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Sample records for eastern grey wolves

  1. Genetic differentiation of eastern wolves in Algonquin Park despite bridging gene flow between coyotes and grey wolves.

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    Rutledge, L Y; Garroway, C J; Loveless, K M; Patterson, B R

    2010-12-01

    Distinguishing genetically differentiated populations within hybrid zones and determining the mechanisms by which introgression occurs are crucial for setting effective conservation policy. Extensive hybridization among grey wolves (Canis lupus), eastern wolves (C. lycaon) and coyotes (C. latrans) in eastern North America has blurred species distinctions, creating a Canis hybrid swarm. Using complementary genetic markers, we tested the hypotheses that eastern wolves have acted as a conduit of sex-biased gene flow between grey wolves and coyotes, and that eastern wolves in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) have differentiated following a history of introgression. Mitochondrial, Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite genetic data provided genotypes for 217 canids from three geographic regions in Ontario, Canada: northeastern Ontario, APP and southern Ontario. Coyote mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes were common across regions but coyote-specific Y chromosome haplotypes were absent; grey wolf mtDNA was absent from southern regions, whereas grey wolf Y chromosome haplotypes were present in all three regions. Genetic structuring analyses revealed three distinct clusters within a genetic cline, suggesting some gene flow among species. In APP, however, 78.4% of all breeders and 11 of 15 known breeding pairs had assignment probability of Q0.8 to the Algonquin cluster, and the proportion of eastern wolf Y chromosome haplotypes in APP breeding males was higher than expected from random mating within the park (Pwolves remain genetically distinct despite providing a sex-biased genetic bridge between coyotes and grey wolves. We speculate that ongoing hybridization within the park is limited by pre-mating reproductive barriers.

  2. The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves

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    Ostrander Elaine A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A selective sweep containing the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 gene is associated with size variation in domestic dogs. Intron 2 of IGF1 contains a SINE element and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP found in all small dog breeds that is almost entirely absent from large breeds. In this study, we surveyed a large sample of grey wolf populations to better understand the ancestral pattern of variation at IGF1 with a particular focus on the distribution of the small dog haplotype and its relationship to the origin of the dog. Results We present DNA sequence data that confirms the absence of the derived small SNP allele in the intron 2 region of IGF1 in a large sample of grey wolves and further establishes the absence of a small dog associated SINE element in all wild canids and most large dog breeds. Grey wolf haplotypes from the Middle East have higher nucleotide diversity suggesting an origin there. Additionally, PCA and phylogenetic analyses suggests a closer kinship of the small domestic dog IGF1 haplotype with those from Middle Eastern grey wolves. Conclusions The absence of both the SINE element and SNP allele in grey wolves suggests that the mutation for small body size post-dates the domestication of dogs. However, because all small dogs possess these diagnostic mutations, the mutations likely arose early in the history of domestic dogs. Our results show that the small dog haplotype is closely related to those in Middle Eastern wolves and is consistent with an ancient origin of the small dog haplotype there. Thus, in concordance with past archeological studies, our molecular analysis is consistent with the early evolution of small size in dogs from the Middle East. See associated opinion by Driscoll and Macdonald: http://jbiol.com/content/9/2/10

  3. The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves: a closer look at statistics, sampling, and the alleged Middle Eastern origin of small dogs

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    Klütsch Cornelya FC

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a response to Gray MM, Sutter NB, Ostrander EA, Wayne RK: The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves. BMC Biology 2010, 8:16. See research article at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/16.

  4. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe.

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    Pilot, Małgorzata; Branicki, Wojciech; Jedrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Goszczyński, Jacek; Jedrzejewska, Bogumiła; Dykyy, Ihor; Shkvyrya, Maryna; Tsingarska, Elena

    2010-04-21

    While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum.

  5. Alternative prey use affects helminth parasite infections in grey wolves.

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    Friesen, Olwyn C; Roth, James D

    2016-09-01

    Predators affect prey populations not only through direct predation, but also by acting as definitive hosts for their parasites and completing parasite life cycles. Understanding the affects of parasitism on prey population dynamics requires knowing how their predators' parasite community is affected by diet and prey availability. Ungulates, such as moose (Alces americanus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), are often important prey for wolves (Canis lupus), but wolves also consume a variety of alternative prey, including beaver (Castor canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). The use of alternative prey, which may host different or fewer parasites than ungulates, could potentially reduce overall abundance of ungulate parasites within the ecosystem, benefiting both wolves and ungulate hosts. We examined parasites in wolf carcasses from eastern Manitoba and estimated wolf diet using stable isotope analysis. Taeniidae cestodes were present in most wolves (75%), reflecting a diet primarily comprised of ungulates, but nematodes were unexpectedly rare. Cestode abundance was negatively related to the wolf's δ(13) C value, indicating diet affects parasite abundance. Wolves that consumed a higher proportion of beaver and caribou (Rangifer tarandus), estimated using Bayesian mixing models, had lower cestode abundance, suggesting the use of these alternative prey can reduce parasite loads. Long-term consumption of beavers may lower the abundance of adult parasites in wolves, eventually lowering parasite density in the region and ultimately benefiting ungulates that serve as intermediate hosts. Thus, alternative prey can affect both predator-prey and host-parasite interactions and potentially affect food web dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  6. The genealogy and genetic viability of reintroduced Yellowstone grey wolves.

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    Vonholdt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Earl, Dent A; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of the grey wolf in Yellowstone National Park is an outstanding example of a successful reintroduction. A general question concerning reintroduction is the degree to which genetic variation has been preserved and the specific behavioural mechanisms that enhance the preservation of genetic diversity and reduce inbreeding. We have analysed 200 Yellowstone wolves, including all 31 founders, for variation in 26 microsatellite loci over the 10-year reintroduction period (1995-2004). The population maintained high levels of variation (1995 H(0) = 0.69; 2004 H(0) = 0.73) with low levels of inbreeding (1995 F(IS) = -0.063; 2004 F(IS) = -0.051) and throughout, the population expanded rapidly (N(1995) = 21; N(2004) = 169). Pedigree-based effective population size ratios did not vary appreciably over the duration of population expansion (1995 N(e)/N(g) = 0.29; 2000 N(e)/N(g) = 0.26; 2004 N(e)/N(g) = 0.33). We estimated kinship and found only two of 30 natural breeding pairs showed evidence of being related (average r = -0.026, SE = 0.03). We reconstructed the genealogy of 200 wolves based on genetic and field data and discovered that they avoid inbreeding through a wide variety of behavioural mechanisms including absolute avoidance of breeding with related pack members, male-biased dispersal to packs where they breed with nonrelatives, and female-biased subordinate breeding. We documented a greater diversity of such population assembly patterns in Yellowstone than previously observed in any other natural wolf population. Inbreeding avoidance is nearly absolute despite the high probability of within-pack inbreeding opportunities and extensive interpack kinship ties between adjacent packs. Simulations showed that the Yellowstone population has levels of genetic variation similar to that of a population managed for high variation and low inbreeding, and greater than that expected for random breeding within packs or across the entire breeding pool. Although short

  7. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus).

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    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  8. Intense harvesting of eastern wolves facilitated hybridization with coyotes.

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    Rutledge, Linda Y; White, Bradley N; Row, Jeffrey R; Patterson, Brent R

    2012-01-01

    Despite ethical arguments against lethal control of wildlife populations, culling is routinely used for the management of predators, invasive or pest species, and infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate that culling of wildlife can have unforeseen impacts that can be detrimental to future conservation efforts. Specifically, we analyzed genetic data from eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) sampled in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada from 1964 to 2007. Research culls in 1964 and 1965 killed the majority of wolves within a study region of APP, accounting for approximately 36% of the park's wolf population at a time when coyotes were colonizing the region. The culls were followed by a significant decrease in an eastern wolf mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype (C1) in the Park's wolf population, as well as an increase in coyote mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. The introgression of nuclear DNA from coyotes, however, appears to have been curtailed by legislation that extended wolf protection outside park boundaries in 2001, although eastern wolf mtDNA haplotype C1 continued to decline and is now rare within the park population. We conclude that the wolf culls transformed the genetic composition of this unique eastern wolf population by facilitating coyote introgression. These results demonstrate that intense localized harvest of a seemingly abundant species can lead to unexpected hybridization events that encumber future conservation efforts. Ultimately, researchers need to contemplate not only the ethics of research methods, but also that future implications may be obscured by gaps in our current scientific understanding.

  9. The concerted impact of domestication and transposon insertions on methylation patterns between dogs and grey wolves.

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    Janowitz Koch, Ilana; Clark, Michelle M; Thompson, Michael J; Deere-Machemer, Kerry A; Wang, Jun; Duarte, Lionel; Gnanadesikan, Gitanjali E; McCoy, Eskender L; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Stahler, Daniel R; Pellegrini, Matteo; Ostrander, Elaine A; Wayne, Robert K; Sinsheimer, Janet S; vonHoldt, Bridgett M

    2016-04-01

    The process of domestication can exert intense trait-targeted selection on genes and regulatory regions. Specifically, rapid shifts in the structure and sequence of genomic regulatory elements could provide an explanation for the extensive, and sometimes extreme, variation in phenotypic traits observed in domesticated species. Here, we explored methylation differences from >24 000 cytosines distributed across the genomes of the domesticated dog (Canis familiaris) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus). PCA and model-based cluster analyses identified two primary groups, domestic vs. wild canids. A scan for significantly differentially methylated sites (DMSs) revealed species-specific patterns at 68 sites after correcting for cell heterogeneity, with weak yet significant hypermethylation typical of purebred dogs when compared to wolves (59% and 58%, P 66%) of differentially methylated regions contained or were associated with repetitive elements, indicative of a genotype-mediated trend. However, DMSs were also often linked to functionally relevant genes (e.g. neurotransmitters). Finally, we utilized known genealogical relationships among Yellowstone wolves to survey transmission stability of methylation marks, from which we found a substantial fraction that demonstrated high heritability (both H(2) and h(2 ) > 0.99). These analyses provide a unique epigenetic insight into the molecular consequences of recent selection and radiation of our most ancient domesticated companion, the dog. These findings suggest selection has acted on methylation patterns, providing a new genomic perspective on phenotypic diversification in domesticated species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genetic subdivision and candidate genes under selection in North American grey wolves.

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    Schweizer, Rena M; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Harrigan, Ryan; Knowles, James C; Musiani, Marco; Coltman, David; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Previous genetic studies of the highly mobile grey wolf (Canis lupus) found population structure that coincides with habitat and phenotype differences. We hypothesized that these ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes) should exhibit signatures of selection in genes related to morphology, coat colour and metabolism. To test these predictions, we quantified population structure related to habitat using a genotyping array to assess variation in 42 036 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 111 North American grey wolves. Using these SNP data and individual-level measurements of 12 environmental variables, we identified six ecotypes: West Forest, Boreal Forest, Arctic, High Arctic, British Columbia and Atlantic Forest. Next, we explored signals of selection across these wolf ecotypes through the use of three complementary methods to detect selection: FST /haplotype homozygosity bivariate percentilae, bayescan, and environmentally correlated directional selection with bayenv. Across all methods, we found consistent signals of selection on genes related to morphology, coat coloration, metabolism, as predicted, as well as vision and hearing. In several high-ranking candidate genes, including LEPR, TYR and SLC14A2, we found variation in allele frequencies that follow environmental changes in temperature and precipitation, a result that is consistent with local adaptation rather than genetic drift. Our findings show that local adaptation can occur despite gene flow in a highly mobile species and can be detected through a moderately dense genomic scan. These patterns of local adaptation revealed by SNP genotyping likely reflect high fidelity to natal habitats of dispersing wolves, strong ecological divergence among habitats, and moderate levels of linkage in the wolf genome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Targeted capture and resequencing of 1040 genes reveal environmentally driven functional variation in grey wolves.

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    Schweizer, Rena M; Robinson, Jacqueline; Harrigan, Ryan; Silva, Pedro; Galverni, Marco; Musiani, Marco; Green, Richard E; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    In an era of ever-increasing amounts of whole-genome sequence data for individuals and populations, the utility of traditional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) array-based genome scans is uncertain. We previously performed a SNP array-based genome scan to identify candidate genes under selection in six distinct grey wolf (Canis lupus) ecotypes. Using this information, we designed a targeted capture array for 1040 genes, including all exons and flanking regions, as well as 5000 1-kb nongenic neutral regions, and resequenced these regions in 107 wolves. Selection tests revealed striking patterns of variation within candidate genes relative to noncandidate regions and identified potentially functional variants related to local adaptation. We found 27% and 47% of candidate genes from the previous SNP array study had functional changes that were outliers in sweed and bayenv analyses, respectively. This result verifies the use of genomewide SNP surveys to tag genes that contain functional variants between populations. We highlight nonsynonymous variants in APOB, LIPG and USH2A that occur in functional domains of these proteins, and that demonstrate high correlation with precipitation seasonality and vegetation. We find Arctic and High Arctic wolf ecotypes have higher numbers of genes under selection, which highlight their conservation value and heightened threat due to climate change. This study demonstrates that combining genomewide genotyping arrays with large-scale resequencing and environmental data provides a powerful approach to discern candidate functional variants in natural populations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ’ and internationally minded ‘new citizens’ has left some in poverty, unemployment and social insecurity, leading them to rely on normative coping and semi-autonomous strategies for security and social guarantees. This anthology explores how grey zones of governance, borders, relations and invisibilities affect...

  13. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

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    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  14. Kill rate of wolves on moose in a low density prey population: results from eastern interior Alaska.

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study to estimate the kill rate of wolves on moose was initiated in eastern interior Alaska. This study is the first to examine kill rates in a system with such a...

  15. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

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    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  16. Summer movements, predation and habitat use of wolves in human modified boreal forests.

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    Gurarie, Eliezer; Suutarinen, Johanna; Kojola, Ilpo; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2011-04-01

    Grey wolves (Canis lupus), formerly extirpated in Finland, have recolonized a boreal forest environment that has been significantly altered by humans, becoming a patchwork of managed forests and clearcuts crisscrossed by roads, power lines, and railways. Little is known about how the wolves utilize this impacted ecosystem, especially during the pup-rearing summer months. We tracked two wolves instrumented with GPS collars transmitting at 30-min intervals during two summers in eastern Finland, visiting all locations in the field, identifying prey items and classifying movement behaviors. We analyzed preference and avoidance of habitat types, linear elements and habitat edges, and tested the generality of our results against lower resolution summer movements of 23 other collared wolves. Wolves tended to show a strong preference for transitional woodlands (mostly harvested clearcuts) and mixed forests over coniferous forests and to use forest roads and low use linear elements to facilitate movement. The high density of primary roads in one wolf's territory led to more constrained use of the home territory compared to the wolf with fewer roads, suggesting avoidance of humans; however, there did not appear to be large differences on the hunting success or the success of pup rearing for the two packs. In total, 90 kills were identified, almost entirely moose (Alces alces) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus sspp.) calves of which a large proportion were killed in transitional woodlands. Generally, wolves displayed a high level of adaptability, successfully exploiting direct and indirect human-derived modifications to the boreal forest environment.

  17. Behavioural responses of Eastern grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, to cues of risk while foraging.

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    Jayne, Kimberley; Lea, Stephen E G; Leaver, Lisa A

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that Eastern grey squirrels modify their behaviour while foraging to offset risks of social and predatory costs, but none have simultaneously compared whether such modifications are performed at a cost to foraging. The present study directly compares how grey squirrels respond to cues of these risks while foraging. We simulated social risk and predatory risk using acoustic playbacks of stimuli that grey squirrels might be exposed to at a foraging patch: calls of conspecifics, heterospecifics (competitor and non-competitor) and predators. We found that grey squirrels responded to predator, heterospecific competitor and conspecific playbacks by altering their foraging and vigilance behaviours. Foraging was most disrupted by increased vigilance when we played calls of predators. Squirrels' response to calls of heterospecific competitors did not differ from their response to conspecific calls, and they resumed foraging more quickly after both compared to predator calls: whereas they showed little response to calls of non-competitor heterospecifics and a white noise control. We conclude that squirrels respond differentially to calls made by conspecifics, heterospecific competitors and predators, with the most pronounced response being to calls of predators. We suggest that squirrels may view conspecific and corvid vocalisations as cues of potential conflict while foraging, necessitating increased vigilance.

  18. Economic Load Dispatch Using Grey Wolf Optimization

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    Dr.Sudhir Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents grey wolf optimization (GWO to solve convex economic load dispatch (ELD problem. Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO is a new meta-heuristic inspired by grey wolves. The leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of the grey wolves is mimicked in GWO. The objective of ELD problem is to minimize the total generation cost while fulfilling the different constraints, when the required load of power system is being supplied. The proposed technique is implemented on two different test systems for solving the ELD with various load demands. To show the effectiveness of GWO to solve ELD problem results were compared with other existing techniques.

  19. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus

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    Andrew Tribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours’ were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control.

  20. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix

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    Graeme Coulson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2–5/ha, and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter, many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%, but survival of tagged juveniles was low (54%. We could not determine the cause of death of most juveniles. Vehicles were the major (47% cause of mortality of tagged adults. Road-kills were concentrated (74% in autumn and winter, and were heavily male biased: half of all tagged males died on roads compared with only 20% of tagged females. We predict that this novel and potent mortality factor will have profound, long-term impacts on the demography and behavior of the urban kangaroo population at Anglesea.

  1. Intestinal macro- and microparasites of wolves (Canis lupus L.) from north-eastern Poland recovered by coprological study.

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    Kloch, Agnieszka; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Bajer, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Wolf scats collected during ecological studies in Mazury lake district in NE Poland were analysed for intestinal micro- and macroparasites. Five nematode species were identified: Ancylostoma caninum (Ercolani, 1859), Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884), Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789), Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902). Among cestode species there were identified infections with Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1785). The overall helminth prevalence was 63.5 % and average intensity was 15.4 +/- 8.0 eggs /1g of sample. The most prevalent parasite was T. vulpis (38.5 %) and the most abundant infections were by T. canis. Almost 55 % of samples (28/51) were positive for C. parvum oocysts and 46.7 % (14/30) for Giardia spp. cysts. The pack factor affected the distribution of some of macro- and microparasites. The identified parasite fauna of wolves in Mazury lake district consists of several micro- and macroparasites of interest for public health.

  2. Seasonal and interannual variability in grey seal diets on Sable Island, eastern Scotian Shelf

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    W D Bowen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied seasonal and interannual variability in the diet of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus using faecal samples collected from Sable Island, Nova Scotia between 1991 and 1998. More than 28,000 prey from at least 28 taxa were identified from 1,245 faecal samples collect mainly in spring, fall and winter. Sand lance (Ammodytes dubius dominated the diet in all seasons and years, but the importance of this and other species varied over time. There was also evidence of seasonal and interannual variation in the size of prey consumed both within and among species. We compared diet composition with estimates of prey numbers and biomass from annual researchtrawl surveys conducted in March and July. Species-specific numerical corrections were applied to otolith counts to account for the complete digestion of otoliths, and fish catchability correction factors applied to trawl survey catches to account for trawl selectivity. Based on an odds ratio index of prey selectivity, grey seals positively selected sand lance in both seasons. Other species were either relatively avoided or eaten roughly in proportion to their estimated abundance.

  3. Touch screen assays of behavioural flexibility and error characteristics in Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).

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    Chow, Pizza Ka Yee; Leaver, Lisa A; Wang, Ming; Lea, Stephen E G

    2017-01-27

    Behavioural flexibility allows animals to adjust their behaviours according to changing environmental demands. Such flexibility is frequently assessed by the discrimination-reversal learning task. We examined grey squirrels' behavioural flexibility, using a simultaneous colour discrimination-reversal learning task on a touch screen. Squirrels were trained to select their non-preferred colour in the discrimination phase, and their preferred colour was rewarded in a subsequent reversal phase. We used error rates to divide learning in each phase into three stages (perseveration, chance level and 'learned') and examined response inhibition and head-switching during each stage. We found consistent behavioural patterns were associated with each learning stage: in the perseveration stage, at the beginning of each training phase, squirrels showed comparable response latencies to correct and incorrect stimuli, along with a low level of head-switching. They quickly overcame perseveration, typically in one to three training blocks. In the chance-level stage, response latencies to both stimuli were low, but during initial discrimination squirrels showed more head-switches than in the previous stage. This suggests that squirrels were learning the current reward contingency by responding rapidly to a stimulus, but with increased attention to both stimuli. In the learned stage, response latencies to the correct stimulus and the number of head-switches were at their highest, whereas incorrect response latencies were at their lowest, and differed significantly from correct response latencies. These results suggest increased response inhibition and attention allowed the squirrels to minimise errors. They also suggest that errors in the 'learned' stage were related to impulsive emission of the pre-potent or previously learned responses.

  4. Mother-offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission-fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18-25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission-fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality.

  5. Mother–offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission–fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18–25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission–fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality. PMID:26045958

  6. A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrańska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszyński, A

    2010-12-01

    One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wrocław and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Piła (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrzańskie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe.

  7. Grey analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, G.D.

    1996-12-01

    Grey logic is not another name for fuzzy logic. Grey logic--also called grey analysis or grey system theory--is a new technology, a group of techniques for system analysis and modeling. Like fuzzy logic, grey logic is useful in situations with incomplete and uncertain information. Grey analysis is particularly applicable in instances with very limited data and in cases with little system knowledge or understanding. In this paper, a summary of the basic concepts of grey analysis is provided, with descriptions of its application to several classes of problems. Calculations methods are provided for grey relation analysis, and for modeling and prediction using grey methods.

  8. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Donahoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi in Western Australia.

  9. Competition between Eurasian red and introduced Eastern grey squirrels: the energetic significance of body-mass differences.

    OpenAIRE

    Bryce, J. M.; Speakman, J.R.; Johnson, P J; Macdonald, D W

    2001-01-01

    Daily energy expenditure (DEE) was measured in sympatric populations of red and grey squirrels using the doubly labelled water technique. Grey squirrels had significantly higher DEEs than red squirrels. However, the difference between the species was not separable from the effects of body mass on DEE. The DEEs of both species were in accordance with published allometric predictions incorporating body mass and ambient temperature. The differences in energetic requirements and social dominance,...

  10. Genome-wide signatures of population bottlenecks and diversifying selection in European wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot, M; Greco, C; vonHoldt, B M; Jędrzejewska, B; Randi, E; Jędrzejewski, W; Sidorovich, V E; Ostrander, E A; Wayne, R K

    2014-04-01

    Genomic resources developed for domesticated species provide powerful tools for studying the evolutionary history of their wild relatives. Here we use 61K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) evenly spaced throughout the canine nuclear genome to analyse evolutionary relationships among the three largest European populations of grey wolves in comparison with other populations worldwide, and investigate genome-wide effects of demographic bottlenecks and signatures of selection. European wolves have a discontinuous range, with large and connected populations in Eastern Europe and relatively smaller, isolated populations in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula. Our results suggest a continuous decline in wolf numbers in Europe since the Late Pleistocene, and long-term isolation and bottlenecks in the Italian and Iberian populations following their divergence from the Eastern European population. The Italian and Iberian populations have low genetic variability and high linkage disequilibrium, but relatively few autozygous segments across the genome. This last characteristic clearly distinguishes them from populations that underwent recent drastic demographic declines or founder events, and implies long-term bottlenecks in these two populations. Although genetic drift due to spatial isolation and bottlenecks seems to be a major evolutionary force diversifying the European populations, we detected 35 loci that are putatively under diversifying selection. Two of these loci flank the canine platelet-derived growth factor gene, which affects bone growth and may influence differences in body size between wolf populations. This study demonstrates the power of population genomics for identifying genetic signals of demographic bottlenecks and detecting signatures of directional selection in bottlenecked populations, despite their low background variability.

  11. The scientific classification of wolves: Canis lupus soupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Gray wolf, timber wolf, red wolf, eastern wolf, brush wolf, arctic wolf, Mexican wolf, maned wolf, Ethiopian wolf, etc., etc. How many kinds of wolves are there? And what are the differences? This is a really good question, and the answer is getting more complicated all the time.

  12. The use of climatic niches in screening procedures for introduced species to evaluate risk of spread: a case with the American Eastern grey squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Febbraro, Mirko; Lurz, Peter W W; Genovesi, Piero; Maiorano, Luigi; Girardello, Marco; Bertolino, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Species introduction represents one of the most serious threats for biodiversity. The realized climatic niche of an invasive species can be used to predict its potential distribution in new areas, providing a basis for screening procedures in the compilation of black and white lists to prevent new introductions. We tested this assertion by modeling the realized climatic niche of the Eastern grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis. Maxent was used to develop three models: one considering only records from the native range (NRM), a second including records from native and invasive range (NIRM), a third calibrated with invasive occurrences and projected in the native range (RCM). Niche conservatism was tested considering both a niche equivalency and a niche similarity test. NRM failed to predict suitable parts of the currently invaded range in Europe, while RCM underestimated the suitability in the native range. NIRM accurately predicted both the native and invasive range. The niche equivalency hypothesis was rejected due to a significant difference between the grey squirrel's niche in native and invasive ranges. The niche similarity test yielded no significant results. Our analyses support the hypothesis of a shift in the species' climatic niche in the area of introductions. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) appear to be a useful tool in the compilation of black lists, allowing identifying areas vulnerable to invasions. We advise caution in the use of SDMs based only on the native range of a species for the compilation of white lists for other geographic areas, due to the significant risk of underestimating its potential invasive range.

  13. Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relation to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Wheeldon, Tyler J

    2012-12-01

    Eastern wolves have hybridized extensively with coyotes and gray wolves and are listed as a 'species of special concern' in Canada. However, a distinct population of eastern wolves has been identified in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) in Ontario. Previous studies of the diverse Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP have not linked genetic analysis with field data to investigate genotype-specific morphology or determine how resident animals of different ancestry are distributed across the landscape in relation to heterogeneous environmental conditions. Accordingly, we studied resident wolves and coyotes in and adjacent to APP to identify distinct Canis types, clarify the extent of the APP eastern wolf population beyond the park boundaries and investigate fine-scale spatial genetic structure and landscape-genotype associations in the hybrid zone. We documented three genetically distinct Canis types within the APP region that also differed morphologically, corresponding to putative gray wolves, eastern wolves and coyotes. We also documented a substantial number of hybrid individuals (36%) that were admixed between 2 or 3 of the Canis types. Breeding eastern wolves were less common outside of APP, but occurred in some unprotected areas where they were sympatric with a diverse combination of coyotes, gray wolves and hybrids. We found significant spatial genetic structure and identified a steep cline extending west from APP where the dominant genotype shifted abruptly from eastern wolves to coyotes and hybrids. The genotypic pattern to the south and northwest was a more complex mosaic of alternating genotypes. We modelled genetic ancestry in response to prey availability and human disturbance and found that individuals with greater wolf ancestry occupied areas of higher moose density and fewer roads. Our results clarify the structure of the Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP and provide unique insight into environmental conditions influencing hybridization dynamics between

  14. Dietary nutrient profiles of wild wolves : Insights for optimal dog nutrition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Guido; Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A.; Hendriks, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13 000 and 17 000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man,

  15. Dietary nutrient profiles of wild wolves: insights for optimal dog nutrition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13 000 and 17 000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man,

  16. Dietary nutrient profiles of wild wolves: insights for optimal dog nutrition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13 000 and 17 000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man, pi

  17. Dietary nutrient profiles of wild wolves : Insights for optimal dog nutrition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Guido; Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A.; Hendriks, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13 000 and 17 000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man, pi

  18. Dietary nutrient profiles of wild wolves: insights for optimal dog nutrition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13 000 and 17 000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man, pi

  19. The use of climatic niches in screening procedures for introduced species to evaluate risk of spread: a case with the American Eastern grey squirrel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Di Febbraro

    Full Text Available Species introduction represents one of the most serious threats for biodiversity. The realized climatic niche of an invasive species can be used to predict its potential distribution in new areas, providing a basis for screening procedures in the compilation of black and white lists to prevent new introductions. We tested this assertion by modeling the realized climatic niche of the Eastern grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis. Maxent was used to develop three models: one considering only records from the native range (NRM, a second including records from native and invasive range (NIRM, a third calibrated with invasive occurrences and projected in the native range (RCM. Niche conservatism was tested considering both a niche equivalency and a niche similarity test. NRM failed to predict suitable parts of the currently invaded range in Europe, while RCM underestimated the suitability in the native range. NIRM accurately predicted both the native and invasive range. The niche equivalency hypothesis was rejected due to a significant difference between the grey squirrel's niche in native and invasive ranges. The niche similarity test yielded no significant results. Our analyses support the hypothesis of a shift in the species' climatic niche in the area of introductions. Species Distribution Models (SDMs appear to be a useful tool in the compilation of black lists, allowing identifying areas vulnerable to invasions. We advise caution in the use of SDMs based only on the native range of a species for the compilation of white lists for other geographic areas, due to the significant risk of underestimating its potential invasive range.

  20. The dynamics of grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus) off Amrum in the south-eastern North Sea — evidence of an open population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Kai F.; Hoyer, Nils; Koch, Lothar; Adelung, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus) have been extinct in the south-eastern North Sea for centuries. Only in recent decades have they re-established a few colonies, the first of which was located on a group of sand bars off the German island of Amrum. Based on frequent counts from aircraft and boats in 1976-2000, and a photo-identification program in 1997, we investigated seasonal dynamics, trends in abundance, pup production, and pup survival in this population. Numbers of hauled-out seals were highest in spring, with a peak of 70-100 in late March or early April, and usually lower than 40 from late May to late January, including the winter breeding season. Both spring and summer counts indicated an average increase of 4-5% per year. Annual pup production was 3-10 in 1988-1995 and 9-13 in 1996-1999, suggesting a breeding stock of only about half the minimum total population size, i.e. 137 individually recognised seals in 1997. The estimated survival of pups until weaning seemed high enough to support autochthonous increase, and hence suggested a self-sustaining breeding stock at least until the late 1990s. Pup survival declined, however, from 95-100% in 1988-1991 to 60-70% in 1992-1999, probably due to erosion of the sand bars. From (i) the relative excess of hauled-out seals in spring, as compared to the phenology of stocks in the western North Sea, (ii) turnover and net loss of individuals during the spring and summer of 1997, as indicated by photo-ID records, and (iii) the low apparent per capita birth rate, we suggest that grey seals off Amrum split into a resident breeding stock and a similar or higher number of seals immigrating outside the breeding season. The latter may originate from larger colonies in the southern and western North Sea, and return there for breeding. In the future, grey seals currently breeding off Amrum may eventually leave the area because of deteriorating conditions. However, a decline of numbers occurring in spring and summer would not

  1. Space Use and Habitat Selection by Resident and Transient Red Wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W; Proctor, Christine; Kelly, Marcella J; van Manen, Frank T; Vaughan, Michael R; Chamberlain, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans). Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence. During 2009-2011, we used global positioning system (GPS) radio-telemetry to quantify space use and 3rd-order habitat selection for resident and transient red wolves on the Albemarle Peninsula of eastern North Carolina. The Albemarle Peninsula was a predominantly agricultural landscape in which red wolves maintained spatially stable home ranges that varied between 25 km2 and 190 km2. Conversely, transient red wolves did not maintain home ranges and traversed areas between 122 km2 and 681 km2. Space use by transient red wolves was not spatially stable and exhibited shifting patterns until residency was achieved by individual wolves. Habitat selection was similar between resident and transient red wolves in which agricultural habitats were selected over forested habitats. However, transients showed stronger selection for edges and roads than resident red wolves. Behaviors of transient wolves are rarely reported in studies of space use and habitat selection because of technological limitations to observed extensive space use and because they do not contribute reproductively to populations. Transients in our study comprised displaced red wolves and younger dispersers that competed for limited space and mating opportunities. Therefore, our results suggest that transiency is likely an important life-history strategy for red wolves that facilitates

  2. Dietary nutrient profiles of wild wolves: insights for optimal dog nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Guido; Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13,000 and 17,000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man, pigs and rats. This has led to the classification of dogs as omnivores, but the origin of these 'omnivorous' traits has, hitherto, been left unexplained. We discuss the foraging ecology of wild wolves and calculate the nutrient profiles of fifty diets reported in the literature. Data on the feeding ecology of wolves indicate that wolves are true carnivores consuming a negligible amount of vegetal matter. Wolves can experience prolonged times of famine during low prey availability while, after a successful hunt, the intake of foods and nutrients can be excessive. As a result of a 'feast and famine' lifestyle, wolves need to cope with a highly variable nutrient intake requiring an adaptable metabolism, which is still functional in our modern-day dogs. The nutritive characteristics of commercial foods differ in several aspects from the dog's closest free-living ancestor in terms of dietary nutrient profile and this may pose physiological and metabolic challenges. The present study provides new insights into dog nutrition and contributes to the ongoing optimisation of foods for pet dogs.

  3. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  4. Spatial genetic analyses reveal cryptic population structure and migration patterns in a continuously harvested grey wolf (Canis lupus population in north-eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Hindrikson

    Full Text Available Spatial genetics is a relatively new field in wildlife and conservation biology that is becoming an essential tool for unravelling the complexities of animal population processes, and for designing effective strategies for conservation and management. Conceptual and methodological developments in this field are therefore critical. Here we present two novel methodological approaches that further the analytical possibilities of STRUCTURE and DResD. Using these approaches we analyse structure and migrations in a grey wolf (Canislupus population in north-eastern Europe. We genotyped 16 microsatellite loci in 166 individuals sampled from the wolf population in Estonia and Latvia that has been under strong and continuous hunting pressure for decades. Our analysis demonstrated that this relatively small wolf population is represented by four genetic groups. We also used a novel methodological approach that uses linear interpolation to statistically test the spatial separation of genetic groups. The new method, which is capable of using program STRUCTURE output, can be applied widely in population genetics to reveal both core areas and areas of low significance for genetic groups. We also used a recently developed spatially explicit individual-based method DResD, and applied it for the first time to microsatellite data, revealing a migration corridor and barriers, and several contact zones.

  5. Observations afield on Alaskan wolves

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Widespread observations of wolves and their habits in Alaska during the period 1948-1954 generally confirm published reports of these phenomena elsewhere....

  6. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  7. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species. PMID:26895178

  8. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  9. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2014-01-01

    We explored multiple linkages among grey wolves (Canis lupus), elk (Cervus elaphus), berry-producing shrubs and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Yellowstone National Park. We hypothesized competition between elk and grizzly bears whereby, in the absence of wolves, increases in elk numbers would increase browsing on berry-producing shrubs and decrease fruit availability to grizzly bears. After wolves were reintroduced and with a reduced elk population, we hypothesized there would be an increase in the establishment of berry-producing shrubs, such as serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), which is a major berry-producing plant. We also hypothesized that the percentage fruit in the grizzly bear diet would be greater after than before wolf reintroduction. We compared the frequency of fruit in grizzly bear scats to elk densities prior to wolf reintroduction during a time of increasing elk densities (1968-1987). For a period after wolf reintroduction, we calculated the percentage fruit in grizzly bear scat by month based on scats collected in 2007-2009 (n = 778 scats) and compared these results to scat data collected before wolf reintroduction. Additionally, we developed an age structure for serviceberry showing the origination year of stems in a northern range study area. We found that over a 19-year period, the percentage frequency of fruit in the grizzly diet (6231 scats) was inversely correlated (P wolves and other large carnivores on elk, a reduced and redistributed elk population, decreased herbivory and increased production of plant-based foods that may aid threatened grizzly bears. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  10. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  11. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  12. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  13. Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, Adrian; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Shelley, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Understanding individual attitudes and how these predict overt opposition to predator conservation or direct, covert action against predators will help to recover and maintain them. Studies of attitudes toward wild animals rely primarily on samples of individuals at a single time point. We examined longitudinal change in individuals' attitudes toward gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the contiguous United States, amidst persistent controversy and opposition, abundances of gray wolves are at their highest in 60 years. We used mailed surveys to sample 1892 residents of Wisconsin in 2001 or 2004 and then resampled 656 of these individuals who resided in wolf range in 2009. Our study spanned a period of policy shifts and increasing wolf abundance. Over time, the 656 respondents increased agreement with statements reflecting fear of wolves, the belief that wolves compete with hunters for deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and inclination to poach a wolf. Endorsement of lethal control of wolves by the state and public hunting of wolves also increased. Neither the time span over which respondents reported exposure to wolves locally nor self-reported losses of domestic animals to wolves correlated with changes in attitude. We predict future increases in legal and illegal killing of wolves that may reduce their abundance in Wisconsin unless interventions are implemented to improve attitudes and behavior toward wolves. To assess whether interventions change attitudes, longitudinal studies like ours are needed. Análisis Longitudinal de las Actitudes Hacia Lobos. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Recolonizing wolves influence the realized niche of resident cougars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elbroch, L Mark; Lendrum, Patrick E; Newby, Jesse; Quigley, Howard; Thompson, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    .... We tested for new competition between reintroduced wolves and resident cougars in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem to assess whether wolves might be impacting the realized niche of sympatric...

  15. Infectious diseases of wolves in Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    The summer of 2005 began with such promise for wolves in Yellowstone.  The population had been at an all-time high the last few years, and the wolves appeared to be in good condition.  Several packs had been particularly busy during the breeding season, and early summer pup counts suggested another healthy crop of new wolves rising through the ranks.

  16. A serosurvey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Michelle; Giudice, John H.; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Dubey, J. P.; Erb, John; Stark, Dan; Hart, John; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David; Windels, Steve K.; Edwards, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum. Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults). Exposure rates were lower for canine distemper (19% adults, 5% pups) and heartworm (7% adults, 3% pups). Significant spatial trends were observed in wolves exposed to canine parvovirus and Lyme disease. Serologic data do not confirm clinical disease, but better understanding of disease ecology of wolves can provide valuable insight into wildlife population dynamics and improve management of these species.

  17. A Serosurvey of Diseases of Free-Ranging Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Michelle; Giudice, John H; Hildebrand, Erik C; Dubey, J P; Erb, John; Stark, Dan; Hart, John; Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Mech, L David; Windels, Steve K; Edwards, Andrew J

    2017-02-13

    We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( Canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum . Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults). Exposure rates were lower for canine distemper (19% adults, 5% pups) and heartworm (7% adults, 3% pups). Significant spatial trends were observed in wolves exposed to canine parvovirus and Lyme disease. Serologic data do not confirm clinical disease, but better understanding of disease ecology of wolves can provide valuable insight into wildlife population dynamics and improve management of these species.

  18. Using diets of Canis breeding pairs to assess resource partitioning between sympatric red wolves and coyotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Ashley, Annaliese K.; Dellinger, Justin A.; Gittleman, John L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Foraging behaviors of red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are complex and their ability to form congeneric breeding pairs and hybridize further complicates our understanding of factors influencing their diets. Through scat analysis, we assessed prey selection of red wolf, coyote, and congeneric breeding pairs formed by red wolves and coyotes, and found that all 3 had similar diets. However, red wolf and congeneric pairs consumed more white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) than coyote pairs. Coyotes forming breeding pairs with red wolves had 12% more white-tailed deer in their diet than conspecifics paired with coyotes. Contrary to many studies on coyotes in the southeastern United States, we found coyotes in eastern North Carolina to be primarily carnivorous with increased consumption of deer during winter. Although prey selection was generally similar among the 3 groups, differences in diet among different breeding pairs were strongly associated with body mass. Larger breeding pairs consumed more white-tailed deer, and fewer rabbits (Sylvilagus spp.) and other small mammals. Partitioning of food resources by sympatric red wolves and coyotes is likely via differences in the proportions of similar prey consumed, rather than differences in types of prey exploited. Consequently, our results suggest coexistence of red wolves and coyotes in the southeastern United States may not be possible because there are limited opportunities for niche partitioning to reduce competitive interactions.

  19. The Balancing Act of Moose and Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Gordon C.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the predator-prey relationship between the moose and the wolves, and the added effect of human exploitations on this relationship. Described is the moose behavior at the population and system levels resulting from the predation pressures on them by the wolves and human exploitation. (DS)

  20. Regurgitative food transfer among wild wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Mech; Paul C. Wolf; Jane M. Packard

    1999-01-01

    Few studies of monogamous canids have addressed regurgitation in the context of extended parental care and alloparental care within family groups. We studied food transfer by regurgitation in a pack of wolves on Ellesmere Island, North West Territories, Canada, during 6 summers from 1988 through 1996. All adult wolves, including yearlings and a post-reproductive female...

  1. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  2. Domestic dog origin of canine distemper virus in free-ranging wolves in Portugal as revealed by hemagglutinin gene characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexandra; Silva, Eliane; Santos, Nuno; Thompson, Gertrude

    2011-07-01

    Serologic evidence for canine distemper virus (CDV) has been described in grey wolves but, to our knowledge, virus strains circulating in wolves have not been characterized genetically. The emergence of CDV in several non-dog hosts has been associated with amino acid substitutions at sites 530 and 549 of the hemagglutinin (H) protein. We sequenced the H gene of wild-type canine distemper virus obtained from two free-ranging Iberian wolves (Canis lupus signatus) and from one domestic dog (Canis familiaris). More differences were found between the two wolf sequences than between one of the wolves (wolf 75) and the dog. The latter two had a very high nucleotide similarity resulting in identical H gene amino acid sequences. Possible explanations include geographic and especially temporal proximity of the CDV obtained from wolf 75 and the domestic dog, taken in 2007-2008, as opposed to that from wolf 3 taken more distantly in 1998. Analysis of the deduced amino acids of the viral hemagglutinin revealed a glycine (G) and a tyrosine (Y) at amino acid positions 530 and 549, respectively, of the partial signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-receptor binding region which is typically found in viral strains obtained from domestic dogs. This suggests that the CDV found in these wolves resulted from transmission events from local domestic dogs rather than from wildlife species.

  3. A continental scale trophic cascade from wolves through coyotes to foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Thomas M; Ripple, William J

    2015-01-01

    Top-down processes, via the direct and indirect effects of interspecific competitive killing (no consumption of the kill) or intraguild predation (consumption of the kill), can potentially influence the spatial distribution of terrestrial predators, but few studies have demonstrated the phenomenon at a continental scale. For example, in North America, grey wolves Canis lupus are known to kill coyotes Canis latrans, and coyotes, in turn, may kill foxes Vulpes spp., but the spatial effects of these competitive interactions at large scales are unknown. Here, we analyse fur return data across eight jurisdictions in North America to test whether the presence or absence of wolves has caused a continent-wide shift in coyote and red fox Vulpes vulpes density. Our results support the existence of a continental scale cascade whereby coyotes outnumber red foxes in areas where wolves have been extirpated by humans, whereas red foxes outnumber coyotes in areas where wolves are present. However, for a distance of up to 200 km on the edge of wolf distribution, there is a transition zone where the effects of top-down control are weakened, possibly due to the rapid dispersal and reinvasion capabilities of coyotes into areas where wolves are sporadically distributed or at low densities. Our results have implications for understanding how the restoration of wolf populations across North America could potentially affect co-occurring predators and prey. We conclude that large carnivores may need to occupy large continuous areas to facilitate among-carnivore cascades and that studies of small areas may not be indicative of the effects of top-down mesopredator control. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  4. Reassortment among picobirnaviruses found in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Zeller, Mark; Yinda, Claude Kwe; Álvares, Francisco; Roque, Sara; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco; Godinho, Raquel; Heylen, Elisabeth; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a viral metagenomics study in diarrheic free-ranging wolves in Portugal, revealing for the first time the presence of reassortant picobirnaviruses. These viruses shared identical capsid segments together with diverse RNA-dependent RNA polymerase segments. Even though causality between these picobirnaviruses and diarrhea could not be established, the study nonetheless confirms for the first time that wolves are a potential reservoir for picobirnaviruses, which might play a role as enteric pathogens.

  5. Hypoxia adaptations in the grey wolf (Canis lupus chanco) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenping; Fan, Zhenxin; Han, Eunjung; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Galaverni, Marco; Huang, Jie; Liu, Hong; Silva, Pedro; Li, Peng; Pollinger, John P; Du, Lianming; Zhang, XiuyYue; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K; Zhang, Zhihe

    2014-07-01

    The Tibetan grey wolf (Canis lupus chanco) occupies habitats on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a high altitude (>3000 m) environment where low oxygen tension exerts unique selection pressure on individuals to adapt to hypoxic conditions. To identify genes involved in hypoxia adaptation, we generated complete genome sequences of nine Chinese wolves from high and low altitude populations at an average coverage of 25× coverage. We found that, beginning about 55,000 years ago, the highland Tibetan grey wolf suffered a more substantial population decline than lowland wolves. Positively selected hypoxia-related genes in highland wolves are enriched in the HIF signaling pathway (P = 1.57E-6), ATP binding (P = 5.62E-5), and response to an oxygen-containing compound (P≤5.30E-4). Of these positively selected hypoxia-related genes, three genes (EPAS1, ANGPT1, and RYR2) had at least one specific fixed non-synonymous SNP in highland wolves based on the nine genome data. Our re-sequencing studies on a large panel of individuals showed a frequency difference greater than 58% between highland and lowland wolves for these specific fixed non-synonymous SNPs and a high degree of LD surrounding the three genes, which imply strong selection. Past studies have shown that EPAS1 and ANGPT1 are important in the response to hypoxic stress, and RYR2 is involved in heart function. These three genes also exhibited significant signals of natural selection in high altitude human populations, which suggest similar evolutionary constraints on natural selection in wolves and humans of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  6. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different condi

  7. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different condi

  8. The mysterious wolves of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    It was just after 3 a.m. as we very quietly exited the van, making sure our water-resistant clothes didn’t make too much noise. A wolf researcher howled into the cold and murky mist. We waited in darkness, hoping for an answer. A single wolf howl from about 300 meters in front of us broke the silence. We peered into the agricultural and forested expanse, straining to get a glimpse of the wolf in the faint star-light. Suddenly, from behind, another howl countered. The expedition’s leader explained that we were standing between two female wolves and their pups—both being tended to by the same male!

  9. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Vucetich, J.A.; Mech, L.D.; Stahler, D.R.; Packer, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Trap-related injuries to gray wolves in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, D.W.; Fuller, T.K.; Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) captured in traps with toothed jaws offset 1.8 cm incurred fewer injuries than those captured in 3 other types of steel traps. Few wolves seriously damaged canine or carnassial teeth while in traps.

  11. Population Limitation and the Wolves of Isle Royale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rolf O. Peterson; Nancy J. Thomas; Joanne M. Thurber; John A. Vucetich; Thomas A. Waite

    1998-01-01

    Population regulation for gray wolves in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, was examined in 1987-1995 when wolves were in chronic decline following a crash of the population in 1981-1982. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2...

  12. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  13. A Chess Game among Human,Wolves and Nature%A Chess Game among Human, Wolves and Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙世萌

    2011-01-01

    Wolf Totem is a famous novel describing wolves as a main part.The article goes deeper into the novel,analyzing the relationship between human beirgs and nature and the relationship between Mongols and wolves.

  14. Wolves Recolonizing Islands: Genetic Consequences and Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Plumer

    Full Text Available After a long and deliberate persecution, the grey wolf (Canis lupus is slowly recolonizing its former areas in Europe, and the genetic consequences of this process are of particular interest. Wolves, though present in mainland Estonia for a long time, have only recently started to recolonize the country's two largest islands, Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. The main objective of this study was to analyse wolf population structure and processes in Estonia, with particular attention to the recolonization of islands. Fifteen microsatellite loci were genotyped for 185 individuals across Estonia. As a methodological novelty, all putative wolf-dog hybrids were identified and removed (n = 17 from the dataset beforehand to avoid interference of dog alleles in wolf population analysis. After the preliminary filtering, our final dataset comprised of 168 "pure" wolves. We recommend using hybrid-removal step as a standard precautionary procedure not only for wolf population studies, but also for other taxa prone to hybridization. STRUCTURE indicated four genetic groups in Estonia. Spatially explicit DResD analysis identified two areas, one of them on Saaremaa island and the other in southwestern Estonia, where neighbouring individuals were genetically more similar than expected from an isolation-by-distance null model. Three blending areas and two contrasting transition zones were identified in central Estonia, where the sampled individuals exhibited strong local differentiation over relatively short distance. Wolves on the largest Estonian islands are part of human-wildlife conflict due to livestock depredation. Negative public attitude, especially on Saaremaa where sheep herding is widespread, poses a significant threat for island wolves. To maintain the long-term viability of the wolf population on Estonian islands, not only wolf hunting quota should be targeted with extreme care, but effective measures should be applied to avoid inbreeding and minimize conflicts

  15. Wolves Recolonizing Islands: Genetic Consequences and Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Liivi; Keis, Marju; Remm, Jaanus; Hindrikson, Maris; Jõgisalu, Inga; Männil, Peep; Kübarsepp, Marko; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    After a long and deliberate persecution, the grey wolf (Canis lupus) is slowly recolonizing its former areas in Europe, and the genetic consequences of this process are of particular interest. Wolves, though present in mainland Estonia for a long time, have only recently started to recolonize the country's two largest islands, Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. The main objective of this study was to analyse wolf population structure and processes in Estonia, with particular attention to the recolonization of islands. Fifteen microsatellite loci were genotyped for 185 individuals across Estonia. As a methodological novelty, all putative wolf-dog hybrids were identified and removed (n = 17) from the dataset beforehand to avoid interference of dog alleles in wolf population analysis. After the preliminary filtering, our final dataset comprised of 168 "pure" wolves. We recommend using hybrid-removal step as a standard precautionary procedure not only for wolf population studies, but also for other taxa prone to hybridization. STRUCTURE indicated four genetic groups in Estonia. Spatially explicit DResD analysis identified two areas, one of them on Saaremaa island and the other in southwestern Estonia, where neighbouring individuals were genetically more similar than expected from an isolation-by-distance null model. Three blending areas and two contrasting transition zones were identified in central Estonia, where the sampled individuals exhibited strong local differentiation over relatively short distance. Wolves on the largest Estonian islands are part of human-wildlife conflict due to livestock depredation. Negative public attitude, especially on Saaremaa where sheep herding is widespread, poses a significant threat for island wolves. To maintain the long-term viability of the wolf population on Estonian islands, not only wolf hunting quota should be targeted with extreme care, but effective measures should be applied to avoid inbreeding and minimize conflicts with local

  16. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore.

  17. A Test of Canine Olfactory Capacity: Comparing Various Dog Breeds and Wolves in a Natural Detection Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Polgár

    Full Text Available Many dog breeds are bred specifically for increased performance in scent-based tasks. Whether dogs bred for this purpose have higher olfactory capacities than other dogs, or even wolves with whom they share a common ancestor, has not yet been studied. Indeed, there is no standard test for assessing canine olfactory ability. This study aimed to create a simple procedure that requires no pre-training and to use it to measure differences in olfactory capacity across four groups of canines: (1 dog breeds that have been selected for their scenting ability; (2 dog breeds that have been bred for other purposes; (3 dog breeds with exaggerated short-nosed features; and (4 hand-reared grey wolves. The procedure involved baiting a container with raw turkey meat and placing it under one of four identical ceramic pots. Subjects were led along the row of pots and were tasked with determining by olfaction alone which of them contained the bait. There were five levels of increasing difficulty determined by the number of holes on the container's lid. A subsample of both dogs and wolves was retested to assess reliability. The results showed that breeds selected for scent work were better than both short-nosed and non-scent breeds. In the most difficult level, wolves and scenting breeds performed better than chance, while non-scenting and short-nosed breeds did not. In the retested samples wolves improved their success; however, dogs showed no change in their performances indicating that a single test may be reliable enough to assess their capacity. Overall, we revealed measurable differences between dog breeds in their olfactory abilities and suggest that the Natural Detection Task is a good foundation for developing an efficient way of quantifying them.

  18. A Test of Canine Olfactory Capacity: Comparing Various Dog Breeds and Wolves in a Natural Detection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, Zita; Kinnunen, Mari; Újváry, Dóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Gácsi, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Many dog breeds are bred specifically for increased performance in scent-based tasks. Whether dogs bred for this purpose have higher olfactory capacities than other dogs, or even wolves with whom they share a common ancestor, has not yet been studied. Indeed, there is no standard test for assessing canine olfactory ability. This study aimed to create a simple procedure that requires no pre-training and to use it to measure differences in olfactory capacity across four groups of canines: (1) dog breeds that have been selected for their scenting ability; (2) dog breeds that have been bred for other purposes; (3) dog breeds with exaggerated short-nosed features; and (4) hand-reared grey wolves. The procedure involved baiting a container with raw turkey meat and placing it under one of four identical ceramic pots. Subjects were led along the row of pots and were tasked with determining by olfaction alone which of them contained the bait. There were five levels of increasing difficulty determined by the number of holes on the container's lid. A subsample of both dogs and wolves was retested to assess reliability. The results showed that breeds selected for scent work were better than both short-nosed and non-scent breeds. In the most difficult level, wolves and scenting breeds performed better than chance, while non-scenting and short-nosed breeds did not. In the retested samples wolves improved their success; however, dogs showed no change in their performances indicating that a single test may be reliable enough to assess their capacity. Overall, we revealed measurable differences between dog breeds in their olfactory abilities and suggest that the Natural Detection Task is a good foundation for developing an efficient way of quantifying them.

  19. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...

  20. Are Literary Translators (STill) Lone Wolves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    of a questionnaire on collaboration within literary translation in Scandinavia. Concepts from Community Studies, such as generalized reciprocity, interpersonal trust and active participation, are employed to discuss whether literary translators feel like members of a community, lone wolves, or simply lonely....

  1. Endangered wolves cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Woo Suk; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Kim, Joung Joo; Shin, Nam Shik; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2007-01-01

    Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.

  2. Wolves in Utah: An analysis of potential impacts and recommendations for management

    OpenAIRE

    Switalski, T. Adam; Simmons, Trey; Duncan, Shiree L.; Chavez, Andreas S.; Schmidt, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    The historic range of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Utah was essentially statewide. Although their presence cannot be disputed, the historic abundance of wolves in Utah is unknown. The release of gray wolves into Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995 established growing populations, and increasing dispersal is bringing these wolves closer to Utah. It seems likely that wolves will commingle with Utah's other native mammals in the near future. The potential presence of wolves in Ut...

  3. Uncertainty representation of grey numbers and grey sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Sifeng; John, Robert

    2014-09-01

    In the literature, there is a presumption that a grey set and an interval-valued fuzzy set are equivalent. This presumption ignores the existence of discrete components in a grey number. In this paper, new measurements of uncertainties of grey numbers and grey sets, consisting of both absolute and relative uncertainties, are defined to give a comprehensive representation of uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate that the proposed uncertainty measurement can give an effective representation of both absolute and relative uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. The relationships between grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets are also analyzed from the point of view of the proposed uncertainty representation. The analysis demonstrates that grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets provide different but overlapping models for uncertainty representation in sets.

  4. Cardiac evaluation of clinically healthy captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Amara H; Gerlach, Trevor J; Schmidt, Mandi K; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Atkins, Adrienne L; Van Gilder, James; Citino, Scott B; Padilla, Luis R

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this project was to determine radiographic vertebral heart sizes and electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic measurements in healthy anesthetized maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). The wolves, housed at the White Oak Conservation and Smithsonian National Zoo Conservation and Research Centers, were being anesthetized for annual examinations. Cardiac auscultation, thoracic radiographs, a standard 6-lead ECG, and echocardiography were performed on the wolves while they were under general anesthesia. Thirteen maned wolves were evaluated: five males and eight females. Mean age was 6.4 +/- 4.4 years (range, 2-13 years). Mean weight was 26 +/- 2.95 kg (range, 22-32 kg). Low-grade systolic murmurs were auscultated in three of 13 maned wolves. Evaluation of ECGs revealed a sinus rhythm, with a QRS morphology, and mean electrical axis similar to domestic canines. Radiographic evaluation revealed a mean vertebral heart size of 8.27 +/- 0.48 (range, 7.9-8.6). In addition, the cardiac silhouette was seen to elongate, with an increase in sternal contact in older wolves. Echocardiography showed that mitral valve degenerative changes and insufficiency is likely common in older wolves. Visualization of physiologic regurgitation across the mitral and pulmonary valves was common in wolves of all ages. Left ventricular measurements were similar to those reported for healthy dogs, and several variables correlated well with body weight. Two wolves were found to have one to three heartworms in the right pulmonary artery, and degenerative mitral valve disease was determined in maned wolves older than 6 years of age. All of the wolves in this study were on heartworm preventative and tested negative for heartworm antigen at their annual examinations. The results of this study provide reference information for use in the cardiac evaluation of anesthetized maned wolves.

  5. GreyGuide. Poster presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to the GreyGuide, a repository of good practices and resources in grey literature. The GreyGuide seeks to capture proposed as well as published practices dealing with the supply and demand sides of grey literature. This is a collaborative project involving GreyNet International and ISTI-CNR. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good pra...

  6. Grey Repairable System Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renkuan Guo; Charles Ernie Love

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically discuss the basic concepts of grey theory, particularly the grey differential equation and its mathematical foundation, which is essentially unknown in the reliability engineering community. Accordingly,we propose a small-sample based approach to estimate repair improvement effects by partitioning system stopping times into intrinsic functioning times and repair improvement times. An industrial data set is used for illustrative purposes in a stepwise manner.

  7. Wolves Are Better Imitators of Conspecifics than Dogs: e86559

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friederike Range; Zsófia Virányi

    2014-01-01

    ... of wolves on close cooperation with conspecifics, including breeding but also territory defense and hunting, has created selection pressures on motivational and cognitive processes enhancing their propensity...

  8. Wolves are better imitators of conspecifics than dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    ... of wolves on close cooperation with conspecifics, including breeding but also territory defense and hunting, has created selection pressures on motivational and cognitive processes enhancing their propensity...

  9. Grey Literature 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Simandlová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The paper tries to describe grey literature in the context of platforms and tools of the web 2.0. We can follow up that increasing trends in the scientific communication are e.g. microblogging, scientific blogging and there are also scientific social networks in the distribution cycle of grey literature. Except the examples of grey literature 2.0, the paper also discusses the problems of the promotion of grey literature and grey literature community through the social media.

  10. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in Minnesota wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M.A.; Goyal, S.M.; Diesch, S.L.; Mech, L.D.; Fritts, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    Serum samples (n = 457) from wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Minnesota were collected from 1972 through 1986 and were tested for antibodies against Leptospira interrogans using a microtiter agglutination test. Twelve serovars included in the study were: australis, autumnalis, ballum, bataviae, bratislava, canicola, copenhageni, grippotyphosa, hardjo, pomona, pyrogenes, and tarassovi. Fifty-two (11%) sera had antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:50 against one or more serovars of L. interrogans. The seroprevalence of different serovars in decreasing order was: grippotyphosa, bratislava, autumnalis, canicola, pomona, ballum, pyrogenes, hardjo, and copenhageni. No antibodies were found against australis, bataviae, and tarassovi. These results indicate that L. interrogans infection may occur in wolves of Minnesota.

  11. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Teresa; Ito, Marie; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species.

  12. IgA deficiency in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowiack, Marcel; Hellman, Lars; Zhao, Yaofeng; Arnemo, Jon M; Lin, Miaoli; Tengvall, Katarina; Møller, Torsten; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hammarström, Lennart

    2013-06-01

    Low mean concentrations of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and an increased frequency of overt IgA deficiency (IgAD) in certain dog breeds raises the question whether it is a breeding-enriched phenomenon or a legacy from the dog's ancestor, the gray wolf (Canis lupus). The IgA concentration in 99 serum samples from 58 free-ranging and 13 captive Scandinavian wolves, was therefore measured by capture ELISA. The concentrations were markedly lower in the wolf serum samples than in the dog controls. Potential differences in the IgA molecule between dogs and wolves were addressed by sequencing the wolf IgA heavy chain constant region encoding gene (IGHA). Complete amino acid sequence homology was found. Detection of wolf and dog IgA was ascertained by showing identity using double immunodiffusion. We suggest that the vast majority of wolves, the ancestor of the dog, are IgA deficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Romero

    Full Text Available On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species.

  14. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  15. Playing with Wolves: An Interview with C. J. Rogers

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Play, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Since 1992 C. J. Rogers has lived with wolves and studied their societies at Raised by Wolves, a licensed, nonprofit research sanctuary situated in a high valley of New Mexico's Zuni Mountains, not far from the Four Corners. Rogers, who has taught at Northeastern Illinois University and Western New Mexico University, holds doctorates in both…

  16. National grey literature cooperation model

    OpenAIRE

    Pejšová, Petra; Vyčítalová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    The National Library of Technology (NTK) has a long tradition of collecting grey literature on the national level. NTK became SIGLE system partner in the 1980s and from 2008 it has been the coordinator of the National Repository of Grey Literature (NRGL). NTK has created a grey literature partnership network in the Czech Republic. Over 130 institutions dedicated to research, science, education, culture etc. participate in this network and provide grey literature to the NRGL. NTK manages coope...

  17. Wolves on the hunt: The behavior of wolves hunting wild prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; MacNulty, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between apex predators and their prey are some of the most awesome and meaningful in nature—displays of strength, endurance, and a deep coevolutionary history. And there is perhaps no apex predator more impressive and important in its hunting—or more infamous, more misjudged—than the wolf. Because of wolves’ habitat, speed, and general success at evading humans, researchers have faced great obstacles in studying their natural hunting behaviors. The first book to focus explicitly on wolf hunting of wild prey, Wolves on the Hunt seeks to fill these gaps in our knowledge and understanding. Combining behavioral data, thousands of hours of original field observations, research in the literature, a wealth of illustrations, and—in the e-book edition and online—video segments from cinematographer Robert K. Landis, the authors create a compelling and complex picture of these hunters. The wolf is indeed an adept killer, able to take down prey much larger than itself. While adapted to hunt primarily hoofed animals, a wolf—or especially a pack of wolves—can kill individuals of just about any species. But even as wolves help drive the underlying rhythms of the ecosystems they inhabit, their evolutionary prowess comes at a cost: wolves spend one-third of their time hunting—the most time consuming of all wolf activities—and success at the hunt only comes through traveling long distances, persisting in the face of regular failure, detecting and taking advantage of deficiencies in the physical condition of individual prey, and through ceaseless trial and error, all while risking injury or death. By describing and analyzing the behaviors wolves use to hunt and kill various wild prey—including deer, moose, caribou, elk, Dall sheep, mountain goats, bison, musk oxen, arctic hares, beavers, and others—Wolves on the Hunt provides a revelatory portrait of one of nature’s greatest hunters.

  18. Detection of grey seal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bleijswijk, J.; Begeman, L.; Witte, H.J.; IJsseldijk, L.L.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Gröne, A.; Leopold, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    DNA was analysed from external wounds on 3 dead harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena that were stranded in the Netherlands. Puncture wounds as well as the edges of large open wounds were sampled with sterile cotton swabs. With specific primers that target the mtDNA control region of grey seal Halicho

  19. Detection of grey seal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bleijswijk, J.; Begeman, L.; Witte, H.J.; IJsseldijk, L.L.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Gröne, A.; Leopold, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    DNA was analysed from external wounds on 3 dead harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena that were stranded in the Netherlands. Puncture wounds as well as the edges of large open wounds were sampled with sterile cotton swabs. With specific primers that target the mtDNA control region of grey seal

  20. Grey swan tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ning; Emanuel, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We define `grey swan’ tropical cyclones as high-impact storms that would not be predicted based on history but may be foreseeable using physical knowledge together with historical data. Here we apply a climatological-hydrodynamic method to estimate grey swan tropical cyclone storm surge threat for three highly vulnerable coastal regions. We identify a potentially large risk in the Persian Gulf, where tropical cyclones have never been recorded, and larger-than-expected threats in Cairns, Australia, and Tampa, Florida. Grey swan tropical cyclones striking Tampa, Cairns and Dubai can generate storm surges of about 6 m, 5.7 m and 4 m, respectively, with estimated annual exceedance probabilities of about 1/10,000. With climate change, these probabilities can increase significantly over the twenty-first century (to 1/3,100-1/1,100 in the middle and 1/2,500-1/700 towards the end of the century for Tampa). Worse grey swan tropical cyclones, inducing surges exceeding 11 m in Tampa and 7 m in Dubai, are also revealed with non-negligible probabilities, especially towards the end of the century.

  1. Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

    1997-08-01

    In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

  2. Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and freeranging wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.

  3. Ranking grey numbers based on dominance grey degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Liu; Jeffrey Forrest; Naiming Xie

    2014-01-01

    With respect to the decision making problems where a lot of fuzzy and grey information always exists in the real-life deci-sion making information system, it is difficult for such uncertainty methods as fuzzy mathematics, probability, and interval numbers to deal with. To this end, based on the thought and method of grey numbers, grey degrees and interval numbers, the concept of dominance grey degree is defined. And then a method of rank-ing interval grey numbers based on the dominance grey degree is proposed. After discussing the relevant properties, the paper final y uses an example to demonstrate the effectiveness and ap-plicability of the model. The result shows that the proposed model can more accurately describe uncertainty decision making prob-lems, and realize the total ordering process for multiple-attribute decision-making problems.

  4. Population limitation and the wolves of Isle Royale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R.O.; Thomas, N.J.; Thurber, J.M.; Vucetich, J.A.; Waite, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Population regulation for gray wolves in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, was ex- amined in 1987-1995 when wolves were in chronic decline following a crash of the pop- ulation in 1981-1982. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) was probably influential during the crash, but it disappeared by the lae 1980s. High mortality abruptly ceased after 1988, but low recruitment in the absence of disease and obvious shortage of food prevented recovery of the wolf population. In 1983-1995, with a comparable number of moose '10 years old as potential prey, wolves were only half as numerous as in 1959-1980. A simulation of annual fluctuations in effective population size (Ne) for wolves on Isle Royale suggests that their genetic heterozygosity has declined ca. 13% with each generation and ca. 80% in the 50- year history of this population. Inbreeding depression and stochastic demographic variation both remain possible explanations for recent low recruitment.

  5. Arctic wildlife sketches: Wolves of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers wolves of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  6. First record of coccidiosis in Wolves, Canis Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mech L.; Kurtz, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three 4-month-old Wolf (Canis lupus) pups in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota died during August and September 1997, apparently from coccidiosis. This appears to be the first record of coccidiosis in Wolves.

  7. Modified Grey Wolf Optimizer for Global Engineering Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Mittal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature-inspired algorithms are becoming popular among researchers due to their simplicity and flexibility. The nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms are analysed in terms of their key features like their diversity and adaptation, exploration and exploitation, and attractions and diffusion mechanisms. The success and challenges concerning these algorithms are based on their parameter tuning and parameter control. A comparatively new algorithm motivated by the social hierarchy and hunting behavior of grey wolves is Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO, which is a very successful algorithm for solving real mechanical and optical engineering problems. In the original GWO, half of the iterations are devoted to exploration and the other half are dedicated to exploitation, overlooking the impact of right balance between these two to guarantee an accurate approximation of global optimum. To overcome this shortcoming, a modified GWO (mGWO is proposed, which focuses on proper balance between exploration and exploitation that leads to an optimal performance of the algorithm. Simulations based on benchmark problems and WSN clustering problem demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency, and stability of mGWO compared with the basic GWO and some well-known algorithms.

  8. Wolves are better imitators of conspecifics than dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Range

    Full Text Available Domestication is thought to have influenced the cognitive abilities of dogs underlying their communication with humans, but little is known about its effect on their interactions with conspecifics. Since domestication hypotheses offer limited predictions in regard to wolf-wolf compared to dog-dog interactions, we extend the cooperative breeding hypothesis suggesting that the dependency of wolves on close cooperation with conspecifics, including breeding but also territory defense and hunting, has created selection pressures on motivational and cognitive processes enhancing their propensity to pay close attention to conspecifics' actions. During domestication, dogs' dependency on conspecifics has been relaxed, leading to reduced motivational and cognitive abilities to interact with conspecifics. Here we show that 6-month-old wolves outperform same aged dogs in a two-action-imitation task following a conspecific demonstration. While the wolves readily opened the apparatus after a demonstration, the dogs failed to solve the problem. This difference could not be explained by differential motivation, better physical insight of wolves, differential developmental pathways of wolves and dogs or a higher dependency of dogs from humans. Our results are best explained by the hypothesis that higher cooperativeness may come together with a higher propensity to pay close attention to detailed actions of others and offer an alternative perspective to domestication by emphasizing the cooperativeness of wolves as a potential source of dog-human cooperation.

  9. Wolves are better imitators of conspecifics than dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Domestication is thought to have influenced the cognitive abilities of dogs underlying their communication with humans, but little is known about its effect on their interactions with conspecifics. Since domestication hypotheses offer limited predictions in regard to wolf-wolf compared to dog-dog interactions, we extend the cooperative breeding hypothesis suggesting that the dependency of wolves on close cooperation with conspecifics, including breeding but also territory defense and hunting, has created selection pressures on motivational and cognitive processes enhancing their propensity to pay close attention to conspecifics' actions. During domestication, dogs' dependency on conspecifics has been relaxed, leading to reduced motivational and cognitive abilities to interact with conspecifics. Here we show that 6-month-old wolves outperform same aged dogs in a two-action-imitation task following a conspecific demonstration. While the wolves readily opened the apparatus after a demonstration, the dogs failed to solve the problem. This difference could not be explained by differential motivation, better physical insight of wolves, differential developmental pathways of wolves and dogs or a higher dependency of dogs from humans. Our results are best explained by the hypothesis that higher cooperativeness may come together with a higher propensity to pay close attention to detailed actions of others and offer an alternative perspective to domestication by emphasizing the cooperativeness of wolves as a potential source of dog-human cooperation.

  10. Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhenxin; Silva, Pedro; Gronau, Ilan; Wang, Shuoguo; Armero, Aitor Serres; Schweizer, Rena M; Ramirez, Oscar; Pollinger, John; Galaverni, Marco; Ortega Del-Vecchyo, Diego; Du, Lianming; Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xing, Jinchuan; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Godinho, Raquel; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-02-01

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a widely distributed top predator and ancestor of the domestic dog. To address questions about wolf relationships to each other and dogs, we assembled and analyzed a data set of 34 canine genomes. The divergence between New and Old World wolves is the earliest branching event and is followed by the divergence of Old World wolves and dogs, confirming that the dog was domesticated in the Old World. However, no single wolf population is more closely related to dogs, supporting the hypothesis that dogs were derived from an extinct wolf population. All extant wolves have a surprisingly recent common ancestry and experienced a dramatic population decline beginning at least ∼30 thousand years ago (kya). We suggest this crisis was related to the colonization of Eurasia by modern human hunter-gatherers, who competed with wolves for limited prey but also domesticated them, leading to a compensatory population expansion of dogs. We found extensive admixture between dogs and wolves, with up to 25% of Eurasian wolf genomes showing signs of dog ancestry. Dogs have influenced the recent history of wolves through admixture and vice versa, potentially enhancing adaptation. Simple scenarios of dog domestication are confounded by admixture, and studies that do not take admixture into account with specific demographic models are problematic. © 2016 Fan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus) Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Thomas D; Windels, Steve K; Bruggink, John G; Homkes, Austin T

    2016-01-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus) in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58%) kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80%) kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1) waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails) until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2) using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3) immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  12. Arctic lineage-canine distemper virus as a cause of death in Apennine wolves (Canis lupus in Italy.

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    Daria Di Sabatino

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1-S3 from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe.

  13. Arctic lineage-canine distemper virus as a cause of death in Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, Daria; Lorusso, Alessio; Di Francesco, Cristina E; Gentile, Leonardo; Di Pirro, Vincenza; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Giovannini, Armando; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Marsilio, Fulvio; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy) by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1-S3) from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe.

  14. Distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in selected species of protected and game mammals from North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paziewska, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Niewegłowski, Hubert; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Bajer, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are wide-spread pathogens of humans and many species of mammals. The ways of transmission are very complex and difficult to define. Both parasites occur in similar environments and share a broad host range. However, in Poland there is still little known about the epidemiology of these parasites due to the paucity of data on human cases and only few studies in wildlife. The aim of our study was to determine the distribution of two intestinal protozoa in a few species of protected and game mammals in North-Eastern Poland. Additionally, we wanted to compare prevalence and abundance of these parasites between wild and farm animals, and to determine the species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium. Fecal samples collected from protected species (European beaver-22, grey wolf-14, European bison-55, Polish Konik (horse)-5) and game mammals (red deer-52, roe deer-22, boar-5) were examined by IFA. We also studied a group of samples collected from farm animals: beaver-30, red deer-66, Polish konik-5. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in 5 of 7 studied animal species (prevalence from 9% in roe deer to 36% in wolves), Giardia cysts in 4 of 6 studied species (prevalence from 1.7% in red deer to 7.7% in European beaver). Sequencing analysis of COWP gene fragment revealed that 5 Cryptosporidium isolates from wolves were C. parvum genotype 2 (zoonotic). The results show the important role of examined species in maintaining the natural sources of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections in the environment.

  15. Energetic costs of mange in wolves estimated from infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Almberg, Emily S.; Haase, Catherine G; Hudson, Peter J.; Maloney, Shane K; Metz, Matthew C; Munn, Adam J; Nugent, Paul; Putzeys, Olivier; Stahler, Daniel R.; Stewart, Anya C; Smith, Doug W.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites, by definition, extract energy from their hosts and thus affect trophic and food web dynamics even when the parasite may have limited effects on host population size. We studied the energetic costs of mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) in wolves (Canis lupus) using thermal cameras to estimate heat losses associated with compromised insulation during the winter. We combined the field data of known, naturally infected wolves with data set on captive wolves with shaved patches of fur as a positive control to simulate mange-induced hair loss. We predict that during the winter in Montana, more severe mange infection increases heat loss by around 5.2 to 12 MJ per night (1240 to 2850 kcal, or a 65% to 78% increase) for small and large wolves, respectively accounting for wind effects. To maintain body temperature would require a significant proportion of a healthy wolf's total daily energy demands (18-22 MJ/day). We also predict how these thermal costs may increase in colder climates by comparing our predictions in Bozeman, Montana to those from a place with lower ambient temperatures (Fairbanks, Alaska). Contrary to our expectations, the 14°C differential between these regions was not as important as the potential differences in wind speed. These large increases in energetic demands can be mitigated by either increasing consumption rates or decreasing other energy demands. Data from GPS-collared wolves indicated that healthy wolves move, on average, 17 km per day, which was reduced by 1.5, 1.8 and 6.5 km for light, medium, and severe hair loss. In addition, the wolf with the most hair loss was less active at night and more active during the day, which is the converse of the movement patterns of healthy wolves. At the individual level mange infections create significant energy demands and altered behavioral patterns, this may have cascading effects on prey consumption rates, food web dynamics, predator-prey interactions, and scavenger communities.

  16. Local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Liang

    2015-01-01

    While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People’s attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People’s negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people’s attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region. PMID:26082870

  17. Local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People’s attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People’s negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people’s attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation of wolves (Canis lupus) in Southeast Alaska and comparison with wolves, dogs, and coyotes in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; Cánovas, Angela; Bannasch, Danika L; Oberbauer, Anita M; Medrano, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the genetics of wolves (Canis lupus) because of their close relationship to domestic dogs (C. familiaris) and the need for informed conservation and management. This includes wolf populations in Southeast Alaska for which we determined genotypes of 305 wolves at 173662 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. After removal of invariant and linked SNP, 123801 SNP were used to quantify genetic differentiation of wolves in Southeast Alaska and wolves, coyotes (C. latrans), and dogs from other areas in North America. There is differentiation of SNP allele frequencies between the species (wolves, coyotes, and dogs), although differentiation is relatively low between some wolf and coyote populations. There are varying levels of differentiation among populations of wolves, including low differentiation of wolves in interior Alaska, British Columbia, and the northern US Rocky Mountains. There is considerable differentiation of SNP allele frequencies of wolves in Southeast Alaska from wolves in other areas. However, wolves in Southeast Alaska are not a genetically homogeneous group and there are comparable levels of genetic differentiation among areas within Southeast Alaska and between Southeast Alaska and other geographic areas. SNP variation and other genetic data are discussed regarding taxonomy and management.

  19. Drapeaux Gris (Grey Flags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Arrivé

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Today it is images, a thickening web of images, amounting to a magic circle through which the citizens of this age have passed, never to return. What a time you chose to be born ! (... The question, then, is how to paint one’s subjectivity in the codes of culture ?Grey Flags, texte de Seth Price, (Communiqué de presse et titre de l’expositionJeux de pistes pour un art « sans drapeau »Si dans les années soixante les Flags de Jasper Johns problématisaient les catégories artistiques en détourn...

  20. Predation rate by wolves on the Porcupine caribou herd

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    Robert D. Hayes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Large migratory catibou {Rangifer tarandus herds in the Arctic tend to be cyclic, and population trends are mainly driven by changes in forage or weather events, not by predation. We estimated daily kill rate by wolves on adult caribou in winter, then constructed a time and space dependent model to estimate annual wolf (Canis lupus predation rate (P annual on adult Porcupine caribou. Our model adjusts predation seasonally depending on caribou distribution: Pannual = SIGMAdaily* W *Ap(2*Dp. In our model we assumed that wolves killed adult caribou at a constant rate (Kdaily, 0.08 caribou wolf1 day1 based on our studies and elsewhere; that wolf density (W doubled to 6 wolves 1000 km2-1 on all seasonal ranges; and that the average area occupied by the Porcupine caribou herd (PCH in eight seasonal life cycle periods (Dp was two times gteater than the area described by the outer boundaries of telemetry data (Ap /1000 km2. Results from our model projected that wolves kill about 7600 adult caribou each year, regardless of herd size. The model estimated that wolves removed 5.8 to 7.4% of adult caribou as the herd declined in the 1990s. Our predation rate model supports the hypothesis of Bergerud that spacing away by caribou is an effective anti-predatory strategy that greatly reduces wolf predation on adult caribou in the spring and summer.

  1. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in gray wolves in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, C; Jakubek, E-B; Arnemo, J M; Malmsten, J

    2010-10-11

    Transmission of the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals has gained some interest during recent years. Because of the close relationship between gray wolf (Canis lupus) and dog it has been suggested that gray wolf is a definitive host for the parasite. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of N. caninum in Scandinavian gray wolves and to investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. The investigation was based on blood samples collected from 109 wolves between 1998 and 2009 within the Scandinavian wolf project Skandulv. They were analysed by N. caninum iscom ELISA and those with absorbance values exceeding 0.20 were also analysed by immunoblotting. Samples that were positive in both tests were deemed positive. Four (3.7%) wolves were positive at the first sampling. They were all sampled 2005 at different locations, and were both females and males. From one male wolf three samples were collected over a 7-year period. No antibodies were detected at the first sampling in 1998 when he was approximately 8 months old but when he was sampled again 5 and 7 years later the ELISA and immunoblotting were positive. The results indicate that N. caninum infection is present in Scandinavian wolves. It is unclear how the wolves acquired the infection.

  2. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  3. Frequency distributions of helminths of wolves in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdybekova, A M; Torgerson, P R

    2012-03-23

    Between 2001 and 2008 a total of 41 wolves (Canis lupus) were necropsied in southern Kazakhstan and their intestinal parasite fauna evaluated. Of these animals 8 (19.5%) were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, 15 (36%) with Taenia spp, 13 (31.7%) with Dypilidium caninum, 5 (12.2%) with Mesocestoides lineatus, 15 (36.6%) with Toxocara canis, 16 (39%) with Toxascaris leonina, 8 (19.5%) with Trichuris vulpis, 9 (22%) with Macracanthorhynchus catulinus and 1 (2.4%) with Moniliformis moniliformis. All parasites had an aggregated distribution which followed a zero inflated or hurdle model. Although a small convenience sample of wolves, the results indicate a high prevalence of infection with E. granulosus. The mean abundance (1275 E. granulosus per wolf) was high with individual infected wolves carrying intensities of several thousand parasites. As wolves are common in Kazakhstan they may act as an important host in the transmission of this zoonotic parasite. The wolves were sampled from an area of Kazakhstan where there is a high prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock and where echinococcosis has been observed in wild ungulates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km2), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km2), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km2), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085

  5. Testing the myth: tolerant dogs and aggressive wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-05-22

    Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog-human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication ('emotional reactivity hypothesis'). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog-wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf-wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis).

  6. Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis in wolves from western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M; Elkin, Brett T; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-02-01

    Echinococcus species are important parasites of wildlife, domestic animals and people worldwide; however, little is known about the prevalence, intensity and genetic diversity of Echinococcus tapeworms in Canadian wildlife. Echinococcus tapeworms were harvested from the intestines of 42% of 93 wolves (Canis lupus) from five sampling regions in the Northwest Territories, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and visually identified to genus level by microscopic examination. Genetic characterization was successful for tapeworms from 30 wolves, and identified both Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus multilocularis in all sampling locations. Mixed infections of E. canadensis/E. multilocularis, as well as the G8/G10 genotypes of E. canadensis were observed. These findings suggest that wolves may be an important definitive host for both parasite species in western Canada. This represents the first report of wolves naturally infected with E. multilocularis in North America, and of wolves harbouring mixed infections with multiple species and genotypes of Echinococcus. These observations provide important information regarding the distribution and diversity of zoonotic species of Echinococcus in western North America, and may be of interest from public health and wildlife conservation perspectives.

  7. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: increased exposure through consumption of marine prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K; Ballweber, Lora R; Moses, Sara K; Stricker, Craig A; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; O'Hara, Todd M

    2014-01-15

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. PMID:24056451

  9. Grey Literature in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pejšová, Petra; Pfeiferová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Contribution summarizes activities concerning grey literature in the Czech Republic. Contribution describes relationships between systems/projects collecting grey literature and position grey literature in the Czech Digital Library. Contribution is especially focused on a project “The Digital Library for Grey Literature –Functional Model and Pilot Implementation”, which solves the State Technical Library.

  10. Research on evaluations of several grey relational models adapt to grey relational axioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Naiming; Liu Sifeng

    2009-01-01

    Grey relational analysis is an important part of the grey systems theory, and it is the basis of the grey clustering analysis, grey decision-making and grey controlling. To research whether grey relational models satisfy the four grey relational theorems, several kinds of grey relational models are commented. Some problems including the properties of normality, pair symmetry and wholeness are discussed. The phenomenon that the lower value of almost each grey relational model is not equal to zero is proved. The contradiction problems between the properties of wholeness and pair symmetry are verified. Finally, several propositions are constructed to explain the above problems.

  11. Grey literature in Australian education

    OpenAIRE

    White, Gerald (ACER); Thomas, Julian (Swinburne University); Weldon, Paul; Lawrence, Amanda (Swinburne University); Galatis, Helen (ACER); Tyndall, Jessica (Flinders University); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of informal publishing or grey literature in education appears to have increased as digital technologies have become main-stream, educators have become more proficient and policies have moved increasingly towards supporting its use. In addition, the take up of social networking technologies and innovative methods of digital publishing have encouraged educators to produce, distribute and share content and commentary. Grey literature may make a substantial contribution to educati...

  12. The scent of wolves: pyrazine analogs induce avoidance and vigilance behaviors in prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi eOsada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The common grey wolf (Canis lupus is an apex predator located at the top of the food chain in the Northern Hemisphere. It preys on rodents, rabbits, ungulates, and many other kinds of mammal. However, the behavioral evidence for, and the chemical basis of, the fear-inducing impact of wolf urine on prey are unclear. Recently, the pyrazine analogs 2, 6-dimethylpyrazine, 2, 3, 5-trimethylpyrazine and 3-ethyl-2, 5-dimethyl pyrazine were identified as kairomones in the urine of wolves. When mice were confronted with a mixture of purified pyrazine analogs, vigilance behaviors, including freezing and excitation of neurons at the accessory olfactory bulb, were markedly increased. Additionally, the odor of the pyrazine cocktail effectively suppressed the approach of deer to a feeding area, and for those close to the feeding area elicited fear-related behaviors such as the tail-flag, flight, and jump actions. In this review, we discuss the transfer of chemical information from wolf to prey through the novel kairomones identified in wolf urine and also compare the characteristics of wolf kairomones with other predator-produced kairomones that affect rodents.

  13. Parasite invasion following host reintroduction: a case of Yellowstone’s wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Almberg, Emily S.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Smith, Douglas W.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife reintroductions select or treat individuals for good health with the expectation that these individuals will fare better than infected animals. However, these individuals, new to their environment, may also be particularly susceptible to circulating infections and this may result in high morbidity and mortality, potentially jeopardizing the goals of recovery. Here, using the reintroduction of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) into Yellowstone National Park as a case study, we address the question of how parasites invade a reintroduced population and consider the impact of these invasions on population performance. We find that several viral parasites rapidly invaded the population inside the park, likely via spillover from resident canid species, and we contrast these with the slower invasion of sarcoptic mange, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The spatio-temporal patterns of mange invasion were largely consistent with patterns of host connectivity and density, and we demonstrate that the area of highest resource quality, supporting the greatest density of wolves, is also the region that appears most susceptible to repeated disease invasion and parasite-induced declines. The success of wolf reintroduction appears not to have been jeopardized by infectious disease, but now shows signs of regulation or limitation modulated by parasites.

  14. Identity-driven differences in stakeholder concerns about hunting wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Michelle L; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management.

  15. Medical management of pyometra in three red wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie; Wolf, Karen N

    2013-12-01

    Pyometra is a serious, life-threatening disease of both domestic and non-domestic species often requiring ovariohysterectomy to preserve the life of the animal. Medical management of pyometra has been successful in domestic and non-domestic species, and the consideration of such treatment is of marked importance in a critically endangered species. Of the canids, the red wolf (Canis rufus) is second only to African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus) in terms of the prevalence of both cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra. In this report, three red wolves were medically managed for pyometra. Aside from vaginal discharge, none of the wolves exhibited clinical signs, nor were there reflective inflammatory changes in the laboratory findings. All wolves received standard treatment for pyometra, including prostaglandin F2alpha and antibiotic therapy, while one wolf was more aggressively managed with uterine lavage. Pyometra recurred in two of the treated wolves, while the most aggressively managed wolf continues to show ultrasonographic resolution 2 yr posttreatment. Aggressive medical management of pyometra should be considered a treatment option in certain red wolf females, as it may preserve the animal's reproductive potential.

  16. Jim, Antonia, and the Wolves: Displacement in Cather's "My Antonia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robin

    2009-01-01

    In one of the most frequently noted incidents in Willa Cather's "My Antonia", Russian immigrant Pavel reveals on his deathbed that, when driving his friend's wedding party sledge, he saved his own life and companion Peter's by throwing the bride and groom to the attacking wolves. Antonia and Jim are fascinated by this story, and readers…

  17. "Dances with Wolves": Lessons from Loo Ten Tant's Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Lynne

    1994-01-01

    Examines the way one ninth-grade English teacher used the film "Dances with Wolves" as part of a thematic unit entitled, "Strength from Diversity." Shows how the film was used and provides responses from many students in the course to the film. (HB)

  18. Pathogens of wild maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Curi, Nelson Henrique; Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Campos Cordeiro Malta, Marcelo; Magni, Elisa Maria Vaz; Sábato, Marco Aurelio Lima; Araújo, Amanda Soriano; Lobato, Zelia Inês Portela; Santos, Juliana Lúcia Costa; Santos, Hudson Andrade; Ragozo, Alessandra Alves Mara; de Souza, Silvio Luís Pereira

    2012-10-01

    The maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, is an endangered Neotropical canid that survives at low population densities. Diseases are a potential threat for its conservation but to date have been poorly studied. We performed clinical evaluations and investigated the presence of infectious diseases through serology and coprologic tests on maned wolves from Galheiro Natural Private Reserve, Perdizes City, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Fifteen wolves were captured between 2003 and 2008. We found high prevalences of antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV; 13/14), canine parvovirus (CPV; 4/14), canine adenovirus type 2 (13/14), canine coronavirus (5/11), canine parainfluenza virus (5/5), and Toxoplasma gondii (6/8), along with Ancylostomidae eggs in all feces samples. Antibodies against Leishmania sp. were found in one of 10 maned wolves, and all samples were negative for Neospora caninum. Evidence of high exposure to these viral agents was also observed in unvaccinated domestic dogs from neighboring farms. High prevalence of viral agents and parasites such as CDV, CPV, and Ancylostomidae indicates that this population faces considerable risk of outbreaks and chronic debilitating parasites. This is the first report of exposure to canine parainfluenza virus in Neotropical free-ranging wild canids. Our findings highlight that canine pathogens pose a serious hazard to the viability of maned wolves and other wild carnivore populations in the area and emphasize the need for monitoring and protecting wildlife health in remaining fragments of the Cerrado biome.

  19. Is black coat color in wolves of Iran an evidence of admixed ancestry with dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Rasoul; Asadi Aghbolaghi, Marzieh; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Nourani, Elham; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    Melanism is not considered a typical characteristic in wolves of Iran and dark wolves are believed to have originated from crossbreeding with dogs. Such hybrid individuals can be identified with the combined use of genetic and morphological markers. We analyzed two black wolves using a 544 base pairs (bp) fragment of the mtDNA control region and 15 microsatellite loci in comparison with 28 dogs, 28 wolves, and four known hybrids. The artificial neural networks (ANNs) method was applied to microsatellite data to separate genetically differentiated samples of wolves, dogs, and hybrids, and to determine the correct class for the black specimens. Individual assignments based on ANNs showed that black samples were genetically closer to wolves. Also, in the neighbor-joining network of mtDNA haplotypes, wolves and dogs were separated, with the dark specimens located in the wolf branch as two separate haplotypes. Furthermore, we compared 20 craniometrical characters of the two black individuals with 14 other wolves. The results showed that craniometrical measures of the two black wolves fall within the range of wolf skulls. We found no trace of recent hybridization with free-ranging dogs in the two black wolves. Dark coat color might be the result of a natural combination of alleles in the coat-color-determining gene, mutation in the K locus due to past hybridization with free-ranging dogs, or the effect of ecological factors and adaption to habitat conditions.

  20. Energetic costs of mange in wolves estimated from infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P C; Almberg, E S; Haase, C G; Hudson, P J; Maloney, S K; Metz, M C; Munn, A J; Nugent, P; Putzeys, O; Stahler, D R; Stewart, A C; Smith, D W

    2016-08-01

    Parasites, by definition, extract energy from their hosts and thus affect trophic and food web dynamics even when the parasite may have limited effects on host population size. We studied the energetic costs of mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) in wolves (Canis lupus) using thermal cameras to estimate heat losses associated with compromised insulation during the winter. We combined the field data of known, naturally infected wolves with a data set on captive wolves with shaved patches of fur as a positive control to simulate mange-induced hair loss. We predict that during the winter in Montana, more severe mange infection increases heat loss by around 5.2-12 MJ per night (1,240-2,850 kcal, or a 65-78% increase) for small and large wolves, respectively, accounting for wind effects. To maintain body temperature would require a significant proportion of a healthy wolf's total daily energy demands (18-22 MJ/day). We also predict how these thermal costs may increase in colder climates by comparing our predictions in Bozeman, Montana to those from a place with lower ambient temperatures (Fairbanks, Alaska). Contrary to our expectations, the 14°C differential between these regions was not as important as the potential differences in wind speed. These large increases in energetic demands can be mitigated by either increasing consumption rates or decreasing other energy demands. Data from GPS-collared wolves indicated that healthy wolves move, on average, 17 km per day, which was reduced by 1.5, 1.8, and 6.5 km for light, medium, and severe hair loss. In addition, the wolf with the most hair loss was less active at night and more active during the day, which is the converse of the movement patterns of healthy wolves. At the individual level, mange infections create significant energy demands and altered behavioral patterns, this may have cascading effects on prey consumption rates, food web dynamics, predator-prey interactions, and scavenger communities.

  1. Prey Selection of Scandinavian Wolves: Single Large or Several Small?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Håkan; Eklund, Ann; Zimmermann, Barbara; Wikenros, Camilla; Wabakken, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Research on large predator-prey interactions are often limited to the predators' primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in systems with multiple ungulate species rarely investigated. We evaluated wolf (Canis lupus) prey selection at two different spatial scales, i.e., inter- and intra-territorial, using data from 409 ungulate wolf-kills in an expanding wolf population in Scandinavia. This expansion includes a change from a one-prey into a two-prey system with variable densities of one large-sized ungulate; moose (Alces alces) and one small-sized ungulate; roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Among wolf territories, the proportion of roe deer in wolf kills was related to both pack size and roe deer density, but not to moose density. Pairs of wolves killed a higher proportion of roe deer than did packs, and wolves switched to kill more roe deer as their density increased above a 1:1 ratio in relation to the availability of the two species. At the intra-territorial level, wolves again responded to changes in roe deer density in their prey selection whereas we found no effect of snow depth, time during winter, or other predator-related factors on the wolves' choice to kill moose or roe deer. Moose population density was only weakly related to intra-territorial prey selection. Our results show that the functional response of wolves on moose, the species hitherto considered as the main prey, was strongly dependent on the density of a smaller, alternative, ungulate prey. The impact of wolf predation on the prey species community is therefore likely to change with the composition of the multi-prey species community along with the geographical expansion of the wolf population.

  2. Pervasive Effects of Aging on Gene Expression in Wild Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charruau, Pauline; Johnston, Rachel A; Stahler, Daniel R; Lea, Amanda; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Smith, Douglas W; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Cole, Steven W; Tung, Jenny; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression levels change as an individual ages and responds to environmental conditions. With the exception of humans, such patterns have principally been studied under controlled conditions, overlooking the array of developmental and environmental influences that organisms encounter under conditions in which natural selection operates. We used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of whole blood to assess the relative impacts of social status, age, disease, and sex on gene expression levels in a natural population of gray wolves (Canis lupus). Our findings suggest that age is broadly associated with gene expression levels, whereas other examined factors have minimal effects on gene expression patterns. Further, our results reveal evolutionarily conserved signatures of senescence, such as immunosenescence and metabolic aging, between wolves and humans despite major differences in life history and environment. The effects of aging on gene expression levels in wolves exhibit conservation with humans, but the more rapid expression differences observed in aging wolves is evolutionarily appropriate given the species' high level of extrinsic mortality due to intraspecific aggression. Some expression changes that occur with age can facilitate physical age-related changes that may enhance fitness in older wolves. However, the expression of these ancestral patterns of aging in descendant modern dogs living in highly modified domestic environments may be maladaptive and cause disease. This work provides evolutionary insight into aging patterns observed in domestic dogs and demonstrates the applicability of studying natural populations to investigate the mechanisms of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  4. GreyGuide Forum and Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    We present the GreyGuide: an online forum and repository of good practice in the field of grey literature. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices are underway. The GreyGuide as an online forum is currently in a developmental stage and is influenced by the changes that have taken place in GreyNet's new infrastructure commencing in J...

  5. Echinococcus species from red foxes, corsac foxes, and wolves in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Davaasuren, Anu; Sumiya, Battulga; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ki, Toshiaki; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito

    2013-11-01

    The small intestines of 420 wild canids (111 corsac foxes, 191 red foxes and 118 wolves) from Mongolia, were examined for adult worms of the genus Echinococcus. The Mongolian genotype of Echinococcus multilocularis was found in fifteen red foxes and four wolves, whereas two genotypes (G6/7 and G10) of Echinococcus canadensis were found in two and three wolves, respectively. No adult Echinococcus worms were found in the corsac foxes examined. The genotypes of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis are discussed in terms of host specificity and distribution in Mongolia. The importance of wolves in the completion of the life cycle of Echinococcus spp. is also discussed.

  6. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a sm

  7. Grey Literature and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation standards for professional schools offering social work degrees mandate curriculum content that provides students with skills to analyze, formulate, and influence social policies. An important source of analytical thinking about social policy is the "grey" literature issued by public policy organizations, think tanks,…

  8. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  9. IgA deficiency in wolves from Canada and Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowiack, Marcel; Olsson, Mia; Cluff, H Dean; Evans, Alina L; Hellman, Lars; Månsson, Johan; Arnemo, Jon M; Hammarström, Lennart

    2015-05-01

    Immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in both humans and selected breeds of domestic dogs. In both species, IgAD is associated with recurrent infections and immune mediated diseases. Previous results imply that IgAD is also common in the wild ancestor of domestic dogs, the gray wolf. Here, we report that serum IgA concentrations are significantly different in Scandinavian and Canadian wolves (p = 3.252e-15) with an increased prevalence for IgAD in Scandinavian wolves (60%), which is as high as those found in high-risk dog breeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Yellowstone wolves and the forces that structure natural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andy P

    2014-12-01

    Since their introduction in 1995 and 1996, wolves have had effects on Yellowstone that ripple across the entire structure of the food web that defines biodiversity in the Northern Rockies ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the wolves have generated a significant amount of debate about the relative strength of top-down versus bottom-up forces in determining herbivore and vegetation abundance in Yellowstone. Debates such as this are central to the resolution of broader debates about the role of natural enemies and climate as forces that structure food webs and modify ecosystem function. Ecologists need to significantly raise the profile of these discussions; understanding the forces that structure food webs and determine species abundance and the supply of ecosystem services is one of the central scientific questions for this century; its complexity will require new minds, new mathematics, and significant, consistent funding.

  11. Yellowstone wolves and the forces that structure natural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy P Dobson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1995 and 1996, wolves have had effects on Yellowstone that ripple across the entire structure of the food web that defines biodiversity in the Northern Rockies ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the wolves have generated a significant amount of debate about the relative strength of top-down versus bottom-up forces in determining herbivore and vegetation abundance in Yellowstone. Debates such as this are central to the resolution of broader debates about the role of natural enemies and climate as forces that structure food webs and modify ecosystem function. Ecologists need to significantly raise the profile of these discussions; understanding the forces that structure food webs and determine species abundance and the supply of ecosystem services is one of the central scientific questions for this century; its complexity will require new minds, new mathematics, and significant, consistent funding.

  12. Identity-driven differences in stakeholder concerns about hunting wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Lute

    Full Text Available Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666 cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management.

  13. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Wilmers

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  14. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eRange

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1 to 4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with a Frank's (1980 hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist.

  15. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmers Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  16. Heterozygote Advantage in a Finite Population: Black Color in Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Stahler, Daniel R; Dekker, Dick

    2014-01-01

    There is a striking color polymorphism for wolves in the Yellowstone National Park where approximately half the wolves are black. The genetic basis for this polymorphism is known, and fitnesses of the genotypes are estimated. These estimates suggest that there is strong heterozygote advantage but substantial asymmetry in the fitness differences of the 2 homozygotes. Theoretically, such fitnesses in a finite population are thought to reduce genetic variation at least as fast as if there were no selection at all. Because the color polymorphism has remained at about the same frequency for 17 years, about 4 generations, we investigated whether this was consistent with the theoretical predictions. Counter to this general expectation of loss, given the initial frequency of black wolves, the theoretical expectation in this case was found to be that the frequency would only decline slowly over time. For example, if the effective population size is 20, then the expected black allele frequency after 4 generations would be 0.191, somewhat less than the observed value of 0.237. However, nearly 30% of the time the expected frequency is 0.25 or greater, consistent with the contemporary observed frequency. In other words and in contrast to general theoretical predictions, because of the short period of time in evolutionary terms and the relatively weak selection at low frequencies, the observed variation and the predicted theoretical variation are not inconsistent. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    There is strong negative-assortative mating for gray and black pelage color in the iconic wolves in Yellowstone National Park. This is the first documented case of significant negative-assortative mating in mammals and one of only a very few cases in vertebrates. Of 261 matings documented from 1995 to 2015, 63.6% were between gray and black wolves and the correlation between mates for color was -0.266. There was a similar excess of matings of both gray males × black females and black males × gray females. Using the observed frequency of negative-assortative mating in a model with both random and negative-assortative mating, the estimated proportion of negative-assortative mating was 0.430. The estimated frequency of black wolves in the population from 1996 to 2014 was 0.452 and these frequencies appear stable over this 19-year period. Using the estimated level of negative-assortative mating, the predicted equilibrium frequency of the dominant allele was 0.278, very close to the mean value of 0.253 observed. In addition, the patterns of genotype frequencies, that is, the observed proportion of black homozygotes and the observed excess of black heterozygotes, are consistent with negative-assortative mating. Importantly these results demonstrate that negative-assortative mating could be entirely responsible for the maintenance of this well-known color polymorphism. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Diet of wolves Canis lupus returning to Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanszki, József; Márkus, Márta; Ujváry, Dóra; Szabó, Adám; Szemethy, László

    2012-04-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, the wolf Canis lupus was extinct in Hungary and in recent decades has returned to the northern highland area of the country. The diet of wolves living in groups in Aggteleki National Park was investigated using scat analysis (n = 81 scats) and prey remains (n = 31 carcasses). Throughout the year wolves (average, minimum two wolves per year) consumed mostly wild-living ungulates (mean percent of biomass consumed, B% 97.2%; relative frequency of occurrence, %O 74.0%). The wild boar Sus scrofa was the most common prey item found in wolf scat (%B 35.6%) and is also the most commonly occurring ungulate in the study areas. The second most commonly occurring prey item in wolf scat was red deer Cervus elaphus (B% 32.8%). Conversely, prey remain analyses revealed wild boar as the second most commonly utilised prey species (%O 16.1%) after red deer (%O 67.7%). The roe deer Capreolus capreolus that occurs at lower population densities was the third most commonly utilised prey species. The importance of low population density mouflon Ovis aries, livestock and other food types was low. The results are similar to those found in the northern part of the Carpathian Mountains.

  19. Waveguides induced by grey screening solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Ke-Qing; Zhao Wei; Yang Yan-Long; Zhang Mei-Zhi; Li Jin-Ping; Liu Hong-Jun; Zhang Yan-Peng

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the properties of waveguides induced by one-dimensional grey screening solitons in biased photore-fractive crystals. The results show that waveguides induced by grey screening solitons are always of single mode for all intensity ratios, i.e. the ratios between the peak intensity of the soliton and the dark irradiance. Our analysis indicates that the energy confined near the centre of the grey soliton and the propagation constant of the guided mode of the waveguide induced by the grey screening soliton increase monotonically with intensity ratio increasing. On the other hand, when the soliton greyness increases, the energy confined near the centre of the grey soliton and the propagation constant of the guided mode of the waveguide induced by the grey screening soliton decrease monotonically. Relevant examples are provided where photorefractive crystal is of the strontium barium niobate type.

  20. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Weckworth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  1. 76 FR 17439 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Service or its designated agents when livestock, stock animals, or dogs are killed by wolves. DATES: To... Fish and Wildlife Service Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky... Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for...

  2. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  3. The Wonder of Wolves: A Story & Activities. Revised Edition. The Wonder Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

    This curriculum guide is all about wolves and provides information through the telling of a story about wolves and their history and folklore. The 14 activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to motivate students. Activity topics include building a wolf,…

  4. The influence of relationships on neophobia and exploration in wolves and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Lucia; Hentrup, Marleen; Kotrschal, Kurt; Range, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Exploration is important for animals to be able to gather information about features of their environment that may directly or indirectly influence survival and reproduction. Closely related to exploration is neophobia, which may reduce exposure to danger, but also constrain explorative behaviour. Here we investigated the effects of social relationships on neophobia and exploration in wolves, Canis lupus, and dogs, Canis familiaris. Eleven pack-living wolves reared by human foster parents and 13 identically raised and kept dogs were tested in a novel object test under three different conditions: (1) alone, (2) paired with a pack mate and (3) together with the entire pack. Dogs were less neophobic than wolves and interacted faster with the novel objects. However, the dogs showed overall less interest in the novel objects than wolves, which investigated the objects for longer than the dogs. Both wolves and dogs manipulated objects for longer when paired or in the pack than when alone. While kinship facilitated the investigation of novel objects in the pair condition in both wolves and dogs, rank distance had opposite effects. Our results suggest that the presence of conspecifics supported the exploration of novel objects in both wolves and dogs, particularly within kin and that this may be interpreted as risk sharing. The reduced latency to approach objects and less time spent exploring objects in dogs compared to wolves may be interpreted as an effect of domestication. PMID:26405301

  5. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  6. Hematology and serum clinical chemistry reference intervals for free-ranging Scandinavian gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Stein I; Arnemo, Jon M; Liberg, Olof

    2009-06-01

    Scandinavian free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) are endangered, such that laboratory data to assess their health status is increasingly important. Although wolves have been studied for decades, most biological information comes from captive animals. The objective of the present study was to establish reference intervals for 30 clinical chemical and 8 hematologic analytes in Scandinavian free-ranging wolves. All wolves were tracked and chemically immobilized from a helicopter before examination and blood sampling in the winter of 7 consecutive years (1998-2004). Seventy-nine blood samples were collected from 57 gray wolves, including 24 juveniles (24 samples), 17 adult females (25 samples), and 16 adult males (30 samples). Whole blood and serum samples were stored at refrigeration temperature for 1-3 days before hematologic analyses and for 1-5 days before serum biochemical analyses. Reference intervals were calculated as 95% confidence intervals except for juveniles where the minimum and maximum values were used. Significant differences were observed between adult and juvenile wolves for RBC parameters, alkaline phosphatase and amylase activities, and total protein, albumin, gamma-globulins, cholesterol, creatinine, calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphate, and sodium concentrations. Compared with published reference values for captive wolves, reference intervals for free-ranging wolves reflected exercise activity associated with capture (higher creatine kinase activity, higher glucose concentration), and differences in nutritional status (higher urea concentration).

  7. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, Byron V; Dawson, Natalie G; Talbot, Sandra L; Flamme, Melanie J; Cook, Joseph A

    2011-05-04

    Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  8. Famous North American wolves and the credibility of early wildlife literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Nowak, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the credibility of early literature about famous North American wolves (Canis lupus). Many famous wolves were reported to be older than they actually were, and we estimated they did not live long enough to have caused purported damage to livestock and game animals. Wolf kill rates on free-ranging livestock appeared to be inflated compared to recently published kill rates on native ungulates and livestock. Surplus killing of sheep and goats may have accounted for some high kill rates, but surplus killing of free-ranging longhorn cattle probably did not occur. Some famous wolves may actually have been dogs (C. familiaris), wolf-dog hybrids, or possibly coyote (C. latrans)-dog hybrids. We documented instances where early authors appeared to embellish or fabricate information about famous wolves. Caution should be exercised when using early literature about wolves as a basis for wolf management decisions.

  9. GWO-LPWSN: Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm for Node Localization Problem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajakumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seyedali Mirjalili et al. (2014 introduced a completely unique metaheuristic technique particularly grey wolf optimization (GWO. This algorithm mimics the social behavior of grey wolves whereas it follows the leadership hierarchy and attacking strategy. The rising issue in wireless sensor network (WSN is localization problem. The objective of this problem is to search out the geographical position of unknown nodes with the help of anchor nodes in WSN. In this work, GWO algorithm is incorporated to spot the correct position of unknown nodes, so as to handle the node localization problem. The proposed work is implemented using MATLAB 8.2 whereas nodes are deployed in a random location within the desired network area. The parameters like computation time, percentage of localized node, and minimum localization error measures are utilized to analyse the potency of GWO rule with other variants of metaheuristics algorithms such as particle swarm optimization (PSO and modified bat algorithm (MBA. The observed results convey that the GWO provides promising results compared to the PSO and MBA in terms of the quick convergence rate and success rate.

  10. Research Note. Pearsonema plica and Eucoleus böhmi infections and associated lesions in wolves (Canis lupus from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacher A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of Pearsonema plica and Eucoleus böhmi infections in wolves (Canis lupus in Europe are limited and data on associated lesions are lacking. In the present study urinary bladders, nasal turbinates and faecal samples from 8 necropsied wolves were examined for P. plica and E. böhmi infections and associated lesions. P. plica was identified in the bladder of four wolves. At histological examination, follicular chronic cystitis and eosinophilic cystitis were found. E. böhmi nematodes and eggs were identified from the nasal turbinates and rectal faecal samples of three wolves. Worms and eggs were found embedded in the mucosa among the nasal bone laminae. Two wolves were found coinfected by P. plica and E. böhmi. This is the first report of P. plica and E. böhmi infections in wolves from Italy and the first description of pathological lesions associated with P. plica infection in wolves.

  11. An FMEA analysis using grey theory and grey rough sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Faezy Razi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for detecting the most important failure items as well as the most effective alternative strategy to cope with possible events. The proposed model of this paper uses grey technique to rank various alternatives and FMEA technique to find important faults. The implementation of the proposed method has been illustrated for an existing example on the literature. The results of this method show that the proposed model has been capable of detecting the most trouble making problems with fuzzy logic and finds the most important solution strategy using FMEA technique.

  12. Grey Literature in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pejsova, Petra (NTK); Pfeiferova, Martina (NTK); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    Our contribution summarizes and describes activities concerning grey literature in the Czech Republic. The managing organisation of the activity is the State Technical Library (henceforth the STL); in the past, it was the STL, who was collecting, publishing and submitting grey literature into the SIGLE system. Moreover, the STL was the representative of the Czech Republic in the EAGLE. Now, EAGLE being extinct, there is no coordinated collection of grey literature on the national level since ...

  13. Malocclusion in the jaws of captive bred Arctic wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Similar abnormalities in the skulls of captive Arctic Wolves (Canis lupus arctos) and a wild Arctic wolf found dead on Ellesmere Island, Canada, in 1986 are described. The malocclusion is likely to be recessively inherited and would be expressed more frequently in association with increased levels of inbreeding. A re-shaping of the skulls may have occurred due to the effects of the malocclusive trait. The Ellesmere skull was short and wide in comparison to the captive skulls which were long and narrow. The focus of effect was in a foreshortening of the rostrum and the resulting shortened toothrow.

  14. The luminous and the grey

    CERN Document Server

    Batchelor, David

    2014-01-01

    Color surrounds us: the lush green hues of trees and grasses, the variant blues of water and the sky, the bright pops of yellow and red from flowers. But at the same time, color lies at the limits of language and understanding. In this absorbing sequel to Chromophobia-which addresses the extremes of love and loathing provoked by color since antiquity-David Batchelor charts color's more ambiguous terrain.   The Luminous and the Grey explores the places where color comes into being and where it fades away, probing when it begins and when it ends both in the imagination and in the material world.

  15. Antibodies against canine parvovirus of wolves of Minnesota: A serologic study from 1975 through 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.; Rademacher, R.A.; Khan, M.A.; Seal, U.S.

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples (n = 137) from 47 wild wolves (Canis lupus; 21 pups and 26 adults) were evaluated from 1975 to 1985 for antibodies against canine parvovirus, using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. In addition, several blood samples (n = 35) from 14 of these wolves (6 pups and 8 adults) were evaluated simultaneously for erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and for hemoglobin and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. Sixty-nine (50%) of the serum samples (35 wolves) had HI titers of greater than or equal to 256, whereas 68 (50%) of the samples (16 wolves) had HI titers of less than or equal to 128. Significant differences in the geometric mean titers were not found between pups and adults or between males and females. Of the 47 wolves evaluated, 12 (25%) developed a greater than or equal to fourfold increase in antibody titers during the 11-year period, with 2 wolves developing serologic conversions in 1976. The data indicate that canine parvovirus may have begun infecting wolves before or at the same time that it began infecting the dog population in the United States.

  16. Accuracy and precision of estimating age of gray wolves by tooth wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Nowak, R.M.; Mech, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy and precision of tooth wear for aging gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario based on 47 known-age or known-minimum-age skulls. Estimates of age using tooth wear and a commercial cementum annuli-aging service were useful for wolves up to 14 years old. The precision of estimates from cementum annuli was greater than estimates from tooth wear, but tooth wear estimates are more applicable in the field. We tended to overestimate age by 1-2 years and occasionally by 3 or 4 years. The commercial service aged young wolves with cementum annuli to within ?? 1 year of actual age, but under estimated ages of wolves ???9 years old by 1-3 years. No differences were detected in tooth wear patterns for wild wolves from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario, nor between captive and wild wolves. Tooth wear was not appropriate for aging wolves with an underbite that prevented normal wear or severely broken and missing teeth.

  17. Spatial heterogeneity in human activities favors the persistence of wolves in agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohsen; López-Bao, José Vicente; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As human populations expand, there is increasing demand and pressure for land. Under this scenario, behavioural flexibility and adaptation become important processes leading to the persistence of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes such as agroecosystems. A growing interest has recently emerged on the outcome of the coexistence between wolves and humans in these systems. It has been suggested that spatial heterogeneity in human activities would be a major environmental factor modulating vulnerability and persistence of this contentious species in agroecosystems. Here, we combined information from 35 den sites detected between 2011 and 2012 in agroecosystems of western Iran (Hamedan province), a set of environmental variables measured at landscape and fine spatial scales, and generalized linear models to identify patterns of den site selection by wolves in a highly-modified agroecosystem. On a landscape level, wolves selected a mixture of rangelands with scattered dry-farms on hillsides (showing a low human use) to locate their dens, avoiding areas with high densities of settlements and primary roads. On a fine spatial scale, wolves primarily excavated dens into the sides of elevated steep-slope hills with availability of water bodies in the vicinity of den sites, and wolves were relegated to dig in places with coarse-soil particles. Our results suggest that vulnerability of wolves in human-dominated landscapes could be compensated by the existence of spatial heterogeneity in human activities. Such heterogeneity would favor wolf persistence in agroecosystems favoring a land sharing model of coexistence between wolves and people.

  18. Social learning from humans or conspecifics: differences and similarities between wolves and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eRange

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most domestication hypotheses propose that dogs have been selected for enhanced communication and interactions with humans, including learning socially from human demonstrators. However, to what extent these skills are newly derived and to what extent they originate from wolf-wolf interactions is unclear. In order to test for the possible origins of dog social cognition, we need to compare the interactions of wolves and dogs with humans and with conspecifics. Here, we tested identically raised and kept juvenile wolves and dogs in a social learning task with human and conspecific demonstrators. Using a local enhancement task, we found that both wolves and dogs profited from a demonstration independently of the demonstrator species in comparison to a control, no demonstration condition. Interestingly, if the demonstrator only pretended to hide food at the target location, wolves and dogs reacted differently: while dogs differentiated between this without-food and with-food demonstration independently of the demonstrator species, wolves only did so in case of human demonstrators. We attribute this finding to the higher propensity of wolves to pay attention to the behavioral details of the conspecific models that were trained to execute the demonstration but found the food reward unattractive. Overall, these results suggest that dogs but also wolves can use information provided by both human and conspecific demonstrators in a local enhancement task. Therefore we suggest that a more fine-scale analysis of dog social learning is needed to determine the effects of domestication.

  19. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  20. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available European wolves (Canis lupus show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  1. Effects of canine parvovirus on gray wolves in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term effects of disease on wild animal population demography is not well documented. We studied a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in a 2,060km2 area of Minnesota for 15 years to determine its response to canine parvovirus (CPV). The CPV had little effect (P gt 0.05) on wolf population size while epizootic during 1979-83. However, after CPV became enzootic, percentage of pups captured during summer-fall 1984-93 and changes in subsequent winter wolf numbers were each inversely related to the serological prevalence of CPV in wolves captured during July-November (r2 = 0.39 and 0.72, P = 0.05 and lt 0.01, respectively). The CPV antibody prevalence in adult wolves increased to 87% in 1993 (r2 = 0.28, P = 0.05). However, because population level remained stable, CPV-induced mortality appeared to compensate for other mortality factors such as starvation. We -predict that the winter wolf population will decline when CPV prevalence in adults consistently exceeds 76%. The CPV may become important in limiting wolf populations.

  2. Inbreeding and inbreeding depression in endangered red wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeski, Kristin E; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Waits, Lisette P; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2014-09-01

    In natural populations, the expression and severity of inbreeding depression can vary widely across taxa. Describing processes that influence the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression aid in our understanding of the evolutionary history of mating systems such as cooperative breeding and nonrandom mate selection. Such findings also help shape wildlife conservation theory because inbreeding depression reduces the viability of small populations. We evaluated the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression in a small, re-introduced population of red wolves (Canis rufus) in North Carolina. Since red wolves were first re-introduced in 1987, pedigree inbreeding coefficients (f) increased considerably and almost every wild born wolf was inbred (average f = 0.154 and max f = 0.383). The large inbreeding coefficients were due to both background relatedness associated with few founders and numerous close relative matings. Inbreeding depression was most evident for adult body size and generally absent for direct fitness measures such as reproductive success and survival; no lethal equivalents (LE = 0.00) were detected in juvenile survival. The lack of strong inbreeding depression in direct measures of fitness could be due to a founder effect or because there were no outbred individuals for comparison. Our results highlight the variable expression of inbreeding depression across traits and the need to measure a number of different traits when evaluating inbreeding depression in a wild population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Locating grey literature on communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilko, Inna

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of selected Web-based resources containing grey literature in the area of communication disorders. It is geared to practitioners, researchers, students, and consumers seeking reliable, freely available scientific information. Grey (or gray) literature has been defined as "that which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business, and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers."1 This paper reviews various general reference sources potentially containing grey literature on communication disorders. This review includes identification of the methods specialists in this field use to obtain this valuable, yet often overlooked, literature. Access points and search tools for identifying grey literature on communication disorders are recommended. Commercial databases containing grey literature are not included. Conclusions presented in this article are considered complementary to traditionally published information resources on communication disorders, such as scholarly journals, online databases, etc.

  4. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organismsand biomagnifies within food-webs. Graywolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure inwolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 graywolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S).Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals.

  5. Demography of a harvested population of wolves (Canis lupus) in west-central Alberta, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, N.F; Allen, J.R; Merrill, E.H

    2011-01-01

    Wolves ( Canis lupus L., 1758) are subject to liberal public harvests throughout most of their range in North America, yet detailed information on populations where sport harvest is the primary source of mortality are limited...

  6. Sexually dimorphic aggression indicates male gray wolves specialize in pack defense against conspecific groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A; Mech, L David; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W

    2017-03-01

    Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves (Canis lupus) intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior. We observed 292 inter-pack aggressive interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300days of observation) in order to determine the role of both sexes, and the influence of pack, age, and other traits on aggression. We recorded the behaviors and characteristics of all individuals present during the interactions (n=534 individuals) and which individuals participated in each step (i.e. chase, attack, kill, flight) of the interaction. Overall, all wolves were more likely to chase rivals if they outnumbered their opponent, suggesting packs accurately assess their opponent's size during encounters and individuals adjust their behavior based on relative pack size. Males were more likely than females to chase rival packs and gray-colored wolves were more aggressive than black-colored wolves. Male wolves and gray-colored wolves also recorded higher cortisol levels than females and black-colored wolves, indicating hormonal support for more intense aggressive behavior. Further, we found a positive correlation between male age and probability of chasing, while age-specific participation for females remained constant. Chasing behavior was influenced by the sex of lone intruders, with males more likely to chase male intruders. This difference in behavior suggests male and female wolves may have different strategies and motivations during inter-pack aggressive interactions related to gray wolf mating systems. A division of labor between pack members concerning resource and territory defense suggests selection for specific traits related

  7. Evaluating trapping techniques to reduce potential for injury to Mexican wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, T.T.; Cain, J.W.; Roemer, G.W.

    2011-01-01

    Increased scrutiny of furbearer trapping has resulted in more regulation and even prohibition of common trapping methods in some States. Concerns regarding the potential negative impacts of regulated furbearer trapping on reintroduced Mexican gray wolves (Canis lupus baileyi) led now former Governor Bill Richardson to issue an executive order prohibiting trapping in the New Mexico portion of the Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area (BRWRA). This ban was to last for at least 6 months and required an evaluation of the risk posed to wolves by traps and snares legally permitted in New Mexico. We reviewed various threats to wolves in the BRWRA, including threats posed by regulated furbearer trapping. Seventy-eight Mexican wolf mortalities were documented during the reintroduction effort (1998-2010). More than 80 percent of documented mortalities were human-caused: illegal shooting (47.4 percent), vehicle collisions (15.4 percent), lethal removal by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) (14.1 percent), nonproject-related trapping (2.6 percent), project-related trapping (1.3 percent), and legal shooting by the public (1.3 percent). The remaining 17.9 percent of mortalities were a result of natural causes. An additional 23 wolves were permanently removed from the wild by USFWS. Of 13 trapping incidents in New Mexico that involved trappers other than USFWS project personnel, 7 incidents resulted in injuries to wolves, 2 wolves sustained injuries severe enough to result in leg amputations, and 2 wolves died as a result of injuries sustained. Rubber-padded foothold traps and properly set snares would most likely reduce trap-related injuries to Mexican wolves; however, impacts caused by trapping are outnumbered by other, human-caused impacts.

  8. Sexually dimorphic aggression indicates male gray wolves specialize in pack defense against conspecific groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A.; Mech, L. David; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2017-01-01

    Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves (Canis lupus) intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior. We observed 292 inter-pack aggressive interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300 days of observation) in order to determine the role of both sexes, and the influence of pack, age, and other traits on aggression. We recorded the behaviors and characteristics of all individuals present during the interactions (n = 534 individuals) and which individuals participated in each step (i.e. chase, attack, kill, flight) of the interaction. Overall, all wolves were more likely to chase rivals if they outnumbered their opponent, suggesting packs accurately assess their opponent’s size during encounters and individuals adjust their behavior based on relative pack size. Males were more likely than females to chase rival packs and gray-colored wolves were more aggressive than black-colored wolves. Male wolves and gray-colored wolves also recorded higher cortisol levels than females and black-colored wolves, indicating hormonal support for more intense aggressive behavior. Further, we found a positive correlation between male age and probability of chasing, while age-specific participation for females remained constant. Chasing behavior was influenced by the sex of lone intruders, with males more likely to chase male intruders. This difference in behavior suggests male and female wolves may have different strategies and motivations during inter-pack aggressive interactions related to gray wolf mating systems. A division of labor between pack members concerning resource and territory defense suggests selection for specific traits

  9. New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, K J; Ellis, B A; Birtles, R J; Durden, L A; Lello, J; Begon, M; Bennett, M

    2002-12-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites.

  10. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and distemper virus in wolves in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brynn; Hebblewhite, Mark; Ezenwa, Vanessa; Shury, Todd; Merrill, Evelyn H; Paquet, Paul C; Schmiegelow, Fiona; Seip, Dale; Skinner, Geoff; Webb, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Wild carnivores are often exposed to diseases via contact with peridomestic host species that travel through the wildland-urban interfaces. To determine the antibody prevalences and relationships to human activity for two common canid pathogens, we sampled 99 wolves (Canis lupus) from 2000 to 2008 for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) in Banff and Jasper National Parks and surrounding areas of the Canadian Rockies. This population was the source for wolves reintroduced into the Northern Rockies of the US. Of 99 wolves sampled, 94 had detectable antibody to CPV (95%), 24 were antibody-positive for CDV (24%), and 24 had antibodies to both pathogens (24%). We tested whether antibody prevalences for CPV and CDV were higher closer to human activity (roads, town sites, First Nation reserves) and as a function of sex and age class. Wolves ≥2 yr old were more likely to be have antibodies to CPV. For CDV, male wolves, wolves ≥2 yr, and those closer to First Nation reserves were more likely to have antibodies. Overall, however, we found minimal support for human influence on antibody prevalence for CDV and CPV. The similarity between our antibody prevalence results and results from recent studies in Yellowstone National Park suggests that at least in the case of CDV, and perhaps CPV, these could be important pathogens with potential effects on wolf populations.

  11. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  12. Serum biochemistry of captive and free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Peter; Hinchcliff, Ken; Demma, Nick; Callahan, Margaret; Dale, B.W.; Fox, Kevin; Adams, Layne G.; Wack, Ray; Kramer, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Normal serum biochemistry values are frequently obtained from studies of captive sedentary (zoo) or free-ranging (wild) animals. It is frequently assumed that values from these two populations are directly referable to each other. We tested this assumption using 20 captive gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA, and 11 free-ranging gray wolves in Alaska, USA. Free-ranging wolves had significantly (P<0.05) lower sodium, chloride, and creatine concentrations and significantly higher potassium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations; BUN to creatine ratios; and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities relative to captive wolves. Corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker of stress in domestic dogs) was detected in 3 of 11 free-ranging wolves and in 0 of 20 captive wolves (P = 0.037). This study provides clear evidence that serum biochemical differences can exist between captive and free-ranging populations of one species. Accordingly, evaluation of the health status of an animal should incorporate an understanding of the potential confounding effect that nutrition, activity level, and environmental stress could have on the factor(s) being measured.

  13. Isolation and genetic diversity of endangered grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Stow, Adam; Zenger, Kyall; Briscoe, David; Gillings, Michael; Peddemors, Victor; Otway, Nicholas; Harcourt, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts are believed to be the primary threats to the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus), which is listed as critically endangered, and the most threatened population globally. Analyses of 235 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) loci and 700 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region provide the first account of genetic variation and geographical partitioning (east and west coasts of Australia, South Africa) in C. ta...

  14. Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature: The Grey Audit: A Field Assessment in Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pejšová, Petra; Vyčítalová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Účelem zahraniční služební cesty byla účast PhDr. Petry Pejšové a Mgr. Hany Vyčítalové na dvoudenní konferenci „Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature“ v Bratislavě. Konference se koná každý rok, zaměřuje se na problematiku šedé literatury a mezinárodní odbornou diskusi o šedé literatuře. Na konferenci byl prezentován poster s názvem „Survey of Enhanced Publications in the Czech Republic“.

  15. Reindeer & Wolves: Exploring Sensory Deprivation in Multiplayer Digital Bodily Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Velloso, Eduardo; Mitchell, Robb;

    2014-01-01

    Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer & W...... & Wolves, a role-playing game where blindfolded players capture other players relying on their hearing alone. Based on our design and play testing, we devised four strategies for designing games that incorporate sensory deprivation as an element of the core mechanic.......Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer...

  16. Grey-Markov Model for Road Accidents Forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李相勇; 严余松; 蒋葛夫

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the forecasting precision of road accidents, by introducing Markov chains forecasting method, a grey-Markov model for forecasting road accidents is established based on grey forecasting method. The model combines the advantages of both grey forecasting method and Markov chains forecasting method, overcomes the influence of random fluctuation data on forecasting precision and widens the application scope of the grey forecasting. An application example is conducted to evaluate the grey-Markov model, which shows that the precision of the grey-Markov model is better than that of grey model in forecasting road accidents.

  17. The 'grey' assessment practice of IA screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    ’ in Denmark. This article explores the prevalence, influence and applied rationale of grey IA. Through a questionnaire, data was collected from 121 IA practitioners working within the fields of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. It was found that grey IA is a common......Research focusing on the practices surrounding screening in Impact Assessment (IA) is limited. Yet, it has been found that development proposals sometimes are adjusted through an informal dialog with IA practitioners prior to or during screening. Such practice is often referred to as ‘grey IA...... practice, which influences the outcomes of formal screening procedures through consideration of impacts on neighbours and spatial zones of protection. Grey IA is to some extent motivated by the opportunity to save the resources required for full-scale IA, but an additional ‘green’ rationale also exists...

  18. Study on the Grey Polynomial Geometric Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUODang

    2005-01-01

    In the model of geometric programming, values of parameters cannot be gotten owing to data fluctuation and incompletion. But reasonable bounds of these parameters can be attained. This is to say, parameters of this model can be regarded as interval grey numbers. When the model contains grey numbers, it is hard for common programming method to solve them. By combining the common programming model with the grey system theory,and using some analysis strategies, a model of grey polynomial geometric programming, a model of 8 positioned geometric programming and their quasi-optimum solution or optimum solution are put forward. At the same time, we also developed an algorithm for the problem.This approach brings a new way for the application research of geometric programming. An example at the end of this paper shows the rationality and feasibility of the algorithm.

  19. Grey literature:from hidden to visible

    OpenAIRE

    Pejšová, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Grey literature is information produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in electronic and print formats not controlled by commercial publishing i.e. where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body. (Luxembourg, 1997 - Expanded in New York, 2004, on WWW: http://www.greynet.org/index.html) The role of grey literature in today society was well expressed by Vaska: “It is therefore remarkable how efforts over the past two decades have altered origi...

  20. Expanding the Horizon of Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie Owen, John; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1998-01-01

    Grey literature - loosely defined as information distributed directly by its creator - is gaining importance due to the development of digital information networks. Individuals and organizations are using these networks, making vast amounts of information available on a global scale. The role and added value of traditional publishers and libraries is being questioned. Some argue that grey literature will become more important than published literature; others disagree. During the Third Intern...

  1. Grey Literature in Energy: 5 Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, Deborah E. (OSTI-DOE); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2004-01-01

    At GL'99, the Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (DOE OSTI) presented a paper titled "Grey Literature in Energy: a Shifting Paradigm". Five years later, the paradigm continues to shift, less radically than the change from paper and microfiche to electronic, but with significant benefit to users worldwide. OSTI's efforts continue this shift, moving even further away from the connotation of "grey" as meaning "hard to get" literature. Along with its domestic an...

  2. Link managers for grey literature

    CERN Document Server

    Lodi-Rizzini, E; Vigen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    In the self service area of the library reading rooms it is required to organise the collections in the simplest way possible. This is an important feature for readers making it possible to a get direct access to the material without necessarily having to go via the library catalogue to retrieve the call number. A typical example will be that a collection is organised so that a reader easily can get directly from an article reference to the article itself in a library where the journal collection simply is organised alphabetically. This requirement seems to have been forgotten by many of the most important actors in the digital library, both by the commercial publishers and many of the bodies producing grey literature. How are the users supposed to get directly to Report XXX without having to navigate through n different web pages? This is on top happening in "The Library" which is intended to be close up to 100 based on self service! CERN Library has developed a mechanism, "Go direct", which handles the prob...

  3. Disturbed grey matter coupling in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Guusje; de Reus, Marcel A; Cahn, Wiepke; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2013-01-01

    In schizophrenia, grey matter deficits have been shown for many regions throughout the brain. These regions do not operate in isolation. Rather, they form a structural network of interconnected grey matter regions. To examine the mutual dependence of brain regions, this study investigated interregional coupling in lobar and regional grey matter volumes obtained from 146 schizophrenia patients and 122 healthy comparison subjects. Compared to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed both decreased (e.g. between left frontal and bilateral subcortical, p≤0.005) and increased (e.g. between left temporal and bilateral subcortical, p≤0.001) coupling between lobar grey matter volumes. On a regional scale, decreased coupling was most pronounced between fronto-parietal cortical regions and subcortical structures, and between frontal and occipital regions. In addition, an increased association was found among frontal and limbic regions, and for temporo-occipital connexions. Consistent with dysconnectivity theories of schizophrenia, impaired grey matter coupling may be reflective of reduced integrity of the brain's network. Furthermore, as cross-sectional volumetric coupling is indicative of maturational coupling, aberrant grey matter coupling may be a marker of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  4. Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae detection methods in Alaska gray wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Woldstad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae was first documented on Alaska (USA gray wolves (Canis lupus on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH hide digestion for T. canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T. canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10 cm by 10 cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers.

  5. Dog days of summer: Influences on decision of wolves to move pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Nordhagen, Matthew; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    For animals that forage widely, protecting young from predation can span relatively long time periods due to the inability of young to travel with and be protected by their parents. Moving relatively immobile young to improve access to important resources, limit detection of concentrated scent by predators, and decrease infestations by ectoparasites can be advantageous. Moving young, however, can also expose them to increased mortality risks (e.g., accidents, getting lost, predation). For group-living animals that live in variable environments and care for young over extended time periods, the influence of biotic factors (e.g., group size, predation risk) and abiotic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation) on the decision to move young is unknown. We used data from 25 satellite-collared wolves ( Canis lupus ) in Idaho, Montana, and Yellowstone National Park to evaluate how these factors could influence the decision to move pups during the pup-rearing season. We hypothesized that litter size, the number of adults in a group, and perceived predation risk would positively affect the number of times gray wolves moved pups. We further hypothesized that wolves would move their pups more often when it was hot and dry to ensure sufficient access to water. Contrary to our hypothesis, monthly temperature above the 30-year average was negatively related to the number of times wolves moved their pups. Monthly precipitation above the 30-year average, however, was positively related to the amount of time wolves spent at pup-rearing sites after leaving the natal den. We found little relationship between risk of predation (by grizzly bears, humans, or conspecifics) or group and litter sizes and number of times wolves moved their pups. Our findings suggest that abiotic factors most strongly influence the decision of wolves to move pups, although responses to unpredictable biotic events (e.g., a predator encountering pups) cannot be ruled out.

  6. Spatial heterogeneity in human activities favors the persistence of wolves in agroecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahmadi

    Full Text Available As human populations expand, there is increasing demand and pressure for land. Under this scenario, behavioural flexibility and adaptation become important processes leading to the persistence of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes such as agroecosystems. A growing interest has recently emerged on the outcome of the coexistence between wolves and humans in these systems. It has been suggested that spatial heterogeneity in human activities would be a major environmental factor modulating vulnerability and persistence of this contentious species in agroecosystems. Here, we combined information from 35 den sites detected between 2011 and 2012 in agroecosystems of western Iran (Hamedan province, a set of environmental variables measured at landscape and fine spatial scales, and generalized linear models to identify patterns of den site selection by wolves in a highly-modified agroecosystem. On a landscape level, wolves selected a mixture of rangelands with scattered dry-farms on hillsides (showing a low human use to locate their dens, avoiding areas with high densities of settlements and primary roads. On a fine spatial scale, wolves primarily excavated dens into the sides of elevated steep-slope hills with availability of water bodies in the vicinity of den sites, and wolves were relegated to dig in places with coarse-soil particles. Our results suggest that vulnerability of wolves in human-dominated landscapes could be compensated by the existence of spatial heterogeneity in human activities. Such heterogeneity would favor wolf persistence in agroecosystems favoring a land sharing model of coexistence between wolves and people.

  7. Granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...

  8. Hair of the dog: obtaining samples from coyotes and wolves noninvasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Young, Julie; Fannin, Barbara; Mitchell, Michael S.; Stenglein, Jennifer L.; Waits, Lisette P.; Shivik, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Canids can be difficult to detect and their populations difficult to monitor. We tested whether hair samples could be collected from coyotes (Canis latrans) in Texas, USA and gray wolves (C. lupus) in Montana, USA using lure to elicit rubbing behavior at both man-made and natural collection devices. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to determine whether collected hair samples were from coyote, wolf, or nontarget species. Both coyotes and wolves rubbed on man-made barbed surfaces but coyotes in Texas seldom rubbed on hanging barbed surfaces. Wolves in Montana showed a tendency to rub at stations where natural-material collection devices (sticks and debris) were present. Time to detection was relatively short (5 nights and 4 nights for coyotes and wolves, respectively) with nontarget and unknown species comprising approximately 26% of the detections in both locations. Eliciting rubbing behavior from coyotes and wolves using lures has advantages over opportunistic genetic sampling methods (e.g., scat transects) because it elicits a behavior that deposits a hair sample at a fixed sampling location, thereby increasing the efficiency of sampling for these canids. Hair samples from rub stations could be used to provide estimates of abundance, measures of genetic diversity and health, and detection-nondetection data useful for cost-effective population monitoring.

  9. Demographic and Component Allee Effects in Southern Lake Superior Gray Wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Stenglein

    Full Text Available Recovering populations of carnivores suffering Allee effects risk extinction because positive population growth requires a minimum number of cooperating individuals. Conservationists seldom consider these issues in planning for carnivore recovery because of data limitations, but ignoring Allee effects could lead to overly optimistic predictions for growth and underestimates of extinction risk. We used Bayesian splines to document a demographic Allee effect in the time series of gray wolf (Canis lupus population counts (1980-2011 in the southern Lake Superior region (SLS, Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan, USA in each of four measures of population growth. We estimated that the population crossed the Allee threshold at roughly 20 wolves in four to five packs. Maximum per-capita population growth occurred in the mid-1990s when there were approximately 135 wolves in the SLS population. To infer mechanisms behind the demographic Allee effect, we evaluated a potential component Allee effect using an individual-based spatially explicit model for gray wolves in the SLS region. Our simulations varied the perception neighborhoods for mate-finding and the mean dispersal distances of wolves. Simulation of wolves with long-distance dispersals and reduced perception neighborhoods were most likely to go extinct or experience Allee effects. These phenomena likely restricted population growth in early years of SLS wolf population recovery.

  10. Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R MacNulty

    Full Text Available An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison, to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus, a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2-6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9-13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey.

  11. Demographic and Component Allee Effects in Southern Lake Superior Gray Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenglein, Jennifer L; Van Deelen, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Recovering populations of carnivores suffering Allee effects risk extinction because positive population growth requires a minimum number of cooperating individuals. Conservationists seldom consider these issues in planning for carnivore recovery because of data limitations, but ignoring Allee effects could lead to overly optimistic predictions for growth and underestimates of extinction risk. We used Bayesian splines to document a demographic Allee effect in the time series of gray wolf (Canis lupus) population counts (1980-2011) in the southern Lake Superior region (SLS, Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan, USA) in each of four measures of population growth. We estimated that the population crossed the Allee threshold at roughly 20 wolves in four to five packs. Maximum per-capita population growth occurred in the mid-1990s when there were approximately 135 wolves in the SLS population. To infer mechanisms behind the demographic Allee effect, we evaluated a potential component Allee effect using an individual-based spatially explicit model for gray wolves in the SLS region. Our simulations varied the perception neighborhoods for mate-finding and the mean dispersal distances of wolves. Simulation of wolves with long-distance dispersals and reduced perception neighborhoods were most likely to go extinct or experience Allee effects. These phenomena likely restricted population growth in early years of SLS wolf population recovery.

  12. Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R; Tallian, Aimee; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison), to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus), a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2-6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9-13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey.

  13. Interactions between wolves and female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2004-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were extirpated from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) by the 1920s through predator control actions (Murie 1940,Young and Goldman 1944, Weaver 1978), then reintroduced into the park from 1995 to 1996 to restore ecological integrity and adhere to legal mandates (Bangs and Fritts 1996, Phillips and Smith 1996, Smith et al. 2000). Prior to reintroduction, the potential effects of wolves on the region’s threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population were evaluated (Servheen and Knight 1993). In areas where wolves and grizzly bears are sympatric, interspecific killing by both species occasionally occurs (Ballard 1980, 1982; Hayes and Baer 1992). Most agonistic interactions between wolves and grizzly bears involve defense of young or competition for carcasses (Murie 1944, 1981; Ballard 1982; Hornbeck and Horejsi 1986; Hayes and Mossop 1987; Kehoe 1995; McNulty et al. 2001). Servheen and Knight (1993) predicted that reintroduced wolves could reduce the frequency of winter-killed and disease-killed ungulates available for bears to scavenge, and that grizzly bears would occasionally usurp wolf-killed ungulate carcasses. Servheen and Knight (1993) hypothesized that interspecific killing and competition for carcasses would have little or no population level effect on either species.

  14. Isolation and genetic diversity of endangered grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Adam; Zenger, Kyall; Briscoe, David; Gillings, Michael; Peddemors, Victor; Otway, Nicholas; Harcourt, Robert

    2006-06-22

    Anthropogenic impacts are believed to be the primary threats to the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus), which is listed as critically endangered, and the most threatened population globally. Analyses of 235 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) loci and 700 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region provide the first account of genetic variation and geographical partitioning (east and west coasts of Australia, South Africa) in C. taurus. Assignment tests, analysis of relatedness and Fst values all indicate that the Australian populations are isolated from South Africa, with negligible migration between the east and west Australian coasts. There are significant differences in levels of genetic variation among regions. Australian C. taurus, particularly the eastern population, has significantly less AFLP variation than the other sampling localities. Further, the eastern Australian sharks possess only a single mitochondrial haplotype, also suggesting a small number of founding individuals. Therefore, historical, rather than anthropogenic processes most likely account for their depauperate genetic variation. These findings have implications for the viability of the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks.

  15. Spinal cord grey matter segmentation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-03-07

    An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication.

  16. Cross-fostering in gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharis, Inger; Amundin, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1 followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats of taeniids in this area.

  18. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Francesca; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Milanesi, Pietro; Serafini, Matteo; Magi, Marta; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1) followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents) and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats) of taeniids in this area. PMID:26042204

  19. Seroprevalence of Lyme disease in gray wolves from Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieking, A.; Goyal, S.M.; Bey, R.F.; Loken, K.I.; Mech, L.D.; Thiel, R.P.; O'Connor, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Lyme disease in gray wolves (Canis lupus) from various counties of Minnesota and Wisconsin (USA), 589 serum samples were collected from 528 wolves from 1972 to 1989. An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test was used to detect the presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. Titers of greater than or equal to 1:100 were considered positive. Results were confirmed by testing a few selected sera by Western blotting. Of the 589 sera tested, 15 (3%) had IFA titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. Three of the positive samples were collected from Douglas County in Wisconsin and twelve were from Minnesota counties. This study indicates that wolves are exposed to B. burgdorferi and are susceptible to Lyme disease.

  20. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host.

  1. Object permanence in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiset, Sylvain; Plourde, Vickie

    2013-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that phylogenetic constraints exerted on dogs by the process of domestication have altered the ability of dogs to represent the physical world and the displacement of objects. In this study, invisible (Experiment 1) and visible (Experiment 2) displacement problems were administered to determine whether domestic dogs' and gray wolves' cognitive capacities to infer the position of a hidden object differ. The results revealed that adult dogs and wolves performed similarly in searching for disappearing objects: Both species succeeded the visible displacement tasks but failed the invisible displacement problems. We conclude that physical cognition for finding hidden objects in domestic dogs and gray wolves is alike and unrelated to the process of domestication.

  2. Equivalency and unbiasedness of grey prediction models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zeng; Chuan Li; Guo Chen; Xianjun Long

    2015-01-01

    In order to deeply research the structure discrepancy and modeling mechanism among different grey prediction mo-dels, the equivalence and unbiasedness of grey prediction mo-dels are analyzed and verified. The results show that al the grey prediction models that are strictly derived from x(0)(k) +az(1)(k) = b have the identical model structure and simulation precision. Moreover, the unbiased simulation for the homoge-neous exponential sequence can be accomplished. However, the models derived from dx(1)/dt+ax(1) =b are only close to those derived from x(0)(k)+az(1)(k)=b provided that|a|has to satisfy|a| < 0.1; neither could the unbiased simulation for the homoge-neous exponential sequence be achieved. The above conclusions are proved and verified through some theorems and examples.

  3. Grey Energy: new standards; Der Normersatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gugerli, H.; Frischknecht, R.; Kasser, U.; Lenzlinger, M.

    2009-07-01

    This article takes a look at new standards that are relevant to grey energy - i.e. that energy which is embodied in a product. A new leaflet issued by the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects SIA is examined and its stipulations are discussed. Developments in the area of energy balances and, in particular, the growing importance of taking grey energy into account are discussed. System boundaries and data sources are examined and the importance of grey energy balances in architectural competitions is noted. The energy demands of a building in the course of its lifetime are schematically illustrated in a diagram and recommendations are made for work to be done in the various phases of a project. Data, calculations and typical values are discussed and possible simplifications that can be made during calculation activities are noted.

  4. Novel grey forecast model and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洪发; 舒双焰; 段献忠

    2003-01-01

    The advancement of grey system theory provides an effective analytic tool for power system load fore-cast. All kinds of presently available grey forecast models can be well used to deal with the short-term load fore-cast. However, they make big errors for medium or long-term load forecasts, and the load that does not satisfythe approximate exponential increasing law in particular. A novel grey forecast model that is capable of distin-guishing the increasing law of load is adopted to forecast electric power consumption (EPC) of Shanghai. Theresults show that this model can be used to greatly improve the forecast precision of EPC for a secondary industryor the whole society.

  5. The effect of domestication on inhibitory control: wolves and dogs compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory control i.e. blocking an impulsive or prepotent response in favour of a more appropriate alternative, has been suggested to play an important role in cooperative behaviour. Interestingly, while dogs and wolves show a similar social organization, they differ in their intraspecific cooperation tendencies in that wolves rely more heavily on group coordination in regard to hunting and pup-rearing compared to dogs. Hence, based on the 'canine cooperation' hypothesis wolves should show better inhibitory control than dogs. On the other hand, through the domestication process, dogs may have been selected for cooperative tendencies towards humans and/or a less reactive temperament, which may in turn have affected their inhibitory control abilities. Hence, based on the latter hypothesis, we would expect dogs to show a higher performance in tasks requiring inhibitory control. To test the predictive value of these alternative hypotheses, in the current study two tasks; the 'cylinder task' and the 'detour task', which are designed to assess inhibitory control, were used to evaluate the performance of identically raised pack dogs and wolves. Results from the cylinder task showed a significantly poorer performance in wolves than identically-raised pack dogs (and showed that pack-dogs performed similarly to pet dogs with different training experiences), however contrary results emerged in the detour task, with wolves showing a shorter latency to success and less perseverative behaviour at the fence. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies using these paradigms and in terms of the validity of these two methods in assessing inhibitory control.

  6. Patterns of Exposure of Iberian Wolves (Canis lupus) to Canine Viruses in Human-Dominated Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; López-Bao, José Vicente; García, Emilio J; Oleaga, Álvaro; Llaneza, Luis; Palacios, Vicente; de la Torre, Ana; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Dubovi, Edward J; Esperón, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Wildlife inhabiting human-dominated landscapes is at risk of pathogen spill-over from domestic species. With the aim of gaining knowledge in the dynamics of viral infections in Iberian wolves (Canis lupus) living in anthropized landscapes of northern Spain, we analysed between 2010 and 2013 the samples of 54 wolves by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for exposure to four pathogenic canine viruses: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus-2 (CPV), canine adenovirus 1 and 2 (CAV-1 and CAV-2) and canine herpesvirus. Overall, 76% of the studied wolves presented evidence of exposure to CPV (96% by HI, 66% by PCR) and 75% to CAV (75% by virus neutralization (VN), 76% by PCR, of which 70% CAV-1 and 6% CAV-2). This represents the first detection of CAV-2 infection in a wild carnivore. CPV/CAV-1 co-infection occurred in 51% of the wolves. The probability of wolf exposure to CPV was positively and significantly correlated with farm density in a buffer zone around the place where the wolf was found, indicating that rural dogs might be the origin of CPV infecting wolves. CPV and CAV-1 appear to be enzootic in the Iberian wolf population, which is supported by the absence of seasonal and inter-annual variations in the proportion of positive samples detected. However, while CPV may depend on periodical introductions by dogs, CAV-1 may be maintained within the wolf population. All wolves were negative for exposure to CDV (by VN and PCR) and CHV (by PCR). The absence of acquired immunity against CDV in this population may predispose it to an elevated rate of mortality in the event of a distemper spill-over via dogs.

  7. The effect of domestication on inhibitory control: wolves and dogs compared.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Marshall-Pescini

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control i.e. blocking an impulsive or prepotent response in favour of a more appropriate alternative, has been suggested to play an important role in cooperative behaviour. Interestingly, while dogs and wolves show a similar social organization, they differ in their intraspecific cooperation tendencies in that wolves rely more heavily on group coordination in regard to hunting and pup-rearing compared to dogs. Hence, based on the 'canine cooperation' hypothesis wolves should show better inhibitory control than dogs. On the other hand, through the domestication process, dogs may have been selected for cooperative tendencies towards humans and/or a less reactive temperament, which may in turn have affected their inhibitory control abilities. Hence, based on the latter hypothesis, we would expect dogs to show a higher performance in tasks requiring inhibitory control. To test the predictive value of these alternative hypotheses, in the current study two tasks; the 'cylinder task' and the 'detour task', which are designed to assess inhibitory control, were used to evaluate the performance of identically raised pack dogs and wolves. Results from the cylinder task showed a significantly poorer performance in wolves than identically-raised pack dogs (and showed that pack-dogs performed similarly to pet dogs with different training experiences, however contrary results emerged in the detour task, with wolves showing a shorter latency to success and less perseverative behaviour at the fence. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies using these paradigms and in terms of the validity of these two methods in assessing inhibitory control.

  8. Giardiasis in pinnipeds from eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, L N; Olson, M

    1999-10-01

    Cysts of Giardia sp. were detected in feces from the rectum of 20 of 74 pinnipeds examined from the eastern coast of Canada in 1997 and 1998 using a monoclonal antibody technique. Infected pinnipeds included 15 adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), four adult grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and one juvenile harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Cysts were not detected in 15 seal pups St. Lawrence. The overall prevalence of Giardia sp. in grey and harbor seals, excluding pups, from the Gulf and St. Lawrence estuary was 23%. Feces from 11 beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and one northern bottle-nosed whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) stranded in the St. Lawrence estuary were negative for Giardia sp. cysts. The significance of Giardia sp. in marine mammals, shown here for the first time in eastern coastal Canada, is unknown.

  9. Grey literature in library and information studies

    CERN Document Server

    Schopfel, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The further rise of electronic publishing has come to change the scale and diversity of grey literature facing librarians and other information practitioners. This compiled work brings together research and authorship over the past decade dealing with both the supply and demand sides of grey literature. While this book is written with students and instructors of Colleges and Schools of Library and Information Science in mind, it likewise serves as a reader for information professionals working in any and all like knowledge-based communities

  10. The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

  11. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article in response to: Barber-Meyer, S. (2015) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12338. We used multiple data sets and study areas as well as several lines of evidence to investigate potential trophic linkages in Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that a trophic cascade from wolves to elk to berry production to berry consumption by grizzly bears may now be underway in the Park.

  12. Distribution of the Grey Slender Loris (Loris lyddekerianus Cabrera, 1908) in Tamil Nadu, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, Honnavalli N; Sasi, R; Chandran, Subash; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2016-01-01

    The grey slender loris Loris lydekkerianus, one of only two nocturnal primates of India, is found in the southern part of the country. Our understanding of its geographical distribution is largely based on historical records and short surveys, and little is known of its occurrence in southern India today. We sought to establish the relative abundance of this species in 26 districts in the state of Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Pondicherry in southern India. We sighted lorises in 19 districts, and their relative abundance ranged from 0.01 to 2.21/km. The south-central districts of Tamil Nadu showed the highest densities of lorises, while the western districts showed the lowest. Based on these results, we recommend increased protection measures for the forest patches of the Eastern Ghats mountains in order to ensure the long-term survival of the grey slender loris.

  13. Application of entropy measurement technique in grey based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    characteristic of the MIG welding, grey relational analysis coupled with entropy .... This process is known as grey relational generation (Tosun, 2006; Tsao, 2009). ...... Tusek J., Kampus Z. and Suban M., 2001, Welding of tailored blank of ...

  14. Grey matter atrophy in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás; Tóth, Eszter; Bankó, Nóra; Veréb, Dániel; Szabó, Nikoletta; Csete, Gergő; Faragó, Péter; Király, András; Bencsik, Krisztina; Vécsei, László

    2014-09-30

    White matter lesions are defining characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS), whereas grey matter involvement is a less recognised attribute. Recent investigations using dedicated imaging approaches have made it possible to depict cortical lesions. Additionally, grey matter atrophy may be estimated using various methods. Several studies have suggested that grey matter atrophy closely correlates to clinical disability. In this review we have collected information on grey matter atrophy in MS and the effect of disease modifying therapies upon brain atrophy.

  15. Grey Documentation as a Knowledge Base in Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Yitzhak

    1994-01-01

    Defines grey documentation as documents issued informally and not available through normal channels and discusses the role that grey documentation can play in the social work knowledge base. Topics addressed include grey documentation and science; social work and the empirical approach in knowledge development; and dissemination of grey…

  16. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  17. Grey Model of the Investment Portfolio Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of investment portfolio is a very important theory in the modern economical system.Based on the feature of the theory, the paper sets up new various kinds of models of investment portfolio,namely grey optimization models. These models are more practical and objective to existing problems.

  18. Incoherently Coupled Grey Photovoltaic Spatial Soliton Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-Cheng; SHE Wei-Long

    2005-01-01

    @@ A theory is developed for incoherently coupled grey photovoltaic soliton families in unbiased photovoltaic crystals.Both the properties and the forming conditions of these soliton families are discussed in detail The theory canalso be used to investigate the dark photovoltaic soliton families. Some relevant examples are presented, in which the photovoltaic-photorefractive crystal is of lithium niobate type.

  19. Towards a continuum of scholarship : the eventual collapse of the distinction between grey and non-grey literature

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus A. Banks

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the distinction between grey and non-grey (or white) literature will become less relevant over time, as online discovery options proliferate. In the meantime, the political success of the open access publishing movement has valuable lessons for proponents of increasing access to grey literature.

  20. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; Vucetich, John A.; Packer, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Despite the popular view that social predators live in groups because group hunting facilitates prey capture, the apparent tendency for hunting success to peak at small group sizes suggests that the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture. Few empirical studies, however, have tested for nonlinear relationships between hunting success and group size, and none have demonstrated why success trails off after peaking. Here, we use a unique dataset of observations of individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to show that the relationship between success and group size is indeed nonlinear and that individuals withholding effort (free riding) is why success does not increase across large group sizes. Beyond 4 wolves, hunting success leveled off, and individual performance (a measure of effort) decreased for reasons unrelated to interference from inept hunters, individual age, or size. But performance did drop faster among wolves with an incentive to hold back, i.e., nonbreeders with no dependent offspring, those performing dangerous predatory tasks, i.e., grabbing and restraining prey, and those in groups of proficient hunters. These results suggest that decreasing performance was free riding and that was why success leveled off in groups with >4 wolves that had superficially appeared to be cooperating. This is the first direct evidence that nonlinear trends in group hunting success reflect a switch from cooperation to free riding. It also highlights how hunting success per se is unlikely to promote formation and maintenance of large groups.

  1. Testing the risk of predation hypothesis: the influence of recolonizing wolves on habitat use by moose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Kerry L; Milleret, Cyril; Månsson, Johan; Sand, Håkan

    2014-09-01

    Considered as absent throughout Scandinavia for >100 years, wolves (Canis lupus) have recently naturally recolonized south-central Sweden. This recolonization has provided an opportunity to study behavioral responses of moose (Alces alces) to wolves. We used satellite telemetry locations from collared moose and wolves to determine whether moose habitat use was affected by predation risk based on wolf use distributions. Moose habitat use was influenced by reproductive status and time of day and showed a different selection pattern between winter and summer, but there was weak evidence that moose habitat use depended on predation risk. The seemingly weak response may have several underlying explanations that are not mutually exclusive from the long term absence of non-human predation pressure: intensive harvest by humans during the last century is more important than wolf predation as an influence on moose behavior; moose have not adapted to recolonizing wolves; and responses may include other behavioral adaptations or occur at finer temporal and spatial levels than investigated.

  2. Carrion--It's What's for Dinner: Wolves Reduce the Impact of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consitble, Juanita M.; Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of wolves to Yellowstone National park after a 7-year absence created a natural experiment on the ecological effects of top predators. In this activity, students use mathematical models to explore how carrion from wolf kills can reduce negative effects of climate change on scavengers in the park.

  3. Spatial movement of free-roaming cattle (Bos Taurus) when in proximity to wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995 and 1996, 31 wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park and 35 in central Idaho. These populations have grown to more than 1,500 with more than 835 in Idaho. As wolf populations have grown, so has predation on livestock, complicating cow and ranch management. Our study was de...

  4. Sociability and gazing toward humans in dogs and wolves: Simple behaviors with broad implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentosela, Mariana; Wynne, C D L; D'Orazio, M; Elgier, A; Udell, M A R

    2016-01-01

    Sociability, defined as the tendency to approach and interact with unfamiliar people, has been found to modulate some communicative responses in domestic dogs, including gaze behavior toward the human face. The objective of this study was to compare sociability and gaze behavior in pet domestic dogs and in human-socialized captive wolves in order to identify the relative influence of domestication and learning in the development of the dog-human bond. In Experiment 1, we assessed the approach behavior and social tendencies of dogs and wolves to a familiar and an unfamiliar person. In Experiment 2, we compared the animal's duration of gaze toward a person's face in the presence of food, which the animals could see but not access. Dogs showed higher levels of interspecific sociability than wolves in all conditions, including those where attention was unavailable. In addition, dogs gazed longer at the person's face than wolves in the presence of out-of-reach food. The potential contributions of domestication, associative learning, and experiences during ontogeny to prosocial behavior toward humans are discussed. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Serological survey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested serologic samples from 387 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) from 2007–2013 for exposure to 8 canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota’s wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenovirus 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups...

  6. "Wolves at the Schoolhouse Door": Comments and Impressions by a Beseiged Business Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Joe D.

    1989-01-01

    The Education Writers Association report "Wolves at the Schoolhouse Door" examines the poor condition of public school buildings. The report, utilizing data from all the states and from personal contacts and interviews, presents statistics on enrollment, maintenance budgets, safety, financing, lack of data, and potential solutions. (MLF)

  7. Carrion--It's What's for Dinner: Wolves Reduce the Impact of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consitble, Juanita M.; Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of wolves to Yellowstone National park after a 7-year absence created a natural experiment on the ecological effects of top predators. In this activity, students use mathematical models to explore how carrion from wolf kills can reduce negative effects of climate change on scavengers in the park.

  8. Subsidized Fencing of Livestock as a Means of Increasing Tolerance for Wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Karlsson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of how proactive measures to reduce livestock depredation by carnivores affect human tolerance toward carnivores are extremely rare. Nevertheless, substantial amounts of money are spent each year on proactive measures to facilitate large carnivore conservation. The objective of this study was to assess how subsidies for proactive measures to reduce sheep losses to wolves are associated with public attitudes toward wolves. The respondents were 445 people living inside wolf territories in Sweden. Our data set is unique because we combine wolf territory level information regarding proactive subsidies and wolf attacks on dogs and sheep with geographical information of the respondents. Consequently, the respondents can be assigned to a specific wolf territory. The number of wolf attacks on sheep and dogs in the respective territories as well as the number of years that the wolf territory had existed did not affect human attitudes toward wolves. Subsidies for proactive measures to reduce wolf predation on sheep significantly increased positive attitudes toward wolf presence on the local scale. The magnitude of the effect of subsidies for proactive measures was comparable to the effect of other variables well known to affect human attitudes toward wolves such as age or education. Our data show that subsidies not only made the already positive more positive, but also made people with negative attitudes to wolf presence locally, less negative. Our conclusion is, therefore, that subsidies for proactive measures are an effective tool when working with "the human dimension" of conservation biology.

  9. Argumentation and Self: The Enactment of Identity in "Dances with Wolves."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Randall A.

    1997-01-01

    States several postmodernist currents of thought have rejected the modernist faith in a stable, autonomous self (and the natural culture it inhabits) as a pernicious fiction. Argues for a dialectical view of self and culture, exploring the weaknesses of both modernist and postmodernist models through an analysis of "Dances with Wolves,"…

  10. The importance of crossroads in faecal marking behaviour of the wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja, Isabel; Miguel, Francisco Javier; Bárcena, Felipe

    2004-10-01

    For wolves (Canis lupus) scats play an important function in territorial marking behaviour. Depositing scats at strategic sites such as crossroads and on conspicuous substrates probably increases their effectiveness as visual and olfactory marks. It is therefore likely that scats will be deposited, and will accumulate, at particular crossroads where the probability of being detected by other wolves is greatest. To check this hypothesis, a wolf population in NW Spain was studied for two consecutive years, from May 1998 to March 2000, and the spatial distribution of 311 scats detected along roads (both at and away from crossroads) was analysed. This study was conducted over an area of 12,000 ha in Montes do Invernadeiro Natural Park. The results confirm that wolves preferably deposit their scats at crossroads (60.1%) and on conspicuous substrates (72.1%). Significantly more scats were found at intersections with numerous, easily passable roads connecting distant territories. Thus, wolves preferably deposit their faeces at crossroads with high accessibility and driveability. The larger the surface area of the crossroads, the more scats were found. Crossroads are therefore highly strategic points that facilitate the detection of scats.

  11. Dynamical properties of the Penna aging model applied to the population of wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiec, Danuta

    1997-02-01

    The parameters of th Penna bit-string model of aging of biological systems are systematically tested to better understand the model itself as well as the results arising from applying this model to studies of the development of the stationary population of Alaska wolves.

  12. History Run Wild: The Alternate World of Joan Aiken's "The Wolves of Willoughby Chase" Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, Isobel

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the historical fantasy world created by Joan Aiken in the eleven volumes of her "Wolves of Willoughby Chase" series. In particular it looks at her subversion of historical reality by the creation of an alternative yet recognisable representation of our own world, using a wide range of events, and the remoulding of aspects of…

  13. Killing of a muskox, Ovibus moschatus, by two wolves, Canis lupis, and subsequent caching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Adams, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The killing of a cow Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) by two Wolves (Canis lupus) in 5 minutes during summer on Ellesmere Island is described. After two of the four feedings observed, one Wolf cached a leg and regurgitated food as far as 2.3 km away and probably farther. The implications of this behavior for deriving food-consumption estimates are discussed

  14. Valley of the Wolves as Representative of Turkish Popular Attitudes toward Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Al-Rawi (Ahmed)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In 2006, the Turkish film, Valley of the Wolves (Kurtlar Vadisi-Irak) (Serdar Akar, 2006), was released to audiences in Turkey and Europe. Costing $10 million, it was the most costly production in the history of Turkish cinema, breaking all box office records in the country. A

  15. More than fear: role of emotions in acceptability of lethal control of wolves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Vaske, J.J.; Dubois, S.; Fehres, P.

    2014-01-01

    Wolf populations have increased in Western Europe and North America. Lethal control of problem wolves is controversial and support varies among stakeholder groups. Knowing why people support or oppose policies can assist managers in dealing with the public. We examined the influence of emotions

  16. Valley of the Wolves as Representative of Turkish Popular Attitudes toward Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Al-Rawi (Ahmed)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In 2006, the Turkish film, Valley of the Wolves (Kurtlar Vadisi-Irak) (Serdar Akar, 2006), was released to audiences in Turkey and Europe. Costing $10 million, it was the most costly production in the history of Turkish cinema, breaking all box office records in the country. A f

  17. More than fear: role of emotions in acceptability of lethal control of wolves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Vaske, J.J.; Dubois, S.; Fehres, P.

    2014-01-01

    Wolf populations have increased in Western Europe and North America. Lethal control of problem wolves is controversial and support varies among stakeholder groups. Knowing why people support or oppose policies can assist managers in dealing with the public. We examined the influence of emotions towa

  18. Capture of gray wolves in the Kanuti Refuge: Initiation of a five-year study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fourteen wolves in 5 packs were captured and fitted with radio-collars in or near the Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge between 18 and 21 March 1990. There may be as...

  19. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  20. Distribution Inventory Cost Optimization Under Grey and Fuzzy Uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dongbo; HUANG Dao; CHEN Yujuan

    2006-01-01

    The grey fuzzy variable was defined for the two fold uncertain parameters combining grey and fuzziness factors. On the basis of the credibility and chance measure of grey fuzzy variables, the distribution center inventory uncertain programming model was presented. The grey fuzzy simulation technology can generate input-output data for the uncertain functions. The neural network trained from the input-output data can approximate the uncertain functions. The designed hybrid intelligent algorithm by embedding the trained neural network into genetic algorithm can optimize the general grey fuzzy programming problems. Finally, one numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the model and the hybrid intelligent algorithm.

  1. Effects of a simulated wolf encounter on brain and blood biomarkers of stress-related psychological disorders in beef cows with or without previous exposure to wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Mehrkam, L R; Marques, R S; Lippolis, K D; Bohnert, D W

    2017-03-01

    This experiment compared mRNA expression of brain-blood biomarkers associated with stress-related psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating Angus-crossbred cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center (Burns, OR; CON; = 10) and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; = 10) were used. To date, gray wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2015. After a 60-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were allocated to groups A or B (d -1; 5 CON and 5 WLF cows in each group). On d 0, cows from group A were sampled for blood and immediately slaughtered, and samples were analyzed to evaluate inherent differences between CON and WLF cows. On d 1, cows from group B were exposed in pairs (1 CON and 1 WLF cow) to experimental procedures. Cows were sampled for blood, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (1 WLF and 1 CON cow/pen) and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min. The encounter consisted of (1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, (2) reproduction of wolf howls, and (3) three leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, another blood sample was collected and cows were slaughtered. Upon slaughter, the brain was removed and dissected for collection of the hypothalamus, and one longitudinal slice of the medial pre-frontal cortex, amygdala, and Cornu Ammonis (1 region of the hippocampus from both hemispheres). Within cows from group A, expression of in hippocampus and amygdala were greater ( < 0.01) in WLF vs. CON cows. Within cows from group B, expression of hippocampal mRNA and expression of c m

  2. Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Andreassen, Harry Peter

    2015-01-01

    The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution to the kill rate. This study aims to provide empirical data for the functional response of wolves Canis lupus to the highly managed moose Alces alces population in Scandinavia. We explored prey and predator dependence, and how the functional response relates to the energetic requirements of wolf packs. Winter kill rates of GPS-collared wolves and densities of cervids were estimated for a total of 22 study periods in 15 wolf territories. The adult wolves were identified as the individuals responsible for providing kills to the wolf pack, while pups could be described as inept hunters. The predator-dependent, asymptotic functional response models (i.e. Hassell-Varley type II and Crowley-Martin) performed best among a set of 23 competing linear, asymptotic and sigmoid models. Small wolf packs acquired >3 times as much moose biomass as required to sustain their field metabolic rate (FMR), even at relatively low moose abundances. Large packs (6-9 wolves) acquired less biomass than required in territories with low moose abundance. We suggest the surplus killing by small packs is a result of an optimal foraging strategy to consume only the most nutritious parts of easy accessible prey while avoiding the risk of being detected by humans. Food limitation may have a stabilizing effect on pack size in wolves, as supported by the observed negative relationship between body weight of pups and pack size. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  3. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creel, Scott; Rotella, Jay J

    2010-01-01

    Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009...

  4. Meta-Analysis of Relationships between Human Offtake, Total Mortality and Population Dynamics of Gray Wolves (Canis lupus): e12918

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott Creel; Jay J Rotella

    2010-01-01

      Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009...

  5. Predicting spatio-temporal recolonization of large carnivore populations and livestock depredation risk: wolves in the Italian Alps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F. Marucco; E. J. B. Mclntire

    2010-01-01

    1. Wolves Canis lupus recently recolonized the Western Alps through dispersal from the Italian Apennines, representing one of several worldwide examples of large carnivores increasing in highly human-dominated landscapes...

  6. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...... the lack of fit in state space formulation, and further support decisions for a model expansion. By using stochastic differential equations to formulate the dynamics of the hydrological system, either the complexity of the model can be increased by including the necessary hydrological processes...... in the model, or formulation of process noise can be considered so that it meets the physical limits of the hydrological system and give an adequate description of the embedded uncertainty in model structure. The thesis consists of two parts: a summary report and a part which contains six scientific papers...

  7. Grey-theory based intrusion detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Boping; Zhou Xianwei; Yang Jun; Song Cunyi

    2006-01-01

    To solve the problem that current intrusion detection model needs large-scale data in formulating the model in real-time use, an intrusion detection system model based on grey theory (GTIDS) is presented. Grey theory has merits of fewer requirements on original data scale, less limitation of the distribution pattern and simpler algorithm in modeling.With these merits GTIDS constructs model according to partial time sequence for rapid detect on intrusive act in secure system. In this detection model rate of false drop and false retrieval are effectively reduced through twice modeling and repeated detect on target data. Furthermore, GTIDS framework and specific process of modeling algorithm are presented. The affectivity of GTIDS is proved through emulated experiments comparing snort and next-generation intrusion detection expert system (NIDES) in SRI international.

  8. Making Grey Literature Available through Institutional Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Nathan; LaFleur, Lee J. (Cornell University); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2004-01-01

    One of the major components of grey literature is conference proceedings. A major purpose of conferences is to disseminate research in a particular area, and this is often done through conference proceedings. However, although many libraries collect conference proceedings, they collect them mostly in print. With the advent of digital library collections—electronic journals, digital library projects, etc.—conference proceedings have been neglected. Even though the research in conference procee...

  9. The Basic Analysis of Dorian Grey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆应吉

    2015-01-01

    Oscar Wild is a famous poet,author and playwright who has also been a sponsor of the aestheticism in Victoria time he lives.I will analyze the main point of Wild’s idea reflected in this novel according to the personal analysis of the three major men in this novel:Dorian Grey.Inevitably when we study Wild and his work

  10. The Basic Analysis of Dorian Grey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆应吉

    2015-01-01

    Oscar Wild is a famous poet,author and playwright who has also been a sponsor of the aestheticism in Victoria time he lives.I will analyze the main point of Wild’s idea reflected in this novel according to the personal analysis of the three major men in this novel:Dorian Grey.Inevitably when we study Wild and his work.

  11. A meta-analysis of studies on attitudes toward bears and wolves across Europe 1976-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, S; Sandström, C; Ericsson, G

    2015-04-01

    The ranges of wolves (Canis lupus) and bears (Ursus arctos) across Europe have expanded recently, and it is important to assess public attitudes toward this expansion because responses toward these species vary widely. General attitudes toward an object are good predictors of broad behavioral patterns; thus, attitudes toward wolves and bears can be used as indicators to assess the social foundation for future conservation efforts. However, most attitude surveys toward bears and wolves are limited in scope, both temporally and spatially, and provide only a snapshot of attitudes. To extend the results of individual surveys over a much larger temporal and geographical range so as to identify transnational patterns and changes in attitudes toward bears and wolves over time, we conducted a meta-analysis. Our analysis included 105 quantitative surveys conducted in 24 countries from 1976 to 2012. Across Europe, people's attitudes were more positive toward bears than wolves. Attitudes toward bears became more positive over time, but attitudes toward wolves seemed to become less favorable the longer people coexisted with them. Younger and more educated people had more positive attitudes toward wolves and bears than people who had experienced damage from these species, and farmers and hunters had less positive attitudes toward wolves than the general public. For bears attitudes among social groups did not differ. To inform conservation of large carnivores, we recommend that standardized longitudinal surveys be established to monitor changes in attitudes over time relative to carnivore population development. Our results emphasize the need for interdisciplinary research in this field and more advanced explanatory models capable of capturing individual and societal responses to changes in large carnivore policy and management. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Geographic pattern of serum antibody prevalence for Brucella spp. in caribou, grizzly bears, and wolves from Alaska, 1975-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, Randall L; Ver Hoef, Jay M; DeLong, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Blood samples were collected from 2,635 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 1,238 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 930 wolves (Canis lupus) from throughout mainland Alaska during 1975-98. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Brucella spp. Serum antibody prevalences were highest in the northwestern region of the state. In any specific area, antibody prevalences for caribou and wolves were of a similar magnitude, whereas antibody prevalence for bears in these same areas were two to three times higher.

  13. RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, L. Y.; Devillard, S.; Boone, J. Q.; Hohenlohe, P. A.; White, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Top predators are disappearing worldwide, significantly changing ecosystems that depend on top-down regulation. Conflict with humans remains the primary roadblock for large carnivore conservation, but for the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), disagreement over its evolutionary origins presents a significant barrier to conservation in Canada and has impeded protection for grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the USA. Here, we use 127 235 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) of wolves and coyotes, in combination with genomic simulations, to test hypotheses of hybrid origins of Canis types in eastern North America. A principal components analysis revealed no evidence to support eastern wolves, or any other Canis type, as the product of grey wolf × western coyote hybridization. In contrast, simulations that included eastern wolves as a distinct taxon clarified the hybrid origins of Great Lakes-boreal wolves and eastern coyotes. Our results support the eastern wolf as a distinct genomic cluster in North America and help resolve hybrid origins of Great Lakes wolves and eastern coyotes. The data provide timely information that will shed new light on the debate over wolf conservation in eastern North America. PMID:26156129

  14. Multi-trophic resource selection function enlightens the behavioural game between wolves and their prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, Nicolas; Fortin, Daniel; Dussault, Christian; Fargeot, Viviane; Courtois, Réhaume

    2013-09-01

    1. Habitat selection strategies translate into movement tactics, which reckon with the predator-prey spatial game. Strategic habitat selection analysis can therefore illuminate behavioural games. Cover types at potential encounter sites (i.e. intersections between movement paths of predator and prey) can be compared with cover types available (i) within the area of home-range-overlap (HRO) between predator and prey; and (ii) along the path (MP) of each species. Unlike the HRO scale, cover-type availability at MP scale differs between interacting species due to species-specific movement decisions. Scale differences in selection could therefore inform on divergences in fitness rewarding actions between predators and prey. 2. We used this framework to evaluate the spatial game between GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) versus caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and wolf versus moose (Alces alces). 3. Changes in cover-type availability between HRO and MP revealed differences in how each species fine-tuned its movements to habitat features. In contrast to caribou, wolves increased their encounter rate with regenerating cuts along their paths (MP) relative to the HRO level. As a consequence, wolves were less likely to cross caribou paths in areas with higher percentage of regenerating cuts than expected based on the availability along their paths, whereas caribou had a higher risk of intersecting wolf paths by crossing these areas, relative to random expectation along their paths. Unlike for caribou, availability of mixed and deciduous areas decreased from HRO to MP level for wolves and moose. Overall, wolves displayed stronger similarities in movement decisions with moose than with caribou, thereby revealing the focus of wolves on moose. 4. Our study reveals how differences in fine-scale movement tactics between species create asymmetric relative encounter probabilities between predators and prey, given their paths. Increase in relative risk of encounter for prey and decrease

  15. Polonium-210 and Caesium-137 in lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo) and wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Holm, Elis; Kålås, John Atle; Persson, Bertil; Asbrink, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland. (210)Po and (137)Cs have been analysed in samples of liver, kidney and muscle from 28 wolves from Sweden. In addition blood samples were taken from 27 wolves. In 9 of the wolves, samples of muscle, liver and blood were analysed for (210)Po. Samples of liver and muscle were collected from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway. The liver samples were analysed for (210)Po and (137)Cs. Only (137)Cs analyses were carried out for the muscle samples. The wolves were collected during the winter 2010 and 2011, while the samples for lynx and wolverines were all from 2011. The activity concentrations of (210)Po in wolves were higher for liver (range 20-523 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and kidney (range 24-942 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) than muscle (range 1-43 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and blood (range 2-54 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Activity ratios, (210)Po/(210)Pb, in wolf samples of muscle, liver and blood were in the ranges 2-77, 9-56 and 2-54. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal absorbed dose from (210)Po to wolf liver was estimated to 3500 μGy per year. Compared to wolf, the ranges of (210)Po in liver samples were lower in lynx (range 22-211 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and wolverine (range16-160 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Concentration of (137)Cs in wolf samples of muscle, liver, kidney and blood were in the ranges 70-8410 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 36-4050 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 31-3453 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 4-959 Bq kg(-1) d.w., respectively. (137)Cs in lynx muscle and liver samples were in the ranges 44-13393 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 125-10260 Bq kg(-1) d.w. The corresponding values for (137)Cs in wolverine were 22-3405 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for liver and 53-4780 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for muscle. The maximal absorbed dose from (137)Cs to lynx was estimated to 3000 μGy per year.

  16. Grey forewarning and prediction for mine water inflowing catastrophe periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qi-hua; CAO Jian-jun

    2007-01-01

    Based on the theory of grey system, established GM (1, 1) grey catastrophe predict model for the first time in order to forecast the catastrophe periods of mine water inflowing (not the volume of water inflowing). After establishing the grey predict system of the catastrophe regularity of 10 month-average volume of water inflowing, the grey forewarning for mine water inflowing catastrophe periods was established which was used to analyze water disaster in -400 meter level of Wennan Colliery. Based on residual analysis,it shows that the result of grey predict system is almost close to the actual value. And the scene actual result also shows the reliability of prediction. Both the theoretical analysis and the scene actual result indicate feasibility and reliability of the method of grey catastrophe predict system.

  17. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the grey-box modelling approach has been applied to wastewater transportation and treatment Grey-box models are characterized by the combination of deterministic and stochastic terms to form a model where all the parameters are statistically identifiable from the on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey-box...... models may contain terms which can be estimated on-line by use of the models and measurements. In this paper, it is demonstrated that many storage basins in sewer systems can be used as an on-line flow measurement provided that the basin is monitored on-line with a level transmitter and that a grey-box...

  18. Academic libraries and collection development implications for grey literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gelfand, Julia; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    The proliferation of grey literature (GL) in all subject areas poses great challenges, concerns and responsibilities for libraries. This paper examines the major issues most germane to the acquisition and collection development aspects of grey literature and providing access to it in library collections. With increasing academic and scholarly value placed in the grey literature and it being an original and primary source for information, many collection development policies are beginning to i...

  19. Application of Improved Grey Prediction Model to Petroleum Cost Forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The grey theory is a multidisciplinary and generic theory that deals with systems that lack adequate information and/or have only poor information. In this paper, an improved grey model using step function was proposed.Petroleum cost forecast of the Henan oil field was used as the case study to test the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method. According to the experimental results, the proposed method obviously could improve the prediction accuracy of the original grey model.

  20. Exploring the origins of grey matter damage in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Massimiliano; Magliozzi, Roberta; Ciccarelli, Olga; Geurts, Jeroen J. G.; Reynolds, Richard; Martin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized at the gross pathological level by the presence of widespread focal demyelinating lesions of the myelin-rich white matter. However, it is becoming clear that grey matter is not spared, even during the earliest phases of the disease. Furthermore, grey matter damage may have an important role both in physical and cognitive disability. Grey matter pathology involves both inflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms, but the relationship between the two is unc...

  1. Prey specialization and morphological conformation of wolves associated with woodland caribou and moose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M.A. Wiwchar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis of wolves associated with woodland caribou in late succession boreal coniferous forests north of the commercial cut line and those associated with moose in early succession boreal deciduous forests south of the commercial cut line were studied in Ontario. Socalled “moose-wolves” could readily be distinguished from “caribouwolves” in both genders using a few morphological measurements. Wolves associated with woodland caribou were significantly smaller in most measurements, and increased in size within seven years post-harvest as moose totally replaced caribou in the ecosystem. Whether this change in wolf morphology is related to micro-evolutionary change, the migration of larger “moose-wolves” into the area, or both, remains unclear.

  2. Re-evaluating the northeastern Minnesota moose decline and the role of wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Fieberg, John

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluated findings from Lenarz et al. (2009) that adult moose (Alces alces) survival in northeastern Minnesota was related to high January temperatures and that predation by wolves (Canis lupus) played a minor role. We found significant inverse relationships between annual wolf numbers in part of the moose range and various moose demographics from 2003 to 2013 that suggested a stronger role of wolves than heretofore believed. To re-evaluate the temperature findings, we conducted a simulation study, mimicking the approach taken by Lenarz et al. (2009), to explore the potential for concluding a significant relationship exists between temperature and survival, when no association exists. We found that the high R2s and low probabilities associated with the regression models in Lenarz et al. (2009) should be viewed cautiously in light of the large number of fitted models (m = 45) and few observations (n = 6 for each of 5 response variables).

  3. Populational genetic structure of free-living maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus determined by proteic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. R. De Mattos

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic analysis of presumptive twenty gene loci products was conducted in hemolisates and plasma samples of twenty-eight maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus from an area in northeastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The area sampled was divided into three sub-areas, with the Mogi-Guaçu and Pardo rivers regarded as barriers to the gene flow. The polymorphism degree and heterozygosity level (intralocus and average estimated in this study were similar to those detected by other authors for maned wolves and other species of wild free-living canids. The samples of each sub-area and the total sample exhibited genotype frequencies consistent with the genetic equilibrium model. The values of the F-statistics evidenced absence of inbreeding and population subdivision and, consequently, low genetic distances were found among the samples of each area.

  4. Grey Disorder in Field Flue—Cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXIN; ZHAOQIBO; 等

    1999-01-01

    A field study was carried out on the grey disorder in flue-cured tobacco( Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves.The results showed that low Eh and high available Fe content in the soils were responsible for the grey tobacco and dead roots.Grey disorder leaves produced low quality lamina,which was low in N,nicotine,reduced sugar and K contents,In this study,soil available Mn and leaf Mn contents were in a relatively low level and should not be an important factor in the occurrence of grey disorder in flue-cured tobacco.

  5. Exploring the origins of grey matter damage in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Massimiliano; Magliozzi, Roberta; Ciccarelli, Olga; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Reynolds, Richard; Martin, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized at the gross pathological level by the presence of widespread focal demyelinating lesions of the myelin-rich white matter. However, it is becoming clear that grey matter is not spared, even during the earliest phases of the disease. Furthermore, grey matter damage may have an important role both in physical and cognitive disability. Grey matter pathology involves both inflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms, but the relationship between the two is unclear. Histological, immunological and neuroimaging studies have provided new insight in this rapidly expanding field, and form the basis of the most recent hypotheses on the pathogenesis of grey matter damage.

  6. Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described.

  7. Conflict Misleads Large Carnivore Management and Conservation: Brown Bears and Wolves in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Naves, Javier; Ordiz, Andrés; Quevedo, Mario; Revilla, Eloy; Delibes, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting human-dominated landscapes often interact with people and their properties, leading to conflict scenarios that can mislead carnivore management and, ultimately, jeopardize conservation. In northwest Spain, brown bears Ursus arctos are strictly protected, whereas sympatric wolves Canis lupus are subject to lethal control. We explored ecological, economic and societal components of conflict scenarios involving large carnivores and damages to human properties. We analyzed the relation between complaints of depredations by bears and wolves on beehives and livestock, respectively, and bear and wolf abundance, livestock heads, number of culled wolves, amount of paid compensations, and media coverage. We also evaluated the efficiency of wolf culling to reduce depredations on livestock. Bear damages to beehives correlated positively to the number of female bears with cubs of the year. Complaints of wolf predation on livestock were unrelated to livestock numbers; instead, they correlated positively to the number of wild ungulates harvested during the previous season, the number of wolf packs, and to wolves culled during the previous season. Compensations for wolf complaints were fivefold higher than for bears, but media coverage of wolf damages was thirtyfold higher. Media coverage of wolf damages was unrelated to the actual costs of wolf damages, but the amount of news correlated positively to wolf culling. However, wolf culling was followed by an increase in compensated damages. Our results show that culling of the wolf population failed in its goal of reducing damages, and suggest that management decisions are at least partly mediated by press coverage. We suggest that our results provide insight to similar scenarios, where several species of large carnivores share the landscape with humans, and management may be reactive to perceived conflicts.

  8. Assessing ecological responses of wolves to wind power plants in Portugal: methodological constrains and conservation implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaras, Francisco; Rio-Maior, Helena; Roque, Sara; Nakamura, Monia; Cadete, Duarte; Pinto, Sara; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Wind-power development has substantially increased in the last decade in Portugal and associated structures mostly overlap with wolf range, which raises major conservation concerns as a potential source of disturbance to this endangered carnivore. However, a comprehensive evaluation is greatly hampered by difficulties in studying wolf ecology and current lack of knowledge on the impacts of wind energy development on non-flying animals, especially large mammals. A research program was initiated in 2006, to: i) establish a methodological protocol for assessing impacts and monitoring wolf ecological responses to wind farms; ii) evaluate potential effects of wind farms on wolf space use and reproduction; iii) apply efficient mitigation and compensation measures. Field methods are based on howling and sign surveys, scat quantification through abundance indices and GPS telemetry. Preliminary results demonstrate that: i) road network built for wind-power development lead to a considerable increase in traffic, especially during construction of wind farms; ii) wolves continue to use areas with wind farms; iii) wolf presence tends to decrease with the cumulative number of turbines; iv) spatial responses of wolves to wind farms appear to depend on the number and proximity of turbines to important pack home sites and prey availability; v) wolves abandon or do not regularly use breeding sites located in the proximity of wind turbines; vi) wolves select breeding places at a lower altitude after wind farm construction, as a response to related disturbance in mountain ridges. Wind farms induce important changes in wolf space use, selection of and fidelity to reproduction sites and reproductive success. These behavioural and spatial responses may constrain connectivity within and between pack territories and increase reproductive instability, especially in already highly humanized landscapes as Portugal. Based on these findings, several preventive mitigation measures

  9. Environmental and Intrinsic Correlates of Stress in Free-Ranging Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Barbara; Fattebert, Julien; Palme, Rupert; Ciucci, Paolo; Betschart, Bruno; Smith, Douglas W; Diehl, Peter-Allan

    2015-01-01

    When confronted with a stressor, animals react with several physiological and behavioral responses. Although sustained or repeated stress can result in severe deleterious physiological effects, the causes of stress in free-ranging animals are yet poorly documented. In our study, we aimed at identifying the main factors affecting stress levels in free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus). We used fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) as an index of stress, after validating the method for its application in wolves. We analyzed a total of 450 fecal samples from eleven wolf packs belonging to three protected populations, in Italy (Abruzzo), France (Mercantour), and the United States (Yellowstone). We collected samples during two consecutive winters in each study area. We found no relationship between FCM concentrations and age, sex or social status of individuals. At the group level, our results suggest that breeding pair permanency and the loss of pack members through processes different from dispersal may importantly impact stress levels in wolves. We measured higher FCM levels in comparatively small packs living in sympatry with a population of free-ranging dogs. Lastly, our results indicate that FCM concentrations are associated with endoparasitic infections of individuals. In social mammals sharing strong bonds among group members, the death of one or several members of the group most likely induces important stress in the remainder of the social unit. The potential impact of social and territorial stability on stress levels should be further investigated in free-ranging populations, especially in highly social and in territorial species. As persistent or repeated stressors may facilitate or induce pathologies and physiological alterations that can affect survival and fitness, we advocate considering the potential impact of anthropogenic causes of stress in management and conservation programs regarding wolves and other wildlife.

  10. Conflict Misleads Large Carnivore Management and Conservation: Brown Bears and Wolves in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernández-Gil

    Full Text Available Large carnivores inhabiting human-dominated landscapes often interact with people and their properties, leading to conflict scenarios that can mislead carnivore management and, ultimately, jeopardize conservation. In northwest Spain, brown bears Ursus arctos are strictly protected, whereas sympatric wolves Canis lupus are subject to lethal control. We explored ecological, economic and societal components of conflict scenarios involving large carnivores and damages to human properties. We analyzed the relation between complaints of depredations by bears and wolves on beehives and livestock, respectively, and bear and wolf abundance, livestock heads, number of culled wolves, amount of paid compensations, and media coverage. We also evaluated the efficiency of wolf culling to reduce depredations on livestock. Bear damages to beehives correlated positively to the number of female bears with cubs of the year. Complaints of wolf predation on livestock were unrelated to livestock numbers; instead, they correlated positively to the number of wild ungulates harvested during the previous season, the number of wolf packs, and to wolves culled during the previous season. Compensations for wolf complaints were fivefold higher than for bears, but media coverage of wolf damages was thirtyfold higher. Media coverage of wolf damages was unrelated to the actual costs of wolf damages, but the amount of news correlated positively to wolf culling. However, wolf culling was followed by an increase in compensated damages. Our results show that culling of the wolf population failed in its goal of reducing damages, and suggest that management decisions are at least partly mediated by press coverage. We suggest that our results provide insight to similar scenarios, where several species of large carnivores share the landscape with humans, and management may be reactive to perceived conflicts.

  11. Environmental and Intrinsic Correlates of Stress in Free-Ranging Wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Molnar

    Full Text Available When confronted with a stressor, animals react with several physiological and behavioral responses. Although sustained or repeated stress can result in severe deleterious physiological effects, the causes of stress in free-ranging animals are yet poorly documented. In our study, we aimed at identifying the main factors affecting stress levels in free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus.We used fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM as an index of stress, after validating the method for its application in wolves. We analyzed a total of 450 fecal samples from eleven wolf packs belonging to three protected populations, in Italy (Abruzzo, France (Mercantour, and the United States (Yellowstone. We collected samples during two consecutive winters in each study area. We found no relationship between FCM concentrations and age, sex or social status of individuals. At the group level, our results suggest that breeding pair permanency and the loss of pack members through processes different from dispersal may importantly impact stress levels in wolves. We measured higher FCM levels in comparatively small packs living in sympatry with a population of free-ranging dogs. Lastly, our results indicate that FCM concentrations are associated with endoparasitic infections of individuals.In social mammals sharing strong bonds among group members, the death of one or several members of the group most likely induces important stress in the remainder of the social unit. The potential impact of social and territorial stability on stress levels should be further investigated in free-ranging populations, especially in highly social and in territorial species. As persistent or repeated stressors may facilitate or induce pathologies and physiological alterations that can affect survival and fitness, we advocate considering the potential impact of anthropogenic causes of stress in management and conservation programs regarding wolves and other wildlife.

  12. Conflict Misleads Large Carnivore Management and Conservation: Brown Bears and Wolves in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Naves, Javier; Ordiz, Andrés; Quevedo, Mario; Revilla, Eloy; Delibes, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting human-dominated landscapes often interact with people and their properties, leading to conflict scenarios that can mislead carnivore management and, ultimately, jeopardize conservation. In northwest Spain, brown bears Ursus arctos are strictly protected, whereas sympatric wolves Canis lupus are subject to lethal control. We explored ecological, economic and societal components of conflict scenarios involving large carnivores and damages to human properties. We analyzed the relation between complaints of depredations by bears and wolves on beehives and livestock, respectively, and bear and wolf abundance, livestock heads, number of culled wolves, amount of paid compensations, and media coverage. We also evaluated the efficiency of wolf culling to reduce depredations on livestock. Bear damages to beehives correlated positively to the number of female bears with cubs of the year. Complaints of wolf predation on livestock were unrelated to livestock numbers; instead, they correlated positively to the number of wild ungulates harvested during the previous season, the number of wolf packs, and to wolves culled during the previous season. Compensations for wolf complaints were fivefold higher than for bears, but media coverage of wolf damages was thirtyfold higher. Media coverage of wolf damages was unrelated to the actual costs of wolf damages, but the amount of news correlated positively to wolf culling. However, wolf culling was followed by an increase in compensated damages. Our results show that culling of the wolf population failed in its goal of reducing damages, and suggest that management decisions are at least partly mediated by press coverage. We suggest that our results provide insight to similar scenarios, where several species of large carnivores share the landscape with humans, and management may be reactive to perceived conflicts. PMID:26974962

  13. Personnel selection with grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Kundakcı

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Selection of the qualified and the most appropriate employee plays crucial role for the success of the businesses. The selection process is complex and contains both subjective and objective criteria to be considered. For this reason, in this paper, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA is proposed for employee selection. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed method, the most appropriate software engineer is selected for a technology firm. By this way, a scientific multi criteria decision making (MCDM method is proposed to the firm that determines the best candidate intuitively with traditional methods.

  14. EASTERN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVALUATION OF SELECTED ELITE POTATO GENOTYPES IN. EASTERN ... Significant

  15. Grey relationship analysis and grey forecasting modeling on thermal stability of synthetic single diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Through analyzing 7 Ib-type samples of synthetic single diamonds by their DTA and TG in air, we ascertained the extrapolated onset temperature on the curves of DTA as the characteristic temperature of their thermal stabilities. Based on the grey system theory, we analyzed 4 factors influential in the thermal stability by the grey relationship analysis, a quantitative method, and derived the grey relationship sequence, that is, the rank of the influence extent of 4 factors on the thermal stability. Furthermore, we established the grey forecasting model, namely GM ( 1,5 ), for predicting the thermal stability of single diamonds with their intrinsic properties, which was then examined by a deviation-probability examination. The results illustrate that it is reasonable to take the Extrapolated Onset Temperature in DTA as the characteristic temperature for thermal stability (TS)of Ib -type synthetic single diamonds. The nitrogen content and grain shape regularity of diamonds are dominating factors. Likewise, grain size and compressive strength are minor factors. In addition, GM (1,5) can be used to predict the thermal stability of Ib-type synthetic single diamonds available. The precision rank of GM( 1,5 ) is‘GOOD’.

  16. Grey('s) Identity: Complications of Learning and Becoming in a Popular Television Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines an analysis of the American show "Grey's Anatomy" as an example of how popular culture represents identity and the process of professional identity construction in a medical workplace, particularly the surgical service of a large urban hospital. In discussing identity, she connects professional identity to…

  17. The effect of fire on spatial separation between wolves and caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh S. Robinson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire management is an important conservation tool in Canada’s national parks. Fires can benefit some species, while others may be negatively impacted. We used GPS and VHF collar data for 47 wolves from 12 separate packs and 153 caribou from 5 separate herds, and resource selection analysis to model the effects of fire on these species’ habitat and potential interactions. Resource selection modeling showed that wolves select for burned areas and areas close to burns, presumably due to the presence of primary prey (i.e., elk and moose, while caribou avoid burns. Fire reduced the amount of high quality caribou habitat (a direct effect, but also increased the probability of wolf-caribou overlap (an indirect effect. We delineated a spatial index of caribou “safe zones” (areas of low overlap with wolves, and found a positive relationship between the proportion of a herd’s home range represented by “safe zone” in winter and population size (P = 0.10, n=4. While currently-planned prescribed fires in Banff and Jasper reduced the amount of quality caribou habitat by up to 4%, they reduced the area of “safe zones” by up to 7%, varying by herd, location, and season. We suggest that conservation managers should account for the indirect, predator-mediated impacts of fire on caribou in addition to direct effects of habitat loss.

  18. Birth and mortality of maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1811 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. MAIA

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the distribution of births of captive maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus and the causes of their deaths during the period from 1980 to 1998, based on the registry of births and deaths in the International Studbook for Maned Wolves. To determine birth distribution and average litter size, 361 parturitions were analyzed for the 1989-98 period. To analyze causes of mortality, the animals were divided into four groups: 1. pups born in captivity that died prior to one year of age; 2. animals born in captivity that died at more than one year of age; 3. animals captured in the wild that died at any age; and 4. all animals that died during the 1980-98 period. In group 1, the main causes of mortality were parental incompetence (67%, infectious diseases, (9% and digestive system disorders (5%. The average mortality rate for pups was 56%. Parental incompetence was responsible for 95% of pup deaths during the first week of life. In group 2, the main causes were euthanasia (18% and disorders of the genitourinary (10% and digestive systems (8%. Euthanasia was implemented due to senility, congenital disorders, degenerative diseases, and trauma. In group 3, the main causes were digestive system disorders (12%, infectious diseases (10%, and lesions or accidents (10%. The main causes of mortality of maned wolves in captivity (group 4 were parental incompetence (38%, infectious diseases (9%, and digestive system disorders (7%.

  19. Birth and mortality of maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1811) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, O B; Gouveia, A M G

    2002-02-01

    The aims of this study were to verify the distribution of births of captive maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus and the causes of their deaths during the period from 1980 to 1998, based on the registry of births and deaths in the International Studbook for Maned Wolves. To determine birth distribution and average litter size, 361 parturitions were analyzed for the 1989-98 period. To analyze causes of mortality, the animals were divided into four groups: 1. pups born in captivity that died prior to one year of age; 2. animals born in captivity that died at more than one year of age; 3. animals captured in the wild that died at any age; and 4. all animals that died during the 1980-98 period. In group 1, the main causes of mortality were parental incompetence (67%), infectious diseases, (9%) and digestive system disorders (5%). The average mortality rate for pups was 56%. Parental incompetence was responsible for 95% of pup deaths during the first week of life. In group 2, the main causes were euthanasia (18%) and disorders of the genitourinary (10%) and digestive systems (8%). Euthanasia was implemented due to senility, congenital disorders, degenerative diseases, and trauma. In group 3, the main causes were digestive system disorders (12%), infectious diseases (10%), and lesions or accidents (10%). The main causes of mortality of maned wolves in captivity (group 4) were parental incompetence (38%), infectious diseases (9%), and digestive system disorders (7%).

  20. Territoriality and inter-pack aggression in gray wolves: shaping a social carnivore's life history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; MacNulty, Daniel R.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Metz, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    When Rudyard Kipling wrote The Jungle Book in 1894 and included the famous line "For the strength of the Wolf is the Pack, and the strength of the Pack is the Wolf," he would have had no idea that over a century later, scientific research would back up his poetic phrase. Recent studies in Yellowstone have found that both the individual wolf and the collective pack rely on each other and play important roles in territoriality. At a time when most fairy tales and fables were portraying wolves as demonic killers or, at best, slapstick gluttons, Kipling seemed to have a respect or even reverence for the wolf. Wolves in The Jungle Book raise and mentor the main character Mowgli, with the pack's leader eventually dying to save the "man-cub" from a pack of wolves. Kipling may have extended intra- pack benevolence to a human boy for literary sake, but he was clearly enthralled with how pack members treat each other. As wolf packs are almost always family units, most commonly comprised of a breeding pair and their offspring from several years, amiable behavior within the pack is unsurprising. By contrast, wolf packs are fiercely intolerant of their neighbors, their rivals. And this competition is proving to be an important facet in the life of a wolf and its pack.

  1. Grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellino, Marco; Plano, Federica; Votta, Barbara; Mutani, Roberto; Giordana, Maria Teresa; Cavalla, Paola

    2005-12-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the extent and distribution of grey matter demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS), addressing also neuronal loss and synaptic loss. Whole coronal sections of 6 MS brains and 6 control brains were selected. Immunohistochemistry was performed for myelin basic protein, neurofilaments, synaptophysin, ubiquitin, and activated caspase-3. Neuronal density and optical density of synaptophysin staining were estimated in cortical lesions and compared with those observed in corresponding areas of normal (i.e. nondemyelinated) cortex in the same section. Demyelinating lesions were observed in the cerebral cortex, in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and in the hippocampus. The percentage of demyelinated cortex was remarkable in 2 cases of secondary progressive MS (48% and 25.5%, respectively). Neuronal density was significantly reduced in cortical lesions (18-23% reduction), if compared with adjacent normal cortex, in the 2 cases showing the higher extent of cortical demyelination; in the same cases, very rare apoptotic neurons expressing caspase-3 were observed in cortical lesions and not in adjacent normal cortex. No significant decrease in optical density of synaptophysin staining was observed in cortical lesions. Grey matter demyelination and neuronal loss could contribute to disability and cognitive dysfunctions in MS.

  2. Grey Rod Test in HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Westinghouse/KAERI/KNF agreed to perform an irradiation test in the HANARO reactor to obtain irradiation data on the new grey rods that will be part of an AP1000 system. As a preliminary test, two samples containing pure Ag (Reference) and Ag-In-Cd materials provided by Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) were inserted in a KNF irradiation capsule of 07M-13N. The specimens were irradiated for 95.19days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of the HANARO of a 30MW thermal output to have a fast neutron fluence of 1.11x10{sup 21}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV). This report provides all the test conditions and data obtained during the irradiation test of the grey rods in HANARO requested by Westinghouse. The test was prepared according to the meeting minutes (June 26, 2007) and the on-going subject test was stopped midway by the request of Westinghouse.

  3. On grey levels in random CAPTCHA generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Fraser; Kouritzin, Michael A.

    2011-06-01

    A CAPTCHA is an automatically generated test designed to distinguish between humans and computer programs; specifically, they are designed to be easy for humans but difficult for computer programs to pass in order to prevent the abuse of resources by automated bots. They are commonly seen guarding webmail registration forms, online auction sites, and preventing brute force attacks on passwords. In the following, we address the question: How does adding a grey level to random CAPTCHA generation affect the utility of the CAPTCHA? We treat the problem of generating the random CAPTCHA as one of random field simulation: An initial state of background noise is evolved over time using Gibbs sampling and an efficient algorithm for generating correlated random variables. This approach has already been found to yield highly-readable yet difficult-to-crack CAPTCHAs. We detail how the requisite parameters for introducing grey levels are estimated and how we generate the random CAPTCHA. The resulting CAPTCHA will be evaluated in terms of human readability as well as its resistance to automated attacks in the forms of character segmentation and optical character recognition.

  4. Fundamental definitions and calculation rules of grey mathematics:a review work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaoxing Li; Sifeng Liu; Jeffrey Yi-Lin Forrest

    2015-01-01

    Grey mathematics is the mathematical foundation of the grey system theory. Recently, some important results have been achieved. In order to accelerate the development of grey math-ematics, the results are summarized and redefined. This paper includes the fundamental definitions and calculation rules of the grey hazy set, grey number, grey matrix and grey function. Grey mathematics includes four types of operation, i.e. the grey oper-ation, the whitened operation, the covered operation and the only potential true operation. According to its intrinsic quality, the cov-ered operation, which differs from the interval one, is cal ed as the whole-proximate calculation that means the proximate calculation spreads through the whole range of the covered set of every grey number, and we confirm that it may be a new branch of compu-tational or applied mathematics. The overview should develop the grey system theory and grey mathematics.

  5. Evaluation of Fabric Hand with Grey Element Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dong-sheng; GAN Ying-jin; BAI Yue

    2004-01-01

    A premium composite grey element model is established and used for objective evaluation of fabric hand. Fabric hand is regarded as a grey system and the model is composed of fabric mechanical properties, which are primary hand attributes. Based on comparison with a standard model, fabric hand can be objectively evaluated.

  6. Grey Literature Between Tradition and Innovation: Is There a Continuum?

    OpenAIRE

    Pardelli, Gabriella; Goggi, Sara; Sassi, Manuela; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2011-01-01

    This study wants to explore new ways of social media communication for Grey Literature. In particular it describes the role of social media in relation with traditional channels and how social media applications can be used for Grey. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes XA International

  7. Effect of titanium on the near eutectic grey iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    The effect of Titanium on the microstructure of grey iron was investigated experimentally in this work. Tensile test bars of grey cast iron of near eutectic alloys containing 0.01, 0.1, 0.26 and 0.35% Ti, respectively were made in green sand moulds. Chemical analysis, metallographic investigation...

  8. The Comparative Study of Grey Literature Orgnization at Home and Abroad in Network Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Liu Jing

    2005-01-01

    Grey literature is an important information resource , and Internet makes it easier to organize them. This paper introduces how the System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe(SIGLE) and GreyNet organize the grey literature. And then it presents how to organize grey literature in China in network environment. Finally, by contrast a conclusion is drawn that there are several disadvantages in the grey literature organization in China.

  9. Repozitář a webový portál GreyGuide:Odpověď GreyNet na Deklaraci z Pisy

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    In December 2013, the GreyGuide was launched and in early 2014 GreyNet welcomed far reaching developments in its resource management. These developments are in line with the “Pisa Declaration on Policy Development for Grey Literature Resources (May 16, 2014)”. In compliance with this 15-point roadmap, a selection of GreyNet’s web-based content will now migrate to the GreyGuide allowing for seamless browse, search, and retrieval across its collections.

  10. Alternative Axiomatic Characterizations of the Grey Shapley Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirma Zeynep Alparslan Gok

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Shapley value, one of the most common solution concepts of cooperative game theory is defined and axiomatically characterized in different game-theoretic models. Certainly, the Shapley value can be used in interesting sharing cost/reward problems in the Operations Research area such as connection, routing, scheduling, production and inventory situations. In this paper, we focus on the Shapley value for cooperative games, where the set of players is finite and the coalition values are interval grey numbers. The central question in this paper is how to characterize the grey Shapley value. In this context, we present two alternative axiomatic characterizations. First, we characterize the grey Shapley value using the properties of efficiency, symmetry and strong monotonicity. Second, we characterize the grey Shapley value by using the grey dividends.

  11. The occurrence of nematodes of the genus Trichinella in wolves (Canis lupus) from the Bieszczady Mountains and Augustowska Forest in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bień, Justyna; Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Welc, Mirosław; Popiołek, Marcin; Cabaj, Władysław

    2016-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Trichinella infection in wolves (Canis lupus) in two regions in Poland. Muscle samples were collected from 21 wolves between 1999 and 2015 and processed by artificial digestion. In two cases, the muscle larvae (ML) were obtained and stored in alcohol. ML were detected in 12 wolves and genotyped by multiplex PCR. Trichinella britovi was confirmed in 12 wolves (54.5%). The larval burdens in infected animals ranged from 0.009 to 27 larvae per gram. The high prevalence of Trichinella infection in wolves might suggest that this predator is a significant reservoir of Trichinella species in the sylvatic cycle in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fear, economic consequences, hunting competition, and distrust of authorities determine preferences for illegal lethal actions against gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Peter Lyhne; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    After a 200-year absence, the gray wolf recently re-immigrated to Denmark. Where humans and wolves coexist, there is potential for conflict. Using an online survey, we elicit information on attitudes and preferred responses to the presence of wolves among 1500 landowners in rural Jutland. Relying...... on random utility theory, we used a choice experiment, where respondents were asked to choose between hypothetical scenarios designed to reduce the sensitivity of the subject and thereby reveal whether landowners would respond by illegal actions. We also evaluate the determinants of preferences...... for these actions. The majority of the sample exhibited a negative attitude towards wolves and the choice experiment revealed that 60% of the sample preferred illegal measures, over moderate measures, whereas the remaining sample preferred to do nothing. A latent class model grouped respondents in four segments...

  13. Age structure of moose (Alces alces) killed by gray wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota, 1967-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Nelson, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The age structure of Moose (Alces alces) killed by gray Wolves (Canis lupus) is available from only two national parks in the united States where hunting by people is not allowed and from three areas in Alaska where Moose are hunted (Mech 1966; Peterson et al.1984; Ballard et al. 1987; Mech et al. 1998). The samples of Moose killed by gray Wolves from each hunted area are relatively small (47–117), given that Moose live to 20 or more years (Passmore et al. 1955). This article adds age data from another 77 Moose killed by gray Wolves from a fourth (lightly) human-hunted area and assesses the age structure of all the samples.

  14. Duration of immunity in red wolves (Canis rufus) following vaccination with a modified live parvovirus and canine distemper vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie; Case, Allison; Woodie, Kathleen; Waddell, William; Reed, Holly H

    2014-09-01

    There is growing information available regarding duration of immunity for core vaccines in both domestic and nondomestic species. Vaccination protocols in nondomestic canids have frequently followed guidelines developed for the domestic dog; however, these protocols can be inappropriate for nondomestic canids such as the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), leaving some animals susceptible to infectious disease and others at risk for contracting vaccine-induced disease. In this study, red wolves (Canis rufus) were vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and vaccination titers were followed annually for 3 yr. One hundred percent of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CDV for 3 yr and 96.9% of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CPV for 3 yr. Seroconversion for canine adenovirus was sporadic. The results of this study support decreasing the frequency of vaccine administration in the red wolf population to a triennial basis.

  15. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Matthew J; Brodie, Jedediah F; Jules, Erik S

    2010-09-01

    Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs) occur when the fear of predation among herbivores enhances plant productivity. Based primarily on systems involving small-bodied predators, BMTCs have been proposed as both strong and ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Recently, however, synthetic work has suggested that the existence of BMTCs may be mediated by predator hunting mode, whereby passive (sit-and-wait) predators have much stronger effects than active (coursing) predators. One BMTC that has been proposed for a wide-ranging active predator system involves the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park, USA, which is thought to be leading to a recovery of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by causing elk (Cervus elaphus) to avoid foraging in risky areas. Although this BMTC has been generally accepted and highly popularized, it has never been adequately tested. We assessed whether wolves influence aspen by obtaining detailed demographic data on aspen Stands using tree rings and by monitoring browsing levels in experimental elk exclosures arrayed across a gradient of predation risk for three years. Our study demonstrates that the historical failure of aspen to regenerate varied widely among stands (last recruitment year ranged from 1892 to 1956), and our data do not indicate an abrupt cessation of recruitment. This pattern of recruitment failure appears more consistent with a gradual increase in elk numbers rather than a rapid behavioral shift in elk foraging following wolf extirpation. In addition, our estimates of relative survivorship of young browsable aspen indicate that aspen are not currently recovering in Yellowstone, even in the presence of a large wolf population. Finally, in an experimental test of the BMTC hypothesis we found that the impacts of elk browsing on aspen demography are not diminished in sites where elk are at higher risk of predation by wolves. These findings suggest the need to further evaluate how trophic

  16. Genetic evidence for multiple events of hybridization between wolves and domestic dogs in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Raquel; Llaneza, Luis; Blanco, Juan C; Lopes, Susana; Álvares, Francisco; García, Emilio J; Palacios, Vicente; Cortés, Yolanda; Talegón, Javier; Ferrand, Nuno

    2011-12-01

    Hybridization between wild species and their domestic counterparts may represent a major threat to natural populations. However, high genetic similarity between the hybridizing taxa makes the detection of hybrids a difficult task and may hinder attempts to assess the impact of hybridization in conservation biology. In this work, we used a combination of 42 autosomal microsatellites together with Y-chromosome microsatellite-defined haplotypes and mtDNA sequences to investigate the occurrence and dynamics of wolf-dog hybridization in the Iberian Peninsula. To do this, we applied a variety of Bayesian analyses and a parallel set of simulation studies to evaluate (i) the differences between Iberian wolves and dogs, (ii) the frequency and geographical distribution of hybridization and (iii) the directionality of hybridization. First, we show that Iberian wolves and dogs form two well-differentiated genetic entities, suggesting that introgressive hybridization is not a widespread phenomenon shaping both gene pools. Second, we found evidence for the existence of hybridization that is apparently restricted to more peripheral and recently expanded wolf populations. Third, we describe compelling evidence suggesting that the dynamics of hybridization in wolf populations is mediated by crosses between male dogs and female wolves. More importantly, the observation of a population showing the occurrence of a continuum of hybrid classes forming mixed packs may indicate that we have underestimated hybridization. If future studies confirm this pattern, then an intriguing avenue of research is to investigate how introgression from free-ranging domestic dogs is enabling wolf populations to adapt to the highly humanized habitats of southern Europe while still maintaining their genetic differentiation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. A SURVEY OF DISEASES IN CAPTIVE RED WOLVES (CANIS RUFUS), 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Kathryn E; Garner, Michael M; Waddell, William T; Wolf, Karen N

    2016-03-01

    Conservation efforts to preserve the red wolf (Canis rufus) have been in progress since the 1970s through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Red Wolf Recovery Program and the Association of Zoos and Aquarium's Red Wolf Species Survival Plan. An ongoing part of this project has been to monitor mortality trends, particularly to look for potential genetic conditions resulting from inbreeding given the small founding population of only 14 individuals. An initial survey was conducted in the 1990s but a comprehensive assessment of the population has not been done since then. This retrospective review evaluates mortality in the population from 1997 to 2012 through analysis of gross necropsy and histology records provided by cooperating institutions that housed red wolves during the time period of interest. Of the 378 red wolves that died during this 15-yr period, 259 animals had gross necropsy records, histology records, or both that were evaluated. The major causes of neonatal death were parental trauma, stillbirth, or pneumonia. Overall, juveniles had very low mortality rates with only 12 wolves aged 30 days to 6 mo dying during the study period. The most common cause of death within the adult populations was neoplasia, with epithelial neoplasms, carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas being the most common types reported. Gastrointestinal disease was the second most common cause of death, particularly gastric dilation and volvulus, inflammatory bowel disease, and gastrointestinal perforations. These findings are in stark contrast to causes of mortality in the wild population, which are primarily due to human-related activities such as vehicular trauma, gunshot, or poisoning. Overall, the captive population has few health problems, but an increase in inflammatory bowel disease in particular warrants further investigation.

  18. Genomic Variation of Inbreeding and Ancestry in the Remaining Two Isle Royale Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Kardos, Marty; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2017-03-01

    Inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry have traditionally been estimated with pedigree information, however, molecular genomic data can provide more detailed examination of these properties. For example, pedigree information provides estimation of the expected value of these measures but molecular genomic data can estimate the realized values of these measures in individuals. Here, we generate the theoretical distribution of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry for the individuals in the pedigree of the Isle Royale wolves, the first examination of such variation in a wild population with a known pedigree. We use the 38 autosomes of the dog genome and their estimated map lengths in our genomic analysis. Although it is known that the remaining wolves are highly inbred, closely related, and descend from only 3 ancestors, our analyses suggest that there is significant variation in the realized inbreeding and relatedness around pedigree expectations. For example, the expected inbreeding in a hypothetical offspring from the 2 remaining wolves is 0.438 but the realized 95% genomic confidence interval is from 0.311 to 0.565. For individual chromosomes, a substantial proportion of the whole chromosomes are completely identical by descent. This examination provides a background to use when analyzing molecular genomic data for individual levels of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry. The level of variation in these measures is a function of the time to the common ancestor(s), the number of chromosomes, and the rate of recombination. In the Isle Royale wolf population, the few generations to a common ancestor results in the high variance in genomic inbreeding. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Wolves adapt territory size, not pack size to local habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Andrew M; Anderson, Morgan; Avgar, Tal; Baker, James A; Brown, Glen S; Hagens, Jevon; Iwachewski, Ed; Moffatt, Scott; Mosser, Anna; Patterson, Brent R; Reid, Douglas E B; Rodgers, Arthur R; Shuter, Jen; Street, Garrett M; Thompson, Ian D; Vander Vennen, Lucas M; Fryxell, John M

    2015-09-01

    1. Although local variation in territorial predator density is often correlated with habitat quality, the causal mechanism underlying this frequently observed association is poorly understood and could stem from facultative adjustment in either group size or territory size. 2. To test between these alternative hypotheses, we used a novel statistical framework to construct a winter population-level utilization distribution for wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Ontario, which we then linked to a suite of environmental variables to determine factors influencing wolf space use. Next, we compared habitat quality metrics emerging from this analysis as well as an independent measure of prey abundance, with pack size and territory size to investigate which hypothesis was most supported by the data. 3. We show that wolf space use patterns were concentrated near deciduous, mixed deciduous/coniferous and disturbed forest stands favoured by moose (Alces alces), the predominant prey species in the diet of wolves in northern Ontario, and in proximity to linear corridors, including shorelines and road networks remaining from commercial forestry activities. 4. We then demonstrate that landscape metrics of wolf habitat quality - projected wolf use, probability of moose occupancy and proportion of preferred land cover classes - were inversely related to territory size but unrelated to pack size. 5. These results suggest that wolves in boreal ecosystems alter territory size, but not pack size, in response to local variation in habitat quality. This could be an adaptive strategy to balance trade-offs between territorial defence costs and energetic gains due to resource acquisition. That pack size was not responsive to habitat quality suggests that variation in group size is influenced by other factors such as intraspecific competition between wolf packs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  20. Application of Grey System Theory to tree growth prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 侯月松; 李伟林; 成文惠

    2000-01-01

    Based on Grey System theory, tree growth prediction models are developed by using 202 temporary plots and 206 stem analysis trees of Dahurian larch (Larix gemlinii Rupr.) in 10 forestry bureaus of Yakeshi Forestry Administrative Bureau in Daxing'an Mountains of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. By residual and posterior tests, their precisions are qualified. With several data, tree growth can be predicted using Grey System models. For DBH and volume, the fitting results of Grey System models are better than that of statistical models.

  1. Growth and reproduction in the Icelandic grey seal

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Growth and reproduction in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius, 1791) from Iceland were examined. The oldest Icelandic grey seals obtained were a 36 year old female and a 23 year old male. The longest animals were a 255 cm 13 year old male, and a 230 cm 20 year old female. The heaviest grey seal was an 11 year old male weighing 310 kg. The heaviest female was a 20 year old female that weighed 240 kg. Females reached an asymptotic standard length and weight of 200 (95% CI 196 - 204) cm an...

  2. Quantitative inspection on graphite length of grey iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Ming-dong; SUN Guo-xiong

    2007-01-01

    Graphite length is an important item in metallographic inspection of grey iron. Computer aided quantitative metallography is developed rapidly and has become a major analytical tool nowadays. Based-moment threshold selection was adopted to binarize the metallographic image in this study. A new approach has been developed to measure the length of the graphite in cast iron with high precision. The results are in good agreement with China National Metallographic Inspection Standard Charts for Grey Iron (GB7216-87) and ASTM (A247-67). An objective and precise measurement of graphite length in grey iron is critical for developing models correlating microstructure and properties of cast iron.

  3. Density-dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaynes, Sarah; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; Quimby, Kira A; Smith, Douglas W; Coulson, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of top-predators is essential to assess their impact on ecosystems and to guide their management. Key to this understanding is identifying the mechanisms regulating vital rates. Determining the influence of density on survival is necessary to understand the extent to which human-caused mortality is compensatory or additive. In wolves (Canis lupus), empirical evidence for density-dependent survival is lacking. Dispersal is considered the principal way in which wolves adjust their numbers to prey supply or compensate for human exploitation. However, studies to date have primarily focused on exploited wolf populations, in which density-dependent mechanisms are likely weak due to artificially low wolf densities. Using 13 years of data on 280 collared wolves in Yellowstone National Park, we assessed the effect of wolf density, prey abundance and population structure, as well as winter severity, on age-specific survival in two areas (prey-rich vs. prey-poor) of the national park. We further analysed cause-specific mortality and explored the factors driving intraspecific aggression in the prey-rich northern area of the park. Overall, survival rates decreased during the study. In northern Yellowstone, density dependence regulated adult survival through an increase in intraspecific aggression, independent of prey availability. In the interior of the park, adult survival was less variable and density-independent, despite reduced prey availability. There was no effect of prey population structure in northern Yellowstone, or of winter severity in either area. Survival was similar among yearlings and adults, but lower for adults older than 6 years. Our results indicate that density-dependent intraspecific aggression is a major driver of adult wolf survival in northern Yellowstone, suggesting intrinsic density-dependent mechanisms have the potential to regulate wolf populations at high ungulate densities. When low prey availability or high

  4. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    This is a Forum article commenting on: Ripple, W. J., Beschta, R. L., Fortin, J. K., & Robbins, C. T. (2014) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone. Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, 223–233. Comparisons Ripple et al. (2014) used to demonstrate increased fruit availability and consumption by grizzly bears post-wolf reintroduction are flawed and tenuous at best. Importantly, a more parsimonious (than trophic cascades) hypothesis, not sufficiently considered by Ripple et al., exists and is better supported by available data I review.

  5. Importance of accounting for detection heterogeneity when estimating abundance: the case of French wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Pradel, Roger; Choquet, Rémi; Duchamp, Christophe; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Marboutin, Eric; Miquel, Christian; Reboulet, Anne-Marie; Poillot, Carole; Taberlet, Pierre; Gimenez, Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Assessing conservation strategies requires reliable estimates of abundance. Because detecting all individuals is most often impossible in free-ranging populations, estimation procedures have to account for a account for individual detection heterogeneity (IDH). We considered a two-class mixture model with weakly and highly detectable individuals to account for IDH. In a noninvasive capture-recapture study of wolves we based on genotypes identified in feces and hairs, we found a large underestimation of population size (27% on average) occurred when IDH was ignored.

  6. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article commenting on: Ripple, W. J., Beschta, R. L., Fortin, J. K., & Robbins, C. T. (2014) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone. Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, 223-233. Comparisons Ripple et al. (2014) used to demonstrate increased fruit availability and consumption by grizzly bears post-wolf reintroduction are flawed and tenuous at best. Importantly, a more parsimonious (than trophic cascades) hypothesis, not sufficiently considered by Ripple et al., exists and is better supported by available data I review.

  7. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  8. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija;

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...... on Baltic herring and sprat stocks is still at a very low level. Hence, with present grey seal stock sizes, the impact of seal predation can be ignored in whole Baltic‐scale herring and sprat stock management considerations. Locally, however, grey seal–fishery interactions play an important role and should...

  9. Invenio: A Modern Digital Library for Grey Literature

    CERN Document Server

    Caffaro, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Grey literature has historically played a key role for researchers in the field of High- Energy Physics (HEP). Consequently CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) as the world’s largest particle physics laboratory has always been facing the challenge of distributing and archiving grey material. Invenio, an open-source repository software, has been developed as part of CERN’s institutional repository strategy to answer these needs. In this document we describe how the particular context of grey literature within the HEP community shaped the development of Invenio. We focus on the strategies that have been established in order to process grey material within the software and we analyse how it is used in a real production environment, the CERN Document Server (CDS).

  10. How to search for and use 'grey literature' in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Hardicre, Jayne; Devitt, Patric

    An ever-growing amount of grey literature is available to nurses, including oral presentations, personal communication, leaflets, newspapers and magazines, unpublished research, internal reports and minutes of meetings. It can be an invaluable research resource.

  11. Prediction Model of Sewing Technical Condition by Grey Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ying; FANG Fang; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2007-01-01

    The grey system theory and the artificial neural network technology were applied to predict the sewing technical condition. The representative parameters, such as needle, stitch, were selected. Prediction model was established based on the different fabrics' mechanical properties that measured by KES instrument. Grey relevant degree analysis was applied to choose the input parameters of the neural network. The result showed that prediction model has good precision. The average relative error was 4.08% for needle and 4.25% for stitch.

  12. Copyright licenses and legal deposit practices of grey multimedia materials

    OpenAIRE

    Debbie L. Rabina; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the type of copyright license under which grey multimedia materials are published makes a difference in terms of their inclusion in library catalogs. The two types of copyright licenses examined are Creative Commons and traditional copyright, and the library catalogs examined is that of the United States Library of Congress and national catalogs of countries represented in the population of the study. The population included grey multimedia ma...

  13. WorldWideScience.org: Bringing Light to Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Hitson, Brian A. (OSTI-DOE); Johnson, Lorrie A; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    WorldWideScience.org and its governance structure, the WorldWideScience Alliance, are putting a brighter spotlight on grey literature. Through this new tool, grey literature is getting broader exposure to audiences all over the world. Improved access to and sharing of research information is the key to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in any field, especially science. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes, Pratt student commentary ...

  14. WorldWideScience.org: Bringing Light to Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Hitson, Brian A. (OSTI-DOE); Johnson, Lorrie A. (OSTI-DOE); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    WorldWideScience.org and its governance structure, the WorldWideScience Alliance, are putting a brighter spotlight on grey literature. Through this new tool, grey literature is getting broader exposure to audiences all over the world. Improved access to and sharing of research information is the key to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in any field, especially science. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes, Pratt student commentary ...

  15. Unusual MRI findings in grey matter heteropia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Leclerc, X.; Pruvo, J.P. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU, Lille (France); Houlette, C. [Service de Radiologie, CHRU, Rouen (France); Godefroy, O. [Service de Neurologie B, CHRU, Lille (France)

    1998-02-01

    We report unusual MRI patterns in patients with grey matter heterotopia. Standard T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo and inversion-recovery sequences were used in 22 patients presenting with seizures or developmental delay. The images were reviewed for signal change surrounding white matter and for atypical size, morphology or topography. We found 10 cases of subependymal heterotopias 11 of focal subcortical heterotopia and of diffuse subcortical heterotopia. On clinical or MRI grounds, 8 cases were considered unusual: 2 of the subependymal type, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with white matter abnormalities, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with no clinicoradiological correlation 1 of extensive hemispheric subcortical heterotopia and 1 of diffuse subcortical heterotopia confined to the frontal lobe. The classical classification of heterotopia enables easy radiological diagnosis even in cases with unusual patterns. In some cases, heterogeneity and high signal in surrounding white matter can be found. Cortical dysplasia is the most frequent associated malformation. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs.

  16. Seasonal and biogeographical patterns of gastrointestinal parasites in large carnivores: wolves in a coastal archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Hill, Janet E; Paquet, Paul C; Thompson, R C Andrew; Wagner, Brent; Smits, Judit E G

    2012-05-01

    Parasites are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population and ecosystem health. We provide the first report of gastrointestinal parasites in gray wolves from the central and north coasts of British Columbia, Canada. Across 60 000 km(2), wolf feces were collected from 34 packs in 2005-2008. At a smaller spatial scale (3300 km(2)), 8 packs were sampled in spring and autumn. Parasite eggs, larvae, and cysts were identified using standard flotation techniques and morphology. A subset of samples was analysed by PCR and sequencing to identify tapeworm eggs (n=9) and Giardia cysts (n=14). We detected ≥14 parasite taxa in 1558 fecal samples. Sarcocystis sporocysts occurred most frequently in feces (43·7%), followed by taeniid eggs (23·9%), Diphyllobothrium eggs (9·1%), Giardia cysts (6·8%), Toxocara canis eggs (2·1%), and Cryptosporidium oocysts (1·7%). Other parasites occurred in ≤1% of feces. Genetic analyses revealed Echinococcus canadensis strains G8 and G10, Taenia ovis krabbei, Diphyllobothrium nehonkaiense, and Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B. Parasite prevalence differed between seasons and island/mainland sites. Patterns in parasite prevalence reflect seasonal and spatial resource use by wolves and wolf-salmon associations. These data provide a unique, extensive and solid baseline for monitoring parasite community structure in relation to environmental change.

  17. Play Behavior in Wolves: Using the '50:50' Rule to Test for Egalitarian Play Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Essler

    Full Text Available Social play is known as a cooperative interaction between individuals involving multiple mechanisms. However, the extent to which the equality of individuals' play styles affects the interaction has not been studied in many species. Dyadic play between wolf puppies, as well as between puppies and adults, was studied to investigate both self-handicapping and offensive behaviors to determine the extent to which wolves engage in play styles where one individual does not dominate the play. Our results did not support the hypothesized '50:50' rule, which suggests that more advantaged individuals should show higher rates of self-handicapping behaviors in order to facilitate play with others. Adult wolves performed significantly less self-handicapping behaviors than their puppy partners, and they performed significantly more offensive behaviors than their puppy partners. While the '50:50' rule was not supported at any time during our study period, dyads consisting of two puppies had significantly more equal play than dyads consisting of one puppy and one adult. These results suggest that wolf puppies are more likely to play on equal terms with similarly-aged play partners, while the dominance status of the partners dictates offensive and self-handicapping behaviors between animals of different ages.

  18. Play Behavior in Wolves: Using the '50:50' Rule to Test for Egalitarian Play Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essler, Jennifer L; Cafazzo, Simona; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Kotrschal, Kurt; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Social play is known as a cooperative interaction between individuals involving multiple mechanisms. However, the extent to which the equality of individuals' play styles affects the interaction has not been studied in many species. Dyadic play between wolf puppies, as well as between puppies and adults, was studied to investigate both self-handicapping and offensive behaviors to determine the extent to which wolves engage in play styles where one individual does not dominate the play. Our results did not support the hypothesized '50:50' rule, which suggests that more advantaged individuals should show higher rates of self-handicapping behaviors in order to facilitate play with others. Adult wolves performed significantly less self-handicapping behaviors than their puppy partners, and they performed significantly more offensive behaviors than their puppy partners. While the '50:50' rule was not supported at any time during our study period, dyads consisting of two puppies had significantly more equal play than dyads consisting of one puppy and one adult. These results suggest that wolf puppies are more likely to play on equal terms with similarly-aged play partners, while the dominance status of the partners dictates offensive and self-handicapping behaviors between animals of different ages.

  19. Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, Robert J; Jessup, Erin; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

  20. Bucking the trend in wolf-dog hybridization: first evidence from europe of hybridization between female dogs and male wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Männil, Peep; Ozolins, Janis; Krzywinski, Andrzej; Saarma, Urmas

    2012-01-01

    Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.

  1. Knowing More than Words Can Say: Using Multimodal Assessment Tools to Excavate and Construct Knowledge about Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how multimodal assessment tools enabled Grade 2 students to show knowledge and understanding of wolves. The research design was a case study across three years employing descriptive statistics to portray student knowledge and understanding associated with the use of each tool. The findings indicate that…

  2. Differences in greeting behaviour towards humans with varying levels of familiarity in hand-reared wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurys, Anita; Kubinyi, Enikő; Gácsi, Márta; Virányi, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    Socialized wolves' relationship with humans is a much debated, but important question in light of dog domestication. Earlier findings reported no attachment to the caretaker at four months of age in a Strange Situation Test, while recently attachment to the caretaker was reported at a few weeks of age in a similar paradigm. To explore wolf–human relationship, we analysed behaviours of hand reared, extensively socialized wolves towards four visitor types: foster-parents, close acquaintances, persons met once before, and complete strangers during a greeting episode. As hypothesized, in the greeting context subjects showed more intense and friendly behaviour towards foster-parents, than other visitor types, which may reflect familiarity and affinity. However, differences were more pronounced in the group situation (at six months of age) than in the individual situation (at 12 and 24 months), suggesting that unique status of foster parents may become less distinct as wolves get older, while exploration of novel social agents is expressed more with older age. Fear related behaviour patterns were only found in the individual situation, mainly displayed towards strangers. We showed that, in case of extensively socialized wolves, distinctive affiliation and affinity towards the foster parent prevails into adulthood. PMID:28680658

  3. A note on the effect of the full moon on the activity of wild maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sábato, Marco Aurélio Lima; de Melo, Luiz Fernando Bandeira; Magni, Elisa M Vaz; Young, Robert John; Coelho, Carlyle Mendes

    2006-09-01

    It is well established in the scientific literature that animal prey species reduce their activity at times of high predation risk. In the case of nocturnal animals this occurs when there is a full moon; however, the response of predators to the changes in their prey behaviour is relatively unknown. Two responses are possible: (1) increase in search effort to maintain food intake; or (2) decrease in distance travelled due to either: (a) an effort to conserve energy or (b) increased kill efficiency. Using GPS tracking collars we monitored the distances travelled (which is representative of search effort) by three maned wolves during the night of the full and new moon for five lunar cycles (during the dry season). A Wilcoxon matched-paired test showed that the maned wolves travelled significantly less during the full compared to the new moon (p full moon maned wolves travelled 1.88 km less than on a new moon. These data suggest that maned wolves respond to temporally reduced prey availability by reducing their distance travelled.

  4. Landscape of fear in Europe: wolves affect spatial patterns of ungulate browsing in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D.P.J.; Kleine, de C.; Churski, M.; Hooft, van W.F.; Bubnicki, J.; Jedrzejewska, B.

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivores can either directly influence ungulate populations or indirectly affect their behaviour. Knowledge from European systems, in contrast to North American systems, on how this might lead to cascading effects on lower trophic levels is virtually absent. We studied whether wolves Canis l

  5. Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Losey

    Full Text Available Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

  6. Wolves, Confederates, and the Happy Few: The Influence of Comprehension, Agreement, and Group Membership on the Attitude toward Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mulken, Margot; Burgers, Christian; van der Plas, Bram

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension is an important factor in the functioning of irony. Readers who are unaware of the irony in an utterance are "sheep," whereas readers who understand the irony are "wolves" (Gibbs & Izett, 2005). Factors that may impact on the attitude toward irony not only include comprehension, but agreement (agreeing with…

  7. Detection of squirrel poxvirus by nested and real-time PCR from red (Sciurus vulgaris and grey (Sciurus carolinensis squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavisky Jenny

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squirrel poxvirus (SQPV is highly pathogenic to red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris, and is a significant contributing factor to the local extinction of the species in most parts of England and Wales, where infection is endemic in Eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis populations. Although a nested PCR assay has been used successfully to study the epidemiology of SQPV, samples have a long processing time and the assay is not quantifiable. Results This project describes the design and optimization of a real-time PCR for SQPV. Comparison with the nested PCR showed the real-time assay to be more sensitive by one log and able to detect approximately 144 genome copies per mg of tissue. Conclusions The real-time PCR has been used to quantify viral genome load in tissues from diseased and apparently healthy red and grey squirrels, and suggests that the titre of virus in tissues from diseased red squirrels is considerably higher than that found even in a grey squirrel with cutaneous lesions.

  8. Assessment of global grey water footprint of major food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenfeng; Antonelli, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production is one of the major sources of water pollution in the world. This is closely related to the excess application of fertilizers. Leaching of N and P to water bodies has caused serious degradation of water quality in many places. With the persistent increase in the demand for agricultural products, agricultural intensification evident during the past decades will continue in the future. This will lead to further increase in fertilizer application and consequently water pollution. Grey water footprint is a measure of the intensity of water pollution caused by water use for human activities. It is defined as the volume of water that is required to assimilate a load of pollutants to a freshwater body, based on natural background concentrations and water quality standards. This study conducts a global assessment of grey water footprint for major cereal crops, wheat, maize and rice. A crop model, Python-based EPIC (PEPIT), is applied to quantify the leaching of N and P from the fertilizer application in the three crops on a global scale with 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The hotspots of leaching are identified. The results suggest that, based on the definition and method of grey water footprint proposed by the World Water Footprint Network, the grey water footprint in many parts of the world has exceeded their total water resources availability. This indicates the seriousness of water pollution caused by agricultural production. However, the situation may also call for the development of a realistic measurement of grey water footprint which is more pertinent to water resources management. This paper proposes some alternatives in measuring grey water footprint and also discusses incorporation of grey water footprint assessment into water policy formulation and river basins plan development.

  9. Relationship between grey matter integrity and executive abilities in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manard, Marine; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young adults (18-30 years old) and 43 seniors (60-75 years old) were included. A general executive score was derived from a large battery of neuropsychological tests assessing three major aspects of executive functioning (inhibition, updating and shifting). Age-related grey matter changes were investigated by comparing young and older adults using voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness methods. A widespread difference in grey matter volume was found across many brain regions, whereas cortical thinning was mainly restricted to central areas. Multivariate analyses showed age-related changes in relatively similar brain regions to the respective univariate analyses but appeared more limited. Finally, in the older adult sample, a significant relationship between global executive performance and decreased grey matter volume in anterior (i.e. frontal, insular and cingulate cortex) but also some posterior brain areas (i.e. temporal and parietal cortices) as well as subcortical structures was observed. Results of this study highlight the distribution of age-related effects on grey matter volume and show that cortical atrophy does not appear primarily in "frontal" brain regions. From a cognitive viewpoint, age-related executive functioning seems to be related to grey matter volume but not to cortical thickness. Therefore, our results also highlight the influence of methodological aspects (from preprocessing to statistical analysis) on the pattern of results, which could explain the lack of consensus in literature.

  10. Prey utilization by wolves and a preliminary assessment of wolf and prey densities in three drainages within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the prey utilization by wolves and an assessment of wolf and prey densities in 3 drainages within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The...

  11. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darimont Chris T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resource, consumed in areas where deer are scarce, or as a targeted resource, consumed as a positive function of its availability. Faecal (n = 2203 wolf scats and isotopic analyses (n = 60 wolf hair samples provide independent data sets, also allowing us to examine how consistent these common techniques are in estimating foraging behaviour. Results At the population level during spring and summer, deer remains occurred in roughly 90 and 95% of faeces respectively. When salmon become available in autumn, however, the population showed a pronounced dietary shift in which deer consumption among groups was negatively correlated (r = -0.77, P 13C isotopic signatures (r = 0.78; P = 0.008, which were calculated by intra-hair comparisons between segments grown during summer and fall. The magnitude of this seasonal isotopic shift, our proxy for salmon use, was related primarily to estimates of salmon availability, not deer availability, among wolf groups. Conclusion Concordance of faecal and isotopic data suggests our intra-hair isotopic methodology provides an accurate proxy for salmon consumption, and might reliably track seasonal dietary shifts in other consumer-resource systems. Use of salmon by wolves as a function of its abundance and the adaptive explanations we provide suggest a long-term and widespread association between wolves and salmon. Seasonally, this system departs from the common wolf-ungulate model. Broad ecological implications include the potential

  12. Effects of wolves on elk and cattle behaviors: implications for livestock production and wolf conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laporte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many areas, livestock are grazed within wolf (Canis lupus range. Predation and harassment of livestock by wolves creates conflict and is a significant challenge for wolf conservation. Wild prey, such as elk (Cervus elaphus, perform anti-predator behaviors. Artificial selection of cattle (Bos taurus might have resulted in attenuation or absence of anti-predator responses, or in erratic and inconsistent responses. Regardless, such responses might have implications on stress and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared elk and cattle anti-predator responses to wolves in southwest Alberta, Canada within home ranges and livestock pastures, respectively. We deployed satellite- and GPS-telemetry collars on wolves, elk, and cattle (n = 16, 10 and 78, respectively and measured seven prey response variables during periods of wolf presence and absence (speed, path sinuosity, time spent head-up, distance to neighboring animals, terrain ruggedness, slope and distance to forest. During independent periods of wolf presence (n = 72, individual elk increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and used more rugged terrain (Z = -2.856, P = 0.004 and steeper slopes (Z = -3.065, P = 0.002. For cattle, individual as well as group behavioral analyses were feasible and these indicated increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and decreased distance to neighbors (Z = -2.551, P = 0.011. In addition, cattle groups showed a number of behavioral changes concomitant to wolf visits, with variable direction in changes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest both elk and cattle modify their behavior in relation to wolf presence, with potential energetic costs. Our study does not allow evaluating the efficacy of anti-predator behaviors, but indicates that artificial selection did not result in their absence in cattle. The costs of wolf predation on livestock are often compensated considering just the market value of the animal killed

  13. Grey game Theory%灰博弈综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈端芝

    2015-01-01

    灰博弈论是博弈理论与灰色理论相结合的综合性理论。本文系统论述了灰博弈的研究范围、研究现状和应用研究的一般过程。最后简要介绍了灰博弈的应用研究情况和发展趋势,并指出灰博弈论可作为研究社会、经济问题的有力工具。%The grey game theory is the combination of game theory and grey theory is a comprehensive theory. This article system elaborated the grey game research scope, research status and applications of general process. Finaly a brief introduction to the application of grey game research situation and development trend, and points out that the grey game theory can be used as a powerful tool for social and economic problems.

  14. Seasonal trends in intrapack aggression of captive wolves (Canis lupus) and wolf-dog crosses: implications for management in mixed-subspecies exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Thompson, Roger K R

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-species exhibits are becoming increasingly common in the captive management of a wide range of species. Systematic evaluations of enclosures consisting of multiple subspecies, however, are relatively infrequent. The aim of this study was to measure seasonal trends in aggressive behaviors within a captive pack of wolves and wolf-dog crosses in a sanctuary setting. The frequency of intrapack social behaviors occurring within scan-sampling intervals was recorded for wolves and wolf-dog crosses during autumn, winter, and spring (2008-2009). Both subspecies displayed distinct seasonal trends in aggression. Wolf-dog crosses exhibited overall higher levels of aggression than wolves, although these instances were mostly noncontact and no significant differences were observed in the relative frequencies of aggressive behaviors between subspecies during any season. These findings suggest that wolves and wolf-dog crosses may be housed successfully given continuous behavioral monitoring, and these findings represent the first empirical account of wolf-dog cross behavior directly compared to wolves. Future studies should be conducted with similar packs to determine if this dynamic is universal. Such research will aid in the development of management and welfare strategies for captive facilities that provide permanent residences for wolves and wolf-dog crosses.

  15. Identifying Oil, Oil-water and Water Reservoirs by the Method of Grey Poly-category

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Huangsheng

    1994-01-01

    @@ Grey Poly-category is a branch of Grey System belonging to System Theory. According to the System Theory, a fully determinable figure is called White Figure, a fully undeterminable figure is called Black Figure, and the figure between them is called Grey Figure. On the same principle, a fully determinable system,a fully undeterminable, and a partial determinable and partial undeterminable system are called White, Black and Grey System respectively. For the oil, oil-water and water reservoirs, each type of reservoirs has its different log response values. These values are grey figures, not a fixed figure, and then, the system made of the figures is a Grey System.

  16. Final State of Ecosystem Containing Grass, Sheep and Wolves with Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingfeng; Pan, Qiu-Hui; Wang, Shuang

    This paper describes a cellular automata model containing movable wolves, sheep and reproducible grass. Each wolf or sheep is characterized by Penna bitstrings. In addition, we introduce the energy rule and the predator-prey mechanism for wolf and sheep. With considering age-structured, genetic strings, minimum reproduction age, cycle of the reproduction, number of offspring, we get three possible states of a predator-prey system: the coexisting one with predators and prey, the absorbing one with prey only, and the empty one where no animal survived. In this paper, we mainly discuss the effect of the number of poor genes, the energy supply (food), the minimum reproduction age, the reproductive cycle and the birth rate on the above three possible final states.

  17. Differential sensitivity to human communication in dogs, wolves, and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topál, József; Gergely, György; Erdohegyi, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-09-04

    Ten-month-old infants persistently search for a hidden object at its initial hiding place even after observing it being hidden at another location. Recent evidence suggests that communicative cues from the experimenter contribute to the emergence of this perseverative search error. We replicated these results with dogs (Canis familiaris), who also commit more search errors in ostensive-communicative (in 75% of the total trials) than in noncommunicative (39%) or nonsocial (17%) hiding contexts. However, comparative investigations suggest that communicative signals serve different functions for dogs and infants, whereas human-reared wolves (Canis lupus) do not show doglike context-dependent differences of search errors. We propose that shared sensitivity to human communicative signals stems from convergent social evolution of the Homo and the Canis genera.

  18. The need for the management of wolves — an open letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur T. Bergerud

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Mountain and Boreal Woodland Caribou are facing extinction from increased predation, predominantly wolves (Canis lupus and coyotes (Canis latrans. These predators are increasing as moose (Alces alces and deer (Odocoileus spp. expand their range north with climate change. Mitigation endeavors will not be sufficient; there are too many predators. The critical habitat for caribou is the low predation risk habitat they select at calving: It is not old growth forests and climax lichens. The southern boundary of caribou in North America is not based on the presence of lichens but on reduced mammalian diversity. Caribou are just as adaptable as other cervids in their use of broadleaf seed plant as forage. Without predator management these woodland caribou will go extinct in our life time.

  19. Internet trade and threat of the grey area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ćwiąkała-Małys

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years it has been of great interest to tax, fiscal and customs authorities how trade and services provided over the Internet develop. A long time ago it was stated that the intense development of the Internet contributes to the expansion of the grey area. The grey area’s functioning is very unfavourable to the state economy, because although it creates GDP, it does not directly support the state budget. When considering reduced inflows to the state budget and increases in the deficit, it is reasonable to take any and all actions in order to limit the grey area in each field of social and economic life. Thus, the interest of specialized public authorities in this field should not raise any concerns.

  20. Efficiency of searching the grey literature in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, A M; Finlay, I G; Edwards, A G; Hood, K; Higginson, I J; Goodwin, D M; Normand, C E; Douglas, H R

    2001-09-01

    A systematic review into palliative care team effectiveness was undertaken which has, inherent in its methodology, grey literature searching. Over 100 letters were written to a systematically chosen range of service providers, commissioners, and experts in combination with requests for information in six UK national cancer/palliative care organization newsletters. In addition, the System for Information on Grey Literature (SIGLE ) database was searched. As a result, 25 document hard copies were received. The documents were, in all but one case (this one study was also highlighted by the SIGLE search), not relevant as they were predominated by annual reports, service descriptions, and needs assessments. In terms of obtaining unpublished studies for possible inclusion in the review, this comprehensive search was unsuccessful and, therefore, it would appear that grey literature searching is not a useful tool in palliative care systematic reviews.

  1. Grey forecasting model for active vibration control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua, Zou; Suliang, Dai; Butterworth, John; Ma, Xing; Dong, Bo; Liu, Aiping

    2009-05-01

    Based on the grey theory, a GM(1,1) forecasting model and an optimal GM(1,1) forecasting model are developed and assessed for use in active vibration control systems for earthquake response mitigation. After deriving equations for forecasting the control state vector, design procedures for an optimal active control method are proposed. Features of the resulting vibration control and the influence on it of time-delay based on different sampling intervals of seismic ground motion are analysed. The numerical results show that the forecasting models based on the grey theory are reliable and practical in structural vibration control fields. Compared with the grey forecasting model, the optimal forecasting model is more efficient in reducing the influences of time-delay and disturbance errors.

  2. From Wolves to Dogs, and Back: Genetic Composition of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanová, Milena; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Randi, Ettore; Caniglia, Romolo; Fabbri, Elena; Galaverni, Marco; Kutal, Miroslav; Hulva, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is a unique dog breed that originated from hybridization between German Shepherds and wild Carpathian wolves in the 1950s as a military experiment. This breed was used for guarding the Czechoslovakian borders during the cold war and is currently kept by civilian breeders all round the world. The aim of our study was to characterize, for the first time, the genetic composition of this breed in relation to its known source populations. We sequenced the hypervariable part of the mtDNA control region and genotyped the Amelogenin gene, four sex-linked microsatellites and 39 autosomal microsatellites in 79 Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs, 20 German Shepherds and 28 Carpathian wolves. We performed a range of population genetic analyses based on both empirical and simulated data. Only two mtDNA and two Y-linked haplotypes were found in Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs. Both mtDNA haplotypes were of domestic origin, while only one of the Y-haplotypes was shared with German Shepherds and the other was unique to Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs. The observed inbreeding coefficient was low despite the small effective population size of the breed, possibly due to heterozygote advantages determined by introgression of wolf alleles. Moreover, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog genotypes were distinct from both parental populations, indicating the role of founder effect, drift and/or genetic hitchhiking. The results revealed the peculiar genetic composition of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, showing a limited introgression of wolf alleles within a higher proportion of the dog genome, consistent with the reiterated backcrossing used in the pedigree. Artificial selection aiming to keep wolf-like phenotypes but dog-like behavior resulted in a distinctive genetic composition of Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs, which provides a unique example to study the interactions between dog and wolf genomes.

  3. From Wolves to Dogs, and Back: Genetic Composition of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Smetanová

    Full Text Available The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is a unique dog breed that originated from hybridization between German Shepherds and wild Carpathian wolves in the 1950s as a military experiment. This breed was used for guarding the Czechoslovakian borders during the cold war and is currently kept by civilian breeders all round the world. The aim of our study was to characterize, for the first time, the genetic composition of this breed in relation to its known source populations. We sequenced the hypervariable part of the mtDNA control region and genotyped the Amelogenin gene, four sex-linked microsatellites and 39 autosomal microsatellites in 79 Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs, 20 German Shepherds and 28 Carpathian wolves. We performed a range of population genetic analyses based on both empirical and simulated data. Only two mtDNA and two Y-linked haplotypes were found in Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs. Both mtDNA haplotypes were of domestic origin, while only one of the Y-haplotypes was shared with German Shepherds and the other was unique to Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs. The observed inbreeding coefficient was low despite the small effective population size of the breed, possibly due to heterozygote advantages determined by introgression of wolf alleles. Moreover, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog genotypes were distinct from both parental populations, indicating the role of founder effect, drift and/or genetic hitchhiking. The results revealed the peculiar genetic composition of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, showing a limited introgression of wolf alleles within a higher proportion of the dog genome, consistent with the reiterated backcrossing used in the pedigree. Artificial selection aiming to keep wolf-like phenotypes but dog-like behavior resulted in a distinctive genetic composition of Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs, which provides a unique example to study the interactions between dog and wolf genomes.

  4. Fuzzy-grey Prediction of Cutting Force Uncertainty in Turning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To predict the extent of turning force uncertainty quantitatively,this paper proposes a fuzzy-grey prediction procedure based on the symmetric fuzzy number and linear planning theory and grey set theory.To ve rify the developed procedure,a measuring system of turning force is schematized to acquire the evaluating data.The comparison between the prediction results a nd measured data demonstrates that the prediction is an extent of variable force rather than a certain point for the given turning condition...

  5. Asymptotic variance of grey-scale surface area estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anne Marie

    Grey-scale local algorithms have been suggested as a fast way of estimating surface area from grey-scale digital images. Their asymptotic mean has already been described. In this paper, the asymptotic behaviour of the variance is studied in isotropic and sufficiently smooth settings, resulting...... in a general asymptotic bound. For compact convex sets with nowhere vanishing Gaussian curvature, the asymptotics can be described more explicitly. As in the case of volume estimators, the variance is decomposed into a lattice sum and an oscillating term of at most the same magnitude....

  6. Venture Capital Investment Base on Grey Relational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper builds a venture capital investment projects selection evaluation model base on risk-weight investment return using grey relational analysis. The risk and return in venture capital investment projects selection process is analyses. These risk and return mainly constricted in management ability, operation ability, market ability, exit obtain and investment cost. The 18 sub-indicators are the impact factors contributed to these five evaluation aspects. Grey relation analysis is use to evaluate the venture capital investment selection. Get the optimal solution of risk-weight double objective investment selection evaluation model. An example is used to demonstrate the model in this paper.

  7. On grey relation projection model based on projection pursuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuo; Yang Shanlin; Ma Xijun

    2008-01-01

    Multidimensional grey relation projection value can be synthesized as one-dimensional projection value by u-sing projection pursuit model.The larger the projection value is,the better the model.Thus,according to the projection value,the best one can be chosen from the model aggregation.Because projection pursuit modeling based on accelera-ting genetic algorithm can simplify the implementation procedure of the projection pursuit technique and overcome its complex calculation as well as the difficulty in implementing its program,a new method can be obtained for choosing the best grey relation projection model based on the projection pursuit technique.

  8. Improved grey-based approach for power demand forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jia-mu; LIU Dan

    2006-01-01

    Grey theory is a multidisciplinary and generic theory to cope with systems of poor or deficient information. We proposed in this paper an improved grey method (GM) to overcome the disadvantages of the general GM(1,1). In the improved GM(1,1), a new background value formula is deduced and Markov-chain sign estimation is imbedded into the residual modification model. We tested the efficiency and accuracy of our model by applying it to the power demand forecasting in Taiwan. Experimental results demonstrate the new method has obviously a higher prediction accuracy than the general model.

  9. Grey Theory Based Vibration Prediction for Steam Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lei; SU Leitao; FENG Yongxin; JIANG Dongxiang

    2012-01-01

    The Mechanism of grey prediction method and its application advantages in safety prediction were described.This method was used to predict the vibration amplitude within the coming 6 hours for a steam turbine.Moreover,the prediction results were examined using correlation degree and posterior error.Results indicated that,this grey prediction method had small posterior error and got a grade Ⅰ accuracy.We can foreknow the variation trend of vibration amplitude of the steam turbine through this method,so as to take timely countermeasures.Therefore,the operation safety of the power unit was improved.

  10. Grey systems for intelligent sensors and information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chunlin; Dong Daoyi; Chen Zonghai; Wang Haibo

    2008-01-01

    In a measurement system,new representation methods are necessary to maintain the uncertainty and to supply more powerful ability for reasoning and transformation between numerical system and symbolic system.A grey measurement system is discussed from the point of view of intelligent sensors and incomplete information processing compared with a numerical and symbolized mea8urement system.The methods of grey representation and information processing are proposed for data collection and reasoning.As a case study,multi-ultrasonic sensor systems are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  11. Prediction model of interval grey number based on DGM(1,1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zeng; Sifeng Liu; Naiming Xie

    2010-01-01

    In grey system theory,the studies in the field of grey prediction model are focused on real number sequences,rather than grey number ones.Hereby,a prediction model based on interval grey number sequences is proposed.By mining the geometric features of interval grey number sequences on a two-dimensional surface,all the interval grey numbers are converted into real numbers by means of certain algorithm,and then the prediction model is established based on those real number sequences.The entire process avoids the algebraic operations of grey number,and the prediction problem of interval grey number is usefully solved.Ultimately,through an example's program simulation,the validity and practicability of this novel model are verified.

  12. Measurement and clinical effect of grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Jeroen J G; Calabrese, Massimiliano; Fisher, Elizabeth; Rudick, Richard A

    2012-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the intense involvement of the grey matter of the CNS in the pathology of multiple sclerosis has become evident. On gross inspection, demyelination in the grey matter is rather inconspicuous, and lesions in the grey matter are mostly undetectable with traditional MRI sequences. However, the results of immunohistochemical studies have shown extensive involvement of grey matter, and researchers have developed and applied new MRI acquisition methods as a result. Imaging techniques specifically developed to visualise grey matter lesions indicate early involvement, and image analysis techniques designed to measure the volume of grey matter show progressive loss. Together, these techniques have shown that grey matter pathology is associated with neurological and neuropsychological disability, and the strength of this association exceeds that related to white matter lesions or whole brain atrophy. By focusing on the latest insights into the in-vivo measurement of grey matter lesions and atrophy, we can assess their clinical effects.

  13. Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-05-15

    Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen and phosphors. The kitchen grey water has a balanced COD: N: P ratio. The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water. The combination of aerobic biological process with physical filtration and disinfection is considered to be the most economical and feasible solution for grey water recycling. The MBR appears to be a very attractive solution in collective urban residential buildings.

  14. Evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine and atipamezole for reversible anesthesia of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnemo, Jon M; Evans, Alina L; Ahlqvist, Per; Segerström, Peter; Liberg, Olof

    2013-04-01

    Twenty-eight anesthetic events were carried out on 24 free-ranging Scandinavian gray wolves (Canis lupus) by darting from a helicopter with 5 mg medetomidine and 250 mg ketamine during winter in 2002 and 2003. Mean±SD doses were 0.162±0.008 mg medetomidine/kg and 8.1±0.4 mg ketamine/kg in juveniles (7-10 mo old) and 0.110±0.014 mg medetomidine/kg and 5.7±0.5 mg ketamine/kg in adults (>19 mo old). Mean±SD induction time was shorter (Pwolves from helicopter at the doses presented here because of the severe hyperthermia seen in several wolves, two deaths, and prolonged recovery in one individual.

  15. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

    2011-09-01

    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts.

  16. Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: a matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Li; Herold, Christina J; Zöllner, Frank; Salat, David H; Lässer, Marc M; Schmid, Lena A; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Schad, Lothar R; Erickson, Kirk I; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-02-28

    Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature.

  17. Protozoan and helminth parasite fauna of free-living Croatian wild wolves (Canis lupus) analyzed by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Kleinertz, Sonja; Silva, Liliana M R; Hirzmann, Jörg; Huber, Djuro; Kusak, Josip; Taubert, Anja

    2017-01-15

    The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011. Parasite stages were identified by the sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-technique, carbolfuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen-ELISAs. A subset of taeniid eggs-positive wolf samples was additionally analyzed by PCR and subsequent sequencing to identify eggs on Echinococcus granulosus/E. multilocularis species level. In total 18 taxa of parasites were here detected. Sarcocystis spp. (19.1%) occurred most frequently in faecal samples, being followed by Capillaria spp. (16%), ancylostomatids (13.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (4.6%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.1%), Toxocara canis (2.8%), Hammondia/Neospora spp. (2.6 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (2.1%), Giardia spp. (2.1%), Cystoisospora canis (1.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.8%), Trichuris vulpis (1.5%), Taenia spp. (1.5%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.5%), Opisthorchis felineus (0.5%), Toxascaris leonina (0.3%), Mesocestoides litteratus (0.3%) and Alaria alata (0.3%). Some of the here identified parasites represent relevant pathogens for wolves, circulating between these carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, e. g. Taenia spp. and Sarcocystis spp., while others are considered exclusively pathogenic for canids (e.g. A. vasorum, C. vulpis, T. vulpis, Cystoisospora spp.). This study provides first records on the occurrence of the two relevant anthropozoonotic parasites, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium

  18. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Creel

    Full Text Available Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28-50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves.

  19. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Castellini, Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to beToxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host.

  20. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  1. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K; O'Hara, Todd M; Stricker, Craig A; Castellini, J Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; Ballweber, Lora R

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from <1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveals isolation of imperilled grey nurse shark populations (Carcharias taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, H; Harcourt, R G; Stow, A J

    2009-11-01

    Loss of sharks and other upper-trophic marine predators has sparked worldwide concern for the stability of ocean ecosystems. The grey nurse (ragged-tooth or sand tiger) shark (Carcharias taurus) is Vulnerable on a global scale, Critically Endangered in Australia and presumed extinct in parts of its historical range. We used 193 muscle and fin samples collected from six extant populations to assess global mtDNA and microsatellite diversity and the degree of global population genetic structure. Control region mtDNA diversity was low in every population, and two populations (eastern Australia and Japan) contained only a single mtDNA haplotype. Genetic signatures of recent losses of genetic variation were not yet apparent at microsatellite loci, indicating that this low mtDNA variation is not a result of anthropogenic population declines. Population differentiation was substantial between each population pair except Brazil and South Africa, F(ST) values ranged from 0.050 to 0.699 and 0.100 to 1.00 for microsatellite and mitochondrial data respectively. Bayesian analysis clearly partitioned individuals into five of the populations from which they were sampled. Our data imply a low frequency of immigrant exchange among each of these regions and we suggest that each be recognized as a distinct evolutionary significant unit. In contrast to pelagic species such as whale shark and white shark that may cross ocean basins and where cooperative international efforts are necessary for conservation, grey nurse shark, like many coastal species, need to be managed regionally.

  3. Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum from maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Juliana P S; Soave, Semíramis A; Turchetti, Andréia P; Pinheiro, Guilherme R G; Pessanha, Angela T; Malta, Marcelo C C; Tinoco, Herlandes P; Figueiredo, Luiza A; Gontijo, Nelder F; Paixão, Tatiane A; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Santos, Renato L

    2015-09-15

    Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is the cause of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The disease is transmitted mostly through the bite of the invertebrate vector, the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis in the New World. Although the domestic dog is considered the most important reservoir of the disease, other mammalian, including wildlife, are susceptible to infection. The goal of this study was to perform xenodiagnosis to evaluate the capacity of naturally infected maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to transmit Leishmania infantum to female sand flies (L. longipalpis). Xenodiagnoses were performed in February and August, 2013, when 77.7% (three maned wolves and four bush dogs) or 100% of the animals were positive, respectively. However, parasite loads in the engorged sand flies was low (<200 promastigotes and <150.2 parasites/μg of DNA). No statistically significant differences were observed between the two species or the two time points (February and August). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that maned wolves (C. brachyurus) and bush dogs (S. venaticus) asymptomatically infected with L. infantum are capable of transmitting L. infantum to the invertebrate host L. longipalpis, although the parasite loads in engorged phlebotomines exposed to these animals were very low.

  4. Effects of industrial development on the predator-prey relationship between wolves and caribou in northeastern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, A. R. C. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-09-30

    The influence of timber harvesting, combined with development of the oil and natural gas industry and the resulting environmental changes on predator-prey relationship between wolves and caribou in northeastern Alberta are investigated. To establish the level of influence, two ways of predator-prey relationship were studied: (1) spatial distribution of caribou in relation to alternative prey, commonly moose, which is assumed to reduce the level of wolf predation experienced by caribou populations, and (2) the development of linear corridors which has been hypothesized to increase predation pressure on caribou. With respect to spatial separation it was found that the selection of fen/bog complexes by caribou and the selection of well-drained habitats by moose and wolves resulted in spatial separation, reducing, but not totally eliminating predation pressure on caribou from wolves. Regarding the effect of linear corridors, radio monitoring established that caribou mortalities attribued to wolf predation were higher among caribou that were closer to linear corridors than among caribou that were farther from corridors than random points. These and other related observations led to the conclusion that timber harvesting and increased industrial activity in and near caribou ranges could have significant effect on caribou population dynamics by increasing predation. Managaement implications of these results and various remedial options are discussed. refs. figs.

  5. A research on grey numerical imitation and modeling of groundwater seepage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on grey set, grey numbers and their operation properties, the grey numerical model of groundwater seepage system was set up for the first time, the whole grey solving method of the model was given and it was proved that the common solving method of the model was only a special case of the grey solving methods. At the same time, the grey solving method was compared widely with common solving method, classical numerical method. The study shows that the grey solving method is better in depicting the procedure of transporting grey data of groundwater system. On the basis of the theoretical study, two basic kinds of cases about groundwater seepage were selected: the prediction of pit yield and the evaluation of groundwater resources on a groundwater basin. In the cases, systematical analyses were made for generalization and greylization of the hydrogeologic conditions, setting up of the grey model, identification and correction of the model as well as its prediction and evaluation. It was pointed out that when the grey numerical model is used to predict pit yield, the upper limit of the “grey band” of groundwater level cannot be higher than planed safe groundwater level, when evaluating the groundwater resource, the lower limit of the “grey band” of groundwater level cannot be lower than controlled level of groundwater.

  6. Characterization and treatment of grey water : option for (re)use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Addressing the issues of water shortage and appropriate sanitation in Jordan, domestic grey water treatment receives growing interest. Grey water comprises the domestic wastewater flows excluding waters associated with the toilet. The topics of concern for grey water are its characteristics, treatme

  7. Fos expression in the midbrain periaqueductal grey after trigeminovascular stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoskin, KL; Bulmer, DCE; Lasalandra, M; Jonkman, A; Goadsby, PJ

    2001-01-01

    There is an accumulating body of evidence suggesting that the periaqueductal grey (PAG) is involved in the pathophysiology of migraine. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans have shown that the caudal ventrolateral midbrain, encompassing the ventrolateral PAG, has activations during m

  8. On the remote sensing of Hawking grey pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Rosu, H. C.

    1994-01-01

    This is a short note on the black hole remote-sensing problem, i.e., finding out `surface' temperature distributions of various types of small (micron-sized) black holes from the spectral measurements of their Hawking grey pulses. Chen's modified Moebius inverse transform is illustrated in this context

  9. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling. The ...

  10. Grey System Forecast for Firing Accuracy of Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Qi-yue; QIU Wan-hua

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the system and subsystem forecast models for firing accuracy have been built by means of theory of Grey System Forecast. It has provided a scientific forecasting method for micro-errorcontrol and macro-error-control and improving the firing accuracy.

  11. Laser surface treatment of grey cast iron for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Tang, P.N.; de Boer, M.C.; de Oliveira, U.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    The surface of pearlitic grey cast iron was treated using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser beam with the final aim to improve its surface properties, mainly for automotive applications. Two kinds of laser surface treatments were experimentally applied. In the laser surface hardening approach the surface of cast

  12. Laser surface treatment of grey cast iron for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Tang, P.N.; de Boer, M.C.; de Oliveira, U.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    The surface of pearlitic grey cast iron was treated using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser beam with the final aim to improve its surface properties, mainly for automotive applications. Two kinds of laser surface treatments were experimentally applied. In the laser surface hardening approach the surface of cast

  13. Modelling prey consumption and switching by UK grey seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smout, Sophie; Rindorf, Anna; Hammond, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are adaptable generalist predatorswhose diet includes commercial fish species such as cod. Consumption by the seals may reduce the size of some fish stocks or have an adverse effect on stock recovery programmes, especially because predation may trap sparse prey pop...

  14. Distribution and Growth of Grey Triggerfish, Balistes capriscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam Eshun

    fitting the observed length-at-age data to the standard form of von Bertalanffy ... growth and distribution of grey triggerfish in the Western Gulf of Guinea had not ... were obtained: (i) the first section just above the condyle (the enlarged base.

  15. Grey-scale morphology based on fuzzy logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, T.-Q.; Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    There exist several methods to extend binary morphology to grey-scale images. One of these methods is based on fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory. Another approach starts from the complete lattice framework for morphology and the theory of adjunctions. In this paper, both approaches are combined. The

  16. Grey matter changes in cognitively impaired Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rektorova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cortical changes associated with cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD are not fully explored and require investigations with established diagnostic classification criteria. OBJECTIVE: We used MRI source-based morphometry to evaluate specific differences in grey matter volume patterns across 4 groups of subjects: healthy controls (HC, PD with normal cognition (PD-NC, PD with mild cognitive impairment (MCI-PD and PD with dementia (PDD. METHODS: We examined 151 consecutive subjects: 25 HC, 75 PD-NC, 29 MCI-PD, and 22 PDD at an Italian and Czech movement disorder centre. Operational diagnostic criteria were applied to classify MCI-PD and PDD. All structural MRI images were processed together in the Czech centre. The spatial independent component analysis was used to assess group differences of local grey matter volume. RESULTS: We identified two independent patterns of grey matter volume deviations: a Reductions in the hippocampus and temporal lobes; b Decreases in fronto-parietal regions and increases in the midbrain/cerebellum. Both patterns differentiated PDD from all other groups and correlated with visuospatial deficits and letter verbal fluency, respectively. Only the second pattern additionally differentiated PD-NC from HC. CONCLUSION: Grey matter changes in PDD involve areas associated with Alzheimer-like pathology while fronto-parietal abnormalities are possibly an early marker of PD cognitive decline. These findings are consistent with a non-linear cognitive progression in PD.

  17. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-08

    Jan 8, 2010 ... The OUR results indicate that the grey-water biological sludge contains an equivalent amount of readily ... subjected to treatment in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) ... (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) as requested in the European ... WWTP receives both domestic and industrial wastewater and.

  18. The Grey Nomad Phenomenon: Changing the Script of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyx, Jenny; Leonard, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a relatively new and little understood phenomenon, that of the Australian Grey Nomads. Every year increasing numbers of older Australians take to the road. This article explores the phenomenon both empirically and theoretically. A grounded approach is used by which the experience is explored from an ethnographic account…

  19. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling...

  20. Global population structure and demographic history of the grey seal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimova, A.; Phillips, C. D.; Fietz, Katharina;

    2014-01-01

    a little over 10 000 years ago, consistent with the last proposed isolation of the Baltic Sea. Approximate Bayesian computation also identified genetic signals consistent with postglacial population expansion across much of the species range, suggesting that grey seals are highly responsive to changes...

  1. Experimental Grey Box Model Identification of an Active Gas Bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    in a dynamic model of an active gas bearing and subsequent control loop design. A grey box model is determined based on experiments where piezo actuated valves are used to perturb the journal and hence excite the rotor-bearing system. Such modelling from actuator to output is shown to effciently support...

  2. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  3. Quantitative grey matter histological measures do not correlate with grey matter probability values from in vivo MRI in the temporal lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, S.H.; Free, S. L.; Thom, M; Symms, M. R.; Martinian, L.; Duncan, J.S.; Sisodiya, S M

    2009-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is commonly used to study systematic differences in brain morphology from patients with various disorders, usually by comparisons with control subjects. It has often been suggested, however, that VBM is also sensitive to variations in composition in grey matter. The nature of the grey matter changes identified with VBM is still poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to determine whether grey matter histopathological measurements of neuronal tissue or...

  4. Training Reduces Stress in Human-Socialised Wolves to the Same Degree as in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Angélica da Silva; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Ades, César; Scheidegger, Jördis Kristin; Möstl, Erich; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of animals in captivity is of considerable societal concern. A major source of stress, especially for wild animals, is the lack of control over their environment, which includes not being able to avoid contact with human beings. Paradoxically, some studies have shown that interactions with human beings may improve the welfare of wild animals in captivity. Here, we investigated the behavioural (behaviours indicative of cooperation or stress) and physiological (variations in salivary cortisol concentrations) effects of the increasingly used practice of training wild animals as a way to facilitate handling and/or as behavioural enrichment. We evaluated the effects of indoor training sessions with familiar caretakers on nine human-socialised individuals of a wild species, the wolf (Canis lupus), in comparison to nine individuals of its domesticated form, the dog (Canis lupus familiaris). All animals were raised and kept in intraspecific packs under identical conditions-in accordance with the social structure of the species-in order to control for socialisation with human beings and familiarity with training. We also collected saliva samples of trainers to measure GC and testosterone concentrations, to control for the effects of trainers' stress levels on the responses of the animals. During the training sessions, separated from pack members, the animals stayed voluntarily close to the trainers and mostly adequately performed requested behaviours, indicating concentration to the task. Similarly to dogs, the salivary cortisol level of wolves-used as an index of stress-dropped during these sessions, pointing to a similar stress-reducing effect of the training interaction in both subspecies. The responses to the requested behaviours and the reduction in salivary cortisol level of wolves and dogs varied across trainers, which indicates that the relaxing effect of training has a social component. This points to another factor affecting the welfare of animals

  5. Seasonal aspects of reproductive physiology in captive male maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, L O; Melo-Junior, A A; Spercoski, K M; Morais, R N; Souza, F F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonality of andrological characteristics and hormonal profile of captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1811). Three adult males were evaluated from the Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração Scientific Breeding Center in Araxá, MG, Brazil, over 13 months. Semen was collected 2-3 times weekly and analysed. Scrotal circumference, biometrics and testicular volume were measured. Stool samples were collected 2-3 times weekly to analyse corticosteroid and testosterone metabolite concentrations. A success rate of 100% was achieved in the collection attempts during the breeding season (BS) and 77.8% during the non-breeding season (NBS). The interval to achieve penile erection was 1-5 min in the BS and 6-10 in the NBS (p < 0.001). Of the ejaculates collected, 80.0% contained sperm during BS, while 28.6% did during the NBS. The ejaculate had only one fraction, was odourless, predominantly translucent (72.4%), with a watery appearance, pH 6.7 and osmolarity of 352.8 mOsmol. Seasonal influences were seen in ejaculate volume (1.3 ml vs 0.4 ml), number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (73.9 × 10(6) vs 6.1 × 10(6) ) and percentage of live sperm (82.0% vs 66.1%) between the BS and NBS (p < 0.05), respectively. A high percentage of major sperm defects were observed in both seasons (50.1% in BS; 65.7% in NBS). Testicular volume was larger (p < 0.05; right testicles 13.1 cm(3) in BS vs 4.0 cm(3) in NBS, while left testicles 12.9 cm(3) in BS vs 5.3 cm(3) in NBS) and testicular consistency increased in the BS. No difference was seen in the basal faecal metabolite concentrations of testosterone; however, the corticosteroid concentrations were higher in the BS. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that the collection of semen is feasible in captive maned wolves without compromising libido, seminal characteristics and reproductive behaviour and that sperm production is influenced by seasonality; however, it

  6. Prediction Model of Interval Grey Numbers with a Real Parameter and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey prediction models have become common methods which are widely employed to solve the problems with “small examples and poor information.” However, modeling objects of existing grey prediction models are limited to the homogenous data sequences which only contain the same data type. This paper studies the methodology of building prediction models of interval grey numbers that are grey heterogeneous data sequence, with a real parameter. Firstly, the position of the real parameter in an interval grey number sequence is discussed, and the real number is expanded into an interval grey number by adopting the method of grey generation. On this basis, a prediction model of interval grey number with a real parameter is deduced and built. Finally, this novel model is successfully applied to forecast the concentration of organic pollutant DDT in the atmosphere. The analysis and research results in this paper extend the object of grey prediction from homogenous data sequence to grey heterogeneous data sequence. Those research findings are of positive significance in terms of enriching and improving the theory system of grey prediction models.

  7. Novel combinatorial algorithm for the problems of fuzzy grey multi-attribute group decision making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Congjun; Xiao Xinping; Peng Jin

    2007-01-01

    To study the fuzzy and grey information in the problems of multi-attribute group decision making, the basic concepts of both fuzzy grey numbers and grey interval numbers are given firstly, then a new model of fuzzy grey multi-attribute group decision making based on the theories of fuzzy mathematics and grey system is presented. Furthermore, the grey interval relative degree and deviation degree is defined, and both the optimistic algorithm of the grey interval relational degree and the algorithm of deviation degree minimization for solving this new model are also given. Finally, a decision making example to demonstrate the feasibility and rationality of this new method is given, and the results by using these two algorithms are uniform.

  8. Connecting Archaeological Data and Grey Literature via Semantic Cross Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Tudhope

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Differing terminology and database structure hinders meaningful cross search of excavation datasets. Matching free text grey literature reports with datasets poses yet more challenges. Conventional search techniques are unable to cross search between archaeological datasets and Web-based grey literature. Results are reported from two AHRC funded research projects that investigated the use of semantic techniques to link digital archive databases, vocabularies and associated grey literature. STAR (Semantic Technologies for Archaeological Resources was a collaboration between the University of Glamorgan, Hypermedia Research Unit and English Heritage (EH. The main outcome is a research Demonstrator (available online, which cross searches over excavation datasets from different database schemas, including Raunds Roman, Raunds Prehistoric, Museum of London, Silchester Roman and Stanwick sampling. The system additionally cross searches over an extract of excavation reports from the OASIS index of grey literature, operated by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS. A conceptual framework provided by the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM integrates the different database structures and the metadata automatically generated from the OASIS reports by natural language processing techniques. The methods employed for extracting semantic RDF representations from the datasets and the information extraction from grey literature are described. The STELLAR project provides freely available tools to reduce the costs of mapping and extracting data to semantic search systems such as the Demonstrator and to linked data representation generally. Detailed use scenarios (and a screen capture video provide a basis for a discussion of key issues, including cost-benefits, ontology modelling, mapping, terminology control, semantic implementation and information extraction issues. The scenarios show that semantic interoperability can be achieved by mapping and extracting

  9. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES FOR SELECTED CANINE PATHOGENS AMONG WOLVES (CANIS LUPUS) FROM THE ALASKA PENINSULA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dominique E; Benson, Anna-Marie

    2016-07-01

    We collected blood samples from wolves ( Canis lupus ) on the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, US, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine parainfluenza (CPI), canine parvovirus (CPV), Neospora caninum , and Toxoplasma gondii . Detected antibody prevalence was 90% for CAV, 28% for CCV, 12% for CDV, 93% for CHV, 0% for CPI, 20% for CPV, 0% for N. caninum, and 86% for T. gondii . Prevalence of CCV antibodies suggested a seasonal pattern with higher prevalence during spring (43%) than in fall (11%). Prevalence of CCV antibodies also declined during the 6-yr study with high prevalence during spring 2006-08 (80%, n=24) and low prevalence during spring 2009-11 (4%, n=24). Prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies were highly variable in the study area during 2006-11. Results suggested that some pathogens might be enzootic on the Alaska Peninsula (e.g., CAV and CHV) while others may be epizootic (e.g., CCV, N. caninum , T. gondii ).

  10. Human interaction as environmental enrichment for pair-housed wolves and wolf-dog crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Verdi, Nicolle T; Wynne, Clive D L

    2014-01-01

    Private nonhuman animal sanctuaries are often financially limited in their ability to implement traditional environmental enrichment strategies. One possible solution may be to provide socialized animals with human interaction sessions. However, the merit of human interaction as enrichment has received little empirical attention to date. The present study aimed to evaluate whether human interaction could be enriching for socialized, pair-housed wolves and wolf-dog crosses at a private sanctuary. Observations of each subject were conducted in a reversal design to measure species-typical affiliation, activity levels, and aberrant behaviors when caretakers were both present and absent. The results demonstrate significantly higher levels of conspecific-directed affiliation and activity levels and reduced aberrant behavior when human interaction was available. Social play also increased when caregivers were present, supporting the hypothesis that play among conspecifics may be maintained by positive changes in an animal's environment. The potential for human interaction to be established as a scientifically validated, cost-effective enrichment strategy is supported by these findings.

  11. Comparison of serum hormone levels of captive and free-living maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Maia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P 0.05. Sixteen captive males showed higher testosterone concentration during winter and spring compared with 30 free-living animals (P < 0.05. Progesterone concentration varied among seasons in 26 captive females (P < 0.05, being higher in autumn (15.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL than in summer (6.6 ± 1.5 ng/mL, winter (5.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL and spring (4.3 ± 0.7 ng/mL. Progesterone concentration of 24 free-living females varied between autumn (17.1 ± 6.0 ng/mL and winter (1.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL (P < 0.05, but we could not obtain data for spring or summer. No difference in progesterone levels was observed between captive and free-living females in autumn and winter.

  12. EU Sanitary Regulation on Livestock Disposal: Implications for the Diet of Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Laura; Bárcena, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    Sanitary and environmental regulations may have indirect effects on the wildlife and ecosystem services beyond their regulatory scope. To illustrate such effects, this paper examines how EU sanitary measures, in conjunction with additional regulations and socio-economic changes, have caused wolf diet to shift in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Prior to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in Europe in 2000, livestock carcasses used to be left on the field and were eaten by scavengers and carnivores. As a result of the BSE crisis, sanitary regulations regarding the disposal of livestock carcasses were introduced. These regulations affected the populations of avian scavengers. We hypothesize that wolf ecology has also been affected by the aforementioned regulations. We analysed wolf diet for the period 2003-2006 and compared the results with those of a previously published study (1974-1978). We found a shift in wolf feeding habits following the implementation of these EU regulations. A decrease in carrion consumption was registered, and wolves increased their feeding on the rising population of wild ungulates, especially on roe deer, and on wild pony. Future regulations should assess their potential indirect effects in the early stages of drafting to allow for the design of proper mitigation measures.

  13. Identification of recent hybridization between gray wolves and domesticated dogs by SNP genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Pollinger, John P; Earl, Dent A; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A; Wayne, Robert K

    2013-02-01

    The ability to detect recent hybridization between dogs and wolves is important for conservation and legal actions, which often require accurate and rapid resolution of ancestry. The availability of a genetic test for dog-wolf hybrids would greatly support federal and legal enforcement efforts, particularly when the individual in question lacks prior ancestry information. We have developed a panel of 100 unlinked ancestry-informative SNP markers that can detect mixed ancestry within up to four generations of dog-wolf hybridization based on simulations of seven genealogical classes constructed following the rules of Mendelian inheritance. We establish 95 % confidence regions around the spatial clustering of each genealogical class using a tertiary plot of allele dosage and heterozygosity. The first- and second-backcrossed-generation hybrids were the most distinct from parental populations, with >90 % correctly assigned to genealogical class. In this article we provide a tool kit with population-level statistical quantification that can detect recent dog-wolf hybridization using a panel of dog-wolf ancestry-informative SNPs with divergent allele frequency distributions.

  14. Improvement of CCME WQI using grey relational method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Qiao, Danying; Qian, Bao; Ma, Lin; Xing, Xigang; Zhang, You; Wang, Xiaogang

    2016-12-01

    The conventional CCME WQI ignores the uncertainties in aquatic environment, which may lead to biases and abrupt changes in evaluation results. To overcome this shortcoming, this study improves the calculation of CCME WQI using trapezoid grey relational degree method, a model dealing with uncertainties introduced by incomplete information. Compared with the conventional CCME WQI, the grey CCME WQI has a stricter calculation method in synthetic evaluation and a better capacity in water quality warning. The water quality of New Tongyang Canal is evaluated and the result shows that its environment deteriorates with the increasing rainfall and improves with the decreasing precipitation. To decrease its environmental risk, it is suggested to reduce the nutrients in agricultural runoff and the oxygen-consuming pollutants in urban runoff in the rainy season.

  15. Application of Grey System Theory in Design For Cost (DFC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-chuan; FANG Ming-lun

    2003-01-01

    Design For Cost (DFC) is a branch of Design For X (DFX). In this paper, we defined DFC as a design method that analyzed and evaluated the product's life cycle cost ( LCC ) , then modified the design to reduce the LCC. Nowadays it is a very difficult thing to obtain LCC data in China or in developing countries. Statistical methods can not be used because available LCC data are few. In order to solve this problem, we used grey system theory. Then relations of cost factors were analyzed in LCC using grey relevant methods, and a GM( 1,1 ) model between design parameters and LCC was established. Using this model, we can estimate and control LCC by changing design parameters at the beginning of the design stage.

  16. A New Method for Grey Forecasting Model Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 王仲东; 宋中民

    2002-01-01

    In order to describe the characteristics of some systems, such as the process of economic and product forecasting, a lot of discrete data may be used. Although they are discrete, the inside law can be-founded by some methods. For a series that the discrete degree is large and the integrated tendency is ascending, a new method for grey forecasting model group is given by the grey system theory. The method is that it firstly transforms original data, chooses some clique values and divides original data into groups by different clique values; then, it establishes non-equigap GM(1, 1) model for different groups and searches forecasting area of original data by the solution of model. At the end of the paper, the result of reliability of forecasting value is obtained. It is shown that the method is feasible.

  17. Product and process innovation of grey cast iron brake discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorn, M. [Brembo S.P.A. (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The brake disc out of grey cast iron often seems to be playing the role of the ''underdog'' in the technical examinations of the entire brake system. This is also reflected by the 25 year history of the {mu}-club. In a total of 93 presentations in those 25 years, only 3 were related to the topic of grey cast iron discs. This is not a correct relation to the importance of this component within the brake system. The disc, although per definition with a lower specific load than the pad, has the major task to store and dissipate the heat in which the kinetic energy of the vehicle is transformed. The disc also has a significant effect on NVH behaviour, particularly in the low frequency range. It also has a permanent fight with its weight as an unsprung mass. (orig.)

  18. Chemical composition of lipophilic extractives from grey alder (Alnus incana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskars Bikovens

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the lipophilic extractives in the hexane extracts from grey alder bark, knotwood, and cones has been investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The efficiency of two extraction methods was compared. The highest amount of lipophilic extractives (about 9% of o.d. material was observed in grey alder cone, while the lowest (about 3% was found in knotwood. The three different morphological parts of alder showed significant differences not only in the content but also in composition of extractives, namely fatty acids, triglycerides, and triterpenes. The main identified compounds were triterpenoids (lupen-3-one, lupeol, betulone, betulinol, and betulinic acid in bark, and triglycerides in cones. The major group in knotwood was free fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid, 18:2.

  19. Thinlip grey mullet Liza ramada (Mugilidae caught in a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bror Jonsson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Two individuals of thinlip grey mullet Liza ramada were collected in a southern Norwegian brook (58° 22’ N, 8° 37’ E on 12th September 2007. The fish were 8.7 and 9.0 cm in total length, 6 and 7 g in total mass, and most probably in their first year of life. The nearest known spawning area of the species is south of the English Channel, meaning that they had probably moved at least 900 km across the North Sea during their first growth season. To our knowledge, this is the first published observation of the catadromous thinlip grey mullet from a Scandinavian freshwater course.

  20. Grey System Judgment on Reliability of Mechanical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Grey system theory was applied in reliability analysis of mechanical equip-ment. It is a new theory and method in reliability engineering of mechanical engineering of mechanical equipment. Through the Grey forecast of reliability parameters and the relia-bility forecast of parts and systems, decisions were made in the real operative state of e-quipment in real time. It replaced the old method that required mathematics and physical statistics in a large base of test data to obtain a pre-check, and it was used in a practical problem. Because of applying the data of practical operation state in real time, it could much more approach the real condition of equipment; it was applied to guide the procedure and had rather considerable economic and social benefits.

  1. Investigation of the chip formation of austempered grey iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, S.; Klocke, F.; Döbbeler, B.; Krick, E.

    2016-10-01

    By a heat treatment process the strength and thus the field of applications of Grey Cast Iron (GI) can be increased to a range which is comparable to Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI). The microstructure of the resulting material consists of austenite and acicular ferrite. This material is named Austempered Grey Iron (AGI). Until now the material has not yet made its way to widespread use, due to the unknown machinability. For an economical use the machinability of the material must be at least at the level of CGI. This work deals with the chip formation, as an evaluation criterion for the machinability and represents a first step towards a comprehensive assessment of machining of AGI materials. To investigate the chip formation chip roots of three different AGI grades, a GI and a CGI were produced in a turning process. The chip roots were prepared to analyse the deformation of the microstructure during the chip formation.

  2. Grey Prediction Based Software Stage-Effort Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; SONG Qinbao; SHEN Junyi

    2007-01-01

    The software stage-effort estimation can be used to dynamically adjust software project schedule, further to help make the project finished on budget. This paper presents a grey model Verhulst based method for stage-effort estimation during software development process, a bias correction technology was used to improve the estimation accuracy. The proposed method was evaluated with a large-scale industrial software engineering database. The results are very encouraging and indicate the method has considerable potential.

  3. Botrytis cinerea: Causal agent of small fruit grey mould

    OpenAIRE

    Tanović, Brankica

    2012-01-01

    Small fruits growing in Serbia is an important and profitable business. However, disease causal agents, pests and weeds often threaten production profitability. A common problem in production of most important small fruit species is a polyfagous, phytopathogenic fungal species Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould disease of fruits. Present knowledge on the causal agent, its morphological, ecological and epidemiological characteristics are systematized in the paper. Infection proce...

  4. Lorenz Wind Disturbance Model Based on Grey Generated Components

    OpenAIRE

    Yagang Zhang; Jingyun Yang; Kangcheng Wang; Yinding Wang

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of wind speed prediction in wind farms, we consider the influence of random atmospheric disturbances on wind variations. Considering a simplified fluid convection mode, a Lorenz system can be employed as an atmospheric disturbance model. Here Lorenz disturbance is defined as the European norm of the solutions of the Lorenz equation. Grey generating and accumulated generating models are employed to explore the relationship between wind speed and its related disturban...

  5. Hybrid grey model to forecast monitoring series with seasonality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-jie; LIAO Xin-hao; ZHOU Yong-hong; ZOU Zheng-rong; ZHU Jian-jun; PENG Yue

    2005-01-01

    The grey forecasting model has been successfully applied to many fields. However, the precision of GM(1,1) model is not high. In order to remove the seasonal fluctuations in monitoring series before building GM(1,1) model, the forecasting series of GM(1,1) was built, and an inverse process was used to resume the seasonal fluctuations. Two deseasonalization methods were presented , i.e., seasonal index-based deseasonalization and standard normal distribution-based deseasonalization. They were combined with the GM(1,1) model to form hybrid grey models. A simple but practical method to further improve the forecasting results was also suggested. For comparison, a conventional periodic function model was investigated. The concept and algorithms were tested with four years monthly monitoring data. The results show that on the whole the seasonal index-GM(1,1) model outperform the conventional periodic function model and the conventional periodic function model outperform the SND-GM(1,1) model. The mean absolute error and mean square error of seasonal index-GM(1,1) are 30.69% and 54.53% smaller than that of conventional periodic function model, respectively. The high accuracy, straightforward and easy implementation natures of the proposed hybrid seasonal index-grey model make it a powerful analysis technique for seasonal monitoring series.

  6. A novel kernel regularized nonhomogeneous grey model and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Hu, Yi-sheng; Liu, Zhi-bin

    2017-07-01

    The nonhomogeneous grey model (NGM) is a novel tool for time series forecasting, which has attracted considerable interest of research. However, the existing nonhomogeneous grey models may be inefficient to predict the complex nonlinear time series sometimes due to the linearity of the differential or difference equations based on which these models are developed. In order to enhance the accuracy and applicability of the NGM model, the kernel method in the statistical learning theory has been utilized to build a novel kernel regularized nonhomogeneous grey model, which is abbreviated as the KRNGM model. The KRNGM model is represented by a differential equation which contains a nonlinear function of t. By constructing the regularized problem and using the kernel function which satisfies the Mercer's condition, the parameters estimation of KRNGM model only involves in solving a set of linear equations, and the nonlinear function in the KRNGM model can be expressed as a linear combination of the Lagrangian multipliers and the selected kernel function, and then the KRNGM model can be solved numerically. Two case studies of petroleum production forecasting are carried to illustrate the effectiveness of the KRNGM model, comparing to the existing nonhomogeneous models. The results show that the KRNGM model outperforms the existing NGM, ONGM, NDGM model significantly.

  7. Novel foods: an explorative study into their grey area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Hans; te Boekhorst, Janneke; Kamps, Lisette; van Lieshout, Marten J; Ploeger, Hilko; Verreth, Daphne; Salminen, Seppo; van Loveren, Henk

    2009-05-01

    European Union Regulation 258/97 defines novel foods as food products and food ingredients that have not been consumed to a significant degree in the European Union before May 1997. However, there are new foods that for some reason are not considered as novel foods, though we think that safety of these products is not always a priori established. We defined a 'grey area' which consists of such foods, and the present paper intends to raise awareness of this 'grey area' of unidentified novel foods. The grey area of novel foods is divided into two categories: (1) food products or ingredients for which the current Regulation leaves too much space for different interpretations and (2) food products or ingredients that are not novel according to the current Regulation, because the current Regulation contains gaps. These categories are illustrated by means of products already on the market in The Netherlands. We found about two dozen examples of products that had not been identified as novel foods according the current Regulation, yet could be considered to be classified as novel foods and hence for which a safety evaluation (toxicological and/or nutritional) would be indicated.

  8. Real-time assessment of hybridization between wolves and dogs: combining noninvasive samples with ancestry informative markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Raquel; López-Bao, José Vicente; Castro, Diana; Llaneza, Luís; Lopes, Susana; Silva, Pedro; Ferrand, Nuno

    2015-03-01

    Wolves and dogs provide a paradigmatic example of the ecological and conservation implications of hybridization events between wild and domesticated forms. However, our understanding of such implications has been traditionally hampered by both high genetic similarity and the difficulties in obtaining tissue samples (TS), which limit our ability to assess ongoing hybridization events. To assess the occurrence and extension of hybridization in a pack of wolf-dog hybrids in northwestern Iberia, we compared the power of 52 nuclear markers implemented on TS with a subset of 13 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) typed in noninvasive samples (NIS). We demonstrate that the 13 AIMs are as accurate as the 52 markers that were chosen without regard to the power to differentiate between wolves and dogs, also having the advantage of being rapidly screened on NIS. The efficiency of AIMs significantly outperformed ten random sets of similar size and an additional commercial set of 18 markers. Bayesian clustering analysis implemented on AIMs and NIS identified nine hybrids, two wolves and two dogs. Four hybrids were unambiguously assigned to F1xWolf backcrosses. Our approach (AIMs + NIS) overcomes previous difficulties related to sample availability and informative power of markers, allowing a quick identification of wolf-dog hybrids in the first phases of hybridization episodes. This provides managers with a reliable tool to evaluate hybridization and estimate the success of their actions. This approach may be easily adapted for other pairs of wild/domesticated species, thus improving our understanding of the introgression of domestication genes into natural populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrew, Ashley K. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Stricker, Craig A. [U. S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Margaret Castellini, J. [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish & Game, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Salman, Mo D. [Animal Population Health Institute, Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1644 (United States); Ballweber, Lora R. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ{sup 13}C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. - Highlights: • [THg] and stable isotopes together provide insight on host-parasite-Hg interactions. • A

  10. Fault Diagnosis in Transformer Based on Weighted Degree of Grey Slope Incidence of Optimized Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Anping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved gas analysis (DGA is an important method to find the hidden or incipient insulation faults of oil-immersed power transformer. However, code deficiency exists in the gas ratio methods specified by the IEC standard and complexity of fault diagnosis for power transformer. Hence a new model based on optimized weighted degree of grey slope incidence was put forward. Firstly, the entropy weight is used to determine objective weight of indices; then the model fault types are obtained by weighted degree of grey slope incidence. The combination of entropy weight with grey slope incidence analysis can fully utilize over all information of DGA and give full play to the superiority of grey slope incidence, which overcomes shortcomings of original grey slope incidence analysis. The experimental results also demonstrate that the improved method has higher accuracy compared with three-ratio method and general grey slope incidence analysis method. The diagnosis accuracy is 92.8%.

  11. New body mass estimates of British Pleistocene wolves: Palaeoenvironmental implications and competitive interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, L. O. H.

    2016-10-01

    Body mass was reconstructed for early Middle Pleistocene Canis mosbachensis and late Middle to Late Pleistocene Canis lupus from key assemblages in Britain, to explore the presence of temporal size variability and whether size fluctuations were related to changes in climate and environment or to differences in Pleistocene carnivore community structure. Using the well-known body mass predictor of lower carnassial (m1) tooth length, combined with an extant canid dataset incorporating 25 species, least squares regression was used to assess allometric scaling prior to modelling the relationship between body mass and m1 length, producing a new predictive equation of Pleistocene canid body mass. The medium-sized C. mosbachensis had relatively stable body mass, with remarkable consistency in size compared to populations in the late Early Pleistocene of Europe. Periodical fluctuations in climatic conditions had a minimal effect on C. mosbachensis size over time, with the terrestrial connection between Britain and mainland Europe at this time key in promoting body mass stability by enabling movement away from less favourable conditions and to follow prey into refugia. Overall changes in carnivore guild structure were of minimal influence to C. mosbachensis in Britain, as the continued predominance of larger carnivores, in particular a larger canid, effectively constrained C. mosbachensis. In contrast, the body mass of larger-sized C. lupus was highly temporally varied, with an increasing size trend evident into the Devensian. Similar body size in the penultimate interglacial (MIS 7) and Middle Devensian (MIS 3) populations likely reflects palaeoenvironmental similarity and comparable carnivore community and prey spectrums, with larger predators effectively constraining C. lupus. However, the severely cold conditions of the Early Devensian (MIS 5a) may have caused a Bergmannian response in wolves, leading to their comparatively much larger size, with C. lupus further

  12. Method discussion for quick response grey prediction of stronger aftershocks of an earthquake sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we take occurrence process of early strong aftershocks of a main-after shock type′s earthquake sequence as a complex grey system, and introduce predicting method for its stronger aftershocks by grey predicting theory. Through inspection prediction for 1998 Zhangbei MS=6.2 earthquake sequence, it shows that the grey predicting method maybe has active significance for the investigation of quick response prediction problems of stronger aftershocks of an earthquake sequence.

  13. Based on Multi-Factors Grey Prediction Control for Elevator Velocity Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the double-factors grey prediction and the fuzzy controller for the elevator car speed control. We introduce double-factors grey control to predict car vibration for elevator speed during the operation. Simulation results show that based on multi-factors gray prediction fuzzy PI control for elevator velocity modulation system closer than simple gray fuzzy PI control elevator speed control system to the actual operation. The control effect of double factors grey fuzzy PI contro...

  14. Premature hair greying may predict reduced bone mineral density in Graves' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leary, A C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), and it may be more frequent in Graves\\' disease. AIMS: To determine whether premature greying is associated with reduced BMD in women with Graves\\' disease and in control women, and to examine whether premature greying is more common in Graves\\' disease. METHODS: Premature greying (> 50% grey by 40 years) and BMD were determined in 44 women with a history of Graves\\' disease and 133 female controls referred for routine BMD measurement. Exclusion criteria included diseases or drugs known to affect BMD. RESULTS: Mean Z and T scores at the lumbar spine were significantly lower (P < 0.04) in subjects with premature greying than in those not prematurely grey among women with Graves\\' disease, but not among control women. Multiple regression confirmed this difference between Graves\\' and control women (P = 0.041). There were no differences at other measurement sites. Of Graves\\' patients, 36% were prematurely grey compared with 25% of control women (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Premature greying may be a weak marker for reduced BMD in women with a history of Graves\\' disease, but it is not a marker in normal women.

  15. STUDIES ON GREY MODEL DYNAMIC PREDICTION TO CAVITATION DAMAGE OF TURBINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fu-sheng; Tong Zhong-shan; Li Yun-hui

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, cavitation damage of turbines is firstly analyzed and predicated from the view point of system engineering by use of the grey system theory. A detailed description of modeling, dynamic prediction and accuracy test for the grey system of turbines was given. Two special cases for grey dynamic prediction as well as its accuracy test were illustrated. The results fall into the grade I, the accuracy is satisfactory and its prediction requirements can be met well. It shows that the grey system theory can be employed to predict the cavitation damage of turbines, and it can provide a scientific basis for timely investigation and maintenance of turbines.

  16. Grey extra-deleting theory-based governor control for hydro-generator unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-dong Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The control effect by using the conventional method is not satisfied because of the grey character caused from time-variant parameters of hydro-generator units and its governor. The grey extra-deleting control theory is applied to the governor design of hydro-generator units in this paper. After the mathematic model of hydro-generator and its governor are founded, the grey extra-deleting controller is designed and its effect is studied compared with the conventional proportional–integral–derivative governor. The simulation results indicate that the grey extra-deleting controller can improve dynamic characteristic of hydro-generator units.

  17. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroh, Guy D; Clayton, Fred C; Florell, Scott R; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Campbell, Michael S; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J; Leachman, Sancy A

    2017-01-01

    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively.

  18. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroh, Guy D.; Clayton, Fred C.; Florell, Scott R.; Cassidy, Pamela B.; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F.; Valenzuela, Luciano O.; Campbell, Michael S.; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J.; Leachman, Sancy A.

    2017-01-01

    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively. PMID:28170433

  19. Single-subject grey matter graphs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Möller, Christiane; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije; de Haan, Willem; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated patterns of cortical morphology have been described as structural graphs and previous research has demonstrated that properties of such graphs are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown how these alterations are related to cognitive deficits in individuals, as such graphs are restricted to group-level analysis. In the present study we investigated this question in single-subject grey matter networks. This new method extracts large-scale structural graphs where nodes represent small cortical regions that are connected by edges when they show statistical similarity. Using this method, unweighted and undirected networks were extracted from T1 weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 38 AD patients (19 female, average age 72±4 years) and 38 controls (19 females, average age 72±4 years). Group comparisons of standard graph properties were performed after correcting for grey matter volumetric measurements and were correlated to scores of general cognitive functioning. AD networks were characterised by a more random topology as indicated by a decreased small world coefficient (p = 3.53×10(-5)), decreased normalized clustering coefficient (p = 7.25×10(-6)) and decreased normalized path length (p = 1.91×10(-7)). Reduced normalized path length explained significantly (p = 0.004) more variance in measurements of general cognitive decline (32%) in comparison to volumetric measurements (9%). Altered path length of the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and precuneus showed the strongest relationship with cognitive decline. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter graphs provide a concise quantification of cortical structure that has clinical value, which might be of particular importance for disease prognosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction in AD.

  20. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS.

  1. Natural and experimental tests of trophic cascades: gray wolves and white-tailed deer in a Great Lakes forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagel, D G; Belovsky, G E; Beyer, D E

    2016-04-01

    Herbivores can be major drivers of environmental change, altering plant community structure and changing biodiversity through the amount and species of plants consumed. If natural predators can reduce herbivore numbers and/or alter herbivore foraging behavior, then predators may reduce herbivory on sensitive plants, and a trophic cascade will emerge. We have investigated whether gray wolves (Canis lupus) generate such trophic cascades by reducing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on saplings and rare forbs in a northern mesic forest (Land O' Lakes, WI). Our investigation used an experimental system of deer exclosures in areas of high and low wolf use that allowed us to examine the role that wolf predation may play in reducing deer herbivory through direct reduction in deer numbers or indirectly through changing deer behavior. We found that in areas of high wolf use, deer were 62 % less dense, visit duration was reduced by 82 %, and percentage of time spent foraging was reduced by 43 %; in addition, the proportion of saplings browsed was nearly sevenfold less. Average maple (Acer spp.) sapling height and forb species richness increased 137 and 117 % in areas of high versus low wolf use, respectively. The results of the exclosure experiments revealed that the negative impacts of deer on sapling growth and forb species richness became negligible in high wolf use areas. We conclude that wolves are likely generating trophic cascades which benefit maples and rare forbs through trait-mediated effects on deer herbivory, not through direct predation kills.

  2. Being a victim or an aggressor: Different functions of triadic post-conflict interactions in wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoni, Giada; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Animals adopt different behavioral strategies to cope with the conflict of interests coming from the competition over limited resources. Starting from the study on chimpanzees, post-conflict third-party affiliation (the affiliative contact provided by a third-party toward the victim--VTA--or the aggressor--ATA) was investigated mainly in primates. Later, this post-conflict mechanism has been demonstrated also in other mammals, such as wallabies, horses, dolphins, domestic dogs, and wolves. Here, we present data on triadic post-conflict affiliation in wolves (Canis lupus lupus) by exploring some of the hypotheses already proposed for primates and never tested before in other social mammals. In this carnivore species, the study of VTA and ATA revealed that these strategies cannot be considered as a unique behavioral category since they differ in many functional aspects. VTA serves to protect the victim by reducing the likelihood of reiterated attacks from the previous aggressor and to reinforce the relationship shared by the third-party and the victim. On the other hand, ATA has a role in bystander protection by limiting the renewed attacks of the previous aggressor toward uninvolved group-members (potential third-parties). In conclusion, exploring VTA and ATA gives the opportunity to concurrently demonstrate some functional differences in triadic post-conflict affiliation according to the different targets of bystanders (victims or aggressors). The data comparison between primates and other social mammals should permit to open new lines of research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The physiology of cooperative breeding in a rare social canid; sex, suppression and pseudopregnancy in female Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Freya; Paris, Monique; Macdonald, David W; Millar, Robert; Argaw, Kifle; Johnson, Paul J; Farstad, Wenche; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2013-10-02

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, differ from other cooperatively breeding canids in that they combine intense sociality with solitary foraging, making them a suitable species in which to study the physiology of cooperative breeding. The reproductive physiology of twenty wild female Ethiopian wolves (eleven dominant and nine subordinate) in Ethiopia's Bale Mountains National Park was studied non-invasively through the extraction and assaying of estradiol, progesterone and glucocorticoids in collected fecal samples using enzyme and radioimmunoassays. All dominant females showed increased estradiol concentrations and/or mating behavior during the annual mating season. In contrast, none of the subordinate females showed increased estradiol concentrations or mating behavior during the mating season. However, two subordinate females came into estrus outside of the mating season. Both dominant and subordinate females had higher average progesterone concentrations during the dominant female's pregnancy than at other times of the year, and two subordinate females allosuckled the dominant female's pups. No statistically significant differences in glucocorticoid concentrations were found between dominant and subordinate females. These results suggest that subordinate females are reproductively suppressed during the annual mating season, but may ovulate outside of the mating season and become pseudopregnant. No evidence was found to suggest that reproductive suppression in subordinate females was regulated through aggressive behaviors, and no relationship was found between fecal glucocorticoids and dominance status. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A method to assess relative preference for training and environmental enrichment in captive wolves (Canis lupus and Canis lupus arctos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, Nicole R; Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Tacey, Jay

    2015-11-01

    It is currently debated as to whether or not positive reinforcement training is enriching to captive animals. Although both husbandry training and environmental enrichment (EE) have been found to benefit animal welfare in captivity, to date, no systematic investigation has compared an animal's preference for performing a trained behavior to engaging freely with a stimuli provided as EE. In the current paper, we used four captive wolves to (1) test the efficacy of a paired-stimulus preference assessment to determine preference for engaging in a trained behavior as a choice; and to (2) use a paired-stimulus preference assessment to determine whether or not individuals prefer to engage in a previously trained behavior versus a previously encountered EE stimuli. Of the four subjects tested, visual inspection of the graphs revealed that two of the subjects preferred trained behavior stimuli and two of the subjects preferred EE stimuli; only one of the wolves had a statically higher preference for an EE stimulus over a trained behavior. We believe that letting the animals choose between these two events is the first step in answering the question of whether or not is training enriching, however more research needs to be done and suggestions for future research is discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. When dogs look back: inhibition of independent problem-solving behaviour in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) compared with wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A R

    2015-09-01

    Domestic dogs have been recognized for their social sensitivity and aptitude in human-guided tasks. For example, prior studies have demonstrated that dogs look to humans when confronted with an unsolvable task; an action often interpreted as soliciting necessary help. Conversely, wolves persist on such tasks. While dogs' 'looking back' behaviour has been used as an example of socio-cognitive advancement, an alternative explanation is that pet dogs show less persistence on independent tasks more generally. In this study, pet dogs, shelter dogs and wolves were given up to three opportunities to open a solvable puzzle box: when subjects were with a neutral human caretaker, alone and when encouraged by the human. Wolves were more persistent and more successful on this task than dogs, with 80% average success rate for wolves versus a 5% average success rate for dogs in both the human-in and alone conditions. Dogs showed increased contact with the puzzle box during the encouragement condition, but only a moderate increase in problem-solving success. Social sensitivity appears to play an important role in pet and shelter dogs' willingness to engage in problem-solving behaviour, which could suggest generalized dependence on, or deference to, human action. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Italian wolves (Canis lupus italicus Altobello, 1921 and molecular detection of taeniids in the Foreste Casentinesi National Park, Northern Italian Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Poglayen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available After centuries of massive decline, the recovery of the wolf (Canis lupus italicus in Italy is a typical conservation success story. To learn more about the possible role of parasites in the wolves' individual and population health and conservation we used non-invasive molecular approaches on fecal samples to identify individual wolves, pack membership, and the taeniids present, some of which are zoonotic. A total of 130 specimens belonging to 54 wolves from eight packs were collected and examined. Taeniid eggs were isolated using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad1. Taeniid prevalence was 40.7% for Taenia hydatigena, 22.2% for T. krabbei, 1.8% for T. polyachanta and 5.5% for Echinococcus granulosus. The prevalence of E. granulosus is discussed. Our results show that the taeniid fauna found in wolves from the Foreste Casentinesi National Park is comparable to that described for other domestic and wild Italian canids and provides insights into the wolves’ diet and their relationship with the environment.

  7. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) subsidize gray wolves (Canis lupus) during a moose (Alces americanus) decline: A case of apparent competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Mech, L. David

    2016-01-01

    Moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern Minnesota have declined by 55% since 2006. Although the cause is unresolved, some studies have suggested that Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) contributed to the decline. After the Moose decline, wolves could either decline or switch prey. To determine which occurred in our study area, we compared winter wolf counts and summer diet before and after the Moose decline. While wolf numbers in our study area nearly doubled from 23 in winter 2002 to an average of 41 during winters 2011–2013, calf:cow ratios (the number of calves per cow observed during winter surveys) in the wider Moose range more than halved from 0.93 in 2002 to an average of 0.31 during 2011–2013. Compared to summer 2002, wolves in summers 2011–2013 consumed fewer Moose and more White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus). While deer densities were similar during each period, average vulnerability, as reflected by winter severity, was greater during 2011–2013 than 2002, probably explaining the wolf increase. During the wolf increase Moose calves remained a summer food item. These findings suggest that in part of the Moose range, deer subsidized wolf numbers while wolves also preyed on Moose calves. This contributed to a Moose decline and is a possible case of apparent competition and inverse-density-dependent predation.

  8. A Grey Decision Model Used in Bidding for Equipment Purchase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bidding has long been used as a method for allocating and procuring goods andservices.An acurrate and comprehensive evaluation of bidders is the key to make the bid-ding a successful one for tenderee. Howoever, evaluation of bidders is a tough work and theresult of evaluation is always affected by the evaluator's understanding of the standardsset for evaluation, and the evaluator's expertise, experience and preferrence. We make aneffort to find a method for selecting bidders as accurately as possible. A grey decisionmodel is presented, and an example is illustrated to make the practioners kenow how to usethe model.

  9. Parameter Estimation in Stochastic Grey-Box Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    An efficient and flexible parameter estimation scheme for grey-box models in the sense of discretely, partially observed Ito stochastic differential equations with measurement noise is presented along with a corresponding software implementation. The estimation scheme is based on the extended...... Kalman filter and features maximum likelihood as well as maximum a posteriori estimation on multiple independent data sets, including irregularly sampled data sets and data sets with occasional outliers and missing observations. The software implementation is compared to an existing software tool...

  10. EUPHEMISTIC AND DYSPHEMISTIC LANGUAGE IN FIFTY SHADES OF GREY TRILOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Sánchez Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    El impacto de la trilogía Cincuenta sombras de Grey ha trascendido la popularidad de las masas y ha ocupado la atención de la academia. Esto se ha evidenciado en investigaciones que abordan la obra desde diferentes perspectivas. Sin embargo, aunque las novelas han sido estudiadas con cierta profundidad, no se ha prestado demasiada atención a su uso del lenguaje. Considerando que las historias eróticas son un campo donde el eufemismo y el disfemismo proliferan, este artículo analiza el uso de ...

  11. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...... are compared to datasets gathered at GEA Process Engineering’s test facility. The identified grey-box model parameters are identified from data and the resulting model fits the data well. The complexity of the model has been selected such that it is suitable for development of real-time optimization algorithms...

  12. Google AdWords as a Network of Grey Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Harold M

    2010-01-01

    Google's AdWords processes information about what sorts of content users are browsing for about a quarter of all web site visits. The significance of AdWords' use of this vast amount of personal data lies not in its use for such obviously authoritarian purposes but instead as a network of grey surveillance with Google acting as the hub and the various publishers, advertisers, and users watching (and controlling) each other in distinct ways. Google's model of collective intelligence in its s...

  13. A terminological "journey" in the Grey Literature domain

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolini, Roberto; Pardelli, Gabriella; Goggi, Sara; Giannini, Silvia; Biagioni, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    ?When we read the articles or papers of a particular domain, we can recognize some lexical items in the texts as technical terms. In a domain where new knowledge is generated, new terms are constantly created to fulfil the needs of the domain, while others become obsolete. In addition, existing terms may undergo changes of meaning?? (Kageura K.,1998/1999). According to Kaugera, our aim with this work is to make a ?journey? in the Grey Literature (GL) domain in order to offer an overall vision...

  14. Grey interrelation analysis of alloy elements and steel corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinglei; Hou Baorong; Huang Yanliang; Guo Gongyu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Dept. of Oceanology

    2000-07-01

    Mathematical grey interrelation analysis method was used to study the correlation of alloy elements and low steel corrosion in the splash zone. Eighteen kinds of low alloy steels were selected for 350-day experiments in a large marine corrosion environment simulating apparatus. The analysis results showed that the correlation of alloy elements and alloy corrosion rate is in the order: Mn>Si>P>V>Cu>Al>Cr>Mo. The correlation degree was 0.92, 0.89, 0.86, 0.83, 0.82, 0.82, 0.81, 0.77. (orig.)

  15. A TEM Study on the Ti-Alloyed Grey Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg;

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of graphite flakes in titanium alloyed cast iron is studied using electron microscopy techniques. Dual beam SEM/FIB has been used for TEM sample preparation. A TEM study has been carried out on graphite flakes in grey cast iron using selected area electron diffraction. Based...... on the selected area diffraction pattern analysis, crystallographic orientations are identified and compared. The orientation relationship between iron and graphite crystals at the interface is studied and discussed. It is found that graphite in the Ti-containing iron is extremely fine grained...

  16. Grey parrots use inferential reasoning based on acoustic cues alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloegl, Christian; Schmidt, Judith; Boeckle, Markus; Weiß, Brigitte M; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2012-10-22

    Our ability to make logical inferences is considered as one of the cornerstones of human intelligence, fuelling investigations of reasoning abilities in non-human animals. Yet, the evidence to date is equivocal, with apes as the prime candidates to possess these skills. For instance, in a two-choice task, apes can identify the location of hidden food if it is indicated by a rattling noise caused by the shaking of a baited container. More importantly, they also use the absence of noise during the shaking of the empty container to infer that this container is not baited. However, since the inaugural report of apes solving this task, to the best of our knowledge, no comparable evidence could be found in any other tested species such as monkeys and dogs. Here, we report the first successful and instantaneous solution of the shaking task through logical inference by a non-ape species, the African grey parrot. Surprisingly, the performance of the birds was sensitive to the shaking movement: they were successful with containers shaken horizontally, but not with vertical shaking resembling parrot head-bobbing. Thus, grey parrots seem to possess ape-like cross-modal reasoning skills, but their reliance on these abilities is influenced by low-level interferences.

  17. Cooperative problem solving in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, F; Rat-Fischer, L; Lalot, M; Nagle, L; Bovet, D

    2011-07-01

    One of the main characteristics of human societies is the extensive degree of cooperation among individuals. Cooperation is an elaborate phenomenon, also found in non-human primates during laboratory studies and field observations of animal hunting behaviour, among other things. Some authors suggest that the pressures assumed to have favoured the emergence of social intelligence in primates are similar to those that may have permitted the emergence of complex cognitive abilities in some bird species such as corvids and psittacids. In the wild, parrots show cooperative behaviours such as bi-parental care and mobbing. In this study, we tested cooperative problem solving in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Our birds were tested using several experimental setups to explore the different levels of behavioural organisation between participants, differing in temporal and spatial complexity. In our experiments, African grey parrots were able to act simultaneously but mostly failed during the delay task, maybe because of a lack of inhibitory motor response. Confronted with the possibility to adapt their behaviour to the presence or absence of a partner, they showed that they were able to coordinate their actions. They also collaborated, acting complementarily in order to solve tasks, but they were not able to place themselves in the partner's role.

  18. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linguo Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO, which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur’s entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO, the differential evolution (DE, the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC, and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability.

  19. Reproductive cycle of grey mullet Mugil cephalus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Rente Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grey mullet it is an ecological and biologically important species suitable for sustainable aquaculture. It plays an important role for the economy of several Mediterranean countries, where it is produced in aquaculture based on capture of wild juveniles. The capture of wild juveniles for aquaculture it is not sustainable, and therefore the reproductive cycle must be known in order to obtain eggs for larval production. In this species, the reproductive cycle is still not closed for aquaculture purposes. This work presents the results obtained on a study on the reproductive cycle of grey mullet Mugil cephalus L. based on oocyte diameter measured over a period of one year at Olhão Aquaculture Research Center (EPPO. Monthly measures of body weight, standard and fork length of 15 females kept in 18 m3 tanks in natural conditions were recorded. The state of ovarian maturity was evaluated based on the oocyte diameter. The mean length of the females were 56,41 cm ± 26,71 and the weight 1770,91 g ± 5,70 and the results obtained so far suggests that spawning must occur during Summer.

  20. A Grey Fuzzy Logic Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Das, Partha Protim; Kumar, Vidyapati

    2017-06-01

    It is a well known fact that the quality of ring spun yarn predominantly depends on various physical properties of cotton fibre. Any variation in these fibre properties may affect the strength and unevenness of the final yarn. Thus, so as to achieve the desired yarn quality and characteristics, it becomes imperative for the spinning industry personnel to identify the most suitable cotton fibre from a set of feasible alternatives in presence of several conflicting properties/attributes. This cotton fibre selection process can be modelled as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a grey fuzzy logic-based approach is proposed for selection of the most apposite cotton fibre from 17 alternatives evaluated based on six important fibre properties. It is observed that the preference order of the top-ranked cotton fibres derived using the grey fuzzy logic approach closely matches with that attained by the past researchers which proves the application potentiality of this method in solving varying MCDM problems in textile industries.

  1. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP ...

  2. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  3. Training Reduces Stress in Human-Socialised Wolves to the Same Degree as in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Scheidegger, Jördis Kristin; Möstl, Erich; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of animals in captivity is of considerable societal concern. A major source of stress, especially for wild animals, is the lack of control over their environment, which includes not being able to avoid contact with human beings. Paradoxically, some studies have shown that interactions with human beings may improve the welfare of wild animals in captivity. Here, we investigated the behavioural (behaviours indicative of cooperation or stress) and physiological (variations in salivary cortisol concentrations) effects of the increasingly used practice of training wild animals as a way to facilitate handling and/or as behavioural enrichment. We evaluated the effects of indoor training sessions with familiar caretakers on nine human-socialised individuals of a wild species, the wolf (Canis lupus), in comparison to nine individuals of its domesticated form, the dog (Canis lupus familiaris). All animals were raised and kept in intraspecific packs under identical conditions—in accordance with the social structure of the species—in order to control for socialisation with human beings and familiarity with training. We also collected saliva samples of trainers to measure GC and testosterone concentrations, to control for the effects of trainers’ stress levels on the responses of the animals. During the training sessions, separated from pack members, the animals stayed voluntarily close to the trainers and mostly adequately performed requested behaviours, indicating concentration to the task. Similarly to dogs, the salivary cortisol level of wolves–used as an index of stress—dropped during these sessions, pointing to a similar stress-reducing effect of the training interaction in both subspecies. The responses to the requested behaviours and the reduction in salivary cortisol level of wolves and dogs varied across trainers, which indicates that the relaxing effect of training has a social component. This points to another factor affecting the welfare of

  4. Territory quality determines social group composition in Ethiopian wolves Canis simensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallents, Lucy A; Randall, Deborah A; Williams, Stuart D; Macdonald, David W

    2012-01-01

    1. We contrast the value of four different models to predict variation in territory size as follows: resource density (the ideal free distribution), population density, group size and intruder pressure (relative resource-holding potential). In the framework of the resource dispersion hypothesis, we test the effect of resource abundance and spatial variation in resource distribution on the age/sex composition of social groups. 2. We explore these drivers of territory size and group size/composition in Ethiopian wolves Canis simensis in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, using fine-scale distribution maps of their major prey species based on satellite-derived vegetation maps. 3. The number of adult males is correlated with territory size, while prey density, wolf population density and intruder pressure are not associated with territory size. On average, each additional adult male increases territory size by 1.18 km(2). 4. Prey abundance increases with territory size (average biomass accumulation of 6.5 kg km(-2)), and larger territories provide greater per capita access to prime foraging habitat and prey. 5. The age/sex composition of wolf packs is more closely related to territory quality than territory size. Subordinate adult females are more likely to be present in territories with greater proportions of prime giant molerat Tachyoryctes macrocephalus habitat (i.e. >80% of Web Valley territories and >20% in Sanetti/Morebawa), and more yearlings (aged 12-23 months) occur in territories with greater overall prey biomass. 6. Wolf packs with restricted access to good foraging habitat tend to defend more exclusive territories, having a lower degree of overlap with neighbouring packs. 7. The greater per capita access to prey in large groups suggests a strong evolutionary advantage of collaborative territorial defence in this species, although the relative costs of territorial expansion vs. exclusion depend upon the spatial distribution of resources. We propose a model

  5. Keeping the wolves at bay: antitoxins of prokaryotic type II toxin-antitoxin systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ting eChan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In their initial stages of discovery, prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA systems were confined to bacterial plasmids where they function to mediate the maintenance and stability of usually low- to medium-copy number plasmids through the post-segregational killing of any plasmid-free daughter cells that developed. Their eventual discovery as nearly ubiquitous and repetitive elements in bacterial chromosomes led to a wealth of knowledge and scientific debate as to their diversity and functionality in the prokaryotic lifestyle. Currently categorized into six different types designated types I – VI, type II TA systems are the best characterized. These generally comprised of two genes encoding a proteic toxin and its corresponding proteic antitoxin, respectively. Under normal growth conditions, the stable toxin is prevented from exerting its lethal effect through tight binding with the less stable antitoxin partner, forming a non-lethal TA protein complex. Besides binding with its cognate toxin, the antitoxin also plays a role in regulating the expression of the type II TA operon by binding to the operator site, thereby repressing transcription from the TA promoter. In most cases, full repression is observed in the presence of the TA complex as binding of the toxin enhances the DNA binding capability of the antitoxin. TA systems have been implicated in a gamut of prokaryotic cellular functions such as being mediators of programmed cell death as well as persistence or dormancy, biofilm formation, as defensive weapons against bacteriophage infections and as virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. It is thus apparent that these antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay. In this review, we will cover the diversity and characteristics of various type II TA

  6. Application of Grey Relational Cluster Method in Muon Tomography for Materials Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    When the number of particles is small, We try to use grey system theory better in dealing the work which has little sample and incomplete information. Grey relational cluster method is applied for materials detection of the research of Muon tomography

  7. Pricing rainbow, green, blue and grey water: tree cover and geopolitics of climatic teleconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van M.; Namirembe, S.; Catacutan, D.; Williamson, D.; Gebrekirstos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric moisture (“rainbow water”) is the source of all green, blue and grey water flows. Current water-related legislation and policies have moved beyond blue (water allocation) and grey (waste water treatment) water concerns to incorporate the green water concept of additional water use by fas

  8. Dependence of quality properties for grey iron on used raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey iron castings keep the first place among castings on base of iron. Present trend in growing entrance production costs of cast stock force manufacturer to cost minimizing. Therefore is most actual deal replacement pig iron by steel scrap. In contribution are presented results research work relating to influence of raw materials on grey iron properties.

  9. The Automatic indexing of Grey Literature by Subject Headings of the Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System

    OpenAIRE

    Kocourek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The contribution is devoted to the automatic indexing of grey literature by subject headings of the Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System in the National repository of grey literature. The paper describes the initial situation, previous experience, analysis, stages of implementation and demonstration of indexing.

  10. Vocal Learning in Grey Parrots: A Brief Review of Perception, Production, and Cross-Species Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter briefly reviews what is known-and what remains to be understood--about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys' physical capacities--issues of auditory perception and production--then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species…

  11. Forecasting Performance of Grey Prediction for Education Expenditure and School Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian; Yin, Mu-Shang

    2012-01-01

    GM(1,1) and GM(1,1) rolling models derived from grey system theory were estimated using time-series data from projection studies by National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). An out-of-sample forecasting competition between the two grey prediction models and exponential smoothing used by NCES was conducted for education expenditure and…

  12. Modelling the Heat Consumption in District Heating Systems using a Grey-box approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    identification of an overall model structure followed by data-based modelling, whereby the details of the model are identified. This approach is sometimes called grey-box modelling, but the specific approach used here does not require states to be specified. Overall, the paper demonstrates the power of the grey......-box approach. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Pricing rainbow, green, blue and grey water: tree cover and geopolitics of climatic teleconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van M.; Namirembe, S.; Catacutan, D.; Williamson, D.; Gebrekirstos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric moisture (“rainbow water”) is the source of all green, blue and grey water flows. Current water-related legislation and policies have moved beyond blue (water allocation) and grey (waste water treatment) water concerns to incorporate the green water concept of additional water use by fas

  14. Forecasting Performance of Grey Prediction for Education Expenditure and School Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian; Yin, Mu-Shang

    2012-01-01

    GM(1,1) and GM(1,1) rolling models derived from grey system theory were estimated using time-series data from projection studies by National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). An out-of-sample forecasting competition between the two grey prediction models and exponential smoothing used by NCES was conducted for education expenditure and…

  15. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were co

  16. Removal of micropollutants from grey water : combining biological and physical/chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.

    2010-01-01

    Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. The amount of grey water produced per person in The Netherlands is about 90 Ld-1, accounting for up to 75 % of the wastewater volume produced by households, and over 90 % if vacuum toilets are

  17. Modelling the Heat Consumption in District Heating Systems using a Grey-box approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    identification of an overall model structure followed by data-based modelling, whereby the details of the model are identified. This approach is sometimes called grey-box modelling, but the specific approach used here does not require states to be specified. Overall, the paper demonstrates the power of the grey......-box approach. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Grey game theory and its applications in economic decision-making

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zhigeng; Shi, Hongxing; Lin, Yi

    2016-01-01

    To make the best decisions, you need the best information. However, because most issues in game theory are grey, nearly all recent research has been carried out using a simplified method that considers grey systems as white ones. This often results in a forecasting function that is far from satisfactory when applied to many real situations. Grey Game Theory and Its Applications in Economic Decision Making introduces classic game theory into the realm of grey system theory with limited knowledge. The book resolves three theoretical issues: A game equilibrium of grey game A reasonable explanation for the equilibrium of a grey matrix of static nonmatrix game issues based on incomplete information The Centipede Game paradox, which has puzzled theory circles for a long time and greatly enriched and developed the core methods of subgame Nash perfect equilibrium analysis as a result   The book establishes a grey matrix game model based on pure and mixed strategies. The author proposes the concepts of grey saddle p...

  19. Removal of micropollutants from grey water : combining biological and physical/chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.

    2010-01-01

    Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. The amount of grey water produced per person in The Netherlands is about 90 Ld-1, accounting for up to 75 % of the wastewater volume produced by households, and over 90 % if vacuum toilets are

  20. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  1. A non-grey analytical model for irradiated atmospheres. I: Derivation

    CERN Document Server

    Parmentier, Vivien

    2013-01-01

    Context. Semi-grey atmospheric models (with one opacity for the visible and one opacity for the infrared) are useful to understand the global structure of irradiated atmospheres, their dynamics and the interior structure and evolution of planets, brown dwarfs and stars. But when compared to direct numerical radiative transfer calculations for irradiated exoplanets, these models systematically overestimate the temperatures at low optical depth, independently of the opacity parameters. We wish to understand why semi-grey models fail at low optical depths, and provide a more accurate approximation to the atmospheric structure by accounting for the variable opacity in the infrared. Our analytical irradiated non-grey model is found to provide a range of temperatures that is consistent with that obtained by numerical calculations. We find that even for slightly non-grey thermal opacities the temperature structure differs significantly from previous semi-grey models. For small values of beta (expected when lines are...

  2. Grey Prediction Fuzzy Control of the Target Tracking System in a Robot Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-zhong; JI Jiang-tao; WANG Hong-ru

    2007-01-01

    Grey modeling can be used to predict the behavioral development of a system and find out the lead control values of the system. By using fuzzy inference, PID parameters can be adjusted on line by the fuzzy controller with PID parameters self-tuning. According to the characteristics of target tracking system in a robot weapon, grey prediction theory and fuzzy PID control ideas are combined. A grey prediction mathematical model is constructed and a fuzzy PID controller with grey prediction was developed. Simulation result shows fuzzy PID control algorithm with grey prediction is an efficient method that can improve the control equality and robustness of traditional PID control and fuzzy PID control, and has much better performance for target tracking.

  3. How Children Decode Visual Narrative in Gaiman’s and McKean’s The Wolves in the Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysogonus Siddha Malilang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Bagaimana Anak Mengkode-ulang Narasi Visual dalam The Wolves in the Walls karya Gaiman dan McKean. Buku cerita bergambar sebagai teks untuk anak-anak merupakan kombinasi unik dari kata-kata dan gambar. Dua elemen yang saling terkait sama lain menciptakan inter-animasi bersama dalam membangun makna. Para ahli telah lama mempercayai bahwa proses membaca buku cerita bergambar melibatkan proses yang rumit dalam lingkaran hermeneutik. Namun, karena buku cerita bergambar terutama ditujukan untuk anak-anak, maka proses tersebut terjadi dalam pikiran sadar mereka. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan proses pembuatan makna anak dalam narasi visual buku cerita bergambar yang mana dalam penelitian ini menggunakan karya Gaiman, The Wolves in the Walls. Setelah melalui serangkaian penelitian kualitatif dengan lima anak di Inggris, aspek yang diteliti dalam penelitian ini adalah gaya bercerita, penggambaran pengalaman, dan tempat. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa anak-anak membaca buku cerita bergambar dengan cara yang berbeda dari orang dewasa, terutama dalam strategi yang digunakan untuk membaca teks yang panjang dan rumit. Kata kunci: cerita bergambar, gaya bercerita, penggambaran pengalaman, tempat, lingkaran hermeneutik   ABSTRACT Picturebook as a text for children is a unique combination of words and images. Those two elements are interrelated into one another, creating a mutual interanimation in constructing the meaning. Experts have long believed that the process of reading picturebook involves a complicated process of hermeneutic circle. However, since picturebook is mainly aimed for children, the process happens subconsciously within their mind. Therefore, this research aims to reveal children’s meaning making process in visual narrative of picturebook, in this research is Gaiman’s The Wolves in the Walls. After a series of qualitative research with fi ve children in UK, the aspects to research are style

  4. A Whiter Shade of Grey: A new approach to archaeological grey literature using the XML version of the TEI Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Falkingham

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This article has arisen through the author's interest in two contemporary issues within archaeology: the production and dissemination of grey literature and the potential of XML. Grey literature is examined, with specific reference to unpublished reports literature produced in the present climate of developer-funded archaeology in England. There are concerns about the accessibility of this literature, both from within and beyond the archaeological profession. The vast majority of reports are word-processed and then printed in hard-copy format for limited distribution. The original, digital document however, has largely been seen as a by-product. Awareness of the importance of these digital reports, and their preservation must be raised. Electronic means of delivery and dissemination via the World Wide Web offer huge potential and present opportunities for new ways of working. Archaeology is not alone in seeking to promote the accessibility of grey literature; indeed there are many disciplines that have created online initiatives aiming to do just this, utilising a variety of means and a range of electronic file formats. The use of XML technology appears to offer many advantages over traditional formats, such as word-processed, PDF and even (XHTML files, particularly with regard to the manipulation and presentation of encoded electronic text. Increasingly, XML technology is being used for electronic delivery and dissemination and the pros and cons of so doing are discussed in this article. This theme has been developed by the author through a 'proof of concept' practical case study of three unpublished grey literature archaeology reports from the North Yorkshire Historic Environment Record. XML documents have been created from the original word-processed electronic reports by the manual application of XML markup, the methodology for which was devised following the XML version of the Text Encoding Initiative's TEI P4 Guidelines. The level of

  5. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  6. Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  7. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iulian Riposan; Mihai Chisamera; Stelian Stan

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing speciifc procedures for high quality grey irons, and relfecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C), contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidiifcation. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their speciifc problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%), and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%), in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a three-stage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,X)S type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer,Mn/S, and inoculant) and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, ifnal inoculation). Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn) x (%S) ensuring it equals to 0.03- 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%-0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,X)S type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons). A double addition (iron powder + inoculant

  8. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing specific procedures for high quality grey irons, and reflecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C, contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidification. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their specific problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%, and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%, in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a threestage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,XS type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer, Mn/S, and inoculant and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, final inoculation. Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn x (%S ensuring it equals to 0.03 – 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%–0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,XS type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons. A double addition (iron

  9. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsi

  10. Chitosan based grey wastewater treatment--a statistical design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J; Kandasamy, S

    2014-01-01

    In this present study, grey wastewater was treated under different operating conditions such as agitation time (1-3 min), pH (2.5-5.5), chitosan dose (0.3-0.6g/l) and settling time (10-20 min) using response surface methodology (RSM). Four factors with three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) were employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as turbidity, BOD and COD removal. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to predict the responses. Under the optimum conditions, experimental values such as turbidity (96%), BOD (91%) and COD (73%) removals are closely agreed with predicted values.

  11. An EPQ model with imperfect items using interval grey numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Aydemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic economic production quantity (EPQ model has been widely used to determine the optimal production quantity. However, the analysis for finding an EPQ model has many weaknesses which lead many researchers and practitioners to make extensions in several aspects on the original EPQ model. The basic assumption of EPQ model is that 100% of manufactured products are non-defective that is not valid for many production processes generally. The purpose of this paper is to develop an EPQ model with grey demand rate and cost values with maximum backorder level allowed with the good quality items in units under an imperfect production process. The imperfect items are considered to be low quality items which are sold to a particular purchaser at a lower price and, the others are reworked and scrapped. A mathematical model is developed and then an industrial example is presented on the wooden chipboard production process for illustration of the proposed model.

  12. Emergence of Linguistic Communication: Studies on Grey Parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    Most studies on the evolution of communication systems concentrate on the primate lineage, ignoring the concept of parallel lines of evolution. Although phylogenetically remote from humans, some birds—particularly Grey parrots—share many cognitive and communicative abilities with humans. On certain tasks, they demonstrate processing abilities comparable to 5-6 year-old humans; they learn very simple vocal syntactic patterns and referential elements of human communication, but only through social interaction and in a manner that proceeds in ways similar to those of humans. Given this knowledge of vocal learning in birds, of the effects of social interaction on such learning, and of birds' complex cognitive abilities, we should not ignore the avian line if we wish to determine the evolutionary pressures that purportedly affected the evolution of complex communication systems—particularly vocal systems—and develop theories and models that can be tested.

  13. Lorenz Wind Disturbance Model Based on Grey Generated Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagang Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the needs of wind speed prediction in wind farms, we consider the influence of random atmospheric disturbances on wind variations. Considering a simplified fluid convection mode, a Lorenz system can be employed as an atmospheric disturbance model. Here Lorenz disturbance is defined as the European norm of the solutions of the Lorenz equation. Grey generating and accumulated generating models are employed to explore the relationship between wind speed and its related disturbance series. We conclude that a linear or quadric polynomial generating model are optimal through the verification of short-term wind speed prediction in the Sotavento wind farm. The new proposed model not only greatly improves the precision of short-term wind speed prediction, but also has great significance for the maintenance and stability of wind power system operation.

  14. Selecting an optimal mixed products using grey relationship model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Faezy Razi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated supplier selection and inventory management using grey relationship model (GRM as well as multi-objective decision making process. The proposed model of this paper first ranks different suppliers based on GRM technique and then determines the optimum level of inventory by considering different objectives. To show the implementation of the proposed model, we use some benchmark data presented by Talluri and Baker [Talluri, S., & Baker, R. C. (2002. A multi-phase mathematical programming approach for effective supply chain design. European Journal of Operational Research, 141(3, 544-558.]. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed model of this paper is capable of handling different criteria for supplier selection.

  15. Causality in condensates: grey solitons as remnants of BEC formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Symmetry breaking during phase transitions can lead to the formation of topological defects (such as vortex lines in superfluids). However, the usually studied BEC's have the shape of a cigar, a geometry that impedes vortex formation, survival, and detection. I show that, in elongated traps, one can expect the formation of 'grey solitons' (long-lived, non-topological 'phase defects') as a result of the same mechanism. Their number will rise approximately in proportion to the transition rate. This steep rise is due to the increasing size of the region of the BEC cigar where the phase of the condensate wavefunction is chosen locally (rather than passed on from the already formed BEC).

  16. EUPHEMISTIC AND DYSPHEMISTIC LANGUAGE IN FIFTY SHADES OF GREY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sánchez Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of Fifty Shades of Grey trilogy is beyond doubt. This great impact has also been reflected on academic literature dealing with the novel from different perspectives. However, while there is substantial research on the novels, little attention has been paid to the author's usage of language. Bearing in mind that erotic stories are a common euphemistic and dysphemistic ground, the aim of this paper is to explore euphemism, dysphemism and x-phemism (quasieuphemism and quasidysphemism in a corpus which consists of the three books of the mentioned trilogy so as to observe if the use of these devices depends on sexes and how these phenomena merge with metaphorical or metonymical devices to avoid a possible loss of face or highlight a taboo. The conclusions will show that the male and female main characters in the novels use language differently and employ these verbal devices with several intentions.

  17. Nonrelativistic grey Sn-transport radiative-shock solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J. M.; Morel, J. E.; Lowrie, R. B.

    2017-06-01

    We present semi-analytic radiative-shock solutions in which grey Sn-transport is used to model the radiation, and we include both constant cross sections and cross sections that depend on temperature and density. These new solutions solve for a variable Eddington factor (VEF) across the shock domain, which allows for interesting physics not seen before in radiative-shock solutions. Comparisons are made with the grey nonequilibrium-diffusion radiative-shock solutions of Lowrie and Edwards [1], which assumed that the Eddington factor is constant across the shock domain. It is our experience that the local Mach number is monotonic when producing nonequilibrium-diffusion solutions, but that this monotonicity may disappear while integrating the precursor region to produce Sn-transport solutions. For temperature- and density-dependent cross sections we show evidence of a spike in the VEF in the far upstream portion of the radiative-shock precursor. We show evidence of an adaptation zone in the precursor region, adjacent to the embedded hydrodynamic shock, as conjectured by Drake [2,3], and also confirm his expectation that the precursor temperatures adjacent to the Zel'dovich spike take values that are greater than the downstream post-shock equilibrium temperature. We also show evidence that the radiation energy density can be nonmonotonic under the Zel'dovich spike, which is indicative of anti-diffusive radiation flow as predicted by McClarren and Drake [4]. We compare the angle dependence of the radiation flow for the Sn-transport and nonequilibrium-diffusion radiation solutions, and show that there are considerable differences in the radiation flow between these models across the shock structure. Finally, we analyze the radiation flow to understand the cause of the adaptation zone, as well as the structure of the Sn-transport radiation-intensity solutions across the shock structure.

  18. Control of chilling tendency in grey cast iron reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliu Ojo Seidu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In grey cast iron remelt and recycling, white iron can result in the cast product if careful control of the chilling tendency is not ensured. Many jobbing foundries are constrained in furnace types and available foundry additives that the operation always results in white irons. This study is towards ensuring grey iron is reproduced from cast iron scrap auto engine blocks, when using a diesel fired rotary furnace and a FeSi alloy for structural modification (inoculation. With varying addition rate of the FeSi alloy to the tapped molten metal, chill wedge tests were performed on two different wedge samples of type W (according to ASTM A367- wedge test with cooling modulus of 0.45 cm (W3½ and 0.54 cm (W4. The carbon equivalents for the test casts were within hypoeutectic range (3.85 wt. (% to 4.11 wt. (%. In the W4 wedge sample, at 2.0 wt. (% addition rate of the FeSi alloy, the relative clear chill was totally reduced to zero from 19.76%, while the relative mottled chill was brought down to 9.59% from 33.71%. The microstructure from the cast at this level of addition was free of carbidic phases; it shows randomly oriented graphite flakes evenly distributed in the iron matrix. Hardness assessment shows that increasing rate of FeSi addition results in decreasing hardness, with maximum effect at 2.0 wt. (% addition. With equivalent aspect ratio (cooling modulus in a target cast product, this addition rate for this FeSi alloy under this furnace condition will attain graphitized microstructure in the cast product.

  19. Control of chilling tendency in grey cast iron reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliu Ojo Seidu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In grey cast iron remelt and recycling, white iron can result in the cast product if careful control of the chilling tendency is not ensured. Many jobbing foundries are constrained in furnace types and available foundry additives that the operation always results in white irons. This study is towards ensuring grey iron is reproduced from cast iron scrap auto engine blocks, when using a diesel fired rotary furnace and a FeSi alloy for structural modification (inoculation. With varying addition rate of the FeSi alloy to the tapped molten metal, chill wedge tests were performed on two different wedge samples of type W (according to ASTM A367- wedge test with cooling modulus of 0.45 cm (W3½ and 0.54 cm (W4. The carbon equivalents for the test casts were within hypoeutectic range (3.85 wt. (% to 4.11 wt. (%. In the W4 wedge sample, at 2.0 wt. (% addition rate of the FeSi alloy, the relative clear chill was totally reduced to zero from 19.76%, while the relative mottled chill was brought down to 9.59% from 33.71%. The microstructure from the cast at this level of addition was free of carbidic phases; it shows randomly oriented graphite flakes evenly distributed in the iron matrix. Hardness assessment shows that increasing rate of FeSi addition results in decreasing hardness, with maximum effect at 2.0 wt. (% addition. With equivalent aspect ratio (cooling modulus in a target cast product, this addition rate for this FeSi alloy under this furnace condition will attain graphitized microstructure in the cast product.

  20. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Ueda

    Full Text Available As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear, B-type (only the eye position is clear, and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear. A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.