WorldWideScience

Sample records for eastern europe scientific

  1. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  2. Translations on Eastern Europe, Scientific Affairs, Number 571

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-03

    ing our TNTM [Technical and Scientific Creative Work of Young People] Club winner in the all-union review of the scientific and technical creative...performance of this fu;nction makes it possible to see now the prospective usability of the material. Phytopathological research is also an important...chain basis and destroys the body’s self-defense. This theory was published in the German review BILD AM SONNTAG, dated 21/22 May 1972. As early as

  3. Translations on Eastern Europe, Scientific Affairs, Number 557.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    research will be expanded further to increase theoretical knowledge of the extensive electrical engineering field. ERGONOMIA , A New PAN Publication...The first issue of the publication ERGONOMIA , an organ of the Ergonomics Committee attached to the PAN Presidium as well as the Ergonomie Commission...34Kronika" section, ERGONOMIA will record the scientific and research activities as well as association activities of various Polish and foreign

  4. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  5. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-05

    631.524.86 PIKA , N. A., and GLADYSHKO, S. A., Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of the Potato, Nemeshayevo, Kiev Oblast USE OF WILD PHYTOPHTORA...medium, the use of a pollen mixture and the creation of suitable external conditions (temperature, moisture, 1/2 USSR PIKA , N. A., and GLADYSHKO, S. A...analysis, has been received from two strongly divergent points of view: many notably American and Western European writers have regarded it as the

  6. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 92

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-26

    chemistry imeni A. N. Bakh, Academy of Sciences USSR Moscow; Belorussian Scientific Research Institute of Potato, Fruit and Vegetable Growing, Minsk...576.8.097.29 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYC0T0XIN T-2 PRODUCED BY FUSARIUM SPOROTRI- CHIELLA Moscow DOKLADY VASKhNIL in Russian No 3, Mar 78 pp 36-38...identification of Fusarium sporotrichiella mycotoxin T-2: trichotecene 8- alpha-(3-methylbutyryloxy)-4-beta, 15-diacetoxycirp-9-ene-3-alpha-ol, for

  7. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Number 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-08

    Gorkiy IZV. VUZ: RADIOFIZIKA in Russian Vol 21 No 1, Jan 78 pp 114-118 manuscript received 25 Oct 76 ABRAMOV ,. V. I., Scientific-Research Institute...VUZ:RADIOELEKTRONIKA in Russian Vol 21 No 3, Mar 78 pp 90-92 manuscript received 10 Nov 76; after revision 25 Jan 77 LEBEDEV, V. K. and ABRAMOV , V. S...pp 28-31 ALEKSANDROVA, L., K0N0K0TIN, YU. and MARINA , F. [Abstract] The article gives specifications and parameters of Soviet-made receivers

  8. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  9. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Science Policy Research Unit)

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this article is that of illustrating the experience of the use of nuclear power in Eastern Europe in order to estimate the degree of adequacy or inadequacy of COMECON's nuclear technology. The author examines four areas of interest concerning: the feasibility of new orders for nuclear plants in Eastern Europe; the pros and cons of completing half-built nuclear power plants; current policy towards existing nuclear power plants; and a review of the available evidence on the operating performance of plants in Eastern Europe. The common belief that the nuclear power experience had by old COMECON countries is uniformly bad does not seem to be fully supported by the limited evidence available. In the author's opinion, the prospects for a successful nuclear power industry in these countries depends on a series on interdependent factors among which, human skills hold a prominent position.

  10. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  11. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  12. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyses the operating experience of nuclear power plants in Eastern and Western Europe, the former Soviet Union and the United States to investigate differences in the effects of learning, technical change and the effect of recent political developments. The performance of Soviet-designed reactors compares favourably with Western reactors on the standard performance measures. However, learning curve estimates reveal a disturbing trend: the former Soviet Union and all countries in Eastern Europe experience increasing unplanned losses as plants age, whereas all Western countries reduce their unplanned losses. A similar ''forgetting'' phenomenon is observable for plant availability and there is some evidence that the recent political and economic reorganization have exacerbated this trend. (Author)

  13. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  14. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  15. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  16. The energy question in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    In a first part, this book describes the energetic schemes, energy consumption and centralized economy in Eastern Europe countries. In the second part, the relationships between energy supply and macro-economic disequilibria in USSR is studied: Petroleum and power generation are chosen as example. In the third part, the book shows the energetic stakes in Central and Eastern Europe: the end of the exchange model (imports, exports) and the energetic schemes facing economical reforms

  17. Coping with Crisis in Eastern Europe's Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Alcamo, J.

    1992-01-01

    Along with the winds of political change in Central and Eastern Europe have come the realities of severely polluted air, water and soil. Among the greatest challenges for Eastern Europeans will be how to cope with these environmental problems during a period of difficult economic and political transition. This book is one of the first published since the revolutions of 1989 giving the views of top environmental experts from six Central and Eastern European countries on these issues. In...

  18. Experience in implementing projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichard, A.; Bauer, I.; Rieck, R.; Ziehm, R.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers the present projects and activities in Eastern Europe of Nukem Technologies GmbH. The company's East European business began in 1973 in the field of uranium trading. After difficult negotiations in the period of the ''cold war'' it became possible to enter into an agreement with the Soviet foreign trade organization, Techsnabexport, about purchases of uranium for Western nuclear power plants. In the course of Nukem's realignment in the late 1980s, the focus was shifted more and more to the possibility of exporting into other countries the technologies developed and proven in Germany. This included countries in Eastern Europe. The situation changed abruptly with the political opening of Eastern Europe. A large potential market opened to Nukem as a supplier of technologies and plants for waste treatment and, later, the wider area of decommissioning. The partners in Eastern Europe were interested in proven, modern solutions. The ensuing success was also due to the fact that Nukem, in the early nineties, hired specialists from the new German federal states who had studied in the Soviet Union and were familiar with Russian technology, language, and culture. Soliciting analogous projects in the countries of Eastern Europe other than the former Soviet Union was begun in a parallel process. Very soon it turned out that also the interim storage of spent fuel elements constituted a potential market. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear insurance in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the world outside the former Soviet Union, insurance industries in their respective domestic markets have pooled their resources so as to provide a secure and cost-effective conduit for the transaction of insurance business on behalf of the nuclear industry. These are the so-called nuclear pools. This paper explains the four main principles behind nuclear liability insurance and discusses their application to Central Europe and in particular to the problems facing the nuclear industry in Eastern Europe. (author)

  20. Re-membering Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    -Soviet states into the “Eurovision” has been represented and discussed in Britain and Denmark, two countries with their own complex and complicated relationship to "Europe". Taking the cue from a growing scholarly production that argues for the importance of pop culture in the construction of social...

  1. The South Eastern Europe Higher Education Area: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Lacrama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Through history, South Eastern Europe has been a difficult and highly heterogeneous area of the continent. Nevertheless, recent developments have proved that a better future is possible. An important component of this genuine healing process is establishing connections and partnerships among universities inside the region. The present paper advocates the use of modern educational technology in order to implement common scientific and educational programs in this area.

  2. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led...... on this major economic problem....

  3. Mental health reforms in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, T

    2001-01-01

    To describe the background in general culture, public and professional discourse against which mental health care reform initiatives in Eastern Europe need to be seen. An account of some key aspects of sociopolitical and cultural transition in Eastern European countries is given, and core results of a research project on attitudes and needs assessment in psychiatry in six Eastern European countries are reported. In post-totalitarian cultures mental health reforms impinge on imagination in ways which are not easy to predict. Some of the reasons for this are traced to the psychiatric practices under the system of total control, e.g. dispensary care, political abuse, reification of classificatory terms. Data on a study of attitudes suggest that institutions had replaced community life in those parts of Europe. It is predicted that with time trust in the capacity of community to contain mental illness will be regained.

  4. The Soviet Economic Dilemma of Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    levels will respond to changes in the political and military environment. CUSTOMS UNION EFFECTS Holzman (1962, 1965, 1976) and Brada (1985) have argued...Agency, National Foreign Assessment Center, Energy Supplies in Eastern Europe: A Statistcal Compilation, December 1979. Childs, David , The GDR...Integra- tion," Joint Economic Committee of Congress, East European Economic Assessment, Part 2, Washington, D.C., 1981, p. 259. Holzman , Franklyn D

  5. EU, Eastern Europe and Values Imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an idea of'values imperialism'as a helpful way of conceptualising the relationship between the EU and the states that came within its sphere of influence after the end of the Cold War, particularly its 'neighbours' in Eastern Europe. Values imperialism places its emphasis on the 'superstructure', including norms, laws and social practices. EU larger objective was that the assumptions about government and ownership that were favoured by the dominant powers (EU and the West in the broad term should be absorbed and recapitulated by those countries that were subordinate. The broad framework ofsubordination was established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements that began to be concluded from 1994 onwards. Patterns of'values imperialism'could also be discovered in the EU Common Strategies on Russia and Ukraine that were adopted in 1999. Article also points out several cases when the EU intervened directly in the domestic affairs of the Eastern Europe countries in a manner that was not always compatible with the provisions on state sovereignty: a 'European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights', launched in 2006, interventions ofEU representatives in the work of local courts and organisation of exit polls, which could be used to discredit the official election results and in this way to undermine the position of local governments. Finally, the author concludes that the EU used 'values imperialism'practices in order to extend its influence, particularly in the Eastern Europe.

  6. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  7. Ecological problems in Central Europe and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1989-01-01

    Owing to the very restrictive information policy of the socialist governments, little is known of the ecological situation in these countries. Attention has been drawn to their ecological problems by a number of accidents (Chernobyl, forest decline along the western frontier of East Germany and Czechoslovakia, pollution of the Elbe river, smog situations in West Germany). Of the Western nations, West Germany is the most concerned as it borders on East Germany and Czechoslovakia. The book intends to help close the information gap concerning ecological problems and environmental policy in the socialist countries. It comprises three sections: Part 1 presents central characteristics of environmental policy in the socialist states, with a view to their specific ideological and administrative aspects. Part 2 compares selected fields of environmental policy in the different socialist countries. Part 3 presents case studies of some countries in Central and Eastern Europe. (orig./HP) [de

  8. An estimate of syphilis incidence in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam J. Herbert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Europe experienced epidemic levels of syphilis after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Presently data are less comprehensive outside the European Union (EU and European Free Trade Association (EFTA. This review aims to identify published papers with suitable data to estimate a regional burden of disease for syphilis in the 19 member countries of Eastern Europe.

  9. Eastern Europe in Western Civilization Textbooks: The Example of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Over a decade ago the newsletter of the American Historical Association "Perspectives" carried a long lead article entitled "Teaching 'Eastern Europe' without the Iron Curtain." Referring to the challenge posed by the revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe to the teaching of European history, the author, Larry Wolff, saw it as…

  10. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    -owned firms, but in most countries the institutions, the level of income and the goals of the workers were not conducive to this type of ownership. Earlier experience with workers' self-management is probably a main reason why employee ownership is more stable in Croatia and Slovenia and such experience may......Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...

  11. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra

    2012-02-01

    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  12. Financing private power in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Finance is needed for upgrading Eastern Europe's electric power industries. Capacity is not a problem, as all countries have more than adequate capacity in the light of the deep industrial recession. However, much of the capacity is elderly and poorly maintained, so availability is low. Coal fired plant may have electrostatic precipitators, but no desulfurization or de-NO x equipment is present. Price rises in oil and gas imported from Russia have however increased interest in energy efficiency measures. Power generation is mainly coal or lignite based. Commercial banks will be little involved in financing. The best viable sources of large scale financing will be the IBRD, EIB, EBRD, and IFC, among the multilateral investment banks. Loans so far have mainly gone to Poland. The multilateral institutions have great experience in lending to developing countries, but long procurement processes are often involved. Raising finance is inevitably a difficult process. The financing of the Cracow Environmental Project, a model private power venture in Poland is described and discussed, with particular reference to contract, legal and economic problems

  13. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  14. Eastern Europe major opportunity for oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmorgen, T.

    1991-01-01

    The joint effort to overcome the political, technical, and commercial obstacles to adequate energy supply in Eastern Europe may pose one of the biggest entrepreneurial challenges of the decades to come. This article focuses on the former East Germany and Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. They are the markets most likely to be developed in the near future. The best data are available on East Germany. Therefore, the forecast material will concentrate on that region. But the trends seen there will apply to the other countries, keeping in mind though, that East Germany was regarded as the most advanced member of the Former East Bloc in industrial development. A look at some key economic data reveals the potential of the oil markets. Looking at per capita energy consumption, these countries were real world champions. In view of the low standard of living, this is the yardstick of living, this is the yardstick for an unbelievable waste of scarce resources and indicates a total lack of respect for the environment

  15. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Markus; Klaassen, Ger; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Soerensen, Lene; Hordijk, Leen

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO 2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO 2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  16. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock market s * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath- international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  17. Sustainable energy successes in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Oesterfelt, P. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The publication describes more than 20 `good practices` in energy conservation in Central and Eastern Europe: successful campaigns and projects for increased energy efficiency and renewable energy. The cases are collected mainly by NGO-organisations in INFORSE (International Network for Sustainable Energy) - Europe as part of their contributions to the ECO-Forum Energy and Climate Group. (LN)

  18. The Manifestation of Corruption in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Hladky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the main manifestations of corruption in the states of Eastern Europe, and, first of all, in Ukraine, which since 2014 has been actively carrying out multiple anti-corruption transformations, although the state is becoming increasingly corrupt every year. The author defines the main groups of manifestations of corruption and analyzes their constituent elements, in the light of which, delineates such categories as "gratitude", bribe, and corruption "gratitude". Particular attention is paid to the study of corruption intercession, which unites nepotism, cronyism and corruption lobbying. It is noted that to date nepotism is essentially supplanted by the rabble, which is the advantage of "privatization" of the state in the light of the clan capitalism. It is concluded that bribery and deviant intercession (corruption protection, as the main manifestations of corruption, the facts that corruption behavior is life-affirming security and protective actions of people, to which they resort, on the one hand, because of the insolvency of the state and society, but, on the other hand, to optimize the achievement of the good that is provided by the state and society, however, in an improper way. Meanwhile, if the discrepancy measures and methods of granting the benefits of state benefits (i.e., on average, the measure and method is applicable, then ignoring the state provision of certain goods as such (i.e., they can be provided only in the corruption plane - this phenomenon is completely objective. On this basis, it is argued that the policy of counteracting corrupt practices in the state should focus, first of all, on the solution of such problems and objective problems, the refusal to account, which will lead to further criminalization of the society, which is observed, in particular, in modern Ukraine.

  19. Scenarios for economy and environment in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, J.; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Maas, R.

    1993-01-01

    This draft report was produced within the framework of the Environmental Action Plant for Central and Eastern Europe on the request of the World Bank. A number of scenarios for this environment; Western Europe, Central Europe (the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary and Poland) and Eastern Europe (the former USSR) were developed. The environmental results related to scenarios applying future Western European techniques in future CEE (Environmental Action Plan for Central and Eastern Europe) investments were predicted - based on estimates of differences of energy efficiency and emission factors of techniques currently applied in CEE and Western Europe. The focus of the analysis is to reflect the effects on environmental quality in CEE assuming a gradual introduction of Western control technology. The results (in the form of maps, graphs and tables) of the analysis are given in detail, preceded by sections on socio-economic background and descriptions of scenarios and models. It is concluded that the main problem for Central and Eastern Europe will be to generate funds to restart economic growth after a difficult transition process. A more efficient use of energy should be encouraged and installations and industrial complexes should be retrofitted to help achieve this aim. Episodic peak concentrations of energy consumption should be reduced. (AB)

  20. Nuclear Research and Development Institutes in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The science and technology (S and T) sector is faced today with complex and diverse challenges. National science budgets are under pressure, and many countries are changing how research and development (R and D) is funded, reducing direct subsidies and introducing competition for both governmental and alternative sources of revenue. On the other hand, the transition toward knowledge-based economies is creating new opportunities in the S and T sector as governments look to it to foster economic growth through innovation. A number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe have recently joined the European Union (EU) which has defined the Lisbon Strategy to create a 'knowledge triangle' of research, education and innovation to underpin the European economic and social model, and economic growth. This strategy seeks to increase investment in science and technology across the EU to a target of 3% of GDP by 2010, with two-thirds of funds coming from the private sector. By comparison, funding for R and D in most Central and Eastern European countries is only around 1% GDP, of which about 90% is provided by the governments. R and D has become more international, reflecting a more interdependent and globalized world. R and D progress is not only of interest to individual countries but also tries to respond to the needs of a broader society. Governments still maintain national networks, but increasingly emphasize international cooperation, both to avoid duplication of expensive infrastructure, and because scientific excellence requires an exchange of ideas and cooperation that crosses borders. These challenges and opportunities directly impact the research and development institutes (RDIs), including the nuclear RDIs. It is important for the nuclear RDIs to take account of these trends in the broader S and T sector in their vision and strategy. Several nuclear RDIs have become very successful, but others are struggling to adapt. The challenges have been particularly severe

  1. Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Nuclear safety is one of the critical issues with respect to the enlargement of the European Union towards the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In the context of the enlargement process, the European Commission overall strategy on nuclear safety matters has been to bring the general standard of nuclear safety in the pre-accession countries up to a level that would be comparable to the safety levels in the countries of the European Union. In this context, the primary objective of the project was to develop a common format and general guidance for the evaluation of the current nuclear safety status in countries that operate commercial nuclear power plants. Therefore, one of the project team first undertakings was to develop an approach that would allow for a consistent and comprehensive overview of the nuclear safety status in the CEEC, enabling an equal treatment of the countries to be evaluated. Such an approach, which did not exist, should also ensure identification of the most important safety issues of the individual nuclear power plants. The efforts resulted in the development of the ''Performance Evaluation Guide'', which focuses on important nuclear safety issues such as plant design and operation, the practice of performing safety assessments, and nuclear legislation and regulation, in particular the role of the national regulatory body. Another important aspect of the project was the validation of the Performance Evaluation Guide (PEG) by performing a preliminary evaluation of nuclear safety in the CEEC, namely in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. The nuclear safety evaluation of each country was performed as a desktop exercise, using solely available documents that had been prepared by various Western institutions and the countries themselves. Therefore, the evaluation is only of a preliminary nature. The project did not intend to re-assess nuclear safety, but to focus on a comprehensive summary

  2. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  3. IAEA/WHO postal dose audits for radiotherapy hospitals in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Vatnitsky, S.; Shortt, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA/WHO TLD programme has been in operation for 34 years. In this period the calibration of approximately 5200 high-energy photon beams in over 1300 radiotherapy hospitals in 115 countries worldwide was checked. Of these, 18% of the audits were performed in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. There are large contrasts in the region; while the results are very good for most countries, a few countries struggle with basic problems in dosimetry. The hospitals operating radiotherapy services without qualified medical physicists or dosimetry equipment have poorer results than those properly equipped and staffed. Only about 2/3 of TLD audit participants in Eastern Europe have the appropriate dosimetry equipment. To achieve consistency of the audit results within Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, strengthening of radiotherapy infrastructure in a few countries would be necessary. (authors)

  4. Introduction: Postcolonial studies and postsocialism in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2009-04-01

    The introduction to this special section explores the ways in which postcolonial studies contribute a deeper understanding of postsocialist change in Central and Eastern Europe. Since the collapse of socialism, anthropological and other social science studies of Eastern Europe have highlighted deep divides between "East" and "West" and drawn attention to the ways in which socialist practices persist into the postsocialist period. We seek to move beyond discourses of the East/West divide by examining the postsocialist context through the lens of postcolonial studies. We look at four aspects of postcolonial studies and explore their relevance for understanding postsocialist Eastern Europe: orientalism, nation and identity, hybridity, and voice. These themes are particular salient from the perspective of gender and sexuality, key concepts through which both postcolonialism and postsocialism can be understood. We thus pay particular attention to the exchange of ideas between East/West, local/global, and national/international arenas.

  5. Middle Eastern Christian spaces in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hunter, Alistair; McCallum, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Despite little scholarly attention, Middle Eastern Christian Churches are a well-established element of the European religious landscape. Based on collaborative research, this article examines how three mutual field visits facilitated a deeper understanding of the complexity that characterises...

  6. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics and Conditions of Entrepreneurship in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2017-01-01

    Establishing of new small businesses is an intensive process in the whole of Eastern Europe. As they are new, most of them are in the introductory phases of their existence (survival, consolidation and control). Contemporary industrial and market structure in the countries of Eastern Europe...... provides entrepreneurs with many opportunities for niche company creation. However, many problems exist related to the lack of resources (mostly financial), inadequate knowledge and skills in management and marketing needed in market economies, insufficient availability of business support organisations...... combined with inappropriate understanding and attitude among managers in the newly created businesses towards the existing business support organisations....

  8. The Extreme Right in Eastern Europe and Territorial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mareš

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses and compares the different territorial conceptions of the extreme right in Eastern Europe and their political impact, with a view to explaining how important the historical legacy of the supposed territorial and border claims and injustices is for the identity of the extreme right (or their parts in contemporary Eastern Europe. It analyses the historical roots of the territorial claims of the extreme right in the area, the current situation regarding their territorial claims and disputes, and the impact of these territorial claims on domestic politics, on the politics of the extreme right at the European level and on regional security in this area.

  9. Middle Eastern Christian spaces in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hunter, Alistair; McCallum, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    church establishment and activities among Iraqi, Assyrian/Syriac and Coptic Orthodox Christians in the UK, Sweden and Denmark. Exploring analytical dimensions of space, diversity, size, and minority position we identify three positions of Middle Eastern Christians: in London as the epitome of super......Despite little scholarly attention, Middle Eastern Christian Churches are a well-established element of the European religious landscape. Based on collaborative research, this article examines how three mutual field visits facilitated a deeper understanding of the complexity that characterises...

  10. The Neandertal extinction in eastern Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 137, - (2005), s. 69-75 ISSN 1040-6182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Central Europe Neandertals * early modern humans * extinction Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.210, year: 2005

  11. Constitutional transitions in Central and Eastern Europe : [book reviews] / Philipp Kiiver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiver, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Sadurski, W. Rights before courts : a study of constitutional courts in postcommunist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer, 2005 ; Albi, A. EU enlargement and the constitutions of Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2005

  12. A Survey of Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the increasing interaction of economic and environmental issues in Eastern Europe. The paper starts with a discussion of environmental problems in these formerly centrally planned economies. The grave environmental problems these countries face are surveyed and an explanation

  13. Family Policies in Eastern Europe: A Focus on Parental Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Family policy is an issue of concern for many Governments. Family policies are organized around the four main functions of the family: marriage, childrearing, financial support and family care. Eastern Europe is an area with significant socio-economic and political changes in the last decades that determined revisions of social policies. The goal…

  14. Power generation needs and opportunities in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, C.R.; Hon, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the market for power generation and pollution control equipment in Eastern Europe. The topics of the article include financing equipment and services, financial and political incentives, capacity, environmental impacts, energy consumption and efficiency, energy prices, energy diversification, renewable energy opportunities, strategy for the market, and the example of Poland

  15. Urban activism in Central and Eastern Europe: A theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bitušíková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study brings an overview of selected transdisciplinary theoretical approaches to the study of urban movements and activism placed within the framework of civil society and social movements, focused on the region of Central and Eastern Europe, and seen from a social anthropological perspective. It attempts to challenge older academic writings that described civil society in Central and Eastern Europe as underdeveloped and weak, and presents research that points out a specific nature of activism in the countries of the region. It builds primarily on the concepts of civil society, social movements, urban movements and urban activism as presented by scholars both from “Western” and “Central and Eastern” European countries and demonstrates that after more than two decades since the fall of communism it is still important to take different historic, political, economic, social and cultural contexts into account when comparing urban movements and activism within Europe.

  16. CIS/Eastern countries. A curtain raising on eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Slowly and laboriously a new russian petroleum industry is setting in. To illustrate this new scenery, statistical data and maps, giving the production and consumption rates are presented. Two big companies (Shell and B.P.) stand for the privatization of Rosneft, the russian petroleum group. The legal and financial petroleum aspects of Russian are changing but very slowly, attracting the western companies around the petroleum industry. But this interest remains careful. The european bank of investment (BEI) decided to take a financial share in the eastern energy. (A.L.B.)

  17. The "East" Becomes the "South"? The "Autumn of the People" and the Future of Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Adam

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the fall of communism in eastern Europe. Applies Latin America models to eastern Europe. Suggests that revolutions are shaped by the systems against which they are directed. Concludes that the problems of eastern Europe are not caused by the system so much as by geography. Argues that poor capitalism may lie in the future for eastern…

  18. REGIONALIZATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE: OBSTACLES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Horváth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional policy depends on efficient administrative systems for designing and implementing strategies, and places considerable demands on Member States’ public administrations in terms of e.g. financial management and monitoring; project selection procedures; ex ante environmental impact assessments and cost-benefit analyses; and the monitoring and evaluation of outputs, results and impacts. EU member states have taken a range of different approaches to the administration of regional policy.The construction of regions in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe became one of the important debate topics for preparation for EU membership. Despite the numerous similarities in the changes that have taken place in the territorial structures of the Eastern and Central European countries, the differences in the responses individual countries gave to the challenges of regional development and the varied results of their development efforts demonstrate that the “Eastern European Bloc” is at least as heterogeneous as the former member states of the European Union. EU accession opened up a Pandora’s Box in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe. The fundamental issue of how unitarily structured states can be set on a decentralised path became the centre of debate. The paper introduces the Central and Eastern European achievements of region building processes and searches for an explanation of the reasons for the difficulties of Eastern and Central Europe in regional construction; it summarises the administrative and political development pre-requisites of the transition to a regional outline of the possible advantages of a regional institutional system in the creation of the Cohesion Policy ensuring a decrease in regional differences.

  19. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  20. Personal Bankruptcy Regulations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Hetes-Gavra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from Central and Eastern Europe are in different stages of development andimplementation of personal bankruptcy legislation. Austria has regulations comparable to those inWestern Europe, while the Czech Republic and Poland have recently developed regulationsregarding the bankruptcy of individuals. The solutions identified in countries that have followed asimilar path, namely the abandonment of a centrally planned economy and transition to afunctioning market economy, which consequently led to the problem of individual bankruptcy, canalso be applied selectively in Romania in the next period.

  1. The Nuclear Power Revival in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayou, Celine

    2007-01-01

    Far from traumatized by the April 1986 Chernobyl accident, the Central and Eastern European countries as well as the CIS are showing a growing interest in nuclear energy: this choice may be explained by increased energy demands and safer supply requirements but also by the battle against global warming. In effect, commitments made on limiting greenhouse gas emissions (particularly for the EU new member states) are becoming increasingly important as these countries return to growth. Thus, nuclear power seems to be a partial but secure means of not endangering the latter while adopting a more respectful stance vis-a-vis the environment. Thus, each country is coming out in favour of the civilian use of nuclear power: Russia has been reviving its nuclear program over the last few years, while countries obliged to close their decrepit or Soviet style power stations (Bulgaria, Slovakia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Armenia) have projects to build new ones. Those who possess reactors (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, the Ukraine) are endeavouring to increase their potential, those which had hitherto no civilian nuclear facilities are now planning to build them (Belarus, Albania) or are contributing to projects in neighbouring countries (Estonia, Latvia, Poland). Within this context, the anti-nuclear argument has difficulty in finding a voice in the East

  2. Eastern Europe's nuclear power. Buying peace of mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The use of nuclear power to generate electricity is much more widely used in Eastern Europe than it is generally in the West. When these countries were part of the centrally planned economies of the former Soviet Union, many vast reactors were constructed and commissioned. Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and following political independence from Russia, many of these huge reactors are under threat of closure. The energy situation in Eastern Europe is acute. The break down of the old order has left individual countries struggling to maintain a power supply. While the debate over the safety, or otherwise, of these giant nuclear power plants continues, there is a continuing dialogue in the West about how to pay for safety improvements to bring these reactors up to international standards of safety. (UK)

  3. Specialization and Agglomeration Patterns in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman, Sheila A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates specialization and agglomeration trends in EU-27 NUTS2 regions over 1991-2011 by means of two versions of the relative Theil indicator that use employment data. The paper’s main focus is on Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs regions. As a legacy of central planning, in the early ‘Nineties these regions presented significantly above-average specialization and agglomeration. The paper shows that over 1991-2011 these features change very little; moreover, while disproportions fall in the other EU members, they rise in CEECs, implying growing divergence among the two groups in real terms, notwithstanding EU emphasis on real convergence. Indicators disaggregated by sectors show that for CEECs specialization/agglomeration change most in agriculture, market services and manufacturing. The paper focuses on the last two sectors. It argues that performance in the service sector is largely due to capital regions catching up on previous underdevelopment in the sector, therefore getting closer to Western regions. Non-capital regions instead lag behind, moving away from the EU sectoral average. As far as manufacturing is concerned, CEECs regions continue to specialize in the more traditional lines of production, for which also agglomeration remains extremely high. Consideration of the changes over time gives a partially different picture and shows that the higher specialization in overall manufacturing results from the development of a small but dynamic medium-high technology sub-sector that is significantly disseminated across regions, thus appearing to result from successful industrial restructuring and reconversion.

  4. Foreign investment law in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Cheryl W.; Jarosz, William

    1993-01-01

    One of the most remarkable developments in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has been the region's opening to foreign direct investment. CEE states saw foreign investment climb from minuscule amounts in 1989 to more than $7 billion in 1992. All CEE states have enacted new laws on foreign investment as well as related legislation in areas such as taxation and company and environmental law. The authors describe these efforts at legal reform and assess their impact on foreign investment in light ...

  5. Anti-corruption trainig programs in center and eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    bryane michael

    2005-01-01

    Drawing upon the work of the NISPAcee Working Group on Preventing Corruption in Public Administration, this book reviews the current state of anti-corruption training and education in Central and Eastern Europe. Original data and analysis from anti-corruption trainers and policymakers from over 7 countries in the region -- Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russian Federation, Serbia, Ukraine, and others -- is assembled into the compilation. Each country analysis reviews anti- corruption legi...

  6. Locational Strategies of International Hotel Corporations in Eastern Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Colin; Dembinski, Paul; Vanetti, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated expansion strategies of international hotel operators in Eastern Central Europe. Due to the growing importance of services in economic development, there is an impressive body of knowledge on the process of internationalization and service industries. The last comprehensive academic study on internationalization and the hotel industry was undertaken at the beginning of the 1990’s, however, and we believed that with the major changes impacting upon the industry due to t...

  7. Opinion polling in Central and Eastern Europe under communism

    OpenAIRE

    Henn, M

    2000-01-01

    Whilst political opinion polling occupies a well-entrenched position within contemporary capitalist political systems, the same cannot be said for the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. This article focuses primarily on the development of political opinion polling in these countries in the period prior to the collapse of communist regimes at the end of 1989. Polling was a feature of these communist-led societies, although it was limited in terms of its activities, the scope of issue cov...

  8. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań.

  9. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe.

  10. Eastern Europe, a challenge for Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauve, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The opening up of Eastern Europe represents a real challenge for Electricite de France. Since the annual growth of electricity consumption in France will be limited to about 1% at the turn of the century, Electricite de France is targetting Europe to ensure its development. The restructuring in the East offers a real opportunity, but nevertheless remains a source of deep uncertainty. The electricity systems of Central and Eastern Europe need to be virtually rebuilt. Yet the constraints are far from being resolved. The supply of international finance is insufficient to cover the stakes involved, given the risks and the uncertainties of the projects'profitability. The seriousness of the problems, notably of nuclear safety, calls for an immediate response. In this respect, Electricite de France could perhaps claim the credit for having been more ready to roll up its sleeves than the others. The strategy is developed along two lines. Firstly, the aim is to build links so as to have more in-depth knowledge about the characteristics of each country, detect opportunities, and share the risks and investment costs; secondly, to firmly establish ourselves in the countries concerned in order to evaluate the efficiency of the possible means of action, and to determine the necessary changes

  11. Energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - The first year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first stages of the energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - taking stock of the heritage of the past and conceptualizing the nature of reforms - were accomplished in 1990. While two countries - the USSR and Albania -introduced some market economy elements into central energy planning and basically maintained the latter, all other countries of central and eastern Europe opted for a replacement of central energy planning by market-oriented energy policies and practices. In those latter countries, a typical policy of market adaptation emerged consisting of a change of policies, institutions, economic instruments and relations. Differences in the conditions prevailing in the various countries resulted in the emergence of specific national ''models'' of market adaptation. The reforms, if successful, would imply: greater energy efficiency, reduced pollution, enhanced nuclear safety, a reduced impact on the climate, greater business opportunities, the closure of uneconomic capacities, a decline of coal production, a rise in unemployment; a rise of the energy trade dependence coupled with a rise of gas and oil imports; but practically no change of the net energy exports of the USSR. By the end of 1990 developed market economies agreed to co-ordinate assistance (within the ''Group of 24'') and determined the type and modalities of support. This support would enable and encourage the economies in transition to finalize reform, stimulate their practical implementation and address side effects (disinvestments, unemployment) and systematic risks (e.g. trade dependence) and opportunities (e.g. trade diversification). The business community and lending institutions would have to assess and support investments opportunities more actively. Intergovernmental organizations will play an important role in improving the conditions for business involvement. In 1990, the frameworks for energy reforms in central and eastern Europe, short term assistance, long term business

  12. FDI and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe H. Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the major trends in scholarship about the role of FDI and exports on economic growth, the effect of tax policies on FDI, the formation of the economic catch up of the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE region and the determinants of FDI inflows in CEE nations. I am specifically interested in how previous research investigated the influence of FDI on host country economic growth, the inward FDI stock as a percentage of GDP, the features and restrictions of fiscal schemes in CEE economies and the institutional soundness displayed in policies towards FDI. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to research on FDI as a mechanism in the transition to the market, the dissimilarities in the FDI-assisted development methods among the CEE nations, the impact of FDI inflows for productivity convergence in CEE and the current slowing of growth in emerging Europe.

  13. INTRODUCTION. TRANSITION INTO RETIREMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Krzyżowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue of “Contributions to Humanities” presents various aspects of transitions to retirement in Europe, particularly in post-communist countries. The process of retirementis analysed from various points of view; to name afew: the political perspective and the challengesfaced by current public pension systems in ageing societies, the macro perspectivewhich analyses the structural reasons for (early retirement, and the micro perspective ofindividuals and their ways of experiencing and dealing with exit from the labour market.Therefore, for this issue we sought out an array of papers that extensively discuss the problemof retirement, and inevitably the problem of aging, in Eastern and Central Europe. Obviously,this publication examines only afraction of this broad problem and is by no means exhaustive,thus we hope that it will serve to stimulatethe further discussion.

  14. Investing in the gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, H.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation explains what are the most common bottlenecks for foreign investments in the gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe. Taking into account the investment needs arising in economies in transition, from investor's point of view the issue of great importance is the risk when prices are not yet at market equivalent levels. Changes in the policy (regulatory, legal, financial) environment should stimulate investments. Privatization and liberalization are also driven by lack of public capital. Foreign investment would need a predictable investment environment. The investment needs of the gas industry would compete with other investments that might be more attractive

  15. Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning, ECED 2015 - Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Scientific conference deals with problems of reactor decommissioning and radioactive waste management in the Central Europe. The Conference included the following sessions: (1): Characterisation and Radioactive Waste Management; (2) Managerial Aspects of Decommissioning; (3) JAVYS Experience with Back-End of Nuclear Power Engineering - Progress in Last 2 Years; (4) Decommissioning Planning and Costing and Education; (5) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning; (6) Radioactive Waste Management; (4) Poster Session. The Book of Abstracts contains two invitation speeches and 30 abstracts.

  16. The HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHovitz, Jack; Uuskula, Anneli; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia represent one of the few regions globally where there is a continued increase in the incidence of HIV infection. For example, in Eastern Europe the rate of diagnosed cases of HIV infection per 100 000 population has increased from 11.7 in 2004 to 22.5 in 2011. Initially propelled by injection drug use, heterosexual transmission has now become a major driver of new infections in the region. Nonetheless substance use remains an important factor, with its control limited by challenges in scaling up harm reduction efforts. While most countries have implemented opioid substitution therapy programs, their scale remains very limited. Similarly, coverage of needles syringe programs across the region is variable. Complicating the control of HIV has been the emergence of non-injection drugs and inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy. In addition, structural barriers and stigma toward HIV infected people may contribute to the high proportion of late presentations for HIV care. Finally in the wake of the HIV epidemic, high rates of hepatitis C infection and tuberculosis have been noted.

  17. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TAXATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BOROVINA (COJOCARU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the economic crisis that started in the United States in 2007, economic growth has become of great importance for the countries affected by the crisis further to their confrontation with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. At national level, governments are searching for that mix of optimal economic policies that would revive economies on the upward and also sustainable trend. One of the key policies in this regard, especially for the countries in Central and Eastern Europe which intend to adopt the euro currency, is the tax policy. Its main instruments are taxes. In this paper, we pay special attention to these instruments and to the connection that they have with the economic growth. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part presents a few ideas related to the importance of taxes at national level, the second part is an analysis in terms of taxation of the Central and Eastern Europe countries, while the third part consists of a panel-type assessment of the relation between economic growth and taxation level.

  18. Scenarios for economy and environment in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, J.C.; Hettelingh, J.P.; Maas, R.J.M.

    1996-10-01

    In 1993 an integrated assessment of the World Bank developed economic scenarios of Central and Eastern European countries was carried out, primarily for emissions, deposition and concentrations of SO x , NO x Particulates, Cadmium en VOCs. Other topics dealt with were quality of soils, groundwater and rivers in Europe. The report forms a background document to the World Bank's 'Environmental Action Programme or Central and Eastern Europe' (EAP). Economic development in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries is far from favorable. Production and consumption have declined by 70% compared to 1990. However, economic prospects seem to be better. The World Bank expects that economic growth will be supported by structural shifts in the production process towards less material-intensive production and reliance on resources. Emissions have been reduced significantly compared to 1990. If in a period of economic recovery, the newly installed capital stock is geared to Western European standards, further reductions may be achieved. To improve the energy efficiency of CEE countries, energy prices will have to increase. It has been assumed that they will harmonize with Western European energy prices. Hot spots are defined as those regions which, by 2010, are still expected to suffer from an exceedance of particulates, SO 2 or cadmium concentrations with respect to WHO air quality guidelines. These regional hot spots can be assisted by locally accelerating investments in new capital equipment in such a way that the whole capital stock will operate with Western European Standards by 2010. Not all environmental problems can be resolved by 2010. Implementation of all best available technologies in CEE is necessary, if all the environmental problems are to be solved. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients treated for rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America.

    OpenAIRE

    Podlekareva, D.N.; Schultze, A; Panteleev, A; Skrahina, A.M.; Miro, J.M.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Rakhmanova, A; Miller, R.F.; Efsen, A.M.W.; Losso, M.H.; Toibaro, J; Vassilenko, A; Girardi, E; Lundgren, J.D.; Mocroft, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The high mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients in Eastern Europe is partly explained by the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB. It remains unclear whether outcomes of HIV/TB patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe differ from those in Western Europe or Latin America. METHODS One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America was analys...

  20. Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Futo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The analytical and statistical services of border management organizations in Central and Eastern European countries have registered and accumulated a vast body of knowledge on the demographics and mechanisms of illegal migration over the last one-and-a-half decade. This paper attempts to tap this resource by summarising the results of a yearly survey among border guards of 17 countries. A set of quantitative indicators of illegal migration is developed, presented and interpreted, based on the answers of the border services to a series of quantitative and qualitative questions. This empirical material is used to evaluate the dynamics and pattern of illegal migration in Central and Eastern Europe on the one hand, and to examine the development of border management strategies on the other. The impacts of legal and institutional reforms are investigated in light of the temporal and spatial variations of border apprehension statistics. The interdependence of the two processes is reviewed from the point of view of national border management authorities, perhaps the most authoritative source of information on the issue. The results of the authors’ annual survey indicate that the progressive development of migration control mechanisms at national and international levels seems to have a significant impact on irregular migration flows as most indicators of illegal migration have significantly decreased after the turn of the century. At the same time, the geographical distribution of illegal migration flows in Central and Eastern European countries has become more complex over the years.

  1. AGRICULTURAL SECTOR TRANSFORMATION IN SELECTED COUNTRIES OF SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushtrim Braha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Governing the process of economic transformation is one of the most prominent issues arising since the fall of the Iron Curtain. After the successful transition model of the Central and Eastern European countries and their EU accession, the main anchors of the EU enlargement are directed into the South Eastern part of the continent. Most obviously, the EU enlargement is entering into the new phase of its expansion. In this paper we evaluate the state of transformation in the agricultural sector of the potential EU members comprising countries constituting the South Eastern Europe (the Western Balkans, and Turkey. We analyze whether the significant transitional changes occurred in the agricultural sector in observed countries. The main areas of our interest involve the comparative analysis of the state of economic transformation and the income convergence, the economic importance of agriculture in the potential EU Members, impact of economic transformation on the agricultural assets, agricultural policy implications, investigation of consumption patterns and poverty prevalence.

  2. Environmental noise and annoyance in adults: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Lekaviciute

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work on the adverse effects of noise on annoyance in adults is well documented in Western Europe, but there is a knowledge gap concerning this type of research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The objective of this review was to present findings and to propose future research directions for the studies on the effects of environmental noise on annoyance in adults conducted in these countries. After systematic search in accessible databases, scientific journals, conference proceedings, international and national reports in English and other languages, the authors identified 29 papers to be included to this review: 24 papers related to annoyance due to road traffic noise and 5 papers related to annoyance from other noise sources. In most of the identified studies, a cross-sectional design prevailed and the evaluations were mainly performed subjectively. The lack of recent annoyance studies related to railway and aircraft traffic noise was identified. Only two studies from NIS countries used noise exposure data for the evaluation of population annoyance according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END. Capacity building in CEE, SEE, and NIS countries is necessary to acquire the "know-how" on how to implement and use the different scenarios for evaluating population annoyance by environmental noise, depending on the availability and suitability of noise exposure data. Particular attention should be given to the possible use of END noise exposure data, where applicable.

  3. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  4. Europe in Movement: Migration from and into Eastern and Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Okólski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two historical events have had a fundamental importance in shaping the new migration trends in Eastern and Central Europe (ECE: the collapse of the Soviet block and the region’s return to Europe, when the first eight countries became full members of the European Unionon 1 May 2004 as a point of inflection. Before 1990, and for several decades, international migration was contained by the totalitarian regimes of the ECE. Based on this scenario, the study describes the different kinds of migration movements that have taken place inthe region since 1989; it analyses migration processes from and into the ECE following its incorporation into the European Union, as well as examining the possible causes for the size, dynamics and geographic direction of the migration flows that took place between EU-8 and EU-15, since the EU carried out its eastward enlargement.

  5. Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Neculita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement has become a fundamental priority of the European Union after the 90’s. Up to now seven rounds have been held for enlarging the Community which initially was made up of six Member States (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Among all EU enlargements, the eastward enlargement from 2004 was the biggest challenge, both due to the number of new Member States which joined - the number of EU inhabitants increasing to approximately from 380 to 485 million, but also due to the difference of Gross Domestic Product between the old and new EU members. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration and absorption of European funds into the newest that joined the European Union. The paper proposes an analysis of integration and specialization in Eastern Europe by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions.

  6. Central and Eastern Europe aim to protect their ecological backbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    Important environmental issues face the newly democratic countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The problems of habitat and wildlife conservation are given less attention than other issues such as air and water pollution. However, a variety of opportunities exist to protect the remaining wild areas. Existing national parks, undeveloped lands especially along borders, and the Danube delta ecosystem still retain wild character, at least in part. Lack of money and equipment, the rush to privatization, lack of government priority, small core areas of wild land, and the effects of pollution all stand in the way of conservation efforts. Technical aid is coming from aid funding through US agencies and environmental and conservation organizations, but the future remains a concern.

  7. Forest decline research in Eastern Central Europe and Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, M.; Kirchner, M.; Kirchinger, E.; Reiter, H.; Roesel, K.; Pfeifer, U.

    1991-07-01

    In 26 conference contributions, the condition of the forest in eastern central Europe (new Federal German laender, CSFR, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Poland) and in Bavaria and Austria is described. The methodics of the countries' comprehensive monitoring and ecosystem analyzes in selected sites with their results are presented, mostly for the 80s. Possibilities and advantages of the modelling of forest ecosystems by computer are indicated as well as the gain of knowledge from extensive screening. For some regions, especially the Sudeten, maps showing the spatial distribution of airborne pollutants are presented. Pollutant concentrations are, in part, related to emittors. In almost all cases, indirect effects of acidic gaseous pollutants via changes in soil chemism are blamed for tree disease jointly with other factors or their outcome (silvicultural mistakes, drought, insect infestation). A striking fact is that in Hungary and Romania, unlike other European countries, oak-trees not conifers are most seriously affected. (UWA) [de

  8. Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    facilities there. These processes result in intensive penetration of companies through foreign direct investment into the CEE region. Simultaneously, the foreign investing companies face the specific context of a region that poses new requirements to their investment strategies, approaches and practices....... Covering a diverse range of CEE countries, as well as referring to the characteristics of the region as a whole, this book examines the inflow and outflow of foreign direct investment from both home and host company and country perspectives. By analyzing foreign direct investment in terms of process......, content and context, the book provides a holist approach towards foreign direct investment in the transitional context of CEE. The book includes a comprehensive study of the motives of multi-national companies for investing in Central and Eastern Europe through various investment modes and the degree...

  9. Institutional Determinants of International Migration from Central-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka FIHEL

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the role of institutional determinants for international migration from Central and Eastern Europe. In the whole post-war period international mobility has been stimulated by economic incentives, such as income disparities and unemployment, and also by particular solutions in migration policies in the receiving countries. Ethnic and asylum procedures, selective labor recruitments, visas barriers, regularization programs have mostly directed and intensified labor migration from CEE countries.Recently the EU enlargement (and, consequently, opening of member states’ labor markets became another institutional enhancement for migrating. The 2004 accession of eight CEE countries has been followed by a massive flow from CEE to the UK and Ireland that, together with Sweden, opened their labor markets for migrant workers. In 2007 Bulgaria and Romania will gain the access into EU, but the directions of mobility has been already established for Romanian and Bulgarian citizens: the main destination countries are Italy and Spain. The dynamics of migration from Romania and Bulgaria to South Europe has been extraordinary high since around 2000, mainly due to low legislative barriers and high demand for low-paid work. Again, the institutional determinant, such as overall acceptance towards illegal, foreign workers and regularization programs, turned out to be decisive.

  10. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data.

  11. Fiscal Descentralization in Eastern Europe: Trends and Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander ARISTOVNIK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to provide an overview of the fiscal decentralization process in emerging market economies in Eastern Europe in the last 20 years. Using the methodology developed by Vo (2009, the article assesses the degree of fiscal decentralization in the region. Conceptually, the measurement of fiscal decentralization focuses on fiscal autonomy and on the fiscal importance of subnational governments. The empirical analysis reveals that the highest level of fiscal decentralization (centralization is found in Russia (Armenia among non-EU members and in Estonia (Slovak Republic among EU members of the Eastern European countries. In addition, the empirical results show that, in general, the degree of fiscal decentralization is higher in developed OECD countries than in most Eastern European countries (EECs. However, in contrast to our expectations, there has been an alarming downward trend of the fiscal decentralization index (FDI in most countries of the region over the last two decades. Moreover, the article also examines the effects of fiscal decentralization on growth and public sector size in EECs. The analysis provides some evidence that increases in public sector decentralization are associated with higher income levels. Finally, our results suggest that fiscal decentralization in EECs generally leads to an increase in the size of government, albeit there are some significant differences between EU and non-EU member states.

  12. Scientific-technical studies on the nuclear safety and effectiveness of regulatory systems abroad (particularly in Eastern Europe and at INSC partners). Reactor construction lines and knowledge networks (LV-2); Wissenschaftlich-technische Untersuchungen zur nuklearen Sicherheit und Wirksamkeit regulatorischer Systeme im Ausland (insbesondere in Osteuropa und bei INSC-Partnern). Reaktorbaulinien und Wissensnetze (LV-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Wolfgang; Tosch, B.; Teske, H.; and others

    2017-06-15

    Within the BMUB project 3614R01520 with a term from 01.12.2014 to 31.05.2017, GRS has continued its work on the analysis and evaluation of nuclear safety, radiation protection and the effectiveness of regulatory systems abroad. This was done both by means of our own scientific and technical investigations as well as by our participation in international activities on questions of nuclear safety abroad as well as by tracking the development of selected new reactor concepts and the regulatory framework. The collection, elaboration, further development and maintenance of the necessary knowledge with regard to of nuclear safety abroad (particularly in Eastern Europe and INSC partners) was systematically continued. Other work packages were focused on the adaptation and pilot application of modern analytical methods and GRS programs to reactor plants of Russian design, as a rule together with competent partner organizations from the respective countries, as well as on the conceptual development of knowledge management methods and cooperation platforms. This work also included the pilot testing of selected suitable instruments for knowledge management. The present final report summarizes the results obtained in the 17 work packages of the project.

  13. Eastern Spiritual Traditions Through the Lens of Modern Scientific Worldview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana V. Danylova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims to analyze Eastern spiritual traditions in the context of modern scientific worldview. Methodology. The author has used hermeneutical methodology, along with integrative approach. Theoretical basis and results. Modern perception of the world is undergoing drastic changes: it shifts towards plurality, temporality, and complexity. Increasingly, people feel that their familiar world of order and stability gives way to chaotic, unpredictable world, which exists under its own rules. Old scientific theories, ideologies, and values are destroyed. This leads to awareness of imbalance, ambiguity of human existence and, thus, to the new explanation and understanding of reality. Today the universe is perceived through the lens of syncretism: it is impossible to separate human from nature, consciousness from matter, subject from object. Humanity faces such a chaotic, uncertain worldview not for the first time. Duality and attempts to overcome it permeate the entire history: from traditional archaic cultures to modern civilized societies. M. Foucault, J. Derrida, R. Barthes, U. Eco, G. Deleuze, J.-F.Lyotard urged to abandon dogmatism, monologue perception and explanation, interpretation based on binary oppositions. The world, which is necessary to reach, occurs to be Nothing, Nothingness. In this world, people are seeking for reality regardless of any rules, regulations, notions, and concepts. Here artificial constructs of the human mind, such as Material – Ideal, Determinism - Indeterminism, Finiteness - Infinity, Necessity – Randomness, are united. Trying to reconcile continuity of being with discreteness of consciousness, they appeal to Eastern mystical teachings, in particular, to Zen Buddhism. The core concept of this school is also based on the unity of all things and the idea of the singularity of the world. The main goal of Eastern mystical traditions is to achieve the state of absolute unity through meditative techniques

  14. EASTERN SPIRITUAL TRADITIONS THROUGH THE LENS OF MODERN SCIENTIFIC WORLDVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana V. Danylova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims to analyze Eastern spiritual traditions in the context of modern scientific worldview. Methodology. The author has used hermeneutical methodology, along with integrative approach. Theoretical basis and results. Modern perception of the world is undergoing drastic changes: it shifts towards plurality, temporality, and complexity. Increasingly, people feel that their familiar world of order and stability gives way to chaotic, unpredictable world, which exists under its own rules. Old scientific theories, ideologies, and values are destroyed. This leads to awareness of imbalance, ambiguity of human existence and, thus, to the new explanation and understanding of reality. Today the universe is perceived through the lens of syncretism: it is impossible to separate human from nature, consciousness from matter, subject from object. Humanity faces such a chaotic, uncertain worldview not for the first time. Duality and attempts to overcome it permeate the entire history: from traditional archaic cultures to modern civilized societies. M. Foucault, J. Derrida, R. Barthes, U. Eco, G. Deleuze, J.-F.Lyotard urged to abandon dogmatism, monologue perception and explanation, interpretation based on binary oppositions. The world, which is necessary to reach, occurs to be Nothing, Nothingness. In this world, people are seeking for reality regardless of any rules, regulations, notions, and concepts. Here artificial constructs of the human mind, such as Material – Ideal, Determinism - Indeterminism, Finiteness - Infinity, Necessity – Randomness, are united. Trying to reconcile continuity of being with discreteness of consciousness, they appeal to Eastern mystical teachings, in particular, to Zen Buddhism. The core concept of this school is also based on the unity of all things and the idea of the singularity of the world. The main goal of Eastern mystical traditions is to achieve the state of absolute unity through meditative techniques

  15. Noise and children′s health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children′s health in relation to noise exposure.

  16. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients treated for rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-28

    The high mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients in Eastern Europe is partly explained by the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB. It remains unclear whether outcomes of HIV/TB patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe differ from those in Western Europe or Latin America. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America was analysed and compared in a prospective observational cohort study. Factors associated with death were analysed using Cox regression modelsRESULTS:: Three hundred and forty-one patients were included (Eastern Europe 127, Western Europe 165, Latin America 49). Proportions of patients with disseminated TB (50, 58, 59%) and initiating rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide-based treatment (93, 94, 94%) were similar in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America respectively, whereas receipt of antiretroviral therapy at baseline and after 12 months was lower in Eastern Europe (17, 39, 39%, and 69, 94, 89%). The 1-year probability of death was 16% (95% confidence interval 11-24%) in Eastern Europe, vs. 4% (2-9%) in Western Europe and 9% (3-21%) in Latin America; P death compared with those in Western Europe/Latin America (aHR 2.79 (1.15-6.76); P = 0.023). Despite comparable use of recommended anti-TB treatment, mortality of patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB remained higher in Eastern Europe when compared with Western Europe/Latin America. The high mortality in Eastern Europe was only partially explained by IDU, use of ART and CD4 cell count. These results call for improvement of care for TB/HIV patients in Eastern Europe.

  17. Mortality from HIV and TB coinfections is higher in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe and Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Mocroft, Amanda; Post, Frank A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death in HIV-infected patients worldwide. We aimed to study clinical characteristics and outcome of 1075 consecutive patients diagnosed with HIV/TB from 2004 to 2006 in Europe and Argentina. METHODS: One-year mortality was assessed...... in patients stratified according to region of residence, and factors associated with death were evaluated in multivariable Cox models. RESULTS: At TB diagnosis, patients in Eastern Europe had less advanced immunodeficiency, whereas a greater proportion had a history of intravenous drug use, coinfection...... with 7, 9 and 11% in Central/Northern Europe, Southern Europe, and Argentina, respectively (P

  18. Denmark's environmental assistance to Central and Eastern Europe 1991-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    Denmark’s Environmental Assistance to Eastern Europe 1991-1996, an assessment of project achievements, environmental policy performance and the role of foreign assistance. Main report October 1998 by Mikael Skou Andersen, Aarhus University in cooperation with PLS Consult and KPMG: The report...... is a summary and synthesis of the results of the external evaluation of the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) initiated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) in 1997. It provides the principles for environmental assistance in the period 1991-96 and contains...... activities and improvements in the existing framework for Danish environmental assistance to Eastern Europe....

  19. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  20. Nuclear legislation in central and eastern europe and the NIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This study presents the current state of legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the central and eastern European countries (CEEC) and the New Independent States (NIS). It also contains information on the national bodies responsible for the regulation and control of nuclear energy. The nuclear energy sector has not escaped from the changes that have affected the political, economic and social climates over the past fifteen years. Under the former socialist regime, activities in this field came within the sole remit of the State administration. In the legal area, it had not been deemed necessary in most of these countries to enact laws guaranteeing democratic control of electronuclear programmes and establishing a clear distinction between activities promoting this source of energy and regulatory control, while ensuring that safety imperatives take priority over all other considerations. With the arrival of new political forces came the will to remedy this situation promptly by creating new regulatory structures and drafting legislative texts based on those used in western countries. This evolution was all the more necessary given that, at the same time, the new policy of accountability had revealed safety defects in numerous nuclear installations in these countries, thus rendering international assistance indispensable. From the legal point of view, the outcome of these years of effort is remarkably positive: almost all countries of Eastern Europe pursuing electronuclear programmes have established institutions capable of exercising efficient control over nuclear power plants and other installations. Accession to the international conventions which form the backbone of nuclear law has become widespread. Modern legislation is henceforth in place in almost all of these states. (author)

  1. Riparian Collembola (Hexapoda) communities of northern Moldova, Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buşmachiu, Galina; Kováč, Ľubomír; Miklisová, Dana; Weiner, Wanda Maria

    2017-01-01

    Collembola were studied in a well-preserved riverine section of the Prut River in the Republic of Moldova. The study was focused on species diversity and habitat preferences of the particular species at two localities. Riparian habitats of the Prut River near Branişte included open river bank, forest belt and meadow, and the shore of Lake Costeşti-Stânca included meadow, pasture and shrub vegetation. In total 77 collembolan species were recorded, of which Neanura moldavica and Arrhopalites prutensis were endemic to Moldova. Comparative analyses showed a specific community composition at Branişte, with Anurida ellipsoides and Mesaphorura macrochaeta being abundant on the river bank and Hemisotoma thermophila in the meadow. In contrast, the forest plantation at the same locality was similar to the shrub-land in Costeşti, with the common species Mesaphorura critica , M. yosii , Deutonura albella and Isotomiella minor . Hygrophilous species preferred the habitats of the river section in Branişte, with quiet backwaters, to the artificial shoreline of the large lake. Species diversity was relatively high in the natural meadow and forest in Branişte and also in shrub-land on the lake shore. The present study documented relatively high collembolan species diversity at the shoreline and running water sections in the upper catchment area of the Prut River in Moldova that involve naturally valuable inundated habitats of Eastern Europe.

  2. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Czech and Slovak Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-06-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study the conditions for utilising wind power and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in the Czech and Slovak republics, which has been concentrated on the following areas: A collection of information on the wind energy potential in these countries and the present structure of the power production system including costs; A search for information concerning payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power, existing wind turbines and their production; An estimate of the possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Czech, Slovak, and EC factories; A compilation of information on rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, e.g. regulations related to grid connections, safety, and environmental production. In order to promote the utilisation of wind power in the Czech and Slovak Republics, some recommendations based on this study may be put forward: the operation of pilot plants should be evaluated in order to compare the recorded production with that which is estimated theoretically based on measured wind data. Existing wind data should be supplemented with new measurements especially at sites that based on current knowledge may be suitable for establishing wind parks. The economic feasibility of wind power in these countries should be calculated based on the best available physical and economic data. (EG)

  3. Human Capital and FDI in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dorozynska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the role of human capital in attracting FDI in the light of selected empirical studies conducted in Poland and globally. The literature on factors determining FDI location, including those relating to the importance of human capital, is dominated with studies at national or supranational level. Attracting foreign investment has become a key component of national strategies for the CEE countries. The paper makes an attempt to assess the relevance of human capital for FDI inflow at regional and local levels in Poland. At the same time, results of analyses were contrasted with quantitative surveys conducted in Central and Eastern Europe. Investing in education and human capital is important for creating good climate for investment. Evidence shows that achieving a certain minimum level of education is the precondition for a country to attract and maintain foreign direct investment and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital. We should also stress that such a minimum is different for different sectors of the economy. Results of the study conducted in the Lodz Region demonstrated that human capital is an important factor, which attracts FDI to the region.

  4. Nuclear power in eastern and central Europe. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1993-11-01

    The breakup of the former Soviet Union and other political changes in eastern and central Europe have opened up the area to closer scrutiny than was previously possible. Because of the accident at Chernobyl, nuclear power is one of the subjects that western nations have had a great deal of interest in exploring. The former Soviet Union designed and/or helped build more than 60 civilian reactors in the region. Most of these reactors follow one of two distinctly different designs: the VVER, or pressurized water reactor series; and the RBMK, which is a graphite-moderated, multi-channel reactor (the so-called Chernobyl type). In addition, there are two fast-breeder reactors and four graphite-moderated boiling water reactors for combined heat and power in operation in Russia. These last two designs are not widely distributed and so are not discussed in detail in this report. As noted above, the safety of Soviet-designed reactors has been of great concern around the world since the catastrophic events at Chernobyl in 1986. This paper will briefly describe the technology involved. It will also examine the main safety concerns, both technical and organizational, associated with each reactor type. In addition, the paper will review the nuclear power programs in the new countries emerging from the former Soviet Union and its satellites and discuss the international efforts underway to address the most pressing problems. (author). 1 tab

  5. Financial services liberalization and international integration in South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prica Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper analyses the regulatory framework for international trade in financial services within the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO, with special attention paid to the open issues including the scope of prudential measures and capital mobility limitations. The process of the international integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE countries is mainly dictated by their goal of EU integration. With regard to the services' sectors, a major liberalization step on the way is WTO accession. Of the countries in the region only Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro are still not WTO members and in order to become members significant liberalization commitments will be demanded of them. For this reason the second part of the paper deals with concrete financial liberalization commitments undertaken by the original WTO members in SEE and the newly WTO acceded SEE member countries. The last part of the paper provides a quantitative analysis of these commitments by means of the measurement of liberalization indices in the banking sectors in SEE countries. This is to provide a general idea of the scope of liberalization that may be required from a SEE country in order to achieve WTO membership on the road to EU integration.

  6. Reading into lesser bibliography of rare mustelids (Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Romanowski

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many research and conservation efforts on rare mustelids in Eastern Europe, Russia and states of CIS are in progress. On a total of 640 publications examined, the otter (428 and the European mink (195 were the most studied species, the Steppe and Marbled polecats (89 and 83 entries, and Honey-badger (24 were less considered. Titles written in national languages dominate, but a recent increase in the ratio of publications written or summarized in English or German was noted. Based on number and profile of publications, it is suggested that conservation of European mink requires more efforts and research. Riassunto Bibliografia poco nota sui Mustelidi rari (Europa orientale - Nei paesi dell'Europa dell'Est, Russia e stati del CIS inclusi, le ricerche e le iniziative di conservazione riguardanti i mustelidi rari sono in progresso. Dall'esame di 640 pubblicazioni, Lutra lutra (428 e Mustela lutreola (195 sono le specie più studiate, mentre meno considerate sono M. erversmanni (89, Vormela peregusna (83 e Mellivora capensis (24. Buona parte dei lavori è in lingua originale, ma recentemente è in incremento il numero di pubblicazioni scritte o riassunte in inglese o tedesco. Sulla base del numero dei lavori e dei temi trattati, si evidenzia che la conservazione del visone europeo richiederebbe maggiori sforzi e ricerche.

  7. CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION IN URBAN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. FOCUS ON KICKSTARTER INITIATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nicolae PĂCURAR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of innovation and creativity, as well as the territorial construct of city, have been, especially in the last few decades, the focus of an unprecendented and concerted scientific effort from all over the world. Many geographers, economists and urban planners studied how such a notions shape the fabric of urban areas and how they help them grow and develop. Kickstarter is an element of this triad, an innovative online platform which enables people to express their creativity and help gain funding for their ideas. This paper examines the Kickstarter projects launched in the 7 largest cities of three Central and Eastern European countries (Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, plot their distribution and attempt to see territorial patterns in their distribution across the urban areas of this part of the European Union and Europe itself.

  8. Contrasting ERP absorption between transition and developed economies from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernroider, Edward W.N.; Sudzina, Frantisek; Pucihar, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates Enterprise Resource Planning absorption in transition and developed economies in Central and Eastern Europe. Using absorptive capacity theory and data envelopment analysis, we view organizational transformation in Enterprise Resource Planning absorption as an economic...

  9. Molecular biogeography of red deer Cervus elaphus from eastern Europe: insights from mitochondrial DNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Honnen, Ann-Christin; Otto, Thurid; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Perzanowski, Kajetan; Skog, Anna; Hartl, Günther B.; Borowik, Tomasz; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Lang, Johannes; Zachos, Frank E.

    2010-01-01

    European red deer are known to show a conspicuous phylogeographic pattern with three distinct mtDNA lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian). The western lineage, believed to be indicative of a southwestern glacial refuge in Iberia and southern France, nowadays covers large areas of the continent including the British Isles, Scandinavia and parts of central Europe, while the eastern lineage is primarily found in southeast-central Europe, the Carpathians and the Balkans. However...

  10. 4. International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe. Symposium Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Fourth International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe was part of an on-going series of symposia which focus on the environmental problems of Central and Eastern Europe. The presentations concerned radiological contamination, hazardous waste management, environmental monitoring, modeling and computer applications for environmental studies, site remediation. Many works presented human health effects of environmental pollution by heavy metals, radionuclides and other xenobiotics

  11. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Labry Lima, Antonio Olry; Mochon, Leticia García; Martínez, Araceli Caro; Ruiz, Eva Martín; Balbino, Jaime Espin

    2016-02-01

    To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance.

  12. Web of science coverage and scientific performance of Central and Eastern European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploszaj, A.; Olechnicka, A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper put forward the hypothesis that changes in the list of journals, particularly in the number of periodicals published in specific Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, have a significant impact on bibliometric indicators and, consequently, on the convergence levels they are used to measure. The analyses presented in the article support the argument that countries from Central and Eastern Europe, despite showing fairly consistent convergence trends, achieve noticeably weaker results than Western Europe regarding research and development and scientific activity. The evident impact made by the inclusion of numerous CEE journals in WoS on the values of the indicator analysed, directly supports the hypothesis put forward in this article. The results of the study are important because data on the number of publications and citations in the Web of Science are increasingly used as development indicators of national R&D sectors. By showing how modifications in these databases influence the results obtained, we can better understand and thus make better use of data from these sources. The article concludes with listing the possibilities for furthering and deepening selected themes pointed out in the paper. (Author)

  13. Proceedings of the 1. Energy regulation and investment conference for Central/Eastern Europe and CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Regulators Regional Association ERRA

    2002-01-01

    The conference's topics are: Privatization and competition in the on energy issues in Central and Eastern Europe, in Southeast Europe, in the Commonwealth of Independent States; Pricing and investment policies in the regions; Electricity and district heating; Natural gas; Regional electricity trade, 15 papers were indexed and abstracted for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  14. Entrepreneurship Opportunities after Military Career: Practice in Central and Eastern versus Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa SMALIUKIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    differences between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Western Europe (WE practice. The results indicate the lack of entrepreneurship development policies for early retired servicemen, while service in military often provides highly specific competencies that can be adapted as transferable expertise and knowledge for entrepreneurship.

  15. Health sector reforms in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The political and economic transition of the 1990s in the countries of central and eastern Europe has been accompanied by wide ranging health care reform. The initial Soviet model has given way to a variety of forms of health insurance. Yet, as this paper argues, reform has too often been preoccupied with ideological imperatives, such as provider autonomy and the creation of funds separate from government, and has given much less thought to the contribution that health care can make to population health. The paper begins by examining the changing nature of health care. It recalls how the Soviet model was able to provide basic care to dispersed populations at low cost but notes how this is no longer sufficient in the face of an increasingly complex health care environment. This complexity reflects several factors, such as the growth in chronic disease, the emergence of new forms of infectious disease, and the introduction of new treatments requiring integrated delivery systems. It reviews evidence on how the former communist countries failed to keep up with developments in the west from the 1970s onwards, at a time when the complexity of health care was becoming apparent. It continues by setting out a framework for the organisation of health care based on the goal of health gain. This involves a series of activities that can be summarised as active purchasing, and which include assessment of health needs, designing effective packages of care, and monitoring outcomes. It concludes by arguing that a new relationship is needed between the state and the organisations involved in funding and delivering health care, to design a system that will tackle the considerable health needs of the people who live in this region.

  16. Reliability of public institutions in the transition of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Drogu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of dishonesty and distrust is often unclear phenomena in Eastern Europe. These are common issues discussed not only in print media and television, but also social environments as well. Corruption, so unfair advantage, lies, deceit and abuse of trust are mentioned frequently during the last decades a" er the change of system in the region, especially in Balkan Peninsula. Although dishonesty and distrust (+ corruption have existed in the previous system, however, they have been hidden phenomena or issues for which there is talk in this system. Research in terms of honesty and trust include a more areas in different sectors. International literature on the subject focuses on two fundamental topics. One of which is his faith and relationship with social capital. What do some of these concepts mean in our perception? What are the benefits and harmful effects of faith and are those connected with social equity and democratic consolidation? The search for this topic is interdisciplinary because it includes political sciences, social sciences, political, legal or sociologic-and those of anthropology. As a result this thesis will provide comparative scale impasse that creates two realities of different social complexity, from the countries that have experienced the post-socialist transition, belief in family and society that retains a holding in the operations of public institutions and may create difficulties to succeed the efforts to implement the law impartially. In conclusion: Corruption is an unreliable source, which comprises behavior and violates the trust placed on official- and public officials. It includes the use of public positions for personal benefit and it creates an ill infrastructure for fragile democracies.

  17. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients treated for rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    2017-01-01

    in Western Europe or Latin America. METHODS: One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America was analysed and compared in a prospective observational cohort study. Factors associated with death were analysed using Cox...... Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America respectively, whereas receipt of antiretroviral therapy at baseline and after 12 months was lower in Eastern Europe (17, 39, 39%, and 69, 94, 89%). The 1-year probability of death was 16% (95% confidence interval 11-24%) in Eastern Europe, vs. 4% (2......-9%) in Western Europe and 9% (3-21%) in Latin America; P death compared with those in Western Europe/Latin America (aHR 2.79 (1.15-6.76); P = 0...

  18. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristovska, Gordana; Lekaviciute, Jurgita

    2013-01-01

    Countries from South-East Europe (SEE), Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Newly Independent States (NIS) are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight ) for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study). Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  19. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  20. Translations on Eastern Europe, Scientific Affairs, Number 592.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-13

    Personnel (NAUKA POLSKA, Mar-Apr 78) 6 ROMANIA New Herbicide To Protect Trifolium Crops (N. Sarpe; AGRICULTURA SOCIALISTA, 13 May 78) 17...Developments in Chemical Fertilizer Production (Oliviu Popa Interview; AGRICULTURA . SOCIALISTA, 13 May 78) 19 -a - [III - EE - 65] HUNGARY...2602 16 ROMANIA NEW HERBICIDE TO PROTECT TRIPOLIUM CROPS Bucharest AGRICULTURA SOCIALISTA in Romanian 13 May ?8 p k /Article by Dr Engr N. Sarpe

  1. Translations on Eastern Europe, Scientific Affairs, Number 590

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-28

    summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques ...the Zsiguli, an actress, and Ruth Smith the mathematician got out in the City Park. In the true Hungarian smog darkening foggy Albion we favored the

  2. Translations on Eastern Europe, Scientific Affairs, Number 567

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-16

    Significance of Colon Polyps " Ilona Sz. Jonas, candidate of historical sciences, on the basis of her dissertation entitled "The Tax-Paying...could even say tenderly, and her eyes are smiling. No other behavior would be possible, for her audience consists of seven year old children . Hands...34Who will read the word?" asks the teacher gaily, inviting the children to join an interesting game. There is a chorus of answers—over 20 voices. Then

  3. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Chemistry No. 53

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-23

    antagonism manifested by DDVP. USSR UDC 632.95.021:634.1/.7 REQUIREMENTS FOR INSECTICIDES AND ACARICIDES USED FOR INTEGRATED PROTECTION OF...PROPERTIES AND AMINOACID SEQUENCE OF TWO CYTOTOXINS FROM THE VENOM OF MIDDLE ASIAN COBRA NAJA NAJA OXIANA Moscow BIOORGANICHESKAYA KHIMIYA in Russian...used to test for homogeneity of these cytotoxins. Aminoacid com- position and total aminoacid sequence of cytotoxins were determined, showing to

  4. Translations on Eastern Europe Scientific Affairs No. 559

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-19

    sciences; Jozsef Horvath, doctor of agricultural sciences, on the basis of his dis- sertation entitled " Virus Host Plants and Virus Differentiation...Methods of Harvesting and Drying Grain Maize , With Special Emphasis on the Manufacture of Corn Meal" Judit Daroczy, candidate of medical sciences, on...disserta- tion entitled "Relationship Between the Epstein-Barr Virus and Receptive Lymphoid" Gyorgy Gondos, candidate of chemical sciences, on the

  5. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts No. 75

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-17

    parainfluenza , adenovirus infection, and respiratory syncytial infection were found during the observation period in 183 families numbering 518 members...Hebdomadis, and Tarassovi and one form of the sapro- phytic group Semaranga on the same cellular systems—primarily trypsinized bovine , guinea pig, and swine

  6. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Physics. Number 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-02

    magnetic field in the area of large fields, the harmonics are due to the resonances of the standing magnetic -plasma waves in the plate; in the area...parameters of cerium, gadolinium and lutetium orthovanadite. Polytherms of heat capacity, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of these rare...of lasing in mixed ZnxCd^_xS single crystals, and it was found that the model of a simple " Fabry -Perot resonator ," i.e., an inverse layer on the

  7. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Chemistry, Number 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-12

    compounds. The new process consists of acidifying the waste water to a pH of1-2, then adding the coagulant ferrous sulphate (FeS04«7H 0) and calcium... regenerated . References: 4 Russian. 78 USSR UDC 613.34:628.165 DESALINATION AS A PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM IN THE USSR Moscow GIGIYENA I SANITARIYA in Russian...628.162[546.17]:628.315.2(439) METHODS FOR REMOVING THE NITROGEN CONTENT OF WASTEWATERS IN HUNGARY PART 2: BIOLOGICAL METHODS Budapest MAGYAR

  8. Translations on Eastern Europe, Scientific Affairs. Number 605

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    be used in the daily treatment of renal lithiasis . The Italian clinicians sent a letter to the CNST /National Council for Science and Technology...expressing the intention of founding a lithiasis institute over there for Covalitin treatment. /Q~uestion7 It is quite a token of esteem and a joy

  9. Translations on Eastern Europe, Scientific Affairs, Number 525.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-21

    condition. But ’the cultivation of some types of plants is the precursor of satellite "gardens" which would remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere...illegible] Jahre Volkspolens. Bilans der Entwicklung in politolo- gischer Sicht." Corresponding Member of PAN Wladyslaw Findeisen participated in the

  10. Translations on Eastern Europe, Scientific Affairs, Number 603

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-11

    Organization of Research and Development on a Self-Management Ba- sis The socioeconomic position of the workingman in social reproduction is the foundation...footing with the other working people in associated labor—the oppor- tunity to make decisions about all matters concerning social reproduction under

  11. Translations on Eastern Europe Scientific Affairs No. 547.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-03

    and annual leguminous plants and to perennial gramineous plants. Priorities in Production Support The attributes of the varieties and hybrids created...resistance to disease, and the quality of other grains (barley, rice, sorghum), as well as that of leguminous plants, fodder, flax, and so on. For...radicular zone .dropped from 20-40 percent to 10 percent and coincided with the reduction of the nitrogen applications for various crops. The program

  12. Translations on Eastern Europe, Scientific Affairs, Number 540

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-04

    chalcones with thallium (III) nitrate, for the preparation of isoflavonoids of natural origin" The paper describes a method for the synthesis of isoflavones...which starts from chalcones, involving the oxidative rearrangement of the latter with thallium (III) nitrate. The method is general and may be...Plums 7. Peppers 8. Grapes 9- Peaches 10. Cucumbers 11. Chestnuts 12. Cabbage 13. Potatoes Ik. Bread 15. [Parizer] 16. Cold cuts 17. Ham 18

  13. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Chemistry, Number 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-23

    V.l., RAKOV, A.P., ANDREYEV, G.F., Chuvash State University [Abstract] 2-methyl-3- oxo -3-ethoxy-6,3-oxaphosphabicyclo [3,1,0] hexane is synthesized...METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF 10- Oxo -4a-HYDROXY-10-PHOSPHAPERHYDROANTHRACENE USSR AUTHOR’S CERTIFICATE No 445760, FILED 12/03/73, PUBLISHED 19/12/75 in...12.4 g of dimethylchlorophosphine in CgHg monomer formaldehyde is passed in, obtained by depolimerization of paraform, until the reaction

  14. Energy implications of the move from a command to a market -based economy in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashmakov, I.

    1991-01-01

    Three scenarios of East Europe energy development till 2010 are considered. Calculation results show that in the short and long-term future Eastern Europe will encounter two types of difficulties. Firstly, the USSR can no longer cover strong demand for cheap oil from East European clients for the foreseeable future. Hence, Eastern Europe will need to find another source of oil supply and create corresponding infrastructure. Secondly, introduction of new rules in mutual trade of socialist countries and growth of the unit energy import value will force East European countries to pay substantially larger energy import bills (to 20-30 bln.$ in 1991-2000). Taking into account the difficulties to earn such volumes of hard currency the main conclusion is that the problem of energy supply will be one of the most difficult in Eastern Europe transition from a command to a market economy. (author)

  15. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  16. CHALLENGES OF THE PATH TOWARDS AN ENLARGED EUROPE: SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE - INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Oneasca

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available “Challenges of the path towards an enlarged Europe: South Eastern Europe” is a series of articles dedicated to support the improvement of the national strategies for mitigating poverty and promoting social inclusion. It aims to make a better use of existing theories and studies, as well as of the national experiences and to support the co-operation on these topics between the transition countries in the region. This paper opens the series of articles, introducing the inequality and social exclusion problem. An overview of the issue is presented and the challenge of the path towards EU integration is analysed with a strong political focus. The main assistance programmes are identified and the challenge termed: regional learning process on a common social inclusion strategy. Sharing the transition and accession experiences in the region helps countries to strengthen the strategic dimension of their policies. It is a political project that takes into account the density of the developed strategic frameworks and the diversity of social economic trends and traditions in the region. It also considers the proximity of the EU and the transition and accession experience of its member states in the region. General policy guidance and some practical rules of the thumb shed some light on policy recommendations.

  17. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  18. Molecular biogeography of red deer Cervus elaphus from eastern Europe: insights from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Honnen, Ann-Christin; Otto, Thurid; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Perzanowski, Kajetan; Skog, Anna; Hartl, Günther B; Borowik, Tomasz; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Lang, Johannes; Zachos, Frank E

    2011-01-01

    European red deer are known to show a conspicuous phylogeographic pattern with three distinct mtDNA lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian). The western lineage, believed to be indicative of a southwestern glacial refuge in Iberia and southern France, nowadays covers large areas of the continent including the British Isles, Scandinavia and parts of central Europe, while the eastern lineage is primarily found in southeast-central Europe, the Carpathians and the Balkans. However, large parts of central Europe and the whole northeast of the continent were not covered by previous analyses. To close this gap, we produced mtDNA control region sequences from more than 500 red deer from Denmark, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and western Russia and combined our data with sequences available from earlier studies to an overall sample size of almost 1,100. Our results show that the western lineage extends far into the European east and is prominent in all eastern countries except for the Polish Carpathians, Ukraine and Russia where only eastern haplotypes occurred. While the latter may actually reflect the natural northward expansion of the eastern lineage after the last ice age, the present distribution of the western lineage in eastern Europe may in large parts be artificial and a result of translocations and reintroduction of red deer into areas where the species became extinct in historical times.

  19. EASTERN EUROPE, A REGION OF INSECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION'S VICINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan – Lucian Cumpanasu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During Cold War, the region of Eastern Europe was formed by European states that were behind the Iron Curtain.Once the communism has fallen and former Warsaw's Pact members have joined EU in 2004 and 2007 along with the Baltic republics, a New Eastern Europe comprising Ukraine, Republic of Moldova and the Caucasian Republics emerged at the border of EU. The north, west and south maritime frontiers of European Union are opposite with Eastern territorial one that are more difficult to control and defend against asymmetrical threats as: organized crime, drugs traffic, arms proliferation and illegal immigration. this paper aims to demonstrate that EU's policies initiated in the framework of Eastern Partnership (EaP that wanted to bring peace in the Eastern neighborhood did not succeed to fulfill the desired goals. One explanation is that EU did not take in consideration the Russian dream of redesigning its sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. Another one is that the cultural, political and social differences between EU and its EaP partners led to the failure of the project. Thus, European Union's actions toward Eastern vicinity led to a clash between two civilizations: East and West as well as to a geopolitical competition between Russian Federation and EU over their shared neighborhood.

  20. The future of natural gas in Eastern Europe - the development of the natural ags business in East Germany. An example for Eastern Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geweke, J.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas is a modern and efficient fuel which is expected to have good chances of gaining a large share of the primary energy consumption in the future. In view of the high share of solid fuels in the primary energy consumption of Eastern Europe and the resulting environmental pollution this is easily understandable not only from a political viewpoint but also from the point of view of the population, especially as natural gas is no unknown myth to Eastern European states but has been an established and much sought-after (and therefore scarce) fuel. (orig.) [de

  1. AGRICULTURAL SECTOR TRANSFORMATION IN SELECTED COUNTRIES OF SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Braha, Kushtrim; Qineti, Artan; PokrivÄ ák, Ján; Ibraimi, Sadudin

    2014-01-01

    Governing the process of economic transformation is one of the most prominent issues arising since the fall of the Iron Curtain. After the successful transition model of the Central and Eastern European countries and their EU accession, the main anchors of the EU enlargement are directed into the South Eastern part of the continent. Most obviously, the EU enlargement is entering into the new phase of its expansion. In this paper we evaluate the state of transformation in the agricultural sect...

  2. Political Trends in the New Eastern Europe: Ukraine and Belarus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silitski, Vitali; Moshes, Arkady

    2007-01-01

    .... So while Europe seeks to induce democratic change and democratic forces are trying to establish themselves in the face of withering oppression, Russia has hitherto been the main external prop for Lukashenka's policies...

  3. Bio-medicolegal scientific research in Europe. A country-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Guido; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Cecchi, Rossana; Bajanowski, Thomas; Vieira, Nuno Duarte; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2011-09-01

    The European mosaic of socio-cultural, economic and legal realities is reflected in forensic and legal medicine, in which a great variety of operational modes of forensic medical services, organisational systems, structures, functional competences and scientific research strategies can be observed. The present work analyses the European bio-medicolegal scientific output of the last 5.5 years (exact time window, January 1, 2005-June 1, 2010), categorising papers by nationality of the corresponding author and forensic sub-discipline in question, in order to identify the peculiarities of national sub-specialised competences and to build up international research projects. This country-based bibliometric analysis, based on the number of articles and the impact factor produced by each European country, also considering its economic profile (gross domestic product and per capita gross domestic product), highlights the prevailing productive role of Western and Southern Europe (Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Switzerland, Spain and France). Categorising scientific output by forensic sub-discipline and branch, significant in terms of impact factor are contributions from Germany (coming first in Pathology, Toxicology, Genetics, Anthropology and Biological Criminalistics), Great Britain (first in Clinical Forensic Medicine, Malpractice and Invalidity-Social Insurance), Switzerland (first in Criminology), Italy (second in Toxicology, Anthropology and Invalidity-Social Insurance), The Netherlands (third in Clinical Forensic Medicine and Medical Law and Ethics), Spain (third in Genetics, Criminalistics and Invalidity-Social Insurance) and France (third in Toxicology and Malpractice). Interestingly, several countries with low gross domestic product, such as Poland, Turkey and other Eastern European nations, show notable scientific production in specific sub-disciplines such as Pathology, Toxicology and Forensic Genetics, suggesting that fruitful international cooperation could be

  4. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and Eastern Europe. For the purpose of the review, it was decided to 'take the temperature' of environmental policy in six of the countries receiving aid under the Danish scheme. For this purpose independent university researchers have been invited to prepare a short report on the state of environmental......During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central...

  5. Review of cryptosporidium and giardia in the eastern part of Europe, 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plutzer, Judit; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reviews the current knowledge and understanding of Cryptosporidium spp. an d Giardia spp. in humans, animals and the environment in 10 countries in the eastern part of Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Serbia...... and research on these pathogens, as well as analyse knowledge gaps and areas for further research. Results: Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were found to be common in eastern Europe, but the results from different countries are difficult to compare because of variations in reporting practices...

  6. Select barriers to harm-reduction services for IDUs in eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curth, Nadja Kehler; Hansson, Liv Nanna; Storm, Frederikke

    2009-01-01

    In eastern Europe, the high prevalence rates of HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are concentrated among injecting drug users (IDUs). Harm reduction programmes such as needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy (OST) have been shown to be effective in preventing these infecti......In eastern Europe, the high prevalence rates of HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are concentrated among injecting drug users (IDUs). Harm reduction programmes such as needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy (OST) have been shown to be effective in preventing...

  7. Who is populist in Central and Eastern Europe? A comparative analysis of prime ministers' populist discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Kocijan, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    This article measures populist discourse among prime ministers in new Central and Eastern European democracies using holistic grading as a specific type of textual analysis. The article first offers a definition of populism and then measures political discourse by grading political speeches of contemporary prime ministers in Central and Eastern Europe. Next, it presents descriptive data about prime ministers’ political discourse and discusses positive cases of populism in re...

  8. Nutrition transition and dietary energy availability in Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Koziel, Slawomir

    2007-12-01

    After the economic transition of the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in many countries of Eastern Europe. This article describes changing availability of dietary energy from major dietary components since the transition to free-market economic systems among Eastern European nations, using food balance data obtained at national level for the years 1990-92 and 2005 from the FAOSTAT-Nutrition database. Dietary energy available to the East European nations satellite to the former Soviet Union (henceforth, Eastern Europe) was greater than in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Among the latter, the Western nations of the former Soviet Union had greater dietary energy availability than the Eastern and Southern nations of the former Soviet Union. The higher energy availability in Eastern Europe relative to the nations of the former Soviet Union consists mostly of high-protein foods. There has been no significant change in overall dietary energy availability to any category of East European nation between 1990-1992 and 2005, indicating that, at the macro-level, increasing rates of obesity in Eastern European countries cannot be attributed to increased dietary energy availability. The most plausible macro-level explanations for the obesity patterns observed in East European nations are declines in physical activity, increased real income, and increased consumption of goods that contribute to physical activity decline: cars, televisions and computers.

  9. The Scientific Attitude (The Scientific Temper in Eastern and Western societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SN Arseculeratne

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scientific Attitude, different from the attitude to science, is discussed in relation to Eastern and Western modes of thinking; it is also differentiated from Scientism. The literature from western as well as Indian authors, and the comments of Joseph Needham on China, are included. The topics considered are the history of science, the importance of science, its methodologies, determinants of the growth of modern science, internal and external factors in the growth of science, education in science, documentation of science and technology, and determinants of the modes of thinking about science and its practice: these determinants include religion, tradition, utilitarianism, and administration in science. The major point of contrast between the attitudes of East versus West is argued to be religious versus secular. A relevant bibliography is provided.

  10. Democratic Change in Central and Eastern Europe 1989-90

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the European Parliament’s archival documents (reports, resolutions and debates) undoubtedly demonstrates that the EP has been in the front-row when it comes to debating the events leading to democratic change in Central and Eastern European countries. Clearly voicing its concerns

  11. Biotechnology policies and performance in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senker, J.; Enzing, C.; Reiss, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how far ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have 'caught up' in biotechnology on the basis of information about the policies and funding for biotechnology research and commercialisation from 2002-2005 and on the research and commercialisation performance of these

  12. REVIEWING TRANSFERABILITY in ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS ORIGINATING from EASTERN EUROPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena); S. Knies (Saskia); Z. Kaló (Zoltán); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objectives:__ The aim of this study is to analyze the quality and transferability issues reported in published peer-reviewed English-language economic evaluations based in healthcare settings of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) and former Soviet countries. __Methods:__ A

  13. Cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe in Language Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Poul

    This paper outlines trends and activities in Central and Eastern European language research and language-related software development (language engineering) and briefly describes some specific projects. The language engineering segment of the European Union's Fourth Framework Programme, intended to facilitate use of telematics applications and…

  14. The Roads of "Excellence" in Central and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonowicz, Dominik; Kohoutek, Jan; Pinheiro, Rómulo; Hladchenko, Myroslava

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore the impact of excellence as a powerful policy idea in the context of recent and contemporary developments in three selected Central and Eastern European countries, namely, the Czech Republic, Poland and Ukraine. More specifically, we explore how excellence as a "global script" was translated by policy…

  15. Missing social capital and the transition in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    The transition of the "Old Communist" countries of East and Central Europe has been disappointingly slow given the amount of physical and human capital available at the start of the transition. We argue that this slowness is caused by the lack of social capital, which is an important factor...

  16. Missing social capital and the transition in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, M.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The transition of the »Old Communist« countries of East and Central Europe has been disappointingly slow given the amount of physical and human capital available at the start of the transition. We argue that this slowness is caused by the lack of social capital, which is an important factor...

  17. Evolution of External Consultant Involvement in Human Resource Management in Eastern Europe (1990-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Poór

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the evolution of Human Resources (HR consulting in transitional economies of Eastern Europe (EE from the political changes till the economic crisis (2008. This article provides insights into the specific socio-economic environment and HR practice of the region.  Following Markham's model (1999 we analyze specific characteristics of four typical ways of external consultant involvement: informative-becnhmarking, design, change and organizational learning consulting.  in this region. In general, before the political changes at the end of the 1980's, in most EE countries , consulting service was redendered by sector  research institutes, controlled by the state or by the different minsitries. Consulting approach in EE countries  were predominant similar to the school of scientific management. HR consulting hardly existed that time. Since changes in the regime's consulting linked to privatization, firm restructuring, and development has been developing significantly in all countries of the region. HR consulting underwent a significant development in the region.

  18. Higher Education Governance in Central and Eastern Europe: A Perspective on Hungary and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlea, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of what motivates governments to introduce and implement reforms in higher education (HE). The political and economic reasons why some governments in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), for the period 1990 and 2015, have invested resources in order to facilitate cooperation between employers…

  19. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  20. Future scenarios for earthquake and flood risk in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murnane, Rick; Daniell, James E.; Schafer, A.M.; Ward, P.J.; Winsemius, H.C.; Simpson, A.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    We report on a regional flood and earthquake risk assessment for 33 countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Flood and earthquake risk were defined in terms of affected population and affected gross domestic product (GDP). Earthquake risk was also quantified in terms of fatalities and capital

  1. Job reallocation in two cases of massive adjustment in Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 11 (2008), s. 2144-2169 ISSN 0305-750X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : job creation * job destruction * Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.392, year: 2008

  2. Strengthening of radiation and waste safety infrastructures in the countries of Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Mrabit, K.; Bilbao, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA's integrated management approach and the establishment of a model project of technical cooperation to upgrade the radiation and waste safety infrastructures in its Member States is reviewed. The project today involves more than 50 countries many of which belong to Eastern Europe. (A.K.)

  3. Housing markets in Central and Eastern Europe: is there a bubble in the Czech Republic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemčík, Petr

    -, č. 390 (2009), s. 1-37 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542; GA ČR GA402/09/1755 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Central and Eastern Europe * house prices * panel data * unit root Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp390.pdf

  4. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition...

  5. Improving family and community health in eastern Europe--the lifecycle approach at WHO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bjørk, Christina; Ostergren, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    There are great differences in the health status of young children in the European Region. Central Asia and the Caucasus are the worst-off areas. After reviewing under-five mortality in the eight countries of this part of Eastern Europe, a new WHO strategy to improve child survival is presented...

  6. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing...

  7. Hate Speech and Constitutional Democracy in Eastern Europe: Transitional and Militant? (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belavusau, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article departs from the normative assumptions about the status of militant democracy in transitional countries, while drawing on the constitutional appraisal of free speech and non-discrimination in Central and Eastern Europe during the period 1990-2012. It explores two models ('American' and

  8. Residential Folk High Schools in Eastern Europe and the Baltic States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulich, Jindra

    2002-01-01

    In Eastern Europe, Poland has the longest history of folk high schools. Although closed in Hungary during the 1950s, folk high schools have recently reemerged. There were attempts to establish them in Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia following independence. Although the residential aspect of folk schools is desirable, economic and social conditions…

  9. The Security Environment in Central and Eastern Europe: Current Status, Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Chirleşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the main features of the current security environment within Centraland Eastern Europe. It tries to build up on previous approaches regarding the Euro-Atlantic security with afocus on specific security environment in Central and Eastern Europe. It operates with concepts of theEuropean Security Strategy and with the NATO Alliance security principles, which not entirely overlap. Thepresent research is based on deductive and inductive analysis, comparative and case study. The researchfindings have revealed that European and Euro-Atlantic security are inter-laced. Collective securityarrangements are necessary and able to ensure peace and stability in Europe. Still, security is a controversialconcept in terms of perception at the level of political elites and public opinion. This paper presents a jointinterest to academics and researchers working in this sensitive field of security, providing them the possibilityto gain a better knowledge and understanding on the security environment within Central and Eastern Europe.The value of this paper resides on the original approach and on the research methods that have been used inorder to deeply analyse the security environment from an inside perspective of an Eastern country.

  10. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in the soils of Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks are presented for Central and Eastern Europe. The study uses the soil geographic and attribute data held in a 1:2 500 000 scale Soil and Terrain (SOTER) database, covering Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova,

  11. Growth, Poverty and Inequality : Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Asad; Murthi, Mamta; Yemtsov, Ruslan; Murrugarra, Edmundo; Dudwick, Nora; Hamilton, Ellen; Tiongson, Erwin

    2005-01-01

    While the countries of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union have made significant progress in reducing poverty in the past five years, poverty and vulnerability remain significant problems. More than 60 million are poor and more than 150 million are vulnerable. Growth, Poverty, and Inequality examines these important issues and recommends that public policies focus on: accelerating s...

  12. The public perception of the nuclear energy in Eastern Europe: past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Jimenez, G.

    2010-01-01

    In Eastern Europe, people associate nuclear energy to the idea of progress, and prestige of the nuclear industry is very high. This article sets the use of nuclear technology to produce energy in a historical context that is particular to these countries. Results of interviews and surveys are analyzed in order to provide an insight on the level of acceptance among population. (Author)

  13. The Development of Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe in the Aftermath of Recent Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlak, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact of Marxism-Leninism on higher education in central and eastern Europe after World War II. Contends that the dramatic political changes in recent years call for a profound transformation in higher education. Asserts that, despite numerous difficulties, higher education in these nations has embarked on dramatic improvements.…

  14. Select barriers to harm-reduction services for IDUs in eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curth, Nadja Kehler; Hansson, Liv Nanna; Storm, Frederikke

    2009-01-01

    In eastern Europe, the high prevalence rates of HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are concentrated among injecting drug users (IDUs). Harm reduction programmes such as needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy (OST) have been shown to be effective in preventing these infecti...

  15. Improving family and community health in eastern Europe--the lifecycle approach at WHO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bjørk, Christina; Ostergren, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    There are great differences in the health status of young children in the European Region. Central Asia and the Caucasus are the worst-off areas. After reviewing under-five mortality in the eight countries of this part of Eastern Europe, a new WHO strategy to improve child survival is presented. ...

  16. Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Hilary F.

    The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

  17. Psychology of democracy and democratization: Experience from Central and Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klicperová-Baker, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Supplement (2012), s. 694-694 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : political psychology * democratization * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  18. HIV epidemics and prevention responses in Asia and Eastern Europe: lessons to be learned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Jamie; Lazarus, Jeff; Atun, Rifat

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes characteristics of the HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) and Asia and Central Asia, and draws comparisons between these regions. It focuses on the role that key populations continue to play in HIV transmission in both regions, the challenges...

  19. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  20. Regional poverty and income inequality in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Förster, Michael; Jesuit, David; Smeeding, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports levels of income inequality and poverty in four Central and Eastern European countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Russia. Unlike many previous researchers who examine transition economies, we aggregate the detailed individual-level income surveys made available through the efforts of the Luxembourg Income Study at the regional level of analysis. Although national-level investigations have contributed much to our understanding of the income distribution dynamic...

  1. The changing nature of jobs in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Job polarization can pose serious problems for emerging economies that rely on worker reallocation from low-skilled to middle-skilled jobs to converge toward advanced economies. Evidence from Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries shows that structural change and education expansion can prevent polarization, as they enable a shift from manual to cognitive work and prevent the “hollowing out” of middle-skilled jobs. However, in CEE countries they have also led to a high routine cognitive...

  2. Comparative study on the motivations that drive urban community gardens in Central Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola M. Trendov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of launching urban community gardens is spreading in Central Eastern Europe (CEE. The joy of common work and spending meaningful time in well-designed gardens could bridge the gap between local community members. At the same time, this is how common understanding and social responsibility can be established. The aim of this paper is to compare existing practices of urban gardening in the Central and Eastern European region and investigate their opportunities and limitations. Five capital cities (Budapest, Bratislava, Prague, Warsaw and Zagreb were chosen for this research with benchmark method to analyse aims, main motivation and end-user beneficiary from urban gardens. Keywords: Community urban gardens, Central eastern europe, Motives, Urban agriculture, Neighbourhood, Crops

  3. Anther and isolated microspore culture of wheat lines from northwestern and eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, I B; Olesen, A; Hansen, N J P

    1999-01-01

    Hexaploid wheat genotypes from north-western Europe show low responses to current anther culture techniques. This phenomenon was investigated on 145 north-western European wheat lines. Twenty-seven lines from eastern Europe were included to observe the response pattern of wheat from an area, where...... the technique has been used successfully. On average, eastern European wheat lines produced 3.6 green plants per 111 anthers, while only 1.4 green plants per 111 anthers were obtained in north-western European lines. This difference was due to the high capacity for embryo formation among the eastern European...... lines, while the ability to regenerate green plants was widespread in both germplasm groups. Isolated wheat microspore culture performed on 85 of these wheat lines gave an average 3.7-fold increase in green plants per anther compared with the anther culture response. The increased recovery of green...

  4. Living arrangements, intergenerational support types and older adult loneliness in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gierveld

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Previous research has shown that living arrangements (independent households of those living alone or as a couple, versus coresident households encompassing adult children are important determinants of older adults' loneliness. However, little is known about intergenerational support exchanges in these living arrangements and their associations with loneliness. OBJECTIVE Our aim is to contribute to the knowledge on associations between living arrangements and loneliness, by taking into account and differentiating intergenerational support types. METHODS Using data from the Generations and Gender Surveys of three countries in Eastern Europe and two countries in Western Europe, Latent Class Analyses was applied to develop intergenerational support types for (a co-residing respondents in Eastern Europe, (b respondents in independent households in Eastern Europe, and (c respondents in independent households in Western Europe, respectively. Six types resulted, distinguishing patterns of upward support, downward support and get-togethers. Subsequently, we used linear regression analyses to examine differences in loneliness by region, living arrangements and intergenerational support type. RESULTS Findings show higher levels of loneliness in Eastern than in Western Europe. Older adults living alone are most lonely, older adults living with a partner are least lonely. Coresidence provides protection, but not to the same degree as a partner. In both co-resident and independent households there is a greater likelihood of being involved in support given to adult children than in support received from adult children. In both East and West European countries, older adults who are primarily on the receiving side are most lonely. CONCLUSIONS A better explanation of older adult loneliness is obtained if the direction of supportive exchanges with adult children is considered than if only living arrangements are considered.

  5. Architectural theory in Eastern Europe during the Enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Baudez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scholars working on architectural theory have recently benefitted from several important editions of treatises published during the Enlightenment, but few manuscripts have received the attention they deserve and we still have until now a relatively limited knowledge of the architectural culture outside Western Europe. Carolyn C. Guile’s translation and edition of Ignacy Potocki (1750-1809’s Remarks on Architecture with Pennsylvania State University Press offers an exceptional case-study of what rigorous and inventive scholarship can bring to our knowledge not only of the strategies at work in the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth but also of the Enlightenment European architectural theory in general.

  6. Changing trends of diseases in Eastern Europe: closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatonski, W A; Bhala, N

    2012-03-01

    One of the greatest challenges in Europe at the beginning of the 21st Century is the wide east-west health gap. In 2008, the difference in life expectancy between men in some Western European countries and Russia was 20 years. Whilst trends for life expectancy at birth have improved in many areas around the world, those for Russia, as well as those for some other former Soviet Union countries, have fluctuated greatly and have not shown signs of growth since the middle of the 20th Century. This problem is most acute in Russia and former Soviet Union countries, but is also far from being solved in the states that have made significant progress since 1990 and joined the European Union in the 21st Century. One of the priorities of the Polish presidency of the European Union, which began in July 2011, is the call for a European solidarity for health that could help to close the health gap dividing Europe. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coal-water fuels - a clean coal solution for Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubicic, B.; Willson, W.; Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Stajner, K.; Popovic, R.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe currently faces great economic and environmental problems. Among these problems is energy provision. Coal reserves are large but cause pollution while oil and gas need to be used for export. Formal 'clean coal technologies' are simply too expensive to be implemented on a large scale in the current economic crisis. The promised western investment and technological help has simply not taken place, western Europe must help eastern Europe with coal technology. The cheapest such technology is coal-water fuel slurry. It can substitute for oil, but research has not been carried out because of low oil prices. Coal-water fuel is one of the best methods of exploiting low rank coal. Many eastern European low rank coals have a low sulfur content, and thus make a good basis for a clean fuel. Italy and Russia are involved in such a venture, the slurry being transported in a pipeline. This technology would enable Russia to exploit Arctic coal reserves, thus freeing oil and gas for export. In Serbia the exploitation of sub-Danube lignite deposits with dredging mining produced a slurry. This led to the use and development of hot water drying, which enabled the removal of many of the salts which cause problems in pulverized fuel combustion. The system is economic, the fuel safer to transport then oil, either by rail or in pipelines. Many eastern European oil facilities could switch. 24 refs

  8. Climate change and energy policy in Eastern Europe: two scenarios for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.; Kolar, S.; Gheorghe, A.; Sitnicki, S.

    1991-01-01

    The citizens of Poland, Eastern Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania inhabit perhaps the most polluted environments in the world, largely because of their countries' inefficient use of energy. Energy use is two to three times greater per unit of economic output than in Western Europe. Energy inefficiency also constrains economic growth by diverting capital to unproductive use. As much as 40% of all industrial investment in Poland was consumed in energy production. The emerging democracies of Eastern Europe have embarked on reforms to make their economies more efficient. We assess their potential for energy efficiency and apply end-use analysis in an energy end-use economic model to evaluate future energy use in the region. We assume that Eastern Europe will approach current Western living standards over the next three decades and that this will in turn increase energy consumption. We have found, nevertheless, that Eastern European nations could hold energy demand virtually constant through structural reform and technical energy-efficiency improvement. The six countries in the region could save as much as 3.5 exajoules per year, with savings yielding an economic benefit of $300 million annually. (author)

  9. Part-time Employment and Business Cycle in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fialová Kamila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the development of part-time employment in Central and Eastern Europe and compares it to Western Europe. On the macro level it examines the role of the business cycle and its effect on part-time employment in the two groups of countries since 2001. The key result reveals that contrary to the West, the business cycle development exerts a significant negative effect on the part-time employment rate in Eastern Europe. When the economy operates below its potential, part-time employment tends to grow more than full-time employment. This finding is consistent with the labour demand effect and reflects the pursuit of flexibility by firms as well as the adjustment in composition of employment to changing economic conditions. The countercyclical effect is even stronger for involuntary part-time employment. Separate analyses of individual demographic groups of workers reveal a significant negative effect of the business cycle on part-time employment of older workers and male prime-age workers in Eastern Europe. In contrast, the effect is insignificant for young workers and unclear for prime-age women.

  10. First report of Cercopithifilaria spp. in dogs from Eastern Europe with an overview of their geographic distribution in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mitková, Barbora; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Annoscia, Giada; Otranto, Domenico; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Dogs in Europe may be parasitized by a variety of species of filarioids. While some species have been studied for decades, others have been only recently reported, and their range of distribution is still unknown. The present study was aimed to investigate the occurrence of Cercopithifilaria spp., whose microfilariae reside in the dermis and are transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. ticks, in a dog population from Romania and to present the current knowledge of their distribution in Europe. Sampling was performed in a rural locality from Danube Delta region of Romania, location chosen due to the presence of the only known vector for these species. Skin samples were collected from 39 dogs. The samples were tested for the presence of Cercopithifilaria spp. by PCR methods. One animal (2.56%) was positive, and the amplified sequence showed a 100% similarity to Cercopithifilaria bainae. This study reports C. bainae for the first time in Eastern Europe, extending the known range of the genus in Europe.

  11. Regional scientific production and specialization in Europe. The role of HERD

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, M.; Coronado, D.; Ferrándiz, E.; León, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of R&D expenditure in the higher education sector (HERD) on the scientific production across regions in Europe 15. Our research questions relates to the regional production of science and the role of academic R&D expenditures on regional scientific output. The results show that money affects the production of scientific results in regions. On average, we found different impacts and lags of R&D expenditure according to the level of regional development. Our find...

  12. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  13. Prehistorical archaeomagnetic directions from Hungary in comparison with those from south-eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, P.

    2009-12-01

    Since the beginning of the modern archaeomagnetic investigations in Hungary in the nineteen seventies, some directional data of various prehistorical ages have also accumulated beside a larger body of the historical results. These are presented here and compared with 1) coeval directional results which are available from south-eastern Europe, as well as 2) the predictions of geomagnetic field directions for Hungary of the global geomagnetic field model, CALS7K.2. The comparison with the south-eastern European data has lead to new archaeomagnetic dates for one of the studied archaeological features which are thought to be an improvement to the presently accepted radiometric dates.

  14. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  15. HIV/AIDS in eastern Europe: more than a sexual health crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bollerup, Annemarie; Matic, Srdan

    2006-01-01

    of transmission, that women form a major increasing proportion of those infected, and that the disease threatens young people in particular. Because the rate of injecting drug use is extremely high in many eastern European countries, HIV control there cannot just target sexual transmission but must embrace other......HIV/AIDS is often described as a sexually transmitted disease. In the former USSR, however, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is being driven by injecting drug use among men. This article addresses several widely circulated assumptions about HIV in eastern Europe: that sexual contact is the primary mode...

  16. Choice and solidarity: the health sector in Eastern Europe and proposals for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, J; Eggleston, K

    2001-03-01

    The citizens of Eastern Europe have witnessed an unprecedented social and economic transformation during the past decade of transition from socialism to market-based economies. We describe the legacy of socialism and summarize the current state of the health sector in ten Eastern European countries, including financing, delivery, purchasing, physician incomes and the widespread phenomenon of under-the-table payments. The proposals for reform, derived from explicit guiding principles, are based on organized public financing for basic care, private financing for supplementary care, pluralistic delivery of services, and managed competition, with attention to incentives and regulation to impose a constraint on overall health spending.

  17. Real Estate Appraisal in Central-Eastern Europe: Comparative Analysis of Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamuscin Andrej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The countries in Central-Eastern Europe have been subjected to dynamic economic changes. Researchers from Poland and Slovakia study the history of the creation of and rules by which the real estate appraiser’s profession functions. They also present the methodological basics for property appraisals. The original value of this article is a comparative analysis depicting the similarities and differences occurring in the research area, in two countries from the same region of Europe. The analysis may also influence the methodological discussions of specialists concerning the correctness and purpose of certain approaches, methods or techniques of property appraisal.

  18. Multifunctional optimised scope simulators in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartak, J.; Hauesberger, P.; Dalleur, J.P.; Houard, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the field of operator training, multiple functions have to be covered such as basic principles training, training on specific systems, operations training addressing operating procedures in normal, incidental and accidental situations, plant physical phenomena analysis. Training simulators are appropriate tools to meet theses needs. Optimisation of the scope of simulation is required to meet specific training objectives and produce cost-effective solutions that allow for possible future extensions. Training needs and training programs have to be identified with the participation of final users, leading to the development of appropriate training materials: 'multifunctional' (also called analytical) optimised scope simulators are a concrete solution to meeting this challenge. For these simulators, the quality of physical models used is equivalent to that used in the full-scope replica-type simulators. Moreover, all state-of-the-art technical requirements in terms of development of training simulators, must be satisfied: realism of modelling, tolerances, simulated incidents and accidents. Examples of this concept will be illustrated in the paper through the presentation of recent developments of simulators in Central and Eastern European NPPs (VVER-1000, VVER-440, RBMK, BN600, PWR 600). A brief presentation of the software workshop used to develop these simulators concludes the paper. (author)

  19. The "New Eastern Europe": Between the Deepening Crisis of the European Union and the Growing Tensions with Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Naumescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “Eastern Europe” was always ideologically, politically, strategically or even culturally defined, while pure geography was down on the list of criteria. We therefore consider Eastern Europe a geopolitical idea on a dynamic mental map rather than a geographic reality. In the past three decades, Eastern Europe had at least three meanings, from the former “socialist bloc”, then “East Central European post-communist countries”, to the present member states of the “EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood” or Eastern Partnership (EaP. None of the countries of the pre-1989 Eastern Europe is still in this category, all being “transferred” to Central Europe, while the “new Eastern Europe” currently consists of six post-Soviet republics, from Belarus in the north to Azerbaijan in the south. This paper analyses the geopolitical context of the new Eastern Europe after the launch of the EaP, focusing on Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova, caught between the crisis of the EU, their own vulnerabilities and a more threatening Russian Federation.

  20. Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV positive patients in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Frank A; Grint, Daniel; Efsen, Anne Marie Werlinrud

    2014-01-01

    Observational data from Eastern Europe on the management and outcome of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in HIV positive populations remain sparse in the English-language literature.We compared clinical characteristics and outcomes of 55 patients who were diagnosed with HIV and MDR TB...... in Eastern Europe between 2004 and 2006 to 89 patients whose Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were susceptible to isoniazid and rifampicin.Patients with HIV and MDR TB were young and predominantly male with high rates of intravenous drug use, imprisonment and hepatitis C co-infection. Eighty-four per cent...... of patients with MDR TB had no history of previous TB drug exposure suggesting that the majority of MDR TB resulted from transmission of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. The use of non-standardized tuberculosis treatment was common, and the use of antiretroviral therapy infrequent. Compared to those...

  1. Uranium production in Eastern Europe and its environmental impact: A literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    A survey of the unclassified literature was made to determine the location, technology, throughput, and environmental status of the uranium mines and mills that have historically made up uranium production capability in Eastern Europe. Included in that survey were the following countries: the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), now part of a reunited Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland. Until recently, uranium was being produced in five of these six countries (Poland stopped production 20 years ago). The production began directly after World War II in support of weapons production in the Soviet Union. Eastern Europe has produced about two-thirds of the total Soviet uranium inventory historically, or about 330,000 metric tonnes of uranium (NM) [730 million pounds of uranium (MlbU)l out of a total of about 490,000 MTU (1090 NlbU).

  2. Uncovered Interest Parity in Central and Eastern Europe: Convergence and the Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Filipozzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents tests of uncovered interest parity in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania; all countries in Central and Eastern Europe with floating exchange rates. Data are monthly and the trading horizon is three months. The estimations show that the UIP hypothesis is rejected for the full sample from 1999 to 2011 for all five countries. A number of reasons for the rejection were investigated. Rolling regressions show that standard versions of the UIP essentially lose all explanatory power in 2008-10, which was a period in which the global financial crisis led to instability in currency and interest markets in Central and Eastern Europe. Two indicators of global risk aversion were also found to enter significantly in the many UIP estimations. Finally, the size of the interest rates spread also seems to be of importance, at least for Poland and Romania

  3. Transport corridors as a factor of integration in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of opening the state borders with the stress on its integration function through the constitution of cross-border regions cannot be achieved without a synchronized transport development. For South Eastern European countries, the top priority project would be the formation of pan-European transport corridors defined on Crete in 1994 and amended later on in Helsinki in 1997. Six of ten corridors pass through the territory of South Eastern Europe. Due to their transport and geographical locations, the capitals of the region should represent the key nodes on the main transport directions. Corridor X with its technical, economic and functional characteristics represents the axis of the entire transport network in SE Europe. Formation of this network has as its ultimate goal the functional inter-regional integration with simplified and accelerated transport lines. This also means the open barriers but at the same time, improved and harmonized transport infrastructures and services.

  4. Forest transitions in Eastern Europe and their effects on carbon budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Kaplan, Jed O.; Prishchepov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Forests often rebound from deforestation following industrialization and urbanization, but for many regions our understanding of where and when forest transitions happened, and how they affected carbon budgets remains poor. One such region is Eastern Europe, where political and socio-economic con......Forests often rebound from deforestation following industrialization and urbanization, but for many regions our understanding of where and when forest transitions happened, and how they affected carbon budgets remains poor. One such region is Eastern Europe, where political and socio...... or continuously declining forest area. Our data suggest extensive deforestation in European Russia already prior to ad 1700, and even greater deforestation in the 18th and 19th centuries than in the KK11 and HYDE scenarios. Based on our reconstruction, cumulative carbon emissions from deforestation were greater...

  5. Oligarchization, de-Westernization and vulnerability: Media between democracy and authoritarianism in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    What are the major trends of media change in contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)? How do these media transformations relate to economic, political, social and cultural currents in the region? After a decade of democratic optimism from the early 1990s to the 2000s, why did democratic media...... and Eastern Europe", held at the Department of Media, Cognition and Communication at the University of Copenhagen on April 24, 2015. Participants included Auksė Balčytienė (Professor of Journalism, and Vice Rector for Public Communication and International Relations, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania...... influence of Russia, and the war in Ukraine? What could comparative post-communist media studies add to our analysis and understanding of the new CEE realities? These were some of the questions tackled by a recent public roundtable discussion entitled "Media, Democracy and Authoritarianism in Central...

  6. Material Deprivation, Social Class and Life Course in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexi Gugushvili

    2011-01-01

    "This paper employs the factor analysis technique and data from the UNDP/UNICEF Social Inclusion Survey to construct a material deprivation index for fi ve transitional societies in the Balkans (FYR Macedonia and Serbia), Eastern Europe (Moldova and Ukraine) and Central Asia (Kazakhstan). The distribution of deprivation between these societies can be largely explained by their level of economic development, but within-county variance is not limited to monetary dimension. Controlli...

  7. The legacy of uranium mining in Central and Eastern Europe - a view from the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.; Vrijen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the countries of Central and Eastern Europe there was widespread mining and processing of uranium which has left a huge environmental and public health problem requiring urgent remedial action. The present paper outlines the situation from the perspective of the European Union by presenting a description of the assistance provided through Community funding and a summary of relevant European Union legislation in this field. (author)

  8. Measuring Corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia : A Critique of the Cross-Country Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Knack, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses corruption levels and trends among countries in the transition countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) based on data from several sources that are both widely used and cover most or all countries in the region. Data from firm surveys tend to show improvement in most types of administrative corruption, but little change in "state capture" in the region. Broader, subjective corruption indicators tend to show somewhat greater improvement in ECA than in non-ECA coun...

  9. Regulating the grid-based energies in Central and Eastern Europe: models, status, issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    2000-01-01

    As the electricity, gas and heat industries of the economies in transition move towards more market-oriented frameworks, regulators are established to secure fair competition, protection of the customers and a minimum of public service. The paper describes the various models used or contemplated in the autumn of 2000 in central and eastern Europe and identifies fifteen issues, some falling under the competence of governments, others challenging the regulators, again others relating to international co-operation. (author)

  10. THE DAY OF THE WEEK EFFECT IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE STOCK MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGAN TEVDOVSKI; MARTIN MIHAJLOV; IGOR SAZDOVSKI

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine existence of day of the week effect on the stock market indices in five countries from South Eastern Europe (SEE): Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia and Serbia in the most recent period which is characterized by the bear market (from 2006 to 2011). The methodology used the regression with dummy variables, or so called Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) model. In addition Wald test is applied. The results imply that the mean daily return...

  11. Internationalisation of firms from Central and Eastern Europe: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, Andrea; Pellegrini, Massimiliano M.; Dabic, Marina; Dana, Leo-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature addressing internationalisation of firms from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud This paper presents an inter-disciplinary systematic review of literature about the internationalisation of firms from CEE.\\ud \\ud Findings\\ud Three different clusters of research were identified. In the “Internationalisation Processes” cluster, containing many comparative studies, the foc...

  12. Nuclear safety in the newly independent states in central and eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, I.

    1995-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in 1986 has led to a reassessment of safety issues in the nuclear industry's of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and in central and eastern Europe. Three aspects of the problem are explained and addressed here, design inadequacies in the RBMK and other reactor types, less than adequate operational safety procedures and lack of independent government regulation of state utilities, allowing economic targets to overcome safe operation of plants. (UK)

  13. Long-Term Economic Development Trends in South-Eastern Europe (1850-2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Stergios Babanassis

    2003-01-01

    The article discusses the long-term trends in economic growth of the countries of south-eastern Europe during the period 1850-2003, their evolving level of growth and their place in the European and global economy, their structural changes and the evolution of their infrastructures. The analysis employs primarily the historical and comparative method, based on GDP, GNP and other indicators. The analysis leads to two main conclusions. The first is that in the contemporary period the growth of ...

  14. Social Capital, Corruption and Economic Growth:Eastern and Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesize, that power centralisation in a political system leads to more corruption due to the monopoly power status of bureaucrats. Corruption again would then lead to a lower level of social capital, here measured as trust, and slow down economic growth even further. Indeed, when comparing the tables and weighted averages for corruption and trust, highly corrupt countries such as those in Eastern Europe, also tend have the lowest level of trust. In general, low levels of trust (measure...

  15. THE EFFECTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON THE ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUCOŞ PAULA – ROXANA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to highlight the positive impact that foreign direct investments have on occupancy rate, on government revenue and economic growth of Central and Eastern Europe countries. The period of time that was analyzed is conducted from 1993 to 2012. Results have validated what the literature says, namely that FDI exerts a positive influence on economic growth in the FDI receiving countries.

  16. The Challenge to Soviet Interests in Eastern Europe, Romania, Hungary, East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    ferment . The chief danger, from Moscow’s perspective, is that crises could erupt in several countries simultaneously at a time when, because of a...situation has military implications. Within the Warsaw Pact, economic stagnation is likely to accentuate the debate over "guns vs. butter " and "burden...of these factors contributed to the ferment and unrest that manifested itself after 1964 in Eastern Europe. But the origins of this ferment lay in

  17. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  18. How research on marketing in Central and Eastern Europe can advance international marketing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold Schuh

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of how research on marketing issues in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) can contribute to the international marketing theory. Regional studies provide valuable insights into business environments, marketing systems and practices in specific countries and geographical areas, which explain their high appeal among marketing practitioners. While contributing to the general body of knowledge in marketing, they often lack a strong role in theory development. Two a...

  19. Spatial and temporal trends in distribution of forest fires in Central and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryszard Szczygieł; Barbara Ubysz; Tomasz. Zawiła-Niedźwiecki

    2009-01-01

    Forest in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) covers 56,285,000 ha (5% of European total forested area). Forest cover in CEE makes 30% of land use. Almost 50% of the forest under study is formed by coniferous species and only 30% by deciduous ones. Forest younger than 60 years old grows on 57% of that area. These factors, together with climate conditions cause that on the...

  20. [Socialist escapes. Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Socialist escapes: Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989, co-edited with Cathleen M. Giustino and Catherine J. Plum (New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2013).

  1. Prenatal syphilis infection is a possible cause of preterm delivery among immigrant women from eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tridapalli, E; Capretti, M G; Sambri, V; Marangoni, A; Moroni, A; D'Antuono, A; Bacchi, M L; Faldella, G

    2007-04-01

    to evaluate the prevalence of maternal syphilis at delivery and neonatal syphilis infection in an Italian urban area, in connection with the increased flow of immigration. A prospective surveillance study was carried out in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 to March 2006. All pregnant women were screened for syphilis at delivery. Infants born to seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow-up. During the study period 19,205 women gave birth to 19,548 infants. A total of 85 women were seropositive for syphilis at delivery. The overall syphilis seroprevalence in pregnant women was 0.44%, but it was 4.3% in women from eastern Europe and 5.8% in women from Central-South America. Ten women were first found positive at delivery, as they did not receive any prenatal care. Nine of these were from eastern Europe. All their infants were asymptomatic, but six had both reactive immunoglobulin (Ig)M western blot and rapid plasma reagin tests and were considered prenatally infected. Three of six were preterm (gestational age eastern Europe. Although it is asymptomatic, it could cause premature delivery. Therefore, it is necessary to perform serological tests during the third trimester in mothers coming from endemic areas to adequately treat syphilis in pregnancy and prevent congenital infection. If the mother's test results are not available at delivery, it is necessary to investigate the newborn, especially if it is born prematurely.

  2. The prospect for increased use of natural gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    The countries of Eastern Europe are confronting enormous social and economic problems as they move from centrally planned to market-based economies. Decades of political and economic isolation have left this region with a distorted, inadequate energy supply system and serious environmental problems. The region is a heavy contributor to the 'greenhouse gases', particularly carbon dioxide, which are believed to be drivers in global climate change. The achievement of competitive economies, Western standards of living and a cleaner environment will depend upon the ability to provide energy supplies that are adequate to support economic growth while reducing environmental degradation. Greater reliance upon natural gas, especially for the generation of electricity, has been proposed as the solution to energy shortages and regional environmental problems, and as a strategy to reduce global warming. Increased utilization of gas in Eastern Europe, however, is likely to be constrained by the high capital costs of the projects that will be needed to bring incremental gas supplies to the region. The need to acquire financial support for major gas transmission projects will probably tie Eastern Europe's plans to the Western European gas supply future. (author)

  3. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IN THE LIGHT OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LUXURY STORES – SOME PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Środa-Murawska, Stefania; Szymańska, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the characteristics and structure of luxury goods stores in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Studies dealing with the spatial distribution of services created for the super-rich people are relatively few. The authors of this article show luxury goods stores in CEE countries with respect to their locations (urban/rural), location factors, numbers, structure, and the differences between countries and regions. They also consider whether Central and Eastern Europe has space f...

  4. Nuclear safety assessment of nuclear power plants and nuclear risk in Eastern Europe and other regions. Scientific-technical cooperation with nuclear regulatory authorities and technical support organizations (TSOs); Einschaetzung der nuklearen Sicherheit von Kernkraftwerken sowie nuklearer Risiken in Osteuropa und anderen Regionen. Wissenschaftlich-technische Zusammenarbeit mit atomrechtlichen Behoerden und deren Sachverstaendigenorganisationen (TSO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Holger

    2014-09-15

    The BMUB/BfS project 3611I01512 formed the frame of the GRS for the scientifictechnical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety of NPPs and for the evaluation of nuclear risks in Eastern Europe and other regions for the period from September 2011 till June 2014. In the present final report main results of the project are described. The project comprised the following technical topics: - Record status of NPP modernisation programs, Monitoring and evaluation of modernisation programs; - Design basis and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000); - Cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3+ and on building NRA and safety evaluation capacities; - Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste; - Evaluation of new reactor concepts and their safety design; Panels at regulatory level. The work results are preceded by a summary on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  5. GROWING REGIONAL SCIENTIFIC MIGRATION AND MOBILITY: THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna KHARLAMOVA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article contributes to the growing strand of the literature on the scientific mobility and migration in the European Union (EU and the Eastern Partnership. The paper provides the quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits of ‘smart’ labour migration in the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries (particularly, Ukraine, explores the potential of future new rules for the mobility within the EU-EaP, and proposes some policy recommendations to enhance the benefits stemming from such flows. One of the rigorous idea – to provide an explanation whether the scientific migration and mobility, and remittances impact on economic development in the donor and recipient states, and, in particular, how important it is as a resource for the EaP enhancing. The convergence effect of scientific migration in the EU and the Eastern Partnership region is considered by means of calculative assessment.

  6. Comparing alcohol consumption in central and eastern Europe to other European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Zatonski, Witold

    2007-01-01

    To give an overview of the volume of alcohol consumption, beverage preference, and patterns of drinking among adults (people 15 years and older) in central and eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) and to compare it to southern and western Europe, Russia and Ukraine. Secondary data analysis. Consumption and preferred beverage type data for the year 2002 were taken from the WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol and the WHO Global Alcohol Database. Average consumption in central and eastern Europe is high with a relatively large proportion of unrecorded consumption ranging from one litre in Czech Republic and Estonia to 10.5 l in Ukraine. The proportion of heavy alcohol consumption (more than 40 g of pure alcohol per day) among men was the lowest in Bulgaria (25.8%) and the highest in Czech Republic (59.4%). Among women, the lowest proportion of heavy alcohol consumption was registered in Estonia (4.0%) and the highest in Hungary (16.0%). Patterns of drinking are detrimental with a high proportion of binge drinking, especially in the group of countries traditionally drinking vodka. In most countries, beer is now the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Other studies suggest that the population drinking levels found in central and eastern Europe are linked with higher levels of detrimental health outcomes. Known effective and cost-effective programs to reduce levels of risky drinking should, therefore, be implemented, which may, in turn, lead to a reduction of alcohol-attributable burden of disease.

  7. Contemporary Genetic Structure, Phylogeography and Past Demographic Processes of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Population in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all k...

  8. Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, W. [Univ. Medical School, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-03-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  9. Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and comparison with Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical ozone profiles measured in the period 1996–2002 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft for flights connecting Central Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Heraklion, Rhodes, Antalya were analysed in order to evaluate the high rural ozone levels recorded in the Mediterranean area during summertime. The 77 flights during summer (JJAS showed substantially (10–12 ppb, 20–40% enhanced ozone mixing ratios in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean frequently exceeding the 60 ppb, 8-h EU air quality standard, whereas ozone between 700 hPa and 400 hPa was only slightly (3–5 ppb, 5–10% higher than over Central Europe. Analysis of composite weather maps for the high and low ozone cases, as well as back-trajectories and vertical profiles of carbon monoxide, suggest that the main factor leading to high tropospheric ozone values in the area is anticyclonic influence, in combination with a persistent northerly flow in the lower troposphere during summertime over the Aegean. On the other hand the lowest ozone levels are associated with low-pressure systems, especially the extension of the Middle East low over the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  10. Performance-Based Budgeting in South-Eastern Europe: A Legal and Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Maksimovska Veljanovski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2008–2013 period, a wave of fresh ideas for introducing performance-based budgeting (PBB occurred in the region of South-Eastern Europe. Based on a theoretical framework and empirical assessment using novel methodology, this study examines the preconditions and assesses the capacities for introducing PBB in South-Eastern European (SEE countries. Generally, SEE countries have demonstrated moderate progress in implementing elements of performance budgeting. All of them follow a similar approach to embarking on these reforms, but with a different policy attention to certain aspects. On the other hand, SEE countries with limited progress demonstrate strong political commitment to kick-start this area by investing in the development of budget administration skills. The study conveys a balanced mix of political, legal, administrative and economic analysis of the core elements of PBB. The novel idea of introducing a simpler model of PBB in SEE is examined. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic attempt to provide a comprehensive analysis of the institutional arrangements and prospects for adopting PBB in the region of South-Eastern Europe.

  11. The impact of family structure and disruption on intergenerational emotional exchange in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Nienke; Komter, Aafke

    2012-06-01

    Demographic trends across Europe involve a decrease in fertility and mortality rates, and an increase in divorce and stepfamily formation. Life courses and living arrangements have become less standardized and the structure of families has changed. In this article, we examine to what extent contemporary family structure and composition resulting from demographic changes affect emotional exchange between children and their parents, both from adult child to parent and from parent to child. Because the general level of well-being has been shown to be lower in Eastern Europe, thereby potentially affecting emotional exchange within families, we focus our research on Eastern Europe. We use the "conservation of resources theory" to derive hypotheses on how family structure may affect intergenerational emotional exchange. Family ties are assumed to be important resources of affection that people want to obtain and retain throughout their lives. Data from the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) are used to test our hypotheses. In general, our data offer more support for the idea that families are resilient than for the often heard assumption that families are in decline as a consequence of the changed family structure and composition.

  12. [Jörg Hackmann (Hrsg.). Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context] / Rüdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ritter, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Wien: Böhlau Verlag 2012

  13. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parízková, J

    2000-03-01

    The overall situation as regards dietary intake and nutritional status in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe has varied considerably during previous decades; however, after the political, social and economic changes during the nineties these differences have increased further, especially in the areas with low GDP and war, and in the regions affected by radionuclides etc. No systematic surveillance systems in representative samples of adolescents were in effect at the beginning of the nineties in Central and Eastern Europe. There exists relatively more data on nutritional status characterized by body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness measurements. Food intake has mainly been followed in smaller samples of adolescents, and or in special groups (athletes, obese, vegetarians, allergies, Romanies, pupils of special schools etc.). In the countries and/or areas with sufficient GDP and income the food intake has most often been too abundant when considering the real needs of the growing organism, especially from the point of view of energy output. The composition of the diet is not adequate, i.e. too much protein, fats, sugar etc. This situation is similar to that in Western countries, USA etc. On the other hand, adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe consume too few vegetables, fruit and milk products in their diet (i.e. low intakes of Ca, fibre and vitamin C), which is less apparent in Western countries. This is mainly due to bad eating habits and nutritional traditions in the families, but also due to the changes of the prices of the mentioned foodstuffs after political and economic changes in this part of the world. Certain nutritional deficiencies were also shown as factors increasing the health risks from the Chernobyl disaster, mainly in the Ukraine, Belorussia and certain parts of Poland.

  14. The Normalization of Party Systems and Voting Behaviour in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    and to adjust their behaviour to the new electoral systems. A novel database on electoral results on the district level that I constructed allows me to test those hypotheses by measuring "party nationalisation" and "wasted votes" for the first time for Eastern Europe. Both indicators are calculated......Eastern European elections are regarded as outlying cases in international research. According to scholars, the reason for it lies in a low institutionalisation of political parties. In this article, I focus on the developments which occur in the institutionalisation of party systems in the course...... of the first multiparty elections. Theories about party system formation and strategic voter behaviour let suggest that the party system stabilises and nationalises after several elections. It is only with sufficient experience that political parties and voters have enough information to act strategically...

  15. Relocation of Business Services into Central and Eastern Europe (Evidence from Trade and Location Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN GÁL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Relocation of business service offshoring-related activities measured by foreign direct investments and exports in services have grown rapidly after the Millennium in the new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Besides Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, trade statistics support the assumption that an expanding export in business and in ICT services has been associated with relocation of shared services centres created by FDI in the six new member states (NMS. The service export data collected between 1996/2002 and 2012 gives a good proxy to identify those segments of service trade, which are considered to be offshorable. The paper examines the additional location factors selecting Central and Eastern European locations and summarises the effect of crisis on this industry. It concludes that the sector has demonstrated market resilience in the NMS and continued to expand rapidly.

  16. Liberalization and enlargement: effects of the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirovska, M.

    2005-01-01

    After half a century of political division within the European continent, and of State control over national energy industries, a new industrial and political organisation model aiming at creating a single natural gas market tends to emerge currently within the enlarged European Union. Yet new member countries are former centrally planned, socialist economies, with very different industrial structures for natural gas. However, those countries should adjust to the institutional framework applicable in the European Union, including bringing their gas industries into compliance with the liberalization process that old member countries initiated years ago. In that unprecedented context, one basic issue is whether the gas industry liberalization, in the framework of the enlargement, will have expected results in terms of competition, efficiency and profits for Eastern countries, whether new members or candidates for membership. The objective of the research work behind this article was to analyse the effects of that complex trend on the industrial organisation of gas markets in eastern Europe. (author)

  17. HIV/AIDS in eastern Europe: more than a sexual health crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bollerup, Annemarie; Matic, Srdan

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is often described as a sexually transmitted disease. In the former USSR, however, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is being driven by injecting drug use among men. This article addresses several widely circulated assumptions about HIV in eastern Europe: that sexual contact is the primary mode...... of transmission, that women form a major increasing proportion of those infected, and that the disease threatens young people in particular. Because the rate of injecting drug use is extremely high in many eastern European countries, HIV control there cannot just target sexual transmission but must embrace other...... approaches, such as comprehensive harm reduction. In the area of treatment, scaling up access to highly active antiretroviral therapy has been a major global priority for the last two years. European efforts to broaden access have been generally quite successful, yet in the two European countries...

  18. Motivational and Ideological Underpinnings of Welfare Preferences in Eastern and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarics, Márton

    2016-01-01

    In our study we investigated the motivational and ideological correlates of the approval of welfare services in postsocialist Central Eastern and Western Europe. In the centre of our inquiry stood how the motivations of selflessness and conventionality, along with distributional justice principles, are related to our welfare preferences beyond our rational self-interest, furthermore, how these associations depend on social-cultural circumstances. We have found that the motivational background of egalitarian economic and welfare attitudes are substantially different in the two regions. While beside of the rationalisation of self-interest, it seems to be related to selflessness-driven solidarity in Western Europe, pro-welfare and egalitarian distributional views are primarily motivated by conventionality-driven norm adherence in postsocialist countries in the form of the mechanism of postsocialist economic system nostalgia. Our results highlight the benefits of a context-specific ’motivated social cognition’ approach to ideological and political attitudes. PMID:27247699

  19. Managing Business in Europe. Specific Issues in the Eastern and Central European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tescasiu, B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European business environment became a well-defined one. Specific elements such as: European cultural values, euro-clusters, European marketing, strategies for Europe, etc. can be found now in the specific literature, and almost all the firms working in European Union take into consideration specific aspects on doing business in this part of the world. This article tries to point out some of these aspects and it intend to apply some of them in the new economic context created by the Central and Eastern European Countries accession to EU.

  20. Managed care in Eastern Europe: an opportunity for U.S. firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, R L

    1994-06-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe is in transition; the former state-run health systems are in shambles. This article describes elements of these systems, discusses transition problems, such as corruption, and suggests areas in which American firms can prosper. Problems with capital development and red tape will need to be overcome. However, the quality of physician training is high, and many doctors are eager to work with American institutions to emulate their standards of care. Their need for training in Western management techniques is quite apparent. The author suggests that managed care organizations can be established rapidly if local partners are included in their development.

  1. THE ECONOMIC SITUATION IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: A POSSIBLE THREAT TO THE SECURITY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea PIRNUTA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The entire world has had to face the draconian effects of the economic recession recently. One of the regions marked by severe economic damages has been South Eastern Europe. The present article aims at analyzing the current economic situation in this particular region by trying to identify the strong and weak points, as well as possible ways to solve these specific issues. This paper lays emphasis upon states, such as: Turkey, Greece and Romania, but also on certain facts about the other states belonging to the previously mentioned region.

  2. Foreign direct investment and income inequality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilena MIHAYLOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI on income inequality in ten countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE in the period 1990 – 2012. First, the theoretical and empirical literature on the distributional effect of FDI is outlined. Second, we discuss briefly general trends in FDI inflow and income inequality in the countries from CEE after 1990. Third, we estimate several fixed effects regression models and find that FDI has the potential to exert influence on income inequality but this effect varies depending on the level of education and economic development of the host countries.

  3. Representations of Central and Eastern Europe in Travelogues of Romanian and Polish Public Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goleşteanu Raluca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reading of Milica Bakić-Hayden’s concept of “nesting orientalisms” in a wider regional context, by showing some of its first manifestations, as employed one hundred years or so ago. The debut of this phenomenon is part of the nineteenth century trend of traveling to “Eastern Europe,” and of appropriating it as such, in the desire to compete with the previous century, especially with the latter’s attempt of designing the map according to the dichotomy: “enlightened-ignorant peoples.”

  4. Comparative politics in central and eastern europe: Mapping publications over the past 20 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Carsten Q; Bochsler, Daniel; Chiru, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    is that CP is rather marginal in CEE Political Science. Furthermore, CP articles predominantly focus on the authors' country of origin, use off-the-shelf data, apply mostly qualitative data analysis techniques, and rarely take a historical perspective. © 2013 European Consortium for Political Research.......This article offers a new empirical perspective on the state of Comparative Politics (CP) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). We present findings on the authors, methods, and epistemology of CP publications in the most relevant journals from eleven countries in the region. The major finding...

  5. Eastern Europe as the source of horror and humor: Examples films, "Hostel" and "Euro Trip"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Trifunović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 2004. to 2007. three films belonging to two different genres were complete in the American production-a horror and a comedy. These being, Hostel (I and II and Euro Trip. The only similarity found in these films is the same stimulus that motivates the horror and the humor segment in them. That stimulus was identifies where all three films are placed, and that is Eastern Europe, more precisely Slovakia. This phenomenon was considered in Noel Carroll’s theory concerning the relationship of horror and humor in order to explain and understand their existence.

  6. Nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, assessment of one year at the G7 presidency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The significant advances accomplished during 1996 by the G7 commission, presided by France, towards the closure of Chernobylsk nuclear plant and more generally the safety enhancement in nuclear facilities in Eastern Europe, are reviewed: the strategy was to impede the main accident risks through immediate technical enhancements on the least safe nuclear plants, intensification of operation safety and the implementation of efficient safety regulations through independent organizations; and secondly, through the implementation of a sustainable safety level by the means of strong reforms in the energy sector, investments and introduction of international safety practices. The main results achieved on these concerns in Ukraine are outlined

  7. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S

    2017-01-01

    country epidemiology, surveillance, national strategy for treatment and prevention, standards of care, access to care and treatment availability. Each participant filled in a questionnaire investigating HIV guidelines usage per country. RESULTS: In total, 16 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE...... and one in five the International Antiviral Society-USA (IAS-USA) Panel guidelines from 2012. CONCLUSIONS: Participants declared their will to promote the widespread use of EACS guidelines for HIV infection in the CEE region and neighbouring countries by signing the Warsaw Declaration. They also...

  8. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing...... drug injection, economic decline and failing health and healthcare systems. There is a need to address the professional and ideological opposition - even in countries considered to be fully functioning democracies - to evidence-based public health interventions like harm reduction, coupled...

  9. Gas price policies in Central and Eastern Europe. Papers and proceedings of the Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The seminar on the topic of gas pricing and its future supply to Central and Eastern European countries was organised by the United Nations Gas Centre, part of the Economic Commission for Europe, and sponsored by the Slovenian gas company Geoplin, the N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie and ABN-AMRO Bank. The purpose was to analyse natural gas pricing as the major prerequisite for further integration of the Eastern, Central and Western European gas markets. Almost 150 representatives of gas industries and government officials of 36 different countries presented and discussed their experiences, know-how and visions on the themes of gas pricing and, in relation to these, future supply options. A total of 19 Central and Eastern European countries were represented, 11 western European countries and two from other parts of the world. The large number of participating countries and the high level of participants present witnessed the general acceptance of the importance of sharing views and information as a step towards further integration of the European gas industry. Establishment of commercial price structures and policies was identified as a main concern of Central and Eastern European countries. At present, in many cases in economies in transition the current end user prices are not sufficient to cover import European border prices. Once introduced, the commercial prices will facilitate a country's diversification, which is not only important for diminishing dependency on one supplier, but its also important for the growth of the European market as a whole. Countries that can rely on a diversified supply will allow themselves to have a larger share of gas in their primary energy supply and will be able to support necessary investment. Future market growth in the European gas market as a whole is of great importance for reducing Europe's environmental burden. Experience over the past 20 years in the western European gas industry demonstrated that the market integration is based

  10. Measuring Central and Eastern Europe's Socio-Economic Development Using Time Lags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprotny, Dominik

    This paper applies the 'time lag' method to a set of social and economic indicators, examining the development of Central and Eastern Europe since the first world war. Originally used to assess technology diffusion, this method allows comparison of levels of development between states and through a long period of time. It presents how many years have elapsed between achieving a certain level of development between countries. The results show that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have only narrowly converged with a set of 23 highly-developed 'benchmark' states. Development in monetary terms (gross domestic product per capita) is the indicator where this region lags most. Employment structure, life expectancy or infant mortality show much smaller lags. Communist states were closest to the West in the 1960s-early 1970s and struggled thereafter. They are still mostly lagging more today than at their peak before transformation despite the progress achieved in absolute terms after the fall of centrally-planned economy.

  11. The newest epidemic: a review of HIV/AIDS in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jeffrey A; Amirkhanian, Yuri A

    2003-06-01

    HIV/AIDS has emerged as a grave public health threat in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Central Asian republics over the past five years. Massive political, social, cultural, and behavioural changes - along with economic upheaval and collapse of the public health infrastructure in many countries - have created circumstances conducive to the rapid spread of HIV. This paper reviews HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) data for all countries in the region, as well as behavioural, social, cultural, and other HIV epidemic enabling factors. The epidemiological picture of HIV in the region is mixed. Russia, Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus already have advanced epidemics. Some other countries in the region share similar enabling factors and have seen a very high proportion of their total number of HIV infections detected in only the past 18 months, indicating the emergence of recent epidemics. Several countries are more stable in their HIV incidence. Behavioural studies indicate that risky sexual and injection related practices are common in many vulnerable populations. HIV prevention steps, if taken quickly enough and on a large scale, can limit the scope of the HIV epidemic that is now unfolding in Central and Eastern Europe. This will require new models of government/non-governmental organization cooperation, policy approaches for addressing structural factors underlying the epidemic, and attention to human rights protection.

  12. When do people want to retire? The preferred retirement age gap between Eastern and Western Europe explained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter de Tavernier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Debates surrounding working longer focus mainly on increasing legal and effective retirement ages, leaving the preferred retirement age largely overlooked. There is a large East-West divide in Europe regarding the latter, with individuals in Eastern Europe wanting to retire earlier. We aim to explain this gap in terms of differences in working conditions and state-level legal conditions. Using the 2010 European Social Survey data on employed individuals aged 50-70 in 24 countries enriched with country-level information, we find that part of the explanation is found in the lower levels of job control found in Eastern Europe. Moreover, the results suggest that Karasek’s job demand/control model fits better in Western than Eastern European countries. Another explanation is found at the country level, where the legal retirement age accounts for a major part of the gap in preferred retirement ages between East and West.

  13. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men.

  14. Forest transitions in Eastern Europe and their effects on carbon budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Kaplan, Jed O; Prishchepov, Alexander V; Rylsky, Ilya; Chaskovskyy, Oleh; Tikunov, Vladimir S; Müller, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Forests often rebound from deforestation following industrialization and urbanization, but for many regions our understanding of where and when forest transitions happened, and how they affected carbon budgets remains poor. One such region is Eastern Europe, where political and socio-economic conditions changed drastically over the last three centuries, but forest trends have not yet been analyzed in detail. We present a new assessment of historical forest change in the European part of the former Soviet Union and the legacies of these changes on contemporary carbon stocks. To reconstruct forest area, we homogenized statistics at the provincial level for ad 1700-2010 to identify forest transition years and forest trends. We contrast our reconstruction with the KK11 and HYDE 3.1 land change scenarios, and use all three datasets to drive the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model to calculate carbon stock dynamics. Our results revealed that forest transitions in Eastern Europe occurred predominantly in the early 20th century, substantially later than in Western Europe. We also found marked geographic variation in forest transitions, with some areas characterized by relatively stable or continuously declining forest area. Our data suggest extensive deforestation in European Russia already prior to ad 1700, and even greater deforestation in the 18th and 19th centuries than in the KK11 and HYDE scenarios. Based on our reconstruction, cumulative carbon emissions from deforestation were greater before 1700 (60 Pg C) than thereafter (29 Pg C). Summed over our entire study area, forest transitions led to a modest uptake in carbon over recent decades, with our dataset showing the smallest effect (<5.5 Pg C) and a more heterogeneous pattern of source and sink regions. This suggests substantial sequestration potential in regrowing forests of the region, a trend that may be amplified through ongoing land abandonment, climate change, and CO2 fertilization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  15. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S; Pozniak, A; Gökengin, D; Youle, M; Lundgren, J D; Horban, A

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize the outcomes of the Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference held in Warsaw in February 2016. The main aim of this conference was to facilitate a discussion on European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines implementation across the region and neighbouring countries and to present the current obstacles in benchmarking HIV care in Europe. During a 2-day meeting, there were country-based presentations using a predefined template so as to make the data comparable and focus the discussion. Areas covered were country epidemiology, surveillance, national strategy for treatment and prevention, standards of care, access to care and treatment availability. Each participant filled in a questionnaire investigating HIV guidelines usage per country. In total, 16 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and neighbouring countries were represented at the conference: Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey. EACS guidelines version 7.1 were used in 14 (87%) countries. In 11 (69%) countries, national guidelines were available, of which eight had been recently updated. Half of the countries declared that they use World Health Organization (WHO) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) guidelines, over one-third the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) HIV testing guidelines and one in five the International Antiviral Society-USA (IAS-USA) Panel guidelines from 2012. Participants declared their will to promote the widespread use of EACS guidelines for HIV infection in the CEE region and neighbouring countries by signing the Warsaw Declaration. They also emphasized the need to increase publishing of data from national cohorts in that region. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  16. The Scientific and Technological Reserve of the Far Eastern Federal District and the Northeast Asia Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor Leonidovich Domnich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological reserve is a key element of the Russian technological modernization especially in the Russian Far East. The competitive advantages of the regional scientific and technological reserve in comparison with foreign developments induce heated debates, which arise due to the integration of the regional economy into the system of world economic relations. Firstly, on the basis of patent statistics this study details the territorial, institutional and sectoral structure of the scientific and technological reserve of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD and the North-East Asia countries. Secondly, the article presents an interpretation of the economic forces shaping the scientific and technological reserve in FEFD and the NEA countries, including the economic motivation behind scientific and technological exchange between Far Eastern and Asianactors. The study finds the current state of science and technology development in the FEFD to be a limiting factor for the region’s participation in international cooperation in this area. If the existing institutional and structural layout of the scientific and technological reserve of the FEFD is maintained in the future, it will serve to only reinforce the region’s disadvantageous position ininternational technological exchange, which – in the long term – will limit the region’s ability to expand its productive capacity

  17. European future natural gas demand and supply diversification: key issues for Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Elschner, E.

    1996-01-01

    After the breakdown of the former Soviet Union and the COMECON the demarcation line between western Europe and central/eastern Europe has disappeared. The central and eastern European economies as a whole and their gas industries as well as the western European gas companies are preparing for the future enlarged market in creating the prerequisites to participate successfully in such a market and to seize the opportunities this market is offering. The framework for this future European Gas Market has to be created now. The European gas industries and gas markets are in transition and are in a process of reshaping, with the following challenges: (1) In Central and Eastern European countries: To complete the privatization and restructuring process from centrally-planned economies to market-oriented structures with deregulated prices, market-oriented tariff systems and new legal and regulatory frameworks. These are the essential prerequisites for an integration of the central and eastern European countries into a single European gas market and the basis for an effective and successful trans border gas co-operation between east and west. (2) In western European countries: To pursue nearly similar processes of restructuring which are underway: privatization by reducing state participation and influence in gas and energy companies, with the accent on liberalization and deregulation of market structures with fewer market entry barriers, and more competition by reducing the influence of state or private monopolies. Gas companies are undertaking cost-efficiency measures to be prepared to meet the requirements of more competitive market structures and also of a more advanced internationalized gas business. The fundamental rules on which western European gas industries based their operations up to now have to be reconsidered. The old western European structures which have developed under the shelter of governmental protection are under pressure from several sources. EU energy

  18. The Determinants of FDI in the Central and Eastern Europe: The Impact of the European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Makhavikova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The amount of FDI inflows to the Central and Eastern Europe increased dramatically during the last two decades. This article is aimed at identifying the ability of the Central Eastern European countries to attract FDI in the context of European integration, and at estimating the most important factors that influence the decision of foreign investors to invest in the region. Despite the broad research has been devoted to define the FDI determinants, the literature dealing in particular with the role of the European Union in the mobilization of FDI is rather scarce, and these findings are very discrepant. In order to understand factors that influence the location of FDI, we employ an empirical model for the period of 1992-2013 for twenty CEE countries. This study reveals that the most important determinants of FDI in CEECs are the market size, cost of labor and the European integration. The results of the research can be used to estimate the effect on FDI inflows from a prospective additional Eastern expansion of the EU by the countries currently not within the EU.

  19. Efforts to promote scientific co-operation in South-East Europe

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    On 13 and 14 May this year CERN hosted a meeting of a task force entrusted with the task of making recommendations for the reconstruction of scientific collaboration in the countries of South-East Europe (1). This meeting follows a conference attended by delegates from the countries of South-East Europe and international experts which was held in Venice between 24 and 27 March this year. The conference was organised under the aegis of UNESCO's Regional Office for Science and Technology for Europe (ROSTE), attended by representatives of the European Science Foundation (ESF), the European Union and the Academia Europaea as well as by observers from CERN. The aim of the conference was to seek resources and assess the prospects for integration of R&D facilities in the countries of South-East Europe into the networks of European countries. Les membres du groupe de Reconstruction d'une coopération scientifique dans l'Europe du sud-est, réunis au CERN, le 14 mai dernier, dé...

  20. All quiet on the eastern front? Disruption scenarios of Russian natural gas supply to Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Philipp M.; Holz, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Russian–Ukrainian crisis reignited European concerns about natural gas supply security recalling the experiences of 2006 and 2009. However, the European supply situation, regulation and infrastructure have changed, with better diversified import sources, EU member states being better connected and a common regulation on the security of supply has been introduced. Nevertheless, European dependency on natural gas remained high. This paper investigates different Russian natural gas export disruptions scenarios and analyses short- and long-term reactions in Europe. We use the Global Gas Model (GGM), a large-scale mixed complementarity representation of the natural gas sector with a high level of technical granularity with respect to storage and transportation infrastructure. While we find that most of the EU member states are not severely affected by Russian disruptions, some East European countries are very vulnerable. Prioritizing the removal of infrastructure bottlenecks is critical for securing a sufficient natural gas supply to all EU member states. - Highlights: • We analyze disruption scenarios of Russian natural gas exports to Europe. • Most EU countries are only weakly affected by a complete Russian supply disruption. • We find that Eastern Europe is vulnerable to Russian supply disruptions. • We identify infrastructure bottlenecks in the European natural gas network. • We find that the large EU LNG import capacity is not sufficiently connected

  1. POLICIES FOR PROMOTING COMPETITIVENESS IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPE 2020 STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Cristina Popovici

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to identify the competitiveness gap between ten Eastern and Central European (ECE countries and effective measures for bridging this gap. We find that Romania and Bulgaria are far behind the European countries that joined the European Union (EU in 2004 in terms of competitiveness. Moreover, since the adhesion year, Romania and Bulgaria competitiveness improved very slowly, while other European countries accelerated their growth in terms of competitiveness. For this reason, the living standard of Romanians and Bulgarians increased very little compared to the increases in the rest of the ECE countries. For proving that increasing competitiveness drives an increase in GDP per capita, we also identify the gap between the actual GDP per capita and the potential GDP per capita if each of the analysed countries would apply the European Commission recommended measures for boosting competitiveness, as described in the Europe 2020 Strategy. We conclude that, unless harsh measures are imposed for increasing competitiveness, Romania and Bulgaria risk to remain far behind the rest of the analyzed countries. In this respect, we propose public policies actions based on other ECE countries good practices focused on the domains Romania and Bulgaria must improve.

  2. Danish environmental support fund for Eastern Europe. Co-operation development 1991-1996 and programme priority areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The publication gives an account of environmental co-operation between Denmark and 12 countries in Eastern Europe. The basis of co-operation is a country programme, describing present and future priority areas in the recipient countries, as an expression of common understanding between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment in the recipient countries. The publication also describe the environmental efforts made in 1991-1996 under the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) administered by the DEPA. (au)

  3. China’s Trade Policy Towards Central and Eastern Europe in the 21St Century, Example of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drelich-Skulska Bogusława

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present China’s economic model and discuss, in this context, bilateral trade and investment relations between China and Poland. The analysis presented herein is based on the strategy of cooperation with countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as presented by China’s Prime Minister, and on the growing importance of Poland as a main partner of China in the Central and Eastern Europe region. The paper describes main premises of the Chinese economic model, followed by a diagnosis of Chinese economy. The authors analyze the main directions of China’s foreign cooperation, placing the emphasis on relations with Poland.

  4. Cultural Ambitions of Cities in Central and Eastern Europe in the Light of Two Cities - Tallin and Maribor - Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Morvay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cities of Central and Eastern Europe have recognized those trends, which are already visible in the Western Europe on cultural sphere. The Western European cities generate development of society and economy based on culture. These trends came up with the age of knowledge-based economy. The cultural economy and the creative economy are spreading more and more in the Western Europe. The progress is helped by the European Union through several cultural project. For example the European Capital of Culture program. Participation in this process has become a strategic weapon for cities seeking to attract cultural visitors. Nowadays, the event has certainly developed beyond its cultural origins. It is becoming a part of urban economic and cultural revitalization. Since 2007 Central and Eastern European cities also can be the title holder of the European Capital of Culture. The first city was Sibiu in Romania in Central and Eastern Europe. I examine the impacts of the European Capital of Culture program on the local economy and society in the cities in Central and Eastern Europe.

  5. Planning for environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites in Central and Eastern Europe. Proceedings of a workshop held under the technical co-operation project RER/9/022 on environmental restoration in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    An IAEA Regional Technical Co-operation (TC) project RER/9/022 on ''Environmental Restoration'' for central and eastern Europe and the former USSR was launched in 1992 and concluded at the end of 1996. The first phase of this project had the primary purpose of identifying and characterizing radioactively contaminated sites in the region, including evaluation of doses to the general public and other environmental impacts. The main result of this phase of the project were published in IAEA-TECDOC-865. A new 1995-1996 phase of the project focused on the radioactive contamination of uranium mining and milling sites and the development of plans for environmental restoration of these sites. While the 1993-1994 phase aimed at attracting the attention of Member States in the region to a long neglected problem, the second phase served as a stimulus to initiate concrete planning activities that would lead to corrective actions in highly contaminated areas in those countries. As a consequence, the project emphasis shifted from scientific discussions to the identification of responsibilities, planning activities, and the assessment of existing and required resources for the eventual implementation of restoration plans. The 1995-1996 phase of the project consisted of a planning meeting and three workshops that addressed different topical themes. The papers compiled in this publication were presented at the last workshop, held in Felix, Romania, 4-8 November 1996. They summarize national situations in environmental contamination as of the end of 1996 and ongoing or planned actions for remediation

  6. Introduction: Legal Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antal Szerletics

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal education in Central and Eastern Europe is often criticised for its inefficiency, outdated models of teaching, discrepancy between market needs and educational offer, strong power relations within institutions or distorted professional ethos of academics. Many of the institutional problems seem to stem from the peculiar historical past of the region, including the socialist heritage of higher education. Law is a particularly sensitive discipline in this respect as its education was – and arguably, has still remained – deeply overpoliticized. Although direct political influence ceased after the political transition in 1989, the professional ethos and the power relations of legal academia have hardly changed in the last twenty years. The papers gathered in the OSLS monographic issue Legal Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Challenges and Prospects discuss these problems of legal education and propose alternative solutions, which could bring about a change in the field. La educación jurídica de Europa central y oriental es objeto de crítica por su ineficiencia, sus modelos obsoletos de enseñanza, su discrepancia con respecto a las demandas del mercado, las fuertes relaciones de poder en las instituciones y la distorsionada ética profesional de los académicos. Muchos de los problemas institucionales parecen provenir del pasado histórico de la región, incluida la herencia socialista en la educación superior. El Derecho es una disciplina especialmente delicada a este respecto, ya que su enseñanza ha estado -y, probablemente, sigue estando- profundamente politizada. A pesar de la transición política de 1989, la ética profesional y las relaciones de poder que rigen el estrato académico apenas han cambiado en los últimos veinte años. Los artículos reunidos en el monográfico Legal Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Challenges and Prospects analizan los problemas de la enseñanza del Derecho y proponen soluciones

  7. Mapping health research capacity in 17 countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Alessio; Glonti, Ketevan; Bertollini, Roberto; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Policies to improve health status, tackle disease and ensure equitable access to healthcare should be informed by evidence derived from high-quality research. However, health research capacity is unevenly distributed across countries, as revealed by mapping exercises that have been undertaken to provide a basis for concerted action to strengthen capacity. This study systematically describes capacity to undertake health research in the countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe and identifies the elements required to create a national health research system. The mapping exercise comprised two elements: a survey of key informants in the respective countries and a bibliometric analysis of scientific publications in the field of public health. Our results confirm that health research remains a low priority in some countries of the WHO European Region. In these countries, most of the literature was produced by researchers outside the country, often to inform international donors. This study provides important information for countries seeking to initiate action to strengthen their research capacity. There is a need for a comprehensive strategy with sustained investment in training and career development of researchers. There is also a need to create new funding systems to provide financial support to those undertaking policy-relevant research. International collaboration and investment in mechanisms to bridge the gap between research and policy are urgently required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Integration of Capital Markets from Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for EU Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra HOROBET

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the extent of capital market co-movements between three emerging markets Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland and three developed markets from the European Union – Austria, France and Germany. We test whether an increase in correlations between the six markets took place in recent years, as revealing higher integration of capital markets in the region. We find a statistically significant positive trend in cross-market correlations between 1999 and 2008, before the emergence of the global financial crisis. Movements in national stock markets are not fully synchronized, but increases in market volatilities lead to increases in cross-country correlations. There is a long-term relationship between some of these countries capital markets, and information is transmitted from one market to the other. Our findings confirm previous studies and lead to the conclusion that stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe became more integrated with the developed markets in European Union.

  9. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE AND THE ACTORS OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Eduard GROSARU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt regarding the importance that south-eastern Europe has gained over the past years in geopolitical and geostrategic terms. Due to its history and considering the changes that have taken place here after the fall of the Iron Curtain, and also as a consequence of the “hot spots” emerged here on ideological, political, economic and terrorist grounds, this part of the continent still is an area of control and interests confrontations orchestrated by the actors that provide the international affairs with a multipolar dimension. All the aforementioned factors lead to various phenomena in which individual or group interests result in regional as well as global consequences.

  10. Promoting cleaner and safer industrial production in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The current transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union provides an unique opportunity to integrate environmental considerations into the process of economic restructuring. The use of environmental audits in industry to identify savings in energy, water, and other raw materials is a particularly cost-effective approach for promoting more efficient industrial production and improvements in environmental performance. This volume brings together the papers given at a seminar on ''Auditing to Improve Safety, Environmental Performance and Economic Efficiency'', where the chemical Industry in the Ukraine was a particular focus of discussion. The practical experiences described in these papers demonstrate how environmental and economic performance can be enhanced at little or no cost. Later on, only the article concerning the chemical industry of Ukraine has been analysed. (authors). 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Comments on the seismic safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarics, A.G.; Kelly, J.M.; Csorba, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    After the break-up of the Soviet Union, ten countries in Eastern Europe inherited Soviet-designed nuclear power plants which were constructed without adequate provisions to resist earthquake-generated lateral forces. An earthquake at their locations could seriously damage these plants and could result in Chernobyl-like consequences on the environment. There is an ongoing program to reinforce these plants using conventional piecemeal methods. A newly developed seismic protection strategy called 'base isolation' or 'seismic isolation', widely used in the United States to retrofit existing buildings, is recommended as an economical, technically superior, and more effective solution - where applicable - to make these nuclear power plants capable of resisting seismic forces. (author)

  12. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, A.S. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  13. Nuclear energy in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (1917-1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterman, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The study is divided into several main sections. A brief history of nuclear development in the USSR is described; in particular, the influence of military achievements on subsequent civilian applications is outlined. Economic factors affecting the utilisation of nuclear energy and the feasibility of nuclear fuel are discussed, and an attempt is made to identify organisational aspects of the industry. Past nuclear power plans are evaluated and compared with actual events, and the probable role of nuclear power beyond the 1980s is outlined. The depletion of conventional fuel resources in Eastern Europe has increased the viability of nuclear fuel. The political and economic consequences arising from the transfer of Soviet nuclear technology to the area are assessed. Finally, technological and economic aspects of power reactors in the Soviet Union are evaluated and, where possible, comparisons are made with Western achievements. (author)

  14. The Problem of Weak Governments and Weak Societies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Grdešić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that, for Eastern Europe, the simultaneous presence of weak governments and weak societies is a crucial obstacle which must be faced by analysts and reformers. The understanding of other normatively significant processes will be deficient without a consciousness-raising deliberation on this problem and its implications. This paper seeks to articulate the “relational” approach to state and society. In addition, the paper lays out a typology of possible patterns of relationship between state and society, dependent on whether the state is weak or strong and whether society is weak or strong. Comparative data are presented in order to provide an empirical support for the theses. Finally, the paper outlines two reform approaches which could enable breaking the vicious circle emerging in the context of weak governments and weak societies.

  15. Land Reform and Land Consolidation in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    countries have introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems in agriculture. The PhD study analyses the experiences from introduction of land consolidation and land banking instruments and provides the first full overview of the experiences achieved. While land consolidation...... instruments are well on the way in the region, land banking instruments have largely failed in the region, at least as tools for supporting land consolidation programs. Based on the limited theory available, the analysis has revealed how limited land mobility is often hampering the outcome of land...... consolidation projects. Finally, the research has documented the need for a land consolidation model more suitable for Central and Eastern Europe. Such model, integrated voluntary land consolidation, is presented and discussed....

  16. Chances and risks in the future E and P of Eastern-Central Europe (ECE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrova, H.; Kolly, E. [IHS Energy, Geneva (Switzerland); Schmitz, U. [LO and G Consultants, Essen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Eastern-Central Europe is a mature region in terms of hydrocarbon exploration and production. Its oil and gas reserves and production are in decline. Reserves replacement requires the identification of new opportunities. Several opportunities are being reviewed for their volume potential and economic viability and, in particular, for their chances and risks. Adequate opportunities in this respect are exploration for hydrocarbons in the region's thrust belts, the drilling of offshore plays of the Black Sea, and the delivery of smaller gas reserves to spot markets and/or independent power plants. The latter opportunities require the implementation of new approaches. As to the exploration-driven opportunities, risk lowering will obviously be achieved by the application of 3D seismic. Several of the identified opportunities will require substantial financial exposure. (orig.)

  17. Secularization versus religious revival in Eastern Europe: Church institutional resilience, state repression and divergent paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northmore-Ball, Ksenia; Evans, Geoffrey

    2016-05-01

    Despite continuing for over two decades, the debate about the nature of the trends in religiosity in post-Communist Eastern Europe remains unresolved: some arguing that these countries are undergoing the same process of secularization as the West, while others insist that the entire region is experiencing a religious revival. Using national sample surveys from the early 1990s to 2007 to examine the change in demographic predictors of religiosity, we show that Catholic and Orthodox countries are experiencing different trends, the first group displaying evidence of secularization and the second of revival, and that these two different trends are likely to derive from the legacies of state repression and the differing abilities of the churches to resist such repression. We argue that the current literature has thus taken a mistakenly general approach, and that the post-Communist region consists of at least two distinct groups of societies with different trends in religiosity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Drivers of forest cover change in Eastern Europe and European Russia, 1985–2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alix-Garcia, Jennifer; Munteanu, Catalina; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    of these in driving forest cover change after the collapse of socialism. Using a combination of cross-section and panel regression methods, we find that privatization of forest lands increased forest cover loss due to logging, as did increases in agricultural land between 1850 and 1900. Land quality has no power......The relative importance of geography, history, and policy in driving forest cover change at broad scales remains poorly understood. We examine variation in forest cover dynamics over the period 1985–2012 across 19 countries in Eastern Europe and European Russia in order to shed light on the role......, but that the majority of forest cover change over the period results from shocks, both political and economic, shared by all countries in the sample. This highlights the importance of broad-scale shocks as drivers of forest change, relative to geographic and policy variability across individual countries....

  19. Liberalization and enlargement: impacts on the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirovska, M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2004, the EU has opened its commercial natural gas industry to competition, while eight former socialist countries have become member states. This ongoing institutional evolution is expected to have a great impact on the industrial organisation of the East European natural gas markets. Specificities and rigidities of the transport networks, as well as strong import dependency may in fact weaken the security of supply and confirm that natural gas is strongly affected by geopolitical constraints. By levering on an analysis of structure and strategies across natural gas markets in Eastern Europe, this dissertation explores the stakes of integration and liberalization on the industrial organisation of European natural gas and reveals the risk of an emerging oligopoly, and the cooperation between dominant players. Our main contention is that this evolution could possibly hinder network interconnection thereby thwarting the achievement of an integrated and single competitive natural gas market in the Union. (author)

  20. A PVAR MODEL BUILT ON THE RICARDIAN APPROACH TO DEFICITS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BELINGHER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current times, the issue of the deficits became very problematic for the economists, as well as for the practitioners and theoreticians. The purpose of this paper consists in the construction of a Panel VAR model, which has the role to test the Ricardian approach to deficits in several countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The analyzed countries are Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine and the time interval starts in 1998 and it ends in 2013.  The used variables are the gross national saving rate and the budget balance for each of the six countries. Our results show that in this geographical-economical area, the Ricardian approach to deficits does not hold as a valid macroeconomic theory.

  1. How research on marketing in Central and Eastern Europe can advance international marketing theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Schuh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of how research on marketing issues in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE can contribute to the international marketing theory. Regional studies provide valuable insights into business environments, marketing systems and practices in specific countries and geographical areas, which explain their high appeal among marketing practitioners. While contributing to the general body of knowledge in marketing, they often lack a strong role in theory development. Two approaches which link regional studies to the advancement of international marketing theory are presented and discussed: research on CEE has to be either integrated into existing theories or used as a starting point for the building of new theories. The choice of an inductive or deductive research approach is rather secondary as long as unique marketing phenomena are addressed. Unique marketing phenomena originating from a CEE context bring forth innovative insights and have a large potential to add value to the international marketing theory.

  2. Management of MDR-TB in HIV co-infected patients in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, A M W; Schultze, A; Miller, R F

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mortality among HIV patients with tuberculosis (TB) remains high in Eastern Europe (EE), but details of TB and HIV management remain scarce. METHODS: In this prospective study, we describe the TB treatment regimens of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB and use of antiretroviral...... therapy (ART). RESULTS: A total of 105 HIV-positive patients had MDR-TB (including 33 with extensive drug resistance) and 130 pan-susceptible TB. Adequate initial TB treatment was provided for 8% of patients with MDR-TB compared with 80% of those with pan-susceptible TB. By twelve months, an estimated 57.......3% (95%CI 41.5-74.1) of MDR-TB patients had started adequate treatment. While 67% received ART, HIV-RNA suppression was demonstrated in only 23%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that internationally recommended MDR-TB treatment regimens were infrequently used and that ART use and viral suppression was well...

  3. Energy policy in Eastern Europe and the European Union standard; Energiebeleid Oost-Europe is nog ver weg van EU-standaard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterheert, R.; Van Harmelen, T.; Van Oostvoorn, F.; Uyterlinde, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    1997-11-01

    From the results of a comparative study it appears that there still are large differences between East European countries and the members of the European Union with respect to energy policies. Some of the differences can be solved easily. However, where it concerns the energy intensity the gap is still very wide, not only between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, but also between the East European countries. The study on the title subject was carried out by ECN Policy Studies in cooperation with 5 West European research institutes and local partners in 10 European Union associate countries. 2 figs., 7 refs.

  4. (PostMaterialism, Satisfaction with Democracy and Support for Democracy in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović, Zoran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The materialist-postmaterialist value dimension, understood as assigning priority to self-expression and quality of life as opposed to physical and economic security, has been one of the most important heuristic tools in the analysis of the changes of predominant values in cross-cultural and comparative studies in past decades. In recent elaboration of self-expression and emancipative values (in both cases, with postmaterialism as the most important component, postmaterialist values have been viewed as an essence of democratic political culture and a cultural precondition of effective democracy. This study was aimed at analysing the relation between postmaterialist values (understood as a political/thick culture variable, satisfaction with country’s democracy (institutional/thin culture variable and support for democracy. The data from the European Values Survey (EVS, conducted on the nationally representative samples in twenty East European countries on the total of twenty countries and 30,393 respondents, were used. It is shown that postmaterialism is an important aspect of democratic political culture in Eastern Europe; in general, the most supportive of democracy are postmaterialists. On the other hand, there is a mixed pattern between the postmaterialist values and satisfaction with democracy – in some countries, citizens satisfied with democracy are more prone to choose postmaterialist items compared to the dissatisfied ones, while in some other countries the reverse is true. Both are, however, important predictors of the support for democracy as well as the country’s level of democracy development (measured by the EIU Democracy index. The relevance of postmaterialist values for the promotion of democratic political culture in Eastern Europe, possible alternative mechanisms of value change as well as the materialist-postmaterialist conception are discussed.

  5. Health Care Performance and Health Financing Systems in Countries from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel ANTON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of all health systems from emerging economies is the shortage of financial resources. This fact is currently exacerbated by the economic crisis that has led many governments to reconsider the level of public spending in the health sector. Starting from the Romanian experience, the paper aims to highlight the linkage between the performance of the health system and the total health spending for selected countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Romania has the lowest level of health expenditure as percentage of GDP in Europe, even if its growth rate for 2003-2008 was the highest. In addition, empirical evidence shows that these resources are used inefficiently. Despite the increasing resources allocated to the health sector, statistical analysis shows that health system efficiency, as measured by under-5 (child mortality rate, is still low. We use regression analysis based on crosssection data in order to explain the differences in health expenditure and their implication on the system efficiency. Health data have been provided by international organizations. Crosssection regression results suggest that totalhealth spending and GDP per capita are the most important factors explaining differences in health status across Central and Eastern European countries, though other lifestyle factors could play important roles.

  6. Aspects of the transfer of the Saxon-Magdeburg Law to Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Lück

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important impetus for the development and dissemination of the Saxon Mirror, the most famous and influential German law book of Central Germany between 1220 and 1235 by one Eike von Repgow, was the municipal law of the town of Magdeburg, the so called Magdeburg Law. It is one of the most important German town laws of the Middle Ages. In conjunction with the Saxon Mirror with which it was closely interconnected, the Magdeburg Law reached the territories of Silesia, Poland, the lands belonging to the Teutonic Order, the Baltic countries (especially Lithuania, Ukraine, Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia and Hungary. The peculiar symbiosis between Saxon Mirror and Magdeburg Law on the way to Eastern Europe has been expressed in the source texts (ius Teutonicum, ius Maideburgense and ius Saxonum in the early originally carried the same content. Ius Maideburgense (Magdeburg Law has reached the foremost position as a broad term, which encompassed the Saxon territorial law as well as the Magdeburg town law, and, quite frequently, also the German Law (ius Teutonicum in general. Modern scholarship recognizes this terminological overlapping and interrelatedness through the notion of Saxon- Magdeburg Law. In a very complex process of legal transfer, the Saxon-Magdeburg Law became a fundamental source of the legal systems in several Eastern European states during the late Middle Ages and the early modern period. In this sense the Saxon-Magdeburg Law contributed to the groundwork of the development of law in Europe. Milestones achieved in the process included the formal concession of Magdeburg Law to the capitals Krakow (Poland, Kiev (Ukraine, Minsk (Belarus, Vilnius (Lithuania and other towns by kings and princes between the 13th and 15th centuries.

  7. SCORE performance in Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union: MONICA and HAPIEE results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhireva, Olga; Pajak, Andrzej; Broda, Grazyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Skodova, Zdena; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-03-01

    The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scale assesses 10 year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk SCORE version is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), but its performance has never been systematically assessed in the region. We evaluated SCORE performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. The cohorts based on the World Health Organization MONitoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) surveys in the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s. The Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002-05. In Cox regression analyses, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline significantly predicted CVD mortality in both MONICA [n = 15 027; hazard ratios (HR), 1.7-6.3] and HAPIEE (n = 20 517; HR, 2.6-10.5) samples. While SCORE calibration was good in most MONICA samples (predicted and observed mortality were close), the risk was underestimated in Russia. In HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE overpredicted the estimated 10 year mortality for Czech and Polish samples and adequately predicted it for Russia. SCORE discrimination was satisfactory in both MONICA and HAPIEE. The high-risk SCORE underestimated the fatal CVD risk in Russian MONICA but performed well in most MONICA samples and Russian HAPIEE. This SCORE version might overestimate the risk in contemporary Czech and Polish populations.

  8. PROJECTED PRECIPITATION CHANGES IN CENTRAL/EASTERN EUROPE ON THE BASIS OF ENSEMBLE SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Miklos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected precipitation changes in Central/Eastern Europe on the basis of ENSEMBLE simulations. For building appropriate local/national adaptation and mitigation strategies, detailed analysis of regional climate change is essential. In order to estimate the climate change for the 21st century, both global and regional models may be used. However, due to the coarse horizontal resolution, global climate models are not appropriate to describe regional scale climate processes. On the other hand, regional climate models (RCMs provide more realistic regional climate scenarios. A wide range of RCM experiments was accomplished in the frame of the ENSEMBLES project funded by the EU FP6 program, which was one of the largest climate change research project ever completed. All the RCM experiments used 25 km horizontal resolution and the A1B emission scenario, according to which CO2 concentration by 2100 is estimated to exceed 700 ppm, i.e., more than twice of the preindustrial level.The 25 km spatial resolution is fine enough to estimate the future hydrology-related conditions in different parts of Europe, from which we separated and analyzed simulated climate data sets for the Central/Eastern European region. Precipitation is an especially important climatological variable because of agricultural aspects and flood-related natural hazards, which may seriously affect all the countries in the evaluated region. On the basis of our results, different RCM simulations generally project drier summers and wetter winters (compared to the recent decades. The southern countries are more likely to suffer more intense warming, especially, in summer, and also, more intense drought events due to the stronger Mediterranean impact.

  9. Atmospheric circulation patterns in Central and Eastern Europe during the Weichselian Pleniglacial inferred from loess grain-size records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, M.P.; Vandenberghe, J.; Sümegi, P.; Lanczont, M.; Gerasimenko, N.P.; Matviishina, Z.N.; Markovic, S.B.; Frechen, M.

    2011-01-01

    This is a contribution to the reconstruction of the eolian transport processes and wind directions in south-eastern Europe during the Weichselian Pleniglacial. The study is based on eight loess sections: three west and five east of the Carpathian Mountains. The loess dispersal patterns in the area

  10. NPM Can Work: An optimistic review of the impact of New Public Management reforms in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dan (Sorin); Ch. Pollitt (Christopher)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews the New Public Management (NPM) literature in central and eastern Europe (CEE) with the aim of assessing whether reforms have 'worked'. Increasingly, academics have tended to argue against the suitability of NPM instruments in this region. To understand the impact of

  11. Seed morphology of section Edentulae Benth. of the genus Pedicularis L. (Orobanchaceae Vent.) in the Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Peregrym O.; Futorna O.

    2013-01-01

    The seeds ultrastructure of the five species of the section EdentulaeBenth. of the Eastern Europe were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The seeds descriptions of surface of the species of this section were presented in this article. These species are heterogeneous by characteristics of seeds surface, which we consider as valuable addition features for identification within the section.

  12. Dairy farmers’ business strategies in Central and Eastern Europe based on evidence from Lithuania, Poland and Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, Frans; Malak-Rawlikowska, Agatsa; Stalgiene, Aldona; Kuipers, Abele; Klopčič, Marija

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate market-oriented strategic decision-making by farmers in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) farm development paths of dairy farmers in Slovenia, Poland and Lithuania were analysed. The influence of internal strengths and weaknesses, external opportunities and threats, and farmer goals on

  13. TAX COMPOSITION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH. A PANEL-MODEL APPROACH FOR EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURA PETRU-OVIDIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of tax composition on economic growth, based on a panel-model approach. The dataset includes six East-European countries and covers the period 1995-2012. Specifically, the study explores the relative impact of different components of tax revenue (direct and indirect tax revenue, as percentage of total tax revenue on economic growth. The paper adds marginally to the empirical literature, showing how the two types of tax revenue influence economic growth in Eastern Europe, under an extended set of economic and sociopolitical control variables. The most important empirical output, for the 6 investigated East-European countries during 1995-2012, suggests that direct taxes are significant and negatively correlated with economic growth, while indirect taxes exert a positive influence on the dependent variable, though insignificant. As for the control variables, it seems that only freedom from corruption and political stability have a significant impact on economic growth. The study suggests that the design of tax systems in Eastern European countries is in accordance with the Commission’s priorities regarding its growth-friendliness. As for policy implications, governments should continue shifting the tax burden away from labour on to tax bases linked to consumption, property, and combating pollution, with potential positive effects both for growth and for fighting against tax evasion.

  14. External dose rates from gamma rays and activity concentrations in foodstuffs and herbage in eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Dodd, N.J.; Bradley, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial scarcity of reliable information in eastern European countries, coupled with the proximity of the Chernobyl installation, resulted in understandable concern among British nationals living in these areas or visiting them on a short-term basis. Accordingly, arrangements were made by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) for the appropriate Embassies to send samples of milk, drinking water, grass and available fruit and vegetables to the Board's laboratories at Chilton for analysis. In addition, simple monitoring equipment was supplied to the Embassies for measurements of external dose rates from gamma rays out of doors. The first set of samples was collected in Moscow on May 3rd 1986. Most consignments arrived at Chilton within 24 hours of collection. Speed was important, not only because of the need for information but because vegetation needed to be sufficiently fresh to permit meaningful measurement. By the end of June 1986, the results of systematic monitoring programmes in eastern Europe were being disseminated more freely, so that frequent sampling by the Embassies was no longer considered necessary. Since that time samples have been received only occasionally from those Embassies where concern still persists. This report summarises the results of measurements and samples taken by June 30th 1986. Data for γ-ray emitting radionuclides in foodstuffs were issued to the FCO in a series of Measurement Reports. Here they are presented together with data for actinide element concentrations in a limited number of samples. Measurements of outdoor external dose rates made by the Embassies are also included

  15. CABINETS OPERATING RULES AND COALITIONN FORMATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA IRINA IONITA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of communism in the late ’80 in Central and Eastern Europe, due to the appearance of several political parties in each state, there was the need to form coalitions in order to provide support for the governments. This paper aims to identify the institutional features that influence the coalition formation process using the rational choice institutionalism approach. In this case, the political parties, who seek to optimize their benefits in the government formation process, are constrained by the institutional environment. The institutional environment comprises the rules that determine how the governments are formed. Particularly, this paper aim is to identify how the cabinet operating rules affect the outcomes of the coalition formation process. In order to do so, I will develop a quantitative analysis of 110 cabinets in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria formed after the first free elections subsequent to the communist fall until the beginning of 2010. These countries represent the post-communist states that joined the European Union, finalizing the democratization process at least from a formal point a view. This cross-country comparison tries to explain how some institutional features influence the formation of coalitions in new democracies. This research is valuable due to the lack of this type of comparative studies on Central and Eastern European states.

  16. Emerging Administrations and Sustainable Development in South-Eastern Europe. Case study: Romania and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years ago, Agenda 21, the United Nations' call to action for sustainable development, envisaged that the necessary harmonization and extension of existing policies and plans would occur through the adoption of an identifiable strategy for sustainable development. Since then, sustainable development is a widely used phrase and idea and it has many different meanings and therefore provokes many different responses. The aim of the article is to explore the role of the emerging South-Eastern administrations in the sustainable development under the changes and rules imposed by the European Union pressure. We will analyze both concepts, emerging administrations and sustainable development from the perspective of system theory and we will make the link with the concept of emergence, which is utilized to research and to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of the systemic theory. The research will be focused on the states form the south-eastern Europe, thus in the case study we will make a comparison between Romania and Bulgaria, as new member states of the European Union.

  17. Center for Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe: a platform for co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomik, L.; Kichev, E.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the current status and the activities of the Centre of Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe (CENS). The CENS is a non-profit and independent association supported by the Swiss and Slovak Governments. The main mission of the CENS is to provide an independent platform for technical co-operation between the regulatory authorities of the Western and Eastern countries. The key partners of the CENS are the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the US Department of Energy (US DOE), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD), the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Germany and the Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), France. The CENS programs for 2003-2004 are presented. It can be considered as a complement to the IAEA activities in the area of short-term and event urgent planning. CENS projects as an example are presented. CENS proposals for co-operation with the Bulgarian institutions are made in connection with the topics of the forum round table discussions

  18. Vestiges of an Ancient Border in the Contemporary Genetic Diversity of North-Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu M Neuvonen

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that the advance of the Neolithic Revolution from the Near East through Europe was decelerated in the northernmost confines of the continent, possibly as a result of space and resource competition with lingering Mesolithic populations. Finland was among the last domains to adopt a farming lifestyle, and is characterized by substructuring in the form of a distinct genetic border dividing the northeastern and southwestern regions of the country. To explore the origins of this divergence, the geographical patterns of mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups of Neolithic and Mesolithic ancestry were assessed in Finnish populations. The distribution of these uniparental markers revealed a northeastern bias for hunter-gatherer haplogroups, while haplogroups associated with the farming lifestyle clustered in the southwest. In addition, a correlation could be observed between more ancient mitochondrial haplogroup age and eastern concentration. These results coupled with prior archeological evidence suggest the genetic northeast/southwest division observed in contemporary Finland represents an ancient vestigial border between Mesolithic and Neolithic populations undetectable in most other regions of Europe.

  19. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed.

  20. Conservation Motivation, Social Equality and Left-Right Ideological Preferences in Western and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarics, Márton

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how attitudes towards social equality can influence the relationship between conservation motivation (or openness) and personal ideological preferences on the left-right dimension, and how this relationship pattern differs between Western and Central & Eastern European (CEE) respondents. Using data from the European Social Survey (2012) we found that individual-level of conservation motivation reduces cultural egalitarianism in both the Western European and the CEE regions, but its connection with economic egalitarianism is only relevant in the CEE region where it fosters economic egalitarianism. Since both forms of egalitarianism were related to leftist ideological preferences in Western Europe, but in the CEE region only economic egalitarianism was ideologically relevant, we concluded that the classic “rigidity of the right” phenomenon is strongly related to cultural (anti)egalitarianism in Western Europe. At the same time, conservation motivation serves as a basis for the “rigidity of the left” in the post-socialist CEE region, in a great part due to the conventional egalitarian economic views. PMID:28580030

  1. Mediterranean diet score and total and cardiovascular mortality in Eastern Europe: the HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefler, Denes; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Brunner, Eric J; Bobak, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Mediterranean-type dietary pattern has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular (CVD) and other chronic diseases, primarily in Southern European populations. We examined whether Mediterranean diet score (MDS) is associated with total, CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke mortality in a prospective cohort study in three Eastern European populations. A total of 19,333 male and female participants of the Health Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study in the Czech Republic, Poland and the Russian Federation were included in the analysis. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and MDS was derived from consumption of nine groups of food using absolute cut-offs. Mortality was ascertained by linkage with death registers. Over the median follow-up time of 7 years, 1314 participants died. The proportion of participants with high adherence to Mediterranean diet was low (25 %). One standard deviation (SD) increase in the MDS (equivalent to 2.2 point increase in the score) was found to be inversely associated with death from all causes (HR, 95 % CI 0.93, 0.88-0.98) and CVD (0.90, 0.81-0.99) even after multivariable adjustment. Inverse but statistically not significant link was found for CHD (0.90, 0.78-1.03) and stroke (0.87, 0.71-1.07). The MDS effects were similar in each country cohort. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of total and CVD deaths in these large Eastern European urban populations. The application of MDS with absolute cut-offs appears suitable for non-Mediterranean populations.

  2. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Kusza

    Full Text Available The wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia. We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1 clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023 and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002. SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1 north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2 Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3 Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  3. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  4. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Anne Marie W; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients...... in EE, Western Europe (WE) and Latin America (LA). DESIGN AND METHODS: Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1413 TB/HIV patients (62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, WE, Southern Europe (SE), and LA) were enrolled. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between EE (N = 844), WE (N = 152......% of participants in EE compared with 90-96% in other regions (pmanagement of TB/HIV patients in EE requires...

  5. Equality of opportunities for next generation researchers: bridging the gap between theory and practice in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Nedjeljka; Alkauskas, Audrius; Gyürky, György; Heiri, Oliver; Robinson, Nathaniel D.; Schäfer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-five years after the fall of the Berlin wall and the historical opening of the European Union to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, there is still a striking difference in the success of European countries in attracting research funds and talented researchers. A number of indicators document the differences in research success and research opportunities between Eastern and Western European countries, and even between Northern and Southern Europe. Differences, as described for example by a number of secured ERC grants, apply to all research fields and to researchers at all stages of their careers. While statistical analysis document large gradients in research performance across the continent, the underlying issues that young researchers struggle with are common across Europe, although they impact research environment to a different extent. These issues are presently being discussed within Sci-Generation, a COST Targeted Network that aims to enhance the European research environment for the next generation of young researchers. The major goal of the network is to contribute ideas towards overcoming these differences in opportunities across Europe. Targeting researchers in the early stage of their independent carrier or in the transition to independence, Sci-Generation is devoted to inclusiveness in order to represent a diversity of issues in science policy in Europe. In particular, the network's Working Group 1 focuses on the countries of Eastern and Southern Europe with less success in attracting European research funding. Among other issues, we considered the involvement of young researchers in decision-making processes at all levels important in order to increase the systems' transparency. As shown by an ongoing study of how language affects the evaluation of research applications, the use of the local language serves, in some cases, as one of the last stands of "science-managing elites" that grew up in systems before 1990. We discuss how a lack

  6. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  7. Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    2004-04-01

    The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality

  8. The safety of nuclear power plants in eastern Europe and countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Luis

    1996-01-01

    A particular type of pressurized light water reactors, WWERs, (water cooled, water moderated energy reactors) is the only Soviet designed nuclear power reactor which have been built outside the former Soviet Union. There are 45 such units in operation and 14 under construction, including those outside Eastern Europe. There are 11 first generation 440 MW(e) WWER model 110 (WWER-440/230) plants in operation. One of the two units in Armenia shut down since 1989, following a devastating earthquake near the site was restarted in 1995. Four units in the eastern part of Germany were shut down permanently in 1990. Four of the operating units are in Bulgaria, two are in the Slovak Republic and four are in Russia. All of these units had been designed before formal nuclear safety standards were issued in the Soviet Union, and lack safety features basic to other pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Their shortcomings reported in the assessments made by the IAEA and others include reactor pressure vessel embrittlement problems, limited emergency core cooling capability, insufficient redundancy and separation of safety equipment, deficient instrumentation and control systems, insufficient internal and external hazards protection, the lack of a containment, and the absence of comprehensive accident analysis and safety analysis reports. Of the second generation, 440 MW(e) WWER model 213 (WWER 440/213), 16 units are in operation: four in the Czech Republic, four in Hungary, two in Russia, two in the Slovak Republic, two in Ukraine and two in Finland. The two reactors in Finland have undergone significant safety improvements, particularly in the fitting of non-Soviet instrumentation and of a containment structure

  9. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  10. INNOVATION VERSUS INCOME CONVERGENCE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. IS THERE A CORRELATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Silaghi Monica

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of response of the different economies facing the world economic crisis has brought into attention once again the issue of convergence inside the European Union. The high growth rates experienced by CEEC during the last decade created an optimistic view of rapid convergence towards Western Europe. But the crisis showed that the sources of economic growth in the region were not appropriate for a long run growth. Innovation is a key source of competitiveness and a contributor to a sustainable growth path. Even though CEEC lag behind other European countries in terms of R'D investment, a certain progress can be observed. The objective of the present paper is to establish if there is a correlation between the convergence in terms of GDP and the convergence in terms of innovation for the CEEC. Based on yearly Eurostat data for the period 1998-2008, we quantify the progress of each of the 10 CEEC both in closing the income gap and the innovation gap. We then rank the countries according to their speed of convergence and perform a Spearman rank correlation analysis. The results show that, on average, convergence in R'D is not correlated with convergence in GDP. The Czech Republic is the only country with a positive correlation between R'D intensity and GDP growth. Bulgaria, Hungary and Slovakia show a negative relationship between investment in R'D and economic growth. This implies that for most of the countries in Central and Eastern Europe, economic growth during the period 1998-2008 was mostly driven by non-innovation factors.

  11. E.U. and “Made Eastern Europe Reform”: from old perestroika (restructuring) to new European (construction)

    OpenAIRE

    OLIMID, ANCA PARMENA

    2004-01-01

    For European Union and Eastern Europe, the immediate legacy of the Cold War was the decisive torn-parts of the world history, because the dangerous „ myth of the red cell” and the Soviet collapse in 1989 announced the new foreign policy of East. This analysis searches to be a key instrument for E.U. - Central and Eastern European countries political approach and economic adjustment. For the West, the communist system’s failure was evident and emphasis a new aspect for the East relations. In p...

  12. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznan, Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gadher, S. J.; Marczak, L.; Luczak, M.; Stobiecki, M.; Widlak, P.; Kovářová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2016), s. 5-7 ISSN 1478-9450. [Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) /9./. Poznaň, 15.06.2015-18.06.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Central and Eastern Proteomic Conference * proteomics * mass spectrometry imaging Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.849, year: 2016

  13. Most common road safety engineering deficiencies in South Eastern Europe as a part of safe system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, D.; Vollpracht, H. J.; Beles, H.; Popa, V.; Tolea, B. A.

    2017-10-01

    Most common road safety engineering deficiencies identified by the authors in South Eastern Europe, including Romania, have been collected together and presented in this paper as a part of road safety unbreakably connected to the safe system approach (driver-vehicle-road). In different South Eastern Europe countries Road Safety Audit (RSA), Road Safety Inspection (RSI), as well as Black Spot Management (BSM) was introduced and practical implementation experience enabled the authors to analyze the road safety problems. Typical road safety engineering deficiencies have been presented in 8 different subsections, based on PIARC (World Road Association) RSA approach. This paper presents collected common road safety problems with relevant illustrations (real pictures) with associated accident risks.

  14. Drug use, HIV, HCV and TB: major interlinked challenges in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazatchkine, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia have the largest drug epidemic globally and the fastest and still expanding HIV epidemic. The Russian Federation and Ukraine together account for over 90% of the reported AIDS cases in the region. If small in absolute numbers, the epidemics are however significant in prevalence rate in most countries of Central Asia. Most heroin and many of the new synthetic or home-made drugs are injected, which has led to high prevalence levels (up to 90%) of HCV infection in people who inject drugs (PWID). The two epidemics of HIV and HCV are in turn interlinked with TB and MDR-TB that are highly prevalent among marginalized populations in the region. Despite progress in the last two years, access to antiretroviral treatment remains far below global levels and increases more slowly than new reported cases of HIV. Access to prevention is limited with low coverage of needle exchange programs and very low or inexistent access to opioid substitutive therapy. There are few exceptions to this situation, including Ukraine where harm reduction programs are being scaled up together with significant peer outreach programs for PWIDs. This is likely to be the reason why the epidemic curves in the Russian Federation and Ukraine are now diverging. The region faces many structural, cultural, societal and political obstacles in responding to these quadruple epidemics. Without a significantly expanded and strengthened response, these epidemics will remain major causes of illness and premature deaths in the region. PMID:25394010

  15. Evolution of the Water Vapor Plume over Eastern Europe during Summer 2010 Atmospheric Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Sitnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of water vapor (WV plume evolution over Eastern Europe (EE during atmospheric blocking in the summer of 2010, carried out on the basis of satellite (MODIS and MLS instruments, aerological, and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The obtained results show that the development of blocking was accompanied by the development of a positive anomaly of total column water vapor (TCWV content over the northern part of EE. Local TCWV content from 28 July to 6 August 2010 reached 3.35 cm, a value that exceeded by 3.3 times its content before the block. The surplus of WV was mainly conditioned by the advection of WV due to transfer of moist air from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea into northern EE and also due to increased evaporation from the surface enriched with water due to increased temperature and wind. We hypothesize that the influx of latent heat in the block area can contribute to the energy supply of the blocking anticyclone and prolong the existence of block. Strong humidification of the troposphere and some dehumidification of the lower stratosphere during the block were accompanied by warming of the troposphere and cooling of the lower stratosphere.

  16. Material Deprivation, Social Class and Life Course in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexi Gugushvili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the factor analysis technique and data from the UNDP/UNICEF Social Inclusion Survey to construct a material deprivation index for fi ve transitional societies in the Balkans (FYR Macedonia and Serbia, Eastern Europe (Moldova and Ukraine and Central Asia (Kazakhstan. The distribution of deprivation between these societies can be largely explained by their level of economic development, but within-county variance is not limited to monetary dimension. Controlling for settlement type, human capital and employment status in multivariate settings, the paper tests the hypothesis of the continuous importance of occupational social class and the emerging role of diff erent life phases in individuals’ welfare outcomes. The results reveal that all specifi ed social classes and most of the defi ned life phases have diverse and statistically signifi cant eff ects on the constructed deprivation index and the likelihood of being under 70 per cent of the median deprivation threshold. Belonging to non-skilled manual, farmers and skilled manual social class as well as being a child or lone parent were revealed to have the highest risk of material deprivation. These fi ndings are in line with the conclusions made for the Western welfare democracies on the complementary nature of social class and life course dimensions in explaining social hardship.

  17. Welfare State Development in Central and Eastern Europe: A State of the Art Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Adascalitei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The welfare states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE have undergone massive changes since the beginning of the 1990s. This paper reviews the literature on welfare state development in CEE in light of the theories that have been used to study advanced capitalist democracies. Its purpose is to critically assess the extent to which different theories can explain changes in the welfare state during and after transition. It argues that until now two strands of literature have crystallised: institutionalism and actor-centred explanations. Institutionalists agree that welfare reforms are limited by the path dependence of the national welfare state structures though this framework is biased towards explaining stability. Recent literature seeks to overcome this bias by adding variables that traditionally belong to the actor-centred paradigm. This essay will argue that the gains from such an approach are exceeded by losses in the accuracy and parsimony of explanations. Further, in the actor-centred camp the welfare state is seen as a product of bargaining between various national and international actors. Yet the debate about who is responsible for the present welfare state arrangements is far from over. Unanswered questions revolve around the impact of political parties and ideologies on welfare reforms, the role of bureaucracies, the efficiency of international financial institutions in advocating retrenchment and the precise mechanisms through which all the above actors defend their interests.

  18. Life expectancy and health expenditure evolution in Eastern Europe-DiD and DEA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Vukovic, Mira; Fontanesi, John

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of long-term health expenditure and longevity trends across three major sub-regions of Eastern Europe since 1989. 24 countries were classified as EU 2004, CIS, or SEE. European Health for All Database (HFA-DB) 1989-2012 data were processed using difference-in-difference (DiD) and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The strongest expenditure growth was recorded in EU 2004 followed by SEE and the CIS. A surprisingly similar longevity increase was present in SEE and EU 2004. In 1989, countries that joined EU in 2004 were relatively inefficient in the number of life-years gained yet had a lower life expectancy than the SEE region and was only slightly higher than the CIS region (DEA). By 2012 the revenue spent was roughly linear to additional life-year expectancies. EU 2004 members were the best performers in terms of balanced longevity increase followed by health expenditure growth. The SEE economies' longevity gains were lagging slightly behind at a far lower cost. An extrapolated CIS expenditure to longevity increase ratio has the fastest-growing long-term promise.

  19. Long-term ice phenology records from eastern-central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Katalin; Kern, Zoltán; Pásztor, László

    2018-03-01

    A dataset of annual freshwater ice phenology was compiled for the largest river (Danube) and the largest lake (Lake Balaton) in eastern-central Europe, extending regular river and lake ice monitoring data through the use of historical observations and documentary records dating back to AD 1774 and AD 1885, respectively. What becomes clear is that the dates of the first appearance of ice and freeze-up have shifted, arriving 12-30 and 4-13 days later, respectively, per 100 years. Break-up and ice-off have shifted to earlier dates by 7-13 and 9-27 days/100 years, except on Lake Balaton, where the date of break-up has not changed significantly. The datasets represent a resource for (paleo)climatological research thanks to the strong, physically determined link between water and air temperature and the occurrence of freshwater ice phenomena. The derived centennial records of freshwater cryophenology for the Danube and Balaton are readily available for detailed analysis of the temporal trends, large-scale spatial comparison, or other climatological purposes. The derived dataset is publicly available via PANGAEA at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.881056" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.881056.

  20. The Integration of MEPs from Central and Eastern Europe into the European Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Hokovský

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the level of integration of Members of the European Parliament from Central and Eastern Europe in the European Parliament after the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. The main objective is to address the puzzle of how the European Parliament’s political groups could maintain or even increase their voting cohesion after the influx of a significantly large number of new MEPs coming from countries with different historical experience, socio-economic characteristics, and political and party systems. Three indicators of MEP integration are defined: integration into parliamentary leadership, integration into parliamentary work, and integration into voting patterns. The article uses data from the VoteWatch.eu website on MEPs’ activities and voting between the years 2004-2011, as well as data from official documents of the European Parliament and its political groups. Analysis of the data reveals that the new member states’ MEPs were significantly under-represented in parliamentary leadership and key legislative activities, despite the fact that their voting loyalty to their political groups was greater than that of their colleagues from older member states.

  1. Rising Against the Thieves. Anti-Corruption Campaigns in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Milan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 2010s, bottom-up anti-corruption mobilizations have broken out in different countries of south-eastern Europe. Bosnia-Herzegovina in 2014 and Macedonia in 2015 and 2016 were amongst the states in democratic and economic transition in which thousands of people took to the streets to express their discontent against a ruling class blamed for corruption. Although triggered by different events, these mobilizations present a number of similarities. Building on qualitative interviews and ethnographic observation of interactions on social media platforms, this article investigates the discursive strategies that movement organizers used to frame their claims and the protestors' identity in both countries. The article explores the ways in which protest leaders in the two countries appropriated the topic of corruption "from below" to delegitimize the ruling class using similar motivational, identity and diagnostic frames, notwithstanding the protests being spurred by diverse events. Furthermore, it elucidates the similarities and differences among the prognostic frames, that is, the proposed solutions to the problem of political corruption.

  2. THE DAY OF THE WEEK EFFECT IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN MIHAJLOV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to examine existence of day of the week effect on the stock market indices infive countries from South Eastern Europe (SEE: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia and Serbiain the most recent period which is characterized by the bear market (from 2006 to 2011. The methodology used theregression with dummy variables, or so called Analysis of Variance (ANOVA model. In addition Wald test is applied.The results imply that the mean daily return of the all five SEE indices is negative on Monday. The day of the weekeffect is found only in Croatian and Bulgarian Stock Market. In both stock markets, the mean daily returns of theleading indices are lower on Monday than the other days of the week and the results are statistically significant. Thelower Monday mean daily returns are found also in Macedonian stock exchange index, but the results are notstatistically significant. The mean daily returns of BELEX15 and BIFX indices in Tuesday are lower than mean dailyreturn on Monday, but also without statistical significance.

  3. Future scenarios for earthquake and flood risk in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Schäfer, A. M.; Ward, P. J.; Winsemius, H. C.; Simpson, A.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.

    2017-07-01

    We report on a regional flood and earthquake risk assessment for 33 countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Flood and earthquake risk were defined in terms of affected population and affected gross domestic product (GDP). Earthquake risk was also quantified in terms of fatalities and capital loss. Estimates of future population and GDP affected by earthquakes vary significantly among five shared socioeconomic pathways that are used to represent population and GDP in 2030 and 2080. There is a linear relationship between the future relative change in a nation's exposure (population or GDP) and its future relative change in annual average population or GDP affected by earthquakes. The evolution of flood hazard was quantified using a flood model with boundary conditions derived from five different general circulation models and two representative concentration pathways, and changes in population and GDP were quantified using two shared socioeconomic pathways. There is a nonlinear relationship between the future relative change in a nation's exposure (population or GDP) and its future relative change in its annual average population or GDP affected by floods. Six regions can be defined for positive and negative relative change in population that designate whether climate change can temper, counter, or reinforce relative changes in flood risk produced by changes in population or exposure. The departure from the one-to-one relationship between a relative change in a nation's population or GDP and its relative change in flood risk could be used to inform further efforts at flood mitigation and adaptation.

  4. Women's participation in the medical profession: insights from experiences in Japan, Scandinavia, Russia, and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Sambuco, Dana; Jagsi, Reshma

    2014-11-01

    Although much literature has focused on the status of female physicians in the United States, limited English-language studies have examined the role of women in the medical profession elsewhere in the world. This article synthesizes evidence regarding the status of female physicians in three purposively selected regions outside the United States: Japan, Scandinavia, and Russia and Eastern Europe. These three regions markedly differ in the proportion of female physicians in the workforce, overall status of the medical profession, cultural views of gender roles, and workforce policies. Through a review of studies and articles published between 1992 and 2012 examining women's representation, status measures such as salary and leadership positions, and experiences of female physicians, the authors discuss potential relationships between the representation of female physicians, their status in medicine, and the overall status of the profession. The findings suggest that even when women constitute a high proportion of the physician workforce, they may continue to be underrepresented in positions of leadership and prestige. Evolving workforce policies, environments, and cultural views of gender roles appear to play a critical role in mediating the relationship between women's participation in the medical profession and their ability to rise to positions of influence within it. These insights are informative for the ongoing debates over the impact of the demographic shifts in the composition of the medical workforce in the United States.

  5. Genome size and phenotypic variation of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae species from Eastern Europe and temperate Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Anna Dąbrowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite long-term research, the aquatic genus Nymphaea still possesses major taxonomic challenges. High phenotypic plasticity and possible interspecific hybridization often make it impossible to identify individual specimens. The main aim of this study was to assess phenotypic variation in Nymphaea taxa sampled over a wide area of Eastern Europe and temperate Asia. Samples were identified based on species-specific genome sizes and diagnostic morphological characters for each taxon were then selected. A total of 353 specimens from 32 populations in Poland, Russia and Ukraine were studied, with nine biometric traits being examined. Although some specimens morphologically matched N. ×borealis (a hybrid between N. alba and N. candida according to published determination keys, only one hybrid individual was revealed based on genome size data. Other specimens with intermediate morphology possessed genome size corresponding to N. alba, N. candida or N. tetragona. This indicates that natural hybridization between N. alba and N. candida is not as frequent as previously suggested. Our results also revealed a considerably higher variation in the studied morphological traits (especially the quantitative ones in N. alba and N. candida than reported in the literature. A determination key for the investigated Nymphaea species is provided, based on taxonomically-informative morphological characters identified in our study.

  6. Central and Eastern Europe After the Boom - Time for a Stragegy Change for Foreign Multinationals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Schuh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the global financial and economic crisis ended a six-year-long boom period with an average growth rate well above 5% in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Although not the originators of the crisis some CEE countries such as the Baltic States and Ukraine were among the worst hit by this economic downturn. The crisis did not only shatter the financial markets, banks and the real economy but also the growth image of CEE. The huge market potential and expected higher growth rates resulting from the catching-up process to West European standards have been the main reason for the flood of foreign direct investments into the countries of the region in the two decades before. Suddenly, foreign direct investors were confronted with stalled and even collapsing market growth, shrinking disposable household income, business customers and partners on the verge of bankruptcy and no real sign of a quick recovery. While the situation improved a little in 2011, the economic outlook and the sentiment of foreign investors have remained gloomy, at least for parts of the region. It is obvious that when faced with such a huge economic downturn companies stop geographic expansion and put the brakes on investments.

  7. Cyclicality of bank capital buffers in South-Eastern Europe: endogenous and exogenous aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kundid Novokmet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interdependence between the regulatory capital ratio and macroeconomic indicators, with reference to the phenomena cyclicality and pro-cyclicality is a widely emphasized disadvantage of the capital adequacy concept. Redesign of the aforementioned concept towards the countercyclical capital requirements is a kind of recognition of the creators of the Basel standards of the previous oversights in its development. This paper aims to explore empirically the direction, intensity and significance of endogenous and exogenous determinants of the changes in banks’ capital buffers by taking into consideration both the impact of the macroeconomic properties and the bank-specific characteristics of South-Eastern Europe. More than 80 commercial banks in the period from 2000-2010 have been encompassed by the research. Use of a dynamic panel analysis led to the conclusion that the bank capital buffers decreased during the observed period, with the exception of certain years during the economic expansion, which confirms the appropriateness of regulatory requirements considering the countercyclical capital buffers. Nevertheless, it might be that capital building and spending in the future will not follow the pattern from the last decade due to the specificities of the observed period, as well as the banking sector ownership transformations, economic and credit growth as well as asset prices growth in the post-transitional period, and finally, the real crisis which spilled over onto the financial sectors.

  8. Interest Rate Policy Of Selected Central Banks In Central And Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRABIA TOMASZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present and evaluate interest rate policies of three selected central banks in Central and Eastern Europe (Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary from 2001 to 2013. The study consists of an introduction (Section 1 and three main parts. The introduction contains a theoretical description of the role of interest rate policy, the dilemmas connected with it, as well as an analysis of the strategies and goals of monetary policies of the National Bank of Poland (NBP, the Czech National Bank (CzNB, and the National Bank of Hungary (NBH in the context of existing legal and institutional conditions. In turn, the first empirical part (Section 2 examines how the analysed central banks responded to changes in inflation, unemployment, and economic growth rates. The tools of the analysis are the nominal and real interest rates of those banks. The subsequent research part (Section 3 attempts to evaluate the degree of the contractionary nature of interest rate policies in specific countries in the context of the Taylor rule. The text ends with a summary (Section 4 encompassing concise conclusions drawn from the earlier analyses.

  9. Restructuring and privatising the coal industries in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews coal industry reforms in central and Eastern Europe (CEE), including the former GDR and Estonia (oil shale), and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). It describes achievements and failures during the last ten years on the road to an efficient, viable and environmentally acceptable coal industry playing the various roles assigned to it by governments as part of their energy policies. Obeying to conflicting objectives, coal-restructuring policies can best be described as stop-go policies. As a result, between 1990 and 1998, production declined by 41%, the number of pits by 26% and the number of employees by 45%. Productivity rose by only 8% in the region as a whole. At present, 80 to 90% of coal production is actually or virtually profitable under local or national circumstances. Turning virtual into actual profitability depends as much on continued reforms (unbundling of profitable from unprofitable mines, customerization of mines, equity privatisation) as on a fresh assessment, by investors, of two major opportunities: mine-utility partnerships and untapped productivity gains. These opportunities are growingly recognised by the business community: by 1998, 20% of coal production in the region are owned by equity investors, domestic and foreign. With, these opportunities in mind and assuming economic recovery, WEC, IIASA, IEA, DOE* (*World Energy Council, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, International Energy Agency, US Department of Energy) and national governments project a medium-term (2010,2020) increase of coal production against 1998 of about 20%, mostly in the CIS. (author)

  10. Movie moguls: British American Tobacco's covert strategy to promote cigarettes in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGresley, Eric M; Muggli, Monique E; Hurt, Richard D

    2006-10-01

    Though the cigarette companies have long publicly denied paying for product placement in films, the documentary evidence from the 1950s-1980s overwhelmingly suggests otherwise. Approximately 800,000 pages of previously secret internal corporate British American Tobacco Company documents were reviewed at the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository from March 2003 through May 2005. Documents were also searched online at the various tobacco document collections between February 2004 and November 2004. A small collection of internal corporate documents from British American Tobacco show that in the late 1990s the company evaluated investing in a movie destined for Eastern Europe. By being an investor, BAT could influence the alteration of the movie script to promote BAT's brands, thus providing marketing opportunities without a clear violation of movie product placement restrictions. Future protocols to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should seek to curtail more than just payment for tobacco product placement. More restrictive provisions will be needed to hinder creative strategies by the tobacco industry to continue tobacco promotion and trademark diversification through movies.

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance in the Airline Industry in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Asatryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the knowledge on corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives of by businesses and its ability to influence their financial performance. Consequently, the main objective is to examine the relationship between CSR and financial performance in the airline industry in Central and Eastern Europe. The paper does not attempt to establish causality between CŚR and financial performance. The paper attempts to contribute to the existing knowledge in the field by examining the extent to which CSR relates to financial performance of airline firms. A sample of 20 audited financial statements of airline firms were selected randomly. The study analyzed the impact of CSR activities on the financial performance of firms. The Return on Equity (ROE and Return on Assets (ROA were used as indicators to measure financial performance of firms whiles the independent variables were Community Performance (CP, Environment Management System (EMS and Employee Relations (ER. The study found that there is a significant positive relationship between CSR initiatives and financial performance measures. More specifically, there was found to be a positive relationship between the independent variables of CSR thus, CP, EMS and ER and the financial performance of airline firms in terms of the ROE and ROA.

  12. An ethnobotanical perspective on traditional fermented plant foods and beverages in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Pieroni, Andrea; Biró, Marianna; Dénes, Andrea; Dogan, Yunus; Hajdari, Avni; Kalle, Raivo; Reade, Benedict; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nedelcheva, Anely; Quave, Cassandra L; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2015-07-21

    Fermented food and beverages represent an important part of the worldwide foodscape, medicinal food domain and domestic strategies of health care, yet relevant traditional knowledge in Europe is poorly documented. Review of primary ethnographic literature, archival sources and a few ad-hoc ethnobotanical field studies in seven selected Eastern European countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, and Poland) were conducted. Current or recently abandoned uses of 116 botanical taxa, belonging to 37 families in fermented food or medicinal food products were recorded. These findings demonstrate a rich bio-cultural diversity of use, and also a clear prevalence of the use of fruits of the tannin- and phenolic-rich Rosaceae species in alcoholic, lactic- and acetic acid fermented preparations. In the considered countries, fermentation still plays (or has played until recent years) a crucial role in folk cuisines and this heritage requires urgent and in-depth evaluation. Future studies should be aimed at further documenting and also bio-evaluating the ingredients and processes involved in the preparation of homemade fermented products, as this can be used to support local, community-based development efforts to foster food security, food sovereignty, and small-scale local food-based economies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fertility and culture in Eastern Europe: a case study of Riga, Latvia, 1867-1881.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, C; Plakans, A

    1997-01-01

    This case study examined the influence of cultural and economic conditions on fertility decline in Eastern Europe. Cultural influence on fertility is conceived as the agent with which individuals change behavior which is specific to different ethnic groups and contexts. This study focused on measures of nuptiality and fertility among language and religious groups in Riga, Latvia, in 1867 and 1881. Data were obtained from censuses for Coale's measures of general fertility, marital fertility, the index of illegitimate fertility, and the proportion married. Each variable is a measure of Hutterite fertility as socially unrestrained fertility. Marriage includes the singulate mean age of marriage and the median age at marriage. An average of the urban multipliers for Bavaria, Prussia, Finland, and Sweden, was used to adjust infant mortality. Fertility estimates were higher than the European Fertility Projects. Nuptiality followed the Western European marriage pattern. Nuptiality reflected Hajnal's Western European pattern of late marriage and substantial singlehood. Fertility varied by language group. Fertility was highest among Yiddish speakers and lowest among Latvians. 12.5% of marriages were interfaith marriages. Protestants were the most likely to enter interfaith unions. However, opportunity in the marriage market may have affected mixed marriages. Catholics had the lowest marital fertility. Jews were the most different on a variety of factors. Jews had higher marital fertility and proportion married, and lower female workers, illegitimacy, and proportion single. The authors conclude that the mixed results are insufficient to untangle the effects of culture due to lack of individual level data.

  14. Division of Labour or Sharing the Burden? State Support for Competing Family Models in Central and Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitchell, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, 7-8 (2010), s. 12-17 ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB700280901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : work - life balance * family policy * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.socioweb.cz/upl/editorial/download/181_pdf%202010%2007%2008.pdf

  15. ECED 2013: Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning. International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. Conference Guide and Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: (I) Opening session (2 contributions); (II) Managerial and Funding Aspects of Decommissioning (5 contributions); (III) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning I (6 contributions); (IV) Experience with Present Decommissioning Projects (4 contributions); (V) Poster Session (14 contributions); (VI) Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning - Panel Discussion; (VII) Release of Materials, Waste Management and Spent Fuel Management (6 contributions); (VIII) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning II (5 contributions).

  16. The role of student services in enhancing the student experience: cases of transformation in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bateson, Rositsa

    2008-01-01

    This research project examines the role of student services in universities inCentral and Eastern Europe at a time of rapid transformation of the higher educationsector, following from the collapse of the socialist period in 1989 and theimplementation of the Bologna process after 1999. Conducted in the period 2004-2006, the research process aimed to identify the major factors of institutional change,and to what extent are students, and services for students, considered a driving forcefor orga...

  17. New Late Miocene .i.Alilepus./i. (Lagomorpha, Mammalia) from Eastern Europe - a new light on the evolution of the earliest old world Leporinae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Stanislav; Angelone, Ch.; Sinitsa, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2015), s. 431-451 ISSN 1214-1119 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Alilepus * Eastern Europe * Late Miocene * phylogeny * Pliocene * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.700, year: 2015

  18. IMPACT OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS UPON EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES: STILL A PROBLEM FOR THE ECONOMY OF THE REGION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA-ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the impact of the global economic and financial crisis on a number of central, eastern and south-eastern European countries. The global crisis can be viewed as three interdependent and mutually reinforcing crises: a financial crisis, a liquidity crisis, and a crisis in the real economy. The financial crises that have emerged and developed in the recent decades have been characterized, mostly of an international dimension, with shocks quickly propagating through capital markets, through the international banking activities and, through the money markets.East Europe was hit first by the global liquidity crisis, then by declines in capital inflows and plunging demand for their exports.Before the crisis, the Eastern region was experiencing an economic boom with rapid GDP and credit growth, but in the future East European countries will have to rely relatively more on internally-generated sources of productivity growth.

  19. Democratization and security in Central and Eastern Europe and the Post-Soviet states : 12th New Faces Conference, March 16–18, 2009, Prague, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    "Although Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkans, the Caucasus and Central Asia share the common experience of the demise of the Warsaw Pact and the fall of the former Soviet Union, the political situation in those countries today is markedly diverse. 20 years after the fall of the Berlin wall and the iron curtain, most states in Central and Eastern Europe are considered consolidated democracies and the states of ex-Yugoslavia, albeit to a different extent, have also made significant progres...

  20. Major challenges in clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients in Eastern Europe compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Anne Marie; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rates of both TB/HIV co-infection and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). Data on the clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients are scarce. Our aim was to study the clinical characteristics of TB/HIV patients in Europe and Latin America (LA......) and LA from January 2011 to December 2013. Among patients who completed DST within the first month of TB therapy, we linked initial TB treatment regimens to the DST results and calculated the distribution of patients receiving 0, 1, 2, 3 and ≥4 active drugs in each region. Risk factors for MDR-TB were...... identified in logistic regression models. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between EE (n=844), WE (n=152), SE (n=164) and LA (n=253) for use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at TB diagnosis (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p

  1. A migration-driven model for the historical spread of leprosy in medieval Eastern and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Helen D; Michael Taylor, G; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, Gyorgy; Pap, Ildikó; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Pinhasi, Ron; Erdal, Yilmaz S; Velemínsky, Petr; Likovsky, Jakub; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Mariotti, Valentina; Riga, Alessandro; Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Besra, Gurdyal S; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Bull, Ian D; O'Grady, Justin; Spigelman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy was rare in Europe during the Roman period, yet its prevalence increased dramatically in medieval times. We examined human remains, with paleopathological lesions indicative of leprosy, dated to the 6th-11th century AD, from Central and Eastern Europe and Byzantine Anatolia. Analysis of ancient DNA and bacterial cell wall lipid biomarkers revealed Mycobacterium leprae in skeletal remains from 6th-8th century Northern Italy, 7th-11th century Hungary, 8th-9th century Austria, the Slavic Greater Moravian Empire of the 9th-10th century and 8th-10th century Byzantine samples from Northern Anatolia. These data were analyzed alongside findings published by others. M. leprae is an obligate human pathogen that has undergone an evolutionary bottleneck followed by clonal expansion. Therefore M. leprae genotypes and sub-genotypes give information about the human populations they have infected and their migration. Although data are limited, genotyping demonstrates that historical M. leprae from Byzantine Anatolia, Eastern and Central Europe resembles modern strains in Asia Minor rather than the recently characterized historical strains from North West Europe. The westward migration of peoples from Central Asia in the first millennium may have introduced different M. leprae strains into medieval Europe and certainly would have facilitated the spread of any existing leprosy. The subsequent decline of M. leprae in Europe may be due to increased host resistance. However, molecular evidence of historical leprosy and tuberculosis co-infections suggests that death from tuberculosis in leprosy patients was also a factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Why AGU is important in Eastern Europe and should increase its role even more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V.

    2007-12-01

    After the fall of the ex-communist system about twenty years ago, the East European countries faced a significant, multilateral challenge in all aspects of their economical, financial, military, scientific and especially educational and professional life. They had a pretty robust tradition in classic education and research, but had to prepare their young generation and specialists for a hard competition for grad-, post grad- and professional level competing with colleagues from other parts of the world. They had to restructure their systems and re-discovered the professional societies. AGU represented a certain model of efficiency on handling various aspects of geoscientific activities: integration of geophysics with other related disciplines like atmospheric sciences, hydrology and hydrogeology, volcanism, geochemistry etc., from deep Earth to the intergalactic space. Close cooperation with other boundary sciences, regular and very well organized meetings dedicated more to Solid earth (AGU Fall Meeting) or Near-Surface Geophysics (AGU Spring Meetings), its very close cooperation with the sister societies from Europe, other North, Central and South American countries as well as the Far East and Australia, permanent opening towards a strong international cooperation with all countries and societies world- wide, very active interest in education and career orientation, strong publication policy represented a certain attraction and a very tempting model for the East European countries. Their very quick development has to be joined by transformation of their higher education and research system in such a way that they become more and more competitive with other countries worldwide. They have to develop their own system so that it attracts more and more youngsters to remain/return home and contribute to the advance of their home countries and, in close partnerships with other developed and developing countries, with the guidance of the professional societies like AGU

  3. The evaluation of public health in South Eastern Europe: from transition to progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Gjorgjev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The public health services project of the South-eastern Europe health network has undertaken an evaluation of public health services in its nine member countries. The purpose of the evaluation of public health services provision in the South-eastern European (SEE countries is to understand where these countries now stand in public health, the institutional, organisational, legislative and service delivery developments that are taking place and to identify strengths and weaknesses in their public health systems and services in order to inform decision making about investment and future reform.

    Methods: The evaluation was orientated around “essential public health operations” that are deemed to form the core of public health activities and services and to be indispensable to the delivery of modern public health services in any country. The evaluation analysed these activities and services within the structure of the health system functions of stewardship, resource generation, financing and service delivery, as developed by WHO.

    Results: The results demonstrate a mixed picture of strengths and weaknesses within the context of significant social, economic and political challenges in the region. Among the many visible and significant strengths in public health services in the region are well developed networks of public health institutes with well defined surveillance systems, highly experienced and well educated public health professionals as well as many positive examples of service delivery. But there are also many concerns and challenges, not the least of which is political focus, direction and support for modern public health services, as well as funding. Collaboration and partnership among sectors is weak and information and communication systems are inadequate and not sufficiently integrated.

    Conclusions: Having emphasized the main weak and

  4. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  5. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  6. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe. A central and eastern European perspective. The implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, N.E.; Jansen, T.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, "Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective" is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project "Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe". The ETGAGE

  7. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE

  8. Satellite observations and model simulations of tropospheric NO2 columns over south-eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Roozendael

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 tropospheric columns over south-eastern Europe are analyzed to study the characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of pollution in the area. The interannual variability of the tropospheric NO2 columns is presented over urban, rural and industrial locations based on measurements from four satellite instruments, GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, OMI/Aura and GOME-2/MetOp spanning a period of over twelve years. The consistency between the different datasets over the area is investigated. Two operational algorithms for the retrieval of tropospheric NO2 are considered, the one developed jointly by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and Belgian Institute for Space Astronomy and the one developed by the University of Bremen. The tropospheric NO2 columns for the area under study have been simulated for the period 1996–2001 with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx and are compared with GOME measurements. Over urban and industrial locations the mean tropospheric NO2 columns range between 3 and 7.0×1015 molecules/cm2, showing a seasonal variability with a peak to peak amplitude of about 6.0×1015 molecules/cm2, while the background values over rural sites are close to 1.1×1015 molecules/cm2. Differences in the overpass time and spatial resolution of the different satellites, as well as differences in the algorithms, introduce significant differences in the estimated columns however the correlation between the different estimates is higher than 0.8. It is found that the model simulations reveal similar spatial patterns as the GOME observations, a result which is consistent with both algorithms. Although the model simulations show a mean bias of −0.1×1015 molecules/cm2 under clean conditions, the modeled temporal correlation of 0.5 is poor in absence of biogenic and biomass burning emissions.

  9. Seismic assessment and upgrading of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Kostov, M.

    1997-01-01

    The basic findings of the seismic re-qualification programmes going on recently at all VVER plants in Eastern Europe can be summarised. The problems of the seismic safety have to be solved taking into account the general concept of the nuclear safety enhancement of the units. There are cases where the system improvements lead to better and more effective solution of the problem than the structural upgrading. The equipment and piping of the primary system have sufficient capacity. The viscous dampers are considered usually for the upgrading. The equipment anchorage especially the electrical and I and C equipment anchorage have to be upgraded. There are general consideration for replacement of the hydraulic snubbers by viscous dampers in the primary circuit of the VVER 440/V230. The considerations are not only because of the better seismic behaviour but mainly because of the better operational performance. There is relatively good seismic instrumentation at the plants considered. The definition of the scram level of the units not designed for an OBE is an essential problem. More effort needed for the definition of this level on the basis of re-evaluation experience of the plant equipment and after the proper definition of post-earthquake activities. The seismic re-evaluation and re-qualification of the VVER units is a general safety issue in Easter European countries. This rather complex problem can be solved adopting the experience, methods and requirements of western countries and taking into account the design features of the VVER units as well as the as built and as it is conditions. (J.P.N.)

  10. Travel behaviour of seniors in Eastern Europe: a comparative study of Brno and Bratislava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Šimeček

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Although seniors represent a sizable group of a population with distinctive travelling needs, we lack knowledge about their travel behaviour related to usage of public transport in the context of Eastern Europe. This study aims to describe patterns of travel behaviour of senior citizens in two cities with similar size and key mobility characteristics – Brno (Czech Republic and Bratislava (Slovakia. Methods The data was collected via travel behaviour survey. The final sample from Bratislava consisted of 1961 seniors of the age of 70 and older who accounted for 3343 trips. The final sample in Brno contained 63 seniors of the age of 70 years and older who conducted 151 trips. Results On average, inhabitants of Bratislava older than 70 years conducted 1.7 trips per day, whereas it was 1.5 trips per day in Brno. The seniors from Bratislava averagely spent 40 min on their trips per day and single trip usually took 24 min to them. In comparison, senior citizens from Brno mostly needed 28 min per single trip, albeit their daily travel took almost the same time (41 min. When it comes to mode choice, while seniors from Bratislava prefer walking the most (44%, their counterparts from Brno predominantly chose public transport (57%. Conclusion In summary, seniors from Brno aged 70 years and over use public transport significantly more than their counterparts from Bratislava. As a result, public transport allows them to travel further, which in turn gives them more opportunities to satisfy their needs.

  11. Seismic assessment and upgrading of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katona, T.; Kostov, M.

    1997-03-01

    The basic findings of the seismic re-qualification programmes going on recently at all VVER plants in Eastern Europe can be summarised. The problems of the seismic safety have to be solved taking into account the general concept of the nuclear safety enhancement of the units. There are cases where the system improvements lead to better and more effective solution of the problem than the structural upgrading. The equipment and piping of the primary system have sufficient capacity. The viscous dampers are considered usually for the upgrading. The equipment anchorage especially the electrical and I and C equipment anchorage have to be upgraded. There are general consideration for replacement of the hydraulic snubbers by viscous dampers in the primary circuit of the VVER 440/V230. The considerations are not only because of the better seismic behaviour but mainly because of the better operational performance. There is relatively good seismic instrumentation at the plants considered. The definition of the scram level of the units not designed for an OBE is an essential problem. More effort needed for the definition of this level on the basis of re-evaluation experience of the plant equipment and after the proper definition of post-earthquake activities. The seismic re-evaluation and re-qualification of the VVER units is a general safety issue in Easter European countries. This rather complex problem can be solved adopting the experience, methods and requirements of western countries and taking into account the design features of the VVER units as well as the as built and as it is conditions. (J.P.N.)

  12. MAIN TRENDS OF DERIVATIVES’ MARKET DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostiantyn Vozianov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the factors of formation and development of the derivatives market in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, to analyze the features of the organization and functioning of these markets, as well as to identify modern trends of development of the derivatives markets of CEE. The methodological basis of the study are historical and logical and systematic approach to the analysis of economic phenomena and processes in national and global environment. The study was conducted using the methods: qualitative and quantitative comparison, factor and structural analysis. Results. The development of the CEE derivatives market is characterized by: rapid growth of derivatives trading for the past two decades; high concentration of trading volumes on the stock market; offering a wide range of derivative products allowing investors to effectively hedge risk or get exposure; exchange consolidation; tendency to increased use of modern telecommunication technologies etc. The key problems of CEE derivatives market are low liquidity and international profile of exchanges and the lack of domestic investors for achieving the desired depth of the market. Practical implications. Research of the derivatives market makes it possible to understand more about the mechanism of functioning of the modern financial sector. In our opinion, special attention should be paid to CEE countries, where the development of the derivatives market began in the 1990s. To date, they are understudied, although they have considerable growth potential and in the future can compete on equal terms with Western European and American markets. Moreover, the starting conditions of development of the derivatives market in the CEE countries are more similar to the market of Ukraine and could be useful in terms of adapting good practices.

  13. Bio-medicolegal scientific research in Europe: a comprehensive bibliometric overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Santo Davide; Bajanowski, Thomas; Cecchi, Rossana; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Viel, Guido

    2011-05-01

    In times of globalisation, the future of bio-medicolegal sciences in Europe depends on the scientific community's ability to develop new strategies for research, to introduce new and generally accepted standards, to develop new analytical methods, all in order to draw up inter-site, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary long-term research projects, eligible for European Union (EU) funding. To analyse the scientific output and to identify the topics of greatest interest and appeal in these sciences, an innovative method has been developed to select and analyse publications. This method has been applied to analyse a total of 21,176 records from PubMed out of which 5,826 papers were suitable for further analysis because they were published in national and international journals in the time between January 1, 2005 and June 1, 2010 by European authors in the field of interest. In 69% of all manuscripts, authors presented results of systematic research (original articles); 84% of the papers were written in English language. The cumulative impact factor increased from 1,670 points in 2005 to 1,878 in 2009, and extrapolated 2,812 points in 2010. The most frequent topics were the description of new analytical methods in forensic toxicology (5.7% of all papers), the analysis of short tandem repeat systems (STR, 5.6%) as well as the analysis of injury mechanisms in forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine (4.9%). If the impact factor related potential of different topics is calculated (ratio of frequency of papers and frequency of impact points achieved), SIDS research reaches 1.64 points, followed by studies on mtDNA (1.59) and the development of new analytical methods in forensic toxicology (1.49). The findings made in the present bibliometric analysis reveal a clear and interesting overall picture of the European scientific production and productivity and could be used to identify the most innovative research lines.

  14. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in central and eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgorski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Javor, Andras; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all k...

  15. BANKING ON MULTINATIONALS: THE DETERMINANTS OF CROSS-BORDER CREDITS TO CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE, 1990-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksolana Zapotichna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the rising dependence of Central and Eastern Europe on multinational banks’ credits, the main purpose of the article is to identify and examine the determinants of cross-border credits through a methodology based on “push” and “pull” factors. The author presents the results of a regression analysis on the determinants of cross-border credits provided by multinational banks from EU-15 to Central and Eastern Europe over the period of 1990-2015 by using the statistical data compiled and published by the Bank for International Settlements. The obtained results suggest that global as well as home and host country level determinants influence cross-border credits but to a different extent. According to our results, higher stability and predictability of global economic environment contribute to higher cross-border credit growth. The results of the host country determinants analysis indicate that more effective and profitable economies receive more credits from multinational banks. We also find that multinational banks provide more credits to countries with small markets, low inflation rate, high external debt burden, high capital account deficit, fixed exchange rate regime, and developed institutional environment. Regarding home level determinants, we find the existence of a negative correlation between home country economic cycle and the amount of cross-border credits received by the host country, which can be explained by low economic growth in continental Europe over the period under consideration that stimulated European banks to expand lending on foreign markets with higher profit opportunities. Thus, cross-border credits appear to have been countercyclical to growth in home countries and procyclical to growth in host countries. Finally, it is found that host country level determinants play the most important role in explaining changes in cross-border credits on host countries in Central and Eastern Europe during

  16. Complete mitochondrial DNA analysis of eastern Eurasian haplogroups rarely found in populations of northern Asia and eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Derenko

    Full Text Available With the aim of uncovering all of the most basal variation in the northern Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups, we have analyzed mtDNA control region and coding region sequence variation in 98 Altaian Kazakhs from southern Siberia and 149 Barghuts from Inner Mongolia, China. Both populations exhibit the prevalence of eastern Eurasian lineages accounting for 91.9% in Barghuts and 60.2% in Altaian Kazakhs. The strong affinity of Altaian Kazakhs and populations of northern and central Asia has been revealed, reflecting both influences of central Asian inhabitants and essential genetic interaction with the Altai region indigenous populations. Statistical analyses data demonstrate a close positioning of all Mongolic-speaking populations (Mongolians, Buryats, Khamnigans, Kalmyks as well as Barghuts studied here and Turkic-speaking Sojots, thus suggesting their origin from a common maternal ancestral gene pool. In order to achieve a thorough coverage of DNA lineages revealed in the northern Asian matrilineal gene pool, we have completely sequenced the mtDNA of 55 samples representing haplogroups R11b, B4, B5, F2, M9, M10, M11, M13, N9a and R9c1, which were pinpointed from a massive collection (over 5000 individuals of northern and eastern Asian, as well as European control region mtDNA sequences. Applying the newly updated mtDNA tree to the previously reported northern Asian and eastern Asian mtDNA data sets has resolved the status of the poorly classified mtDNA types and allowed us to obtain the coalescence age estimates of the nodes of interest using different calibrated rates. Our findings confirm our previous conclusion that northern Asian maternal gene pool consists of predominantly post-LGM components of eastern Asian ancestry, though some genetic lineages may have a pre-LGM/LGM origin.

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma synoviae strains originating from Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Grózner, Dénes; Sulyok, Kinga M; Nilsson, Kristin; Hrivnák, Veronika; Benčina, Dušan; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2017-11-17

    Mycoplasma synoviae causes infectious synovitis and respiratory diseases in chickens and turkeys and may lead to egg shell apex abnormalities in chickens; hence possesses high economic impact on the poultry industry. Control of the disease consists of eradication, vaccination or medication. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to 14 different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of M. synoviae strains originating from Hungary and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of a total of 41 M. synoviae strains were determined by the microbroth dilution method. The strains were collected between 2002 and 2016 and originated from Hungary (n = 26), Austria (n = 3), the Czech Republic (n = 3), Slovenia (n = 3), Ukraine (n = 3), Russia (n = 2) and Serbia (n = 1). Tetracyclines (with MIC 50 values of 0.078 μg/ml, ≤0.25 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml for doxycycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline, respectively), macrolides (with MIC 50 values of ≤0.25 μg/ml for tylvalosin, tylosin and tilmicosin), pleuromutilins (with MIC 50 values of 0.078 μg/ml and ≤0.039 μg/ml for tiamulin and valnemulin) and the combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin (MIC 50 1 μg/ml (0.333/0.667 μg/ml)) were found to be the most effective antibiotic agents against M. synoviae in vitro. High MIC values were detected in numerous strains for fluoroquinolones (with MIC 50 values of 1.25 μg/ml and 2.5 μg/ml for enrofloxacin and difloxacin), neomycin (MIC 50 32 μg/ml), spectinomycin (MIC 50 2 μg/ml), lincomycin (MIC 50 0.5 μg/ml) and florfenicol (MIC 50 4 μg/ml). Nevertheless, strains with elevated MIC values were detected for most of the applied antibiotics. In the medical control of M. synoviae infections the preliminary in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing and the careful evaluation of the data are crucial. Based on the in vitro examinations

  18. Advancing human rights in patient care through higher education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tamar; Overall, Judy

    2013-12-12

    In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, for society's most marginalized people, health systems are too often places of violations of basic rights, rather than of treatment and care. At the same time, health practitioners are largely unaware of how to incorporate human rights norms in their work. Additionally, they may face abuses themselves, such as unsafe working conditions and sanctions for providing evidence-based care. Similarly, legal professionals have limited experience working in the health sector, trying to address abuses that occur. Republics of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia have emerged from communism and experienced continued restructuring of their health care systems. As faculties of law, public health, and medicine have sought to incorporate these rapid changes into their curricula, this period of reform and openness to new approaches presented a particular opportunity to integrate human rights education. The Open Society Foundations have attempted to respond to the need to build health and human rights capacity by supporting the development of over 25 courses in human rights in patient care in nine countries. Targeted at different audiences, these courses are now part of the regular offerings at the academic institutions where they are taught. Student evaluations point to the strength of the interdisciplinary approach and the need to integrate practical examples and exercises. Faculty response has led to the development of a virtual community of practice and series of workshops to gain exposure to new ideas, strengthen interactive teaching, and share materials and experiences. Critical to this initiative has been working with faculty champions in each university, who shaped this initiative to meet the needs in their context. It quickly became apparent that teaching methodology is as important as content in human rights education. Meaningful engagement with health practitioners has entailed connections to day-to-day practice, participatory

  19. Lithuanian Metrics as a Source on the History of the Turkic States of Eastern Europe »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Trepavlov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithuanian Metrica contains a lot of information on the Turkic khanates of Eastern Europe of the 15th–16th centuries. It consists mainly of documents related to foreign relations of the Polish-Lithuanian State and covers its contacts primarily with the Crimean Yurt. In Lithuanian Metrica can be also found valuable information about the Great Horde and the Nogai Horde. Information reflecting contacts of Vilna and Cracow with Kazan and Astrakhan khanates is also presented in metrica although very fragmentary. The Polish-Lithuanian State inherited policy of Vilnius rulers in relation to the khans. This policy emerged in the era of the weakening and disintegration of the Golden Horde during the reign of the Grand Dukes Algirdas and, especially, Vytautas and was expressed in the form of patronage of deposed Tokhtamysh and his children. Later it continued in contacts with the Crimean Girays and (until the beginning of the 16th century with the khans of Great Horde. In respect of the Golden Horde, the documents of Lithuanian Metrica contain separate memories of participants of diplomatic correspondence concerning order that once existed in this State. In general, such memories occur both as references to the deeds and decrees of the former Horde’s “tsars” justifying the legitimacy of the current policies, and as norms of relations adopted at the time, presented as a model to be followed by descendants. The memory of the Horde-Lithuanian relations of the 13th – the first half of the 15th centuries are reflected in the materials of Lithuanian Metrica in the form of an equally abstract references to the relationship that existed in the times of ancestors. Tatar and Polish-Lithuanian side constantly referred to the relationship of the “brotherhood”, i.e. status equality, which were established between the Grand Duke Algirdas and Vitautas and king Casimierz on the one hand, and the Horde khans on the other. The documents contained in

  20. BASIC CONCEPTS AND METHODS OF RESTORATION OF NATURAL FORESTS IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Korotkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern forest in coniferous-broadleaf (hemiboreal and broadleaf zones of Eastern Europe were formed as a result of long-term human impact. This led to the loss of natural forests and total dominance of secondary forests combined with monocultures of spruce and pine that were created in clearings, burned areas and fallow lands. The reforestation model that was common in the late XIX and first half of the XX century and that was focused on the establishment of monocultures commercially valuable coniferous tree species (spruce and pine over large areas has resulted in declining biological diversity, increasing risk of tree damage due to outbreaks of pathogens and phytophagous insects, decreasing soil fertility, worsening soil and water conservation functions of forests. When restoring the prototypes of natural forests it is necessary to be guided by the modern concepts of synecology and model reconstructions of forest cover in pre-anthropogenic period that are briefly discussed in the paper. Based on the analysis of literature and research experience the author proposes the concept of natural forest restoration that can be applied primarily to the coniferous-broadleaf and broadleaf forests. The main goal is to create multiple-aged and polydominant near-natural forest ecosystems with higher resistance to fungal diseases and outbreaks of phytophagous insects. The field of concept application is specially protected natural areas (national parks, natural parks, wildlife sanctuaries, etc., different categories of protective forests located within the zones of coniferous-broadleaf and broadleaf forests on the East European Plain. The formation of multiple-aged forests is possible when group felling and group-clear felling that largely imitate the natural gap-mosaic stand are implemented. The formation of new generations of trees is possible both due to the natural regeneration and the development of forest cultures. The article provides the full set

  1. The concept and contribution of the Federal Government as regards the improvement of reactor safety in Middle and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gast, K.; Breest, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    An increase in information on reactor safety in the Middle and Eastern European countries makes it clear that extensive assistance measures are urgently needed. This assistance can only be given on the basis of extensive international collaboration. A differenciated analysis and organization of the necessary assistance measures with specific reference to the countries and the facilities in question must be carried out. Within the framework of international assistance programmes, appropriate coordinating commissions in which banks with international experience are involved should be established. On the whole, the imperative increase in the safety of reactors in Middle and Eastern Europe will be a difficult and expensive task which can only be mastered if a joint effort is made within the framework of an international commission which addresses itself to the problem of reactor safety. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Project Radiation Protection East. Swedish cooperation program for radiation protection in Eastern and Central Europe. Status Report, March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.; Johansson, Mai; Grapengiesser, S.; Bennerstedt, T.

    1996-04-01

    Until now the Swedish program for radiation protection work in central and Eastern europe has been granted 55 MSEK by the Swedish government. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994, radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in Radiation Protection East. The government has granted 8 MSEK for this purpose. This report presents a summary over some 150 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. The presentation is updated up to March 1996. 7 figs

  3. Measuring the Effects of Customs and Administrative Procedures on Trade: Gravity Model for South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Toševska-Trpčevska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the effects of certain customs and administrative procedures on trade between the countries of South-Eastern Europe in the period 2008-2012. Following OECD methodology, we employ the augmented gravity model. The empirical results suggest that the number of days spent at the border and costs paid in both importer and exporter countries had significant negative influence on the volume of trade in the period 2008-2012. In addition, the model underlines that sharing the same border and being part of the former Yugoslav market are important determinants of trade in the region.

  4. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Geophysics, Astronmy and Space No. 411

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-20

    between the inten- sity of galactic cosmic rays and the spot-forming cycle of solar activity, the effects in cosmic rays during a period of pole...netosphere. It is therefore natural that the Galactic magnetic field plays an important role in them. [This paper is from the materials of the

  5. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-26

    tachycardia, icteric sclera , elevated lactate dehydrogenase and other symptoms of severe intoxication. Treatment consisted of diuretics, electrolytes...that in addition to throm- bosis of the femural artery, there was a 2.5 cm cut in the femural vein , and 7 cm distal from this, another 2 cm cut. An

  6. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Number 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-27

    6 Russian, 7 Western. USSR UDC [546(682+22)]:539.238;541.18.048 THE STRUCTURE OF THIN In2S3 FILMS Moscow IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR...BELYAYEVA, M. N., and SKORNYAKOV, L. G., Ural Polytechnical Institute [Abstract] Thin In2S3 films (1500-4000 Ä), obtained by the method of chemical...of crystalline In2S3 - Recrystallization and the appearance, connected therewith, of optical properties characterizing In2S3 in the films, is

  7. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-20

    significant increase in the number of aberrant anaphases (by a factor of 2-4) in comparison to the spontaneous level of mutation in control animals (P...ANANYAN, V. L. and SARKISYAN, G. A., Institute of Agrochemical Problems and Hydroponics, Academy of Sciences Armenian SSR [Abstract] Analysis of plant

  8. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-14

    from seeds of Cytisus laburnum, glaucine from Glaucium flavum, santonine from Artemisia maritima , and the total seed alkaloid mixture from Delphinium...the level of training and education of the health-care personnel both in terms of medical knowledge and political awareness, making best use of the

  9. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-17

    No references. USSR UDC 616.981.42+616.981.71+616.986.7)-036.21(211) SEARCH FOR COMBINED FOCI OF BRUCELLOSIS , ENDEMIC RICKETTSIOSES, AND LEPTO...National Dkrug which reports widespread brucellosis , and infection of people, reindeer, and rodents with leptospirosis and endemic rickettsioses. In...OF A VIRUS FROM SHEEP CLOSELY RELATED TO BOVINE ADENOVIRUS TYPE 2 Budapest MAGYAR ALLATORVOSOK LAPIA in Hungarian No 10, Oct 76 signed to press 24

  10. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-30

    and news items on aerospace medicine, agrotechnology bionics and bioacoustics, biochemistry, biophysics, environmental and ecological problems, food...informa- tion by various sections of the brain is examined and clinical aspects and bionic approaches to study of sensory systems are discussed...of the Ground Locomotion of Mammals (Shik). Biomechanics of the Locomotion of Man (Bogdanov and Gurfinkel’). References 1773. USSR UDC 612.76

  11. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-14

    results in definite decrease of dental caries. Yet, at higher concentrations in soil and in water, fluorine leads to the development of fluorosis ...meningitis, recorded almost with identical frequency (except for tetanus in children ) in all age groups. 50% of those who died from tetanus were...persons over 60 years of age. The greatest number of persons: who died from dysentery were children up to one year of age and persons 60 years of age

  12. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Cybernetics, Computers, and Automation Technology, Number 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-23

    Systems, College of Transportation, Zilina [Abstract] The article discusses programming of the INTEL 8080 microprocessor developed at the College of...Transportation at Zilina . A typical application program of a microcomputer contains 50 to 4,000 instructions. The means of programming depends on the

  13. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-24

    Institute of Phytopathology , Moscow Oblast [Abstract] The results of transferring a single agropyron (conch grass) chromosome to common wheat were...supplied by author] A critical review is given of the existing concept that the visual pigments of fishes are adapted to the spectral composition of...MICROBIOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS OF PROTEIN ON CELLULOSE. Review of book: MIKRO- BIOLOGICHESKIY SINTEZ BELKA NA TSELLYULOZE (English above) by A. G. Lobanok and V

  14. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-14

    applied for root crops and vegetables. Tables 3; References 8 (Russian). Biochemistry CSSR/USSR UDC 613.2+613.6:616.45-001.1/.3 NUTRITION AND LABOR...0. tshawytschae. Figures 1; References 11: 1 Russian, 10 Western. USSR UDC 619:576.809.33 NUTRITIVE MEDIA FOR THE CULTIVATION OF BACTERIA Moscow... aminoacids to 0.02%, the zones of casein hydrolysis do not form since the synthesis by the extra-cellular proteases is repressed. Hence the criterion

  15. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts. Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences. Number 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-08

    conduct research on the effects of nutrition , soil moisture and solar illumination; to continue studies of mechanization aimed at realizing a labor...connective tissue proteins; the proteins contain all aminoacids including the essential aminoacids ; lysine and histidine content is 1.5 that of beef...VYSOTSKIY, V. G., S0K0L0V, V. N., and YATSYSHINA, T. A., Institute of Nutrition , Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, Moscow THE CONCEPT OF LABILE PROTEIN AND

  16. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    resulting from poor nutrition of the newcomers. The replacement of the "carbohydrate" type of energy metabolism with the "fat" type is conducive...PITANIYA in Russian No 6, Nov/Dec 76 signed to press 9 Feb 76 pp 73-74 MEYEROVICH, R. I., Institute of Nutrition , Academy of Medical Sciences USSR...L438K. Annotation] [Text] This is a collection of articles on biosynthesis of aminoacids , organic acids, enzymes, and other biologically active

  17. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 72

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-03

    abstract supplied by author] Aminoacid composition of the blood substitute geossen, nitrogen balance and nitrogen fractions of urine were studied in an...geossen decomposition by the organism proteolytic enzymes was investigated. Geossen contains all aminoacids characteristic for bone gelatin; it is...example Clostridium botulinum, with subse- quent sterilization of the product and its seeding onto a nutritive medium, distinguished by the fact that

  18. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-02

    citric acids, as well as the aminoacids : lysine, methionine, glutamic acid and phenylalanine, are the re- quired nutritional components of the... AMINOACIDS ON THE SYNTHESIS OF EXTRACELLULAR PROTEASES IN ACTINO- MYCES THERMOVULGARIS Moscow MIKROBIOLOGIYA in Russian Vol 46 No 2, May/Apr 77 signed to...press 30 Dec 75 pp 227-231 VYBORNYKH, S. N., LORIYA, ZH. K., and YEGOROV, N. S. [Abstract] The effect of aminoacids , and mixtures of them, in

  19. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 57

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-23

    specialized premix enterprises is closely connected with problems of research in physiology, biochemistry and nutrition of agri- cultural animals in... nutritional value of corn stalks is roughly equivalent to that of hay of average quality, the present study sought to determine feasibility of corn...INDIVIDUAL AMINOACIDS BY THERMOTOLERANT CANDIDA TROPICALIS YEASTS ON MEDIA WITH HYDROCARBONS Moscow MIKROBIOLOGIYA in Russian Vol 45 No 4 Jul/Aug 76

  20. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Engineering and Equipment No. 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-18

    10.41.79 Resume] [Text] On the assumption of ideal three-axis orientation toward the sun, analytic functions are derived for calculating the solar ...Table 2j Biblio 4. 41 HUNGARY INVESTIGATION OF TRANSIENT PHENOMENA IN FLUID PIPELINES WITH THE AID OF THE MATRIX OPERATOR Budapest ENERGIA ES

  1. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences. Number 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-09

    correction of the time intervals of the cardiostimulator impulses is dis- tinguished by the fact that, to prevent the danger of cardiac arrhythmia and to...birth rate was 44..1/1000 and the death rate 13.2/1000 in 1975. Child mortality is high. About 19$ of the newborn die in the first year and 31$ do

  2. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-12

    crop losses to the greenhouse whitefly and difficulties of chemical control have brought tests of Aschersonia fungi and parasites as means of...biological control. Prevention of root rot of wheat, cotton and other crops has been enhanced by the use of antibiotics and fungi such as Trichoderma...WILT-RESISTANT COTTON VARIETIES Moscow IZVESTIYA AN SSSR SERIYA BIOLOGICHESKAYA in Russian No 5, Sep- Oct 77 pp 776-780 manuscript received 15 Jan

  3. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 68

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-13

    essential in faster growth rates and in alleviating protein hunger in broiler chickens. Improved coordination between Estonian and union-wide... manganese , 30-34% iron carbide, 0.3-0.8% nickel, and small quantities of copper and boron. Workers were found to suffer from weak chronic chrome...the extremities and to vibration. Diseases of the bone and muscular system, myositis and arthritis, are the third most common type of diseases. They

  4. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Physics and Mathematics, Number 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-17

    with a long vibrational relaxation time, molecular carbon dioxide (5-10 vol.%) with a short vibrational relaxation time, and molecular water...May 76 BILAN , 0. N., CHERENDA, N. G., YUDIN, D. M., and ORLOV, N. F., Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Belorussian SSR [Abstract

  5. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts. Beomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-23

    highly effective nitrogen - containing product is produced, rich in valuable micro- and macro-elements, essential amino acids, easily digestible in...silage of leguminous crops, grass and potatoes. 1/1 68 USSR GAYDENKO, V. P., MIKHAYLENKO. A. A., SHARAPOVA, I. N., CHUMAKOVA, P. K. and MAMONOVA

  6. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Number 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-20

    manuscript received 15 Aug 76 KOGAN , S. S. [Abstract] A successful design of communication systems which transmit image signals in digital form requires...Sciences, Ukr SSR; and PYZHOV, ALEKSANDR ARKAD’YEVICH, graduate student, Institute of Electrodynamics, Academy of Sciences, Ukr SSR [Abstract

  7. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts. Geophysics, Astronomy and Space, Number 430

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-02

    IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR, FIZIKA ATMOSFERY I OKEANA in Russian Vol 14, No 8, 1978 pp 876-886 [Article by Ye. L. Kogan , Central Aerological Observatory...of necessity, at any moment. That is why Vladimir Kovalenok and Aleksandr Ivanchenkov were engaged in redocking soon after the departure of Valeriy

  8. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Cybernetics, Computers and Automation Technology, Number 34

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-26

    pp Ul-ljlt manuscript received 9 Mar 77 D0LG0P0L0V, ALEKSANDR SERGYEVICH, senior engineer, Pskov Radio Components Plant (Pskov) and...Jul 76 B0R0DKIN, A. M., B0R0DKIN, L. I., GURIN, N. N., KOGAN , YA. A., LYAPICHEVA, N. G. and MUCHNIK, I. B., Moscow [Abstract] The optimal speed...Kiev); GULYAYEV, ALEKSANDR IVANOVICH, candidate in technical sciences, RIUTs, Ministry of Public Health UkrSSR (Kiev); and DEMENTKOVA, ANNA

  9. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Geophysics, Astronomy and Space, Number 403

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-17

    investigations of the distribu- tion of the concentration and size of sand and silt particles suspended by passing waves over the profile of the shore...was located in the Kyzylkum desert near the city of Gazli. At the epicenter the tremors reached force 6-7, at Navoi and Bukhara — force 5-6, at

  10. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts. Engineering and Equipment, Nubmer 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-04

    MICROSCOPIC DAMAGE FOCI Kiev PROBLEMY PROCHNOSTI in Russian No. 9, 1976 pp 27-30 manuscript received 12 Jun 75 TATSIY, V.G., STREL’NIKOV, V.P...designed optico - electronic devices for measuring angles of rotation. A block diagram and characteristics are given for a modulation-type polarization

  11. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientifics Abstracts cybernetics, Computers, and Automation Technology No. 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    USSR Council of Ministers assigned the institute to begin research on building multimachine complexes. And in just one year the video system was...DMITRIYEV, V. D., engineers IMPROVEMENT IN NOISE STABILITY OF THE "KARAT" INFORMATION COMPUTING SYSTEM AT BELOYARSKAYA ATOMIC ELECTRIC POWER STATION...past motor-generators along the network. As a result of the realization of the above complex of measures the noise stability of the system was

  12. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Engineering and Equipment, Number 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-17

    624.042.8:539.41 PROBLEMS OF EXPLOSION SAFETY IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS. LOADS AND CALCULATION OF STRUCTURAL DESIGNS Moscow STROITEL’NAYA MEKHANIKA I...bibliography) the authors discuss first the works devoted to a general discussion of the problem of safety measures against explosions in industrial...developer (ammonium chloride). A description is given for the device for determining electro- graphic images. Sulphur, camphor , rosin, and tobacco

  13. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Geophysics, Astronomy and Space No. 412

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-30

    virtually horizontally. The age of the sediments, judging from deep-water drilling data, range from the Paleocene to the Holocene. The thickness of...tion of atomic oxygen at an altitude of 300 km. The accuracy of the ex- pression is +10 km. The formula is applicable for the middle latitudes in a...radiation from the isotope 241^m t0 50° for the isotope 132cs. The fiR value of the scintil- lator exerts a similar influence. The use of alkaline

  14. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 84

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-28

    of stabilized grain meal. USSR UDC 6lT-001.17-092.2-0T:6l6.61-008.931:517.152.11 CHANGES IK HEPATIC GLYCOLYSIS OF THE RAT INDUCED BY EXPERIMENTAL... glycolysis in burns and that this may "be the mechanism responsible for the ineffective- ness of glucose as an energy source in such situations...MISHCHENKO, V. I., Poltava Medical Stomatological Institute [Abstract] Experiments were done on ten dogs of both sexes weighing from 12 to 21 kg to

  15. USSR and Eastern europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences. Number 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-02

    content of ATP and glycogen on the background of a depression of the activity of phosphorylase and increase in hexokinase activity; the glycolysis ...blood (human, dogs ); impedance was taken as the definitive factor. Results show that during the process of rapid lowering of barometric pressure of the

  16. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-17

    Aspergillus flavus , A. Niger, Trichoderma viride and some others). The fungi established themselves in surprisingly short times, and 15 propagated...Toxicology • 17 Microbiology. 22 Molecular Biology 30 Neurosciences 40 Pharmacology.* 43 Physiology 46 Plant Biochemistry 49 Public Health...examination revealed morphological- structural changes in phage particles as a result of treatment with a magnetic field. Figures 2; references 7: 6 Russian

  17. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 77

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-02

    UDC 547.458 MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND CERTAIN STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF YEAST POLYSACCHARIDES WHICH POSSESS ANTIVIRAL PROPERTIES Moscow PRIKLADNAYA...had no fungal resistance, and was most vigorously attacked by Aspergillus niger, A. 14 flavus , and Trichoderma lignorum. Of the 33 substances...Microbiology 29 Molecular Biology 33 Neurosciences 35 Pharmacology 38 Physiology 44 Plant Biochemistry 46 Public Health 47 Therapy 53

  18. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 76

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-19

    isoenzyme spectra of lactate dehydrogenase in the adrenal glands, testicles , thymus, lymph nodes and spleen of the intact animals, with varying genetically...MEDITSINSKIKH NAUK SSSR in Russian No 3» 1977 PP 69-74 SHEARER, R. W., USA /Abstract/ Cancer represents disruption of gene regulation. It is...APPROACH TO THE DIAGNOSIS OF CANCER Moscow VESTNIK AKADEMII MEDITSINSKIKH NAUK SSSR in Russian No 3, 1977 pp 80-88 VELKS, T. F. and BOREK, E., USA

  19. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Engineering and Equipment, Number 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-25

    operation with water injection per year. Figures 2. 114 USSR UDC 621.438:621.43:536.2 BALANCE OF ENERGY, HEAT AND EXERGY IN A DIESEL- TURBINE ...71 Turbine & Engine Design 86 EQUIPMENT Acoustical & Ultrasonic 91 Aeronautical & Space 93 Atomic & Nuclear 94 Gyros copic 95 Hydraulic...96 Industrial 98 Marine & Shipbuilding 101 Measuring, Testing, Calibrating 103 Power, Engine, Turbine , Pump 114 - a - [III - USSR - 21 F

  20. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Physics and Mathematics No. 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-15

    3. USSR UDC 537.621 MAGNETIC, ELASTIC, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF INVAR ALLOYS Fe-Ni +8.3 atom% Mn Sverdlovsk MAGNITNYYE, MAGNITOMEKHANICHESKIYE...authors] [Text] A study was made concerning the effect of manganese in Invar alloys on their Curie point, on the components of anomaly of the...a nonuniform distri- büton of manganese in austenite blurs the ferromagnetic transformation of Invar alloys . 55 USSR UDC 537.621 MEAN MAGNETIC

  1. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Cybernetics, Computers, and Automation Technology, Number 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-26

    MATEMATICHESKOYE OBESPECHENIYE GIBRIDNOY VYCHISLITEL’NOY SISTEMY GVS-100. VYPUSK 2. SISTEMA KOMAND ANALOGOVOY CHASTI I USTROYSTVA PREOBRAZO- VANIYA I... cardiovascular diseases was developed in cooperation with the Institute of Cardiology imeni Myanikov, the Moscow Oblast Clinical Institute imeni Vladimirskiy...heart specialists in determining the causes of cardiovascular diseases. A complex for taking mass cardiovascular examinations of the population is

  2. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Geophysics, Astronomy and Space, Number 394.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-13

    Particularly interesting was the multiday work in the complex structur- al maze of deep narrow troughs and a submarine ridge in the neighborhood of...SVODNYY TOM in Russian No 1, 1977 1G258 [Abstract of article by Yu. A. Tarakanov, M. B. Stepanova and N. S. Medved- eva ; Moscow, METODY OBRAB. I

  3. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Engineering and Equipment. Number 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-29

    is based on plant data on 139 sections of butt-welded seams made by manual arc welding. In ultrasonic flaw detection the sizes of defects were...Russian. 1/1 USSR UDC 621.822.71 VOLOKUSHIN, V. F., Engineer, Eighteenth State Bearing Plant , Vin- nitsa CAUSES OF THE FORMATION OF TROOSTITE SPOTS...regarding the so-called tropism of the system and the property that prevents it from approaching an obstacle at a distance less than a certain safe value

  4. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Geophysics, Astronomy and Space, Number 398

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-25

    filter. It was discovered that in the polar regions, espec- ially in the northern hemisphere, in the course of the observation period there was: 1) an...underwater mountains and five earlier unknown mountains with a depth of their peaks less than 1,500 m were discovered . One of the important problems solved...Ocean in an equator- ial polygon. It was found that the mean values of the vertical gradients of elements of the fine structure of thermohaline fields

  5. Crop Management as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Early Modern Era: A Comparative Study of Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Pei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective adaptation determines agricultural vulnerability to climate change, especially in the pre-industrial era. Crop management as an agricultural adaptation to climate change in recent human history, however, has rarely been systematically evaluated. Using Europe as our study area, we statistically compared yield ratio of wheat, rye, barley, and oats (an important performance indicator of an agrarian economy between Eastern and Western Europe in AD 1500–1800. In particular, a statistical comparison was made of crop yield ratio in the two regions during the warm agricultural recovery period AD 1700–1800. The general trend of crop yield in Eastern and Western Europe basically followed the alternation of climatic epochs, in which the extreme cooling period in AD 1560–1660 drastically reduced the crop yield ratio. The yield ratio of rye in Eastern and Western Europe was very similar throughout the entire study period. However, the yield ratio of wheat, barley, and oats showed different patterns in the two regions and increased drastically in Western Europe in the warm agricultural recovery period, which might have contributed to rapid socio-economic development in Western Europe and eventually the East–West Divide in Europe in the following centuries.

  6. DEVELOPING AN INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK IN STUDYING BUREAUCRATIC BEHAVIOUR IN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRADA-MARIA ALBESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a comprehensive institutional analysis framework in studying bureaucratic behaviour in government agencies. Although the purpose is to outline a general framework for research, the focus will be on taking into account the specifics of the agencification process in states from Central and Eastern Europe. The paper is divided into three sections. In the first section I compare various neoinstitutionalist approaches in terms of analysing the processes and transformations in the institutional environment concerning government agencies as semi-autonomous bodies in state organization. I argue that the approach which has a greater potential in explaining the processes and transformations in the institutional environment in government agencies is rational choice institutionalism. The second section of this paper is focused on presenting several traditional bureaucratic models in studying bureaucratic behaviour, from the traditional approach to public choice ones, in order to determine their possible contribution in analysing officials behaviour in semiautonomous agencies. Using these and the institutional analysis framework sugested in the first section of this paper I will focus on developing a model for studying bureaucratic behaviour in government agencies. The final section of the paper will be focused on the possibility of using the institutional analysis framework for studying bureaucratic behaviour in government agencies in Central and Eastern Europe and the challenges presented.

  7. Characteristics of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Abkhazia (Georgia), a high-prevalence area in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Manuela; Niemann, Stefan; Varaine, Francis; Iona, Elisabetta; Meacci, Francesca; Orrù, Germano; Yesilkaya, Hasan; Jarosz, Thierry; Andrew, Peter; Barer, Mike; Checchi, Francesco; Rinder, Heinz; Orefici, Graziella; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Fattorini, Lanfranco; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Bonnet, Maryline

    2009-07-01

    Although multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Eastern Europe, the factors contributing to emergence, spread and containment of MDR-TB are not well defined. Here, we analysed the characteristics of drug-resistant TB in a cross-sectional study in Abkhazia (Georgia) between 2003 and 2005, where standard short-course chemotherapy is supplemented with individualized drug-resistance therapy. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) and molecular typing were carried out for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains from consecutive smear-positive TB patients. Out of 366 patients, 60.4% were resistant to any first-line drugs and 21% had MDR-TB. Overall, 25% of all strains belong to the Beijing genotype, which was found to be strongly associated with the risk of MDR-TB (OR 25.9, 95% CI 10.2-66.0) and transmission (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.6-5.0). One dominant MDR Beijing clone represents 23% of all MDR-TB cases. The level of MDR-TB did not decline during the study period, coinciding with increasing levels of MDR Beijing strains among previously treated cases. Standard chemotherapy plus individualized drug-resistance therapy, guided by conventional DST, might be not sufficient to control MDR-TB in Eastern Europe in light of the spread of "highly transmissible" MDR Beijing strains circulating in the community.

  8. Strategic challenges in upgrading the population’s health in the transition countries of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the devastating nineties of the last century a slow but steady improvement of the living conditions in the region of South Eastern Europe (SEE has be observed. However, so far only three countries, i.e. Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia, have managed to ascent to the European Union and only Slovenia has joined the European currency. All others are still struggling with a difficult heritage of inappropriate vertical management structures, overstaffing and outmigration of the well educated young. This résumé applies also to the field of public health where, for example, the old hygienic tradition remained dominant, often maintaining huge laboratory facilities in the institutes of public health and very small numbers of staff being allocated to health promotion and modern participative management. This situation cannot be overcome easily nor in short term. Supported by funds from the German contribution to the European Stability Pact, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fphsee has established a permanent collaboration between the public health institutions in the region, including foremost the Schools of Public Health (SPH, the National Public Health Associations (PHA and some national Institutes of Public Health (IPH.

  9. Scientific Migration in Central Europe in the Context of the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    As a way of intellectual reparations the Allies tried in 1945 to capture German scientists to undertake research in their own R& D and military research projects. The Soviet Occupied Zone of Germany was particularly strongly affected by this seizure of its scientific elite. Among the displaced were a group of leading German physicists, who were assigned to specific laboratories in the Caucasus, where they were kept like precious birds in a golden cage advancing the Soviet atomic bomb project. These included the Nobel Laureate Gustav Hertz, Manfred von Ardenne, Peter Adolf Thiessen and Max Steenbeck, to name but a few. In contrast to many others in similar circumstances, the fate of these scientists was directly influenced by the nuclear race and the Cold War as a result of which they were unable to return to Germany before 1955. Many German returnee scientists settled in East Germany, but some enjoyed successful careers in the West. Remarkably, one of the most instrumental inventions of the nuclear age -- the ultracentrifuge used for uranium enrichment -- emerged from this ``gilded cage.'' However, the 1950s were also marked by other migrations as well as by processes of science and technology transfer. In particular, there was an exodus of many scientists from East to West, which was driven by a lack of political freedom and prospertity and exacerbated by political turmoil in Central Europe during this period (1953/1956/1961/1968). My talk will provide a brief account of these migratory processes with a focus on Germany. Migrations concerning other Central European countries such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland will be also briefly described in a comparative perspective and illustrated with examples about the life and work of several physicists.

  10. Pollen-based paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change at Lake Ohrid (south-eastern Europe) during the past 500 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadori, Laura; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Masi, Alessia; Bertini, Adele; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Francke, Alexander; Kouli, Katerina; Joannin, Sébastien; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Peyron, Odile; Torri, Paola; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sinopoli, Gaia; Donders, Timme H.

    2016-03-01

    Lake Ohrid is located at the border between FYROM (Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia) and Albania and formed during the latest phases of Alpine orogenesis. It is the deepest, the largest and the oldest tectonic lake in Europe. To better understand the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental evolution of Lake Ohrid, deep drilling was carried out in 2013 within the framework of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions (SCOPSCO) project that was funded by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). Preliminary results indicate that lacustrine sedimentation of Lake Ohrid started between 1.2 and 1.9 Ma ago. Here we present new pollen data (selected percentage and concentration taxa/groups) of the uppermost ˜ 200 m of the 569 m long DEEP core drilled in the depocentre of Lake Ohrid. The study is the fruit of a cooperative work carried out in several European palynological laboratories. The age model of this part of the core is based on 10 tephra layers and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters. According to the age model, the studied sequence covers the last ˜ 500 000 years at a millennial-scale resolution ( ˜ 1.6 ka) and records the major vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the last 12 (13 only pro parte) marine isotope stages (MIS). Our results indicate that there is a general good correspondence between forested/non-forested periods and glacial-interglacial cycles of the marine isotope stratigraphy. The record shows a progressive change from cooler and wetter to warmer and drier interglacial conditions. This shift in temperature and moisture availability is visible also in vegetation during glacial periods. The period corresponding to MIS11 (pollen assemblage zone OD-10, 428-368 ka BP) is dominated by montane trees such as conifers. Mesophilous elements such as deciduous and semi-deciduous oaks dominate forest periods of MIS5 (PASZ OD-3, 129-70 ka BP) and MIS1 (PASZ OD-1, 14 ka BP to

  11. [Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann] / Sir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamul, Sirje, 1951-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context (Quellen und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, 20; Veröffentlichungen der Aue-Stiftung, 26). Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann. Böhlau Verlag. Köln u.a. 2012

  12. BULGARIA’S MULTI-VECTOR FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH TO SECURITY CHALLENGES IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    to stop NATO enlargement , it did see the enlargement process as an open-ended project aimed to further degrade its status and influence in Europe...Force Representative at the NATO Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE), Mons, Belgium. Prior to his selection for the Air War College...and NATO allies, while avoiding alienation with Russia and exploiting all prudent opportunities for mitigating the threat of energy supply

  13. Regional trend analysis of surface ozone observations from monitoring networks in eastern North America, Europe and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. L.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) is designed to provide the research community with an up-to-date observation-based overview of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends. The TOAR Surface Ozone Database contains ozone metrics at thousands of monitoring sites around the world, densely clustered across mid-latitude North America, western Europe and East Asia. Calculating regional ozone trends across these locations is challenging due to the uneven spacing of the monitoring sites across urban and rural areas. To meet this challenge we conducted a spatial and temporal trend analysis of several TOAR ozone metrics across these three regions for summertime (April-September) 2000-2014, using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). Our analysis indicates that East Asia has the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution among investigating regions, with increasing ozone levels through 2014. The results also show that ozone mixing ratios continue to decline significantly over eastern North America and Europe, however, there is less evidence for decreases of daytime average ozone at urban sites. The present-day spatial coverage of ozone monitors in East Asia (South Korea and Japan) and eastern North America is adequate for estimating regional trends by simply taking the average of the individual trends at each site. However the European network is more sparsely populated across its northern and eastern regions and therefore a simple average of the individual trends at each site does not yield an accurate regional trend. This analysis demonstrates that the GAMM technique can be used to assess the regional representativeness of existing monitoring networks, indicating those networks for which a regional trend can be obtained by simply averaging the trends of all individual sites and those networks that require a more

  14. Venture Capital and Leveraged Buyout: What Is the Difference in Eastern Europe? – A Cross-Country Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Precup

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the determinants of leveraged buyout activity, respectively venture capital activity in Eastern European countries. Additionally, this paper presents the main highlights in terms of evolution of leveraged buyout investments and venture capital investments during the recent crisis in the European emerging countries. The panel data analysis used in this paper will include determinants consecrated in previous studies such as GDP growth, market capitalization or R&D expenditures, as well as new variables such as productivity and corruption index. In order to estimate a panel data model with fixed and random effects, we collected data on leveraged buyout activity, respectively venture capital activity in Eastern European countries over the period 2000-2013. This paper will follow the methodology developed by Gompers and Lerner (1998, Jeng and Wells (2000, Romain and de La Potteria (2004, Félix (2007 and Bernoth and Colavecchio (2014. The present research paper shows that the LBO and the venture capital are differently affected by macroeconomic conditions. Based on our empirical results, we have pointed several strategic directions that are meant to support the development of the leveraged buyout and venture capital markets in Eastern Europe

  15. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  16. Development and efficiency of banking and economic growth in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana ĆURAK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In an endogenous growth framework, well developed and efficient financial system can promote economic growth. A number of empirical studies confirmed this hypothesis. Since the financial systems of transition countries are dominated by banks, in this paper we analyze the importance of banking industry for economic growth using methods of panel data analysis for 15 Central and Eastern European countries in the period from 1992 to 2006. Using variables that measure both quantitative and qualitative aspects of financial intermediation, our findings support the view that the effectiveness of banking industry is more important than its size per se for the economic growth in the Central and Eastern European countries.

  17. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  18. Relations between the European Union and Eastern Europe. Energy, security, stability; Die Beziehungen der Europaeischen Union mit Osteuropa. Energie - Sicherheit - Stabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisse, Olaf (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    The book shows that twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the transformation process of Eastern Europe is still not completed. Since several years ago, the European Union has been attempting to establish positive relations with the Eastern European states and to support their transformation process, employing various instruments for this purpose. The contributions in this book provide information on the transformation process of the Eastern European states and investigate the influence of the European Union on regional actors, decision processes, and policies. The focus is on the controversies over ensured and reliable power supply.

  19. The Role of the State in the Repression and Revival of Religiosity in Central Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Tim; Neundorf, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present two different roles of the state affecting individuals' religiosity. First, we provide evidence for the effectiveness of socialist regimes in influencing citizens' opinions by comparing religious beliefs among several generations of Eastern Europeans. Second, the article explores whether the democratization…

  20. Crisis in Eastern Europe : The Downside of a Market Economy Revealed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Herman W.

    After the collapse of communism, the Central and Eastern European countries decided to implement a market economy embedded in a democratic order. A constituent element of the transition was a fully-fledged integration with the global economy. One of the consequences of this integration is that the

  1. Great Expectations? Variation in Educational Plans of Students in Post-Socialist Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chykina, Volha; Chung, Hee Jin; Bodovski, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Using all available waves of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) from 1995 to 2011, this study examines the factors influencing educational expectations of students in five Eastern European countries (Hungary, Lithuania, the Russian Federation, Romania, and Slovenia). We consistently find across countries and waves…

  2. Drawing Lessons from the Past : Mapping Change in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline

    2016-01-01

    This introductory article to the special section on “Europe’s Changing Lessons from the Past” argues for a close analysis of acts of public remembrance in Central and Eastern European countries in order to uncover the link between the issue of public memory and long-term processes of

  3. Foreign bank entry and performance with a focus on Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaborg, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since the Fall of the Wall in 1989, large international banks have been opening branches in former Eastern Bloc countries with high expectations. Ilko Naaborg investigated how these banks function in eleven different countries. In 1995, on average, foreign banks made up about 25 percent of the total

  4. Capturing the essence of a corporate brand personality: A Western brand in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rekom, Johan; Jacobs, Gabriele; Verlegh, Peeter W J; Podnar, Klement

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the positioning of a Western brand (McDonald ’ s) in an Eastern European market (Slovenia), and shows how corporate communication efforts can infl uence consumer perceptions of brand essence. In order to ensure the long-time viability of a brand ’ s equity, preserving and

  5. Explaining electoral volatility in Central and Eastern Europe : a party organizational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gherghina, Sergiu Marian

    2012-01-01

    How can electoral volatility in the new European democracies be explained? This book proposes an institutionally embedded framework to explain voters’ choice in six Central and Eastern European countries. Such an approach illustrates how political parties can influence the electoral environment in

  6. Kaizen-Driven Approach While Managing Industrial Projects. A Scandinavian Company Succeeds in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European companies have experienced various and radical transformations, as resultof the economic crises and turbulences, which exposed structural weaknesses. In the meantime, long-term challenges - such as globalization, shift of power centers from the nationallevel to international structures or scarcity of resources - intensify. Given this context, it ismandatory for companies to develop strategies aiming at being competitive.

  7. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  8. New heights and horizons in fostering proteomics in central and eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2013), s. 13-15 ISSN 1478-9450. [Central and Eastern European Proteomics conference /6./. Budapest, 14.10.2012-17.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : proteomics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.542, year: 2013

  9. Institutions, social capital and agricultural change in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Kooten, van G.C.; Suchanek, P.

    2004-01-01

    Data from a survey of agricultural stakeholders are used to demonstrate that institutions and social capital play an important role in agricultural success in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Protection of private property, freedom of exchange, consistency in monitoring environmental

  10. La Coopération Scientifique et Technologique en Europe occidentale. 1ère Partie Scientific and Technological Cooperation in Western Europe. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'exemple de la puissance américaine pendant et après le dernier conflit mondial a montré aux nations de l'Europe occidentale que leur développement économique dépendait étroitement de leur aptitude à la recherche scientifique et à l'innovation technologique. Devant la nécessité vitale d'élaborer une politique de la science et l'impossibilité de concurrencer individuellement les États-Unis sur l'ensemble du front, elles se sont progressivement engagées vers une collaboration de plus en plus réfléchie dans le domaine scientifique et technologique. Dans le même temps les grands organismes internationaux à vocation politique, économique ou militaire (ONU, OCDE, OTAN... créés après la guerre ont été aussi amenés à se préoccuper des problèmes de la science avant que ceux ci ne fassent l'objet d'une politique délibérée de coopération sous l'égide des Communautés européennes.Nous allons essayer. de faire le point sur toutes ces questions en exposant dans les différents chapitres I. La notion de politique de la science et son évolution dans le monde occidental. II. Les organismes internationaux impliqués dans une coopération scientifique et technologique en Europe occidentale. III et IV. Les résultats (scientifiques puis technologiques de cette coopération en dehors des grands organismes internationaux. V. Les actions menées dans le cadre de ces organismes. VI. La politique de coopération entreprise au sein des Communautés européennes. VII. La coopération européenne en matière d'énergie. The exemple of U.S. power during and after the last World War showed the countries in Western Europe that their economic development was closely linked to their capocity for scientific research and technological innovation. Faced with the vital need to draw up a science policy and the impossibilty of individually rivaling the United States in all areas, they gradually moved toward more and more deliberate coopération in

  11. LOBBYING AND GR-PRACTICES IN EASTERN EUROPE AND THE BALTIC STATES: THE POLITICAL-SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Bolshakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of lobbying as a form of communication of public authorities, business and socio-political actors. The article based on the evaluation results of a poll presents a generalized picture of the functioning of lobbyists on the political landscape, disclosed the specifics of the use of GR-tech lobbyists at national and supranational level in the European Union. Analyzed data from a sociological study of the impact of information on the effectiveness of management decision-making by lobbyists in Eastern Europe and the Baltic States, evaluate the effectiveness of various political aktor-lobbyists. The system of power in the EU multi-level, lobbying is carried out with a strong competition between different interest groups. By the way, the Russian business poorly informed about the possibilities and mechanisms to defend their interests at EU level and does not use this tool. Institutes of the EU authorities, is the center of the work of lobbyists are the European Council, the Council of Ministers, the European Parliament and the European Commission. With regard to professional lobbying transparency of the process, about one in four out of five respondents said that business, trade associations and professional organizations are transparent in their approach to the process of political and administrative lobbying, while only one in five said this factor in relation to companies. Respondents clearly express support for democratization and openness of the political process, which is transparent to the various representatives and interest groups, and the lobbyists are expected to be open about their interests represented. It is not clear defined interests or lack of transparency called the most negative aspect of lobbying. Thus, many experts noted that the successful lobbying can change the state of the social environment and the socio-political relations. When both unsuccessful lobbying ends

  12. Translations on Eastern Europe, Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1496.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-19

    34 And this not only in Europe: in Egypt, India and elsewhere in the world, August of 1968 was a lesson for the politicians, who saw what it meant to...progressive technologies. d) Insuring and rationally managing fuels and energy by utilizing brown coal, lignite and bituminous shales reserves, by

  13. Trends in Corruption and Regulatory Burden in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses levels and trends in corruption and the administrative burden from government regulation of private firms. It is largely based on the fourth round of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)-World Bank Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Surveys (BEEPS) covering over 11,000 firms in 29 countries in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). The report...

  14. Why Digital Memory Studies Should Not Overlook Eastern Europe's Memory Wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.; Blacker, U.; Etkind, A.; Fedor, J.

    2013-01-01

    n the last decades of the twentieth century, the humanities and social sciences in Western Europe and North America experienced a 'memory boom' that gave rise to new research agendas and provoked interdisciplinary exchange. Less known are the ways in which academic practices of Memory Studies have

  15. The epidemiological transition in Eastern and Western Europe: a historic natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolos, Marina; Adany, Roza; McKee, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The continent of Europe has experienced remarkable changes in the past 25 years, providing scope for natural experiments that offer insight into the complex determinants of health. We analysed trends in life expectancy at birth in three parts of Europe, those countries that were members of the European Union (EU) prior to 2004, countries that joined the European Union since then, and the twelve countries that emerged from the Soviet Union to form the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The contribution of deaths at different ages to these changes was assessed using Arriaga's method of decomposing changes in life expectancy. Europe remains divided geographically, with an East-West gradient. The former Soviet countries experienced a marked initial decline in life expectancy and have only recovered after 2005. However, the situation for those of working ages is little better than in 1990. The pre-2004 EU has seen substantial gains throughout the past 25 years, although there is some evidence that this may be slowing, or even reversing, at older ages. The countries joining the EU in 2004 subsequently began to see some improvements in the early 1990s, but have experienced larger gains since 2000. Europe offers a valuable natural laboratory for understanding the impact of political, economic, and social changes on health. While the historic divisions of Europe are still visible, there is also evidence that individual countries are doing better or worse than their neighbours, providing many lessons that can be learned from. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Are mixed electoral systems the best choice for central and Eastern Europe or the reason for defective party systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Mixed electoral systems have been celebrated enthusiastically in the literature and by political practitioners, arguing that they combine the best of both worlds with regards to several aspects of political representation. This article calls this view into question, arguing that the mixed...... incentives of mixed electoral systems might hamper the stabilization and institutionalization of party systems in young democracies. Empirical results from 19 democracies in Central and Eastern Europe suggest that the learning and stabilization effect that is exerted through simple electoral systems fails...... under mixed systems. Using a variance model analysis, this study rejects the common belief that mixed systems lead to more moderate party systems with regards to party system fractionalization. Rather, outcomes under mixed systems vary much more widely than under proportional representation...

  17. Long range transport of acidic and polluted events from eastern Europe to the remote regions of Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Davies, T.D.; Jickells, T.D.; Tranter, M.

    1991-01-01

    More than 60 daily snowfall samples were collected throughout a snow season at an altitude of 1,100 meters in Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland. Concentrations of major ions, trace metals, rare-earths, carbon and pH were measured in the aqueous and particulate phase. The techniques of neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography were employed. Factor analysis indicated a marine and a combined anthropogenic and crustal source. Classification of back-trajectories showed that the events are heavily sector dependent: Eastern Europe and the Baltic dominating the transport of the polluted events. A very strong correlation was observed between low pH and high carbon concentrations in the particulate matter

  18. Strengthening the Regional Integration in Central and Eastern Europe through Cohesion Policy Instruments and Cooperation among Stock Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA STEFANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is focused on the analysis of two ways of strengthening the regional integration in the Central and Eastern Europe – through the Cohesion policy instruments and cooperation among stock exchanges. Substantial benefits from the regional integration through cohesion policy include economic and social prosperity, political understanding. It should be further intensified, as it contributes to reduce regional disparities, exchange knowledge and best practices, ensure economic development. On the other hand, the deepening intra-regional cooperation among CEE stock exchanges leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in the course of their consolidation. Some assumptions are reached regarding expected changes on the Bulgarian capital market in the course of intensifying its intra-regional integrational links to CEE capital markets in conformity with set strategic priorities.

  19. Do Countries Export Their Corruption? A Micro Analysis of Russia’s Trade Partners in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Belostecinic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a probit and dprobit model to examine the domestic determinants of corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In addition, it also looks at whether economic links with a country that is perceived as corrupt—Russia—leads to an increase or decrease in the level of domestic corruption. Using a dataset at the firm level provided by the World Bank, this paper finds that the “Control Rights Hypothesis,” the “Bargaining Power Hypothesis”, and the “Grease the Wheels Hypothesis” are statistically significant at the domestic level and also shows that increased commerce links with Russia leads to a statistically significant correlation with the instance of corruption via the “Grease the Wheels Hypothesis” channel.

  20. A strategic approach for coping with unsafe nuclear plants in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The recent nuclear accident near St Petersburg has intensified concerns about the safety of nuclear power plants in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and has stimulated interest in finding ways of shutting down those plants that are considered especially dangerous, before another Chernobyl takes place. A promising strategy for coping with this problem involves replacing nuclear power with power-generating systems based on the use of aeroderivative gas turbines which are fired with natural gas and are financed largely by Western investors. This could be done at a much lower cost and in a much shorter period than with any alternative energy supply option. This approach would also offer strategic benefits unrelated to nuclear safety. (author)

  1. MONETARY POLICY BEFORE AND AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS. EVIDENCE FROM INFLATION TARGETING COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Plescau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to review the monetary framework and instruments adopted by the inflation-targeting countries in Central and Eastern Europe, from 2005-ownwards. We employ a qualitative approach and develop a comparative analysis of the changes that occurred in the conduct of monetary policy after the 2008 financial crisis. The results highlight that the central banks in our sample have adjusted their policy in order to counteract the effects of the financial crisis and adopt different instruments to fulfill this aim. The contribution of our study is twofold. First, we offer a review of the literature regarding the adjustments in the monetary policy after the crisis and their effectiveness. Second, we make a comparative analysis between countries with respect to the path of monetary policy from conventional to unconventional and assess the (potential way back.

  2. Trade Facilitation Indicators and their Potential Impact on Trade Between the Countries of South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toševska-Trpčevska Katerina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we base our analysis on previous OECD findings and analysis of trade facilitation indicators for assessing relative economic and trade impact of specific trade facilitation measures for the countries of South-Eastern Europe. In the analysis we plan to include all CEFTA-2006 members, except Moldova, and other countries which are part of this region: Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. We plan to construct twelve trade facilitation indicators (TFIs that correspond to the main policy areas under negotiations at the WTO. The indicators are composed from seventy-eight variables, whose values are drawn from publicly available data. We plan to use these indicators in gravity model in order to estimate the impact of those policy areas on trade volumes between the countries of the region. The use of individual trade facilitation indicators should also enable countries to better assess which trade facilitation measures deserve priority.

  3. Electoral entry and success of ethnic minority parties in central and eastern Europe: A hierarchical selection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernauer, Julian; Bochsler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines determinants of electoral entry and success of ethnic minority parties in central and eastern Europe. The application of a hierarchical selection model shows that the strategic entry of minority parties depends on their expected electoral success due both to observed...... and unobserved factors. Drawing on formal models of electoral entry, the electoral success of new (or niche) parties is expected to be influenced by the costs of entry (determined by electoral thresholds) and the potential for electoral support. The latter depends on the reactions of political competitors...... and electoral demand, measured here as the size of ethnic groups and the saliency of ethnic issues. In line with these expectations, parties only run if they can expect electoral support sufficient to pass the electoral threshold. This finding would have been overlooked by a na??ve model of electoral success...

  4. HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY'S COMPETITION IN TERMS OF ATTRACTING AND RETAINING VALUABLE HR IN EASTERN EUROPE – THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra CIULU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The particularity of hospitality industries in Eastern Europe is that, although most the officials consider tourism & hospitality a strategic priority, a vast majority of researchers and industrialists agree that not enough steps have been taken. Our research focused on the case of Romania, a country facing the challenge of limited qualified personnel in the field, and was built upon qualitative and quantitative tools, examining three groups of potential, part-time & full-time employees, as well as employers, as a fourth group. Results largely support literature in terms of employees being underpaid, undertrained and insufficiently motivated. Still, they can be considered rather suprising in terms of decreasing interest of graduates for the hospitality sector over time and migration to other sectors.

  5. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investments and Remittances on Economic Growth: A Case Study in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Adrian Comes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and remittances on Economic Growth (EG, using panel data of seven countries from Central and Eastern Europe with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita under 25,000 $. The empirical literature stressed the relationships between FDI and remittances and economic growth, and our purpose is to identify if there are significant relationships between FDI, remittances and economic growth in the seven analyzed countries. We find a positive impact of both FDI and remittances on GDP, but the influence of FDI is higher in all analyzed states, with accepting the assumption of ceteris paribus principles in limiting research caused by other possible determinants.

  6. Ideological Bases of Institutional Trust in Eastern and Western Europe and the Effect of Motivated Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Hadarics

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates the assumption that citizens expect the democratic institutional system to operate in accordance with values and norms that are deeply embedded in public thinking of their country. As individual-level trust towards the institutional system is built mainly on these norms and values, our results show that differences between Eastern and Western European public thinking lead to asymmetries regarding the bases of institutional trust. Specifically, degree of income inequalities and perceived quality of welfare services seem to be more important factors in the postsocialist region in comparison with Western Europe. Furthermore, in accordance with the approach of motivated social cognition, we could also confirm that those with a higher level of conventionality motivation lean on normative ideological elements to a greater extent when they are indicating their personal level of institutional trust.

  7. AN ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE CONTEXT OF E.U. ADHERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian\tLiviu\tSCUTARIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a negative phenomenon that manifests itself in any economy with varying degrees of intensity. In this paper we propose to analyze the evolution of unemployment in the EU. There are countries where economic recession was felt more intense and harder recovered from it, such as Greece or Spain. Within the European Union one notes some differences in unemployment between Member States but also in terms of age groups. In the EU youth unemployment rate is approximately double that the general unemployment rate, but the situation is worse in some countries where youth unemployment rate is even higher. Our analysis also focuses on trends recorded at regional level in Central and Eastern Europe countries in the context of their accession to the EU, highlighting positive developments, which were maintained in the coming years. The unemployment rate decrease is one of the objectives followed by the EU through its policies.

  8. Patient doses in radiographic examinations in 12 countries in Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe: initial results from IAEA projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhogora, Wilbroad E; Ahmed, Nada A; Almosabihi, Aziz; Alsuwaidi, Jamila S; Beganovic, Adnan; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Kabuya, Francois K; Krisanachinda, Anchali; Milakovic, Milomir; Mukwada, Godfrey; Ramanandraibe, Marie J; Rehani, Madan M; Rouzitalab, Jalil; Shandorf, Cyril

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey image quality and the entrance surface air kerma for patients in radiographic examinations and to perform comparisons with diagnostic reference levels. In this multinational prospective study, image quality and patient radiation doses were surveyed in 12 countries in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe, covering 45 hospitals. The rate of unsatisfactory images and image quality grade were noted, and causes for poor image quality were investigated. The entrance surface doses for adult patients were determined in terms of the entrance surface air kerma on the basis of X-ray tube output measurements and X-ray exposure parameters. Comparison of dose levels with diagnostic reference levels was performed. The fraction of images rated as poor was as high as 53%. The image quality improved up to 16 percentage points in Africa, 13 in Asia, and 22 in Eastern Europe after implementation of a quality control (QC) program. Patient doses varied by a factor of up to 88, although the majority of doses were below diagnostic reference levels. The mean entrance surface air kerma values in mGy were 0.33 (chest, posteroanterior), 4.07 (lumbar spine, anteroposterior), 8.53 (lumbar spine, lateral), 3.64 (abdomen, anteroposterior), 3.68 (pelvis, anteroposterior), and 2.41 (skull, anteroposterior). Patient doses were found to be similar to doses in developed countries and patient dose reductions ranging from 1.4% to 85% were achieved. Poor image quality constitutes a major source of unnecessary radiation to patients in developing countries. Comparison with other surveys indicates that patient dose levels in these countries are not higher than those in developed countries.

  9. The Political Psychology in the Transatlantic Perspective – A Strategy Framework for Eastern Europe: the Case of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Veljanovska Blazhevska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Each nation tends to rationalize the situation, the past – the present and the future – in order to ensure normal living conditions and possible welfare. However, some internally and externally created policies aim to focus or defocus the public’s attention in order to distort the real picture. In political psychology, lies and intrigues are often associated with political effects. All these additional attributes guide the policy into the desired direction. The situation in Ukraine is a real example of a kind of "psychological warfare" of citizens caused as a result of claims made by the neighbouring Russian Federation, political steps and tactics of the European Union and the NATO Alliance. In order to prevent future negative development in this field, there is a need to create a common security strategy for Eastern Europe, as a result of the creation of successful Trans-Atlantic relations and good-neighbourly relations with the Russian Federation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the need for encouraging the creation of a rational attitude of the nations in order to strive for the improvement of the region in which they are located. The theory of public choice is applied as a basis of encouraging a better future in public policies and strategies in a country/region. Political psychology is the main thread utilised to disclose the real picture of relations in Ukraine, and the final results need to be used in the area of ​​creating a new security strategy for Eastern Europe. This work includes empirical research conducted within the Republic of Macedonia. The same applies to the theoretical frame of the paper.

  10. Late glacial climatic and environmental changes in eastern-central Europe: Correlation of multiple biotic and abiotic proxies from the Lake Švarcenberk, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, J.; Pokorný, P.; Kubovčík, V.; Horáček, I.; Žáčková, P.; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Rojik, C.; Lisá, Lenka; Bučkuliaková, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 396, 15 February (2014), s. 155-172 ISSN 0031-0182 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Last Glacial Termination * lacustrine sediments * climate changes * biotic/abiotic responses * Eastern-Central Europe Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.339, year: 2014

  11. A tale of two commons. Some preliminary hypotheses on the long-term development of the commons in Western and Eastern Europe, 11th-19th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborda Peman, M.; De Moor, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present our hypotheses regarding the divergence in the development of common-property regimes between Eastern and Western Europe. The latter area developed formalized arrangements for the collective exploitation of natural resources particularly early, and it was chosen not only

  12. Patient safety initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe: A mixed methods approach by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godycki-Cwirko, M.; Esmail, A.; Dovey, S.; Wensing, M.; Parker, D.; Kowalczyk, A.; Blaszczyk, H.; Kosiek, K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite patient safety being recognized as an important healthcare issue in the European Union, there has been variable implementation of patient safety initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). OBJECTIVE: To assess the status of patient safety initiatives in countries in CEE; to

  13. The public perception of the nuclear energy in Eastern Europe: past and present; La percepcion publica de la energia nuclear en Europa del Este: pasado y presente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Jimenez, G.

    2010-07-01

    In Eastern Europe, people associate nuclear energy to the idea of progress, and prestige of the nuclear industry is very high. This article sets the use of nuclear technology to produce energy in a historical context that is particular to these countries. Results of interviews and surveys are analyzed in order to provide an insight on the level of acceptance among population. (Author)

  14. International assistance to upgrade the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Selected activities in Eastern and Central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.

    1993-12-01

    The overview is merely a snapshot of nuclear safety activities to assist the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. While many other activities are planned or ongoing, this publication is meant to provide a general overview of the world community's commitment to improving the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

  15. The Failure of Muslim Reformation: "Jadidism" in Eastern Europe, 1699-1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataullah Bogdan Kopanski

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of Western influence has led to a number of responses in the Muslims, one of them being an attempt to "reform" Islam-Jadidism. This study examines the influence (lf such movements from the early eighteenth century to the first quarter of the twentieth century, in eastern European countries, particularly relating to Polish, Crimean, Turkish and Tatar Muslims. It is shown that all such attempts resulted in cultural decay, and loss of identity and power.

  16. Stock market efficiency in South Eastern Europe: testing return predictability and presence of calendar effects

    OpenAIRE

    Filipovski, Vladimir; Tevdovski, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the calendar effects in ten South Eastern European (SEE) stock markets daily returns during the period 2007 - 2014. We focus on three calendar effects: the day of the week effect, the half month effect and the turn of the month effect. Specifically, we analyze existence of each calendar effect separately in the mean and in the volatility of the index returns. We apply standard regression models with dummy variables for the effects in the mean returns, while we apply GARCH(...

  17. Exchange Rate Regimes and Macroeconomic Stability in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Paul De Grauwe; Gunther Schnabl

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the exchange rate regime on inflation and output in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) EU candidate countries. The panel estimations for the period between 1994 and 2002 show that de facto measures of exchange rate stability have a better explanatory power than the de jure measures in the inflation and growth equations. For the whole observation period the estimations reveal a significant impact of exchange rate stability on low inflation as well as a hig...

  18. The Migration of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in Eastern Europe - A Ringing Recovery and Direct Observation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounas Anastasios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined ringing recovery data of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in order to analyse its migration patterns and philopatry rates in Eastern Europe. In addition, we extracted counts of migrating birds from online databases and studied the use of the flyway as well as the phenology of both spring and autumn migrations through Greece. Birds appeared to migrate in the same mean direction in spring and autumn through the Italian and Balkan Peninsulas. During spring, movements took place on a broad front from March until mid- May with a peak in mid-April; in autumn, birds migrated through Greece on a narrower front from early August to early October, with most of individuals passing through Greece in mid-September. Finally, philopatry rates were higher for adults, while juvenile birds dispersed more often and at longer distances, up to 974 km away. Our results on migration patterns generally agree with those in other studies, but we found some evidence of long-distance premigratory movements towards mainland Greece that could also shape the narrower front migration in autumn. In addition, long distance dispersal movements of juveniles in southeastern Europe, where Lesser Kestrel populations show a fragmented distribution, could facilitate gene flow between populations, thus avoiding the negative effects of mating with genetically similar individuals.

  19. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis. Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and Ixodes ricinus.

  20. Systematic study and stratigraphic correlation of the Grandispora complex in the Famennian of northwest and eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs; Avkhimovitch; Loboziak; Maziane-Serraj; Stempien-Salek; Streel

    2000-11-01

    In northwest and eastern Europe different miospore zonation schemes have been erected for the Famennian rocks, and correlation of these has proved problematical. However, in both regions of Europe Grandispora taxa are common elements in the respective Famennian spore successions, and it appears these taxa may have important intra-continental correlation potential. In order to assess this potential, a C.I.M.P. working group has undertaken a taxonomic study of the Grandispora complex in the Famennian of both regions. Representative material from Belarus, Poland, Germany, Belgium, France and Ireland has been exchanged, and then jointly studied, at four workshop meetings. A consensus of agreement has been reached on the morphological delineation and nomenclature of 13 species of Grandispora, and a description of each taxon is presented. One new species Grandispora tamarae is erected, and six new generic combinations are proposed. The stratigraphic range of each species in both regions is documented and calibrated with the respective conodont zonation schemes. It can be shown that many of the Grandispora species seem to have their first occurrence at similar stratigraphic levels. These new data allow detailed correlations of the Famennian miospore zonation schemes to be proposed.

  1. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.

  2. Energy industry in central and eastern Europe status of the accession negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.

    2003-01-01

    Energy was the starting point for the European Union with the signature of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty back in 1951. Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and Luxembourg decided for the first time to create supranational and democratic institutions in the common interest of the European citizens. This was the basis for guiding Europe over the past fifty years towards the European Union of today. Now we are on the point of making a historic decision. Far more is at stake in this enlargement round than the simple acceptance of new Member States and the enlargement of the Union. It is a question of ending the artificial division of Europe brought about by two world wars and of taking a decisive step towards the completion of European unification. (orig.) [de

  3. Mobility in Europe since the Eastern enlargement: emergence of a European labour market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára FÓTI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the most recent trends in labour mobility after the two waves of Eastern enlargement, within the context of labour market developments mainly in the newly joined Central and Eastern European Member States. The article focuses on the question of how the current economic and financial crisis impacted on these trends, whether a slowdown of labour outflow from the Central and Eastern European Member States could be detected as a consequence. From a policy point of view, it is important to assess the consequences of the new mobility trends not only in the receiving countries, but also in the sending ones, as well as the individuals and families affected. Due to the short time which passed since the enlargement, there is limited empirical evidence, but the paper makes an attempt to highlight those issues in this regard, which could have important policy implications in the future. The analysis is based partly on previous research, partly on the most recent empirical data

  4. Impact of the globalisation and inequality on poverty in Eastern Europe: using generalized method of moments

    OpenAIRE

    Otchia Samen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the impact of globalisation and inequality on poverty using unbalanced panel data relating to seven countries of East Europe (Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Hungary, Poland, Estonia, Kirghizistan) from 1998 to 2003. The results led us to affirm that globalisation doesn't ensure the poverty reduction. On the contrary, the evidence showed that globalisation, understood like the liberalisation of the international trade, increases the number of poor and vulner...

  5. A New Approach to the Economic Integration between South and North Korea: A Comparative Study with the Transition Economies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Chul Cho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to find the enlightenment that the experience of state system transition in Eastern Europe offers to the economic integration of Korea and DPRK if leave DPRK as an independent economic area to seek its economic transition in a certain period, when the political structure breaks down. The transition policies of economic system of Eastern Europe states could be roughly divided into four types, the policies of liberalization, the policies of stabilization of the macro economy, the policies of privatization and financial reform. This thesis is trying to analyze how to use these types of polices in DPRK. According to the situation in Eastern Europe, compared to the fact that whether the speed of the transition of economic system is radical or gradual, the result of the transition of economic system depends on the condition of the preliminary stage of the transition of economic system and how consistently and ardently the states which plan to change their system promote all kinds of reform policy. The way to minimize the side-effect which the Eastern Europe suffered after the transition is to minimize the cost of the unity of Korea as much as possible. Therefore, the following policies coordination must be carried out. First, do not launch the stabilization policy mainly by restraining the aggregate demand as the Eastern Europe states. Appropriate policy adjustment should follow that. Second, the fruit of the economic reform should be distributed to the class or group which has got the acquired right. Third, appropriate income policy is needed in order to allay the controversy between economic growth and stabilization policy.

  6. Scientific centres in Europe: An analysis of research strength and patterns of specialisation based on bibliometric indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, C. W.; Schwarz, Annette Winkel

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the first analysis of scientific strength by output (papers in the Science Citation Index 1994-96) produced by authors from the 'greater' urban regions of Europe, Top lists of European centres are indicated, Four agglomerations constitute the European super-league of science......: London, Paris, Moscow and the Dutch urban agglomeration of Amsterdam, the Hague, Rotterdam and Utrecht, The next layer could be named the primary league and comprises 19 large research centres, A third group of 16 cities forms a secondary league of 16 smaller research centres, These upper-level research...

  7. Public Integrity and Performance of Governance. A Comparative Study for South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the impact of corruption on the effectiveness of governance are numerous, valorising profound approaches, based on criteria and standards related to good governance, organizational behaviour.The concepts and mechanisms specific for econometrics and statistics provide the quantitative support for qualitative analyses, substantiating public policies, in view to assure effectiveness in performance measurement.For all South-Eastern European countries, the level of development and social organization determines specific ethical behaviours. In this context, the current paper aims a comparative economic and social evaluation of the correlations between corruption, performance and economic freedom in South-Eastern European countries, including Romania.The working hypotheses turn into consideration the following issues:- corruption holds national specific character and the statistic, econometric or sociologic analyses reveal that it is stable during the time;- an effective governance leads to increasing the citizens’ welfare;- if a country is poor and the economic freedom is reduced than the bureaucratic and political system tends to be more corrupted;- the perspective of accession into the EU has led to the perception concerning the reduction of the corruption level.The above hypotheses will be completed and we shall achieve comparative analyses, relevant for the group of South-Eastern European countries. The above quantitative analyses will use both own results of the researches carried out by the authors and public results of World Bank, Transparency International and Heritage Foundation, as well as results of authorities responsible for national statistics. The comparative research is achieved on a 10 years period, comprising also the moment of accession into the European Union for some states.

  8. Fiscal Sustainability: Does EU Membership Change Policy Behavior? Empirical Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bökemeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies fiscal policy behavior with regard to sustainability for the group of the eight eastern new member states which joined the European Union in 2004. Using the approach of Bohn (1995, 998 the fiscal reaction function is estimated for the years 1996 until 2013. Further, separating the response in periods before and after accession studies potential changes in fiscal sustainability. The results of the panel regressions reveal a positive statistically significant reaction coefficient, indicating sustainable behavior. Moreover, once the responses are split in 2004 the reaction coefficient is somewhat larger in size ahead of the accession. Accounting for the crisis reveals that these years challenge fiscal sustainability.

  9. Undergraduate teaching of nuclear medicine: a comparison between Central and Eastern Europe and European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Scheffler, J.; Bandurski, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper overviews the curricula of nuclear medicine (NM) undergraduate training in 34 Central and Eastern European (CEE) and 37 European Union (EU) medical faculties. The data show enormous variation in the number of hours devoted to nuclear medicine, varying between 1-2 to 40 hours and highly differentiated concepts/ideas of nuclear medicine training in particular countries. In most EU countries this teaching is integrated with that of radiology or clinical modules, also with training in clinical physiology. In many CEE countries teaching and testing of NM are independent, although integration with other teaching modules is frequent. The paper discusses the differences in particular approaches to nuclear medicine teaching. (author)

  10. Using the Landsat data archive to assess long-term regional forest dynamics assessment in Eastern Europe, 1985-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turubanova, S.; Potapov, P.; Krylov, A.; Tyukavina, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Radeloff, V. C.; Hansen, M. C.

    2015-04-01

    Dramatic political and economic changes in Eastern European countries following the dissolution of the "Eastern Bloc" and the collapse of the Soviet Union greatly affected land-cover and land-use trends. In particular, changes in forest cover dynamics may be attributed to the collapse of the planned economy, agricultural land abandonment, economy liberalization, and market conditions. However, changes in forest cover are hard to quantify given inconsistent forest statistics collected by different countries over the last 30 years. The objective of our research was to consistently quantify forest cover change across Eastern Europe from 1985 until 2012 using the complete Landsat data archive. We developed an algorithm for processing imagery from different Landsat platforms and sensors (TM and ETM+), aggregating these images into a common set of multi-temporal metrics, and mapping annual gross forest cover loss and decadal gross forest cover gain. Our results show that forest cover area increased from 1985 to 2012 by 4.7% across the region. Average annual gross forest cover loss was 0.41% of total forest cover area, with a statistically significant increase from 1985 to 2012. Most forest disturbance recovered fast, with only 12% of the areas of forest loss prior to 1995 not being recovered by 2012. Timber harvesting was the main cause of forest loss. Logging area declined after the collapse of socialism in the late 1980s, increased in the early 2000s, and decreased in most countries after 2007 due to the global economic crisis. By 2012, Central and Baltic Eastern European countries showed higher logging rates compared to their Western neighbours. Comparing our results with official forest cover and change estimates showed agreement in total forest area for year 2010, but with substantial disagreement between Landsat-based and official net forest cover area change. Landsat-based logging areas exhibit strong relationship with reported roundwood production at national

  11. Reasons for Low Part-Time Employment in Eastern Europe – Any Role for Low Wages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerly Krillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Eastern European countries are characterized by high wage inequalities and a relatively low proportion of labour force being employed on a part-time basis, yet there seem not be so far made any studies on the part time pay penalty. In this article we analyse whether there are any differences in the average wages of part-time and full-time employed in Estonia, a small Eastern European catching up economy. We use Estonian Labour Force Survey data from years 1997-2007; the part time wage gap is estimated by using Oaxaca-Blinder wage decompositions and propensity score matching. The results are quite different for males and females. For females the raw wage gap is in favour of part-timers. After taking into account various worker characteristics, the wage gap becomes even larger. For males the full-time raw premium exists, but it is to a large extent explained by the different labour market characteristics.

  12. Homonationalism Before Homonationalism: Representations of Russia, Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union in the U.S. Homophile Press, 1953-1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Dasha

    2017-01-01

    This essay focuses on representations of Russia, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. Extending the application of Jasbir Puar's concept of homonationalism to the Cold War period, the essay examines 128 articles and other items that were published in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder and demonstrates that these periodicals often engaged in homonationalist discourses when constructing the Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European "other." Negative constructions of these regions were sometimes used to affirm the political alignment of the homophile authors with the American nation. At other times, negative constructions were used in comparative assessments that critiqued both the United States and the Soviet and Eastern European regions. In contrast, positive constructions of Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European peoples and cultures were used as evidence that non-heteronormative desires and bodies had legitimate places in many "primitive" cultures and existed across all nations and periods.

  13. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1339.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-05

    introduced himself. He was in Cologne where he proposed with scientific terminology, rhymed songs and a great deal of eye-rolling and winking that the goal... sinking from the level of a singer of folksongs to that of a cabaret performer. He became what he is, the Eduard Bernstein of a variety show. Wolf

  14. DISCUSSING THE ROLE OF MIGRATION AND EDUCATION IN FIGHTING ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the effects of the net migration rate and higher education on a set of economic vulnerability indicators in the South-Eastern EU countries, when controlling inter alia for other explanatory variables. These relationships are explored by panel data regression models, using macroeconomic variables collected over 10 years from the Eurostat dataset. The random effects Generalized Least Squares (GLS and the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimators are comparatively examined. The paper finds that the tertiary education attainments do not represent a significant determinant of income inequality and subjective well-being, while the net migration rate and lifelong learning exert a significant and powerful impact on most our measures of economic vulnerability over the period of analysis.

  15. Ice ages leave genetic diversity 'hotspots' in Europe but not in Eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumibao, Candice Y; Hoban, Sean M; McLachlan, Jason

    2017-11-01

    After the last glacial cycle, temperate European trees migrated northward, experiencing genetic bottlenecks and founder effects, which left high haplotype endemism in southern populations and clines in genetic diversity northward. These patterns are thought to be ubiquitous across temperate forests, and are therefore used to anticipate the potential genetic consequences of future warming. We compared existing and new phylogeographic data sets (chloroplast DNA) from 14 woody taxa in Eastern North America (ENA) to data sets from 21 ecologically similar European species to test for common impacts of Quaternary climate swings on genetic diversity across diverse taxa and between continents. Unlike their European counterparts, ENA taxa do not share common southern centres of haplotype endemism and they generally maintain high genetic diversity even at their northern range limits. Differences between the genetic impacts of Quaternary climate cycles across continents suggest refined lessons for managing genetic diversity in today's warming world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Comparative Analysis of South Eastern Europe Economies facing the Crisis. Future Prospects for the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Paul (Vass

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effects of the global economic crisis in ten South Eastern European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, within a European perspective. It also points out the main transmission channels of the economic crisis, by outlining the strong economic and financial ties with the EU, acting like contagion corridors in the event of global downturns. In terms of macroeconomic policy responses of the countries, these mainly led to increased fiscal deficits and public debts. Taking as benchmark the Romanian experience during the crisis, we outline several important structural reforms intended to boost competitiveness in the area. The paper concludes that, in spite of the recent negative evolutions, the SEE-10 region has an important economic potential for the future. In the final recommendations we explore the creativity potential of the region, as a strategic opportunity for putting the region on the global competitiveness map.

  17. Considerations on the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Economies from Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Belașcu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the causes and consequences of the 2007-2008 global financial crisis on five Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Russia, with the purpose of identifying the common points and the differences between these economies in terms of crisis impact, with an accent on their capital markets. Our findings indicate that although the countries under scrutiny have displayed somehow different paths of economic development before the crisis, they were affected, to a higher or smaller extent, by the financial crisis. Also, the crisis was felt in these countries, at least in terms of impact on capital markets, with different lags: in some of these countries the crisis hit at beginning of 2008, while in others signs of the crisis were visible only towards the end of 2008.

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACTIVITY OF BANKS WITH FOREIGN CAPITAL IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU MAGDALENA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The privatization has as purpose to reestablish the functionality of a type of property under the public agreement. The privatization of banks brings both positive and beneficial aspects, but also some notions with a negative impact that influence the capital markets and banking system. Among the benefits we can include: the increase of the effectiveness and performance of the banking operations, the implementation of some effective structures that lead to the gradual integration of the banking system into the greatly developed economies, the improvement and perfecting of the bank services. In Romania, the privatization of banks started rather late and in some cases it turned up to be very difficult. Romanian banking system is dominated by the Austrian and Greek investors. The Romanian banking system is very concentrated, but the intermediation level is still lower than in other European or Eastern European countries.

  19. Modernization and life time extension on steam power plants in Eastern Europe and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupetz, M.; Jenikejew, E.; Hiss, F.

    2014-06-01

    The Eastern European electricity markets with focus on Russia and Ukraine are suffering severe aging of the existing LMZ, UTZ and Turboatom steam turbine fleets after more than 25 years of operation. Energy efficient modernizations along with life time extension beyond the designed life time of existing old power plants is an economical option to address the increasing power demand. Steam Turbine modernizations are using latest state of the art materials and technology-enhanced turbine components such as blades, sealing, guide blade carriers, inner casings and rotors as well as components for auxiliary systems e.g. lube and lifting oil thus providing increased efficiency and optimized maintainability. This paper outlines unique design features and pre-engineered modules of the Siemens steam turbine modernization applications for thermal power stations, emphasizing the solutions for Turboatom 300 MW and LMZ 200 MW turbine-generators. The paper concludes with references and operational experience.

  20. Policy framework and legal forms of social enterprise in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staicu Daniela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Central and Eastern European countries, the transition to a market economy stimulated civil society initiatives that in the past had been either discouraged or had become part of the Communist state system, and opened new pathways to entrepreneurial initiatives. The 1990s was an open window to the creation of a significant number of non-profit organizations, including the pioneering establishment of the first social enterprises. When these countries became members of the European Union, the process of legal institutionalization of social enterprises started to be discussed and has taken place at various stages. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the policy frameworks and the legal forms and of social enterprises in eight countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The research seeks to determine the extent to which the development of national policy frameworks influences the development of legal forms under which social enterprises operate. For the purpose of this analysis, data were collected from relevant to this subject country reports, studies, laws released between 2009 and 2016. The research shows that European social enterprises are often ‘hidden’ among existing legal forms either as associations and foundations with commercial activities, cooperatives serving general or collective interests and mainstream enterprises pursuing an explicit and primary social aim. Further research needs to be done to determine the potential for growth of entities operating as associations and foundations with commercial activities. Furthermore, the research concluded that the countries with specific laws on social entrepreneurship generate 61 % of the social economy activity in Central and Eastern European countries. Further research needs to be done to determine if introducing a social enterprise specific legal form, will stimulate the development of the

  1. Methodological approach for the seismic backfitting of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, P.; Muzzi, F.; Ruggieri, G.; Zola, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of the assessment of the seismic adequacy of the operating Nuclear Power Plants in East Europe, the main problem to match with is the difficulty to work about already existing plants. Moreover consolidated standards and procedures for seismic design, verification and qualification exist for new structures and equipment, then the extension to operating plants requires a lot of engineering judgement. The paper highlights the importance of: identification of seismic safety related systems and components; site specific seismic input definition in agreement with international standards; computation of seismic loads accounting for soil-structure interaction and appropriate structural modelling; overall stability verification of the plant (soil bearing capacity, soil liquefaction, sliding, overturning); ductility effects in evaluation of seismic protection; engineering process for the qualification of components and systems and walkdown procedures and identification of remedial measures (easy fixes and complex fixes). Some examples are reported referred to the more recent ISMES activities in the field

  2. Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šaulienė, Ingrida; Ritenberga, Olga; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Nowak, Malgorzata; Sulborska, Aneta; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elzbieta; Bilous, Elena; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Spores of the genus Alternaria belong to one of the most prevailing constituents of the air in all regions of the world. They form infectious inoculum of numerous plant species as well as severe inhaled allergies. The aim of this study was to compare the biological pollution with Alternaria spores of the air of 12 cities located in central and eastern Europe. The experiment was done in 2010 and it covered the territory of Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Poland (PL) and Ukraine (UA). The spores were counted using an identical method and standard equipment (7-day Lanzoni volumetric sampler) followed by extensive statistical calculations. The timing of the day of maximum concentration changed mainly along the N-S direction and had a positive correlation with latitude. The most important factor determining the increase in Alternaria spore concentration was the temperature, whereas other weather parameters were not related or of low significance. Regardless of geographical location, the first phase of the season (0-0.9 % of Alternaria spores in the air) was the longest (up to 60 days) and the last (97.5 to 99 %) was the shortest (22 days or less). The means of daily concentrations of Alternaria spores ranged from 11 spores m(-3) in Klaipeda (LT, Baltic Sea coast) to 187 in Poznan (west PL, agricultural plain). The threshold value of 80 spores m(-3) that triggers the first allergy symptoms was exceeded in 8 to 86 days (Vinnitsa, UA, temperate continental, forest-steppes region). There were considerable differences between the highest number of spores per cubic metre of air, varying from 139 in the north (Klaipeda, LT) to 2,295 in central west (Poznan, PL). The biological pollution by Alternaria spores in several places of central and eastern Europe was high; the number of days exceeding the threshold value of 300 spores m(-3) connected with serious health problems of atopic people ranged from 0 to 1 on the north (LV, LT) to 29 in central west (Poznan, PL).

  3. Replacing animal use in physiology and pharmacology teaching in selected universities in Eastern Europe--charting a way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, David G; Kojic, Zvezdana Z

    2011-03-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the use of animals in teaching and the implementation of innovative technology-based teaching practices across a small sample of universities in Eastern Europe. The research methods used were a questionnaire circulated four weeks before a workshop took place (in October 2009, in Belgrade, Serbia), as well as focused, face-to-face group discussions, led by one of the authors during the workshop. Twenty-two faculty (physiologists and pharmacologists), from 13 Eastern European countries, attended the meeting. Fourteen of the eighteen schools represented at the workshop were making use of animals, in some instances in quite large numbers, for their teaching. For example, a single department at a Romanian university used over 250 animals per annum, and at least 1130 animals were used, per annum, across all of the institutions. The species used in largest numbers were the rat (34%), frog/toad (29%), mouse (22%), rabbit (10%), guinea-pig (4%) and dog (1%). None of the universities sampled had implemented institution-wide virtual learning environments (VLEs), although there were isolated instances of local use of VLEs. There was relatively little current use of technology-based teaching and learning resources, but there was considerable enthusiasm to modernise teaching and to introduce innovative learning and teaching methods. The major perceived barrier to the introduction of replacement alternatives was the lack of versions in local languages. There was a consensus view that developing local language exemplars and evaluating their usefulness was likely to have the greatest impact on animal use, at least in the short-term. 2011 FRAME.

  4. Determinants of small and medium sized fast growing enterprises in central and eastern Europe: a panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mateev

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the main determinants of growth in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in central and eastern Europe. The important role played by SMEs in the economic development of central and eastern European (CEE countries has attracted the recent attention of academics and policymakers but remains relatively unexplored. Empirical research has suggested that firm growth is determined not only by the traditional characteristics of size and age but also by other firm-specific factors such as indebtedness, internal financing, future growth opportunities, process and product innovation, and organisational changes. Although growth in manufacturing and service SMEs in transition economies is well explained by the traditional firm characteristics of size and age, there is no empirical evidence concerning what other specific factors may be associated with SME growth and performance in these countries. Using a panel dataset of 560 fast growing small and medium enterprises from six transition economies we find that firm size when measured by firm total assets can explain to a large extent the growth in SMEs in these countries. When size is proxied by a firm’s number of employees the observed effect is marginal. Firm specific characteristics such as leverage, current liquidity, future growth opportunities, internally generated funds, and factor productivity are found to be important factors in determining a firm’s growth and performance. Age and ownership do not seem to be able to explain firm growth. The results of our empirical study have also some policy implications: we argue that governments in transition economies need to pay an increased attention to small and medium sized enterprises and try to create a business environment that will be beneficial for SME development.

  5. A Systematic Content Analysis of Policy Barriers Impeding Access to Opioid Medication in Central and Eastern Europe: Results of ATOME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjow, Eugenia; Papavasiliou, Evangelia; Payne, Sheila; Scholten, Willem; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Reliable access to opioid medication is critical to delivering effective pain management, adequate treatment of opioid dependence, and quality palliative care. However, more than 80% of the world population is estimated to be inadequately treated for pain because of difficulties in accessing opioids. Although barriers to opioid access are primarily associated with restrictive laws, regulations, and licensing requirements, a key problem that significantly limits opioid access relates to policy constraints. To identify and explore policy barriers to opioid access in 12 Eastern and Central European countries involved in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe project, funded by the European Community's Seventh Framework (FP7/2007-2013, no. 222994) Programme. A systematic content analysis of texts retrieved from documents (e.g., protocols of national problem analyses, strategic planning worksheets, and executive summaries) compiled, reviewed, approved, and submitted by either the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe consortium or the national country teams (comprising experts in pain management, harm reduction, and palliative care) between September 2011 and April 2014 was performed. Twenty-five policy barriers were identified (e.g., economic crisis, bureaucratic issues, lack of training initiatives, stigma, and discrimination), classified under four predetermined categories (financial/economic aspects and governmental support, formularies, education and training, and societal attitudes). Key barriers related to issues of funding allocation, affordability, knowledge, and fears associated with opioids. Reducing barriers and improving access to opioids require policy reform at the governmental level with a set of action plans being formulated and concurrently implemented and aimed at different levels of social, education, and economic policy change. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene Editing of Microalgae: Scientific Progress and Regulatory Challenges in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    It is abundantly clear that the development of gene editing technologies, represents a potentially powerful force for good with regard to human and animal health and addressing the challenges we continue to face in a growing global population. This now includes the development of approaches to modify microalgal strains for potential improvements in productivity, robustness, harvestability, processability, nutritional composition, and application. The rapid emergence and ongoing developments in this area demand a timely review and revision of the current definitions and regulations around genetically modified organisms (GMOs), particularly within Europe. Current practices within the EU provide exemptions from the GMO directives for organisms, including crop plants and micro-organisms that are produced through chemical or UV/radiation mutagenesis. However, organisms generated through gene editing, including microalgae, where only genetic changes in native genes are made, remain currently under the GMO umbrella; they are, as such, excluded from practical and commercial opportunities in the EU. In this review, we will review the advances that are being made in the area of gene editing in microalgae and the impact of regulation on commercial advances in this area with consideration to the current regulatory framework as it relates to GMOs including GM microalgae in Europe. PMID:29509719

  7. Gene Editing of Microalgae: Scientific Progress and Regulatory Challenges in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Spicer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is abundantly clear that the development of gene editing technologies, represents a potentially powerful force for good with regard to human and animal health and addressing the challenges we continue to face in a growing global population. This now includes the development of approaches to modify microalgal strains for potential improvements in productivity, robustness, harvestability, processability, nutritional composition, and application. The rapid emergence and ongoing developments in this area demand a timely review and revision of the current definitions and regulations around genetically modified organisms (GMOs, particularly within Europe. Current practices within the EU provide exemptions from the GMO directives for organisms, including crop plants and micro-organisms that are produced through chemical or UV/radiation mutagenesis. However, organisms generated through gene editing, including microalgae, where only genetic changes in native genes are made, remain currently under the GMO umbrella; they are, as such, excluded from practical and commercial opportunities in the EU. In this review, we will review the advances that are being made in the area of gene editing in microalgae and the impact of regulation on commercial advances in this area with consideration to the current regulatory framework as it relates to GMOs including GM microalgae in Europe.

  8. Gene Editing of Microalgae: Scientific Progress and Regulatory Challenges in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Andrew; Molnar, Attila

    2018-03-06

    It is abundantly clear that the development of gene editing technologies, represents a potentially powerful force for good with regard to human and animal health and addressing the challenges we continue to face in a growing global population. This now includes the development of approaches to modify microalgal strains for potential improvements in productivity, robustness, harvestability, processability, nutritional composition, and application. The rapid emergence and ongoing developments in this area demand a timely review and revision of the current definitions and regulations around genetically modified organisms (GMOs), particularly within Europe. Current practices within the EU provide exemptions from the GMO directives for organisms, including crop plants and micro-organisms that are produced through chemical or UV/radiation mutagenesis. However, organisms generated through gene editing, including microalgae, where only genetic changes in native genes are made, remain currently under the GMO umbrella; they are, as such, excluded from practical and commercial opportunities in the EU. In this review, we will review the advances that are being made in the area of gene editing in microalgae and the impact of regulation on commercial advances in this area with consideration to the current regulatory framework as it relates to GMOs including GM microalgae in Europe.

  9. IDENTIFYING THE INDUSTRY BUSINESS CYCLE USING THE MARKOV SWITCHING APPROACH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristi SPULBĂR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use a Markov Switching model with two lags to identify and to compare the business cycle in Romania, Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland using data on industrial production for the 1991-2011 period. We use a model with two regimes that reflect the economic expansions and contractions. The Markov Switching models have been widely used in order to detect and to date the business cycle turning points. However, it should be pointed out that the industrial production may have a little bit different dynamics than the quarterly gross domestic product which is the main measure of economic activity. Based on the smoothed regime probabilities the model track three recessionary periods of the Romanian economy in 1991, 1997 and 2009 and two recessionary periods for the other countries in 1991 and 2009. Mean yoy growth of IPI is 5.01% during expansion periods, while it switches to -18.6% during contraction periods for the Romanian economy. In comparison, mean yoy growth of IPI is 7.25% during expansion periods, while it switches to -13.4% during contraction periods for the Poland economy. Furthermore, in Romania, the duration of the three recessions in months was 25, 25 and 9 months. In Poland, the duration of the two recessions was 16 and 10 months. The results of the study may be used in order to compare the business cycle in Central and Eastern European countries with the Euro Area business cycle.

  10. SOVEREIGN WEALTH FUNDS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: SCOPE AND METHODS OF FINANCIAL PENETRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wiśniewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central and Eastern European (CEE capital markets (of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine and, to a limited extent, Belarus are gradually evolving towards increased breadth (diversity and depth (liquidity, however, they are still exposed to considerable cross-country volatility and interdependence spill-overs – especially in times of capital flight to more established asset classes (“safe havens”. Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs have widely been censured for their undesirable political interference and chronic operational opacity. This paper demonstrates that in CEE, contrary to widespread perceptions attributable to developed markets, SWFs can act as natural and powerful risk mitigators (contributing to a more stable capital base and reduced systemic volatility. Such a proposition is premised on several factors specific to SWFs oriented to CEE. They comprise: strategic long-termism and patience in overcoming interim pricing deficiencies, commitments to elements of a broadly interpreted infrastructure, and absence of overt conflicts of interest with the CEE host economies. The paper, besides reviewing the utilitarianism of SWFs in the CEE’s risk mitigation context, highlights regulatory and technical barriers to more SWF funding for CEE. It also recommends policy measures to the CEE economies aimed at luring more host-friendly SWF investment into the region.

  11. ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: AN INVESTIGATION FOR SIX EU CANDIDATE AND POTENTIAL CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Tache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The South Eastern European region (SEE has seen major beneficial transformation in the recent years. Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 became members of the European Union and registered significant economic growth rates. This paper investigates some important factors that influence economic growth in 6 EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia and offers to policy makers in those countries key insights for stimulating the economy. The paper proposes a dynamic growth model which will be developed using the Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation. This model is suited for this type of analysis because of the small T sample and also to cope with missingness. The results indicate that nine out of the fourteen variables were statistically significant. The number of non-resident tourists, the number of passenger cars, the number of children in pre-primary and primary-education are positive factors for economic growth. In contrast, government debt, inflation, all energy imports, railway transportation and primary production of coal and lignite are hindering development.

  12. The inability to pay for health services in Central and Eastern Europe: evidence from six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Rechel, Bernd; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2014-06-01

    Out-of-pocket payments for health services constitute a major financial burden for patients in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Individuals who are unable to pay use different coping strategies (e.g. borrowing money or foregoing service utilization), which can have negative consequences on their health and social welfare. This article explores patients' inability to pay for outpatient and hospital services in six CEE countries: Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected in 2010 in nationally representative surveys. Two indicators of inability to pay were considered: the need to borrow money or sell assets and foregoing service utilization. Statistical analyses were applied to investigate associations between the indicators of inability to pay and individual characteristics. Patient payments are most common in Bulgaria, Ukraine, Romania and Lithuania and often include informal payments. Romanian and, particularly, Ukrainian patients most often face difficulties to pay for health services (with approximately 40% of Ukrainian payers borrowing money or selling assets to cover hospital payments and approximately 60% of respondents who need care foregoing services). Inability to pay mainly affects those with poor health and low incomes. Widespread patient payments constitute a major financial barrier to health service use in CEE. There is a need to formalize them where they are informal and to take measures to protect vulnerable population groups, especially those with limited possibilities to deal with payment difficulties. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  13. The chronology of Volga Bulgaria antiquities within medieval migrations system of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakov Evgeniy P.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the author's cultural-chronological stratigraphy of the antiquities of the early and pre-Mongol Volga Bulgars in the 8th through to 13th centuries, the stages of their migration from the north-eastern provinces of the Saltov culture territory to the Middle Volga region have been singled out. It is assumed that in the history of the Middle Volga region, there were two main waves of Turkification: the first was associated with the population of the post-Hunnish circle (the Khazars, the Oghuz, the Bulgars, while the second wave was represented by the Late Turkic (Kipchak? population. However, the interaction of Volga Bulgaria with its ancestral home in the framework of the Saltov culture and the Khazar Khaganate had lasted for several centuries, and during that time, a number of migration waves on a smaller scale, in particular after the defeat of Khazaria, occurred in the Middle Volga region. For about 600 years, the Bulgars had been maintaining contacts with the Ugrians, the Volga-Uralic Finns, and the Slavs.

  14. Morphological variability of hairs in malva alcea l. (malvaceae) populations from central and eastern europe, and consideration of the status of malva excisa rchb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celka, Z.; Olejnik, N.; Szkudlarz, P.; Drapikowska, M.; Jusik, S.

    2015-01-01

    Among the relics of medieval cultivation, Malva alcea L. is one of the most thoroughly studied species. In Central and Eastern Europe, a similar taxon Malva excisa Rchb. It has been recognized. The key diagnostic characters used so far to distinguish the 2 species include the depth of petal sinus and types of stem hairs. This study was aimed to analyse the variability of stem and leaf hairs and their usefulness as diagnostic characters for both taxa. The research material was collected from 19 localities in Poland, Germany, Czech Republic, Belarus and Ukraine. Several types of hairs were observed on the stems and leaves of M. alcea: single, bifurcate and stellate. Single and bifurcate hairs were found on stems and leaves of plants from all the studied populations, more frequently on the lower part of the stem, as well as on the upper (adaxial) surface of the leaf. Stellate hairs, with 3-10 branches, were observed on stems, mainly in their upper parts, and on the lower (abaxial) surface of leaves. The principal component analysis for hairs from the upper and lower part of the stem showed that individuals from most of the studied populations were clustered in one large group and only single individuals from several different populations were outside this group. Based on the graphic presentation of the Manhattan distances, calculated with the use of the Ward method, 2 groups were distinguished, but they included a mixture of individuals from various populations and geographic regions. The studied populations are not distinguishable by their key morphological characters, so all samples can be considered as M. alcea. The results of this study show that Malva alcea is a highly variable species, and its specific morphological forms are not correlated with geographical or ecological factors. There are also scientific grounds to question the distinction of M. excisa as a separate species or subspecies. (author)

  15. Access to health care for Roma children in Central and Eastern Europe: findings from a qualitative study in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Nick J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the attention the situation of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has received in the context of European Union enlargement, research on their access to health services is very limited, in particular with regard to child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results Our findings provide important empirical evidence on the range of barriers Roma children face when accessing health services. Among the most important barriers are poverty, administrative and geographical obstacles, low levels of parental education, and lack of ways to accommodate the cultural, linguistic and religious specifics of this population group. Conclusion Our research illustrates the complexity of the problems the Roma face. Access to health care cannot be discussed in isolation from other problems this population group experiences, such as poverty, restricted access to education, and social exclusion.

  16. An Empirical Analysis Of Stock Returns And Volatility: The Case Of Stock Markets From Central And Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okičić Jasmina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to investigate the behaviour of stock returns in the case of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, focusing on the relationship between returns and conditional volatility. Since there is relatively little empirical research on the volatility of stock returns in underdeveloped stock markets, with even fewer studies on markets in the transitional economies of the CEE region, this paper is designed to shed some light on the econometric modelling of the conditional mean and volatility of stock returns from this region. The results presented in this paper provide confirmatory evidence that ARIMA and GARCH processes provide parsimonious approximations of mean and volatility dynamics in the case of the selected stock markets. There is overwhelming evidence corroborating the existence of a leverage effect, meaning that negative shocks increase volatility more than positive shocks do. Since financial decisions are generally based upon the trade-off between risk and return, the results presented in this paper will provide valuable information in decision making for those who are planning to invest in stock markets from the CEE region.

  17. Turning dilemmas into opportunities: a UNU/SCN capacity development network in public nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Mirjana; Pepping, Fré; Demes, Michal; Biro, Lajos; Szabolcs, Peter; Dimitrovska, Zlatka; Duleva, Vesselka; Parvan, Camelia; Hadziomeragic, Aida Filipovic; Glibetic, Maria; Oshaug, Arne

    2009-08-01

    Capacity development in nutrition is a process whereby individuals, groups, institutions, organizations and societies enhance their abilities to identify and meet challenges in a sustainable manner. To address these issues, in 2001 the UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN) established a Working Group on Capacity Development under the joint coordination of the United Nations University (UNU) and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences. Several regional professional networks have developed under this working group, the latest for the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries. Ten CEE countries formed a network in 2006 and identified major nutritional challenges in the region, which included: irregular meal patterns; low consumption of fruits/vegetables, milk products and fish; low intake of some micronutrients; and high intakes of fat, sugar and salt. Public policies in nutrition were either weak or absent. Some countries had recently developed nutrition plans. Higher education in nutrition was seen as very important for public nutrition work by professionals in the region, who considered it a prerequisite for reversing the negative trend of the nutrition transition. The network will continue to work on issues that are still not covered adequately. Its activities to date and prospects for the future are assessed against ten principles for good capacity development suggested by the United Nations Development Programme.

  18. Exploring barriers to 'respondent driven sampling' in sex worker and drug-injecting sex worker populations in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Platt, Lucy; Baros, Sladjana; Andjelkovic, Violeta; Novotny, Tom; Rhodes, Tim

    2006-11-01

    Respondent driven sampling (RDS) has been used in several counties to sample injecting drug users, sex workers (SWs) and men who have sex with men and as a means of collecting behavioural and biological health data. We report on the use of RDS in three separate studies conducted among SWs between 2004 and 2005 in the Russian Federation, Serbia, and Montenegro. Findings suggest that there are limitations associated with the use of RDS in SW populations in these regions. Findings highlight three main factors that merit further investigation as a means of assessing the feasibility and appropriateness of RDS in this high risk population: the network characteristics of SWs; the appropriate level of participant incentives; and lack of service contact. The highly controlled and hidden nature of SW organizations and weak SW social networks in the region can combine to undermine assumptions underpinning the feasibility of RDS approaches and potentially severely limit recruitment. We discuss the implications of these findings for recruitment and the use of monetary and non-monetary incentives in future RDS studies of SW populations in Eastern Europe.

  19. Radiation protection and quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - an IAEA coordinated research project in Asia and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresegun, Modupe; LeHeron, J.; Maccia, C.; Padovani, R.; Vano, E.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency currently has two parallel Coordinated Research Projects (CRP) running in Asia and Eastern Europe. The main objective of the CRPs is to raise the level of awareness in participating countries about the need for radiation protection for patients undergoing diagnostic radiology procedures. This is to be achieved by first assessing the status quo in a sample of hospitals and X-ray rooms in each participating country. A program of optimization of radiation protection for patients is then introduced by means of a comprehensive quality assurance program and the implementation of appropriate dose reduction methods, taking into account clinical requirements for diagnostically acceptable images. Patient dose assessment and image quality assessment are to be performed both before and after the introduction of the quality assurance program. The CRP is divided into two phases - the first is concerned with conventional radiography, while the second involves fluoroscopy and computed tomography. The CRP is still running, restricting the scope of this paper to a discussion of the approach being taken with the project. The project will be completed in 1998, with analysis to follow

  20. E and P ventures in the Eastern-Central Europe transformation states after 1989 - a review of expectations and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrova, H.; Kolly, E. [IHS Energy, Geneva (Switzerland); Schmitz, U. [LO and G Consultants, Essen (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    Following the breakup of the communist era, Eastern-Central Europe's transformation states had initiated E and P licensing processes, inviting non-state, western oil companies to apply for license rights. Offers ranged from reconnaissance to EOR license rights. Oil companies and government authorities expected the new era to yield success, for a variety of reasons. The opportunities offered attracted in particular and increasingly independent and niche-player companies. E and P activities were particularly successful, in terms of having discovered economically viable oil and gas reserves and having achieved incremental production, in Poland, Lithuania, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Romania. Newcomers were involved in the latter four countries. Field reserve sizes, both for oil and gas, are moderate to small; such fields are also expected to contribute mainly to future reserve replacement of the region. The involvement of small-size companies, which have found the means to also make smaller fields economically viable, will support this. (orig.)