been studied in great detail over the past five decades. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the rockslide dynamics still presents several uncertainties, including those related to the accurate estimation of the actual landslide mass. This work presents the results of a geophysical characterization of the Vajont landslide body in terms of material properties and buried geometry. Both aspects add new information to the existing dataset and will help a better understanding of the rockslide failure mechanisms and dynamics. In addition, some general considerations concerning the intricacies of landslide characterization can be drawn, with due attention to potential pitfalls. The employed techniques are: (i) high resolution P-wave reflection, (ii) high resolution SH-wave reflection, (iii) controlled source surface wave analysis. We adopted as a seismic source a vibrator both for P waves and SH waves, using vertical and horizontal geophones respectively. For the surface wave seismic survey we used a heavy drop-weight source and low frequency receivers. Despite the high noise level caused by the fractured conditions of the large rock body, a common situation in landslide studies, we managed to achieve a satisfying imaging quality of the landslide structure thanks to the large number of active channels, the short receiver interval and the test of appropriate seismic sources. The joint use of different seismic techniques help focus the investigation on the rock mass mechanical properties. Results are in good agreement with the available borehole data, the geological sections and the mechanical properties of the rockmass estimated by other studies. In general the proposed approach is likely to be applicable successfully to similar situations where scattering and other noise sources are a typical bottleneck to geophysical data acquisition on landslide bodies.

  16. Natural phytoplasma infection of four phloem-feeding Auchenorrhyncha across vineyard agroecosystems in central-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, L; Isidoro, N; Rioloi, P

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal variations of grapevine yellow phytoplasma were investigated in four phloem-feeding planthopper and leafhopper species that are vectors of plant disease agents. In total, 1,148 wild specimens were collected from three vineyard agroecosystems in the Marche region (central-eastern Italy), from May to September 2008, and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism methods. Of 525 Euscelis lineolatus Brullé, 25.1% were positive for aster yellow phytoplasma (16SrI-C, 16SrI-B subgroups) and stolbur phytoplasma (16SrXII-A subgroup; Vergilbungskrankheit type I [VK-I]). Of 368 Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret, 19.3% were positive for the 16SrXII-A subgroup (VK-I, VK-II; mainly according to their host plant). Of 146 Neoaliturus fenestratus (Herrich-Schäffer), 15.1% were positive for the 16SrI-C and 16SrI-B subgroups, and 7.3% of 109 Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom) were positive for the 16SrI-B subgroup. The total inoculation efficiency in the feeding medium assays was 57.1% for P. alienus, 44.7% for E. lineolatus, 44.4% for N. fenestratus and 33.9% for H. obsoletus. All of the phytoplasma subgroups identified in the insect bodies were also detected in their feeding media. Detection of stolbur phytoplasma in E. lineolatus feeding media strengthens the hypothesis that it is a candidate vector of Bois noir disease causal agent. The phytoplasma subgroups detected in the Auchenorrhyncha species showed variations according to season and/or vineyard agroecosystem. This study highlights the different specificities of these phytoplasma-Auchenorrhyncha species relationships, and suggests a primary role of the entire vineyard agroecosystem in the epidemiology of grapevine yellow phytoplasma diseases.

  17. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010-2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramuto, Fabio; Orsi, Andrea; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Costantino, Claudio; Trucchi, Cecilia; Alicino, Cristiano; Vitale, Francesco; Ansaldi, Filippo

    2016-04-13

    Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily) and Northern (Liguria) Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%), and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8%) and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%). Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains) and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains). D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country.

  18. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010–2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Tramuto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily and Northern (Liguria Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%, and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8% and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%. Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains. D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country.

  19. HIV-1 A1 Subtype Epidemic in Italy Originated from Africa and Eastern Europe and Shows a High Frequency of Transmission Chains Involving Intravenous Drug Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Lai

    Full Text Available Subtype A accounts for only 12% of HIV-1 infections worldwide but predominates in Russia and Former Soviet Union countries of Eastern Europe. After an early propagation via heterosexual contacts, this variant spread explosively among intravenous drug users. A distinct A1 variant predominates in Greece and Albania, which penetrated directly from Africa. Clade A1 accounts for 12.5% of non-B subtypes in Italy, being the most frequent after F1 subtype.Aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of A1 subtype in Italy and trace its origin and diffusion through phylogenetic and phylodynamic approaches.The phylogenetic analysis of 113 A1 pol sequences included in the Italian ARCA database, indicated that 71 patients (62.8% clustered within 5 clades. A higher probability to be detected in clusters was found for patients from Eastern Europe and Italy (88.9% and 60.4%, respectively compared to those from Africa (20% (p < .001. Higher proportions of clustering sequences were found in intravenous drug users with respect to heterosexuals (85.7% vs. 59.3%, p = .056 and in women with respect to men (81.4% vs. 53.2%, p < .006. Subtype A1 dated phylogeny indicated an East African origin around 1961. Phylogeographical reconstruction highlighted 3 significant groups. One involved East European and some Italian variants, the second encompassed some Italian and African strains, the latter included the majority of viruses carried by African and Italian subjects and all viral sequences from Albania and Greece.Subtype A1 originated in Central Africa and spread among East European countries in 1982. It entered Italy through three introduction events: directly from East Africa, from Albania and Greece, and from the area encompassing Moldavia and Ukraine. As in previously documented A1 epidemics of East European countries, HIV-1 A1 subtype spread in Italy in part through intravenous drug users. However, Eastern European women contributed to the penetration of

  20. Geohydrological hazards and urban development in the Mediterranean area: an example from Genoa (Liguria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini, F.; Luino, F.; Sacchini, A.; Turconi, L.; De Graff, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    The metropolitan area and the city of Genoa has become a national and international case study for geohydrological risk, mainly due to the frequency of floods. In 2014, there were landslides again, as well as flash floods that have particularly caused casualties and economic damage. The weather features of the Gulf of Genoa and the geomorphological-environmental setting of the Ligurian coastal land are the predisposing factors that determine heavy rains and their resulting effects on the ground. This study analysed the characteristics of the main meteorological disasters that have hit Genoa since the start of the 20th century; changes in the rainfall regime are evaluated and the main stages of urbanization of the area are detailed, with the resulting changes to the drainage network, in order to identify the main causes of this high geohydrological risk. To this end, scientists have used climate data recorded at the station of Genoa University, in operation since 1833, and at Ponte Carrega station, located in the middle reach of the Bisagno stream, a well-known watercourse because of its frequent floods. Urban sprawl was evaluated through a multi-temporal mapping comparison, using maps available from the beginning of the 19th century up to the current regional technical maps. The average air temperature in Genoa shows a statistically significant increase, while the number of rainy days displays an equally clear decrease over time. The total annual rain value does not seem to indicate rather noticeable changes. The intensity of rain in Genoa expressed as rainfall rate, i.e.~the ratio of annual rainfall and number of rainy days, shows statistically significant growth. The geohydrological vulnerability in Genoa has increased over time due to urban development which has established modifications in land use, from agricultural to urban, especially in the valley floor. Waterways have been confined and reduced to artificial channels, often covered in their final stretch; in some cases they have even been totally removed. These actions should be at least partially reversed in order to reduce the presently high hydrological risk.

  1. Burden of rotavirus infections in Liguria, Northern Italy: hospitalisations and potential savings by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, D; Amicizia, D; Giacchino, R; Tacchella, A; Natalizia, A R; Melioli, G; Bandettini, R; Di Pietro, P; Diana, M C; Gasparini, R

    2011-08-01

    We evaluated the rates of gastroenteritis admissions to the emergency department and of rotavirus-related hospitalisations in children ≤5 years of age in 2006 at an Italian paediatric hospital. We calculated the number of rotavirus cases avoidable through the universal vaccination of children. Epidemiological data were extracted from the Data Elaboration Centre. To calculate the hospitalisation rate due to rotavirus, the virus was sought in the faeces of children hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis by means of rapid immunochromatographic assay. Emergency department admissions due to gastroenteritis numbered 2,396 (11.58% of the total admissions). Of these, 276 children (11.52%) were examined and then sent home, 1,286 (53.67%) were kept in short observation and 776 (32.38%) were hospitalised. In 27.83% of hospitalised cases, the rotavirus test proved positive. The rotavirus hospitalisation rate was 55 per 10,000 children ≤5 years of age in Genoa in 2006. In 85.6% of hospitalised patients with community-acquired rotavirus infection, the disease was severe. The number of avoidable cases confirmed that the vaccination of children ≤1 year of age could reduce the burden of rotavirus infection, especially with regard to hospitalisation (45 per 10,000 children ≤5 years of age) and admissions to short observation (85 per 10,000), generating benefits for the Italian healthcare system.

  2. Ethnopharmacognostic survey on the natural ingredients used in folk cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and remedies for healing skin diseases in the inland Marches, Central-Eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Andrea; Quave, Cassandra L; Villanelli, Maria Lorena; Mangino, Paola; Sabbatini, Giulia; Santini, Luigina; Boccetti, Tamara; Profili, Monica; Ciccioli, Tamara; Rampa, Loredana Giovanna; Antonini, Giovanna; Girolamini, Claudia; Cecchi, Marcello; Tomasi, Marco

    2004-04-01

    An ethnopharmaceutical study focused on domestic cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies to heal skin diseases traditionally used in the inland part of the Marches region (Central-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. At present, traditional knowledge concerning home-made phytocosmetics is represented by both the remnants of an orally transmitted folk heritage and also by new forms of knowledge, sometimes coming from popular phytotherapeutical books and the mass media (out of the scope of this survey), but also as a result of recent migration trends from Eastern Europe. We recorded approximately 135 cosmetic or cosmeceutical preparations prepared from more than 70 botanical species and a very few animal or mineral ingredients. Among the recorded preparations, developing a clear distinction amongst cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and pharmaceuticals for skin diseases is very problematic, confirming that in folk knowledge systems medicinal products for healing skin diseases and cosmetics have often been perceived as two poles of a continuum. Many of the quoted species represented well-known medicinal plants of the European phytotherapy, although we also recorded a few unusual plant taxa, which are briefly discussed under the perspective of their eventual phytochemical and/or phytopharmacological potentialities. Exotic drugs or precious essences, even native of the Mediterranean, were not quoted as ingredients for preparing perfumes and fragrances by the interviewees of the present study, thus indicating that popular cosmetic practices in rural Central Italy have taken a much separated path away from the cosmetic "know-how" of the aristocracy and high bourgeois classes of the last centuries.

  3. Landslide hazard assessment : LIFE+IMAGINE project methodology and Liguria region use case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Campo, Valentina; Congi, Maria Pia; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Leoni, Gabriele; Trigila, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Scope of the work is to present a methodology developed for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement a web services-based infrastructure addressed to environmental analysis, that integrates, in its own architecture, specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services has been customized to provide functionalities for supporting environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure has been applied to landslide risk scenarios, developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. The landslide pilot and related scenario are focused at providing a simplified Landslide Risk Assessment (LRA) through: 1) a landslide inventory derived from available historical and recent databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements 5) development of a use case; 6) definition of guidelines, best practices and production of thematic maps. The LRA has been implemented in Liguria region, Italy, in two different catchment areas located in the Cinque Terre National Park, characterized by a high landslide susceptibility and low resilience. The landslide risk impact analysis has been calibrated taking into account the socio-economic damage caused by landslides triggered by the October 2011 meteorological event. During this event, over 600 landslides were triggered in the selected pilot area. Most of landslides affected the diffuse system of anthropogenic terraces and caused the direct

  4. Late Miocene remagnetization within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geologic evidence indicates that Upper Jurassic radiolarian cherts of both the Tuscan Cherts Formation (continental margin, Tuscan Units) and the Monte Alpe Cherts Formation (oceanic crust, Ligurian Units) were remagnetized during Miocene orogenesis of the Northern Apennines of Italy. Characteristic overprint magnetizations with reversed polarities have been found over a large area within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, including eastern Liguria, Elba Island and the Thyrrenian margin, and west of the Middle Tuscan Ridge. The reversed-polarity overprint (average direction: D=177??, I=-52??, ??95=15??) was most likely acquired during Late Miocene uplift and denudation of the orogenic chain, and thermochemical remagnetization was a probable consequence of increased circulation of orogenic fluids. Similarly, mostly reversed-polarity directions of magnetization have been found by other workers in overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments (D=177??, I=-57??, ??95=3??), which show little counterclockwise (CCW) vertical-axis rotation with respect to stable Europe (-8??5??). The Monte Alpe Cherts sampled at sites in the external sector of the Northern Apennines, close to major tectonic features, have normal- polarity overprint directions with in situ W-SW declinations. Since the overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments have not been substantially rotated about vertical axes, the evidence points to an earlier,pre-Late Miocene remagnetization in the external parts of the orogenic chain. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Challenges of conservation agriculture practices on silty soils. Effects on soil pore and gas transport characteristics in North-eastern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccoli, Ilaria; Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the effect of CA practices on gas transport characteristics in the silty soils of the Veneto Region (North-Eastern Italy). In 2010, a field experiment comparing CA practices (no-tillage, cover crop and residues retention) to conventional intensive tillage (IT) system...... was established in four farms located in the Veneto low plain. In fall 2015, 144 undisturbed 100 cm3 soil cores where collected at two different layers (3–6.5 cm and 20–23.5 cm) and analysed for air-filled porosity, air permeability, gas diffusivity and soil structure indices derived. Gas transport measurements...... highlighted low transmission properties of the silty soils independently from agronomic management. Both air permeability and relative gas diffusivity showed poor aerated conditions being generally

  6. New Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia in a Rhipicephalus turanicus Tick Removed from a Child in Eastern Sicily, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeeva, Marina E; Stromdahl, Ellen Y.

    2011-01-01

    A new genotype of spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) was identified in Rhipicephalus turanicus from eastern Sicily. On the basis of current molecular criteria, the genetic characteristics obtained from multiple locus sequence typing satisfy the requirements for Candidatus status of this SFGR. Further detection and identification of this SFGR during entomological and clinical surveys will be required to establish the prevalence of this Rickettsia and its potential pathogenicity for humans.

  7. New stratigraphic and taphonomic data from the late Pleistocene deposits of the San Teodoro Cave (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Mangano

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In previous excavations at the San Teodoro Cave (North-Eastern Sicily the Authors distinguished an upper Late Glacial sedimentary unit (Unit A and a lower sedimentary unit (Unit B containing Upper Pleistocene endemic mammal remains. New data collected during 2002 and 2003 excavations come from a trench located on the eastern side of the cave at a distance of 30-34 m from the entrance. In the new trench the composition and taphonomic characters of the faunal assemblage of the Unit B deposits are similar to those recognized in 1998 in a trench located on the eastern side of the cave at a distance of 9-13 m from the entrance. The Unit B contains a highly diversified assemblage of vertebrates, invertebrates and vegetal remains. Damages on bones and abundant coprolites testify to intense hyena activity. Complete and undamaged remains of elephant and deer are actually a novelty from a taphonomic point of view. A new sterile sedimentary unit (Unit C has been brought to light. The characters of the new sedimentary Unit C suggest a correlation with the older lacustrine deposits located at the base of the vertical cliffs where the San Teodoro cave is located.

  8. ARIMIDELPHIS SORBINII A NEW SMALL KILLER WHALE-LIKE DOLPHIN FROM THE PLIOCENE OF MARECCHIA RIVER (CENTRAL EASTERN ITALY) AND A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE ORCININAE (CETACEA: ODONTOCETI)

    OpenAIRE

    GIOVANNI BIANUCCI

    2005-01-01

    Arimidelphis sorbinii is a new genus and a new species of Delphinidae (Cetacea, Odontoceti) based on an incomplete skull with right ear bones, mandible, teeth and left forelimb, all from one animal, from the Late Pliocene sediments of Marecchia river (Central Eastern Italy). This specimen had previously been wrongly referred to the fossil species Tursiops osennae. Arimidelphis shows some affinities with killer whale (Orcinus), as the short rostrum, the very strong preorbital process with circ...

  9. Soil–plant interaction monitoring: Small scale example of an apple orchard in Trentino, North-Eastern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassiani, Giorgio; Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Matteo [Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università di Padova (Italy); Putti, Mario; Fadda, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Padova (Italy); Majone, Bruno; Bellin, Alberto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Università di Trento (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    Accurate monitoring and modeling of soil–plant systems are a key unresolved issue that currently limits the development of a comprehensive view of the interactions between soil and atmosphere, with a number of practical consequences including the difficulties in predicting climatic change patterns. This paper presents a case study where time-lapse minimal-invasive 3D micro-electrical tomography (ERT) is used to monitor rhizosphere eco-hydrological processes in an apple orchard in the Trentino region, Northern Italy. In particular we aimed at gaining a better understanding of the soil–vegetation water exchanges in the shallow critical zone, as part of a coordinated effort towards predicting climate-induced changes on the hydrology of Mediterranean basins (EU FP7 CLIMB project). The adopted strategy relied upon the installation of a 3D electrical tomography apparatus consisting of four mini-boreholes carrying 12 electrodes each plus 24 mini-electrodes on the ground surface, arranged in order to image roughly a cubic meter of soil surrounding a single apple tree. The monitoring program was initially tested with repeated measurements over about one year. Subsequently, we performed three controlled irrigation tests under different conditions, in order to evaluate the water redistribution under variable root activities and climatic conditions. Laboratory calibration on soil samples allowed us to translate electrical resistivity variations into moisture content changes, supported also by in-situ TDR measurements. Richards equation modeling was used also to explain the monitoring evidence. The results clearly identified the effect of root water uptake and the corresponding subsoil region where active roots are present, but also marked the need to consider the effects of different water salinity in the water infiltration process. We also gained significant insight about the need to measure quantitatively the plant evapotranspiration in order to close the water balance

  10. Validation of landslide hazard assessment by means of GPS monitoring technique – a case study in the Dolomites (Eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tagliavini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years a research project aimed at the assessment of the landslide hazard and susceptibility in the high Cordevole river basin (Eastern Dolomites, Italy have been carried out. The hazard map was made adopting the Swiss Confederation semi-deterministic approach that takes into account parameters such as velocity, geometry and frequency of landslides. Usually these parameters are collected by means of geological and morphological surveys, historical archive researches, aerophotogrammetric analysis etc. In this framework however the dynamics of an instable slope can be difficult to determine. This work aims at illustrating some progress in landslide hazard assessment using a modified version of the Swiss Confederation semi-deterministic approach in which the values of some parameters have been refined in order to accomplish more reliable results in hazard assessment. A validation of the accuracy of these new values, using GPS and inclinometric measurements, has been carried out on a test site located inside the high Cordevole river basin.

  11. Geographical information systems in the management of the 2009-2010 emergency oral anti-rabies vaccination of foxes in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mulatti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Emergency oral fox vaccination campaigns, targeting a recent rabies epidemic in wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes in north-eastern Italy, were implemented twice, first in the winter of 2009 and then in the spring of 2010. Following on an unsuccessful manual bait distribution campaign, vaccine baits were aerially distributed by helicopters using a satellite-navigated, computer-supported, automatic bait drop system. The flight paths were traced with distance of 500-1,000 m from one another to optimise helicopter missions and guarantee homogeneous coverage of the vaccination area. The vaccine distribution was evaluated by superimposing a 1 km-step grid and weighing the number of baits per cell. The implementation of a geographical information system for the management of vaccine distribution proved to be useful, both for the planning and execution phases, of the campaigns. It supported effective management of the flights and allowed near real-time monitoring of the campaigns. In addition, it facilitated the identification of areas with suboptimal bait density that would require additional flights or supplementary, manual distribution.

  12. Biodiversity of indigenous Saccharomyces populations from old wineries of south-eastern Sicily (Italy: preservation and economic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Di Maio

    Full Text Available In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity.In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy where traditional (non-industrial winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices.

  13. Biodiversity of indigenous Saccharomyces populations from old wineries of south-eastern Sicily (Italy): preservation and economic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Sabina; Polizzotto, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Enrico; Foresta, Giusy; Genna, Giuseppe; Verzera, Antonella; Scacco, Antonio; Amore, Gabriele; Oliva, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity.In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy) where traditional (non-industrial) winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices.

  14. Preliminary results of an influenza surveillance in wild birds, game birds, domestic ducks and geese in North Eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Scremin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the avian influenza (AI epidemics which occurred in Italy between 1997 and 2003, a surveillance program, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health was implemented. Among the tasks of this surveillance program was an investigation on wild and domestic birds to asses circulation of avian influenza viruses in their natural reservoirs. In this study we collected samples from migratory wild birds (Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, from national and importated game fowls, and from 7 backyard farms of geese and ducks. Cloacal swabs were screened by means of real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR and/or directly processed for attempted virus isolation in embryonated fowl’s SPF eggs and blood samples for presence of antibodies against avian influenza viruses. Avian influenza viruses were only obtained from migratory waterfowls belonging to the family Anseriformes, and not from domestic waterfowls or game birds. This study confirms that the risk of introduction of novel influenza viruses in densely populated areas of poultry farms in Veneto is linked to migratory wild birds and in particular from birds belonging to the family Anseriformes.

  15. Applicability of a forecasting chain in a different morphological environment in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gabellani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational meteo-hydrological forecasting chain of the Liguria Region (NW Italy is applied to a different morphoclimatic environment, such as the Emilia Romagna Region (N Italy. Modification to the chain, both in models and in procedures, are introduced to overcome problems related to medium dimension catchments (A≈1000km2, characterized by complex altimetry profiles and antropical interventions along the river. The main feature of the original operational procedure, that is the probabilistic approach, is maintained. Hydraulic hazard reduction through artificial reservoirs management is exploited with reference to a specific event occurred on the Reno basin (Emilia Romagna Region.

  16. REINTERPRETATION OF THE LATE PLEISTOCENE INGARANO CAVE DEPOSIT BASED ON THE FOSSIL BIRD ASSOCIATION (APULIA, SOUTH-EASTERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA BEDETTI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of Late Pleistocene fossil bird remains from Ingarano (Apulia, SE Italy, based on the revision of previously published material and the study of unpublished fossils bones. New field observations make it possible to simplify the stratigraphy of the deposit compared to previous work. The systematic study of the fossil bird bones revealed the presence of 15 taxa, including two hypothetical ones: Circus aeruginosus, Buteo rufinus, Aquila chrysaëtos, Falco columbarius, Falco cherrug, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Columba livia, Otus scops, Nyctea scandiaca, Nyctea scandiaca vel Bubo bubo, Athene noctua, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corone, Corvus corone vel Corvus frugilegus, Corvus corax. Our detailed study also helps improve the taphonomical interpretation of the deposit: the remains from the lower layers were accumulated after mammalian predator activity and were transported over short distances, while the ones from the upper layers show sings of intense transport, such as fractures and surface abrasion. Two different bird assemblages were recognized, respectively from the lowermost and the upper layers of the clastic succession exposed in the Ingarano deposit; this difference is also confirmed by the fossil mammal remains. The systematic study makes it possible to make palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstructions: both assemblages indicate open environments, and the taxa of the lower layers indicate the presence of woods and wetlands with colder characteristics, while birds of the upper layers indicate drier and warmer conditions. This analysis, and the dating established through geochemical analyses and study of lithic artefacts, lead us to date the formation of the Ingarano deposit to the Late Pleistocene, in particular to the MIS 3. The presence of a layer dated to the MIS 2 at the base of the succession indicated in previous works cannot be confirmed. 

  17. Pollen-related allergy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Dal Bo, S; Bonini, S

    1992-05-01

    Pollen-related allergies are very common in Italy and pollinosis is the commonest allergic disease. The type of allergenic plants and the prevalence of hay fever varies among regions. In the Mediterranean area there are characteristic climatic conditions (mildness of winter, summer dryness) that facilitate the growth of a typical vegetation with its associated various types of allergenic pollen grains, some of them very different from those of central and northern Europe. Italy has a central position in the Mediterranean basin, but because of its geographic characteristics, there are different climatic aspects with different vegetation between northern, central, and southern areas. Gramineae are the most common allergenic plants in northern and central Italy, where more than 60% of patients with pollinosis are grass-pollen sensitive. Parietaria is the most important pollinating plant in southern Italy and Liguria. Olea europaea, the olive tree with cultivation widespread in the whole Mediterranean basin, is responsible for frequently severe pollinosis, particularly in some regions of the southern Italy.

  18. Using online database for landslide susceptibility assessment with an example from the Veneto Region (north-eastern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Mario; Squarzoni, Cristina; Zorzi, Luca; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Iafelice, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility maps describe landslide-prone areas by the spatial correlation between landslides and related factors, derived from different kinds of datasets: geological, geotechnical and geomechanical maps, hydrogeological maps, landslides maps, vector and raster terrain data, real-time inclinometer and pore pressure data. In the last decade, thanks to the increasing use of web-based tools for management, sharing and communication of territorial information, many Web-based Geographical Information Systems (WebGIS) were created by local governments or nations, University and Research Centres. Nowadays there is a strong proliferation of geological WebGIS or GeoBrowser, allowing free download of spatial information. There are global Cartographical Portals that provide a free download of DTM and other vector data related to the whole planet (http://www.webgis.com). At major scale, there are WebGIS regarding entire nation (http://www.agiweb.org), or specific region of a country (http://www.mrt.tas.gov.au), or single municipality (http://sitn.ne.ch/). Moreover, portals managed by local government and academic government (http://turtle.ags.gov.ab.ca/Peace_River/Site/) or by a private agency (http://www.bbt-se.com) are noteworthy. In Italy, the first national projects for the creation of WebGIS and web-based databases begun during the 1980s, and evolved, through years, to the present number of different WebGIS, which have different territorial extensions: national (Italian National Cartographical Portal, http://www.pcn.minambiente.it; E-GEO Project, http://www.egeo.unisi.it), interregional (River Tiber Basin Authority, www.abtevere.it ), and regional (Veneto Region, www.regione.veneto.it). In this way we investigated most of the Italian WebGIS in order to verify their geographic range and the availability and quality of data useful for landslide hazard analyses. We noticed a large variability of the accessing information among the different browsers. In

  19. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  20. Dynamics and structure of natural regeneration in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraruf L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration structures and spatial patterns of European larch (Larix decidua Miller, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst., were analyzed in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps. Larch and spruce regeneration is mainly affected by dense forest cover and grasses competition whereas stone pine is mostly sensitive to late snow melting, fungal diseases and wild ungulate damages. The current stand and regeneration structure suggests that larch has been highly fostered in the past due to silvo-pastoral management practices. All species show a clear tendency to spatial intraspecific aggregation especially at short-distances. The spatial patterns of larch regeneration are more complex than the other two species, more heavily affected by a main factor such as the nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes L. seed dispersal for stone pine or presence of canopy gaps for spruce. However, spatial patterns of all species depend on the number of the available microsites, that often match at small distance driving the formation of small mixed and unevenaged patches. Combining the age structure and spatial pattern information we were able to better understand the small-scale patterns and processes and the role of the past disturbances on the regeneration dynamics in space and time.

  1. Characteristics of dairy farms in the North-Eastern part of Italy: rations, milk yield and nutrients excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dairy farms in the North- Eastern part of Po valley in terms of ration composition, milk yield and N and P excretions. Eightynine farms, with Italian Holstein Friesian cows, were selected in order to cover different situations in term of farm size and milk yield (MY. MY and quality were obtained from the national database of functional controls. Each farm was visited in order to collect information about ingredients and chemical composition of rations used. Farms were classified in four groups differing for dietary crude protein density (LCP15.3% DM and for MY (LMY30 kg/d. N and P excretions were quantified by following a mass balance approach. Dietary crude protein content (CP was not correlated to milk yield (MY and quality. The estimated amounts of N excreted, discounted for 28% of N losses in atmosphere, were 78.5, 78.2, 87.2 and 89.1 kg/cow/year, and P excreted were 20.2, 18.6, 18.7 and 19.8 kg/cow/year for the LCPLMY, LCPHMY, HCPLMY, HCPHMY groups, respectively. On corn silage and cereals based rations, a dietary CP of 14.3% DM can support 31 kg MY/cow/day.

  2. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of eclogites and associated rocks from the Eastern Sesia zone (Western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmons, J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses have been made of mineral separates from eclogites, glaucophanites and glaucophane schists from the eastern Sesia zone (Italian Western Alps). Regularities in (1) hydrogen isotope compositions, (2) order of 18O enrichment among coexisting minerals, and (3) ?? 18O (quartz-rutile) and ?? 18O (quartz-phengite) imply attainment of a high degree of isotopic equilibrium. However, some scattering of ??18O values of individual minerals indicates that the eclogitic assemblage did not form in the presence of a thoroughly pervasive fluid. Minerals from an eclogitic lens enclosed in marble have ??18O values distinctly different from those measured in the other rocks. The ??18O values are high in comparison with other type C eclogites of the world, and it is proposed that the fluid present during the high pressure metamorphism has to a large extent been inherited from the precursor rocks of amphibolite facies. An average formation temperature of 540 ?? C is inferred from the oxygen isotope fractionations between quartz and rutile and between quartz and white mica. This temperature is in accordance with petrologic considerations and implies subduction of the precursor rocks into the upper mantle to achieve the high pressures required. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  3. A geochemical approach for assessing the possible uses of the geothermal resource in the eastern sector of the Sabatini Volcanic District (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Daniele; Tassi, Franco; Procesi, Monia; Brusca, Lorenzo; Cabassi, Jacopo; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Galli, Gianfranco; Grassa, Fausto; Vaselli, Orlando; Voltattorni, Nunzia

    2017-04-01

    The Sabatini Volcanic District (SVD) hosts a hydrothermal reservoir heated by the post-magmatic activity that affected the peri-Tyrrhenian sector of central Italy, giving rise to a number of thermal and mineral discharges. In this study, a complete geochemical and isotopic dataset based on the composition of 215 water and 9 bubbling gases, collected from the eastern sector of this huge hydrothermal system, is reported. The main aims are to (i) investigate the fluid sources and the main chemical-physical processes controlling the fluid chemistry and (ii) construct a conceptual fluid circulation model to provide insights into the possible use(s) of the geothermal resource. The fluid discharges are fed by two main aquifers, characterized by: (1) a Ca-HCO3 to Ca(Na)-HCO3 composition, typical of a shallow hydrological circuit within volcanic and sedimentary formations, and (2) a Ca-HCO3(SO4) to Na(Ca)-HCO3(Cl) composition, produced by the interaction of CO2-rich fluids with Mesozoic and Triassic carbonate-evaporite rocks. A thick sequence of low-permeability volcanic products represents a physical barrier between the two fluid reservoirs. As commonly occurring in central-southern Italy, CO2 is mainly produced by thermo-metamorphic decarbonation within the carbonate-evaporite reservoir, with minor contribution of mantle CO2. A dominant crustal source is also indicated by the relatively low R/Ra values (0.07-1.04). Methane and light hydrocarbons are mostly thermogenic, whereas H2S derives from thermogenic reduction of the Triassic anhydrites. Slightly positive 15N/14N values suggest minor N2 contribution from deep sedimentary sources. On the whole, a comparison of these geochemical features with those of the thermal fluids from the western portion of SVD highlights an eastward increasing influence of the shallow aquifer on the deep-originated fluids, likely caused by the proximity of the Apennine range from where the meteoric water, recharging the hydrothermal system

  4. Humans reclaimed lands in NorthEastern Italy and artificial drainage networks: effects of 30 years of Agricultural Surface Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Giulia; Pizzulli, Federica; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture and land-use management has changed drastically in Italy since the end of the Second World War, driven by local but also European agricultural policies. As a result of these changes in farming practices and land use, many drainage networks have changed producing a greater exposure to flooding with a broad range of impacts on society, also because of climate inputs coupling with the human drivers. This study focuses on two main points: which kind of land use and farming changes have been observed in the most recent years ( 30 years)? How do these changes interact with climate and soil conditions? An open challenge to understand how these changes influence the watershed response, is, in fact, to understand if rainfall characteristics and climate have a synergistic effect, if their interaction matters, or to understand what element has the greatest influence on the watershed response connected to agricultural changes. The work is based on a simple model of water infiltration due to soil properties, and a connected evaluation of the distributed surface water storage offered by artificial drainage networks in a study area in Veneto (north-eastern Italy). The analysis shows that economic changes control the development of agro-industrial landscapes, with effects on the hydrological response. However, these changes deeply interact with antecedent soil conditions and climate characteristics. Intense and irregular rainfall events and events with a high recurrence should be expected to be the most critical. The presented outcomes highlight the importance of understanding how agricultural practices can be the driver of or can be used to avoid, or at least mitigate, flooding. The proposed methods can be valuable tools in evaluating the costs and benefits of the management of water in agriculture to inform better policy decision-making. References Sofia G, Tarolli P. 2017. Hydrological Response to 30 years of Agricultural Surface Water Management. Land 6 (1): 3 DOI

  5. Experiences in regional landslide forecasting from Piemonte region (North-western Italy) and South-Eastern Norway between the 15th and the 23rd of May 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Davide; Boje, Søren; Cremonini, Roberto; Devoli, Graziella; Sund, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Although Italy and Norway belongs to different climates, they can be influenced by the same large low pressure systems. On May 2013, ARPA in Piemonte region and NVE in Norway issued warning for flood and landslides due to the arriving of a deep and large low pressure (known as Vb-tief). This type of weather is well known to produce the largest floods in Europe. Recent studies in Norway confirm that similar systems are also responsible of triggering landslide events. In this contribution we present how the existing forecasting systems in Piemonte region and in Norway react and we summarize our experiences. Regional early warning systems (EWS) are operational both in Piemonte region (Italy) and nationally in Norway to forecast shallow landslides, debris flows and debris avalanches. Both EWSs provides daily landslide hazard assessments based on quantitative thresholds and daily rainfall forecasts coupled with qualitative expert analysis. The ARPA Piemonte warning system has been operational since 1994 while the NVE one since 2013: daily bulletins are published respectively by http://www.arpa.piemonte.gov.it/rischinaturali and www.varsom.no. From 15th May to 19nd June 2013, ARPA Piemonte rain gauges recorded more that 200mm in Piemonte and 60-90cm fresh snow over the Alps above 2000m asl. Several rivers were flooded and diffuse landslides were occurred over all the region. In Norway the same weather type lasts a bit longer from 15th May to 2nd June 2013. South-Eastern Norway received a lot of rain distributed in 2 major events, the 15th - 16th of May and between the 22nd and 23rd of May. In addition, high temperatures produced intense snow melting over a large area. Snow depth was less than normal but the snow melted within two weeks while the frost in the area was deeper than normal. From 21st to 23rd May heavy rainfall, over 70 mm in a few hours, fell over the Glomma river basin, especially over Gudbrandsdalen, causing extensive flood along Glomma river and hundreds

  6. Lack of identification of Flaviviruses in oral and cloacal swabs from long- and short-distance migratory birds in Trentino-Alto Adige (North-eastern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisenti, Michela; Arnoldi, Daniele; Rizzolli, Franco; Giacobini, Mario; Bertolotti, Luigi; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2013-10-11

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), both belonging to the genus Flavivirus, are emerging in Italy as important human and animal pathogens. Migratory birds are involved in the spread of Flaviviruses over long distances, particularly from Africa to Europe. Once introduced, these viruses can be further be dispersed by short-distance migratory and resident bird species. Thus far, there is still a considerable knowledge gap on the role played by different bird species in the ecology and transmission mechanisms of these viruses. The Region of Trentino-Alto Adige (north-eastern Italy) is located on the migratory route of many of the short- and long-distance migratory birds that cross the Alps, connecting northern Europe and western Asia with southern Europe and Africa. Until now, only a silent circulation of WNV and USUV within the territory of the Province of Trento has been confirmed by serological screening, whilst no cases of infected humans or animals have so far been reported. However, continuous spillover events of both viruses have been reported in neighbouring Regions. The aim of this study was to monitor the circulation of WNV and USUV in Trentino-Alto Adige, in order to detect if active virus shedding occurs in migratory birds captured during their seasonal movements and to evaluate the role that different bird species could play in the spreading of these viruses. We carried out a biomolecular survey on oral and cloacal swabs collected from migratory birds during seasonal migrations. Birds belonging to 18 transaharian and 21 intrapaleartic species were examined during spring (n = 176) and autumn (n = 146), and were tested using a generic nested-PCR. All samples tested negative for Flaviviruses. The possible causes of unapparent shedding, along with ecological and epidemiological implications are discussed. The lack of detection of active virus shedding in these bird species does not exclude the circulation of these viruses within the Trentino

  7. How multiple foliations may control large gravitational phenomena: A case study from the Cismon Valley, Eastern Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Luca; Massironi, Matteo; Surian, Nicola; Genevois, Rinaldo; Floris, Mario

    2014-02-01

    The right slope of the High Cismon Valley (Trento Province, Italy), carved into the poly-deformed phyllites of the South Alpine Basement, shows evidence of differential Quaternary slope evolution which highly depends on how the slope intersects the inherited structures. In the study area, the regional schistosity outlines a kilometer-scale NNW-SSE trending fold, with close flanks and an axial plane dipping to the NE. The structure obliquely intersects the NNE-SSW trending slope so that the northern part of the slope follows the upper limb of the fold and the southern sector coincides with the lower limb and the hinge. The secondary axial-plane foliation is typically incipient at the fold flanks, and much more pervasive and fan-shaped near the hinge zone. This foliation, as well as the asymmetric polyharmonic secondary folds, has significant consequences on rock mass mechanical properties and on mechanisms and timing of the gravitational phenomena developed along the slope. In particular the Joint Compressive Strength (JCS) and the Geological Strength Index (GSI), obtained on stable outcrops outside the deforming area, display a decrease from north to south. This points to a progressive deterioration of the rock mass strength which directly reflects the influence of the pre-existing fabric. The results obtained by the analysis of LiDAR-derived digital elevation model show evidence of two different gravitational movements, located in the northern and southern sectors of the slope respectively. The northern side is characterized by an ongoing deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) likely triggered by post-glacial unloading, derived from the retreat of the ice tongue that filled the Cismon Valley during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Conversely, the southern part of the slope is the expression of a fully evolved pre-LGM gravitational collapse. This heterogeneous behavior of the slope is most likely controlled by the secondary foliation and asymmetric

  8. Cropland responses to extreme winter temperature events: results from a manipulation experiment in north-eastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simon, G.; Alberti, G.; Delle Vedove, G.; Peressotti, A.; Zaldei, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the last years, several studies has focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to climate warming. Most of them have been conducted on natural ecosystems (forests or grasslands), but few have considered intensively managed ecosystems such as croplands despite of their global extension. In particular, extreme events, such as temperature changes outside the growing season (winter) when soil is not covered by plants, can have a strong impact on soil respiration, residues decomposition, yield and overall net biome production (NBP). In this study, we investigated the response of soil respiration (total and heterotrophic), aboveground NPP, yield and NBP on a soybean crop (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) due to a manipulated warmer or cooler winter. The experiment was carried out in Beano (46°00' N 13°01'E, Italy). Soil albedo and soil temperature were manipulated by covering soil surface during late winter with a layer of inert ceramized silica gravel. We tested three treatments with three replicates each: cooling (Co; white gravel), warming (W; black gravel), mix (M; black and white 4:1 gravel) and control (C; bare soil). An automated soil respiration system measured continuously total soil CO2 efflux across all the year and heterotrophic respiration after sowing in root exclusion subplots. Additionally, soil temperature profiles (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 cm depth), soil water content (between 5 and 10 cm depth) were monitored in each plot. After sowing, soybean phenological phases were periodically assessed and final yield was measured in each plot. Results showed a significant change in upper soil temperature between gravel application and canopy closure (maximum of + 5.8 °C and - 6.8 °C in the warming and cooling treatments, respectively). However, warming had only a transient effect on soil respiration (increase) before sowing. Thereafter, as soon as fresh organic matter availability decreased, soil respiration rate decreased and annual budget was not significantly different

  9. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassa, Fausto [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: f.grassa@pa.ingv.it; Favara, Rocco [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Valenza, Mariano [Dipartimento CFTA, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36, 90123, Palermo (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line ({delta}D = 6.50 {delta} {sup 18}O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average {sup 2}H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the {delta} {sup 18}O vs {delta}D relationship for Hyblean groundwater is {delta}D = 4.85 {delta} {sup 18}O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes.

  10. Field experiments and numerical simulations of phreatic aquifer response to pond infiltration at the eastern Alps foothills, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatini, Pietro; Comerlati, Andrea; Paiero, Giovanni; Martelli, Grazia; Carvalho, Tiago; Guetz, Anna; Fanzutti, Francesco; Affatato, Alessandro; Baradello, Luca; Nieto, Daniel; Bongiovanni, Stefano; Mattassi, Giorgio; Botti, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    A large volume of surficial fresh high-quality water flows every year from the eastern Alps foothills into the northern Adriatic sea through a number of rivers (e.g., the Tagliamento, Isonzo, Livenza rivers). Crossing a highly permeable plain just south of the Alpine range, the rivers naturally recharge along their course a thick phreatic aquifer mainly composed by gravel and fractured conglomerates. The river waters are distributed across the territory through a dense channel network used for irrigation during the hot season. From autumn to spring this water could be used to recharge the aquifer through a number of large infiltration ponds excavated in the early 2000s, but never used because of legislative limitation. Within the WARBO LIFE+ project, the Environmental Agency of the region has allowed to use the Mereto infiltration basin for recharging the aquifer, after detailed test for surficial water quality and compatibility with the groundwater. The pond is about 6 m deep and 45×7 m2 wide. The site, which is characterized by an elevation of 105 m above msl and a 50 m depth to the phreatic water table, has been accurately characterized by geophysical (geoelectrical, georadar, seismic) surveys and a number of 70 m deep boreholes drilled in the basin surroundings. The permeability evaluated through pumping tests in these boreholes is on the order of 10-4 m/s. Recharge started in December 2013 with an infiltration on the order of 720 m3/day. The collected data, i.e. the water volume flowed into the pond, its water level, and the piezometric evolution in the wellbores around the basin have been used for the calibration of a finite element three-dimensional variably-saturated flow model. The calibrated model will be used to manage the full-scale recharge project in the future.

  11. Plagioclase deformation in upper-greenschist facies meta-pegmatite mylonites from the Austroalpine Matsch Unit (Eastern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlei, Tobias; Habler, Gerlinde; Abart, Rainer; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Feldspars are common rock forming minerals as they are stable over a wide range of bulk rock compositions and metamorphic conditions within the Earth's crust. The deformation mechanisms of feldspar play an important role in rheological models for the crust and therefore have received considerable attention in studies on natural rocks and in experimental studies. The interaction of frictional and viscous deformation mechanisms and the onset of crystal plastic deformation in feldspars occur over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. In this work, we present new microstructural, textural and mineral chemical data of plagioclase from Permian metapegmatites within the Austroalpine Matsch Unit in Southern Tyrol (Italy). These crystalline basement rocks were deformed and metamorphosed at conditions close to the greenschist/amphibolites facies transition at 480±26°C during the Cretaceous (Habler et al., 2009). The investigated samples have been collected from meter-scale shear zones which typically occur at boundaries of lithological subunits. The southern tectonic boundary of this unit is commonly referred to as the "Vinschgau Shear Zone" (Schmid & Haas, 1989). We applied the Electron Backscatter Diffraction method to investigate the grain- and subgrain-boundaries and the nature of effective deformation mechanisms in plagioclase. Large albite porphyroclasts in the mylonitic Permian metapegmatites show grain internal traces of dissolution surfaces and the formation of new, strain-free grains with straight grain boundary segments and partly 120° grain boundary triple junctions in dilatant sites. The aggregates of new grains neither have a lattice preferred orientation nor a crystallographic orientation relation with the adjacent clast, and are characterized by the lack of grain internal deformation, suggesting that these are new precipitates rather than clast-fragments or recrystallized subgrains. Furthermore, the porphyroclasts show cracks and kinks, associated

  12. Inferring LGM sedimentary and climatic changes in the southern Eastern Alps foreland through the analysis of a 14C ages database (Brenta megafan, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Sandro; Mozzi, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of a database of radiocarbon ages is proposed as a tool for investigating major glaciofluvial systems of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Alpine foreland, and their relations with glacier dynamics and climatic fluctuations. Our research concerns the Brenta megafan (NE Italy), where 110 radiocarbon dates integrate a robust regional stratigraphic and palaeoclimatic framework. Age-depth models allowed us to calculate sedimentation rates, while the time distribution of peat layers, which recurrently formed in this region during the LGM, were estimated through meta-analysis. The reliability of statistical results was carefully evaluated using Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Sedimentation rates in the Brenta megafan markedly fluctuated during LGM: ≈1.8 m/ka between 40 and 26.7 ka cal BP; ≈3 m/ka between 26.7 and 23.8 ka cal BP and ≈1.4 m/ka from 23.8 to 17.5 ka cal BP, when the distributary system deactivated due to fan-head trenching. This is evidence that sediment input and routing in the glaciofluvial distributary system was particularly efficient during the central part of LGM, when glaciers were stable at their outermost position. Meta-analysis indicates an increase in peat formation in correspondence with global (Heinrich Event 3 and/or the Greenland Interstadial 5.1 and 4 for the 30.5, 29.6 and 28.8 ka cal BP peaks) and regional (23.5 ka cal BP) wet events. Other peaks at 22.2, 21.8, 20.2 and 19 ka cal BP correlate with fluctuations of south-eastern Alpine glaciers. Significant peat formation continued until ≈18 ka cal BP, when the last peak occurred. A marked decrease in peat formation is recorded concomitantly with the onset of Heinrich Event 2 (i.e. the 26 ka cal BP trough). The good correspondence of sedimentary events in the Brenta glaciofluvial system with the dynamics of glaciers and glaciofluvial and lacustrine systems in the southern Eastern Alps suggests a common climatic forcing on the whole region during the LGM. Peat layer

  13. Occurrence and identification of risk areas of Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: a cost-effectiveness analysis in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capelli Gioia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus, a competent vector of several pathogens, is the tick species most frequently reported to bite humans in Europe. The majority of human cases of Lyme borreliosis (LB and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE occur in the north-eastern region of Italy. The aims of this study were to detect the occurrence of endemic and emergent pathogens in north-eastern Italy using adult tick screening, and to identify areas at risk of pathogen transmission. Based on our results, different strategies for tick collection and pathogen screening and their relative costs were evaluated and discussed. Methods From 2006 to 2008 adult ticks were collected in 31 sites and molecularly screened for the detection of pathogens previously reported in the same area (i.e., LB agents, TBE virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". Based on the results of this survey, three sampling strategies were evaluated a-posteriori, and the impact of each strategy on the final results and the overall cost reductions were analyzed. The strategies were as follows: tick collection throughout the year and testing of female ticks only (strategy A; collection from April to June and testing of all adult ticks (strategy B; collection from April to June and testing of female ticks only (strategy C. Results Eleven pathogens were detected in 77 out of 193 ticks collected in 14 sites. The most common microorganisms detected were Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (17.6%, Rickettsia helvetica (13.1%, and "Ca. N. mikurensis" (10.5%. Within the B. burgdorferi complex, four genotypes (i.e., B. valaisiana, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were found. Less prevalent pathogens included R. monacensis (3.7%, TBE virus (2.1%, A. phagocytophilum (1.5%, Bartonella spp. (1%, and Babesia EU1 (0.5%. Co-infections by more than one pathogen were diagnosed in 22% of infected ticks. The prevalences of infection

  14. Collapse and flow of lowstand shelf-margin deposits: An example from the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincardi, F.; Field, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The upper slope of the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea margin has a complex morphology shaped by Quaternary tectonism and by sedimentation phases controlled by changing sea levels. Sediment slides of widely varying size and shape are common in Quaternary deposits of the upper slope, particularly where gradients are steep. Our study of a large sediment failure in lowstand prograded coastal deposits west of Cape Licosa indicates that the nature of shelf-margin deposition is an additional important control on failure. The failure zone has a mobilization surface showing in-situ deformation in the sediment above it; an upper failure surface; a head scarp; and a zone of ponded sediment debris downslope from the exposed surface of failure. The basal mobilization surface is roughly parallel to the seafloor and coincident with a major downlap surface. The failed section is less that 20 m thick and local in extent, but deformation on the basal mobilization surface extends outside the immediate area of the failure. Directly downslope of the slide scarp are internally stratified mounds that show no evidence of deformation or movement. Most of the prograded deposit experienced in-situ deformation that evolved into the collapse of part of the sediment pile above the mobilization surface. A portion of the mobilized sediment flowed a few kilometers basinward and accumulated at the base of a slope-parallel ridge. Sediment failure occurred on the Licosa shelf margin following a major pulse of coastal sedimentation along the lowstand shoreline. On many continental margins, sea-level lowering is thought to be an important cause of failure unconsolidated sediment deposited during previous high-stand conditions. The Licosa slide demonstrates that sea-level fall has another, equally important but indirect, role in sediment failure. As sea level falls and reaches its lowstand position, streams are at their peak efficiency and a coarsening-upward clastic coastal wedge is rapidly emplaced at

  15. Neurotoxicological effects on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caged at petrochemical contaminated areas (eastern Sicily, Italy): ¹H NMR and immunohistochemical assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    The neurotoxicological potential of environmental pollution, mainly related to petrochemical activities, was investigated in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, are widely used as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies for assessing the impact of anthropogenic contaminants. The gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake, digestion, gas exchange and neuronal signaling, are the first organ to be affected by pollutants present in the external environment, and therefore were selected as the target organ for this study. Mussels from an aquaculture farm were caged at a highly polluted petrochemical area and a reference site along the Augusta coastline (eastern Sicily, Italy) for one month. A battery of biomarkers indicative of neuronal perturbations was applied on gills in order to investigate on the serotonergic (i.e. serotonin, 5-HT, and its receptor, 5-HT3R), cholinergic (i.e. acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, AChE, and choline acetyltransferase, ChAT), and dopaminergic systems (i.e. tyrosine and tyrosine hydroxylase, TH). Overall, impairment in the normal ciliary motility was found in mussels caged at the polluted site. Alterations in serotoninergic and cholinergic systems were revealed, with enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission resulting in a cilio-inhibitory effect. However, the over-expression in 5-HT3R and ChAT at cellular level may indicate an adaptive response of mussels to recover a regular physiological activity in gills. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses (1)H NMR and immunohistochemical assays. Their concurrent use demonstrated to be sensitive and effective for assessing environmental influences on the health status of aquatic organisms, and thus suitable to be applied in ecotoxicological studies.

  16. Exploiting Maximum Entropy method and ASTER data for assessing debris flow and debris slide susceptibility for the Giampilieri catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy).

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, L.

    2016-07-18

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of the Maximum Entropy method in assessing landslide susceptibility, exploiting topographic and multispectral remote sensing predictors. We selected the catchment of the Giampilieri stream, which is located in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), as test site. On 1/10/2009, a storm rainfall triggered in this area hundreds of debris flow/avalanche phenomena causing extensive economical damage and loss of life. Within this area a presence-only-based statistical method was applied to obtain susceptibility models capable of distinguish future activation sites of debris flow and debris slide, which where the main source failure mechanisms for flow or avalanche type propagation. The set of predictors used in this experiment comprised primary and secondary topographic attributes, derived by processing a high resolution digital elevation model, CORINE land cover data and a set of vegetation and mineral indices obtained by processing multispectral ASTER images. All the selected data sources are dated before the disaster. A spatially random partition technique was adopted for validation, generating fifty replicates for each of the two considered movement typologies in order to assess accuracy, precision and reliability of the models. The debris slide and debris flow susceptibility models produced high performances with the first type being the best fitted. The evaluation of the probability estimates around the mean value for each mapped pixel shows an inverted relation, with the most robust models corresponding to the debris flows. With respect to the role of each predictor within the modelling phase, debris flows appeared to be primarily controlled by topographic attributes whilst the debris slides were better explained by remotely sensed derived indices, particularly by the occurrence of previous wildfires across the slope. The overall excellent performances of the two models suggest promising perspectives for

  17. The Marine Technology Liguria District, an opportunity for Collaboration and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmisciano, C.; Tivegna, P.; Sgherri, R. G.; Gambetta, M.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Stefanelli, P.; Cocchi, L.

    2008-05-01

    This work focus on the newly born DLTM, namely the Distretto Ligure delle Tecnologie Marine, based in La Spezia, Liguria Region (IT). The main involved partners are: Ministries, Regione Liguria Council, Spedia SpA Company, Industries, SMEs (SMBs), Universities and National Research Institutes. The DLTM has been created as an answer to the local versus global needs of marine products innovation, technology and science. In order to provide, both the local and international community, effective solutions the DLTM aims to: - promote Innovation and pre-competitiveness of activities related to industrial research; - enhance the value and visibility of excellence areas existing in the Ligurian region (in the big enterprises as well as in SMEs) concerning marine technology; - enhance the value of academic activities focusing their R&D on industrial products/processes, assuring, evaluating and preventing environmental sustainability also in case of extreme events; - harmonize/make sustainable the economy and the society promoting scientific innovation and technological development, by means of Universities, Public and Private Research Institutes (at regional, national and EU level); - help the exchange of ideas and realization of projects aimed at developing the District objectives; - increase the dissemination and valorisation of District results and achievements, build capacity in the sectors of interest to the District. The DLTM is characterized by two main macro-themes. The first concerns infrastructures, materials and processes, while the second is committed to eco-compatible solutions for harbours, ships and coastal scenarios, security and control management of human activities, risky operations and extreme natural events. The former macro-theme is expected to provide the community with innovative solutions, technologies, materials, processes applied to marine sectors, shipyard and related subsystems and components, in a wide sense such as leisure, commercial, navy

  18. Diatom diversity and response in metal-polluted river environment: preliminary reports from Gromolo Torrent (Liguria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Marco; Tolotti, Raffaella; Bernabè, Dimitri; Carbone, Cristina; Consani, Sirio; Vagge, Greta; Cutroneo, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Mineral content and physico-chemical properties of the freshwaters are the main factors affecting both algal assemblages and distributions, while presence of dissolved silicon, low water conductivity, and rocky-mountain habitats host benthic diatom assemblages of high species richness. It is shown that diatoms are sensible to the freshwater acidification (used as pH indicators in acid waters), environmental and climate changes, river organic load, and heavy metal water pollution. For this characteristic, diatoms are among the major biological markers for a variety of environmental and stratigraphic applications. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses (assemblage analyses) together with biotic indices as well as morphological and ultrastructure parameterisation provide tools for detailed environmental control and paleo-environmental reconstructions. Severe environmental problems are typically caused by "abandoned mine" and are consequences of the cessation of the mining activity with a lack in infrastructure maintenance. The mine waters which flow into the Gromolo Torrent are almost acidic (pH varying from 2.4 to 5) and enriched in heavy metals and SO42-. This pollution is caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes that interest the Libiola mining area, known as a typical example of active AMD processes. The aim of this work is: 1) to characterise the local benthic diatom assemblages along the acidic mine effluents that discharge from Libiola mine, the entire Gromolo torrent course, and in the marine area off the torrent mouth; 2) to identify the main diatom biomarker taxa; 3) to highlight striking situations of equilibrium-disequilibrium in the algal communities, and 4) to point out types and frequency of some teratologies affecting specific diatom taxa as a response to environmental stressors (such as metal-metalloid enrichment). A total of 17 diatom samples was collected and examined, including some marine samples. Diatoms were collected in the riverbed from the hard surface of selected cobblestone by scraping. In laboratory all the samples were washed (by digestion with hydrogen peroxide) and mounted according to the protocol used by the DISTAV Laboratories (University of Genoa). Identification and enumeration of diatom valves was performed using an LM Reichert Jung-Polyvar microscope with 1000x oil-immersion lens. Moreover, a representative subsample of each preparation was observed using SEM images providing an interesting iconographic dataset. Preliminary results show that diatom assemblages are characteristic (in both quality and quantity) in the three different environmental conditions highlighted: a) in AMD environment diatoms are quantitatively scarcely, represented by both typically pioneer and highly tolerant species; b) in the Gromolo torrent diatoms are well represented with fairly well-structured communities, but present specific types and different frequencies in teratological frustula, whereas c) in marine environment they are very poorly represented.

  19. Geo-hydrological risk management for civil protection purposes in the urban area of Genoa (Liguria, NW Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brandolini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century the municipal area of Genoa has been affected by recurring flood events and several landslides that have caused severe damage to urbanized areas on both the coastal-fluvial plains and surrounding slopes, sometimes involving human casualties. The analysis of past events' annual distribution indicates that these phenomena have occurred with rising frequency in the last seventy years, following the main land use change due to the development of harbour, industrial, and residential areas, which has strongly impacted geomorphological processes. Consequently, in Genoa, civil protection activities are taking on an increasing importance for geo-hydrological risk mitigation. The current legislative framework assigns a key role in disaster prevention to municipalities, emergency plan development, as well as response action coordination in disaster situations. In view of the geomorphological and environmental complexity of the study area and referring to environmental laws, geo-hydrological risk mitigation strategies adopted by local administrators for civil protection purposes are presented as examples of current land/urban management related to geo-hydrological hazards. Adopted measures have proven to be effective on several levels (planning, management, structure, understanding, and publication in different cases. Nevertheless, the last flooding event (4 November 2011 has shown that communication and public information concerning the perception of geo-hydrological hazard can be improved.

  20. Chestnut: from coppice to structural timber. The case study of "Uso Fiume" beams sampled in Liguria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Togni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently Agriculture Department of Liguria Region had supported studies and researches on the timber quality of living trees in local coppice chestnut forests, with the prospect to produce also timber for structural use. Under some ad-hoc funds a 30 years old coppice forest in the high Bormida Valley, never thinned after the last utilization, has been chosen for sampling. 18 selected trunks were felled and the assortment called “Uso Fiume” (UF was chosen, getting 49 beams (cross-section from 12¥12 to 24¥24 cm, by way of saw-mill operations The UF-beam is a structural element, derived from Italian tradition. Such elements are used in Italian buildings over the time, in substitution to structural sawn timber, principally for roofing. The UF-beam is a square edged log with wane; more precisely it is a full log, edged on four sides, maintaining boxed heart and an approximately central pith. Today the features of such a beam is established according to the specific Italian standard UNI 11035-3 for spruce and fir and to the CUAP (Common Understanding of Assessment Procedure n. 03.24/22 for chestnut and conifers. The beams were visually graded according to the Visual Strength Grading procedure and the physical and mechanical properties (density, modulus of elasticity-MOE and modulus of rupture- MOR were determined according to the standard requirements (EN 408, EN 384, ISO 3131, disregarding the moisture content: the mechanical tests were performed with wood in green state (moisture content M.C.>30% because it is the actual condition of use in building, due to the very low permeability of the chestnut heartwood which entails long seasoning time of large cross section beams. The study showed very high yields considering the stems-to-beams volume ratio, close to 70%. Characteristics values of the sample resulted: char. density kg/m³, char. modulus of elasticity E0,mean 10,3 GPa and char. bending strength fm,k 28,5 MPa. These results can be

  1. Multi-residue determination of eleven anticoagulant rodenticides by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array/fluorimetric detection: investigation of suspected animal poisoning in the period 2012-2013 in north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallocchio, Federica; Basilicata, Lara; Benetti, Cristiana; Angeletti, Roberto; Binato, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    Misuse or deliberate abuse of anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) may often result in incidental or malicious non-target animal poisoning. This study presents preliminary results of the analysis of 561 real suspected samples, ranging from baits to livers and stomach contents, collected at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (official referral laboratory for the regions of north-eastern Italy), in the period 2012-2013. Samples were analyzed by a method based on a combination of liquid chromatography with diode array/fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD/F) able to identify 11 different AR (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, chloropahacinone, coumachlor, coumafuryl, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, diphacinone, flocoumafen, pindone, warfarin). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Earthquake-triggered landslides along the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (off Augusta, eastern Sicily, Italy) - assessment of the related tsunamigenic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Eastern Sicily is affected by earthquakes and tsunamis of local and remote origin, which is known through numerous historical chronicles. Recent studies have put emphasis on the role of submarine landslides as the direct cause of the main local tsunamis, envisaging that earthquakes (in 1693 and 1908) did produce a tsunami, but also that they triggered mass failures that were able to generate an even larger tsunami. The debate is still open, and though no general consensus has been found among scientists so far, this research had the merit to attract attention on possible generation of tsunamis by landslides off Sicily. In this paper we investigate the tsunami potential of mass failures along one sector of the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (HME). facing Augusta. The HME is the main offshore geological structure of the region running almost parallel to the coast, off eastern Sicily. Here, bottom morphology and slope steepness favour soil failures. In our work we study slope stability under seismic load along a number of HME transects by using the Minimun Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method, which is based on the limit-equilibrium theory. The main goal is to identify sectors of the HME that could be unstable under the effect of realistic earthquakes. We estimate the possible landslide volume and use it as input for numerical codes to simulate the landslide motion and the consequent tsunami. This is an important step for the assessment of the tsunami hazard in eastern Sicily and for local tsunami mitigation policies. It is also important in view of tsunami warning system since it can help to identify the minimum earthquake magnitude capable of triggering destructive tsunamis induced by landslides, and therefore to set up appropriate knowledge-based criteria to launch alert to the population.

  3. Recent Changes in Floodplain Urban Development and in Intense Rainfall Patterns: Evidence and Effects for the Reclamation Network in North-Eastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, P.; Sofia, G.; Prosdocimi, M.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2014-12-01

    Within the wide approach of watershed management, the crucial role of floodplains in hydrological processes and runoff generation, in particular during flood events, is well known. The recent changes in land use and/or intense rainfall patterns associated to climate changes, however, add complexity to the analysis of the hydrologic response. This study investigates and displays evidences and effects of land use changes and climatic changes in a small floodplain area in the north east of Italy. As in other countries in Europe, over the past half-century, intense urban and agricultural land uses changed the drainage networks, causing serious hydraulic dysfunctions. In this work we focused the research on the network drainage density and storage capacity, considering that they are the main requirements for hydraulic infrastructures and that the storage of water is crucial for any water management strategy. The effects of the changes in the network parameters have been then further investigated using the Network Saturation Index (NSI) that quantifies how fast an area is saturated by a design rainfall and can give an idea of the delay of the watershed response respect to the rainfall peak. Over the past half-century, the study site witnessed a drastic reduction of the storage volume, resulting in shorter times for saturation especially for storm events having a shorter return period and for events that were less critical in the past. For our case study, climatic evidence shows that the rainfall regime is highly irregular, with intense events taking an increasing role in determining the total precipitation over the past half-century. Considering this climatic trend that cannot be controlled, our study suggests to carefully plan the changes in the drainage networks, as these changes might seriously constrain the functionality of the reclamation system, especially for rather frequent rainfall events not necessarily associated with extreme meteorological conditions or with

  4. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  5. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in Northwest Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Federica; Guardone, Lisa; Mancini, Marialetizia; Accorsi, Annalisa; Macchioni, Fabio; Mignone, Walter

    2013-01-01

    CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  6. Pleistocene volcaniclastic units from North-Eastern Sicily (Italy): new evidence for calc-alkaline explosive volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Marcella; Italiano, Francesco; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Tripodo, Alessandro; Baldanza, Angela; Casella, Sergio; Pino, Paolo; Rasa', Riccardo; Russo, Selma

    2016-08-01

    A well-preserved volcaniclastic sequence crops out in Pleistocene marine sediments along the Tyrrhenian coastline of the Calabrian-Peloritani arc (Sicily, Italy), testifying the occurrence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene volcanic activity in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The presence of dominant highly vesicular and minor blocky glassy particles indicates that the volcanic clasts were originated by explosive events related to the ascent and violent emission of volatile-rich magmas accompanied by and/or alternated with hydromagmatic fragmentation due to magma-sea water interaction. Field investigations and sedimentological features of the studied volcaniclastic units suggest a deposition from sediment-water density flows. The chemical classification of the pumice clasts indicates prevalent rhyolitic and dacitic compositions with calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The geochemical features of immobile trace elements together with the presence of orthopyroxene are indicative of a provenance from an arc-type environment. The age (from 980-910 to 589 ka), the chemical composition and the evidence of subaerial explosive volcanic activity constrain the origin nature and temporal evolution of the arc-type volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian domain. Finally, the new information here provided contribute to a better understanding of the temporal geodynamic evolution of this sector of the Mediterranean domain.

  7. A multi-disciplinary study of deformation of the basaltic cover over fine-grained valley fills: a case study from Eastern Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, Rita; Dieni, Iginio; Massari, Francesco; Perri, Maria Teresa; Rossi, Matteo; Brovelli, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    The Pliocene to Early Pleistocene volcanic activity which generated the basaltic plateau of the Orosei-Dorgali area in Eastern Sardinia led to the disruption of the local hydrographic network by damming some tracts of the fluvial valleys incised in the granite basement. This resulted in the formation of lacustrine basins, whose fine-grained fills were partly interfingered and eventually covered by younger lava flows. In the SW part of the plateau, close to the Galtellì village, a number of unknown depressions, locally named "Paules," were formed. In order to reconstruct their subsurface structure, two electrical resistivity tomography surveys were carried out across these depressions. The geophysical results, which demonstrate the existence of a disrupted layered system, were used to build a numerical geomechanical model that suggest the depressions originated by local collapses of the basaltic cover due to the compaction of the underlying fine-grained valley fills.

  8. Production technology and provenance study of archaeological ceramics from relevant sites in the Alcantara River Valley (North-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfiore, Cristina Maria, E-mail: cbelfio@unict.it [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Corso Italia 57, I-95129, Catania (Italy); Di Bella, Marcella; Triscari, Maurizio [Universita di Messina, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, C.da Papardo, Salita Sperone 31, I-98166, Sant' Agata, Messina (Italy); Viccaro, Marco [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Corso Italia 57, I-95129, Catania (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, volcanic-rich ceramic remains from the archaeological sites of Francavilla, Naxos and Taormina (Province of Messina, North-eastern Sicily) were studied by using inclusions as main provenance marker. Technological features, such as temper choice, vitrification degree and firing temperatures, were investigated by polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Information on the production centres was obtained through the identification of the source area of raw materials used as temper. Indeed, petrochemical analysis of the volcanic inclusions within the examined ceramics displayed strong affinities with structures/textures and compositions of the locally outcropping mugearitic products, probably ascribed to the eruptive activity of an eccentric vent of Mt. Etna (Mt. Mojo). A local production for the studied pottery samples has been therefore advanced, assuming that the used volcanic temper was easily available from the alluvial deposits along the Alcantara River stream, which is connected to the lava flow of Mt. Mojo.

  9. Native and alien squirrels in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Bertolino

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy there are four species of squirrels: the native red squirrel and other three species recently introduced. The red squirrel is present in the Italian peninsula with three subspecies, and is missing only in Salento, and Italian islands. This species is common on Alps and Apennines, while in the plains it is declining because of the habitat loss. Competition with the grey squirrel and habitat fragmentation are considered the major threats to the survival of the red squirrel. The grey squirrel is present in Piedmont and Liguria. A study on the Piedmontese colony showed that the red squirrel is disappearing from the area colonised by the grey squirrel and the damage due to bark-stripping and feeding is considerable. Free-ranging populations of the Siberian chipmunk live in Belluno, Verona, and Rome, but records of single animals were reported for other areas. The Finlayson's squirrel is present with a small nucleus in an urban area of Piedmont. Here, the impact of this species on the vegetation appears dramatic. The eradication of the grey squirrel is a priority for the conservation of the red squirrel, but control plans for the other introduced species are also needed.

  10. Influence of stratigraphic factors on the failure mechanisms of sinkholes related to man-made underground caves at Cutrofiano (South-Eastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Margiotta, Stefano; Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    An increasing number of areas in southern Italy are being interested by sinkholes related to the presence of man-made cavities, with underground quarries representing the more problematic typology of anthropogenic caves in terms of instability. The case of Cutrofiano (Apulia, SE Italy) is here presented as a representative case study. This territory is well known for the underground quarrying activity of soft calcarenitic rocks that caused in the last decades widespread phenomena of subsidence at the surface, with extensive damage and problems to the main communication routes in the area. A very complex and intricate network of subterranean galleries is present underground, for a total development on the order of several tens of kilometres. The Gravina Calcarenite Formation, that is the object of the underground quarries, consists of whitish calcarenite with an upper greenish clayey-sandy interval rich in fossils. This formation is overlain by grey sandy clays (Subapennine Clays) grading upward to fossil-rich sands (Brindisi Sands). In recent years, clay mining has been resumed at the ground surface, following the opening of a cement factory, and resulting in the realization of wide open-pit quarries. The local sedimentary sequence is closed by terraced calcarenite deposits, that holds a phreatic groundwater body. The results of detailed geological, geomorphological and geomechanical surveys, supported by laboratory tests, show that in the Cutrofiano area the thickness of the stratigraphical succession, the depth of the underground galleries, the structural conditions of the rock mass, and the failure mechanisms observed within the quarries are variable. The geological model reconstructed represents the base for the implementation of numerical simulations, which are aimed at defining the eventual mechanisms of rock failure, up to the formation of the sinkhole. Local changes in the stratigraphy are very common in the area, due to the overall slight attitude of the

  11. Presence-only approach to assess landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility: a test for the Mili catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, L.

    2016-06-29

    This study evaluates the performances of the presence-only approach, Maximum Entropy, in assessing landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility within the Mili catchment (Sicily, Italy). This catchment underwent several meteorological stresses, resulting in hundreds of shallow rapid mass movements between 2007 and 2011. In particular, the area has become known for two disasters, which occurred in 2009 and 2010; the first weather system did not pass directly over the catchment; however, peak rainfall was registered over the basin during the second meteorological event. Field data were collected to associate the depth from the slope surface that material was mobilised at the triggering zone to each mass movement within the catchment. This information has been used to model the landslide susceptibility for two classes of processes, divided into shallow failures for maximum depths of 1 m and deep ones in case of values equal or greater than 1 m. Topographic attributes from a 2-m DEM were used as predictors, together with medium resolution vegetation indexes derived from ASTER scenes and geological, land use and tectonic maps. The presence-only approach discriminated between the two depth classes at the landslide trigger zone, producing excellent prediction skills associated with relatively low variances across a set of 50 randomly generated replicates. The role of each predictor was assessed to ascertain the significance to the final model output. This work uses simple field measurements to produce triggering-thickness susceptibility, which is a novel approach and may perform better as a proxy for landslide hazard assessments with respect to more common susceptibility practises. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  12. Characterisation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated from animals with yersiniosis during 1996-2013 indicates the presence of pathogenic and Far Eastern strains in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrali, C F; Cucco, L; Pezzotti, G; Farneti, S; Cambiotti, V; Catania, S; Prati, P; Fabbi, M; Lollai, S; Mangili, P; Sebastiani, C; Bano, L; Dionisi, A M; Luzzi, I

    2015-10-22

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a pathogen that infects both animals and humans worldwide. The epidemiology of infection caused by Y. pseudotuberculosis is poorly understood; however, its outbreaks have been traced back to a probable source in wildlife. This study aimed to characterise Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates collected from animals with yersiniosis. This study included 90 isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis collected from different animals with yersiniosis between 1996 and 2013 in Italy. The isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and were biotyped. Genes associated with virulence plasmid pYV and those encoding O-antigen, high pathogenicity island (HPI), and superantigenic toxin (YPM) were determined by performing PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using NotI and SpeI enzymes, and 3 dendrograms were generated. No antibiotic resistance was found. The presence of pYV was shown in 57 out of 90 isolates. Virulence profiles of majority of the isolates indicated that they belonged to O:1a and O:1b serotypes, biotype 1, and genetic type 2. Isolates belonging to O:2a serotype were detected in sheep and cattle and were found to be associated (for the first time) with septicemia in hares. Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates belonging to O:5a and O:12-O13 serotypes were also detected in hares. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates belonging to the O:12-O13 serotype from a clinical case in Europe. Results of PFGE indicated that it was a reliable method for investigating the genetic relatedness of Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates. Thus, characterisation of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection in animals should be considered a possible tool for the surveillance of pseudotuberculosis.

  13. Submarine slope earthquake-induced instability and associated tsunami generation potential along the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (offshore eastern Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The stability analysis of offshore margins is an important step for the assessment of natural hazard: the main challenge is to evaluate the potential slope failures and the consequent occurrence of submarine tsunamigenic landslides to mitigate the potential coastal damage to inhabitants and infrastructures. But the limited geotechnical knowledge of the underwater soil and the controversial scientific interpretation of the tectonic units make it often difficult to carry out this type of analysis reliably. We select the Hyblean-Malta Escarpment (HME), the main active geological structure offshore eastern Sicily, because the amount of data from historical chronicles, the records about strong earthquakes and tsunami, and the numerous geological offshore surveys carried out in recent years make the region an excellent scenario to evaluate slope failures, mass movements triggered by earthquakes and the consequent tsunamis. We choose several profiles along the HME and analyse their equilibrium conditions using the Minimun Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method (Tinti and Manucci, 2006, 2008; Paparo et al. 2013), that is based on the limit-equilibrium theory. Considering the morphological and geotechnical features of the offshore slopes, we prove that large-earthquake shaking may lead some zones of the HME to instability, we evaluate the expected volumes involved in sliding and compute the associated landslide-tsunami through numerical tsunami simulations. This work was carried out in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3).

  14. Levels and congener profiles of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in blue shark (Prionace glauca) liver from the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Storelli, Arianna; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2011-01-01

    Liver of blue shark (Prionace glauca) specimens from the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including coplanar congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). PCBs were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs and PCDDs. The pattern of PCB congener concentrations in the hepatic tissue was dominated by higher chlorinated compounds. The specific profile of toxic PCDD/F congeners was characterized mainly by 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDD, followed by 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF. The total 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent (TEQs) was 149 pg g⁻¹ lipid wt. The profile of TEQ shows that PCDDs present the greatest risk to this species contributing to total toxicity with a percentage approximately of 60%, while the contribution of PCDFs and DL-PCBs is almost the same being 22.4% and 21.6%, respectively. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize the PCDD/Fs contamination levels not only in elasmobranch fish but in all Mediterranean marine biota. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility, a simple proxy for landslide hazard? A test in the Mili catchment (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luigi; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Amato, Gabriele; Bonasera, Mauro; Mai, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This study implements a landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility approach in order to investigate the landslide scenario in the catchment of Mili, this being located in the north-easternmost sector of Sicily (Italy). From a detailed geomorphological campaign, thicknesses of mobilised materials at the triggering zone of each mass movement were collected and subsequently used as a dependent variable to be analysed in the framework of spatial predictive models. The adopted modelling methodology consisted of a presence-only learning algorithm which differently from classic presence-absence methods does not rely on stable conditions in order to derive functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. The dependent was pre-processed by reclassifying the crown thickness spectrum into a binary condition expressing thick (values equal or greater than 1m) and thin (values less than 1m) landslide crown classes. The explanatory variables were selected to express triggering-thickness dependency at different scales, these being in close proximity to the triggering point through primary and secondary attributes from a 2m-cell side Lidar HRDEM, at a medium scale through vegetation indexes from multispectral satellite images (ASTER) and a coarser scale through a geological, land use and tectonic maps. The choice of a presence-only approach allowed to effectively discriminate between the two types of landslide thicknesses at the triggering zone, producing excellent prediction skills associated with relatively low variances across a set of 50 randomly generated replicates. In addition, the role of each predictor was assessed for the two considered classes as relevant differences arose in terms of their contribution to the final models. In this regard, predictor importance, Jack-knife tests and response curves were used to assess the reliability of the models together with their geomorphological reasonability. This work attempts to capitalize on fieldwork data

  16. Is it possible to study palaeoenvironmental changes in Alpine spring habitats? A few examples from the south-eastern Alps (NE Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco CANTONATI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Palaeolimnological techniques were applied to spring habitats in the Trentino Region (NE Italy as a test in order to reconstruct past environmental changes in these crucial and fragile milieus. Three different sites were selected from a database of more than one hundred on the basis of morphological, geological, and biological factors, including human impact evaluation: Nambrone, Paul and Madonnina Val Lomasona. Sampling was performed by adapting standard lake-sediment coring methods, and the retrieved sediment was described and subsampled following standard "lake" procedures. Field work and sedimentological analyses revealed clear influence from nearby fluvial environment for the Nambrone site, whereas Paul and Madonnina Val Lomasona were selected for further analyses (e.g., dating, diatoms, chironomids. Lead-210 and Caesium-137 dating methods were used to obtain a chronological framework, in addition to historical information on land use and other events in the area. The upper part of the Paul sequence presented organic rich sediment compatible with spring environments, but the lower and essentially detrital part appeared to record alluvial deposition, probably linked to extraordinary flood events (1882, 1966. This interpretation is indirectly confirmed by the records of the fallout nuclides Caesium-137 and Lead-210, that were both unfortunately concentrated in the topmost 1 cm, making it impossible to construct a normal age-depth profile. Madonnina Val Lomasona sedimentological and biological indicators point to a marked change around ca 5 cm, dividing the sequence in two units, corresponding to different environmental conditions. Although the interpretation of the dating results is not completely straightforward, the assembled data suggest that the upper 5 cm of the record represents ca the last 50 years. During this period we found typical limnocrenic, clear-water spring conditions, while before 1960s the coexistence of lotic and lentic

  17. An operational approach to the nowcasting of an intense thunderstorm over Liguria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gallino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period between late spring and early summer as well as in autumn, the Mediterranean is often affected by rapid development of intense convective systems. In some cases the operational NWP models are able to provide good indication of occurrence of such severe weather events (potential instability conditions but often location and intensity of convective precipitation are poorly forecasted. The approach of "PV-thinking" revealed itself as a good tool to identify favorable conditions for triggering such systems, partially filling this lack of information and supporting meteorologists in the very short range weather forecast. Moreover, the advanced use of data provided by SEVIRI channels onboard MSG satellite, makes possible an effective application of the PV approach, improving forecast skill also in areas where local effects are not well described by the models and/or by the data assimilation. The aim of this work is to show how the application of the MSG tools together with the PV philosophy helps in the diagnosis and nowcasting of intense thunderstorms triggered by tropopause, with particular attention to a case of intense convection over northwestern Italy during spring 2005.

  18. Tsunami vulnerability and damage for buildings analyzed by means of two methods (PTVA-3 and SCHEMA) in the area of Augusta and Siracusa, eastern Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The coast of the eastern Sicily is exposed to tsunamis that can be generated by local earthquakes (e.g. the 1169, 1693, 1908 events) and by earthquakes located in distant seismic zones (see the 365 AD tsunamigenic quake in Western Hellenic Arc). Tsunamis can also be generated by landslides possibly triggered by earthquakes. The Hyblean-Malta steep escarpment running offshore at a small angle with the coast is an ideal place for submarine mass failure occurrences with tsunamigenic effects. The entire eastern coast of Sicily from Messina in the north to Siracusa in the south is under the threat of tsunamis. In the frame of the FP7 European project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839), the segment of coast from Augusta to Siracusa was selected to undertake specific and detailed studies of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and damage to test existing methods and develop innovative approaches. The scope of the present work regards vulnerability and damage analyses. We chose to adopt two methods, known in the literature and briefly denoted as PTVA-3 and SCHEMA, that are based on two very different approaches, the former more qualitative and the latter more quantitative. The method PTVA-3 determines the vulnerability and damageability of a building by weighting and ranking a number of attributes covering the structural features of the edifice and the relevant characteristics of the surrounding environment such as the position with respect to the coast, the existence of defensive elements (e.g. walls, breakwaters, vegetation) and also the proximity to potential sources of floating objects that can feed damaging debris flows. On the other hand, the SCHEMA method uses a classification of building and a damage matrix that were derived from experimental fragility and damage curves first established after the Sumatra 2004 tsunami and later refined and adapted to the building stock of the Mediterranean region. The

  19. Geochemistry of the Adige River water from the Eastern Alps to the Adriatic Sea (Italy): evidences for distinct hydrological components and water-rock interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, C; Bianchini, G; Marchina, C; Knöller, K

    2016-06-01

    The Adige River flows from the Eastern Alps to the Adriatic Sea and the understanding of its fluvial dynamics can be improved by geochemical and O-H isotopic investigation. The most negative isotopic compositions are recorded close to the source (δ(18)O between -14.1 and -13.8 ‰, δD between -100.3 and -97.0 ‰), and δD and δ(18)O values generally increase downstream through the upper part (UP, the mountainous sector), stabilizing along the lower part (LP, the alluvial plain) of the river with δ(18)O between -12.4 and -11.8 ‰, δD between -86.9 and -83.7 ‰. The isotopic variations along the stream path (δ(18)O-δD vs distance from the source) depict subparallel distributions for all the investigated periods, with less negative values recorded in winter. Total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration shows the lowest value (isotopic composition and extremely low TDS, a rainfall component characterized by intermediate isotopic and elemental composition and groundwater characterized by the less negative isotopic composition and comparatively higher TDS. An additional component is represented by seawater, which is recorded at the lowest reach of the river during drought periods. These contributions variously mix along the stream path in the distinct hydrological periods, and the presented data are a snapshot of the current hydroclimatic conditions. Future investigations will evaluate possible hydrological variations related to meteo-climatic changes. Monitoring is fundamental for future water management to overcome the vanishing of a significant water end-member of the basin, i.e., the glacio-nival reservoir that is severely affected by the ongoing climatic changes.

  20. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi Claudio; Bianchi Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interv...

  1. Origin and significance of the Permian high-K calc-alkaline magmatism in the central-eastern Southern Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottura, A.; Bargossi, G. M.; Caggianelli, A.; Del Moro, A.; Visonà, D.; Tranne, C. A.

    1998-12-01

    The Atesina Volcanic District, the Monte Luco volcanics, and the Cima d'Asta, Bressanone-Chiusa, Ivigna, Monte Croce and Monte Sabion intrusions, in the central-eastern Southern Alps, form a wide calc-alkaline association of Permian age (ca. 280-260 Ma). The magmatism originated during a period of post-orogenic extensional/transtensional faulting which controlled the magma ascent and emplacement. The magmatic products are represented by a continuum spectrum of rock types ranging from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, and from gabbros to monzogranites, with preponderance of the acidic terms. They constitute a metaluminous to weakly peraluminous series showing mineralogical, petrographic and chemical characteristics distinctive of the high-K calc-alkaline suites. In the MORB-normalized trace element diagrams, the most primitive volcanic and plutonic rocks (basaltic andesites and gabbros with Mg No.=66 to 70; Ni=25 to 83 ppm; Cr=248 to 679 ppm) show LILE and LREE enriched patterns with troughs at Nb-Ta and Ti, a distinctive feature of subduction-related magmas. Field, petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence (initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios from 0.7057 to 0.7114; ɛNd values from -2.7 to -7.4; ∂ 18O values between 7.6 and 9.5‰) support a hybrid nature for both volcanic and plutonic rocks, originating through complex interactions between mantle-derived magmas and crustal materials. Only the scanty andalusite-cordierite and orthopyroxene-cordierite bearing peraluminous granites in the Cima d'Asta and Bressanone-Chiusa intrusive complexes can be interpreted as purely crustal melts (initial 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.7143-0.7167; initial ɛNd values between -7.9 and -9.6, close to average composition of the granulitic metasedimentary crust from the Ivrea Zone in the western Southern Alps). Although the Permian magmatism shows geochemical characteristics similar to those of arc-related suites, palaeogeographic restorations, and geological and tectonic evidence, seem not to support

  2. First record of Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus in Italy (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus, a species native of the Eastern Palaearctic, is reported for the first time from Italy on the basis of a female specimen collected in a beech forest (Veneto Region, Treviso Province, Foresta del Cansiglio. The possible establishment of this alien species in Italy is briefly discussed.

  3. Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and badgers (Meles meles from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 6 badgers (Meles meles were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto Angiostrongylus vasorum nella volpe (Vulpes vulpes e nel tasso (Meles meles in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 6 tassi (Meles meles provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di Angiostrongylus vasorum. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  4. Predicting elusiveness: potential distribution model of the Southern smooth snake, Coronella girondica, in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bombi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Predictive models of species distribution may be very useful for understanding actual distribution of elusive species, including several snakes. The southern smooth snake (Coronella girondica is likely the most elusive snake species of peninsular Italy, and is therefore well-suited for predicting potential distribution studies. In this paper we predict the potential distribution map of this species in Italy by using MAXENT algorithm, that finds the probability distribution of maximum entropy that is constrained by considered ecological parameters. Presence data for Coronella girondica were gotten from CKmap. The potential distribution model of Coronella girondica showed a very good overall performance (AUC = 0.959, and indicated that high suitability areas correspond mainly to Tyrrhenian north and central regions, including Liguria, western Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria, and northern Latium. Southern Italian regions were clearly unsuitable for this snake species. Overall, our study revealed that previous distribution maps indicating the occurrence of Coronella girondica in southern Italy and Sicily were poorly reliable. The conservation and management implications of our study are also addressed.

  5. Disentangling Phylogenetic Relationships in a Hotspot of Diversity: The Butterworts (Pinguicula L., Lentibulariaceae) Endemic to Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Antonietta; Menale, Bruno; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Pires, Mathias; Noble, Virgile; Gestri, Giovanni; Conti, Fabio; Peruzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pinguicula (Lentibulariaceae) consists of about 100 carnivorous species, also known as butterworts. Eleven taxa are endemic to Italy, which represents a biodiversity hotspot for butterworts in Europe. The aim of our study was to provide a phylogenetic framework for the Italian endemics, in order to: a) investigate the relationships between species in this group; b) evaluate their actual taxonomic value. To achieve this, we analysed all the taxa endemic to Italy, along with several other species, by means of ITS nrDNA analysis. Our results clarify the relationships between Italian endemics and other Pinguicula taxa identifying a basal polytomy defined by five clades. All of the Italian endemics (with the exception of P. lavalvae) fall within a single large clade, which includes P. vulgaris and allied species. Among them, P. poldinii represents the most isolated lineage. Other taxa show strong molecular similarities and form a single subclade, although their taxonomic ranks can be retained. Pinguicula lattanziae sp. nov., seemingly endemic to Liguria (NW Italy), is also described. PMID:28030566

  6. A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic revision and a key to the species of the subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) Beier, 1930 from Italy, Corsica and the Swiss Canton of Ticino are provided. The species are arranged in two species-groups (tetrachelatus group and fuscimanus group) on the basis of the shape of pedipalpal hand and of the type of dentition of the fixed and movable chelal fingers. The following new species are described: i) in the tetrachelatus group: Chthonius (E.) altamurae n. sp. (♀, loc. typ.: Apulia, Bari Prov., Altamura, Grotta Lamalunga 1295 Pu/BA), C. (E.) elymus n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Sicily, Trapani Prov., Custonaci, Abisso del Purgatorio 8064 Si/TP), Chthonius (E.) messapicus n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Apulia, Brindisi Prov., San Pietro Vernotico, Cerano); ii) in the fuscimanus group: C. (E.) aeneae n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Genoa Prov., Sestri Levante, Punta Manara), C. (E.) etruscus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Tuscany, Grosseto Prov., Semproniano, Grotta di Montecchio 254 To/GR), C. (E.) gallii n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Savona Prov., Bergeggi), C. (E.) intemelius n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Imperia Prov., Apricale, Mt Cianela), C. (E.) latellai n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Latium, Latina Prov., Bassiano, Grotta di Fiume Coperto 1361 La/LT), C. (E.) ligur n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Imperia Prov., near Baiardo), C. (E.) magrinii n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Latium, Frosinone Prov., San Giovanni Incarico, Grotta sulla strada per il Santuario della Madonna della Guardia n. c. La/FR), C. (E.) monguzzii n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Lombardia, Brescia Prov., Sulzano, Oricina de la Pofa del Giardì 438 Lo/BS), C. (E.) sulphureus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Marche, Ancona Prov., Genga, Grotta di Frasassi 1 Ma/AN), C. (E.) tyrrhenicus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Genoa Prov., Genoa, Quinto al Mare, Mt Moro). The following new synonymies are proposed: Chthonius (E.) bauneensis Callaini, 1983 is a junior subjective synonym of C. (E

  7. Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA

  8. Three new species of Collembola from soils of Mediterranean cork-oak forests of Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuga, Luca; Jordana, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of soil Collembola from cork-oak (Quercus suber) forests located in eastern Sicily (Italy) are described Neonaphorura alicatai sp. nov., Friesea guarinoi sp. nov. and Arrhopalites antonioi sp. nov..

  9. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, M

    1996-01-01

    "Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome."

  10. Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Mignone, W; Macchioni, F

    2015-07-01

    Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are a wide group of parasites that infect wild and domestic carnivores and occasionally humans. Nematodes in the cardiopulmonary system, stomach, urinary apparatus and muscle tissue of 165 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from north-west Italy (Liguria and Piedmont) were investigated between 2009 and 2012. Of the cardiopulmonary nematodes, a high prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) was found, 78.2% and 41.8% respectively; Crenosoma vulpis (15.8%) and Filaroides spp. (4.8%) were also found. Spirocerca lupi (23.5%), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii) (8.6%) and Physaloptera spp. (2.5%) were detected in the stomach and Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica) (56.8%) in the bladder. Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) was also detected in the nasal cavities of one of the two foxes examined. A coprological examination revealed eggs of E. aerophilus, A. putorii, S. lupi, Physaloptera spp. and eggs of intestinal parasites. Filarial worms were absent in all the 165 animals examined, nor was there evidence of Trichinella spp. in any of the foxes. The foxes were found to host a high prevalence of many species of extraintestinal nematodes. The prevalence of A. vasorum in foxes found in the present study is among the highest in Europe. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, E. boehmi and Filaroides spp. have never been reported before in this host in Italy.

  11. Epidemiology of multi-resistance Gram negative pathogen circulating in Liguria and molecular characterization of different carbapenemases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Coppo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted during January-April 2010 with the collaboration of 7 clinical microbiology laboratories evenly distributed across the Ligurian area to identify the most frequent Gram negative species and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility patterns Overall, 110 consecutive multi-resistant non duplicate Gram negative isolates,were collected and sent to the coordinating laboratory (Sezione di Microbiologia del DISC, University of Genoa, Italy together with susceptibility data obtained by routine methods. In addition, strains resistant to carbapenems were characterized by PCR. A total of 110 Gram negative multi-resistance strains were found, including 74 and 36 isolated from healthcare or nosocomial settings and community acquired infections, respectively. The most represented pathogens were: A. baumannii (38, 34.5%, E. coli (30, 27.2%, P. aeruginosa (29, 26.3%, K. pneumoniae (9, 8.2% and P. mirabilis (4, 3.6%. A. baumannii were more frequently collected from healthcare settings or nosocomial samples, while the other strains were generally equally isolated from in- and out-patients. Amikacin was the most active molecule against E. coli and P. mirabilis (96,7% and 100% of susceptible stains respectively. Colistin was the only active molecule agains A. baumanii and P. aeruginosa (100% of susceptible strains. Against K. pneumoniae tigecycline and colistin were the most active molecules (100% of susceptible strains. Imipenem was the most active compound against E. coli and P. mirabilis (100% of susceptible strains. A large number (97.4% of A. baumannii was resistant to imipenem. K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa showed rates of resistance of 88% and 34.4% respectively. A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa isolates resistant to Imipenem, carried OXA-23, KPC and VIM carbapenemases.These data shown a significant spread of multidrug-resistant Gram negative bacteria in hospitals and in communities.The production of carbapenemase in

  12. Pneumococcus and the Elderly in Italy: A Summary of Available Evidence Regarding Carriage, Clinical Burden of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections and On-Field Effectiveness of PCV13 Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orsi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is currently the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in adults, elderly and high-risk subjects worldwide. The clear benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in childhood have been accompanied by a decrease of vaccine-serotype invasive diseases among adults in several countries, mainly due to the herd effect mediated by the reduction of vaccine-serotype nasopharyngeal colonization in both age groups, but this reduction in the incidence of pneumonia has not been observed. The “Community Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults” (CAPITA study provided conclusive evidence about 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 efficacy in preventing CAP in adults and led Western countries to issue new recommendations for pneumococcal immunization targeting subjects >50 years and high-risk groups, with marked differences with respect to age and/or risk groups immunized, eligibility for reimbursement and national, regional or local implementation. Several Italian regions implemented PCV13 immunization programs in adults and interesting data have been come available in the last years, especially from Liguria, a Northern region with a high and long-lasting pneumococcal vaccine immunological pressure in infants. In this review, currently available evidence from Italy and Liguria regarding pneumococcal carriage, burden of CAP and LRTI, and on-field effectiveness of PCV13 immunization in adults and elderly will be summarized.

  13. Ensemble cloud-resolving modelling of a historic back-building mesoscale convective system over Liguria: the San Fruttuoso case of 1915

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Antonio; Ferraris, Luca; Gallus, William; Maugeri, Maurizio; Molini, Luca; Siccardi, Franco; Boni, Giorgio

    2017-05-01

    Highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems represent one of the most dangerous flash-flood-producing storms in the north-western Mediterranean area. Substantial warming of the Mediterranean Sea in recent decades raises concerns over possible increases in frequency or intensity of these types of events as increased atmospheric temperatures generally support increases in water vapour content. However, analyses of the historical record do not provide a univocal answer, but these are likely affected by a lack of detailed observations for older events. In the present study, 20th Century Reanalysis Project initial and boundary condition data in ensemble mode are used to address the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations with 1 km horizontal grid spacing of a historic extreme event that occurred over Liguria: the San Fruttuoso case of 1915. The proposed approach focuses on the ensemble Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model runs that show strong convergence over the Ligurian Sea (17 out of 56 members) as these runs are the ones most likely to best simulate the event. It is found that these WRF runs generally do show wind and precipitation fields that are consistent with the occurrence of highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems, although precipitation peak amounts are underestimated. Systematic small north-westward position errors with regard to the heaviest rain and strongest convergence areas imply that the reanalysis members may not be adequately representing the amount of cool air over the Po Plain outflowing into the Ligurian Sea through the Apennines gap. Regarding the role of historical data sources, this study shows that in addition to reanalysis products, unconventional data, such as historical meteorological bulletins, newspapers, and even photographs, can be very valuable sources of knowledge in the reconstruction of past extreme events.

  14. DEWI partnership in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, F.; Dutilleux, P.; Klug, H.; Winkler, W. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    DEWI already has offices in Germany, France, Spain and Brazil. In order to cooperate with a local partner on the fast growing market of Italy, DEWI has signed a partnership contract with Fichtner Italia. In DEWI's main office in Wilhelmshaven the Italian micro siting specialist Francesco Durante is the contact person for Italy. (orig.)

  15. Counseling in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  16. EASTERN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVALUATION OF SELECTED ELITE POTATO GENOTYPES IN. EASTERN ... Significant

  17. Evaluation of Internal Structure, Volume and Mass of Glacial Bodies by Integrated LiDAR and Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys: The Case Study of Canin Eastern Glacieret (Julian Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, R. R.; Forte, E.; Boccali, C.; Dossi, M.; Lanza, L.; Pipan, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2015-03-01

    We propose an integrated methodology to image the internal structure, evaluate the volume and estimate the densities of different units within ice bodies, useful for more precise mass estimation of very small glaciers. The procedure encompasses light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) common offset data. The case study is the Canin Eastern Glacieret (CEG), a very small and maritime glacier in the Eastern Alps, and one of the lowermost glaciers of the European Alps. We calculate both volumetric and mass variations of the analysed ice body by integrating GPR measurements with LiDAR surveys acquired in different years (2006 and 2011). Between 2006 and 2011, the area of the glacieret increased from 8,510 to 17,530 m2 with a gain of 9,016 m2. The observed volume increase has been estimated in 96,350 m3 (+97 %), which corresponds to a positive mass balance of 3.89 m w.e.. This quite unusual finding in the present global warming behaviour is mainly due to the above-average winter accumulation (cw) in the considered period. Moreover, the winter season 2008-2009 represented an exceptional event with a cw equal to 13.38 m, the highest of the available record. Thanks to density estimation, we infer the total mass of the CEG at the time of the geophysical surveys, comparing such results with the ones obtained with available empirical equations, observing an important mass gain in the 5 years considered.

  18. Update on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversano, Michele

    2014-05-01

    As in many countries in Western Europe, in Italy tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease. In the last decade its incidence has remained constant at under 10 cases/100,000 inhabitants, the threshold considered to define a country as low prevalence. The epidemiological picture, however, is very different in the countries of Eastern Europe and in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the incidence of TB continues to increase and in some cases is accompanied by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant TB. The present review describes the epidemiology of TB in Italy. In 2008, the incidence rate was 3.8 cases per 100,000 for people born in Italy, and 50-60 cases per 100,000 for those born abroad. There was an increase in cases from Eastern Europe. The crude mortality rate for TB in 2006 was 0.7 deaths per 100,000 residents. Although TB is a low-prevalence disease in Italy, its epidemiology is changing. Since 1955, more than 160,000 people in Italy have died from this potentially preventable and curable disease.

  19. Renewables in residential development. An integrated GIS-based multicriteria approach for decentralized micro renewable energy production in new settlement development. A case study of the eastern metropolitan area of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmas, Claudia [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Land Engineering; Abis, Emanuela [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Architecture; Haaren, Christina von [Leibniz Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning; Lovett, Andrew [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2011-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using micro renewable energy sources to heat and power homes. However, planning has not yet developed methodological approaches for integrating such objectives of optimized energy efficiency with other environmental requirements and concerns of sustainable residential development. This study addresses such integration by first presenting an approach to assess the different potentials of the landscape for generating renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermic, biomass). Subsequently, optimized locations for residential development according to other sustainability criteria are identified and the two sets of results integrated by systematic GIS operations. The methodological approach for evaluating spatial variations in energy potential and producing the energy potential maps was based on existing methods for assessing the energy potential of the landscape which were adapted to the local scale and data availability. In the case of bioenergy potential a new method was developed. Other environmental criteria for deciding about sustainable locations for residential areas with different types of micro generation were identified through a survey of more than 100 expert respondents. This survey involved pairwise comparisons of relevant factors, which were then translated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process into relative weights. Subsequently these weights were applied to factor maps in a GIS via a weighted linear combination method to obtain suitable areas for new settlements and preferred locations for micro renewable technologies in the eastern metropolitan area of Cagliari, Sardinia. (orig.)

  20. Renewables in residential development. An integrated GIS-based multicriteria approach for decentralized micro-renewable energy production in new settlement development. A case study of the eastern metropolitan area of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmas, Claudia; Haaren, Christina von [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning; Abis, Emanuela [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture; Lovett, Andrew [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2012-12-15

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using micro-renewable energy sources. However, planning has not yet developed methodological approaches (1) for spatially optimizing residential development according to the different renewable energy potentials and (2) for integrating objectives of optimized energy efficiency with other environmental requirements and concerns. This study addresses these topics by firstly presenting a new concept for the regional planning. The methodological approach for the evaluation of spatial variations in the available energy potential was based on the combination of existing methods adapted to the local scale and data availability. For assessing the bioenergy potential, a new method was developed. Other environmental criteria for deciding about sustainable locations were identified through a survey of more than 100 expert respondents. This survey involved pairwise comparisons of relevant factors, which were then translated into relative weights using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Subsequently, these weights were applied to factor maps in a Geographical Information System using a weighted linear combination method. In the test region, the eastern metropolitan area of Cagliari, Sardinia, this analysis resulted in the designation of suitable areas for new settlements and preferred locations for microrenewable technologies. Based on expert preferences, a number of alternatives for future housing development were identified, which can be integrated in the early stages of land use or development plans. The method proposed can be an effective tool for planners to assess changes and to identify the best solution in terms of sustainable development. (orig.)

  1. Depositional architecture and sequence stratigraphy of Pleistocene coarse-grained deltas along the Ligurian coast (Italy)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ciampalini; M Firpo

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to develop a better understanding of the stratigraphy of the southern side of the Maritime Alps and of the Ligurian Sea during the Plio-Pleistocene. Five stratigraphic sections were measured and studied in the Segno River valley (Liguria, Italy). These sections are composed of Lower to Middle Pleistocene marine and continental deposits. Based on detailed mapping and sedimentological analysis, 12 marine and deltaic facies were identified. These facies were grouped into facies associations. Two allostratigraphic units were recognized, namely U1 and U2 from oldest to youngest. The lower unit (U1) represents the evolution of a coarse-grained delta developed in a valley or embayment. Within the deltaic sequence, transgressive and highstand systems tracts were recognized. The coarsening/shallowing upward trend observed within the sections suggests that the delta prograded rapidly in the landward portion of the canyon adjacent to the paleo-river outlet. The upper boundary of U1 is represented by a subaerial unconformity overlain by U2, which is composed of sediments deposited by several alluvial fan systems.

  2. Rupestrian culture in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenzi, C

    2012-01-01

    Rupestrian culture in Italy. L'articolo descrive sinteticamente le aree di studio, di alcune regioni italiane interessate dal fenomeno dell’architettura rupestre, che sono state oggetto dei workshop realizzati nell'ambito del progetto di ricerca internazionale Cultural Rupestrian Heritage in the Circum-Mediterraneam Area-cinp. Programme Culture 2007-2013, Budget 2010, Strand 1.1 Multi-annual cooperation project, Strand 1.2.1- Cooperation measures. estrian culture in Italy

  3. Reviewing the upper Pleistocene human footprints from the 'Sala dei Misteri' in the Grotta della Bàsura (Toirano, northern Italy) cave: An integrated morphometric and morpho-classificatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolo Citton; Romano, Marco; Salvador, Isabella; Avanzini, Marco

    2017-08-01

    About thirty human footprints made approximately 12,000 years B.P. inside the 'Sala dei Misteri' Cave of Básura near Toirano, Liguria, northern Italy, were studied by standard ichnological analysis. Eleven of the best-preserved tracks were examined further using morpho-classificatory and morphometric approaches, in order to estimate the minimum number of trackmakers; biometric measurements were also used to tentatively determine their physical characteristics (e.g., height and age). Results indicate at least three different producers, two youths and the third of tender age. Analysis of the data demonstrate the power of 3D, of landmark-based morphometrics, and the utility of methods of forensic anthropology in the determination of human footprints. The study of the number of trackmakers using the principal component analysis (PCA) on 'multi-trampling' surfaces could represent a model in the ichnological study of cave sites.

  4. [Consistency and dynamics of immigration in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L

    2011-01-01

    According to recent data, foreign population currently in Italy is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward Italy could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. Italy could play as one of the safety valves of emigration.

  5. Ethical issues of prison nursing: A qualitative study in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Loredana; Delogu, Barbara; Carrozzino, Roberto; Aleo, Giuseppe; Bagnasco, Annamaria

    2016-04-12

    Prisons are contexts where nurses are required to have specific skills to ensure that, in a setting designed for the expiation of crime, prisoners receive the same type of care as anyone else. But this is not always the case, giving rise to ethical issues. 'How do correctional nurses describe their working experience in prisons? What issues emerged?' This is a qualitative descriptive study. Following purposive sampling, we conducted five focus groups. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Our sample included 31 correctional nurses in seven prisons in Northern Italy. The scientific merit of this study was recognized by the Academic Board of the University of Genoa. Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the Liguria Regional Government that funded this study and from the Local Health Authority that was the prison nurses' employer. Formal consent was obtained from all the nurses who volunteered to participate in this study. Five themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) prisoners' healthcare needs, (2) negotiation between custody and care, (3) satisfaction of working in prisons, (4) obstacles to quality care and (5) safety. 'Manipulation' was a transversal theme that emerged from all the focus groups. The problems generated by the clash between prison security and nursing care priorities did not enable nurses to practice autonomously and provide the best possible to care prisoners, giving rise to ethical issues and moral distress. This in turn causes high nursing turnover rates that negatively impact continuum of care. In Italy, correctional nurses urgently require specific education interventions with the participation of all those who work in prisons. Interventions based on the post-modern concept of restorative nursing could offer prison nurses the opportunity to both resolve ethical issues and reduce moral distress. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Regional Differentiation of The Demographic Potential in Italy and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszka Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the demographic potential of given Italian and Polish regions. The analysis shows that the demographic situation in Poland, unlike in Italy, is not directly related to the level of development of some regions and their geographical location. In Italy, the unfavorable demographic situation is typical of most of the less-developed southern regions, whereas in Poland it occurs in voivodships with different economic potential, situated in different parts of the country. This is probably the result of the current polycentric development of Poland, characteristic of a centralized economy, and the polar development in Italy. Certain demographic similarities, but of different levels, related to the dynamics of the population, the level of fertility, and net migration are observable in the macro-regions of Mezzogiorno and Eastern Poland.

  7. Biogerontology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetti, Patrizio; Bergamini, Ettore

    2011-02-01

    In this paper experimental gerontology in Italy is reviewed on the basis of research developed in Academic and non Academic Centres. There are several groups across Italy working actively on basic science of aging producing high impact papers with a significant contribution to biogerontology. Some distinguished Italian scientist working abroad is also mentioned. Interesting issues on longevity and interventions on aging (including caloric restriction) and on aging brain are quoted. Relevant studies encompass the (glyco-)oxidative stress as direct damage mechanism and main process of theory of aging, other research lines include IGF-1, mitochondria DNA, obesity/sarcopenia and exercise and also an animal model for aging studies is reported. Notwithstanding financial restrictions and structure deficit the biogerontology research in Italy could be judged as good, but additional resources are necessary to keep this good rank.

  8. Wine tourism in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-01-01

    Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars), Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 milli...

  9. Patterns of practice in the radiation therapy management of rectal cancer: survey of the Interregional Group Piedmont, Valle d'Aosta and Liguria of the "Associazione Italiana di Radioterapia Oncologica (AIRO)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Genesio Pagliuca, Milena; Turri, Lucia; Munoz, Fernando; Melano, Antonella; Bacigalupo, Almalina; Franzone, Paola; Sciacero, Piera; Tseroni, Vassiliki; Vitali, Maria Laura; Delmastro, Elena; Scolaro, Tindaro; Marziano, Corrado; Orsatti, Marco; Tessa, Maria; Rossi, Annalisa; Ballare, Andrea; Moro, Gregorio; Grasso, Rachele; Krengli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    To report the survey about the main aspects on the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of rectal cancer in Piedmont and Liguria. Sixteen centers (11 from Piedmont and 5 from Liguria) received and answered by email a questionnaire data base about clinical and technical aspects of the treatment of rectal cancer. All data were incorporated in a single data base and analyzed. Data regarding 593 patients who received radiotherapy for rectal cancer during the year 2009 were collected and analyzed. Staging consisted in colonoscopy, thoracic and abdominal CT, pelvic MRI and endoscopic ultrasound. PET/CT was employed to complete staging and in the treatment planning in 12/16 centers (75%). Neoadjuvant radiotherapy was employed more frequently than adjuvant radiotherapy (50% vs 36.4%), using typically a total dose of 45 Gy with 1.8 Gy/fraction. Concurrent chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine was mainly employed in neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings, whereas oxaliplatin alone or in combination with 5-FU or capecitabine and leucovorin was commonly employed as the adjuvant agent. The median interval from neoadjuvant treatment to surgery was 7 weeks after long-course radiotherapy and 8 days after short-course radiotherapy. The pelvic total dose of 45 Gy in the adjuvant setting was the same in all the centers. Doses higher than 45 Gy were employed with a radical intent or in case of positive surgical margins. Hypofractionated regimens (2.5, 3 Gy to a total dose of 35-30 Gy) were used in the palliative setting. No relevant differences were observed in target volume definition and patient setup. Twenty-six patients (4.4%) developed grade 3 acute toxicity. Follow-up was scheduled in a similar way in all the centers. No relevant differences were found among the centers involved in the survey. The approach can help clinicians to address important clinical questions and to improve consistency and homogeneity of treatments.

  10. How to predict Italy L'Aquila M6.3 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guangmeng

    2016-04-01

    According to the satellite cloud anomaly appeared over eastern Italy on 21-23 April 2012, we predicted the M6.0 quake occurred in north Italy successfully. Here checked the satellite images in 2011-2013 in Italy, and 21 cloud anomalies were found. Their possible correlation with earthquakes bigger than M4.7 which located in Italy main fault systems was statistically examined by assuming various lead times. The result shows that when the leading time interval is set to 23≤ΔT≤45 days, 8 of the 10 quakes were preceded by cloud anomalies. Poisson random test shows that AAR (anomaly appearance rate) and EOR (EQ occurrence rate) is much higher than the values by chance. This study proved the relation between cloud anomaly and earthquake in Italy. With this method, we found that L'Aquila earthquake can also be predicted according to cloud anomaly.

  11. War and Comics (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Comics played a very important role in the total mobilization in Italy. Firstly in the cities and then in the trenches, they were a new propaganda tool and explanation of the war for children and soldiers with low literacy. At the same time, the war changed the history of comics and the magazine market for children and youth

  12. Italy. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Ever since 1946, increased emigration in Italy has been paralleled by a slow but steady increase in educational activity. In 1971, Law No. 153 was adopted which provides for special educational arrangements to be made for migrant workers and their spouses adopted by the Italian Government are based on the need for Italian children to: (1) be…

  13. Personal Identity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  14. Italy 2000 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Onesti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This section of the review includes Italian dance books from 2000 till now. Texts has been selected following the scientific approach of the review, in order to outline the contemporary panorama of dance studies in Italy. Titles has been organized in two ways by subject, as an indication, and year of publication.

  15. Collection for Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General, and Ghislain Roy, President of the Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Following the earthquake of 24 August in central Italy, many of you have expressed your solidarity. The collection to support the victims raised a total of 10 000 CHF, which was transferred in its entirety to Italy’s civil protection through the Italian delegation to the CERN Council. The CERN Directorate and the CERN Staff Association sincerely thank you for your generosity.

  16. Personal Identity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  17. Management of immigration and pregnancy screening in northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Tamaro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio Tamaro, Sergio ParcoDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital, Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyAbstract: This study assesses the impact of immigration in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region of northeastern Italy, on the epidemiological features of hemoglobin patterns and on prothrombotic and trisomy risk in pregnancy for patients of non-Italian origin. This study follows a series of studies on the incidence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies with reduced globin chain synthesis, that were performed during the postwar (1939–45 period in Friuli Venezia Giulia following immigration into the region from Istria and Sardinia (regions of northern and central Italy. Current data show that today’s constantly growing immigration into the region differs from previous decades, in terms of origin and quantity of migrants, who mainly come from third world countries. This has a significant impact on health care issues, and more specifically on prospective health screening for foreigners. The authors conclude that scholastic education and hospital services, either public or private, and voluntary associations, may contribute to solving the problem, but only in terms of training and organization, for non-European Union citizens arriving in northern Italy and neighboring areas, especially those from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and eastern Europe.Keywords: immigration, hemoglobinopathy, pregnancy, trisomy, thalassemia trait, Italy

  18. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  19. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  1. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  2. First admissions for psychoses in Eastern Piedmont-Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Zeppegno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: 1 To identify the sociodemographic, anamnestic characteristics and presentation symptoms of patients, at the time of first hospitalization, associated with a discharge diagnosis of schizophrenic versus non-schizophrenic psychoses; 2 to define risk factors, at the time of the first admission, for a rehospitalization, regardless of reasons for readmission; 3 to assess the diagnostic stability between first and second hospitalization. Methods: This study includes 245 patients first admitted to the University Psychiatric Clinic of Novara in a period of seven years, discharged with a diagnosis of psychosis as reported in the Discharge Register (ICD-9-CM codes 290-299. Data were collected by consulting medical records and registers of community-based services of the South Novara Mental Health Department. A logistic regression model was used to determine the characteristics associated with a discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia. The relationship between the risk of rehospitalization and patients characteristics was studied using Cox,s regression analysis. Results: Risk factors for a discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia were age, compulsory admission, positive symptoms, and previous non-psychotic psychiatric episodes. Risk factors for rehospitalization were a diagnosis of schizophrenia, an age of less than 40 years, the absence of a stable affective relationship, and living with the family of origin. The 92% of the patients diagnosed as schizophrenic on the first hospitalization had the same diagnosis on readmission. Conclusions: Schizophrenia differs from other psychoses in terms of the greater prevalence of both some symptomatological characteristics and an history of previous non psychotic episodes. Some sociodemographic and clinical characteristics at the time of the first hospitalization can provide indications useful in preventing rehospitalization.

  3. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-08-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  4. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years. Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases, maritime trades (56 cases, and port activities (39 cases. The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2. Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%. Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  5. Migration discourses in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Benelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In the last thirty years, Italy has undergone an anthropological revolution: from a country of emigration that exported millions of emigrants around the world, it has reversed its vocation and has become a country of immigration. The presence of the newcomers on the Italian territory has not always been welcomed and integration has been problematical on diverse levels. In this article I explore how the rhetoric of the State, its laws and the media have portrayed the newcomers under the negati...

  6. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  7. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Citrus in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Gentile, A.; La Malfa, S.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus w

  8. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on citrus in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus w

  9. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savo Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy. Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories. In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody, or habitat (e.g., riverine, etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42% and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research

  10. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savo, Valentina; La Rocca, Arianna; Caneva, Giulia; Rapallo, Fabio; Cornara, Laura

    2013-01-28

    Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy). Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories). In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody), or habitat (e.g., riverine), etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42%) and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Our research correlates functional characteristics of the plants used in

  11. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-07-14

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  12. Agricultural terraces and slope instability at Cinque Terre (NW Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, Pierluigi; Cevasco, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Cinque Terre, located in the eastern Liguria, are one of the most representative examples of terraced coastal landscape within the Mediterranean region. They are the result of a century-old agricultural practice and constitute an outstanding example of human integration with the natural landscape. For this highly unusual man-made coastal landscape, the Cinque Terre have been recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 1997 and became National Park in 1999. The complex network of retaining dry stone walls and drainage networks ensured through times the control of shallow water erosion and therefore, indirectly, favoured debris cover stability. The lack of maintenance of terracing due to farmer abandonment since the 1950s led to widespread slope erosion phenomena. The effects of such phenomena culminated during the 25 October 2011 storm rainfall event, when slope debris materials charged by streams gave rise to debris floods affecting both Monterosso and Vernazza villages. As the analysis of the relationships between geo-hydrological processes and land use in the Vernazza catchment highlighted, abandoned and not well maintained terraces were the most susceptible areas to shallow landsliding and erosion triggered by intense rainfall. As a consequence, the thousands of kilometres of dry stone walls retaining millions of cubic metres of debris cover at Cinque Terre currently constitute a potential menace for both villages, that are mainly located at the floor of deep cut valleys, and tourists. Given the increasing human pressure due to tourist activities, geo-hydrological risk mitigation measures are urgently needed. At the same time, restoration policies are necessary to preserve this extraordinary example of terraced coastal landscape. In this framework, the detailed knowledge of the response of terraced areas to intense rainfall in terms of slope instability is a topic issue in order to identify adequate land planning strategies as well as the areas where

  13. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  14. Headcount 2010: the multiplication of the grey squirrel populations introduced to Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martinoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of non-native animal species is an important cause of loss of biodiversity, for this reason their population control has received a lot of attention in the scientific literature. While the number of introduced species of many taxa is constantly growing, the eradication of new populations (“a posteriori” action and the regulation of the trade of live animals and plants (“a priori” strategies is proceeding slowly. Tree squirrels as a taxon and grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis in particular are among the most successful invasive alien species. Here we present the current situation (October 2010 of the grey squirrel in Italy. The grey squirrel was first reported in Piedmont in an area around the Stupinigi forests in 1948. Subsequent major introductions were reported in Genova-Nervi (1966 and the Ticino Valley Regional Park in Lombardy (1999. In 2010, there were 24 areas with a (meta population or nucleus of grey squirrels: 23 of these were in the three regions most affected by the invasive species Piedmont, Lombardy and Liguria. The number of known areas with grey squirrel presence has strongly increased in the last years. With the exception of the Genova-Nervi population, there is a lack of detailed knowledge on grey squirrel distribution and population size in areas where animals are now known or believed to be present. We underline the necessity to introduce immediately a ban on grey squirrel trade and, preferably, to all invasive species of the Sciuridae family, and to start immediate control or eradication actions.

  15. Sexual behaviour in Ligurian (Northern Italy) adolescents and young people: suggestions for HPV vaccination policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lugarini, Jessica; Sasso, Tiziana; Sormani, Maria Pia; Badolati, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Roberto

    2009-05-29

    Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted virus, and persistent infection with high-risk types is the necessary factor for cervical cancer. We investigated sexual behaviour and the age of the first sexual intercourse among young people (14-24 years) in Liguria (Northern Italy) in order to provide information that might orient the country's future vaccination policy. The Italian Authorities offer free vaccination to 12-year-old females, however a better prevention of HPV would to be implemented by introducing the vaccine to new cohorts of females after the first year of the vaccination campaign. Our survey was carried out from 1st May 2006 to 31st December 2007 and involved 3474 volunteers. We administered a written questionnaire to students (14-24 years) and workers (20-24 years). The median age+/-MAD of the sexual debut was 15+/-1 for both females and males in students group and 16+/-1 for both males and females in workers group. This study provides evidence that many Ligurian adolescents have their first sexual experience at a very early age, and often without protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Furthermore, a large percentage of all age-groups are sexually active and have multiple partners. The aim of this study was to identify those cohorts of females to whom vaccination should be offered free of charge. To this end, we calculated the percentage of infections that could be avoided by vaccination in each age-class: the younger the subjects, the higher the number of preventable infections. Our findings suggest that current HPV vaccination should be implemented by introducing new cohorts, especially young girls (14-16 years).

  16. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 26 June, Italian industry went on display at CERN for the ninth time. Twenty-four Italian firms working closely with CERN showed off the latest high-energy physics technology developed by them. Guido Possa, Vice-Minister for Education, Universities and Research, inaugurated the exhibition on 24 June. He took the opportunity afforded by his visit to tour Building SM18, where LHC magnets are tested and assembled, before inspecting the assembly hall for ATLAS detector components. Guido Possa, Italian Vice-Minister for Education, Universities and Research, is seen visiting one of the "Italy at CERN" exhibition stands.

  17. The Bologna Process in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  18. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  19. Is Cupressus sempervirens native in Italy? An answer from genetic and palaeobotanical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, F; Vendramin, G G; Buonamici, A; Doulis, A G; González-Martínez, S C; La Porta, N; Magri, D; Raddi, P; Sebastiani, F; Fineschi, S

    2009-05-01

    This study represents the first large-scale analysis using nuclear molecular markers to assess genetic diversity and structure of Cupressus sempervirens L.. Genetic and fossil data were combined to infer the possible role of human activity and evolutionary history in shaping the diversity of cypress populations. We analysed 30 populations with six polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers. Dramatic reductions in heterozygosity and allelic richness were observed from east to west across the species range. Structure analysis assigned individuals to two main groups separating central Mediterranean and eastern populations. The two main groups could be further divided into five subgroups which showed the following geographical distributions: Turkey with the Greek islands Rhodes and Samos, Greece (Crete), Southern Italy, Northern Italy, Tunisia with Central Italy. This pattern of genetic structure is also supported by SAMOVA and Barrier analyses. Palaeobotanical data indicated that Cupressus was present in Italy in the Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene. Furthermore, our molecular survey showed that Italian cypress populations experienced bottlenecks that resulted in reduced genetic diversity and allelic richness and greater genetic differentiation. Recent colonization or introduction may also have influenced levels of diversity detected in the Italian populations, as most individuals found in this range today have multilocus genotypes that are also present in the eastern range of the species. The data reveal a new interpretation of the history of cypress distribution characterized by ancient eastern populations (Turkey and Greek islands) and a mosaic of recently introduced trees and remnants of ancient, depauperate populations in the central Mediterranean range.

  20. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industries will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The full event programme is available here.   Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will be in contact with relevant users and technicians, but anyone wishing to speak with a particular firm is welcome to visit the exhibition or to get in touch with organiser Karin Robert. Italian Industries will also be sponsoring a free concert in the Main Auditorium on Tuesday 11 October at 8:00 pm. The "Trio Poem" concert will feature music by Beethoven and A. Dvořák, with Alberto Torin on the piano, Enrico Carraro on the violin, and Davide Bernardi on the cello.

  1. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology.   The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua. The exhibitors are listed below.   A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Keno...

  2. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: - from your Divisional secretariat, - at the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LISTE DES EXPOSANTS / LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Anda...

  3. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi.

  4. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Andalo' Gianni Srl15 Finsys...

  5. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  6. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Italy of censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, G M

    1983-06-01

    To supplement census data on Italy's economy, Istat conducted a sample survey of 2% of households. This paper reports survey findings in 3 areas: age structure of the population, employment and unemployment patterns by region, and structure of the productive system. Those over age 65 years have increased from 11% of the population in 1971 to 13% in 1981 and are forecast to constitute 14.5% in 1991. Women accounted for 51.3% of the total population in 1981 but 58.5% of those over age 65. 12% of households have a member over age 75. The 0-14 year age group has declined from 24.4% of the population in 1971 to 21.5% in 1981 and is projected to comprise 17.4% in 1991. The labor force activity rate was 39.8% in 1981. Unemployment was set at 14.7% in the census sample compared with 9.1% in Istat's quarterly survey of the labor force. 60% of the difference between these 2 figures was accounted for by Campania, Sicily, Puglia, Calabria, and Latium. These 5 regions, which account for only 30% of total employment, are the areas with the most acute employment problems and highest proportions of casual employment in agriculture and traditional services. Agriculture accounted for 22% of total unemployment, construction for 18.5%, and traditional industry for 14%--percentages that are higher than the share of total employment represented by these sectors. In the South, 20.4% of employment is in agriculture, 18.1% in industry, 12.6% in construction, and 48.9% in services. The average worker in the South supports 3.3 persons compared with 2.5 persons in the North. Survey results indicate a substantial shift in the sectoral composition of employment as well as a change in the size of productive units. There has been an increase in the highly specialized components of the economy, including services to firms. The average size of factories has declined, with a proliferation of small and medium sized units. These findings suggest a need to broaden and deepen Italy's industrial base

  8. Morphometry and morphology of Crocidura Wagler 1832 (Mammalia, Soricidae in Italy, Sardinia and Sicily, with Fourier descriptors approach: first results / Morfometria e morfologia di Crocidura Wagler 1832 (Mammalia, Soricidae in Italia, Sardegna e Sicilia, con il metodo dei descrittori di Fourier: primi dati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A shape analysis through Fourier descriptors was performed on left mandibles of Crocidura obtained by Barn Owl pellets from peninsular Italy (Emilia and Liguria districts, Sardinia and Sicily. Thanks to some classical analysis (morphometrical mono- and bidimensional diagrams, morphological analysis and to biogeographical and genetical evidences, the samples of Sardinia, the smaller specimens of Liguria and Emilia and the bigger ones of Emilia were respectively classified, as a working hypothesis, as C. russula, C. suaveolens and C. leucodon. The "misclassification rate" essay was very low, confirming the reliability of the discrimination rule employed. The sicilian samples, showing an unimodal pattern with respect to all the classical morphometrical characters examined, were then tested against the descriptors of C. russula, C. suaveolens and C. leucodon. The specimens were assigned to all the above species, with a quite even distribution. On the other hand, the hypothesis of equality of two mean vectors for sicilian samples with C. russula or C. suaveolens or C. leucodon, tested by Hotelling's T² test, was rejected at 1% significance level. Owing to the fact that the above results seemed quite unexpected in the light of overall bio- geographical knowledges on Crocidura, the "shape analysis" procedure was repeated, by adding a new "species" for the sicilian samples. The "misclassification rate" essay was very encouraging in the sense of the presence, in Sicily, of a morphological "species", differing from C. russula, C. suaveolens and C. leucodon, possibly to be referred to C. sicula Miller 1901. The euristic value of such up to now first results is discussed. Riassunto L'analisi della forma e l'analisi morfometrica di esemplari di Crocidura sp. pl. conducono a

  9. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics.The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua.The exhibitors are listed below.A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Kenotec Srl O...

  10. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  11. Italy au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  12. Stem cell transplantation for nervous system disorders in Italy, European Union, and Ukraine:Clinical approach and governmental policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dario Siniscalco; Nataliia Sych

    2015-01-01

    Several debates have been raised over the use of stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine. Indeed, stem cell transplantation must follow strict rules. However, to date, many differences exist among different Western and Eastern European countries. This brief review summarizes the state‐of‐the‐art stem cell regulation in Italy, European Union, and Ukraine.

  13. Management of immigration and pregnancy screening in northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaro, Giorgio; Parco, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of immigration in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region of northeastern Italy, on the epidemiological features of hemoglobin patterns and on prothrombotic and trisomy risk in pregnancy for patients of non-Italian origin. This study follows a series of studies on the incidence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies with reduced globin chain synthesis, that were performed during the postwar (1939-45) period in Friuli Venezia Giulia following immigration into the region from Istria and Sardinia (regions of northern and central Italy). Current data show that today's constantly growing immigration into the region differs from previous decades, in terms of origin and quantity of migrants, who mainly come from third world countries. This has a significant impact on health care issues, and more specifically on prospective health screening for foreigners. The authors conclude that scholastic education and hospital services, either public or private, and voluntary associations, may contribute to solving the problem, but only in terms of training and organization, for non-European Union citizens arriving in northern Italy and neighboring areas, especially those from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and eastern Europe.

  14. Fatto in Italia: Refashioning Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrero-Regis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the Made in Italy brand helped Italy to recover from economic recession in the 1980s, but also how it redefined the country's identity after the traumatic years of terrorism and especially after the murder of the Christian Democratic Party Secretary, Aldo Moro, at the hands of the Red Brigades. In this period cinema as a form of artistic achievement declined, while fashion and industrial design moved at the centre stage of economic and creative success. The rampant consumerism of the 1980s, fuelled by tax reforms that favoured a wider urban middle class, the retreat of unionism, the abandonment of collective bargaining in many industrial sectors, industrial restructuring with the consequent growth of black market economy in the provincial areas of the so-called Third Italy first and the South later, were all factors that contributed to a social and economic shift within Italy itself. Commercial consumption, propagated by the proliferation of local commercial television networks, hedonism and a re-articulation of identity through appearance replaced the 1970s' political activism and ideological opposition to fashion. Ultimately, 'Made in Italy' was a multidimensional phenomenon that presented itself as a new cultural model for the country’s political tribes of the 1970s.

  15. A tectonomagnetic effect detected in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant variations in the absolute value of the geomagnetic field intensity related to tectonic events, as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, have been observed in several cases. To detect such a tectonomagnetic effect related to seismic activity, a seismomagnetic network was installed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING in the Abruzzi region (CentraI Italy, in July 1989. This area is being uplifting since the Pliocene. A logistic compromise between geophysical requirements and the electrified railway system tracks distribution led to the installation of five total magnetic field intensity data acquisition sites. From July 1989 to September 1992 geomagnetic intensity data were simultaneously recorded at all stations and compared to that recorded at the L'Aquila Observatory, located in the same area. A variation of about 10 nT in the absolute level of the geomagnetic field was measured at two stations located on the eastern side of the network. We suggest that the detected magnetic anomaly could resuIt from aseismic-changes in crustal stress during this time.

  16. The Bisagno stream catchment (Genoa, Italy) and its major floods: geomorphic and land use variations in the last three centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini, Francesco; Paliaga, Guido; Piana, Pietro; Sacchini, Alessandro; Watkins, Charles

    2016-11-01

    The city of Genoa (Liguria, Italy) and the Bisagno Valley are affected by frequent floods, often with loss of human lives. Historically characterised by high flood hazards, the Bisagno Valley was recently affected by a flood event on 9 October 2014, less than three years after the tragic flood event of 4 November 2011 when six people died, including two children. In the last 50 years, four destructive floods occurred in the Bisagno Valley, in addition to some other events that caused significant damage and economic losses. This paper examines the three largest flood events in terms of intensity and ground effects which affected the Bisagno Valley in the last three centuries: the flood of 25 October 1822, well documented by contemporary sources, the flood of 8 October 1970, undoubtedly the most tragic on record, and the very recent event of 9 October 2014. For this purpose scientific and historical-geographical methodologies were adopted, the latter particularly useful for the reconstruction of the flood event of 1822 and the landscape history of the Bisagno Valley in the nineteenth century. This comparison shows that the Bisagno Valley is characterised by climatic and landform features that have been making the flood events historically common in the area. However, recent climate change and land-use variations, including some major modifications of the catchment basin, have progressively determined a decrease of the concentration time and an increase of runoff, solid transport, and flood hazard. Consequently, in recent decades a growth in the number of flood events occurred, to the extent that the Bisagno today is a famous case study on an international scale.

  17. Integration of Remote Sensing Techniques for Intensity Zonation within a Landslide Area: A Case Study in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Tofani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of remote sensing techniques, based on SAR interferometry for the intensity zonation of the landslide affecting the Castagnola village (Northern Apennines of Liguria region, Italy. The study of the instability conditions of the landslide started in 2001 with the installation of conventional monitoring systems, such as inclinometers and crackmeters, ranging in time from April 2001 to April 2002, which allowed to define the deformation rates of the landslide and to locate the actual landslide sliding surface, as well as to record the intensity of the damages and cracks affecting the buildings located within the landslide perimeter. In order to investigate the past long-term evolution of the ground movements a PSI (Persistent Scatterers Interferometry analysis has been performed making use of a set of ERS1/ERS2 images acquired in 1992–2001 period. The outcome of the PSI analysis has allowed to confirm the landslide extension as mapped within the official landslide inventory map as well as to reconstruct the past line-of-sight average velocities of the landslide and the time-series deformations. Following the high velocities detected by the PSI, and the extensive damages surveyed in the buildings of the village, the Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBInSAR system has been installed. The GBInSAR monitoring system has been equipped during October 2008 and three distinct campaigns have been carried out from October 2008 until March 2009. The interpretation of the data has allowed deriving a multi-temporal deformation map of the landslide, showing the up-to-date displacement field and the average landslide velocity. A new landslide boundary has been defined and two landslide sectors characterized by different displacement rates have been identified.

  18. Detection of Caliciviruses in young pheasants (Phasianus colchicus with enteritis in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Capua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 2004 a severe enteritis was reported in a farm of 21-28 day old pheasants reared in intensive conditions in North-Eastern Italy. Mortality in the flock had reached 25%. Virological investigations on cell culture of the gut content yielded reoviruses while electron microscopy examination revealed viral particles morphologically related to calicivirus in association with parvovirus-like and rod shaped virus-like particles.

  19. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  20. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP ...

  1. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  2. Fatal Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Italy, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results. PMID:15504272

  3. The Radio Phenomenon in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenza, Roberto

    One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in Italy. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…

  4. Trichinella spiralis a new alien parasite in Italy and the increased risk of infection for domestic and wild swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Chiara; Interisano, Maria; Chiatante, Alessandro; Marucci, Gianluca; Merli, Enrico; Arrigoni, Norma; Cammi, Giuliana; Ricchi, Matteo; Tonanzi, Daniele; Tamba, Marco; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Pozio, Edoardo

    2017-11-15

    In Europe, Trichinella spiralis, the most dangerous species for humans of the genus Trichinella, has a patchy distribution with important foci in Eastern countries and Spain. This zoonotic pathogen was apparently not circulating among wild and domestic animals of Italy. In 2016, muscle larvae belonging to this nematode species were detected in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) shot in the Piacenza province (Northern Italy). This parasite may have been introduced into northern Italy from eastern Europe by hunters, by a hunting dog, or by immigrants, who illegally carried infected meat in their personal baggage. In the same year, T. spiralis infected sausages illegally introduced by personal baggage into Italy from Romania, were inadequately disposed of in the garbage of a central Italian town. Even though these two episodes may not be connected in time and space, they represent an increased risk of infection for domestic and wild swine, which are highly susceptible to this pathogen. In these animals, T. spiralis shows a higher larval burden and a longer survival time than other Trichinella species. Since most of the Italian pig production plants are in northern Italy, the circulation of T. spiralis should be strictly monitored in wildlife living in these areas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Serological detection of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and specific antibodies in dogs from central and northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardone, L; Schnyder, M; Macchioni, F; Deplazes, P; Magi, M

    2013-02-18

    The most frequently employed method for the diagnosis of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs is the detection of first stage larvae (L1) in faeces. The sensitivity of coproscopy, however, is limited in case of low parasite load, intermittent larval excretion, and during pre-patency. An epidemiological survey on dogs was conducted applying serological methods in two Italian regions where angiostrongylosis is endemic in foxes. 265 dog serum samples from Tuscany (central Italy - site A) and 447 from Liguria (north-western Italy - site B) were tested with a sandwich-ELISA for detection of circulating antigen, and with an ELISA using A. vasorum adult somatic antigen purified by monoclonal antibodies for specific antibody detection. During previous examinations dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum (n=149), Dirofilaria immitis (n=40), Dirofilaria repens (n=30), Acanthocheilonema reconditum (n=27), Crenosoma vulpis (n=1), A. vasorum (n=2), Capillaria aerophila (n=35), Capillaria boehmi (n=3), Toxocara canis (n=68), Toxascaris leonina (n=5), hookworms (n=37) and Trichuris vulpis (n=39) were detected. Sera of these dogs were used to evaluate cross reactions. In site A, 2 dogs (0.8%) were seropositive for antibody and antigen detection and 4 (1.5%) for antibody detection only. From site B, 4 dogs (0.9%) were seropositive for both tests, while other 4 dogs (0.9%) for antigen detection only and 9 dogs (2%) for antibody detection only. Considering a subgroup of 347 dogs from site B which had also been tested with the Baermann technique, 2 (0.6%) were positive for both tests, 4 (1.2%) for antigen detection only and 9 (2.6%) for antibody detection only. The two dogs which were positive for both serological tests were also positive for A. vasorum L1 in the faeces. No significant difference in seropositivities was observed in the group of dogs with other proven parasitic infections. A. vasorum serology presents significant advantages (diagnosis before patency, single serum

  6. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only ... EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin ...

  7. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Republic of Italy (country profile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Italy focuses on the following: cities and regions; population growth; households and families; housing and construction; ethnicity and religion; education; economy and labor force; consumption; and transport and communications. Italy, with its total area of 116,374 square miles, is about the size of Florida and Georgia combined. Its 56.6 million people form the 2nd largest population in Western Europe, after West Germany, but slightly larger than Great Britain and France. The main administrative divisions are 20 regions, subdivided into 95 provinces. The provinces in turn are divided into 8090 "comuni" or municipalities. The 6 cities with more than 500,000 people are Roma, Milano, Napoli, Torino, Genova, and Palermo. They account for 14% of the population. The 43 cities with between 100,000-500,000 account for another 13%. There are 373 middle-sized communities with between 20,000 and 100,000 people, accounting for 26% of population. Italy has a regional problem. The line separating the regions of Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Umbria, and Lazio from the regions to the south and east is important. The regions north of it hold 62% of the population but are responsible for 73% of the gross national product (GNP) and 78% of the industrial product. The regions to the south are economically much weaker. At the time of the last Italian census on October 25, 1981, the country counted 56.6 million inhabitants. Compared to 33.5 million at the turn of the century, this implies an average annual growth rate of .61%. Between 1900-70, nearly 20 million Italians left their country. Most settled in the US, Argentina, and Brazil. Beginning in the 1960s, a new sort of migration was added as young Italians temporarily left to work in the more prosperous countries of northern Europe. The birthrate, which had declined slowly to 18/1000 during the 1960s, fell more rapidly during the 1970s, to 10.9/1000 in 1981 and 10.3 in 1984. The death rate in Italy has changed little

  9. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  10. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  11. BIOITALY: NATURE 2000 IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BLASI

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The author recalls goals and deadlines of the Europena Community Habitats Directive 94/43/EEC and of the Natura 2000 Network. After saying that Italy has up to now only marginally took part in the definition of habitats and species to be included in the Annexes I, II, II e IV of the Habitat Directive, he underlines that only the collaboration between the Italian Botanical Society and the Italian Ministry of Environment – Nature Conservation Services, has allowed Italy to fill the gap with other countries. Furthermore, he relates the ongoing progress of Natura 2000 in Italy (Bioitaly: about 2700 sites collected, a useful collaboration between botanists, zoologists and ecologists, the constitution of a list of new habitats and species to be included into the Annexes of the Directive. Finally, he wishes a closer working relationship among phytosociologists, botanists and ecologists, in order to avoid the risk of replacing in the CORINE project the phytosociological approach with a less satisfactory physiognomic classification.

  12. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  13. Pharmacovigilance in Italy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Mazzitello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs is the basis of pharmacovigilance. In fact, ADRs are associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. However, underreporting by all healthcare professionals remains the major problem in Italy and in the rest of the world. The dissemination of pharmacovigilance knowledge among Italian healthcare professionals, and the new pharmacovigilance regulations may promote the early detection and reporting of ADRs. This review examines the legislative framework concerning the pharmacovigilance in Italy. Materials and Methods: The information was collected from scientific articles and the websites of the Italian Ministry of Health and the Italian Medicines Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA. Results: The pharmacovigilance system, both in Italy and Europe, has undergone profound changes. European legislation on pharmacovigilance has been changed in 2010 according to the EU Regulation 1235/2010 and Directive 2010/84/EU. Basically, the changes tend to increase the efficiency, speed and transparency of pharmacovigilance activities. The new Regulation (1235/2010 and the Directive (2010/84/EU aim to strengthen the system of pharmacovigilance, establish more precisely who is obliged to do what, and allow faster and easier circulation and retrieval of information about ADRs. Conclusion: A greater knowledge on what is the Italian pharmacovigilance legislation will be useful to improve the status of ADRs reporting and spread the culture of spontaneous reporting.

  14. Rickettsia conorii israelensis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisu, Valentina; Masala, Giovanna; Foxi, Cipriano; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The presence of tick-borne Rickettsia spp. was examined by PCR using DNA samples extracted from 254 ticks collected from mammals originating from northern and eastern Sardinia, Italy. The spotted fever group rickettsial agent Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in 3 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from a dog for the first time in this geographical area. In addition, Ri. massiliae, Ri. slovaca, and Ri. aeschlimannii were detected in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks from dogs, goats, wild boar, and horse. Moreover, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae was detected in 2 Rh. turanicus ticks from goats. The detection of Ri. conorii israelensis, an emergent agent which causes Israeli spotted fever, increases our knowledge on tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia.

  15. The disastrous storm of 4 November 1966 on Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De Zolt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first modeling reconstruction of the whole aspects (both meteorological and oceanographic of the storm which hit Italy on 4 November 1966, producing 118 victims and widespread damages in Tuscany, at the northern Adriatic coast and in the north-eastern Italian Alps. The storm was produced by a cyclone which formed in the western Mediterranean and moved eastward towards Italy, reaching the Thyrrenian Sea, and then northward. The most peculiar characteristic of the storm has been the strong zonal pressure gradient and the consequent intensity and long fetch of the south-easterly sirocco wind, which advected a large amount of warm moist air, and determined exceptional orographic precipitation over Tuscany and the north-eastern Alps. The funneling of the wind between the mountain chains surrounding the Adriatic basin further increased the wind speed and determined the highest ever recorded storm surge along the Venetian coast. This study shows that present models would be able to produce a reasonably accurate simulation of the meteorological event (surface pressure, wind and precipitation fields, and storm surge level. The exceptional intensity of the event is not suggested by single parameters such as the sea level pressure minimum, the wind speed or the total accumulated precipitation. In fact, the precipitation was extreme only in some locations and the pressure minimum was not particularly deep. Moreover, the prediction of the damages produced by the river run-off and landslides would have required other informations concerning soil condition, snow coverage, and storage of water reservoirs before the event. This indicates that an integrated approach is required for assessing the probability of such damages both on a weather forecast and on a climate change perspective.

  16. Geometry and distribution of seismic and geodetic strain in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondrelli, S.; Serpelloni, E.; Morelli, A.

    2003-04-01

    We determine geometry and distribution of seismic strain in Italy, and surrounding regions, by means of seismological information, and compare results with geodetic data. We use data from the Harvard CMT Catalog, mostly supplemented by the INGV-Harvard European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) Catalog (http://www.ingv.it/seismolgo/RCMT), including solutions for moderate-magnitude earthquakes (4.5encloses about 400 focal solutions for events occurred between 1997 and 2002, besides other significant events (e.g. the Friuli, Northern Italy, 1976 seismic sequence). We believe this to be the most complete dataset, based on instrumental data, for the last 25 years of seismic activity of the study region. Only crustal events are considered. The method used is the Kostrov summation, applied on a regular grid. We thus obtain the cumulative moment tensor, representative of the geometry of deformation. Its distribution shows NE-SW extension along the Apennines, and the compression field (rotating from NE-SW to NNE-SSW) that affects the mountain chains along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea and the Eastern Alps. The geometry of deformation also exhibits other intriguing trends, such as compression along the Southern Tyrrhenian, changing to strike-slip eastward, and turning to extension passing trough the Aeolian Islands and the Messina Strait. We also note the transition from compression in the outer Northern Apennines to transcurrent style in the outer Southern Apennines. Being this region a low strain rate area, a correct evaluation of strain amount requires to merge the instrumental dataset with the historical seismic moment released, as obtained from catalogs. The hypocentral distribution is taken into account to evaluate the depth of the brittle layer. Our results are compared with geodetic data recently obtained analysing more than 10 years of GPS observations collected by more than 130 stations. Significant similarity is found, especially as

  17. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  18. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  19. Legionnaires’ disease Surveillance in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Ricci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the report presented, data on legionellosis diagnosed in the year 2003 in Italy and notified to the National Surveillance System are analysed. Overall, 617 cases were notified, of which 517 were confirmed and 46 were presumptive.

    The characteristics of the patients are very similar to those reported in the previous years in terms of male/female ratio, age–specific distribution, occupation, etc. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was responsible for approximately 90% of the cases.

  20. Rembrandt in Italie. Receptie en verzamelgeschiedenis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, J.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation sets out to investigate if and to what extent Rembrandt's work was appreciated in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries. From approximately 1650 onwards paintings, drawings and prints by Rembrandt could be found in Italy, he is mentioned in several written sources and a few Italian

  1. Tephrochronology offshore Ischia Island, Tyrrhenian sea, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insinga, Donatella; Sulpizio, Roberto; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Morabito, Simona; Morra, Vincenzo; Sprovieri, Mario; di Benedetto, Claudia; Lubritto, Carmine; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    the coring site. The definition of the source area of these two major events is still a matter of debate. However, the Somma-Vesuvius complex reasonably sourced the Schiava deposits while a Campi Flegrei provenance for the Codola deposits cannot be ruled out (Di Vito et al., 2008). These latters, known as C10 tephra in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic sea (Paterne et al., 1988; Giaccio et al., 2008), in particular, represent reliable regional markers for the whole central Mediterranean area. References De Vivo, B., Rolandi, G., Gans, P.B., Calvert, A., Bohrson,W.A., Spera, F.J., Belkin, H.E., 2001. New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy). Mineralogy and Petrology 73, 47-65. Di Vito,M.A., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., D'Orazio, M., 2008. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits of the Campanian Plain: newinsights into the explosive activity of Neapolitan volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.177, 19-48. Giaccio, B., Isaia, R., Fedele, F.G., Di Canzio, E., Hoffecker, J., Ronchitelli, A., Sinitsyn, A., Anikovich, M., Lisitsyn, S.N., 2008. The Campanian Ignimbrite and Codola tephra layers: two temporal/stratigraphic markers for the Early Upper Palaeloithic in southern Italy and eastern Europe. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 177, 210-228. Paterne M., Guichard F. & Labeyrie J., 1988. Explosive activity of the south Italian volcanoes during the past 80.000 years as determined by marine tephrochronology. J. Volcanol. Geother. Res. 34, 153-172. Paterne, M., Guichard, F., 1993. Triggering of volcanic pluses in the Campanian area, south Italy, by periodic deep magma in.ux. Journal of Geophysical Research 98 (B2), 1861-1873. Rio, D., Raffi, I., Villa, G., 1990. Pliocene-Pleistocene calcareous nannofossil distribution patterns in the western Mediterranean. In: Kastens, K.A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results, vol. 107. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, pp. 513-533. Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G

  2. DISCOVERING BEIJING Eastern Promise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dongcheng District, literally meaning eastern city, covers Beijing’s downtown area to the northeast of the central axis of old Beijing. The district has a total area of 25 square km and a population of 600,000. With a large number of cultural and historical sites and tourist attractions,

  3. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  4. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  5. The even darker side of the eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis): a review of global introductions, invasion biology, and pest management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    McAlpine, D. F.; Thompson, C W; Williams, G. R.; Koprowski, J. L.; Lurz, P.W.W.; Bertolino, S.; Huynh, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    The eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis, is one of the world’s most recognized sciurids and a highly successful human commensal. Historically restricted to eastern North America, gray squirrel populations are now established in Italy, U.K., South Africa, and Australia, and squirrels continue to expand their geographic range globally. Successful introductions of S. carolinensis often result in significant negative impacts on native ecosystem integrity. As a result, countries have devis...

  6. Ancient and recent admixture layers in Sicily and Southern Italy trace multiple migration routes along the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Pagani, Luca; Sazzini, Marco; De Fanti, Sara; Quagliariello, Andrea; Gnecchi Ruscone, Guido Alberto; Guichard, Etienne; Ciani, Graziella; Bortolini, Eugenio; Barbieri, Chiara; Cilli, Elisabetta; Petrilli, Rosalba; Mikerezi, Ilia; Sineo, Luca; Vilar, Miguel; Wells, Spencer; Luiselli, Donata; Pettener, Davide

    2017-05-16

    The Mediterranean shores stretching between Sicily, Southern Italy and the Southern Balkans witnessed a long series of migration processes and cultural exchanges. Accordingly, present-day population diversity is composed by multiple genetic layers, which make the deciphering of different ancestral and historical contributes particularly challenging. We address this issue by genotyping 511 samples from 23 populations of Sicily, Southern Italy, Greece and Albania with the Illumina GenoChip Array, also including new samples from Albanian- and Greek-speaking ethno-linguistic minorities of Southern Italy. Our results reveal a shared Mediterranean genetic continuity, extending from Sicily to Cyprus, where Southern Italian populations appear genetically closer to Greek-speaking islands than to continental Greece. Besides a predominant Neolithic background, we identify traces of Post-Neolithic Levantine- and Caucasus-related ancestries, compatible with maritime Bronze-Age migrations. We argue that these results may have important implications in the cultural history of Europe, such as in the diffusion of some Indo-European languages. Instead, recent historical expansions from North-Eastern Europe account for the observed differentiation of present-day continental Southern Balkan groups. Patterns of IBD-sharing directly reconnect Albanian-speaking Arbereshe with a recent Balkan-source origin, while Greek-speaking communities of Southern Italy cluster with their Italian-speaking neighbours suggesting a long-term history of presence in Southern Italy.

  7. Provenance of marbles used for building the internal spiral staircase of the bell tower of St. Nicholas Church (Pisa, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzerini, Marco; Antonelli, Fabrizio; Gallello, Gianni; Ramacciotti, Mirco; Parodi, Luca; Alberti, Antonio; Pagnotta, Stefano; Legnaioli, Stefano; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the provenance of marbles used as architectural elements (bases, shafts and capitals of columns) for building the internal spiral staircase of the medieval bell tower of St. Nicholas Church at Pisa, Italy. Accordingly, the 45 collected marble samples have been analysed by optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mass spectroscopy for carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratio analysis; additionally, SEM-EDS analysis have been performed to complement data about accessory minerals. By comparison with literature data on the main sources of the white Mediterranean marbles used in ancient times, the results show that the analysed samples are mainly white crystalline marbles from Carrara (Italy) and, subordinately, from other Tuscan and Eastern Mediterranean quarrying areas. In fact, Mt. Pisano and Campiglia M.ma (Tuscany, Italy) and Marmara (Turkey), Paros, Mt. Penteli, Thasos (Greece) are minor sources. The other coloured stones identified on the strength of their macroscopic features are quartzites from Mt. Pisano area and granitoids from Sardinia and Island of Elba (Italy). Occasionally, a very limited number of architectonical elements made up of Acquabona limestone from Rosignano Marittimo (Livorno, Italy), red limestone with ammonites (the so-called "Rosso Ammonitico") and black limestone belonging to the Tuscan Nappe sequence, outcropping at northwest of Pisa in the nearby Monti d'Oltre Serchio area, are present.

  8. Trichinella pseudospiralis in sedentary night-birds of prey from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E; Goffredo, M; Fico, R; La Rosa, G

    1999-08-01

    Trichinella pseudospiralis has been isolated from carnivorous and carrion-feeding mammals and birds in Eastern Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America, suggesting its cosmopolitan distribution. We conducted a survey to detect this parasite in raptorial and carrion-feeding birds in Italy, examining muscles from 205 animals by artificial digestion. We isolated from the breast muscle 1 larva from a tawny owl (Strix aluco) and 2 larvae from a little owl (Athene noctua). These larvae were identified as T. pseudospiralis by the polymerase chain reaction with a specific primer set. This is the first documented report of T. pseudospiralis in animals in Western Europe.

  9. Rites of passage in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in Italy that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change?

  10. CAS Introductory Course in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School’s introductory course is a great success. This year the CERN Accelerator School held its "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" course in Frascati, Italy, from 2-14 November in collaboration with the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. The Introductory level course is particularly important since, for the majority of participants, it is the first opportunity to discover the various aspects of accelerator physics. For this school the programme had been significantly revised in order to take into account the new trends currently being developed in the field, thus putting more emphasis on linacs, synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers. The school was a resounding success with 115 participants of more than 23 nationalities. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the excellent organizati...

  11. Italy: old problems, new books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazzi, Evandro

    1989-01-01

    Agazzi's bibliographic essay of recent titles in Italian on biomedical issues also discusses the Catholic versus the secular approaches to bioethics in Italy. Among the publications mentioned are several of a philosophical or theological nature: M. Mori's volume on artificial insemination, and second editions of well-established textbooks on biomedical ethics by S. Leone, E. Sgreccia, S. Spinsanti, and D. Tettamanzi. Legal issues in reproductive technologies are addressed in the Santosuosso Commission's report on regulating artificial procreation, and in a book discussing the report. Secular writings on ethical issues have appeared in issues cited here of the journals Prospettive Settanta and Biblioteca della Libertà. Also mentioned in Agazzi's essay are a critique of the Vatican Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's Instruction on Respect for Human Life, and a booklet of articles related to the 20th anniversary of the encyclical Humanae Vitae.

  12. Crustal stress regime in Italy

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    M. Cesaro

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a reliable map of the present-day stress field in Italy, needed to better understand the active tectonic processes and to contribute to the assessment of seismic hazard, in 1992 we started to collect and analyze new data from borehole breakouts in deep oil and geothermal wells and focal mechanisms of earthquakes (2.5 < M <5 occurred in Italy between 1988 and 1995. From about 200 deep wells and 300 focal mechanisms analyzed to date, we infer that: the internal (SW sector of the Northern Apenninic arc is extending with minimum compressional stress (Shmin oriented ? ENE, while the external front is thrusting over the Adriatic foreland (Shmin ? NW-SE. The entire Southern Apennine is extending in NE direction (from the Tyrrhenian margin to the Apulian foreland and compression (in the foredeep is no longer active at the outer (NE thrust front. Between these two arcs, an abrupt change in the tectonic regime is detected with directions of horizontal stress changing by as much as 90º in the external front, around latitude 430N. Along the Ionian side of the Calabrian arc the stress directions inferred from breakouts and focal mechanisms are scattered with a hint of rotation from N-S Shmin close to the Southern Apennines, to ~ E-W directions in the Messina Strait. In Sicily, a NW-SE direction of SHmax is evident in the Hyblean foreland, parallel to the direction of plate motion between Africa and Europe. A more complex pattern of stress directions is observed in the thrust belt zone, with rotations from the regional trend (NW í directed SHmax to NE oriented SHmax. A predominant NW direction of SHmax is also detected in mainland Sicily from earthquake focal mechanisms, but no well data are available in this region. In the northern part of Sicily (Aeolian Islands a ~N-S direction of SHmax is observed.

  13. Psychosurgery in Italy, 1936-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Zbigniew

    2008-12-01

    In 1936 Egas Moniz introduced a new method for treating mental illness--psychosurgery. This new procedure was taken up immediately in a number of countries, including Italy. In most countries its introduction was slow and the numbers of operations were in single figures, but in Italy the introduction was rapid and around a dozen neuropsychiatrists reported much higher numbers of operations performed. Also in Italy the first innovations to the technique, notably the transorbital variation, were introduced. Moreover, all these activities took place without any sign of the protest seen elsewhere. Conditions that allowed the acceptance of this risky procedure seemed to be a consequence of the way in which the professions of neurology and psychiatry had been merged in Italy.

  14. Gate to Italy; Das Tor zu Italien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, Ina

    2008-07-01

    Increasingly, German businesses are setting up workshops in Southern Tyrol. This region of Northern Italy offers ideal conditions, as well as German-speaking partners. However, to be successful they will also need Italian partners. (orig.)

  15. How America Saved Italy and the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    normalcy, specifically the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.145 This meant that America would...How America Saved Italy and the World A Monograph by MAJ Kwame O. Boateng United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2014 – May 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE How America Saved Italy and the World 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  16. Acquiring, archiving, analyzing and exchanging seismic data in real time at the Seismological Research Center of the OGS in Italy

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    Milton Percy Plasencia Linares

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the 1976 Friuli earthquake (Ms = 6.5 in north-eastern Italy that caused about 1,000 casualties and widespread destruction in the Friuli area, the Italian government established the Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS. This is now a department of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, and it is specifically devoted to the monitoring of the seismicity of north-eastern Italy. Since its inception, the North-East Italy Seismic Network has grown enormously. Currently, it consists of 14 broad-band and 20 short-period seismic stations, all of which are telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of 94 seismic stations acquired in real time, which confirms that the OGS is the reference institute for seismic monitoring of north-eastern Italy. Since 2002, CRS has been using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data. SeisComP is also used as a real-time data exchange server tool. A customized web-accessible server is used to manually relocate earthquakes, and automatic procedures have been set-up for moment-tensor determination, shaking-map computation, web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveform drumplots, state-of-health parameters, and quality checks of the station by spectra analysis. Scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting to public institutions have also been customized. Recently, a real-time seismology website was designed and set-up (http://rts.crs.inogs.it/.

  17. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  18. Macroeconomic determinants of migration from Romania to Italy

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    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Taken into account various economic theories trying to explain the reasons that stay behind the decision to migrate to another country, this study uses empirical data to identify some macroeconomic motives for migrating from Romania to Italy. According to the estimations based on fast ridge regression, the stock of Romanian immigrants from Italy in the period 2002-2016 was influenced by: the real GDP per capita in Romania, real GDP per capita in Italy and life expectancy at birth in Italy. The number of Romanian migrants attracted each year in Italy in a period marked also by the global financial crisis (2007-2016 was related to factors like: real GDP per capita in Italy life expectancy at birth in Italy, unemployment rate and taxes on income, profits and capital gains in Italy. The overall results indicated that the better standard of life in Italy was a good incentive for Romanian migrants

  19. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  20. Health workforce governance in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicarelli, Giovanna; Pavolini, Emmanuele

    2015-12-01

    More precise health workforce governance has become a prominent issue in healthcare systems. This issue is particularly important in Italy, given its strongly doctor-centered healthcare system and the dramatic aging of its physicians' labor force. Using different sources of information (statistical data, official planning documents and interviews with key informants), the article attempts to answer two questions. Why has the Italian healthcare systems found itself in the situation of a potential drastic reduction in the amount of doctors in the medium term without a rebalancing through a different mix of skills and professionals? How good is the capacity of the Italian healthcare system to plan healthcare workforce needs? The widespread presence of 'older' physicians is the result of the strong entry of doctors into the Italian healthcare system in the 1970s and 1980s. Institutional fragmentation, difficulties in drafting broad healthcare reforms, political instability and austerity measures explain why Italian health workforce forecasting and planning are still unsatisfactory, although recent developments indicate that changes are under way. In order to tackle these problems it is necessary to foster closer cooperation among a wide range of stakeholders, to move from uni-professional to multi-professional health workforce planning, and to partially re-centralise decision making.

  1. Position of fuel cells in Italy; Situation des piles a combustible en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janot-Giorgetti, M.; Mottini, N.

    2000-02-01

    The main researches concerning the fuel cells in Italy are the PEFC (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell) and the MCFC (Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell). This reports takes stock of these two techniques in Italy, explaining the running of these two types of cells and relating the Italian situation (development and research program, development programs of fuel cells vehicles). (O.M.)

  2. Foreign children with cancer in Italy

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    Zecca Marco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP, which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608 were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538 were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%, whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network.

  3. Risk assessment for canine leishmaniasis spreading in the north of Italy

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    Giulia Morosetti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis has not only been recognized but is, in fact, increasing in territories of northern continental Italy previously regarded as non-endemic. Recent findings of sporadic autochthonous canine infections and the presence of phlebotomine vectors in some provinces of north-eastern Italy have stimulated risk assessment for the spreading of leishmaniasis in the autonomous province of Bolzano-South Tyrol, the northernmost territory of the Italian eastern Alps. In July 2008, 61 phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae were caught and identified as Phlebotomus perniciosus and Sergentomyia minuta. This is the first record in South Tyrol of P. perniciosus, the most competent vector of Leishmania infantum in Mediterranean countries. Leishmania serology on local dogs kept in kennels gave negative results, while only imported canine leishmaniasis cases were reported by local veterinarians through a questionnaire survey. Bio-geographic aspects and epidemiological consequences are analyzed in relation with the risk of leishmaniasis introduction into the area.

  4. Evidence of mosquito-transmitted flavivirus circulation in Piedmont, north-western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Francesco; Giacobini, Mario; Mosca, Andrea; Grasso, Ivan; Rambozzi, Luisa; Rossi, Luca; Bertolotti, Luigi

    2012-05-22

    Flavivirus is a highly heterogeneous viral genus that includes important human pathogens and several viral strains with unknown zoonotic potential. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been isolated and characterized in Northern Italy: West Nile virus and Usutu virus were detected in mosquitoes and in different host species and recent studies provided evidence about the circulation of "insect Flavivirus" strains. In order to clarify the diffusion and the distribution of the mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in Italy, we analyzed Culex and Ochlerotatus mosquitoes collected in 2009 and 2010 in an area divided evenly between hills and plains and where the landscape is dominated by mixed agricultural patches, rice fields, deciduous tree forests, and urban environments. Each mosquito pool was tested for the presence of Flavivirus strains and we characterized positive samples by genetic sequencing. Positive mosquito pools revealed low infection prevalence, but suggested a continuous circulation of both Usutu virus and insect Flavivirus. Interestingly, phylogenetic analyses based on NS5 gene partial sequences showed a closer relationship among new Usutu virus strains from Piedmont and the reference sequences from the Eastern Europe, with respect to Italian samples characterized so far. Moreover, NS5 gene phylogeny suggested that mosquito flaviviruses found in Italy could belong to different lineages. Our results contribute to a wider point of view on the heterogeneity of viruses infecting mosquitoes suggesting a taxonomical revision of the Mosquito-borne Flavivirus group.

  5. Evidence of mosquito-transmitted flavivirus circulation in Piedmont, north-western Italy

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    Cerutti Francesco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavivirus is a highly heterogeneous viral genus that includes important human pathogens and several viral strains with unknown zoonotic potential. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been isolated and characterized in Northern Italy: West Nile virus and Usutu virus were detected in mosquitoes and in different host species and recent studies provided evidence about the circulation of “insect Flavivirus” strains. Methods In order to clarify the diffusion and the distribution of the mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in Italy, we analyzed Culex and Ochlerotatus mosquitoes collected in 2009 and 2010 in an area divided evenly between hills and plains and where the landscape is dominated by mixed agricultural patches, rice fields, deciduous tree forests, and urban environments. Each mosquito pool was tested for the presence of Flavivirus strains and we characterized positive samples by genetic sequencing. Results Positive mosquito pools revealed low infection prevalence, but suggested a continuous circulation of both Usutu virus and insect Flavivirus. Interestingly, phylogenetic analyses based on NS5 gene partial sequences showed a closer relationship among new Usutu virus strains from Piedmont and the reference sequences from the Eastern Europe, with respect to Italian samples characterized so far. Moreover, NS5 gene phylogeny suggested that mosquito flaviviruses found in Italy could belong to different lineages. Conclusions Our results contribute to a wider point of view on the heterogeneity of viruses infecting mosquitoes suggesting a taxonomical revision of the Mosquito-borne Flavivirus group.

  6. Contrasting patterns of climatic changes during the Holocene in the Central Mediterranean (Italy reconstructed from pollen data

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    O. Peyron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lake-level records from Italy suggest a north–south climatic partition in the Central Mediterranean during the Holocene with respect to precipitation, but the scarcity of reliable palaeoclimatic records in the North and Central-Southern Mediterranean means new evidence is needed to validate this hypothesis. Here, we provide robust quantitative estimates of Holocene climate in the Mediterranean region based on four high-resolution pollen records from Northern (Lakes Ledro and Accesa and Southern (Lakes Trifoglietti and Pergusa Italy. Multiple methods are used to provide an improved assessment of the paleoclimatic reconstruction uncertainty. The multi-method approach uses the pollen-based Weighted Averaging, Weighted-Average-Partial-Least-Squares regression, Modern Analogues Technique, and the Non-Metric-Multidimensional Scaling/Generalized-Additive-Model methods. The precipitation seasonality reconstructions are validated by independent lake-level data, obtained from the same records.

    A climatic partition between the north and the south during the Holocene confirms the hypothesis of opposing mid-Holocene summer precipitation regimes in the Mediterranean. During the early-to-mid-Holocene the northern sites (Ledro, Accesa are characterized by minima for summer precipitation and lake-levels while the southern sites (Trifoglietti, Pergusa are marked by maxima for precipitation and lake-levels. During the late Holocene, both pollen-inferred precipitation and lake-levels indicate the opposite pattern, a maximum in North Italy and a minimum in Southern Italy/Sicily. Summer temperatures also show partitioning, with warm conditions in Northern Italy and cool conditions in Sicily during the early/mid-Holocene, and a reversal during the Late-Holocene.

    Comparison with marine cores from the Aegean Sea suggests that climate trends and gradients observed in Italy shows strong similarities with those recognized from the Aegean Sea, and more

  7. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  8. Sattleria revisited: unexpected cryptic diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in the south-eastern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Peter; Timossi, Giovanni

    2014-03-21

    The taxonomy of Sattleria Povolný from the high mountain systems on the Balkan Peninsula and the adjacent parts of the Alps (south-eastern Alps, Dinaric Alps, Rila Mountains) is revised based on recently collected material and re-examined museum vouchers. Adult morphology and molecular data of the COI barcode region support the existence of six strictly allopatric species in this area, including four new species: Sattleria sophiae Timossi, sp. nov. (Parco Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino, Dolomites, Prov. Trento, Italy), Sattleria dolomitica Huemer, sp. nov. (Eastern Dolomites, Prov. South Tyrol, Italy), Sattleria dinarica Huemer, sp. nov. (Durmitor NP, Dinaric Alps, Montenegro) and Sattleria haemusi Huemer, sp. nov. (Rila Mts., Bulgaria; Šar Planina, Macedonia). 

  9. Acoustic module of the Acquabona (Italy debris flow monitoring system

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    A. Galgaro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of debris flows aimed to the assessment of their physical parameters is very important both for theoretical and practical purposes. Peak discharge and total volume of debris flows are crucial for designing effective countermeasures in many populated mountain areas where losses of lives and property damage could be avoided. This study quantifies the relationship between flow depth, acoustic amplitude of debris flow induced ground vibrations and front velocity in the experimental catchment of Acquabona, Eastern Dolomites, Italy. The analysis of data brought about the results described in the following. Debris flow depth and amplitude of the flow-induced ground vibrations show a good positive correlation. Estimation of both mean front velocity and peak discharge can be simply obtained monitoring the ground vibrations, through geophones installed close to the flow channel; the total volume of debris flow can be so directly estimated from the integral of the ground vibrations using a regression line. The application of acoustic technique to debris flow monitoring seems to be of the outmost relevance in risk reduction policies and in the correct management of the territory. Moreover this estimation is possible in other catchments producing debris flows of similar characteristics by means of their acoustic characterisation through quick and simple field tests (Standard Penetration Tests and seismic refraction surveys.

  10. New remarkable records of microfungi from Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009 we organized a botanical student excursion to the eastern part of Sardinia, Italy. On this occasion we were able to collect and identify over 80 species of microfungi growing on higher plants. The collecting sites were spread over a large area, among them were La Caletta, Capo Comino, Monte Albo, Cala Gonone, Monte Maccione, San Teodoro, Capo Testa. The collected microfungi were parasitic or saprophytic; Basidiomycotina (Uredinales), Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina (Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes) were predominant. Examples are Pezicula corticola (Jörg.) NANNF. (new for Sardinia), on Pyrus communis. Puccinia chamaecyparissi TROTT. (new for Sardinia), on Santolina insularis. Sphaceloma oleae CICC. and GRANITI (new for Sardinia) and Phlyctema vagabunda DESM. (new for Sardinia), on Olea europaea and Arbutus unedo. Puccinia pseudosphaeria MONT. (new for Sardinia), on Sonchus oleraceus. Discula umbrinella (BERK. and BR.) SUTTON (new for Sardinia)(D. quercina WEST. and BARK), on Quercus coccifera. Zaghouania phillyreae PAT. (new for Sardinia), on Phillyrea angustifolia. Phymatotrichum omnivorum (DUGGAR) HENNEBERT, new on Verbascum thapsus for Sardinia. Guignardia punctoidea (COOKE) SCHROTER (new for Sardinia), on Quercus ilex. Many of the collected species are rare or unknown for the area of investigation until now. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  11. Deep structures and carbon dioxide degassing in central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodini, G.; Frondini, F.; Ponziani, F. [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1995-02-01

    In Tyrrhenian Central Italy large amounts of CO{sub 2} are produced at depth mainly by metamorphism of marine carbonate rocks. During their ascent, the gases are trapped in deep structures, made up of Mesozoic permeable limestones covered by impermeable terrains, which become sources of a high CO{sub 2} flux toward the surface. The anomalous CO{sub 2} concentrations are detectable in groundwaters. The general map of the groundwater PCO{sub 2} values shows a decrease in the CO{sub 2} production moving from the western geothermal areas of Tuscany and Latium to the eastern sector, which is characterized by a normal heat flow. The PCO{sub 2} distribution suggests that the NW-SE extensional faults, which bound Plio-Pleistocene grabens, provide the easiest routes for the gas ascent. The geological, geophysical and geothermal deep drilling data suggest that the CO{sub 2} anomalies found in the western sector correspond to deep permeable structures of possible geothermal interest. (author)

  12. The dialect in Italy after the union

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    Anna Grochowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Italian dialects occupy an important position in the history of Italian linguistics and are still present and relevant in the linguistic panorama of modern Italy. The purpose of this article is to outline the linguistic image of Italy by drawing attention to its dialects. Through analysis of the situation after unification in Italy in 1861, the author attempts to mark off functions and roles which dialects used to serve. In the second part of the article she concentrates on the phenomena of nuova dialettalità, or the new perspective and collocation of dialect in the Italian linguistic panorama of the 21st century. This article is a part of a research project dedicated to functions and uses of dialects in the Italian cinematography.

  13. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.

  14. Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

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    Valentin Neculita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement has become a fundamental priority of the European Union after the 90’s. Up to now seven rounds have been held for enlarging the Community which initially was made up of six Member States (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Among all EU enlargements, the eastward enlargement from 2004 was the biggest challenge, both due to the number of new Member States which joined - the number of EU inhabitants increasing to approximately from 380 to 485 million, but also due to the difference of Gross Domestic Product between the old and new EU members. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration and absorption of European funds into the newest that joined the European Union. The paper proposes an analysis of integration and specialization in Eastern Europe by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions.

  15. Why Italy's saving rate became (so) low?

    OpenAIRE

    Campiglio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why a low and declining saving rate should be a problem in a world of free capital flows and increasing wealth. In Italy consumer households’ saving have been the main driver of economic stability and growth, funding investments and public debt, and despite international turbulences Italy was acknowledged as a high saving country until the early 1990’s. Ever since, however, households saving rate plunged, in spite of an increasing financial wealth, and our ...

  16. Runoff generation through ephemeral streams in south-east Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.; Giustolisi, O.

    2012-04-01

    , in a partially urbanized catchment located in Apulia (south east of Italy). The analysis is based on full 2D simulation of the behaviour of a network of ephemeral streams. A full 2D approach integrates the hydrological and hydraulic models, in order to account first for the dynamic of catchment response to rainfall and activation of the streams, and then for the hydraulic behaviour of the streams. This analysis entails the simulation of extreme events corresponding to low, medium and high return periods, in order to identify which event presumably activate the ephemeral streams. Camarasa, A.M. and Tilford, K.A. (2002). "Rainfall-runoff modelling of ephemeral streams in the Valencia region (eastern Spain)". Hydrological Processes, 16: 3329-3344. Camarasa Belmonte, A.M, and Segura Beltran, F. (2001). "Flood events in Mediterranean ephemeral stream (ramblas) in Valencia Region, Spain". Catena, 45: 229-249. Cotecchia, V. (2006). "Il disordine idraulico evidenziato in Bari dall'evento pluviometrico dell'Ottobre 2005 e il caso dell' ex cava di Maso". Continuità - Rassegna Tecnica Pugliese, 1-2.2006: 25-76. De Vera M. (1984). "Rainfall-Runoff relationship of some catchments with karstic geomorphology under arid to semi-arid conditions". Journal of Hydrology, 68(1-4): 85-93. Polemio, M., (2010). "Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy)". Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219.

  17. Predation on dormice in Italy

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    Dino Scaravelli

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors analyse available data on the impact of predators on Dormouse populations in Italy. Dormice are found in the diet of 2 snakes (Vipera berus and V. aspis, 2 diurnal birds of prey (Buteo buteo and Aquila chrysaetos, 6 owls (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo and Glaucidium passerinum and 9 mammals (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M. foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris and Sus scrofa in a variable percentage of the prey taken. Only Dryomys nitedula was never encountered as a prey item. The most common prey is Muscardinus avellanarius. There are significative regional differences in predation between bioclimatic areas of the Italian peninsula. The contribution of studies on predation to knowledge of Myoxid distribution is discussed. Riassunto Predazione di Mioxidi in Italia - Sono analizzati i dati pubblicati sull'impatto dei predatori sulle popolazioni di Myoxidae in Italia. Myoxidae sono stati riscontrati nelle diete di 2 serpenti (Vipera berus e V. aspis, 2 rapaci diurni (Buteo buteo e Aquila chrysaetos, 6 notturni (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo e Glaucidium passerinum e 9 mammiferi (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris e Sus scrofa in percentuale variabile nella comunità di prede. Solo Dryomys nitedula non è mai stato incontrato come preda. La specie piu comunemente predata risulta Muscardinus avellanarius. Sono discusse le

  18. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  19. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  20. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  1. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy. DATES... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1,...

  2. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  3. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  4. Stated locational preferences of entrepreneurs in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musolino, Dario Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to study and analyse the stated locational preferences of entrepreneurs in Italy: that is, their mental maps, their characteristics (pattern, shape, etc.), and their explanatory factors. The research was undertaken following the conceptual, theoretical and methodologic

  5. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  6. Return migration to Italy and labour migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, C

    1983-01-01

    The problems caused by large-scale return migration to Italy in recent years are considered. The importance of the additional skills and capital acquired by these migrants while abroad is stressed. Extensive data on the volume of return migration in the 1970s are included.

  7. Neutrinos make a splash in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    Nosengo, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    "A long-awaited beam of neutrinos has finally made it from Switzerland to a laboratory 730kilometers away in central Italy. The scientists involved hope the project, first sketched out 25 years ago, will address one of the big unsolved problems in particle physics." (2 pages)

  8. Education for Older People in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  9. Kleine bijenkastkever aangetroffen in Italië

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Pelgrim, W.

    2014-01-01

    Voor de tweede keer in 10 jaar heeft de kleine bijenkastkever (Aethina tumida) voet aan de grond gekregen in Europa. Een eerste uitbraak in Portugal in 2004 werd snel ingedamd, maar een nieuwe uitbraak in het zuiden van Italië lijkt van permanente aard.

  10. Big Data Research in Italy: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Bergamaschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to synthetically describe the research projects that a selection of Italian universities is undertaking in the context of big data. Far from being exhaustive, this article has the objective of offering a sample of distinct applications that address the issue of managing huge amounts of data in Italy, collected in relation to diverse domains.

  11. CLIL in Italy: A General Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinganotto, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) was introduced in the Italian school system in 2003 through a Reform Law, which made it mandatory for upper secondary schools. This paper is aimed at describing the most important steps of this innovation, with the relevant implications for policymakers, teachers and students. Italy's CLIL mandate is…

  12. Education for Older People in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  13. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  14. The Study of Behavioural Development in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battacchi, Marco W.

    1984-01-01

    Examines professional education and current research trends in developmental psychology in Italy. Current trends have been investigated by a multi-dimensional content analysis of the studies published or accepted for publication in qualified journals between 1978-May 1983. (Author/AS)

  15. Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs): important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside Italy, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant. Indeed, it largely exceeds the percentage of Italian inhabitants versus the ones living in the remaining EU countries, as Italy has about 12% of EU population, but has a 17% share of the EU CTRs. Education in Pharmaceutical Medicine is now a must for all professionals interested to work either in pharma companies or in contract research organizations: several Italian universities are offering high quality courses, and in the last 10 years, more than 1,200 professionals received a postgraduate education in pharmaceutical medicine. This result places Italy on top of countries concerned about the professional education of people involved in drug development and will represent an asset for a larger involvement of Italian clinical sites in the global process of clinical research.

  16. Potential of cofiring with biomass in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Tommasi, I.; Galatola, M. [University of Bari (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    Biomass is considered a potential fuel and a renewable source for the future. In Italy, the utilization of biomass nowadays is addressed, above all, towards thermal energy production. In the near future, however, it is predictable a higher differentiation in order to use biomass with the more suitable technology. In this paper we review the utilization of residual biomasses. (Author)

  17. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Salvati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event – measured by the total number of casualties in the event – follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950–2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide

  18. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2010-03-01

    We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event - measured by the total number of casualties in the event - follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950-2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide risk is largest in Trentino

  19. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  20. Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    Two sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner. The survey yielded 34 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. In addition, 19 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus were found by collecting at random, outside the two sampling sites.

  1. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  2. Holocene vegetation changes through Lac Ledro sediments (Trentino, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannin, Sebastien; Vannière, Boris; Galop, Didier; Magny, Michel; Gilli, Adrian; Chapron, Emmanuel; Wirth, Stéfanie; Anselmetti, Flavio; Desmet, Marc

    2010-05-01

    Lake Ledro is part of the French program ANR LAMA (coordinators: M. Magny and N. Combourieu Nebout) which aims to link Holocene paleoenvironmental changes along a north-south transect in Italy. Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l.; Trentino, north-eastern Italy) is the northward component of the transect. It is located on the southern slope of the Alps and its catchment area covers 131 km2 with mountains culminating at 1500-2000 m. A multi-proxy approach based on biotic and abiotic indicators (lake-level, palynology, geochemistry and geophysic) was developed from deep and littoral cores, including sediment sequences in Early and Middle Bronze Age lake-shore archaeological sites. We aim reconstructing paleoenvironmental changes resulting from both climate and anthropic influences trough the entire Holocene. A deep master core was built after extracting twin cores from a non disturbed sediment zone recognised by seismic-reflexion investigations. The age-depth model is based on 13 AMS 14C ages measured on terrestrial plant macrofossils and the mean temporal resolution for analyses is ca 60 years. Palynological study shows the usual vegetation succession for the southern slope of the Alps. During the first part of the Holocene, abrupt changes are observed in pollen assemblages in relation to changes in other proxies (XRF and Magnetic Susceptibility) and correlate with cold events associated to the deglaciation in the North-Atlantic area. Cool episodes corresponding to the PreBoreal Oscillation (ca 11.3 ka cal BP) and 8.2 ka event are respectively characterized by stopping afforestation and a strong development of Abies in the local ecosystem. During the second part of the Holocene, two declines of arboreal pollen abundance are observed in relation with occurrences in both cereal and anthropic pollen indicators. These two phases are confirmed by increase in soil erosion as indicated by abiotic proxies. They give evidence of two successive steps for human settlement (Early

  3. Burden of the 1999-2008 seasonal influenza epidemics in Italy: comparison with the H1N1v (A/California/07/09) pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Piero Luigi; Panatto, Donatella; Ansaldi, Filippo; Canepa, Paola; Amicizia, Daniela; Patria, Antonio Giuseppe; Gasparini, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Despite preventive efforts, seasonal influenza epidemics are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality every year worldwide, including developed countries. The A/H1N1v pandemic imposed a considerable healthcare and economic burden. In order to obtain an accurate estimate of the economic burden of influenza, and hence to guide policymakers effectively, systematic studies are necessary. To this end, data from epidemiological surveillance are essential. To estimate the impact of the 1999-2008 seasonal influenza epidemics and the H1N1v pandemic, we analyzed data from the Italian Influenza Surveillance System (CIRI NET). In the period 1999-2008, the Italian surveillance network consisted of sentinel general practitioners and pediatricians, who reported cases of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI ) observed during their clinical practice from mid-October to late April each year; reports were sent to the Center for Research on Influenza and other Viral Infections (CIRI -IV). CIRI -IV receives data from 9 of the 20 Italian regions: Liguria, Abruzzo, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lombardy, Puglia, Sicily, Tuscany and Umbria. Previous estimates of influenza case costs were used in economic evaluations. Clinical-epidemiological and virological surveillance of the seasonal epidemics from 1999-2008 showed that the highest epidemic period was 2004-2005, when a new variant of the H3N2 influenza virus subtype emerged (A/California/07/04). Indeed, the highest peak of morbidity in the decade occurred in February 2005 (12.6 per 1,000 inhabitants). In 1999-2008, H1N1 subtype strains circulated and co-circulated with strains belonging to the H3N2 subtype and B type. Regarding B viruses in 2001-02, viruses belonged to the B/Victoria/02/07 lineage re-emerged, and in subsequent years co-circulated with viruses belonging to the B/Yamagata/lineage. The estimated costs of seasonal epidemics from 1999-2008 in Italy ranged from €15 to €20

  4. Health risk assessment as an approach to manage an old landfill and to propose integrated solid waste treatment: A case study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, O; Massabò, M

    2017-07-21

    The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill. Hazard Index (HI) and Cancer Risk (CR) in case of operating landfill and under the suspected situation of failure of the sealing system, were respectively 1.15 and 1.1∗10(-7). Unacceptable HI were found due to groundwater contamination, while HI due to river pollution was slightly under the threshold. Vegetables ingestion was the most important pathway and ammonia the most responsible of toxic adverse effects. Fish ingestion and dermal contact with contaminated water were found to be the most important exposure pathways for carcinogenic risk, due mainly to BTEX. HI and CR in the supposed scenario of total waste gasification were respectively 9.4∗10(-1) and 1.1∗10(-5) while they were respectively 3.2∗10(-1) and 6∗10(-6) in case of gasification of the dry fraction. CR in both scenarios was over the threshold mainly due to dioxins, where milk and meat ingestion were found to be the highest risk pathways. Inhalation resulted as the highest not-carcinogenic risk exposure pathway, mainly due to NOx. Decision making was made by weighing up the different scenarios, and

  5. Infanticide in Eastern Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcikić, Mladen; Dumencić, Boris; Matuzalem, Elizabeta; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pozgain, Ivan; Ugljarević, Mladen

    2006-06-01

    For the layperson no crime is more difficult to comprehend than the killing of a child by his or her own parents. This is a retrospective study of neonaticide and infanticide in Eastern Croatia from 1980 to 2004. Judicial records of infanticide cases stored in Regional and County Courts were analyzed for the circumstances surrounding the offense. Twenty-four babies were discovered in various places during investigating period of time. The victims were almost equally divided between boys (12) and girls (11). The gender of one baby was unknown. The mean weight of babies was 2.7 SD = 0.66 kg. The perpetrators preferred rubbish-heaps (33.4%), burying in soil (16.7%), various premises in or around the house (16.7%) and garbage cans (12.5%) as places for hiding the dead babies. The most dominant cause of death in sixteen cases of live birth was asphyxia (37%) with equal distribution of smothering, stuffing the mouth with rags and strangulation. Other frequent causes of death were placing the child in a plastic bag and abandonment (25%), brain injury (25%) and wounding using a sharp weapon (12.5%). The cause of death for six babies remained unknown due to advanced decomposition. Two babies were stillborn. The age of accused mothers varied from 16 to 33, mean 24 SD=5.2 years. Most of them were unmarried (60%) and had limited formal education. They usually kept the pregnancy a secret (73%) and gave birth (93%) without public welfare assistance. The mother lived in the terror of shame and with the guilt that accompany conception without marriage. Fear seemed to be a pronounced motivating factor for committing infanticide. The data on court proceedings were available in fifteen cases. The mothers were officially indicted in all cases for infanticide under the Croatian Criminal Code. The perpetrator remained unidentified in nine suspicious crimes. The court convicted ten mothers of the crime of infanticide. Often juries were unwilling to punish the mother, citing the mother

  6. CERN Neutrinos search for sunshine in Italy!

    CERN Multimedia

    Wednesday, 18th June 2008. The CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) beam has re-started, shooting muon neutrinos towards Italy. The neutrino beam should run this year until mid November.The aim of CNGS is to understand the oscillation of neutrinos, for example their transformation from muon into tau neutrinos over long distances.Edda Gschwendtner, the liaison physicist of the CNGS beam, describes the progress of the project, “We did a lot of modifications this year to CNGS, which was a huge amount of work, with many groups and services involved. In parallel the OPERA detector in Italy made an enormous progress in completing their detector and we are looking forward to seeing tau neutrinos soon.”

  7. Is marriage loosing its centrality in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the countries of north-western Europe, marriage in Italy has maintained a crucial role in the process of family formation. This raise doubts about the possibility that the theory of "second demographic transition" could adequately account for the behaviour of the European population living south of the Alps. The aim of this paper is twofold: to provide some empirical evidence that cohabitation is now spreading in Italy; and to propose an explanation of the delay of its diffusion until the 1990s. The hypothesis proposed here explains the delay, not so much in terms of limited interest of the Italian youth towards this type of union, but with the convenience of the children in the Mediterranean area to avoid choices which are openly clashing with the values of parents.

  8. Metereological conditions and Psychiatric Emergency Visits in Messina, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Settiner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the association between psychiatric disease, climatic and seasonal factors in patients recorded to the Emergency Unit, in Messina Hospital (Italy. Method: A total of 6565 psychiatric patients were recorded to the Emergency Unit in Messina from January 2005 and December 2010. Each psychiatric visit in emergency, was categorized by date of appearance and admitting diagnosis according to diagnostic categories: Anxiety, Mood Disorders and Psychosis. Local weather data were obtained from the Metereological Instituted “Aereonautica Militare” station in Messina, Sicily, In addition, to gathering data on the state of the sky, temperature, atmosphericpressure with the normalized value at sea level, relative humidity, rainfall, wind direction and speed, the station is connected to a buoy located on the eastern sector of Tyrrhenian Sea. Results: In anxiety disorders we have found relevant results comparison between winter and spring (p=.007 and spring and fall (p=.001. In affective disorders the differences occur in relation to winter and fall (p=.002, spring and fall (p=001, spring and summer (p=002. The psychotic disorder presents significant differences between summer and fall (p=.001 and spring and fall (p=.002. Conclusions: We can observe a similarity of affective disorders, i.e. anxiety and mood disorders compared to psychosis, which have different influences and probably according to dissimilar etiopathogenetic ways. In our research, the distribution of anxiety disorders is higher than depressive disorders in terms of delivering emergency room visits. The major differences occur comparing spring and fall, the seasons when all pathological classes have significant differences. It follows that the most abrupt climate change, typical of these seasons, as a whole, cause psychopathological emergencies. The study is important for planning a more effective assistance for patients needing psychiatric

  9. Nucleation and growth of new particles in Po Valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol number distribution measurements are reported at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC station (44°39' N, 11°37' E for the time period 2002–2005. The station is located in Po Valley, the largest industrial, trading and agricultural area in Italy with a high population density. New particle formation was studied based on observations of the particle size distribution, meteorological and gas phase parameters. The nucleation events were classified according to the event clarity based on the particle number concentrations, and the particle formation and growth rates. Out of a total of 769 operational days from 2002 to 2005 clear events were detected on 36% of the days whilst 33% are clearly non-event days. The event frequency was high during spring and summer months with maximum values in May and July, whereas lower frequency was observed in winter and autumn months. The average particle formation and growth rates were estimated as ~6 cm−3 s−1 and ~7 nm h−1, respectively. Such high growth and formation rates are typical for polluted areas. Temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, SO2 and O3 concentrations were on average higher on nucleation days than on non-event days, whereas relative and absolute humidity and NO2 concentration were lower; however, seasonal differences were observed. Backtrajectory analysis suggests that during majority of nucleation event days, the air masses originate from northern to eastern directions. We also study previously developed nucleation event correlations with environmental variables and show that they predict Po Valley nucleation events with variable success.

  10. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Italy and Portugal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Italian Union of Provinces (Unione delle Province d’Italia—UPI) and the League of Portugal-China Lasting Friendship (LPCLF),the Chinese People’s Friendship Delegation led by Chen Haosu,president of the CPAFFC,and Shi Zuofeng,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Gansu Provincial People’s Congress,paid friendly visits to Italy and Portugal from June 15 to 24.

  11. Update on Fish Disease Situation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation we provide a general overview of the aquatic animal health issues related to the aquaculture sector and wild environment in Italy in 2011.Considering saltwater species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) are still the most widely farmed species, nevertheless some “new” candidates are employed often.The first two species represents more than 95% of the total production while the remaining is obtained by different promising candid...

  12. Developments in integrated pest management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela CIAMPITTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement Directive 2009/128/EC and to reduce the risks arising from the use of plant protection products, a National Action Plan has been developed in Italy. The plan calls for several actions, including low pesticide-input pest management. Each producer will have to consider the many aspects that contribute to the production process, such as appropriate cultivation techniques, use of certified propagating material and balanced fertilization. Producers will also need tools to protect beneficial organisms, prevent the spread of harmful organisms, implement monitoring and alert systems, define thresholds and establish anti-resistance strategies. Advanced knowledge about plant protection products will also be required of professional users, with the introduction of specific certified training programmes; only authorized users will be allowed to purchase plant protection products classified for professional use. The spraying equipment will have to pass functional tests. Italy has articulated Integrated Pest Management (IPM on two levels: one mandatory and one voluntary. The latter will be supported by specific funding, in line with what has already been implemented as part of the Common Agricultural Policy. With regard to the voluntary level, the enforcement of national IPM guidelines (concerning defence and weeding technical standards that have so far characterized the application of IPM in Italy will serve as the medium-term reference tool. This paper demonstrates how IPM has evolved in Italy over the last 20 years, and why Italian producers have already been applying the requirements of Directive 2009/128/EC for some time.

  13. Catalogues of historical earthquakes in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    R. Camassi

    2004-01-01

    A complete survey of historical earthquake investigation in Italy cannot be compressed into a few pages, since it would entail making a summary of widely different phases of research (performed by past scholars and by contemporary scientists and historians) and taking into account the widely different historical contexts, methodological assumptions and critical awareness of each of them. This short note only purposes to chart the main stages of the progress made by Italian historical seismolo...

  14. Malaria in illegal Chinese immigrants, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteelli, A; Volonterio, A; Gulletta, M; Galimberti, L; Maroccolo, S; Gaiera, G; Giani, G; Rossi, M; Dorigoni, N; Bellina, L; Orlando, G; Bisoffi, Z; Castelli, F

    2001-01-01

    A cluster of 22 imported malaria cases, 21 caused by Plasmodium falciparum, was observed among illegal Chinese immigrants in northern Italy in the summer of 2000. The rate of severe disease was high because the patients were not immune and they sought health-care services late in their illness because of their clandestine status. Recognition of the outbreak was delayed because no regional alert system among infectious diseases hospitals was in place.

  15. [A note on induced abortion in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagiano De Azevedo, R

    1980-01-01

    The adoption of a recent law on abortion (1978) makes available in Italy new statistics at both the national and regional levels. Following the official source of ISTAT, the abortion rate/100 livebirths in 1979 was about 28%, about 40% in the northern part of Italy, and only 16% in Mezzogiorno. This abortion rate, as an average data at the national level, corresponds to a normal position among similar rates in western countries; closer to EEC member states. But the regional variability seems a very interesting new aspect of the Italian tryptic (north, center, south) largely presented in many demographic indicators. 3 factors are presented as a possible explication of this variability: a real different attitude of women and couples towards abortion from cultural, religious, and political points of view; the coexistence of legal and illegal abortion despite the adoption of a new liberal law; and the very important disequilibrium in the distribution of structures and medical services available to assure abortions in different parts of the country. Some other demographic points related to abortion are also presented here, particularly in connection with age structure of women and their marital status. Future trends in abortion with subsequent effects on fertility are also discussed at the end of this article. The arguments follow 2 alternatives presented in Italy by the National Committee on Population and the Committee of Demographic Studies. (author's modified)

  16. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  17. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic.

  18. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.

  19. Current status of geothermal energy in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carella, R.

    Italy has been one of the first countries to develop applications or its geothermal energy resources. As a resource it is both abundant and available in the high temperature range. A world premiere was the electricity production in Tuscany (Western Italy) output 56 which at present is 3200 GWh/y from 624 MW of operating capacity. In the low-enthalpy field Italy has enjoyed widespread development of spas, both for therapeutic and heating purposes. The latter's output has now attained presently 127,000 TOE/y. District and other residential heating amount to about 37,000 TOE/y and include two recent very significant projects in the Po Valley (Ferrara and Vicenza). Some large-size greenhouse complexes are heated by geothermal fluids (M. Amiata in Tuscany and Pantani in Latium) as well as fish farms on the Tyrrhenian coast. Agricultural applications account for 19,000 TOE/y. While the outlook is bright for electricity production which is due to increase substantially in the next decade, the short-term future is uncertain for low enthalpy resources, especially in view of low energy prices. Given the abundance of the resources and their environmental benefits, longer term prospects should be good, particularly if energy prices firm up. 1 fig.

  20. First detection of Ehrlichia canis in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Giovanna; Chisu, Valentina; Foxi, Cipriano; Socolovschi, Christina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a common and widespread disease. This disease is present in Sardinia year-round because the temperate weather on the island permits the survival of many types of tick vectors. A total of 35 ticks was collected from goats in south-eastern Sardinia, Italy, and tested for Ehrlichia DNA using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. This study provides the first evidence of the presence of Ehrlichia canis in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks. The data presented here increase our knowledge of tick-borne diseases in Sardinia and provide a useful contribution toward understanding their epidemiology. The role of R. bursa in the life cycle and transmission of E. canis needs however further investigation.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 images on the volcanic areas of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    The test site selected for the investigation covers nearly all the regions of active and quiescent volcanism in southern Italy, i.e. the eastern part of the island of Sicily, the Aeolian Islands and the area of Naples. The three active European volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius) are included. The investigation is in the frame of a program for the surveillance of active volcanoes by geophysical (including remote sensing thermal methods) and geochemical methods. By the multispectral analysis of ERTS-1 data it is intended to study the spectral behavior of the volcanic materials as well as the major geological lineaments with special reference to those associated with the volcanic region. Secondary objectives are also the determination of the hydrographic network seasonal behavior and the relationship between the vegetation cover and the different type of soils and rocks.

  2. Between crisis, agency and return: the vulnerability of Bolivian migrants in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Yépez del Castillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the interrelationships between the economic crisis, international migration and the labour market, and their impact on female migration agency, both in the decision to migrate and in the subsequent possibility of return to Bolivia. Based on information collected in a large survey conducted in the city of Cochabamba and the tracing of multiple female migration trajectories, the extreme vulnerability of these women, who are the heads of single-parent households, working in elderly care in Bergamo, is shown. Despite their deteriorating working conditions in the context of current Italian economic crisis and the competition of immigrant care workers from countries of Eastern Europe, they choose to remain in Italy instead of returning to Bolivia.

  3. Protura of Italy, with a key to species and their distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loris Galli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Protura were studied basing on 5103 specimens from 198 sampling areas, along with bibliographic data from 49 collecting sites. 17 out of the 20 Italian regions are covered. As a result, 40 species have been identified (belonging to 8 genera and 4 families, 6 of which are new records for the Italian fauna.A key to the Italian species is reported, followed by a series of distribution maps and brief remarks for some of them. A preliminary biogeographical overview allowed us to delineate the chorological categories of these species, 10 of which are actually known only in Italy. The comparison with the species richness known for some best studied Central and Eastern European Countries leads us to speculate that widening our research, Italian Protura check-list will be much implemented.

  4. Protura of Italy, with a key to species and their distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Loris; Capurro, Matteo; Torti, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The Italian Protura were studied basing on 5103 specimens from 198 sampling areas, along with bibliographic data from 49 collecting sites. 17 out of the 20 Italian regions are covered. As a result, 40 species have been identified (belonging to 8 genera and 4 families), 6 of which are new records for the Italian fauna.A key to the Italian species is reported, followed by a series of distribution maps and brief remarks for some of them. A preliminary biogeographical overview allowed us to delineate the chorological categories of these species, 10 of which are actually known only in Italy. The comparison with the species richness known for some best studied Central and Eastern European Countries leads us to speculate that widening our research, Italian Protura check-list will be much implemented.

  5. Assessment of mercury exposure in human populations: A status report from Augusta Bay (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Maria; Andolfi, Nunzia; Barra, Marco; Madeddu, Anselmo; Tisano, Francesco; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Castorina, Maria; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Here we investigate mercury concentrations in the blood (HgB), urine (HgU) and human hair (HgH) of 224 individuals from a coastal area (Eastern Sicily, SE Italy) strongly affected by Hg contamination from one of the largest chlor-alkali plants in Europe. The factors affecting the distribution of Hg and the extent of the exposure of individuals have been explored with a multidisciplinary approach. Multiple regression analyses, together with evidence of high levels of HgB (exceeding the HBMI recommended levels in 50% of cases) and HgH (exceeding the EPA reference dose in 70% of cases), primarily suggest that the consumption of local fish is the main source of Hg for humans. no. significant exposure to inorganic mercury was identified. Toxicokinetic calculations produced a provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level that, in most cases, exceeds international recommendations, particularly for residents in the studied area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  7. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  8. Preterm delivery risk in migrants in Italy: an observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosta, Elena; Tomasoni, Lina R; Frusca, Tiziana; Triglia, Maria; Pirali, Francesco; El Hamad, Issa; Castelli, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Various studies have ascertained different birth outcomes between resident and migrant populations in western countries. Considering preterm delivery (multilanguage questionnaire enquiring about sociodemographic and obstetric data. Additional information including last menstrual period was obtained from personal obstetric records. As many as 471 puerperas entered the study: 366 Italian and 105 migrant women coming from eastern Europe (41.9%), Asia (20%), South America (10.5%), and Africa (27.6%). Of the migrant population, 67 of 105 (63.8%) were at their first delivery in Italy (median interval from arrival: 3.8 y). Gestational age at delivery was assessed for 456 of 471 women (103 migrants and 353 Italians). A total of 36 (7.9%) preterm deliveries were registered: 22 (6.2%) in Italian and 14 (13.6%) in migrant puerperas (p value = 0.015). The highest preterm delivery rate was observed in African women (20.7%), while women from eastern Europe had a similar rate to Italians. In univariate analysis, factors associated to preterm delivery were parity and length of permanence in Italy. We could not demonstrate any correlation with smoking or with a delayed access to antenatal care (first obstetric evaluation after 12 complete weeks of gestation). In multivariate analysis, African origin was the only independent risk factor for preterm delivery [odds ratio (OR) = 3.54; p = 0.018]. In our setting, preterm delivery occurred more frequently in migrant women, particularly of African origin, and it is not associated to delayed access to antenatal care.

  9. 2-D Coda and Direct Wave Attenuation Tomography in Northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Gok, R; Phillips, W S; Malagnini, L

    2007-10-17

    A 1-D coda method was proposed by Mayeda et al. (2003) in order to obtain stable seismic source moment-rate spectra using narrowband coda envelope measurements. That study took advantage of the averaging nature of coda waves to derive stable amplitude measurements taking into account all propagation, site, and Sto-coda transfer function effects. Recently this methodology was applied to micro earthquake data sets from three sub-regions of northern Italy (i.e., western Alps, northern Apennines and eastern Alps). Since the study regions were small, ranging between local-to-near-regional distances, the simple 1-D path assumptions used in the coda method worked very well. The lateral complexity of this region would suggest, however, that a 2-D path correction might provide even better results if the datasets were combined, especially when paths traverse larger distances and complicated regions. The structural heterogeneity of northern Italy makes the region ideal to test the extent to which coda variance can be reduced further by using a 2-D Q tomography technique. The approach we use has been developed by Phillips et al. (2005) and is an extension of previous amplitude ratio techniques to remove source effects from the inversion. The method requires some assumptions such as isotropic source radiation which is generally true for coda waves. Our results are compared against direct Swave inversions for 1/Q and results from both share very similar attenuation features that coincide with known geologic structures. We compare our results with those derived from direct waves as well as some recent results from northern California obtained by Mayeda et al. (2005) which tested the same tomographic methodology applied in this study to invert for 1/Q. We find that 2-D coda path corrections for this region significantly improve upon the 1-D corrections, in contrast to California where only a marginal improvement was observed. We attribute this difference to stronger lateral

  10. Crustal structure of northern Italy from the ellipticity of Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; Ferreira, Ana M. G.

    2017-04-01

    Northern Italy is a diverse geological region, including the wide and thick Po Plain sedimentary basin, which is bounded by the Alps and the Apennines. The seismically slow shallow structure of the Po Plain is difficult to retrieve with classical seismic measurements such as surface wave dispersion, yet the detailed structure of the region greatly affects seismic wave propagation and hence seismic ground shaking. Here we invert Rayleigh wave ellipticity measurements in the period range 10-60 s for 95 stations in northern Italy using a fully non linear approach to constrain vertical vS,vP and density profiles of the crust beneath each station. The ellipticity of Rayleigh wave ground motion is primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity beneath the recording station, which reduces along-path contamination effects. We use the 3D layering structure in MAMBo, a previous model based on a compilation of geological and geophysical information for the Po Plain and surrounding regions of northern Italy, and employ ellipticity data to constrain vS,vP and density within its layers. We show that ellipticity data from ballistic teleseismic wave trains alone constrain the crustal structure well. This leads to MAMBo-E, an updated seismic model of the region's crust that inherits information available from previous seismic prospection and geological studies, while fitting new seismic data well. MAMBo-E brings new insights into lateral heterogeneity in the region's subsurface. Compared to MAMBo, it shows overall faster seismic anomalies in the region's Quaternary, Pliocene and Oligo-Miocene layers and better delineates the seismic structures of the Po Plain at depth. Two low velocity regions are mapped in the Mesozoic layer in the western and eastern parts of the Plain, which seem to correspond to the Monferrato sedimentary basin and to the Ferrara-Romagna thrust system, respectively.

  11. TAXONOMIC NOTES ON SOME CHEILOSTOME BRYOZOA FROM THE PLIOCENE OF THE WESTERN EMILIA REGION (N ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO PIZZAFERRI

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available From a well-preserved fossil assemblage of the mid-Pliocene (Piacenzian Monte Padova section near Castell’Arquato (northern Italy, three cheilostome bryozoan species are described and figured. The dome-shaped, free-living Cupuladria bugei Reguant, described from the Pliocene of the eastern Atlantic, is characterised using SEM photography for the first time, and the present finding is the first from the Mediterranean realm. Similarly, the encrusting unilaminar Cleidochasmidra canakkalense Ünsal & d'Hondt, occasionally occurring independently of a substrate, was described from the Recent Mediterranean Sea but hitherto lacked a thorough SEM-based description. It has previously been reported only once from the Pliocene of Italy. Plesiocleidochasma mediterraneum Chimenz Gusso & Soule, occurring as uni- to plurilaminar encrustations or free of a substrate, was only recently described from the Mediterranean Sea while our finding represents its first fossil occurrence. For the latter two species no information on ancestrula morphology and early colony development was, until now, available from the existing literature. 

  12. The nuclear in Italy - state of the art; Le nucleaire en Italie - etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schifano, F.; Ziller, T

    2007-02-15

    This report aims to evaluate the italian situation in matter of the nuclear, following the referendum of 1987 which decided to stop the nuclear power plants in the country. The first part is devoted to the historical aspects of the nuclear sector in Italy. The second chapter presents the institutional and legislative framework. The third chapter discusses the today situation and the italian actors of the nuclear, from the radioactive wastes management and the dismantling of nuclear installations to the engineering service realized in other countries. It discusses also the research and development programs. The last chapter proposes perspectives of the debate around a possible restart of the nuclear activity in Italy.

  13. Genetic variation in eastern North American and putatively introduced populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata f. platani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, C J B; Harrington, T C; Steimel, J; Capretti, P

    2004-10-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata f. platani attacks Platanus species (London plane, oriental plane and American sycamore) and has killed tens of thousands of plantation trees and street trees in the eastern United States, southern Europe and Modesto, California. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA fingerprints and alleles of eight polymorphic microsatellite markers of isolates of C. fimbriata from these regions delineated major differences in gene diversities. The 33 isolates from the eastern United States had a moderate degree of gene diversity, and unique genotypes were found at each of seven collection sites. Fingerprints of 27 isolates from 21 collection sites in southern Europe were identical with each other; microsatellite markers were monomorphic within the European population, except that three isolates differed at one locus each, due perhaps to recent mutations. The genetic variability of C. fimbriata f. platani in the eastern United States suggests that the fungus is indigenous to this region. The genetic homogeneity of the fungus in Europe suggests that this population has gone through a recent genetic bottleneck, perhaps from the introduction of a single genotype. This supports the hypothesis that the pathogen was introduced to Europe through Naples, Italy during World War II on infected crating material from the eastern United States. The Californian population may also have resulted from introduction of one or a few related genotypes because it, too, had a single nuclear and mitochondrial genotype and limited variation in microsatellite alleles.

  14. Crenosoma vulpis in dog: first case report in Italy and use of the FLOTAC technique for copromicroscopic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, L; Calabria, G; Carbone, S; Carrella, A; Cringoli, G

    2007-11-01

    Crenosoma vulpis is a metastrongylid nematode that infects the bronchi, bronchioles, and trachea of wild and domestic canids and various other carnivores. It is endemic in the red fox population in the north-eastern parts of North America and in Europe, including Italy. Dogs are susceptible to infection with clinical signs consisting primarily in a chronic cough. The present paper reports-to the authors' knowledge-the first case of spontaneous C. vulpis infection in a dog in Italy. In addition, it also reports, for the first time, the use of the FLOTAC technique for C. vulpis diagnosis in canine fecal samples, with results compared to the following four standard copromicroscopic techniques: the Baermann technique, the McMaster technique, the simple flotation technique, and the Wisconsin technique. The results showed that the FLOTAC technique produced mean larvae per gram of feces greater than that produced by the other more widely used diagnostic tools. After the treatment of the C. vulpis infected dog with a single oral dose of 0.5mg/kg milbemycin oxime, the clinical signs resolved and the shedding of larvae ceased. In conclusion, the discovery of C. vulpis for the first time in a dog in Italy indicates that the fox lungworm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dogs; in addition, the findings of the comparison study showed that the FLOTAC technique may improve the ability to accurately diagnose canine lungworm infections.

  15. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  16. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  17. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  18. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  19. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates cu

  20. Astroparticle Physics at Eastern Colombia

    CERN Document Server

    Asorey, Hernan

    2015-01-01

    We present the emerging panorama of Astroparticle Physics at Eastern Colombia, and describe several ongoing projects, most of them related to the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project. This research work is carried out at the Grupo de Investigaciones en Relatividad y Gravitaci\\'on of Universidad Industrial de Santander.

  1. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  2. Late Würm and Early-Middle Holocene Environmental Change and Human Activities in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Branch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced radiocarbon-dated pollen-stratigraphical record from Rovegno (Liguria, 812m asl, northern Apennines (Italy, has provided a history of vegetation succession from before 17,056-16,621 cal yrs BP to the present day. The record indicates the transition from open Pinus woodland to Artemisia dominated grassland, and fi nally Juniperus shrubland during the late Würm. This is succeeded by Betula and Pinus woodland, and the expansion of thermophilous taxa, namely Abies, Corylus and Quercus during the Late Würm Lateglacial Interstadial. The ‘Younger Dryas’ is possibly represented by an increase in Betula and Artemisia. During the early Holocene, mixed coniferous-deciduous woodland is dominant with Quercus, as well as Abies, Fagus and Corylus. Fagus woodland becomes established sometime before 6488-6318 cal yrs BP, but never becomes a major component of the woodland cover. Throughout the middle Holocene, Abies woodland fl uctuates, with marked declines between 6488-6318 cal yrs BP and 5287-4835 cal yrs BP, although the cause remains uncertain. Finally, the paper evaluates the application of non-pollen palynomorphs, especially coprophilous fungal spores, at Prato Spilla ‘A’ (Emilia Romagna and concludes that greater caution must be used when interpreting middle Holocene human activity based upon pollen data alone. Una migliore risoluzione cronologica basata su date radiocarboniche per una sequenza pollinica da Rovegno (812 m asl, Appennino settentrionale ligure, Italia, ha permesso di ricostruire i cambiamenti vegetazionali per un periodo compreso da prima di 17,056-16,621 anni cal BP ad oggi. La sequenza mostra il passaggio da un bosco a Pinus con struttura aperta ad una prateria dominata da Artemisia, ed infine un arbusteto a Juniperus nel tardo Würm. Successivamente si sviluppa un bosco a Pinus e Betula, e verso la fine dell’ultimo interstadiale würmiano ha luogo l’espansione di taxa termofili quali Abies, Corylus e Quercus

  3. Language in Education in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, T. P., Ed.

    This volume contains the papers given at the first Eastern Africa Conference on Language and Linguistics, held in Dar es Salaam in December 1968, under the auspices of the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa. The chief aim of the Conference was to bring together scholars and teachers working in Eastern Africa interested…

  4. Mitogenomes from The 1000 Genome Project reveal new Near Eastern features in present-day Tuscans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Carballa

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses have recently been carried out on present-day Tuscans (Central Italy in order to investigate their presumable recent Near East ancestry in connection with the long-standing debate on the origins of the Etruscan civilization. We retrieved mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data from 110 Tuscans analyzed within the context of The 1000 Genome Project. For phylogeographic and evolutionary analysis we made use of a large worldwide database of entire mitogenomes (>26,000 and partial control region sequences (>180,000.Different analyses reveal the presence of typical Near East haplotypes in Tuscans representing isolated members of various mtDNA phylogenetic branches. As a whole, the Near East component in Tuscan mitogenomes can be estimated at about 8%; a proportion that is comparable to previous estimates but significantly lower than admixture estimates obtained from autosomal SNP data (21%. Phylogeographic and evolutionary inter-population comparisons indicate that the main signal of Near Eastern Tuscan mitogenomes comes from Iran.Mitogenomes of recent Near East origin in present-day Tuscans do not show local or regional variation. This points to a demographic scenario that is compatible with a recent arrival of Near Easterners to this region in Italy with no founder events or bottlenecks.

  5. Mitogenomes from The 1000 Genome Project Reveal New Near Eastern Features in Present-Day Tuscans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Amigo, Jorge; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic analyses have recently been carried out on present-day Tuscans (Central Italy) in order to investigate their presumable recent Near East ancestry in connection with the long-standing debate on the origins of the Etruscan civilization. We retrieved mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data from 110 Tuscans analyzed within the context of The 1000 Genome Project. For phylogeographic and evolutionary analysis we made use of a large worldwide database of entire mitogenomes (>26,000) and partial control region sequences (>180,000). Results Different analyses reveal the presence of typical Near East haplotypes in Tuscans representing isolated members of various mtDNA phylogenetic branches. As a whole, the Near East component in Tuscan mitogenomes can be estimated at about 8%; a proportion that is comparable to previous estimates but significantly lower than admixture estimates obtained from autosomal SNP data (21%). Phylogeographic and evolutionary inter-population comparisons indicate that the main signal of Near Eastern Tuscan mitogenomes comes from Iran. Conclusions Mitogenomes of recent Near East origin in present-day Tuscans do not show local or regional variation. This points to a demographic scenario that is compatible with a recent arrival of Near Easterners to this region in Italy with no founder events or bottlenecks. PMID:25786119

  6. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  7. Anthrax phylogenetic structure in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrò Michela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthrax has almost disappeared from mainland Europe, except for the Mediterranean region where cases are still reported. In Central and South Italy, anthrax is enzootic, but in the North there are currently no high risk areas, with only sporadic cases having been registered in the last few decades. Regional genetic and molecular characterizations of anthrax in these regions are still lacking. To investigate the potential molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Northern Italy, canonical Single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP and Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA genotyping was performed against all isolates from animal outbreaks registered in the last twenty years in the region. Findings Six B. anthracis strains were analyzed. The canSNP analysis indicates the presence of three sublineages/subgroups each of which belong to one of the 12 worldwide CanSNP genotypes: B.Br.CNEVA (3 isolates, A.Br.005/006 (1 isolates and A.008/009 (2 isolate. The latter is the dominant canSNP genotype in Italy. The 15-loci MLVA analysis revealed five different genotypes among the isolates. Conclusions The major B branch and the A.Br.005/006 were recovered in the Northeast region. The genetic structure of anthrax discovered in this area differs from the rest of the country, suggesting the presence of a separate and independent B. anthracis molecular evolution niche. Although the isolates analyzed in this study are limited in quantity and representation, these results indicate that B. anthracis genetic diversity changes around the Alps.

  8. Education in Fascist Italy (1922-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Silvério Baia Horta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes education in Italy in the period of 1922-1945, identifying the mechanisms put into practice, by the fascist regime, so that schools would serve its interests. Beginning with the Gentile Reform, it examines the process of schools’ fascist indoctrination in its different levels. This process begins with the Teachers’ Associations in 1935, and increases with the schools’ militarization. In 1938, racist laws were introduced in the teaching system. It reaches its climax with the School Letter in 1939. All this structure began to collapse in 1943 with Mussolini’s fall.

  9. Biophysical science in Italy: SIBPA turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazza, Daniela; Musio, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    This Special Issue of Biophysical Chemistry includes a selection of the papers presented at the XXI Congress of the Italian Society of Pure and Applied Biophysics (i.e., SIBPA, Società Italiana di Biofisica Pura ed Applicata) held on September 2012 at the University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. Topics cover all biophysical disciplines, from molecular to cellular, to integrative biophysics giving an almost comprehensive view of the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches, proper of the modern biophysics. SIBPA, which celebrates its 40th anniversary in 2013, has steadily grown and appeals to both specialists and a wider general audience.

  10. Area Handbook Series: Italy, A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    in his "*An- tiche danza e arie per liut&o" (Ancient Dances and Airs for Lute) and wrote lyrical descriptive music such as the sNmphonic poems called...Introduction IN LATE 1985 ITALY’S unusually long period of political calm was broken by a coalition crisis of the kind that had become familiar to the...which have a long tradition of strong local autonomy. Feelings of loyalty to a commune or regional pride tend to take precedence over a broader

  11. Meat Production and Market in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this review was to describe the Italian meat production and market.The weight of Italian meat production in terms of the national agriculture gross domestic product (GDP is around the 25%. The present review will analyze the market and the productive systems of the main types of meat sold in the Italian market focusing the attention on their strength and weakness points as well as the possible future developments. The final part of the article will evaluate the recent trends of consumptions for the different meat in Italy as well as the expectations of the Italian consumer when buying meat products.

  12. Financial innovation and monetary control in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. COTULA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly the pressures of deregulation and competition have promoted innovation in the development of financial instruments. In the case of Italy the pressure for innovation has arisen from the need to finance the public sector borrowing requirement and the effects of inflation. As a result, funding instruments have been switched from longer-term bonds to the shorter-term treasury bill. However, this can lead to excessive supply of liquid assets with consequent problems for monetary controls. Such factors will make it more difficult to use monetary aggregates as a guide to monetary policy in the future

  13. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

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    A. Mariacher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.

  14. The species of the Chthonius heterodactylus group (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from the eastern Alps and the Carpathians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Giulio

    2014-11-24

    The species of the subgenus Chthonius (Chthonius) C.L. Koch, 1843 displaying a sigmoid fixed chelal finger from the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians, assigned to the informal heterodactylus species-group, are revised and a key given for their identification. The following species are present in this area: Chthonius cavernarum Ellingsen, 1909 (Italy, Romania, Slovenia), C. heterodactylus Tömösváry, 1882 (Czech Republic, Hungary, Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine), C. hungaricus Mahnert, 1981 (Hungary, Romania, Slovakia), C. lessiniensis Schawaller, 1982 (Italy), C. pusillus Beier, 1947 (Austria, Slovenia) and C. raridentatus Hadži, 1930 (Austria, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia). The following synonymies are proposed: Chthonius diophthalmus Daday, 1889, C. (C.) orthodactylus gracilis Beier, 1935, C. (C.) ksenemani Hadži, 1939 and C. (C.) leruthi Beier, 1939 are junior subjective synonyms of C. heterodactylus Tömösváry, 1882 (n. syn.); C. (C.) pivai Gardini, 1991 is a junior subjective synonym of C. (C.) lessiniensis Schawaller, 1982 (n. syn.); C. (C.) ellingseni Beier, 1939, C. (C.) brandmayri Callaini, 1986 and C. (C.) jalzici Ćurčić, 1988 are junior subjective synonyms of C. (C.) raridentatus Hadži, 1930 (n. syn.). Lectotypes are designated for C. cavernarum Ellingsen, 1909 and C. (C.) ellingseni Beier, 1939. Chthonius (C.) pusillus is newly recorded from Slovenia, C. (C.) hungaricus and Mundochthonius carpaticus Rafalski, 1948 are newly recorded from Romania, and the presence of C. (C.) cavernarum in Italy is confirmed.

  15. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews...

  16. Reflections of a Lifelong Learner Teaching in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and summarizes the author's experience of teaching in Italy for three months and the impact it had on him and his learning. The author, at the age of 61, lived in Italy for three months and here he reflects on what he learned and how it relates to adult learning theory concepts.

  17. The US Mission in Italy's "Partnership for Growth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spogli, Ronald P.; Truhn, J. Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper first examines key differences between the traditional approaches of the USA and Italy in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship. The authors then turn to the specific example of southern Italy, which has experienced higher rates of unemployment, lower US investment and fewer educational and cultural exchanges than the rest of the…

  18. Young People and Alcohol in Italy: An Evolving Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary Italy, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…

  19. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever.

  20. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  1. Werner Sombart and his reception in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Pisanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to focus on the difficulty encountered by Werner Sombart’s works in gaining a hearing in various Italian intellectual circuits. As is well known, Sombart belonged to the German Historical School of economics, sharing with other scholars of that school the same problems in getting his work known in Italy. Our aim is to explain the reason for this hostile reception. First of all, we will analyze the factors which generally hindered the spread of the German Historical School in Italy, recognizing in economists like Francesco Ferrara, Idealists like Benedetto Croce and Marxists like Antonio Labriola some of its strongest opponents. We will dwell on the cases of Gustav Schmoller and Max Weber, in order to give two representative examples of the slow and complicated Italian reception of methodological approaches and analytical perspectives which characterized the scientific experience of the German Historical School. Secondly, we will try to show why Sombart was even less appreciated than other German social scientists, giving the reasons that attracted severe criticism from economists, economic historians and sociologists towards his interdisciplinary approach in the analysis of modern capitalism. Finally, we will show the reasons of the contemporary rediscovery of Sombart and of his works.

  2. Medical malpractice: the experience in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, Francesco

    2009-02-01

    At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over 10 billion euros (approximately US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, Italy has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians' approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation.

  3. Italy and the history of preventive conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lambert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is a point of reference for the conservation community worldwide, but it has yet to make a definitive leap towards preventive conservation. This paper examines some of the reasons to explain this, in the hope that this may be useful for other countries. After a brief look at the history of preventive conservation from Antiquity to the Second World War, two seldom-discussed Italian initiatives are presented: The Franceschini Commission (1964 and the Pilot plan for the programmed conservation of cultural heritage in Umbria (1976.L’Italie est une reference mondiale dans le domaine de la conservation-restauration, cependant, elle n’a toujours pas adopté la conservation préventive de façon définitive. Cet essai tente d’examiner quelques raisons pouvant expliquer ce fait, dans l’espoir que ces informations pourront être utiles pour d’autres pays. Après un survol de l’histoire de la conservation préventive de l’Antiquité à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, deux initiatives peu connues sont présentées, à savoir: la Commission Franceschini (1964 et le Plan pilote pour la conservation programmée des biens culturels en Ombrie (1976.

  4. Workplace drug testing in Italy - critical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; Pozzi, Fulvia; Collo, Giancarlo; Groppi, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Workplace drug testing (WDT) was established in Italy on 30 October 2007. Two tiers of survey are required: the first tier concerns drug testing on urine samples, the second involves both urine and hair analysis. Between July 2008 and December 2011, 10 598 workers' urine samples and 72 hair samples for opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methylenedioxyamphetamines, methadone, and buprenorphine were tested in our laboratory. Urine analyses were performed by immunological screening (EMIT); hair analysis and confirmation tests in urine were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Employees tested positive in urine for drugs of abuse numbered 2.8% in 2008, 2.03% in 2009, 1.62% in 2010, and 1.43% in 2011. As regards the second level of analysis, we observed that only one-third of the workers who had been tested positive for drugs of abuse were referred to an Addiction Treatment Unit in order to verify drug addiction. Our experience shows that, four years after approval of the law on WDT, the percentage of workers positive for drugs of abuse in urine has reduced in comparison to the first year. Moreover, our data show that most of the times employees who tested positive are tardily referred or not referred at all to a Public Addiction Treatment Unit to verify drug addiction. This makes us believe that the legal provisions are widely disregarded not paying the right tribute to the fact that Italy is one of few European countries with legislation on WDT.

  5. Medical Malpractice: The Experience in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over €10 billion (~US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, Italy has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians’ approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation. PMID:18985423

  6. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    in the area.   The municipalities acknowledge the articulation of the city region and the initiated planning process.  However, the municipalities might see the arena as means to lobby for infrastructure investments in Eastern Jutland, as it is doubtful whether the municipalities will feel encouraged to enter...... a process, which is aiming at increasing the national regulation within their territory.    The result might very well be that the discussion about future infrastructure investments is not linked to discussions about future urban development in Eastern Jutland.  These aspects raises serious questions about...... on which level a serious strategy formation process can take place.  There is a danger that a common strategic spatial plan is more an expression of the lowest common denominator and the municipalities request for infrastructure investments rather than being a spatial strategy with transformative power. ...

  7. An Early Warning System Based on Syndromic Surveillance to Detect Potential Health Emergencies among Migrants: Results of a Two-Year Experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Profound geopolitical changes have impacted the southern and eastern Mediterranean since 2010 and defined a context of instability that is still affecting several countries today. Insecurity combined with the reduction of border controls has led to major population movements in the region and to migration surges from affected countries to southern Europe, especially to Italy. To respond to the humanitarian emergency triggered by this migration surge, Italy implemented a syndromic surveillance system in order to rapidly detect potential public health emergencies in immigrant reception centres. This system was discontinued after two years. This paper presents the results of this experience detailing its strengths and weaknesses in order to document the applicability and usefulness of syndromic surveillance in this specific context.

  8. An early warning system based on syndromic surveillance to detect potential health emergencies among migrants: results of a two-year experience in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Riccardo, Flavia; Declich, Silvia; Dente, Maria Grazia; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Rizzo, Caterina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino

    2014-08-20

    Profound geopolitical changes have impacted the southern and eastern Mediterranean since 2010 and defined a context of instability that is still affecting several countries today. Insecurity combined with the reduction of border controls has led to major population movements in the region and to migration surges from affected countries to southern Europe, especially to Italy. To respond to the humanitarian emergency triggered by this migration surge, Italy implemented a syndromic surveillance system in order to rapidly detect potential public health emergencies in immigrant reception centres. This system was discontinued after two years. This paper presents the results of this experience detailing its strengths and weaknesses in order to document the applicability and usefulness of syndromic surveillance in this specific context.

  9. Miocene phosphate-rich sediments in Salento (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Hofmann, Hélène; Chiaradia, Massimo; de Kaenel, Eric; Frijia, Gianluca; Parente, Mariano

    2015-08-01

    The upper Middle to lower Upper Miocene (Serravallian to Tortonian) sedimentary succession in Salento (southern Italy) includes glauconite- and phosphate-rich deposits, which are associated with pelagic micrite. In Baia del Ciolo and Marittima (southern Salento), the succession is composed of shallow-water platform carbonates of Late Oligocene age (Chattian; Porto Badisco Formation), which are overlain by a 20- to 30-cm-thick level of glauconite-rich micrite with abundant reworked particles and fossils of the underlying Porto Badisco Formation. This interval is in turn covered by an up to 15 cm thick phosphatic crust ("Livello ad Aturia"), which itself is overlain either by a hemipelagic chalk-like carbonate of Middle to Late Miocene age ("Pietra Leccese"; Marittima) or directly by a micrite of Late Miocene age (Messinian; Novaglie Formation; Baia del Ciolo), which shallows upwards into a shallow-water platform carbonate. A large hiatus is present in this succession, which likely includes the Lower and lower Middle Miocene. In the region of Lecce, two discrete levels enriched in glauconite and phosphate-each associated with a major discontinuity-occur within the Pietra Leccese. The strontium-isotope ages derived on phosphate nodules and phosphatized and non-phosphatized fossils and calcareous nannofossil ages indicate a time interval of phosphogenesis between 13.5 and 7.5 Ma, with two clusters at 12 and 10.5 Ma. The glauconite and phosphate-rich sediments resulted from a current-dominated regime, which was characterized by low overall sedimentation rates, erosion and sediment reworking, and authigenesis. This regime was likely related to a generally westward-directed bottom current, which was forced to upwell once it arrived at the western border of the eastern Mediterranean basin. The timing of the principal phosphogenic phases can only partly be correlated to those of other occurrences in this part of the Mediterranean (Malta, Gozo, southern Sicily, Matese

  10. Electric-powered vehicles in Italy; Les vehicules electriques en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordel, St.; Carles, R.

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study is to make a synthesis about the development of electric-powered vehicles, in particular in Italy. After a brief historical review of this type of propulsion system, a state-of-the-art review is made which allows to show up the different existing architectures and their characteristic specificities. This review allows to identify the key scientific and technical domains in the existing research programs in progress in order to make these 'alternative' transportation systems economically viable. The second part of the study explains the situation of Italy with respect to these propulsion systems. The political commitments are analyzed first and then some of the university and industry centers of competences for these key domains are presented. Finally, some trans-national collaborations in progress are shown. (J.S.)

  11. Imams and other Religious Authorities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alicino

    2015-01-01

      SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. The Relationship State-Confessions and Religious Ministers – 2.1. The “Common” Legislation of intese and the 1929 Act – 2.2. State’s Law and Religious Ministers – 3. Imam in Italy. Is that a Religious Minister? – 3.1. The Connection State-Islamic Organizations – 3.2. Islamic Groups as Religious Denominations – 3.3. The Bilateral Legislation – 3.4. A Possible Collaboration – 4. Conclusion.   Abstract: In Italy imams are more than 800 members. As imams, they are almost all self-taught people. As citizens, most of the times they have a precarious job. During the week, they normally take care of things other than religion. They perform religious functions in their spare time. Moreover, to see them working as imams, you have to go down in some underground parking or in apartments converted into mosques, where sometimes you see minaret and other Islamic symbols, but only in either the picture or in the paintings hanging on the wall. In the end of the day, we know little or almost nothing about imams. Besides, the Italian law normally do not recognise them as religious authorities. Nevertheless, as imams they play a very important role in local Muslim communities that, under the pressing process of immigration, hold nowadays more than two millions persons. The paper will analyse the status of Islamic imams in Italy, comparing them with the status of other religious authorities (priests, rabbis, pastors ecc.. In particular, this comparative perspective will be focused on both angles: on the one hand, the research will compare the role of imams with those of religious authorities within their respective community; on the other, we will compare imams with considered the different way through which Italian law treats both imams and other religious authority. This perspective will give us a possibility to underline how both the social context and the Italian legal framework (regulating the State

  12. The Financialization of Companies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Salento

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical and theoretical analysis of the financialization of companies and the diffusion of shareholder value maximization in Italy. Unlike the anglo-saxon contexts, financial accumulation and short-termism in Italy are not a consequence of institutional investors’ activism: Italian capitalism is still a holigarchic family capitalism, and few blockholders are in control of Italian large firms. Financialization of companies and the orientation to maximize shareholder value in Italy are rather the outcome of isomorphic processes, supported by institutional and legal transformations occurred since 1980s: reforms of finance, company and labour law, the privatization of state firms, the diffusion of finance-oriented accounting rules. The statutory reforms enabled the dominant coalitions within Italian capitalism to operate in a regulatory framework harmonized with a transnational context, largely assimilated to Anglo-Saxon norms, promoting a finance-oriented conception of control and managerial practices.En este trabajo se presenta un análisis empírico y teórico de la financiarización de las empresas y la difusión de la maximización del valor para los accionistas en Italia. A diferencia de los contextos anglosajones, la acumulación financiera y el cortoplacismo en Italia no son una consecuencia del activismo de los inversores institucionales: el capitalismo italiano es todavía un capitalismo familiar holigarchic, y pocos son blockholders en el control de las grandes empresas italianas. La financiarización de las empresas y la orientación para maximizar el valor para los accionistas en Italia son más bien el resultado de los procesos isomórficos, con el apoyo de las transformaciones institucionales y legales ocurrieron desde 1980: las reformas de las finanzas, empresa y derecho laboral, la privatización de empresas estatales, la difusión de finanzas- normas de contabilidad orientados. Las reformas estatutarias

  13. How many otters are there in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Mapping available data about otter (Lutra lutra distribution according to the 10x10 km grid of the IGMI (Italian Geographical Military Institute national maps on the scale of 1:25000, we evaluated a current otter range of 9900 km2, disjoined in two areas: Molise region in central Italy, and Basilicata, Campania, Calabria and Apulia in southern Italy. Considering the results of an otter genetic census performed in the Pollino National Park and surroundings (southern Italy in 2004, we extrapolated the values of otter density found (0.18-0.20 otters/km of watercourse to the overall Italian otter range and to the linear development of the watercourses hosting otters (3313 km. The correspondent estimates of the Italian population size amounted to, respectively, 481-523 and 596-663 otters. Considering a correction factor based on the mean sprainting intensity reported, since 2000, for each catchment hosting otters, the estimated population size was reduced to 229-257 otters. We argue that a new extensive otter survey is urgently needed and that monitoring by non-invasive genetic sampling is recommended in order to define the population status and trend.
    Riassunto
    Quante lontre ci sono in Italia? I dati disponibili relativamente alla distribuzione della Lontra (Lutra lutra in Italia, sono stati mappati secondo il reticolo 10 x 10 km IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano in scala 1:25000, ottenendo un areale complessivo di 9900 km2, suddiviso tra il Molise (Italia centrale e Puglia, Campania, Basilicata e Calabria (Italia meridionale. I valori di densità della specie (0,18 – 0,20 lontre/km di fiume ottenuti nel 2004 in un’ampia area, perlopiù compresa nel Parco Nazionale del Pollino, sono quindi stati estrapolati alla superficie complessiva dell’areale italiano e alla lunghezza totale dei corsi d’acqua attualmente frequentati dalla Lontra (3313 km. La consistenza della

  14. Education and science museums. Reflections in Italy and on Italy (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The educational function of science museums was born with the first naturalistic collections ever, flourished in 16th-century Italy. The pedagogic thought and the educational experimentations carried out in approximately five century of history have allowed the educational mission of museums to acquire many different facets, drawing a task having an increasingly higher and complex social value. Recent publications explore these new meanings of an old role.

  15. Biological monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato BAUDO

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, Ecotoxicology has found a place with the Legislative Decree n. 152 (May 11, 1999, emanated in fulfilment of the Directives 91/271/CEE "urban waste-water treatment" and 91/676/CEE "protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources". This decree in reality goes beyond (actually anticipating the content of the Framework Directive on Water, still under way of elaboration, and charges the Regions with the duty to identify, for all and each water body, the class of quality on the basis of a chemical and biological monitoring and their classification according to the environmental quality objectives. To this aim, for all water bodies (lakes, rivers, groundwater, coastal waters the ecological, chemical, and environmental status must be assessed by measuring specific parameters. This paper briefly summarises the role of biological monitoring in the classification of waters in five different categories, ranking from High to Foul Environmental status.

  16. Tuscany (Italy) 1990 regional energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarrini, M.; Santoprete, G. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Economia Aziendale)

    This paper first discusses the overall problems involved in the preparation of functional and reliable regional energy balance sheets. It then presents and analyzes the 1990 energy balance sheet prepared for the Tuscany Region of Italy. The problems cited basically deal with the availability, compatibility and accuracy of regional energy data. Trends in Tuscany's energy consumption are compared with national figures in order to give some useful indications as to future energy strategies to be taken into consideration by the regional administration. In fact, this Region reflects the main national energy policy weakness - over-dependency on foreign supplied petroleum. It is thus recommended that locally available geothermal energy sources be further developed.

  17. GPR Activities in Italy: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Ambrosanio, Michele; Battaglia, Enzo; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; De Carlo, Lorenzo; Matera, Loredana; Prontera, Santo; Sileo, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has been increasingly played an important role over the last 15 years in Italy due to its high reliability in assisting the assessment of the built environment for civil engineering purposes, and in being used for geophysical investigations within many other fields of application. In line with this, original works involving fundamental aspects of this technique and implementing its use more practically in a number of interesting projects have been developed over years, both under a research and an enterprise point of view. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground-penetrating radar activities in Italy. Efforts have been devoted to single out the most interesting national research projects, both recent and ongoing, involving ground-penetrating radar in Italy, such as the ARCHEO project in the 90s, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities, wherein a stepped frequency ultra-wide band radar suited for archaeological surveys was manufactured. In this framework, it is worth citing another important and more recent project, European Community funded, namely, ORFEUS, which started in the late 2006 with the overall aim of providing the capability to locate buried infrastructure accurately and reliably by means of a bore-head ground-penetrating radar for horizontal directional drilling. A review on the main use of this non-destructive technique in management activities of national resources and infrastructures has been also performed, ranging from the applications made by Anas S.p.A., i.e., the main management authority for the Italian road and motorway network, up to private enterprises specialized in both services providing and ground-penetrating radar manufacturing such as, to cite a few, Sineco S.p.A. and IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., respectively. Current national guidelines, rules or protocols to be followed during radar surveys have been also reviewed. Unlike well-established international standards such as

  18. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  19. [Murder. Italy-USA comparative profiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in Italy compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock.

  20. Marostica passive solar dwelling, Marostica, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scudo, G. [DPPPE, Milano (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    This project consists of four separate buildings; three terraces comprising 24 dwellings in all, and one four-storey housing block containing 16 flats. The principal objective was to build low-cost housing in which innovative passive solar components could be incorporated at costs acceptable for public housing schemes (maximum 10% of the overall cost). An 'open-loop passive system', developed in Italy about 20 years ago by Barra-Costantini, was chosen. Warm air produced in the solar air panel circulates freely in the storage ceiling, into the rooms and back to the bottom of the air panel by gravity. The system supplies 30% of the net space-heating load. (author)

  1. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.

    2013-06-01

    Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  2. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armani F. B.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the first European and world’s fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  3. L’anthropologie criminelle en Italie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Coffin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available L’Italie est le territoire de l’anthropologie criminelle dans la mesure où l’un de ses plus illustres représentants, si ce n’est le plus connu d’entre eux, le médecin Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909 y a fait toute sa carrière, essentiellement à partir de l’université de Turin. Et c’est de là qu’il a essaimé ses idées à travers une multitude d’articles, de très nombreux livres et à travers l’organisation de conférences et de congrès internationaux. Si l’anthropologie criminelle constitue de fait u...

  4. Adaptively Smoothed Seismicity Earthquake Forecasts for Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M J; Jackson, D D; Kagan, Y Y; Wiemer, S

    2010-01-01

    We present a model for estimating the probabilities of future earthquakes of magnitudes m > 4.95 in Italy. The model, a slightly modified version of the one proposed for California by Helmstetter et al. (2007) and Werner et al. (2010), approximates seismicity by a spatially heterogeneous, temporally homogeneous Poisson point process. The temporal, spatial and magnitude dimensions are entirely decoupled. Magnitudes are independently and identically distributed according to a tapered Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We estimated the spatial distribution of future seismicity by smoothing the locations of past earthquakes listed in two Italian catalogs: a short instrumental catalog and a longer instrumental and historical catalog. The bandwidth of the adaptive spatial kernel is estimated by optimizing the predictive power of the kernel estimate of the spatial earthquake density in retrospective forecasts. When available and trustworthy, we used small earthquakes m>2.95 to illuminate active fault structur...

  5. The historiography of psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Guido; Dazzi, Nino

    2003-08-01

    The article outlines the studies conducted in Italy on the history of psychology since the 1970s, with particular attention to those elaborated in the 1990s. Reference is made to the institutions, authors, congresses, and other initiatives that in the course of 3 decades have promoted the growth of the history of psychology, and a review is presented of the principal research themes undertaken by scholars. An attempt has been made to identify the principal historiographic tendencies and to illustrate the passage from a sort of "positivistic" historiography to an orientation that could be considered multifactorial or one of complexity, attentive to both the internal and the external components of the scientific enterprise, although with a propensity for the history of ideas.

  6. Patients dropping out of treatment in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlino, M; Martucci, G; Musella, V; Bolzan, M; de Girolamo, G

    1995-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the extent and the specific features of drop-out for patients having a first contact with an university psychiatric outpatient clinic in Italy over the course of 1 year and to determine which variables were associated with early termination of treatment. Of the 158 patients selected for this study, there was an overall 3-month drop-out rate following the first visit of 63%. Of the 59 patients who had returned once after the initial contact, 28 interrupted subsequently the treatment, although the therapist's plan included further visits. The overall drop-out rate at 3 months was thus 82%. The only 2 variables associated with drop-out rates were the patients' perception of the severity of their disorder and the psychiatric history: continuing patients were more frequently in agreement with the clinician's judgment as compared with those who dropped out and were more likely to have already been in psychiatric treatment.

  7. CAS Accelerator Physics held in Erice, Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Superconductivity for Accelerators, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 24 April-4 May, 2013.   Photo courtesy of Alessandro Noto, Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture. Following a handful of summary lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of superconductivity, the course covered a wide range of topics related to superconductivity and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful with 94 participants representing 23 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Belorussia, Canada, China, India, Japan and the United States (for the first time a young Ethiopian lady, studying in Germany, attended this course). The programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars and 7 hours of case study. The case studies were p...

  8. RELIGIOUS SLAUGHTER: EXAMPLES OF PRACTICES IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Catanese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at identifying the procedures for current methods of religious slaughter. It consisted of spot visits in abattoirs carried out from October 2008 to March 2009 in Italy. The species covered were cattle, sheep and poultry. During this period, five abattoirs in three different Italian regions were assessed. All the animals were slaughtered without stunning. A reliable protocol was developed to record each animal during slaughter, to get 329 minutes and 28 seconds of video. 313 animals were observed by video image analysis for both halal slaughter and shechita. Observed parameters are discussed in the light of animal welfare. Remarks on restraining methods as well as post-cut clinical indicators of consciousness are considered.

  9. An agreement for applied research in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 26 February, two of CERN's Directors-General had a very official handshake. Luciano Maiani, CERN's current Director-General, and Carlo Rubbia, one of his predecessors and current "commissario straordinario" of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiante, Institute for new technologies, energy and the environment) signed a collaboration agreement between their two organisations. ENEA carries out applied research in various fields such as renewable energies, new materials and medical applications. The organisation, which employs 3400 people in 10 laboratories in Italy, has a clear interest, therefore, in the technologies developed at CERN, which, in turn, seeks to promote them. Their collaboration will shortly lead to common research projects. CERN now has two Italian partners : INFN, its historical partner for particle physics research and ENEA for technological applications.

  10. Contrasting serpentinization processes in the eastern Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, D.J.M.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope compositions have been determined for serpentinites from between Davos (Arosa-Platta nappe, Switzerland) and the Valmalenco (Italy). ??D and ??18O values (-120 to -60 and 6-10???, respectively) in the Arosa-Platta nappe indicate that serpentinization took place on the continent at relatively low temperatures in the presence of limited amounts of metamorphic fluids that contained a component of meteoric water. One sample of chrysotile has a ??18O value of 13??? providing evidence of high W/R ratios and low formation temperature of lizardite-chrysotile in this area. In contrast, relatively high ??D values (-42 to -34???) and low ??18O values (4.4-7.4???) for serpentine in the eastern part of the Valmalenco suggest a serpentinization process that took place at moderate temperatures in fluids that were dominated by ocean water. The antigorite in the Valmalenco is the first reported example of continental antigorite with an ocean water signature. An amphibole sample from a metasomatically overprinted contact zone to metasediments (??D=-36???) indicates that the metasomatic event also took place in the presence of ocean water. Lower ??D values (-93 to -60???) of serpentines in the western part of the Valmalenco suggest a different alteration history possibly influenced by fluids associated with contact metamorphism. Low water/rock ratios during regional metamorphism (and metasomatism) have to be assumed for both regions. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Institutional Determinants of International Migration from Central-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka FIHEL

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the role of institutional determinants for international migration from Central and Eastern Europe. In the whole post-war period international mobility has been stimulated by economic incentives, such as income disparities and unemployment, and also by particular solutions in migration policies in the receiving countries. Ethnic and asylum procedures, selective labor recruitments, visas barriers, regularization programs have mostly directed and intensified labor migration from CEE countries.Recently the EU enlargement (and, consequently, opening of member states’ labor markets became another institutional enhancement for migrating. The 2004 accession of eight CEE countries has been followed by a massive flow from CEE to the UK and Ireland that, together with Sweden, opened their labor markets for migrant workers. In 2007 Bulgaria and Romania will gain the access into EU, but the directions of mobility has been already established for Romanian and Bulgarian citizens: the main destination countries are Italy and Spain. The dynamics of migration from Romania and Bulgaria to South Europe has been extraordinary high since around 2000, mainly due to low legislative barriers and high demand for low-paid work. Again, the institutional determinant, such as overall acceptance towards illegal, foreign workers and regularization programs, turned out to be decisive.

  12. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A.; Dee Tomasi, F.; Filippo, E.; Manno, D.; Perrone, M. R.; Serra, A.; Tafuro, A. M.; Tepore, A.

    2003-12-01

    Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40º 20' N, 18º 6' E) during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  13. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blanco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40º 20' N, 18º 6' E during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  14. New records of Coenagrion ornatum in Italy (Odonata: Coenagrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Mastropasqua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coenagrion ornatum (Sélys, 1850 is a damselfly ranging from northwestern Europe to southwestern Asia. It is highly local, and northwestern populations are experiencing a steep decline. In Europe, Coenagrion ornatum is a species of conservation interest and is listed as Near Threatened due to habitat loss; it is nearly extinct in Italy. We report the finding of 4 male C. ornatum on 3 June 2005 in Apulia, southeastern Italy. This is the only recent record for Italy, and highlights the need for further research on this species in the country.

  15. Region 1 Acoustic Bat Inventory: National Wildlife Refuges in Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington, and Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bat species were inventoried on National Wildlife Refuges in Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington, and Idaho using acoustic methods. Samples were collected between...

  16. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... on which level a serious strategy formation process can take place.  There is a danger that a common strategic spatial plan is more an expression of the lowest common denominator and the municipalities request for infrastructure investments rather than being a spatial strategy with transformative power. ...

  17. Sedimentology of the Paestum travertines, Salerno, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, E.; Ferreri, V.; D'Argenio, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Paestum travertines, outcrop in the southern part of the Sele plain (Campania, southern Italy)and span in age from the late Pleistocene to the Recent. We have considered both the travertines resting under the ancient town of Paestum (founded by Sybaris Greeks in the VII century b.C.) and in its vicinities, as well as the travertine incrustations that post-date the VII century a.C. and partly cover the archaeological area. The textures and sedimentary features of the above rocks allow the environmental dynamics of the ancient as well as of the recent travertine deposits to be interpreted. The age of the ancient travertines ranges from 30-40 ka to 70-75 ka, even though more recent times of deposition cannot be excluded. They are genetically related to the waters springing from the south- western margin of the Mesozoic-Tertiary carbonates of Monte Soprano and Monte Sottano. These waters flow also through the travertines and their neighbouring deposits, feeding other springs along the coast. The travertines, both in situ and forming the building blocks of the town walls, have been classified using the textural nomenclature of the primary incrustations. On this basis, different lithofacies have been recognized and grouped into 3 main lithofacies associations: 1) Microhermal and Stromatolitic Travertines associated with Grain Supported Phytoclastic Travertines (gentle to steep slope environments); this lithofacies association is largely represented in the foundation travertines as well as in the blocks used to build the walls and the monuments of the ancient town; 2) Phytohermal and Microhermal Travertines (rapid and waterfall environments); this lithofacies association is well exposed in the foundation travertines of Porta Marina (western side of the town) and in some wall blocks (e.g. nearby Porta Sirena, eastern side of the town); 3) Phytoclastic and Phytohermal Travertines (swamp and marsh environments); this lithofacies association is common in the blocks

  18. Food Activism in Italy as an Anthropology of Direct Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasseni, Cristina

    This article presents qualitative and quantitative findings on provisioning activism in Italy, focusing on Solidarity Purchase Groups (Gruppi di Acquisto Solidale, GAS). By using quantitative data about GAS growth, numerical consistence and economic impact and through ethnographic insights based on

  19. 75 FR 8114 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2010. FOR...

  20. Snakebite ethnopharmacopoeia of eastern Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Felix G; Anderson, Gregory J

    2005-01-04

    Results of an ethnopharmacognostic study of snakebite treatments in eastern Nicaragua are presented. Data and specimens were collected during several years of field studies. Field work consisted of plant collecting trips and interviews of snakedoctors. The annual mortality from snakebites in eastern Nicaragua is about 25% and most bites are caused by the fer-de-lance (Bothrops asper). The vascular flora of the region is estimated at 2500 species of which 435 have medicinal application including 81 that are used in snakebite treatment. The majority of species used in snakebite cures are flowering plants, 76% dicots and 20% monocots, and 80% are obtained from the second-growth forest. About half the species are herbs. Leaves are the most frequently utilized plant part. Most herbal remedies are prepared as decoctions and are administered orally. Remedies are mostly prepared with native wild species, but some are introduced domesticates, derived from either the American or Old World Tropics. All the species used contain at least one bioactive compound, and most of these bioactives have been shown in other studies to have pharmacological effects. The use of species in snakebite treatments does not necessarily imply efficacy, but it does give a limited list of species that can be studied pharmacologically for possible bioactive effects. Studies like this one are also important because they document traditional practices and species utilized for the people of the region studied as well.

  1. Transmission potential of chikungunya virus and control measures: the case of Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Poletti

    Full Text Available During summer 2007 Italy has experienced an epidemic caused by Chikungunya virus - the first large outbreak documented in a temperate climate country - with approximately 161 laboratory confirmed cases concentrated in two bordering villages in North-Eastern Italy comprising 3,968 inhabitants. The seroprevalence was recently estimated to be 10.2%. In this work we provide estimates of the transmission potential of the virus and we assess the efficacy of the measures undertaken by public health authorities to control the epidemic spread. To such aim, we developed a model describing the temporal dynamics of the competent vector, known as Aedes albopictus, explicitly depending on climatic factors, coupled to an epidemic transmission model describing the spread of the epidemic in both humans and mosquitoes. The cumulative number of notified cases predicted by the model was 185 on average (95% CI 117-278, in good agreement with observed data. The probability of observing a major outbreak after the introduction of an infective human case was estimated to be in the range of 32%-76%. We found that the basic reproduction number was in the range of 1.8-6 but it could have been even larger, depending on the density of mosquitoes, which in turn depends on seasonal meteorological effects, besides other local abiotic factors. These results confirm the increasing risk of tropical vector-borne diseases in temperate climate countries, as a consequence of globalization. However, our results show that an epidemic can be controlled by performing a timely intervention, even if the transmission potential of Chikungunya virus is sensibly high.

  2. CERN collect for Earthquakein Italy August 24, 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    Ghislain Roy, President of CERN's Staff Association, Maurizio Serra, Ambassador, permanent Mission of Italy to teh United NAtions Office in Geneva, FAbiola Gianotti, CERN director General and Umberto Dosselli, scientific ataché Italian Permanent Mission in Geneva, show the letter co-signed by CERN's director general and CERN' s Staff Association President indicating the amounbt collected in favour of the vicitims of the August 24 2016 earthquake in central Italy.

  3. 1st International Conference of IFToMM Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Gasparetto, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the First International Conference of IFToMM Italy (IFIT2016), held at the University of Padova, Vicenza, Italy, on December 1-2, 2016. The book contains contributions on the latest advances on Mechanism and Machine Science. The fifty-nine papers deal with such topics as biomechanical engineering, history of mechanism and machine science, linkages and mechanical controls, multi-body dynamics, reliability, robotics and mechatronics, transportation machinery, tribology, and vibrations.

  4. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy [Italian Version, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more sustainable energy future. The Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003. The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous review. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. Italy recognises the need to diversify its energy supply portfolio to reduce its heavy dependence on fossil fuels and electricity imports, and to decrease its growing greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, the government announced its intention to recommence the countrys nuclear power program and start building a new nuclear power plant by 2013. To do so, Italy must first develop an efficient process for identifying critical energy infrastructure, including nuclear power, and subjecting it to an effective, streamlined siting and permitting process. Italy will face another major challenge in complying with Europe’s new climate and energy package, particularly in relation to renewable energy and emissions targets. Italy must step up efforts to comply with its new responsibilities, specifically by developing and putting in place a comprehensive climate change strategy for the years until 2020. In mid-2009, the legislature enacted a comprehensive new law that will facilitate the emergence of a robust long-term energy policy. The government must respond to this opportunity and elaborate, with industry, a comprehensive long-term strategy for the development of the energy sector. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more

  5. Research on VHDL in France, Italy and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Borrione, D.

    1996-01-01

    International audience; Research on VHDL in France, Italy and Switzerland This presentation is an overview of the research on and around VHDL in France, Italy and French speaking Switzerland. The teams covered by this survey are well known in Europe, for their participation in the VHDL User's Groups, and for their publications. The period covered is 1991-1995, although some groups have started their VHDL activities several years before.

  6. Household waste recycling: National survey evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorillo, Damiano

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the determinants of household recycling in Italy with particular emphasis on social behaviour. The econometric analysis is based on two waves - 1998 and 2000 - of the Multipurpose Household Survey conducted annually by the Italian Central Statistics Office. In Italy household recycling was substantially voluntary in the years from 1998 to 2000 with no monetary incentives or pecuniary sanctions. Five different materials are investigated: paper, glass, plastic, aluminium and ...

  7. Contemporary Italian Novels on Chinese Immigration to Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gaoheng

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, I survey for the first time some of the most meaningful novels concerned with Chinese immigration to Italy. My primary focus is to examine the ways in which authors of various socio-cultural backgrounds address the interconnections of narrativity, social concerns, and cultural identities. I show that these novels reinforce or contest the meanings of specific issues as well as the rhetorical strategies in media and cinematic representations of Chinese immigrants in Italy followi...

  8. Ethics committees in Italy--a time for change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, E

    2000-01-01

    The Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica (CNB) in Italy has recently produced an unprecedented discussion document on the state of ethics committees in Italy, with an invitation to interested parties to comment on proposed changes to their fundamental structure. After this consultation, and taking note of relevant official publications and the most recent national and international literature on the subject, the CNB proposes to produce a final, definitive document that will consider options for the future development of such committees.

  9. Italy makes a return to the nuclear fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-07-01

    Some 21 years after its people voted in a referendum to end nuclear energy production, Italy looks set to return to the power of the atom. The newly installed right-wing government of Silvio Berlusconi has vowed to start building a new set of nuclear reactors within five years as part of a plan to reduce Italy's enormous energy costs. Experts, however, believe that this timescale is unrealistic.

  10. Estimated prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Italy in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Bezzini, Daiana

    2017-03-01

    Italy is a high risk area for multiple sclerosis (MS) as confirmed by the numerous prevalence and incidence studies conducted in several regions/districts of the country. Nevertheless, there are no recent published epidemiological data, nor studies about the total prevalence of MS in Italy. Our aim was to update as of 2015 the prevalence rates of MS in different geographical areas using already published epidemiological studies, and to estimate the overall prevalence of the disease in Italy. We made a search in MEDLINE database of all published studies on epidemiology of MS in Italy. Then, we applied, to the already published prevalence data, the last published incidence and mortality rates to recalculate, as of 2015, the prevalence of MS. So, we calculated the mean prevalence rate from our extrapolations, and we applied it to the population in 2015 to estimate the number of MS patients in Italy. Our prevalence extrapolations ranged from 122 to 232 cases/100,000 in the mainland and Sicily, with an average of 176/100,000, and from 280 to 317 cases/100,000 in Sardinia with an average of 299/100,000. Applying these media to the Italian population in 2015, we obtained an estimate of more than 109,000 MS patients in Italy. Our estimates were higher than the latest published rates but consistent with the annual increase of prevalence due to incidence that exceeds mortality, with the increase of survival and, maybe, with the probable increase of incidence.

  11. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  12. Organizational network in trauma management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Chiara

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, as in other western countries, trauma is a leading cause of death during the first four decades of life, with almost 18.000 of deaths per year. Since 80s organized systems for trauma care, including a pre-hospital emergency medical system and a network of hospitals designated as Trauma Centres, have been developed in north American countries. Effectiveness of trauma systems has been investigated comparing the post-system to the pre-system trauma care with the method of panel evaluation of preventable death rates and comparison of observed survival with expected probability of survival. In Italy, a pre-hospital emergency medical system has been implemented on a national scale, while a trauma network has not been developed. Nowadays, trauma patients are often admitted to the closest hospital, independently from local resources. The Superior Council of Ministry of Health has presented in 2004 a new trauma system model (SIAT based on the recognition in the field of patients with more serious injuries and the transportation to general hospitals with resources and multidisciplinary teams specialized in trauma care (trauma team. The designation of few trauma team hospitals, one highly specialized Centre (CTS and two area Centres (CTZ every two millions of inhabitants allows each Centre to treat at least 250 severe trauma patients per year to increase experience. Less severe injured patients may be treated in non-trauma team acute care facilities, according to the inclusive system model. The development of trauma team services in some Italian hospitals has demonstrated an increase in survival and a decrease in preventable death rate from 42% to 7,6%. Economic studies of Ministry of Health have established that the implementation of a trauma system model on a national scale with a 25% decrease of preventable trauma deaths and disabilities would save 7500 million of euros of public money. Therefore, in our country the concentration of severely

  13. The 2016 Central Italy Earthquake: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, A.

    2016-12-01

    The M6 central Italy earthquake occurred on the seismic backbone of the Italy, just in the middle of the highest hazard belt. The shock hit suddenly during the night of August 24, when people were asleep; no foreshocks occurred before the main event. The earthquake ruptured from 10 km to the surface, and produced a more than 17,000 aftershocks (Oct. 19) spread on a 40x20 km2 area elongated NW-SE. It is geologically very similar to previous recent events of the Apennines. Both the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake to the south and the 1997 Colfiorito to the north, were characterized by the activation of adjacent fault segments. Despite its magnitude and the well known seismic hazard of the region, the earthquake produced extensive damage and 297 fatalities. The town of Amatrice, that paid the highest toll, was classified in zone 1 (the highest) since 1915, but the buildings in this and other villages revealed highly vulnerable. In contrast, in the town of Norcia, that also experienced strong ground shaking, no collapses occurred, most likely due to the retrofitting carried out after an earthquake in 1979. Soon after the quake, the INGV Crisis Unit convened at night in the Rome headquarters, in order to coordinate the activities. The first field teams reached the epicentral area at 7 am with the portable seismic stations installed to monitor the aftershocks; other teams followed to map surface faults, damage, to measure GPS sites, to install instruments for site response studies, and so on. The INGV Crisis Unit includes the Press office and the INGVterremoti team, in order to manage and coordinate the communication towards the Civil Protection Dept. (DPC), the media and the web. Several tens of reports and updates have been delivered in the first month of the sequence to DPC. Also due to the controversial situation arisen from the L'Aquila earthquake and trials, particular attention was given to the communication: continuous and timely information has been released to

  14. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Leporatti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  15. Geoelectric monitoring of the Bagnaschino landslide (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Birgit; Supper, Robert; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lovisolo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Landslides are one of the major natural threats to human lives, settlements and infrastructure. Permanent geoelectrical monitoring using the GEOMON4D instrumentation in combination with high resolution displacement monitoring by means of the DMS system was performed at an active landslide area in Italy (Bagnaschino). These sites are part of a geoelectrical monitoring network of the Geological Survey of Austria, which currently comprises six permanently monitored landslides in Europe. The Bagnaschino site represents a landslide/earthflow reactivated within an old landslide mass. The old landslide is situated on the slopes of the Val Casotto about 4 km SE of Torre Mondovì (NW Italy). Evident indications of deep-seated gravitational deformation suggest that the current slopes are in a condition of limit-equilibrium and are predisposed to slow instability, triggered most probably by rain and/or snow melting and river erosion at the foot. The recent landslide was activated during 1994 rainfall event. It covers an estimated area of 150,000 m² and comprises a displaced material of 1.2 million m³. It endangers a regional road and potential formation of a dam. For the purpose of early warning a DMS monitoring column with 60 m length was installed in October 2008. Total displacement recorded by DMS during the events between 2008 and 2010 was 600 mm. Subsequently, the GEOMON4D geoelectric monitoring system was installed there in 2010. Resistivity measurements are performed along a 224 m long profile, which is oriented parallel to the main movement direction. Its midpoint is next to the DMS station. One set of data comprising around 4000 gradient-type measurements is taken every 4 hours. For power supply a combination of a fuel cell and a solar panel is used. Within the observation interval one distinct displacement event was monitored. This event was accompanied by a decrease of electric resistivity. In addition to our standard analysis of resistivity data (e.g. time

  16. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  17. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  18. A critical review of seismotectonic setting of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy) in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Luiso, Paola; Nappi, Rosa; Ricciolino, Patrizia

    2010-05-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Campanian Plain is a structural depression of the Southern Italy located between the eastern side of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Southern Apennine chain. It is surrounded to the North, East and South by the Mesozoic carbonate massifs of the Apennine chain and, to the West, by the Tyrrhenian Sea. The graben origin is similar to other peri-Tyrrhenian regions and is related to a stretching and thinning of the continental crust by the counterclockwise rotation of the Italian peninsula and the contemporaneous opening of the Tyrrhenian sea. The consequent subsidence of the Campanian carbonate platform took place along the Tyrrhenian coast during the Plio-Pleistocene with a maximum vertical extent of 5 km. The plain is filled by volcanic and clastic, continental and marine deposits. Voluminous volcanic activity of Roccamonfina, Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Procida and Vesuvio occurred in the Plain during the Quaternary. In the middle of the plain lies the city of Naples, bordered by the two active volcanoes of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio. It is a very densely inhabited area that is exposed to high potential volcanic risk. The stress field acting in the Campanian area is poorly known. Structural observations on the Pleistocene faults suggest normal to sinistral movements for the NW- SE-trending faults and normal to dextral for the NE-SW-trending structures. These movements are consistent with those of the structures affecting the inner margin of the Southern Apennines. The Campanian Plain is characterized by seismicity of energy lower than the seismic activity of the Southern Apennine chain. The earthquakes mainly occur along the margin of the plain, in the volcanic areas and a minor seismicity spreads out inside the Plain. The aim of this paper is an attempt to identify active, outcropping and buried fault systems of the Campanian plain through the correlation between seismicity and tectonic structures. Seismic, geologic and geomorphologic data have been

  19. Seismic tomography and azimuthal anisotropy for the Southern and Eastern Alps from ambient noise cross-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Zigone, Dimitri; Kolinsky, Petr; Fuchs, Florian; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray-EASI Working Group

    2016-04-01

    The eastern part of the Alpine chain is considered as an area of complex tectonics and lithospheric structure. Having a relatively dense network of stations in this region provides an opportunity to study the crustal and lithospheric velocity structure using ambient-noise correlations methods. We used continuous data recorded during 2014 at 50 permanent stations located in Austria, Germany, northern Italy, and Slovenia, along with data from 8 temporary stations of the Eastern Alpine Seismic Investigation (EASI) profile. Cross correlation of ambient noise are performed in order to estimate the Green's functions of surface waves propagating between station pairs. Dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves are constructed between 2 and 30 seconds and are then inverted to obtain group velocity maps at different frequency (depth) levels. We present here a new crustal-lithospheric velocity model for the Southern and Eastern Alps, which reveals clear spatial velocity variation and contrasts, associated with major faults, deformed and damaged zones. In this study, we also assess the azimuthal anisotropy from the group velocity measurements. The new finding together with the previous results from SKS splitting and receiver function provides 3D images of anisotropy at scales ranging from crust to upper mantle. This allows us to discuss the strain field and deformation pattern within both shallow and lithospheric-asthenospheric depth, in relation with the most prominent tectonic processes in the region, such as eastward extrusion of the ALCAPA block (Eastern Alps, Western Carpathian, and Pannonian Basin).

  20. Strain and stress fields in the Southern Apennines (Italy) constrained by geodetic, seismological and borehole data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, M.; Cannavò, F.; Ferranti, L.; Mattia, M.; Mazzella, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    We present an improved evaluation of the current strain and stress fields in the Southern Apennines (Italy) obtained through a careful analysis of geodetic, seismological and borehole data. In particular, our analysis provides an updated comparison between the accrued strain recorded by geodetic data, and the strain released by seismic activity in a region hit by destructive historical earthquakes. To this end, we have used nine years of GPS observations (2001-2010) from a dense network of permanent stations, a data set of 73 well-constrained stress indicators (borehole breakouts and focal mechanisms of moderate-to-large earthquakes) and published estimations of the geological strain accommodated by active faults in the region. Although geodetic data are generally consistent with seismic and geological information, previously unknown features of the current deformation in southern Italy emerge from this analysis. The newly obtained GPS velocity field supports the well-established notion of a dominant NE-SW-oriented extension concentrated in a ˜50-km-wide belt along the topographic relief of the Apennines, as outlined by the distribution of seismogenic normal faults. Geodetic deformation is, however, non-uniform along the belt, with two patches of higher strain-rate and shear-stress accumulation in the north (Matese Mountains) and in the south (Irpinia area). Low geodetic strain-rates are found in the Bradano basin and Apulia plateau to the east. Along the Ionian Sea margin of southern Italy, in southern Apulia and eastern Basilicata and Calabria, geodetic velocities indicate NW-SE extension that is consistent with active shallow-crustal gravitational motion documented by geological studies. In the west, along the Tyrrhenian margin of the Campania region, the tectonic geodetic field is disturbed by volcanic processes. Comparison between the magnitude of the geodetic and the seismic strain rates (computed using a long historical seismicity catalogue) allow detecting

  1. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most....... In comparison,Western European retailers prefer doing business with suppliers that are capable of supplying all shops in a chain. Also the question about traceability is decisive.Retailers also prefer doing business with suppliers that are interested in a long-term trade relationship and who are from their own...

  2. Rainfall thresholds for the possible occurrence of landslides in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Brunetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides that frequently cause fatalities and large economic damage. Using a variety of information sources, we have compiled a catalogue listing 753 rainfall events that have resulted in landslides in Italy. For each event in the catalogue, the exact or approximate location of the landslide and the time or period of initiation of the slope failure is known, together with information on the rainfall duration D, and the rainfall mean intensity I, that have resulted in the slope failure. The catalogue represents the single largest collection of information on rainfall-induced landslides in Italy, and was exploited to determine the minimum rainfall conditions necessary for landslide occurrence in Italy, and in the Abruzzo Region, central Italy. For the purpose, new national rainfall thresholds for Italy and new regional rainfall thresholds for the Abruzzo Region were established, using two independent statistical methods, including a Bayesian inference method and a new Frequentist approach. The two methods proved complementary, with the Bayesian method more suited to analyze small data sets, and the Frequentist method performing better when applied to large data sets. The new regional thresholds for the Abruzzo Region are lower than the new national thresholds for Italy, and lower than the regional thresholds proposed in the literature for the Piedmont and Lombardy Regions in northern Italy, and for the Campania Region in southern Italy. This is important, because it shows that landslides in Italy can be triggered by less severe rainfall conditions than previously recognized. The Frequentist method experimented in this work allows for the definition of multiple minimum rainfall thresholds, each based on a different exceedance probability level. This makes the thresholds suited for the design of probabilistic schemes for the prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. A scheme based on four

  3. Italy at CERN – Industrial exibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2011-01-01

    From 10 to 13 October 2011 Industrial Exhibition Bldg 500 & 61 Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of department or to get in touch with Karine ROBERT. You will find below the list of exhibitors.   LISTE DES EXPOSANTS : Agilent Technologies - via Varian 54 - 10040 Leinì (TO) http://www.agilent.com/chem/vacuum Pioneer in vacuum technology since the 50’s. CAEN S.p.A. - via Vetraia, 11 – 55049 Viareggio (LU) http://www.caen.it/ Data-Acquisi...

  4. Aseismic strain episodes at Campi Flegrei, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Roberto; Amoruso, Antonella; Bilham, Roger; Di Lieto, Bellina; Errico, Antonio; Linde, Alan; Sacks, Selwyn

    2014-05-01

    Since spring 2004 a research project has been developed in Italy to install borehole Sacks-Evertson strainmeters (dilatometers) aimed to improve monitoring systems of the Italian volcanoes. 6 borehole dilatometers have been installed around Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius during 2004-2005 (Scarpa et al., 2007). This small network has been implemented by two arrays of long-baseline water tube tiltmeters installed in underground tunnels since 2008. Relevant strainmeter and tiltmeter data have been collected and analyzed at the instruments installed at Campi Flegrei during the recent unrest episodes. Renewed activity started since 2004-2005, characterized by a quite low rate of vertical vertical displacement, amounting initially to a few cm/year. A long term strain episode occurred during summer 2006, in correspondence to an increase of CO2 emission and displacements measured also by tiltmeters and GPS transducers. This strain episode preceded the seismic activity by few months, as also observed during the 1982 most significant unrest. Other aseismic slip episodes have been recorded in 2009, in correspondence of the renewal of gas emission activity at Solfatara, in 2010, one day before a seismic swarm, and in September 2012, few days before the most significant seismic swarm occurred after the 1982-1984 uplift. The time scale of these phenomena is ranging from some hours to several days, putting further constraints on the origin of ground uplifts at Campi Flegrei. Their location is compatible with the source inferred from long term deformation signals, at about 4 km depth beneath Pozzuoli.

  5. How we make cell therapy in Italy

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    Montemurro T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tiziana Montemurro, Mariele Viganò, Silvia Budelli, Elisa Montelatici, Cristiana Lavazza, Luigi Marino, Valentina Parazzi, Lorenza Lazzari, Rosaria GiordanoCell Factory, Unit of Cell Therapy and Cryobiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, ItalyAbstract: In the 21st century scenario, new therapeutic tools are needed to take up the social and medical challenge posed by the more and more frequent degenerative disorders and by the aging of population. The recent category of advanced therapy medicinal products has been created to comprise cellular, gene therapy, and tissue engineered products, as a new class of drugs. Their manufacture requires the same pharmaceutical framework as for conventional drugs and this means that industrial, large-scale manufacturing process has to be adapted to the peculiar characteristics of cell-containing products. Our hospital took up the challenge of this new path in the early 2000s; and herein we describe the approach we followed to set up a pharmaceutical-grade facility in a public hospital context, with the aim to share the solutions we found to make cell therapy compliant with the requirements for the production and the quality control of a high-standard medicinal product.Keywords: advanced therapy medicinal product, good manufacturing practices, stem cells

  6. PLEISTOCENE BATHYAL MOLLUSCAN ASSEMBLAGES FROM SOUTHERN ITALY

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    ITALO DI GERONIMO

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Four Pleistocene bathyal molluscan assemblages from southern Italy (Calabria and Messina area were studied. One hundred and thirty-six species were recorded. Twenty-four were classified and described in detail and thirty-five were illustrated. The following new combinations are pro posed: Solariella marginulata (Philippi, 1844, Iphitus tenuisculptus (Seguenza, 1876, Benthomangelia tenuicostata (Seguenza, 1879, Chrysallida microscalaria (Seguenza, 1876, Ennucula corbuloides (Seguenza, 1877, Ennucula rotundata (Seguenza, 1877, Thestyleda cuspidata (Philippi, 1844, Katadesmia confusa (Seguenza, 1877, Austrotindaria pusio (Philippi, 1844, Austrotindaria salicensis (Seguenza, 1877. Comments concerning the taxonomy of Fissurisepta Seguenza, 1862, Solariella Wood, 1842, Ennucula Iredale, 1931, Thestyleda Iredale, 1929, Ledella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Yoldiella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Bathyspinula Filatova, 1958, Katadesmia Dall, 1908, Austrotindaria Fleming, 1948 and Cadulus Philippi, 1844 are included. The assemblages are dominated by nuculoids and fit the general compositional pattern of the deep-sea molluscan communities. A paleodepth of 500-600 m is inferred for two assemblages, whereas a greater depth, pro bably not exceeding 1,000 m, is suggested for the other two. Taxonomic affinities with northeast Atlantic and more generally with World Ocean deep-sea molluscan faunas are remarkable. The Plio-Quaternary evolution of the deep Mediterranean benthos is discussed.    

  7. Behavior in the General Population in Italy

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    Luisa Maria Roberta Tedesco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs.

  8. Observations of surface radon in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Piero Di; Pitari, Giovanni; de Luca, Natalia; Battisti, Domenico

    2009-07-01

    Two years of in situ radon concentration measurements in the atmospheric surface layer have been collected in a central Italy town (L’Aquila), located in the Aterno river valley. These data have been analyzed in order to study the controlling mechanisms of surface radon abundance; observations of coincident meteorological parameters confirmed the role of dynamics on the local removal rate of this tracer. The relatively high negative correlation of hourly data of surface wind speed and radon activity concentration ( R = -0.54, on annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon is one of the most important controlling processes of the tracer accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. An attempt is made to quantify the precipitation impact on radon soil fluxes. No anticorrelation of radon and precipitation comes out from the data ( R = -0.15), as in previous studies. However, since the main physical parameter affecting the ground radon release is expected to be the soil accumulation of water, snow or ice, the emission flux has also been correlated with soil moisture; in this way a much clearer anticorrelation is found ( R = -0.54).

  9. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

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    L. Perrone

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979–2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8–5.9 tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  10. The first book museums in Italy

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    Andrea De Pasquale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Just before the advent of Fascism, in Turin, in the nearby town of Carmagnola and in Florence were born the first Italian examples of book museums. It was early and exceptional experiments of valorizing of book history and of the ancient techniques of manufacturing manuals in a time of great innovation. The first, called the National Museum of the book, was opened in 1913 as a result of the exhibition of the history of printing held during the Universal Exhibition of 1911; the second, created in 1921, was the result of collecting a notable family that took up the typographic tradition of Carmagnola old more than 4 centuries; the third, said Museum of books and illumination, was the result of the exploitation of the extraordinary collections of the Medici library and of the policy pursued by the Director Guido Biagi. Of such museums, outlining the events that led to their creation, only the museum in Carmagnola has come to this day, while the others for various reasons, were closed and never reconstituted. The contribution also provides an opportunity to reflect on the creation of a new museum of the book in Italy at a time when libraries lack visibility into the organization of the Ministry of cultural heritage, which could be distributed and polycentric in the offices of the State libraries in Rome, with its hub at the National Central Library.

  11. Crayfish distribution updating in central Italy

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    M. Scalici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introductions of non-indigenous crayfish have received great attention from biologists and policy makers during the last decade. Purposes of this study are to update the knowledge about the crayfish distribution in Latium (central Italy, and to show how interactions between indigenous and non-indigenous species can affect their distribution. The main findings of this study were (1 the great decrease of the Austropotamobius pallipes populations and (2 the alarming spread of the four non-indigenous species red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (the main widespread crayfish, spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus, and yabby Cherax destructor. We never observed indigenous and non-indigenous crayfish living in syntopy, although we noted that white-clawed crayfish had become extinct at sites where non-indigenous crayfish species exist now. Other type of problems (i.e. illegal harvesting and over-abstraction of water for human use can also reduce the distribution and abundance of the indigenous crayfish stocks. The distribution of Italian crayfish populations has not been studied sufficiently and more studies are required nationwide to assess the conservation status of A. pallipes and the occurrence of non-indigenous species. A national database of crayfish records ought to be constructed and regularly updated.

  12. EHR and data protection issues in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virone, Maria Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Technological progresses and the changed way to collect, access and use data are at the bottom of the European Commission proposal for a "General Data Protection Regulation" (25 January 2012). Implications of safeguarding privacy and harmonization of existing rules are extremely important also for national Health Systems. Mobility of patients and health professionals as well as cross-border healthcare connected with the increasing use of Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare Services are modifying traditional medical approaches and applications. New tools, as Electronic Health Records, provide significant benefits as empowering health consumers and minimizing health costs. Anyway, EHRs have limits: for example, they should cause risks for individuals, professionals and institutions in terms of personal injuries and liabilities. In this scenario, it's evident that technical aspects (as health standards and interoperability) are as important as legal and regulatory privacy issues. Presently, mandatory acts on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of health e-Data still missing at all levels. Italy is adopting binding and non-binding legal documents to tackle the problem. Are they enough?

  13. Dormice distribution in Romagna region (Italy

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    Dino Scaravelli

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The geographic distribution of dormice living in Romagna is summarised. Data were collected by direct observation of living animals, finding of dead specimens and analysis of owl pellets, in addition to recent literature. Eliomys quercinus, Myoxus glis and Muscardinus avellanarius are present in this area between north continental and central Mediterranean Italy. The distribution is presented according to 1Ox10 km squares of the UTM grid. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mioxidi nella regione Romagna (Italia - Vengono riassunti i dati disponibili sulla distribuzione geografica dei Mioxidi viventi in Romagna. Si sono utilizzati dati provenienti da osservazioni dirette, letteratura, esemplari ritrovati morti e dell'analisi di borre di rapaci notturni. Eliomys quercinus, Myoxus glis e Muscardinus avellanarius sono presenti in quest'area che si pone a confine tra il bioclima continentale nord-italiano e quello più mediterraneo del centro. La distribuzione delle specie è mostrata su reticolo UTM 10x10 km.

  14. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  15. Mass Media and Political Power in Italy

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    Zolotykh A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of merging the political, economic and media power in Italy and the role of the Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi are discussed. “La Repubblica” and “L’Unita” publications are investigated (2009–2010 and compared via the famous European media as “The Financial Times”, “The Times”, “The Independent”, ”Le Monde”, “La Liberation”, “Le Nouvel Obstrvateur”, “El Pais” and “Der Spigel”. In particular the author pays the attention to polemics devoted to the information freedom protection. The existence of media empires in modern mass media hinders one of the main functions of the press, namely the spreading of objective and full information on all sides of the society life directed by plurality in informational and analytical material. At the same moment in time the mass media influence on the fates of the leading political figures, Silvio Berlusconi in particular. A topical problem of complex relations of modern press and different political, social and power structures is analyzed on the Italian example.

  16. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...... of a medico-legal homicide autopsy rate close to 100%. Regional differences might exist however, due to the fact that the catchment area of the department is dominated by the city of Copenhagen. Conclusions: The strength of the database includes a long running time, near complete regional coverage...

  17. The western submerged sector of the Ischia volcanic island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): new insights into its volcano-tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Salvatore; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Milano, Girolamo; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The Island of Ischia is a volcanic complex located in the northern boundary of the Gulf of Naples (south-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The island represents only the 30% of a larger, E-W trending, volcanic ridge and likely controlled by a regional tectonic lineament. Despite the many geo-volcanological and geophysical investigations conducted on the island since long time, still little is the knowledge of its offshore. Several marine surveys have been carried out over the past 10 years from IAMC - CNR research institute (Naples, Italy) mostly in the frame of INGV and GNV projects, funded by Italy Civil Protection Department. Such surveys have largely improved the knowledge of the entire volcanic complex. Multibeam bathymetry surveys has revealed several, previously unexpected, morphological and morphostructural features. Moreover some structural patterns and volcano alignments offshore show similarities with those occurring at a regional scale in the Campania region and, locally, between the island of Procida and Phlegrean Fields. Here we report the joint interpretation of geophysical data focused on the western underwater sector of the island. Interpretation was chiefly based on processing/inversion of magnetic data in turn constrained by bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles. Magnetic data, acquired by the IAMC during two different cruises in 2000 and 2002 onboard of the Urania R/V oceanographic vessel, put in evidence that the western seafloor of Ischia is characterized by the presence of a strong residual magnetic anomaly field of complex behaviour, somewhere correlated to local bathymetry. These two last methods allowed to define and distinguish between undersea and subsurface magnetic (i.e. magmatic) basement. Interpretation was also constrained by seismological data.

  18. Arctic lineage-canine distemper virus as a cause of death in Apennine wolves (Canis lupus in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Di Sabatino

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1-S3 from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe.

  19. Arctic lineage-canine distemper virus as a cause of death in Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, Daria; Lorusso, Alessio; Di Francesco, Cristina E; Gentile, Leonardo; Di Pirro, Vincenza; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Giovannini, Armando; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Marsilio, Fulvio; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy) by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1-S3) from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe.

  20. Neolovenula alluaudi (Guerne and Richard, 1890 (Calanoida: Diaptomidae: Paradiaptominae: first record in Italy and review of geographical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Alfonso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of recent limnological campaigns in Apulia (south-eastern Italy, 217 temporary and permanent ponds were studied. The diaptomid calanoid copepod Neolovenula alluaudi was collected in eight of these ponds. These findings represent the first record of the species in Italy. Morphological features are provided with original drawings and these are compared with the descriptions currently available in the literature. Environmental variables were recorded in order to provide information on the ecological preferenda of the species in its Italian occurrence sites, and co-occurring crustacean fauna was identified and reported for each pond. A thorough review of the available literature allowed us to more accurately determine the chorology of the species and to propose a biogeographical hypothesis concerning its distribution. A map of the species’ occurrence sites, derived from literature data and the new Italian sites, is presented and it is suggested that the actual chorotype of N. alluaudi is the result of an association of the Saharian and Turanic-European-Mediterranean chorotypes.

  1. Two dimensional modelling of flood flows and suspended sedimenttransport: the case of the Brenta River, Veneto (Italy

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    P. Martini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a numerical model for the simulation of flood waves and suspended sediment transport in a lowland river basin of North Eastern Italy. The two dimensional depth integrated momentum and continuity equations are modified to take into account the bottom irregularities that strongly affect the hydrodynamics in partially dry areas, as for example, in the first stages of an inundation process or in tidal flow. The set of equations are solved with a standard Galerkin finite element method using a semi-implicit numerical scheme where the effects of both the small channel network and the regulation devices on the flood wave propagation are accounted for. Transport of suspended sediment and bed evolution are coupled with the hydrodynamics using an appropriate form of the advection-dispersion equation and Exner's equation. Applications to a case study are presented in which the effects of extreme flooding on the Brenta River (Italy are examined. Urban and rural flood risk areas are identified and the effects of a alleviating action based on a diversion channel flowing into Venice Lagoon are simulated. The results show that this solution strongly reduces the flood risk in the downstream areas and can provide an important source of sediment for the Venice Lagoon. Finally, preliminary results of the sediment dispersion due to currents and waves in the Venice Lagoon are presented.

  2. Medieval History Studies and Political Pressure at the North-Eastern Italian Border (1881-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Zabbia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Italian mother tongue local Historians that studied Eastern Friuli’s, Trieste’s and Istria’s medieval history between last quarter of the Nineteenth Century and the outbreak of the First World War were usually absorbed in complaining the Italian character of these regions. This common aim was, however, put into effect in different ways depending on the places where these researchers studied. For Friulian historians it was primarily about staking Gorizia from Italy, and above all Trieste. For Istrians it was a priority to defend themselves against the Slavic historians, who questioned the Italian tradition of the region. Lastly, for Trieste inhabitants became urgent the need to defend the Italian character of the town – already felt during the second part of the Nineteenth Century – at the beginning of the Twentieth Century, when the threat of the claim of a Slavic membership was much stronger.

  3. A hydrogeological conceptual model of the Suio hydrothermal area (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroli, Michele; Lancia, Michele; Albano, Matteo; Casale, Anna; Giovinco, Gaspare; Petitta, Marco; Zarlenga, Francesco; dell'Isola, Marco

    2017-09-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed that describes the hydrothermal system of Suio Terme (central Italy). The studied area is located along the peri-Tyrrhenian zone of the central Apennines, between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate platform sequences of the Aurunci Mountains and the volcanic sequences of the Roccamonfina. A multi-disciplinary approach was followed, using new hydrogeological surveys, the interpretation of stratigraphic logs of boreholes and water wells, and geophysical data—seismic sections, shear-wave velocity (Vs) crustal model and gravimetric model. The collected information allowed for construction of a conceptual hydrogeological model and characterization of the hydrothermal system. The Suio hydrothermal system is strongly influenced by the Eastern Aurunci hydrostructure. Along the southeastern side, the top of the hydrostructure sinks to -1,000 m relative to sea level via a series of normal faults which give origin to the Garigliano graben. Geological and hydrogeological data strongly suggest the propagation and mixing of hot fluids, with cold waters coming from the shallow karst circuit. The aquitard distribution, the normal tectonic displacements and the fracturing of the karst hydrostructure strongly influence the hydrothermal basin. Carbon dioxide and other gasses play a key role in the whole circuit, facilitating the development of the hydrothermal system. The current level of knowledge suggests that the origin of the Suio hydrothermalism is the result of interaction between the carbonate reservoir of the Eastern Aurunci Mountains and the hot and deep crust of this peri-Tyrrhenian sector, where the Roccamonfina volcano represents the shallowest expression.

  4. A hydrogeological conceptual model of the Suio hydrothermal area (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroli, Michele; Lancia, Michele; Albano, Matteo; Casale, Anna; Giovinco, Gaspare; Petitta, Marco; Zarlenga, Francesco; dell'Isola, Marco

    2017-03-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed that describes the hydrothermal system of Suio Terme (central Italy). The studied area is located along the peri-Tyrrhenian zone of the central Apennines, between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate platform sequences of the Aurunci Mountains and the volcanic sequences of the Roccamonfina. A multi-disciplinary approach was followed, using new hydrogeological surveys, the interpretation of stratigraphic logs of boreholes and water wells, and geophysical data—seismic sections, shear-wave velocity (Vs) crustal model and gravimetric model. The collected information allowed for construction of a conceptual hydrogeological model and characterization of the hydrothermal system. The Suio hydrothermal system is strongly influenced by the Eastern Aurunci hydrostructure. Along the southeastern side, the top of the hydrostructure sinks to -1,000 m relative to sea level via a series of normal faults which give origin to the Garigliano graben. Geological and hydrogeological data strongly suggest the propagation and mixing of hot fluids, with cold waters coming from the shallow karst circuit. The aquitard distribution, the normal tectonic displacements and the fracturing of the karst hydrostructure strongly influence the hydrothermal basin. Carbon dioxide and other gasses play a key role in the whole circuit, facilitating the development of the hydrothermal system. The current level of knowledge suggests that the origin of the Suio hydrothermalism is the result of interaction between the carbonate reservoir of the Eastern Aurunci Mountains and the hot and deep crust of this peri-Tyrrhenian sector, where the Roccamonfina volcano represents the shallowest expression.

  5. The Italian Eastern Border: About Lines, Areas and Volumes Confine orientale: di linee, aree e volumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Verč

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    A border encompasses three different meanings: a line to be defended or crossed, an empty area to avoid contact and a space which produces new meanings. Since the unification of Italy its eastern border has mostly been perceived as a line of conflict. Only for a few decades has it been devoid of violence. Its conflictual character is to be sought in a general cultural process which from the 6th to the 8th century saw Slav populations settle on the periphery of what was then the “centre” of the civilised world (Rome and Byzantium. The Slavs demanded recognition on an equal footing with the dominant model of civilisation, which considered the “Slav presence” as inferior. To move beyond a deep-rooted conflict it will be necessary to reconsider the border as a space with positive potential.

    A border encompasses three different meanings: a line to be defended or crossed, an empty area to avoid contact and a space which produces new meanings. Since the unification of Italy its eastern border has mostly been perceived as a line of conflict. Only for a few decades has it been devoid of violence. Its conflictual character is to be sought in a general cultural process which from the 6th to the 8th century saw Slav populations settle on the periphery of what was then the “centre” of the civilised world (Rome and Byzantium. The Slavs demanded recognition on an equal footing with the dominant model of civilisation, which considered the “Slav presence” as inferior. To move beyond a deep-rooted conflict it will be necessary to reconsider the border as a space with positive potential.

  6. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [IARC, 2004]. Of the 5.7 million deaths attributable each year to tobacco smoking, more than 600,000 (i.e., around 1% of all deaths worldwide) refer to subjects who never smoked and that prematurely die due to their lifetime exposure to SHS [WHO, 2012]. Italy has been one of the pioneering countries - and the first large country worldwide - to enact a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in 2005. The law, introduced in order to reduce SHS exposure, banned smoking in indoor public places, including restaurants and bars, and in all workplaces [Gallus et al., 2006]. This legislation has had an undisputed success from a public health perspective: it was widely supported and strongly observed, restaurant and bar owners did not experience any dreaded decline in their business, and tobacco smoking (and its detrimental health effects) substantially decreased [Gallus et al., 2006; Gorini et al., 2007]. More importantly, the regulation has been effective in dramatically reducing SHS exposure [Gorini et al., 2007; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. Most high- income countries followed Italy in the adoption of similar comprehensive smoking ban legislations over the last decade [IARC, 2009]. These regulations and the information campaigns conducted for their enforcement had also the effect to increase the social unacceptability of SHS and consequently the adoption of voluntary home smoking bans [Ferketich et al., 2014; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2014]. This notwithstanding, in 2010 specific Italian subpopulations were still frequently exposed to SHS, both in public and private places. In particular, 54% of the young (i.e., age 15-24 years) were still exposed to SHS in any settings, 27% in private houses, and 33% in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. The relatively high SHS exposure in private cars is of

  7. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    The high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity makes Italy vulnerable to forest fires both in the summer and in winter. In particular, northern regions are predominantly characterized by a winter fire regime, mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north, while southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. The agricultural and rural areas, in the last century, have been gradually abandoned, especially in areas with complex topography. Many of these areas were subject to reforestation, leading to the spread of pioneer species mainly represented by Mediterranean conifer, which are highly vulnerable to fire. Because of the frequent spread of fire, these areas are limited to the early successional stages, consisting mainly of shrub vegetation; its survival in the competition with the climax species being ensured by the spread of fire itself. Due to the frequency of fire ignition — almost entirely man caused — the time between fires on the same area is at least an order of magnitude less than the time that would allow the establishment of forest climax species far less vulnerable to fire. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions, which is expected to make a significant contribution to the problem in a few years' time. The goal of such detailed planning is to dramatically reduce the costs associated with water bombers fleet management and fire

  8. Viscosity of Campi Flregrei (Italy) magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    Viscosity is an important factor governing both intrusive and volcanic processes. The most important parameters governing silicate melts viscosity are bulk composition of melt and temperature. Pressure has only minor effect at crustal depths, whereas crystals and bubbles have significant influence. Among compositional parameters, the water content is critical above all in terms of rheological behaviour of melts and explosive style of an eruption. Consequently, without an appropriate knowledge of magma viscosity depending on the amount of dissolved volatiles, it is not possible to model the processes (i.e., magma ascent, fragmentation, and dispersion) required to predict realistic volcanic scenarios and thus forecast volcanic hazards. The Campi Flegrei are a large volcanic complex (~150 km2) located west of the city of Naples, Italy, that has been the site of volcanic activity for more than 60 ka and represents a potential volcanic hazard owing to the large local population. In the frame of a INGV-DPC (Department of Civil Protection) project devoted to design a multidisciplinary system for short-term volcano hazard evaluation, we performed viscosity measurements, under dry and hydrous conditions, of primitive melt compositions representative of two Campi Flegrei eruptions (Minopoli-shoshonite and Fondo Riccio-latite). Viscosity of the two melts have been investigated in the high temperature/low viscosity range at atmospheric pressure in dry samples and at 0.5 GPa in runs having water content from nominally anhydrous to about 3 wt%. Data in the low temperature/high viscosity range were obtained near the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure on samples whose water contents vary from 0.3 up to 2.43 wt%. The combination of high- and low-viscosity data permits a general description of the viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using a modified Tamman-Vogel-Fulcher equation. logν = a+ --b--+ --d--×exp(g × w-) (T - c) (T - e) T (1) where

  9. Adaptively smoothed seismicity earthquake forecasts for Italy

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    Yan Y. Kagan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a model for estimation of the probabilities of future earthquakes of magnitudes m ≥ 4.95 in Italy. This model is a modified version of that proposed for California, USA, by Helmstetter et al. [2007] and Werner et al. [2010a], and it approximates seismicity using a spatially heterogeneous, temporally homogeneous Poisson point process. The temporal, spatial and magnitude dimensions are entirely decoupled. Magnitudes are independently and identically distributed according to a tapered Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We have estimated the spatial distribution of future seismicity by smoothing the locations of past earthquakes listed in two Italian catalogs: a short instrumental catalog, and a longer instrumental and historic catalog. The bandwidth of the adaptive spatial kernel is estimated by optimizing the predictive power of the kernel estimate of the spatial earthquake density in retrospective forecasts. When available and reliable, we used small earthquakes of m ≥ 2.95 to reveal active fault structures and 29 probable future epicenters. By calibrating the model with these two catalogs of different durations to create two forecasts, we intend to quantify the loss (or gain of predictability incurred when only a short, but recent, data record is available. Both forecasts were scaled to five and ten years, and have been submitted to the Italian prospective forecasting experiment of the global Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP. An earlier forecast from the model was submitted by Helmstetter et al. [2007] to the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Model (RELM experiment in California, and with more than half of the five-year experimental period over, the forecast has performed better than the others.

  10. The revised aeromagnetic anomaly map of Italy

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    O. Faggioni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the revised aeromagnetic anomaly map of Italy and its surrounding seas, projected at reference altitude of 2500 m and geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The magnetic data set used for the map compilation is composed of the total intensity field data acquired partly during the aeromagnetic surveys performed by the Italian National Oil Company (Agip - Direzione Esplorazione Idrocarburi between 1971 and 1980, and during the new surveys committed by the Geophysical Corporate Services of Eni Spa - Exploration & Production Division in the years 2001-2002. In both campaigns the recorded data were very dense and uniformly distributed over the examined area. A detailed re-processing of this data set and a re-organization into a new digital database were carried out. The re-processing was done using modern adequate techniques, obtaining a remarkable exploitation of the data information content. The result is a colour shaded relief map that shows on a large scale many of the structural lineaments of the Italian area. The inclusion of a larger number of data and the subtraction of an appropriate magnetic reference field are the main reasons of an enhancement in the anomaly definition. This new map replaces the previous Agip version, and aims to become the reference aeromagnetic cartography of the Italian area. We think this work will be useful both for researchers interested in large scale tectonic studies, and for anyone interested in the investigation of smaller scale structures, such as volcanic complexes or infra-sedimentary magnetic bodies, as well as for mining research.

  11. Analyzing wildfire exposure on Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze wildfire exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic wildfires, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 wildfire events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of wildfire exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of wildfire exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform wildfire risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.

  12. The Ml Magnitude Scale In Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, P.; Lolli, B.; Filippucci, M.; de Simoni, B.

    To improve the reliability of Ml magnitude estimates in Italy, we have updated the database of real Wood-Anderson (WA) and of simulated Wood Anderson (SWA) am- plitudes recently revised by Gasperini (2002). This was done by the re-reading of orig- inal WA seismograms, made available by the SISMOS Project of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (INGV), as well as by the analysis of further Very Broad Band (VBB) recordings of the MEDNET network of INGV for the period from 1996 to 1998. The full operability, in the last five years, of a VBB station located exactly at the same site (TRI) of a former WA instrument allowed us to reliably infer a new attenuation function from the joined WA and SWA dataset. We found a significant deviation of the attenuation law from the standard Richter table at distances larger than 400 km where the latter overestimates the magnitude up to about 0.3 units. We also computed regionalized attenuation functions accounting for the differences in the propagation properties of seismic waves between the Adriatic (less attenuating) and Tyrrhenian (more attenuating) sides of the Italian peninsula. Using this improved Ml magnitude database we were also able to further improve the computation of duration (Md) and amplitude (Ma) magnitudes computed from short period vertical seismometers of the INGV as well as to analyze the time variation of the station calibrations. We found that the absolute amplification of INGV stations is underestimated almost exactly by a factor 2 starting from the entering upon in operation of the digital acquisition system at INGV in middle 1984.

  13. Climatic indicators of desertification in Basilicata, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes such as the increase, in intensity and frequency, of extreme phenomena - hurricanes, thunder storms, flooding, drought -, of temperature and of biodiversity loss can influence land morphogenetic processes and prime a severe decreasing of natural resources such as the desertification. Desertification, that is the progressive loss of large areas of globe removed from human activities, is one of the most urgent problems in the last decades and is a phenomenon occurring on the most part of Mediterranean countries, such as Italy and in particular its Southern area. The most interested areas and regions are: Sicily, Sardinia, Pelage island, Pantelleria, Egadi island, Ustica, Calabria and Basilicata. The National Action Plane against Desertification (in Italian PAN calls for synergy between resources and expertises of Basilicata Regional Office, APAT, ARPAB and research organizations for monitoring the Desertification Status Indicators. ARPAB monitoring Section developed a project to monitor indices and indicators. In this project, we focused on climatology, that is the study of climate and its variability; in particular we characterized rainfalls regimes, homogeneous rainfall areas and extreme rainfall events. Until now, this study produced historical trends of temperature and rainfall, and maps of indicators of desertification, in particular annual maps of aridity, and monthly and quarterly maps of drought. The analysis of the thematic maps of precipitation, drought and aridity gave us the possibility of evaluating the Region Basilicata tendency to the desertification phenomenon and, in particular, by considering the climatic and morphological variability. Concerning the observation periods (80 years of precipitations, 10 years of aridity, last 3 years of drought data the region susceptibility to drought and aridity is higher in the NW and SE areas as compared to the Apennine areas on the NE-SW direction.

  14. The Strategic Plan for Tourism Development in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ANGELONI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual works on tourism destination competitiveness affirm the central importance of planning the process of value creation within destination. Italy is an emblematic case of why and how a leading tourism destination may lose competitiveness along the years. Up to the 1980s Italy was in fact the top international tourism destination, but then such ranking gradually decreased, because of more complexity of sector and, over all, because of marginality of tourism in the government agenda and more in general of the country. After years of strategic myopia, Italy finally has a tool that formalizes its vision and indicates the key factors that can be leveraged in order to regain ground. In 2013, Italy adopted a National Strategic Plan. Therefore, this paper aims to describe an important turning point in tourism policies for the economic and cultural development of Italy. The research highlights the problematic areas of Italy’s tourism industry and explains how a new approach should make the Italian destination able to successfully compete on the international tourism market.

  15. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  16. Geological evidence of pre-2012 seismic events, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

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    Riccardo Caputo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In May 2012, two moderate (-to-strong earthquakes that were associated with a noticeable aftershock sequence affected the eastern sector of the Po Plain, Italy, in correspondence with a buried portion of the Apennines thrust belt. The Provinces of Ferrara, Modena and Bologna (Emilia Romagna Region, Mantua (Lombardy Region, and Rovigo (Veneto Region were affected to different extents. The first shock (Ml 5.9 according to the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, and Mw 6.1 according to the US Geological Service occurred on May 20, 2012, at 2:03 a.m. (GMT; this was the strongest of the sequence, and it was followed by several aftershocks (up to Ml 5.1. This first event produced secondary ground deformation effects, which were mainly associated with liquefaction phenomena that were spread across the broader epicentral region, and particularly in the western sector of the Ferrara Province [Papathanassiou et al. 2012, this volume]. A few weeks after the earthquake, a paleoseismological trench was excavated south of San Carlo village, where earthquake-induced effects were widely documented. This report presents the preliminary results of the paleoseismological investigation and documents the occurrence in the same area of paleo-events older than the May 2012 earthquakes. […

  17. Stray dog and cat laws and enforcement in Czech Republic and in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voslářvá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing numbers of stray dogs and cats have posed serious public-health, socioeconomic, political and animal-welfare problems in many EU countries. Stray animal population control is a complex issue and there are no easy solutions. Recognising the importance of the issue the European Commission has, since 2007, actively contributed to the elaboration of the first global welfare standards for the control of dog populations in the framework of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE. Problem-solving approaches vary in different countries as there is no common European Community legislation dealing with stray animal control. In this paper the authors describe the characteristics of the stray dog and cat problem in general and focus on existing European legislation. A comparative overview of policies and measures in place in the Czech Republic and in Italy is made to observe the differences between the two countries and understand the different needs in each, considering their historical and social differences (i.e. a post-communist eastern country vs a western country and founder member of what is now the European Union.

  18. Geodetic deformations in the Central-Southern Apennines (Italy) from repeated GPS surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpelloni, E.; Baldi, P. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Pesci, A.; Riguzzi, F.; Anzidei, M.; Casula, G.; Galvani, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    It was computed the horizontal strain rate field for a sector of the Central-Southern Apennines (Italy) from GPS data collected during yearly repeated campaigns performed from 1994 to 2000 on the GeoModAp (Geodynamic Modeling of the Appennines) geodetic network. Site velocities were obtained starting from the daily coordinates and covariance solutions, using a Kalman filter approach. The residual velocity field with respect to a Eurasian fixed reference frame shows two different prevalent motion trends, NE-ward for the the eastern sector of the network and NW-ward for the western one. The mean strain rate tensor, obtained from a least square inversion method, shows a significant extensional deformation (1.2 x 10{sup -}8 strain/yr) normal to the Apennine chain, in agreement with seismological and neotectonic data. On the basis of the network dimension, of about 250 km, this value gives a well constrained estimate of about 3.0 plus or minus 0.2 mm/yr of the extensional velocity oriented N55E, normal to the chain axis. The results show a transition of the strain rate field from about N-S compression in the Tyrrhenian side to about NE-SW extension toward the Adriatic, which depicts a more complex deformation pattern.

  19. Stratigraphic and geophysical integrated methodologies for the interpretation of sulphur water formational environment in Salento (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margiotta, S.; Negri, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze dei Materiali-Osservatorio di Fisica, Chimica, Geologia Ambientali-Universita del Salento (Italy)

    2008-06-13

    The Salento coal deposits (south-eastern Italy) are unutilized because these deposits are thin and nearly uneconomic but they have a high scientific and economic value due to their high organic sulphur content. The studied area is located in the western Salento peninsula where wells used by a fish-farm (''Ittica Ugento'') have shown high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide. Data from surface and boreholes stratigraphic surveys integrated with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) allow us to define the structure, depths and geometry of the aquifer and its relationship with saltwater intrusion. Induced polarization (IP) with pole-dipole array survey has been carried out near the coastline. The value measured was over 50 msec. A direct relationship is shown to exist between IP values and the aquifer containing sulphur water. The high resolution of the data obtained with the applied methods not only shows the validity of the methodology but is the key to evaluating the groundwater resources of the area. The proposed mechanism is that of entrapment of sulphur water in a graben structure: when sulphate-enriched waters of marine origin come into contact with organic substances and lignite deposits (Galatone Formation, Oligocene), they are deprived not only of free oxygen, but also generate hydrogen sulphide as a result of the reduction of sulphates. (author)

  20. Quantifying volcanic hazard at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) with uncertainty assessment: 1. Vent opening maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Andrea; Isaia, Roberto; Neri, Augusto; Vitale, Stefano; Aspinall, Willy P.; Bisson, Marina; Flandoli, Franco; Baxter, Peter J.; Bertagnini, Antonella; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Iannuzzi, Enrico; Pistolesi, Marco; Rosi, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    Campi Flegrei is an active volcanic area situated in the Campanian Plain (Italy) and dominated by a resurgent caldera. The great majority of past eruptions have been explosive, variable in magnitude, intensity, and in their vent locations. In this hazard assessment study we present a probabilistic analysis using a variety of volcanological data sets to map the background spatial probability of vent opening conditional on the occurrence of an event in the foreseeable future. The analysis focuses on the reconstruction of the location of past eruptive vents in the last 15 ka, including the distribution of faults and surface fractures as being representative of areas of crustal weakness. One of our key objectives was to incorporate some of the main sources of epistemic uncertainty about the volcanic system through a structured expert elicitation, thereby quantifying uncertainties for certain important model parameters and allowing outcomes from different expert weighting models to be evaluated. Results indicate that past vent locations are the most informative factors governing the probabilities of vent opening, followed by the locations of faults and then fractures. Our vent opening probability maps highlight the presence of a sizeable region in the central eastern part of the caldera where the likelihood of new vent opening per kilometer squared is about 6 times higher than the baseline value for the whole caldera. While these probability values have substantial uncertainties associated with them, our findings provide a rational basis for hazard mapping of the next eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera.

  1. ASTRONOMICAL CALIBRATION OF THE SERRAVALLIAN/TORTONIANCASE PELACANI SECTION (SICILY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO CARUSO

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We performed a cyclostratigraphic study of a sedimentary sequence (Case Pelacani section outcropping in the south-eastern margin of Sicily (Italy and covering the Upper Serravallian/Lower Tortonian stratigraphic interval. Calcareous plankton biostratigraphic data reported in another paper proved that all the sequence of bio-events generally reported from just below and above the S/T boundary is present in the section. They allowed a detailed correlation with the Gibliscemi section.  Preliminary paleomagnetic data suggest that a secondary remagnetization  component prevents the recognition of the correct sequence of paleomagnetic chrons along the studied interval. The sedimentary record has been compared, on the basis of an integrated calcareous plankton biostratigraphy, with that of the Gibliscemi section. Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the lithological patterns recognized throughout the succession and the application of spectral methodologies to the abundance fluctuations of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides quadrilobatus highlighted the presence in the signal of the classic Milankovitch frequencies (precession, obliquity and eccentricity. Correlation of the lithological patterns and of the different frequency bands extracted by numerical filtering from the faunal record with the same components modulating the insolation curve provided an astronomic calibration of the sedimentary record and, consequently, a precise age for all the calcareous plankton bioevents recognized throughout the studied interval. 

  2. Canine nephrotoxicosis induced by melamine-contaminated pet food in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Monia; Vascellari, Marta; Gallina, Albino; Agnoletti, Fabrizio; Angeletti, Roberto; Mutinelli, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Two young dogs belonging to the same kennel placed nearby Treviso (north-eastern Italy) died at the end of 2008 with clinical signs of renal failure. They were subjected to necropsy and were evaluated for histopathological and toxicological changes. Both the animals had same clinical signs and laboratory evidence of uremia. Post mortem investigations revealed severe nephrotoxicosis, associated with uroliths deposition within renal tubules and pelvis. The predominant crystal type was identical to those observed in the kidneys of animals involved in the 2004 and 2007 melamine-associated renal failure epidemic in Asia and US, providing evidence that they share the same causative agent. High doses of melamine were detected in the pet food administered to the dogs, likewise melamine was identified in renal tissue from one dead dog and in urine samples from both the animals. Therefore, a diagnosis of melamine-related nephrotoxicosis was made. To the author's knowledge this is the first report about melamine contamination of pet food from EU.

  3. Volcanic conduit migration over a basement landslide at Mount Etna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, I; Caracciolo, F D'Ajello; Branca, S; Ventura, G; Chiappini, M

    2014-06-13

    The flanks of volcanoes may slide in response to the loading of the edifice on a weak basement, magma push, and/or to tectonic stress. However, examples of stratovolcanoes emplaced on active landslides are lacking and the possible effects on the volcano dynamics unknown. Here, we use aeromagnetic data to construct a three-dimensional model of the clay-rich basement of Etna volcano (Italy). We provide evidence for a large stratovolcano growing on a pre-existing basement landslide and show that the eastern Etna flank, which slides toward the sea irrespective of volcanic activity, moves coherently with the underlying landslide. The filling of the landslide depression by lava flows through time allows the formation of a stiffness barrier, which is responsible for the long-term migration of the magma pathways from the coast to the present-day Etna summit. These unexpected results provide a new interpretation clue on the causes of the volcanic instability processes and of the mechanisms of deflection and migration of volcanic conduits.

  4. Elemental characterization, sources and wind dependence of PM1 near Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Zannoni, Daniele; Visin, Flavia; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, PM1 elemental composition and relative sources have been investigated near Venice (Eastern Po Valley, Italy). Considering the lack of information on PM1 composition in this area and the general poor knowledge of emission profiles, this study can give useful information to better understand the source profile and the dispersion of finer particles. A sampling campaign was carried out in two sampling sites located inside the "Marco Polo" international airport of Venice. Elemental composition on PM1 samples was characterized by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Five sources were identified and quantified by using the positive matrix factorization receptor model: heavy oil combustion, road traffic, airplane tire-wear, glassmaking and mixed combustions. The role of local atmospheric circulation was investigated by studying the source contributions as a function of wind velocity. Days characterized by low dispersion (lower wind speed and higher wind calm with respect to full period rose) showed a higher contribution for all sources, and a glassmaking contribution increase linked to wind blowing from South, where the artistic glass district of Venice is located.

  5. Lung cancer in an urban area in Northern Italy near a coke oven plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Stefano; Stagnaro, Emanuele; Casella, Claudia; Puppo, Antonella; Daminelli, Enrico; Fontana, Vincenzo; Valerio, Federico; Vercelli, Marina

    2005-02-01

    Coke ovens are well-known sources of potentially carcinogenic air pollutants, but studies on resident populations are still poor. This study investigates the incidence of lung cancer near a coke oven in Cornigliano, a district of the Genoa municipality in Northern Italy. Genoa proper and one district similar to Cornigliano as regards socio-economic deprivation were selected as referents. Incidence data were drawn from the Ligurian Cancer Registry for 1986-1997 calendar period. Concentrations of pollutants related to the industrial activity (namely benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, PM(10), CO, NO(2) and SO(2)) were collected in selected locations before and after the coke oven closing. Spatial trend around the plant was assessed by Stone's test, while the pattern of risk across Cornigliano was evaluated via disease mapping in a Bayesian model. A gradient of air pollutants was observed around the coke oven, which disappeared after its closing. In Cornigliano, 158 lung cancer cases were observed in males and 28 in females. Only a marginal excess risk was observed versus the two selected referents, while a gradient in the areas close to the plant emerged among females. Disease mapping revealed another cluster of risk for both sexes in the Eastern part of the district, where a foundry was operative until the early 1980s. The excess risk for females is consistent with pollution measurements and with other epidemiological evidence. The geographic pattern of incidence suggests a role of industrial air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer.

  6. Spatial and temporal reconstruction of bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1 dispersion in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzago, Camilla; Ebranati, Erika; Sassera, Davide; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Lauzi, Stefania; Gabanelli, Elena; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2012-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a widespread and economically important pathogen of cattle; genetic typing of BVDV isolates distinguished two species, namely BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. BVDV-1 is the most widespread worldwide and it includes at least 11 subtypes. With the aim of clarifying the routes of circulation of BVDV-1 subtypes in an endemic area and in order to investigate the relationships between the genetic diversity of BVDV and its geographic distribution, a phylogenetic analysis of 5' untranslated region of Italian sequences was performed using a new Bayesian framework allowing the spatial-temporal reconstruction of the evolutionary dynamics of highly variable viruses. Our analyses suggested that different BVDV subtypes entered the North-Eastern part of Italy at different times within a time span between 23 and 7 years ago. The largest virus dispersion occurred between the mid 1990s and the early 2000s. A possible gravity-like dynamic of the infection, originating in larger animal population then following patterns of national commercial-flow, should be hypothesized.

  7. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF GULLIES IN AN AGROPASTORAL AREA IN SARDINIA, ITALY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudio ZUCCA; Annalisa CANU; Raniero DELLA PERUTA

    2006-01-01

    According to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification soil erosion is one of the main causes of desertification in the northern Mediterranean. Recently the role of channel erosion in sediment delivery has become better understood by experimental research. The aim of the present work is to set up a simplified experimental methodology to study the relations between gully erosion, land types, and land use. The experimental area (about 720 ha) is located in a hilly region threatened by desertification in central eastern Sardinia, Italy, and is characterised by uneven morphology with steep slopes, where agropastoral activities, particularly tillage with heavy machinery and overgrazing,are causing severe soil erosion and compromising agricultural productivity. Previous studies carried out in the same area highlighted the need to quantify and monitor soil erosion to be able to give management guidelines to decision makers and to farmers. In this study, carried out in May 2003, an inventory of gullies of the area was made through an integrated use of aerial photographs and field surveys. The degree of activity and morphological features of gullies were assessed in the field using simple criteria. The approach applied included the measurement of the position and shape of gully heads and their width and depth at specific points. Relations were studied among distribution, frequency, and morphological characteristics of gullies and geomorphological features and land use.

  8. 78 FR 11627 - Certain Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Rescission of... on certain granular polytetrafluoroethylene (``PTFE'') resin from Italy. The period of review...

  9. Transport Scheduling for Sustainable Urban Development in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Lazaroiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to analyze the existing railway infrastructure and to develop the trains scheduling in the north-west of Italy for an efficient and sustainable urban development. The Genoa rail corridor, in north-west of Italy, has a very complex track configuration and complex junction intersections, with a constrained capacity network shared by a large number passenger and freight trains. In the present study a new methodology to create a modular, periodical and symmetrical train scheduling for Genoa, Italy rail corridor is proposed. The objective is to answer the necessities for a modern and irregular mobility, typical for large metropolitan areas. The understanding of preferred methods of transportation, amounts of commodities shipped and types of commodities shipped can provide vision into the resiliency of the transportation system and project future sustainable infrastructure improvements necessary to create more reliable and efficient methods of transportation.

  10. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, A. [Engage Energy Canada, L.P., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs.

  11. Eastern Pacific Ocean Purse-seine Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data sets from U.S.A.-flagged purse-seine vessels fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These purse seiners...

  12. Palaemon pacijicus (Stimpson) in eastern Cape tidal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-09-25

    Sep 25, 1984 ... pools, estuaries and in near -shore waters of the eastern Cape ... growth, ~ Wt is the increase in shrimp mean mass over time .... females were plotted to show changes in population structure ..... Monthly plankton tows in.

  13. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual ... Dynamics of fresh produce marketing in small-scale irrigation schemes: challenges ... Analysis of media role in bridging the information gap for environmentally ...

  14. System Protection Schemes in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana

    The Ph.D. project investigates different aspects of voltage stability in the power system of Eastern Denmark taking into account the large amount of wind power. In the project, a simple System Protection Scheme (SPS) against voltage instability in Eastern Denmark is developed. The SPS design...... outages in the southern part of the 132-kV system introduce further stress in the power system, eventually leading to a voltage collapse. The local System Protection Scheme against voltage collapse is designed as a response-based scheme, which is dependent on local indication of reactive and active power...... for the Eastern Danish power system, such as wind farm rejection, cascading line outages and power oscillations. E.g. Nordic inter-area oscillation modes and damping were easily detected from phasor data during the outage of the 400 kV tie-line between Eastern Denmark and Sweden. It is concluded that recording...

  15. A review of Leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter K. Ngure; Albert Kimutai; Zipporah W. Ng'ang'a; Geoffrey Rukunga; Willy K. Tonui

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the Eastern Africa region. We searched PUB MED and MEDLINE with several key words-namely,"leishmaniasis";"cutaneous"," diffuse cutaneous"," mucosal", and "visceral leishmaniasis";"kala azar" and "post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis"-for recont clinical and basic science articles related to leishmaniasis in countries in the Eastern Africa region. Poverty, wars, conflicts and migration have significantly aggravated leishmaniases in Eastern Africa. Of particular concern is the increasing incidence of Leishmania-HIV co-infection in Ethiopia where 20--40% of the persons affected by visceral leishmaniasis are HIV-co-infected. Sudan has the highest prevalence rate of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) in the world, a skin complication of visceral leishmaniasis(VL) that mainly afflicts children below age ten. In view of its spread to previously non-endemic areas and an increase in imported cases, leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa should be considered a health emergency.

  16. Structural features of Panarea volcano in the frame of the Aeolian Arc (Italy): Implications for the 2002-2003 unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Valerio; Neri, Marco; Walter, Thomas R.

    2009-05-01

    Panarea, characterized by gas unrest in 2002-2003, is the volcanic island with the least constrained structure in the eastern-central Aeolian Arc (Italy). Based on structural measurements, we define here its deformation pattern relative to the Arc. The main deformations are subvertical extension fractures (63% of data), normal faults (25%) and dikes (12%). The mean orientation of the extension fractures and faults is ˜N38°E, with a mean opening direction of N135° ± 8°, implying extension with a moderate component of dextral shear. These data, matched with those available for Stromboli volcano (pure opening) and Vulcano, Lipari and Salina volcanoes (predominant dextral motions) along the eastern-central Arc, suggest a progressive westward rotation of the extension direction and an increase in the dextral shear. The dextral shear turns into compression in the western arc. The recent unrest at Panarea, coeval to that of nearby Stromboli, may also be explained by the structural context, as both volcanoes lie along the portion of the Arc subject to extension.

  17. The palaeogeographic setting and the local environmental impact of the 130 ka Falconiera tuff-cone eruption (Ustica island, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vita, Sandro; Foresta Martin, Franco

    2017-04-01

    This research focuses on the effects of the last eruption at Ustica (Suthern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), which formed the Falconiera tuff-cone at around 130 ka BP in the north-eastern tip of the island. This eruption was mainly explosive and phreatomagmatic, and emplaced a series of pyroclastic surge beds that formed an asymmetric tuff cone. This is the most easily recognizable volcanic edifice on Ustica, although its north-eastern sector has been partially eroded. A section of the feeding conduit is exposed northward, and is composed of lavas that fed the last stages of the eruption characterized by an intracrateric lava lake and a Strombolian scoria-fallout deposit. The eruption occurred during Upper Pleistocene Marine Isotopic Substage 5.5, a warm period characterized by a high sea-level stand (6±3 m above the present sea level in stable areas) and the diffusion of subtropical flora and fauna across the Mediterranean sea. This eruption slightly modified the morphology of Ustica, but impacted both marine and terrestrial environments, burying beach deposits rich in mollusk shells (i.e. Strombus bubonius, Conus testudinarius, Brachidontes puniceus), colonies of corals (Cladocora caespitosa) and subaerial plants (Chamaerops humilis). These organisms, found in some cases in their life position, along with other lines of evidence, provide information on the palaeogeography of this sector of the island at the time of the eruption, and on the local impact of this event on the environment.

  18. Assessing soil-structure interaction during the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence (Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrigo Caserta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the moderate-magnitude aftershocks succeeding to the 2016 August 24th, Mw = 6.0, Amatrice (Italy mainshok to asses, specially during an ongoing seismic sequence, the soil-structure interaction where cultural Heritage is involved. We have chosen as case study the San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039  in Acquasanta Terme town, about 20 Km northeast of Amatrice. First of all we studied the soil shaking features in order to characterize the input to the monument. Then, using the recordings in the church, we tried to figure out  how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

  19. Trace elements in coals of eastern Donbas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taranushich, F.F. [All Russian Research & Geological Prospecting Institute for Coal Deposits, Rostov Na Donu (Russian Federation)

    2003-02-01

    Peculiarities of trace element (TE) distribution in coals of the eastern Donets Basin (Donbas) are discussed. The correlation of TE distribution with specific features of the geological setting of the region can testify to the hydrothermal introduction of trace elements or their redistribution in fluid-active zones. The geochemical regionalization of eastern Donbas is based on TE distribution. Strontium-gold-base metal, tungsten, and selenium geochemical belts and a rare metal geochemical block are outlined.

  20. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates.

  1. Adolescent health care in Italy: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, V; Filati, G; Fiscina, B; Marsciani, A; Piacentini, G; Timoncini, G; Reggiani, L; Zucchini, A

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this mini-review is to present the National Health System and services available for adolescents in Italy, and to review the most relevant data on morbidity and mortality in Italian teens. Adolescent medicine in Italy is not a separate speciality, but there are some distinct services for adolescents in paediatric departments or gynaecologic wards, mostly in large cities where university hospitals or hospital of national relevance are located. Primary health care in Italy is provided mainly by general practitioners (GPs) and pediatricians, and on-call physicians (Guardia Medica) for after-hours medical care and services. The number of centres providing care for adolescents in Italy is 4097 (50% of these are in the North of Italy, 20% in the Central regions and 20% in the South and Islands). The population of Italy on January 1st 2011 was approximately 60,477,881 and the number of adolescents, aged 10 to 19 years, was 6,214,000. The most frequent causes of death in adolescents are motor vehicle accidents - more than half of which are related to drug or alcohol use - followed by cancer and suicide. In primary care, adolescents present with a large number of issues, particularly upper respiratory infections, musculoskeletal problems, pain syndromes, obesity, eating disorders, dermatological issues, mood and somatoform disorders, school and mental health problems, and chronic fatigue, many of which require a coordinated, multidisciplinary management approach. The estimated population with a chronic illness is 8%. There are no specific protocols for the transition to adult medicine physicians for patients with chronic diseases or special health needs. In order to improve the quality and quantity of education in adolescent health for paediatricians and GPs, the Study Group of Emilia and Romagna Region for Adolescent Health Care (SGA-ER) is going to organize, beginning in 2012, a two year educational intervention course in adolescent health.

  2. Lady Morgan in Italy: A Traveller with an Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Abbate Badin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lady Morgan (née Sydney Owenson was a professional Irish travellerand travel-writer, who spent over a year on the peninsula. The travelogueItaly (1821 she was commissioned to write on the basis of the reputationshe had acquired as a novelist (e.g. The Wild Irish Girl, 1806 anda socio-political writer (France, 1817, left a mark on Italy and on theunderstanding of Italy in Great Britain. Her writings, in fact, helpeddisseminate the ideal of a unified Italy and influence British and Irishpublic opinion in favour of Italy’s aspirations to cast off foreign or domesticautocratic rule. Moreover, she used her travelogue to serve thecause of Ireland disguising a patriotic message about her home countryunder her many sallies about nationalism and the right to self-determinationconcerning Italy. The political impact of her book, unusualfor a travel account written by a woman, was enhanced by Morgan’sradical ideology, the gender bias of her observations and her originalmethods. The present article purposes to examine Morgan’s double,feminine and masculine, approach of mixing solid documentation withapparently frivolous notes originating in the feminine domain of societynews, commentary on the domestic scene and emotional reporting onsocial and historical events. Distrusting male-authored official history,Morgan gave a central place in her work to the informal sources fromwhich she gathered her insights about Italy. Analysing how she came toobtain the contemporary input for elaborating her ideas will be the aimof this chapter which will dwell on the more worldly aspects of Morgan’ssojourn in the peninsula focussing on the company she kept, theactivities she partook of, the events of a domestic nature she witnessed.

  3. The relationship between happiness and health: evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Fabio

    2014-08-01

    We test the relationship between happiness and self-rated health in Italy. The analysis relies on a unique dataset collected through the administration of a questionnaire to a representative sample (n = 817) of the population of the Italian Province of Trento in March 2011. Based on probit regressions and instrumental variables estimates, we find that happiness is strongly correlated with perceived good health, after controlling for a number of relevant socio-economic phenomena. Health inequalities based on income, work status and education are relatively contained with respect to the rest of Italy. As expected, this scales down the role of social relationships.

  4. [The history of migration and national identity in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonni, A

    1993-01-01

    The author explores trends in migration from and within Italy and their impact on nationalism, politics, and social change. "In the last two centuries, Italy has witnessed significant population displacements. Firstly the seasonal emigration of the modern era: secondly, between 1880 and the immediate post-war (1950) [period], the European and transoceanic 'great emigration'. During the fifties and sixties, displacements took place within the peninsula from South to North. Finally, from the second half of the seventies, immigration from the...'Third world' began." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND ITA)

  5. The possible role of nuclear energy in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposto, Stefano [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Via Eudossiana 9, 00187 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: stefanoesposto@gmail.com

    2008-05-15

    Italy, after the vote of the referendum in 1987, stopped producing electricity from nuclear fuel for the energy demand. This paper analyses the current Italian energy outlook and clarifies how the choice to abandon the nuclear option damaged our economy. Nowadays, the possible reintroduction of civil nuclear option is hindered by groups claiming that nuclear energy is not convenient and is incredibly dangerous. In this paper it is clarified with international references how this is not correct and why Italy should start thinking seriously and without prejudices at future energy options.

  6. Integrated Geophysycal Prospecting in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Sites in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Matera, Loredana; Persico, Raffaele; Muci, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, the results of some integrated geophysical prospecting (magnetometric and GPR) are exposed. This work has been performed in collaboration between archaeologists and geophysicists within the research project "History and Global Archaeology of the Rural Landascapes in Italy, between Late Antiquity and Medieval period. Integrated systems of sources, methodologies, and technologies for a sustainable development", financed by the Italian Ministry for Instruction, University and Research MIUR. In particular, the archaeological sites of Badia and San Giovanni in Malcantone, both in the Apulia Region (eastern-southern Italy) have been prospect. The sites have been identified on the basis of available documents, archaeological surveys and testimonies. In particular, we know that in Badia [1] it was probable the presence of an ancient roman villa of the late ancient period (strongly damaged by the subsequent ploughing activities). Whereas in San Giovanni there is still, today, a small chapel (deconsecrated) that was likely to be part of a previous larger church (probably a basilica of the early Christian period) restricted in the subsequent centuries (probably in more phases). The Saracen raids of the XVI centuries made the site ruined and abandoned. In both sites integrated prospecting have been performed [2-6] with a the integration of archaeological, magnetometer and a GPR data have provided some interesting results, allowing to overcome the difficulties relative to an extensive GPR prospecting, that could not be performed because of the intrinsic superficial roughness and/or the intensive ploughing activities. The prospecting activities, in particular, have added elements that seem to confirm the main archaeological hypothesis that motivate their performing, as it will be show at the conference. References [1] M. T, Giannotta, G. Leucci, R. Persico, M. Leo Imperiale, The archaeological site of Badia in terra d'Otranto: contribution of the

  7. Educational Geophysics at INGV, Rome (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dida Working Group Ingv,.

    2002-12-01

    Italy is a country prone to Earth phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and landslides that left a trace in the memory of people. About 60% of the Italian territory is classified in the current seismic hazard maps, and large cities as Neaples and Catania are located close to the two largest active volcanoes of Europe (Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna, respectively). Nevertheless, school programs are often inadequate about the natural hazards of the country. For this reason there are many requests from schoolteachers to visit with their classes the academic Institutions and to attend geophysical talks. The working group for educational activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia promotes and realizes Earth science outreach programs devoted to increase the knowledge of geophysical topics. The educational activity is one of the most important tasks of our Institution together with the research activities and the 24-hours survey of the Italian Seismic Network. The INGV hosts in its headquarter of Rome many visits of primary, secondary and high schools with an increasing demand year by year. Every year about 3,000 students visit our Institute over more than 60 open-days, and we participate to exhibitions and outreach projects organized by several Institutions. We show here what has been done at INGV for the geophysical education, underlining the problems and the successes of these activities. We describe also an educational project developed together with a teacher's team of secondary-school. Aim of this experience was to stimulate the interest of 12-year-old kids to unfamiliar arguments like seismology. The class was introduced to physical topics as waves and wave propagation by means of simple experiments. Then they visited the INGV were the research activities were shown, with emphasis on seismological studies; they were also thought how the Italian Seismic Network monitors earthquakes and how to use the P and S waves for their

  8. 75 FR 8925 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... International Trade Administration Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Preliminary Results of... pressure sensitive plastic tape from Italy pursuant to section 751(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended... review request. See Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping...

  9. 77 FR 33159 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... rates based entirely on facts available. See Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Preliminary... France, Germany, and Italy for the period May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011. We have preliminarily...

  10. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... of Five-Year Sunset Review, 77 FR 53867 (September 4, 2012); Certain Pasta from Italy and Turkey; and... from Italy and Turkey, 77 FR 53909 (September 4, 2012). \\2\\ See Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey... Order, 78 FR 693 (January 4, 2013); and Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited...

  11. 76 FR 28455 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  12. 76 FR 27663 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  13. 76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... International Trade Administration Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy would... sunset review of the antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy, pursuant to section 751(c)(2)...

  14. 76 FR 12939 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... International Trade Administration Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy. The Department has conducted an... antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930,...

  15. 76 FR 15209 - 150th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... the Unification of Italy, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On March 17, Italy celebrates the 150th anniversary of its unification as a single state. On this day, we... own Union, Giuseppe Garibaldi's campaign for the unification of Italy inspired many around the...

  16. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY... steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission... sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead...

  17. 76 FR 46323 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... from Germany, Italy, and Mexico \\2\\ would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... with respect to stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, and Mexico, and Commissioner...

  18. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313,...

  19. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico,...

  20. Simulation of tsunami generation, propagation and coastal inundation in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Samaras

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an advanced tsunami generation, propagation and coastal inundation 2-DH model (i.e. 2-D Horizontal model based on the higher-order Boussinesq equations – developed by the authors – is applied to simulate representative earthquake-induced tsunami scenarios in the Eastern Mediterranean. Two areas of interest were selected after evaluating tsunamigenic zones and possible sources in the region: one at the Southwest of the island of Crete in Greece and one at the East of the island of Sicily in Italy. Model results are presented in the form of extreme water elevation maps, sequences of snapshots of water elevation during the propagation of the tsunamis, and inundation maps of the studied low-lying coastal areas. This work marks one of the first successful applications of a fully nonlinear model for the 2-DH simulation of tsunami-induced coastal inundation; acquired results are indicative of the model's capabilities, as well of how areas in the Eastern Mediterranean would be affected by eventual larger events.

  1. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Giantsis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable domain 1 (VD1 domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey. A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels.

  2. Rock glaciers, protalus ramparts and pronival ramparts in the south-eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, R. R.; Boccali, C.; Žebre, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts are characteristic landforms of the periglacial domain often used as markers for the occurrence of permafrost in mountain terrains. As such, relict rock glaciers can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions. We present here the first previously unreported rock glacier inventory of the south-eastern Alps (including the north-eastern-most region of Italy and Slovenia), interpreted from high resolution orthophotos and a high resolution digital terrain model interpolated from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). We mapped 53 rock glaciers covering a total area of 3.45 km2. The majority of rock glaciers are classified as relict and distributed between 1708 and 1846 m a.s.l. with slope ranging between 19° and 27°. In addition to rock glaciers we observed 66 protalus (pronival) ramparts, having median elevation of 1913 m a.s.l. and covering 0.48 km2. More than half of the inventoried protalus ramparts are located in the more maritime area of the Alps with higher precipitation compared to the location of rock glaciers. Using paleoclimate reconstruction based on the 1981-2010 climatological record of the area, we infer that the rock glaciers formed during one of the dry and cold periods of the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Possible evolution of the active pronival forms observed in the most maritime area of this alpine sector is also discussed.

  3. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  4. Microhabitat preferences in springs, as shown by a survey of nematode communities of Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto AMBROSINI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-four Alpine springs in Trentino, from 170 to 2792 m a.s.l., were studied and compared for their nematode communities. No nematode species appeared typical for Alpine springs (crenobionts or crenophiles; all the identified species were common in freshwater habitats, with a wide geographical range on a continental scale. The only notable, rare species was Eumonhystera tatrica Daday, 1896, a very small nematode that has apparently never been found since it was first described. Eighty springs with more than 7 specimens were retained for statistical analysis. Distinctness indices Δ+ and Λ+ showed that only a few springs exceeded the funnel limits for such indices. The relationships between habitat features and community composition, and nematode ecology (c-p value, size, trophy were investigated. The major abiotic factors influencing nematode community composition were water temperature and lithology (carbonate vs. crystalline. In addition, nematode communities from mosses differed from those sampled from other substrata in the same spring. The nematode-based Maturity Index increased with crenic water temperature, in contrast to other indices, such as Shannon diversity and Berger-Parker index, suggesting that r-strategist nematode species replace K-strategists along the temperature gradient. Lithology did not alter species richness, but the relative abundance of species present on carbonate and in non-carbonate substrata varied. The 4th-corner analysis showed significant correlations between temperature and species trophic group. In conclusion, nematodes are good ecological indicators of polluted vs unpolluted waters, but, at least in this case, cannot be used to differentiate between unpolluted habitats such as Alpine springs.

  5. Kernel oil content and oil composition in walnut (Juglans regia L.) accessions from north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggetti, Luca; Ferfuia, Claudio; Chiabà, Cristina; Testolin, Raffaele; Baldini, Mario

    2017-07-13

    Walnut oil use is currently limited by its poor oxidative stability due to the high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Modifying the oil composition may be a goal in walnut breeding to increase interest in this crop. Exploring natural variability and identifying the main environmental factors affecting oil quality are necessary in crop selection. Therefore 190 wild accessions were collected and evaluated during 2013 and 2014 for oil content and its fatty acid profile and compared with five commercial cultivars as references. High variation in kernel oil content and fatty acid composition was found in the native walnut. Kernel oil content ranged from 54.2 to 72.2% (w/w). The major fatty acids were linoleic (range 46.9-68.6%), oleic (10.0-25.1%), linolenic (6.9-17.6%), palmitic (3.9-11.4%) and stearic (1.1-5.2%) acids. Some accessions had oil with a fatty acid ratio very different from the reference commercial cultivars, especially the oleic acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. A significant linear relationship and positive correlation between the daily minimum temperature and oleic acid content was observed in the wild walnuts. The wide variation in fatty acid content and composition allows superior accessions to be selected for diffusion among growers. A suitable strategy would be to make a selection against PUFA content rather than just for high oleic acid. In addition, the selected high oleic accessions, before being utilized per se or as donor parents in breeding programs, have to demonstrate they are not adversely affected by the environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Space Radar Image of Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Mt. Vesuvius, one of the best known volcanoes in the world primarily for the eruption that buried the Roman city of Pompeii, is shown in the center of this radar image. The central cone of Vesuvius is the dark purple feature in the center of the volcano. This cone is surrounded on the northern and eastern sides by the old crater rim, called Mt. Somma. Recent lava flows are the pale yellow areas on the southern and western sides of the cone. Vesuvius is part of a large volcanic zone which includes the Phalagrean Fields, the cluster of craters seen along the left side of the image. The Bay of Naples, on the left side of the image, is separated from the Gulf of Salerno, in the lower left, by the Sorrento Peninsula. Dense urban settlement can be seen around the volcano. The city of Naples is above and to the left of Vesuvius; the seaport of the city can be seen in the top of the bay. Pompeii is located just below the volcano on this image. The rapid eruption in 79 A.D. buried the victims and buildings of Pompeii under several meters of debris and killed more than 2,000 people. Due to the violent eruptive style and proximity to populated areas, Vesuvius has been named by the international scientific community as one of fifteen Decade Volcanoes which are being intensively studied during the 1990s. The image is centered at 40.83 degrees North latitude, 14.53 degrees East longitude. It shows an area 100 kilometers by 55 kilometers (62 miles by 34 miles.) This image was acquired on April 15, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  7. The (Adverse) Effects of Expanding Higher Education: Evidence from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppedisano, Veruska

    2011-01-01

    Over the period 1995-1998 Italy experienced an expansion of its higher education supply with the aim of reducing regional differences in educational attainment. This paper evaluates the effects of this policy on enrolment, drop out and academic performance. The paper combines differences across provinces in the number of campuses constructed with…

  8. The Gender Wage Gap by Education in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mussida, C.; Picchio, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper studies the gender wage gap by educational attainment in Italy using the 1994–2001 ECHP data. We estimate wage distributions in the presence of covariates and sample selection separately for highly and low educated men and women. Then, we decompose the gender wage gap across all

  9. SYMPOSIUM IN ITALY: FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists from Europe, North America and South America convened in Capri, Italy, April 24-28, 2006 for the Ninth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was Eutrophication: The toxic effects of ammonia, nitrite and th...

  10. The reconstruction of historical national accounts: the case of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Fenoaltea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evolution of Italy’s historical national accounts. Their ongoing revision highlights methodological issues of general interest for scholars that use historical time series, and most particularly for scholars engaged in their reconstruction.

  11. School Quality and Family Background in Italy. Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, Giorgio; Checchi, Daniele

    This study investigated whether combined reduction in teacher-student ratios and increase in parental education in Italy between the late 1940s and the late 1980s has significantly impacted the educational attainment and labor market returns of Italians born between 1941-70. Data came from the 1993, 1995, 1998, and 2000 Survey on the Income and…

  12. The English National Curriculum Assessment System: A Commentary from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Emma

    2009-01-01

    In Italian secondary schools, it is not literature that is studied but the history of literature; it is not philosophy that is studied but the history of philosophy. Similarly, in higher education, history students even have to take an exam in the history of historiography. This is to say that in Italy, history plays a key cultural role. That is…

  13. The family in Italy: cultural changes and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Mario; Sampogna, Gaia; del Vecchio, Valeria; Giacco, Domenico; Mulè, Alice; de Rosa, Corrado; Fiorillo, Andrea; Maj, Mario

    2012-04-01

    In Italy family is characterized by strong ties and is based on mutual aid of all its members. In the last 20 years, the structure of families has been significantly influenced by demographic, economic and professional changes, determining a transition from a patriarchal to a nuclear family model, with a higher number of single-parent families, single-person households, childless couples, same-sex couples. However, this transition has been slower than that occurring in other countries, probably as an ongoing impact of prevalent Catholic ideology. Major demographic changes in Italian families include, 1) a decrease in the number of marriages, delays in getting married and an high number of civil ceremonies, 2) a reduced birth rate; Italy is becoming one of the European countries with lowest growth rate, and with an increasing number of births out of wedlock, 3) an increased marital instability, with a constantly growing number of legal separations. Like many countries, relatives in Italy are highly involved in the care of patients with physical and mental disorders. There are a number of psychosocial interventions used in Italy including the 'Milan Systemic Approach' and family psycho-educational interventions. However, there are difficulties in implementing these interventions which are highlighted in this paper. We recommend research strategies to identify the best options to involve families in the care of mentally ill patients and to adequately support them.

  14. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  15. Apo in Italië: Europa en de PKK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    1998-01-01

    Of het nu puur toeval was of een geniale zet —ik geloof dat beide voor een deel het geval zijn —Öcalans aankomst in Italië op 12 november heeft de Koerdische kwestie hoger op de Europese politieke agenda geplaatst dan ze ooit gestaan had, en dat is in de visie van vrijwel alle Koerden een zeer

  16. Minority Language Protection in Italy. Linguistic minorities and the Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Italian case of minority language protection in the media. After providing a general introduction to the development of the protection of minority languages in Europe in general and of minority language broadcast media in Italy in particular, the article focuses on the ro

  17. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  18. Henry the Seventh and Italy, an historiographical account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Varanini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article represents an introduction to the contributions published in the monographic section dedicated to the expedition of Henry VII of Luxembourg in Italy (1310-1313. It provides an historiographic overview and some insightful clues.

  19. Research on inverse methods and optimization in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Francesco

    1991-01-01

    The research activities in Italy on inverse design and optimization are reviewed. The review is focused on aerodynamic aspects in turbomachinery and wing section design. Inverse design of blade rows and ducts of turbomachinery in subsonic and transonic regime are illustrated by the Politecnico di Torino and turbomachinery industry (FIAT AVIO).

  20. The educational expectations of children of immigrants in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minello, A.; Barban, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate the short-run educational expectations and long-term educational aspirations of the children of immigrants living in Italy and attending eighth grade. The authors look at educational ambition, both as a predictor of educational choice and as a measure of soci