WorldWideScience

Sample records for eastern europe findings

  1. Access to health care for Roma children in Central and Eastern Europe: findings from a qualitative study in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Nick J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the attention the situation of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has received in the context of European Union enlargement, research on their access to health services is very limited, in particular with regard to child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results Our findings provide important empirical evidence on the range of barriers Roma children face when accessing health services. Among the most important barriers are poverty, administrative and geographical obstacles, low levels of parental education, and lack of ways to accommodate the cultural, linguistic and religious specifics of this population group. Conclusion Our research illustrates the complexity of the problems the Roma face. Access to health care cannot be discussed in isolation from other problems this population group experiences, such as poverty, restricted access to education, and social exclusion.

  2. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  3. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  4. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  5. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  6. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates cu

  7. Re-membering Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    Since the break-down of the Soviet Union and the inclusion of a growing number of Post-Soviet countries into the Eurovision Song Contest, the contest has become an occurring occasion for remembering and discussing the nature and limits of “Europe”. This paper explores how the inclusion of Post-So......, Ukraine and Russia in order to explore how they are re-membered in relation to various perceptions of Europe....

  8. Poverty correlates and indicator-based targeting in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan; Braithwaite, Jeanine

    1998-01-01

    The authors compare poverty in three Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland) with poverty in three countries of the former Soviet Union (Estonia, Kyrgyz Republic, and Russia). They find striking differences between the post-Soviet and Eastern European experiences with poverty and targeting. Among patterns detected: a)Poverty in Eastern Europe is significantly lower than in former Soviet Union countries. b) Rural poverty is greater than urban poverty. c) In Eastern Europe th...

  9. Gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, H. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has had many implications for the gas sector, in particular on the market development and prices, on the structure of the sector and on the investment level. The institutional and financial barriers to the development of CEE`s gas markets are summarized. Technical and marketing barriers are discussed, covering system design and integrity, metering, markets and energy efficiency. Finally, World Bank role and objectives are outlined. (R.P.)

  10. Oral healthcare in transition in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widström, E; Eaton, K A; Borutta, A; Dybizbánska, E; Broukal, Z

    2001-06-09

    Big changes have occurred in the oral healthcare delivery systems of most Eastern European countries since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 and the demise of communism in the former USSR in 1991. In the new situation it was necessary to reform the political and social systems including healthcare. Reforms were started to improve the economy and, in comparison with Western Europe, the generally lower living standards. It is difficult to obtain comprehensive data on oral healthcare in Eastern European countries but this paper reports data from nine countries and provides a 'macro' view of the current situation in these countries. Many countries seem to have adopted a Bismarckian model for the provision of oral healthcare based on a sickness insurance system.

  11. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led...... to intensive internationalization of companies, businesses and national economies. Existing FDI books have mostly taken the perspective of attracting inward FDI flows, missing the aspect of FDI outflows from CEE countries. While foreign investors face the specific context of a region that poses new...

  12. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led...... to intensive internationalization of companies, businesses and national economies. Existing FDI books have mostly taken the perspective of attracting inward FDI flows, missing the aspect of FDI outflows from CEE countries. While foreign investors face the specific context of a region that poses new...

  13. Abortion and contraceptive practices in eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L

    1997-07-01

    In countries of the CCEE region (Countries of Central and Eastern Europe) the very high incidence of pregnancy termination is characteristic of family planning and the notion 'contraception instead of abortion' has not yet been achieved. The causes and consequences of this unfortunate situation will be reviewed: the reproductive health indicators in the area; the status of contraceptive use and of abortion; the impact of legislation in the different countries; and the efforts to achieve changes. The conclusions of the 'Szeged Declaration' which led to an increase in contraceptive prevalence will be discussed.

  14. Mapping Eastern Europe: Cartography and Art History

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares maps of Eastern Europe, beginning from the map of Slavic lands by Josef Pavol Šafárik of 1842, and it claims that cartographic imagery has played a significant role in the legitimisation of the region’s collective identity. It argues that the adoption the map as a tool of art history, in order to spatialise and quantify the understanding of art, cannot bypass the postmodern critique of the map. It reflects on the overlap between the approaches and methods of critical carto...

  15. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  16. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...... employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long and deep production crisis...

  17. Ethnic Struggle, Coexistence, and Democratization in Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cianetti, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Struggle, Coexistence, and Democratization in Eastern Europe. By Sherrill Stroschein. Pp. 289. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2012. £60.00. Hardback. ISBN: 9781107005242. Click here to read the review

  18. Sustainable energy successes in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Oesterfelt, P. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The publication describes more than 20 `good practices` in energy conservation in Central and Eastern Europe: successful campaigns and projects for increased energy efficiency and renewable energy. The cases are collected mainly by NGO-organisations in INFORSE (International Network for Sustainable Energy) - Europe as part of their contributions to the ECO-Forum Energy and Climate Group. (LN)

  19. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...... of host country location factors. In particular, we investigate to what extent knowledge-seeking is a relevant investment motive, which has been documented as a key determinant for OFDI from other emerging economies. We apply a discrete choice approach to model foreign location choice of firms from CEE...... countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15...

  20. Land reform and land fragmentation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    It has often been stated that land fragmentation and farm structures characterized by small agricultural holdings and farms divided in a large number of parcels have been the side-effect of land reform in Central and Eastern Europe. This article reports the findings of a study of land reform in 25...... countries in the region from 1989 and onwards and provides an overview of applied land reform approaches. With a basis in theory on land fragmentation, the linkage between land reform approaches and land fragmentation is explored. It is discussed in which situations land fragmentation is a barrier...... for the development of the agricultural and rural sector. The main finding is that land fragmentation is often hampering agricultural and rural development when both land ownership and land use is highly fragmented....

  1. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  2. Post-Communist Health Transitions in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE have gone through immense political and socioeconomic restructuring after the collapse of communism around 1990. Such transition has affected the lives of populations in these countries in many significant respects. A key aspect of life and wellbeing in any society is that of population health. This paper traces the transitions in population health—life expectancies and mortality rates for both males and females—in seven of the CEE countries during the two decades after the fall of communism. We estimate a series of panel data models to identify some of the common factors that would explain health transitions in these countries, while allowing for country-specific variability. Our findings indicate that the health transitions are strongly country specific. Moreover, income per capita and trade openness are statistically significant common contributors to health transitions.

  3. Introduction: Postcolonial studies and postsocialism in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2009-04-01

    The introduction to this special section explores the ways in which postcolonial studies contribute a deeper understanding of postsocialist change in Central and Eastern Europe. Since the collapse of socialism, anthropological and other social science studies of Eastern Europe have highlighted deep divides between "East" and "West" and drawn attention to the ways in which socialist practices persist into the postsocialist period. We seek to move beyond discourses of the East/West divide by examining the postsocialist context through the lens of postcolonial studies. We look at four aspects of postcolonial studies and explore their relevance for understanding postsocialist Eastern Europe: orientalism, nation and identity, hybridity, and voice. These themes are particular salient from the perspective of gender and sexuality, key concepts through which both postcolonialism and postsocialism can be understood. We thus pay particular attention to the exchange of ideas between East/West, local/global, and national/international arenas.

  4. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  5. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates.

  6. Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    The region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has been undergoing crucial changes in its transition from centrally planned to market oriented economy. As a result, the business climate in the region is changing rapidly, allowing free access to foreign businesses to establish or acquire production......, content and context, the book provides a holist approach towards foreign direct investment in the transitional context of CEE. The book includes a comprehensive study of the motives of multi-national companies for investing in Central and Eastern Europe through various investment modes and the degree...

  7. Mortality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available While, during several decades, unfavourable trends in mortality were quite similar in Central Europe and in the former USSR, in the most recent years, these two parts of Europe are diverging. In most Central European countries, life expectancy is now increasing mainly thanks to a decline in cardiovascular mortality. Conversely, cardiovascular mortality is still increasing in Russia and Ukraine and its negative impact is reinforced by a worsening of violent deaths and infectious mortality. The situation of Baltic countries is still uncertain but it is not impossible that these countries soon resume with sustainable progress in life expectancy.

  8. Eastern Europe. On the centenary of the political project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the characteristics of Eastern Europe as a political pro-ject. The author considers the genesis of Eastern Europe as a political region and identifies several periods in its history. The author analyses key features of sover-eignization- desovereignization of the region and examines geopolitical projects of Intermarium. It is shown that Eastern Europe as such is an objective reality, whose history has not ended. At the same time, the author advances and proves the thesis that various ‘Baltic/Black Sea’ cooperation models aimed at isolating Russia act against the interests of all participants of the political process. A number of meth¬ods, including the historical and structural functional analyses and the system ap¬proach are used in the study. The central hypothesis is that, as a political project, Intermarium reflects an important part of the systemic features of Eastern Europe as a political region. However, it is not identical to the region in terms of its geography or political regionalism. The anti-Russian sentiment of the Intermarium project is dominant. Yet, it is not immanent in this group of concepts. Reformatting the Inter¬marium concept in line with the new Moscow-Warsaw-Berlin cooperation model can be considered a feasible political task, which requires an adequate scientific solution. Moreover, Eastern Europe has reached the point of bifurcation. The region may become another new source of instability in Europe. Intermarium projects — a traditional object of research – have to be re-evaluated in the new political and eco¬nomic conditions. This article is a step in this direction.

  9. Constitutional transitions in Central and Eastern Europe : [book reviews] / Philipp Kiiver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiver, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Sadurski, W. Rights before courts : a study of constitutional courts in postcommunist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer, 2005 ; Albi, A. EU enlargement and the constitutions of Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2005

  10. Constitutional transitions in Central and Eastern Europe : [book reviews] / Philipp Kiiver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiver, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Sadurski, W. Rights before courts : a study of constitutional courts in postcommunist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer, 2005 ; Albi, A. EU enlargement and the constitutions of Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2005

  11. Family Policies in Eastern Europe: A Focus on Parental Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Family policy is an issue of concern for many Governments. Family policies are organized around the four main functions of the family: marriage, childrearing, financial support and family care. Eastern Europe is an area with significant socio-economic and political changes in the last decades that determined revisions of social policies. The goal…

  12. Pointing at the sun: searching for traces in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Stefan; Pohl, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    In the face of impalpable commitment and meagre political incentives, the first promising solar markets are meanwhile emerging in Eastern Europe. Although solar energy in this region has often been considered too expensive, the market forges ahead. Its profitable investment situation could soon become fertile ground for the production of solar technologies. Stage director behind the curtain: frequently the European Union. (orig.)

  13. Family Policies in Eastern Europe: A Focus on Parental Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Family policy is an issue of concern for many Governments. Family policies are organized around the four main functions of the family: marriage, childrearing, financial support and family care. Eastern Europe is an area with significant socio-economic and political changes in the last decades that determined revisions of social policies. The goal…

  14. Universities, the Information Technology Challenge, and Open and Distance Learning in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajos, Tamas; Szucs, Andras

    1998-01-01

    The educational needs of Eastern and Central Europe can be met by distance education. Since the 1990 founding of the European Distance Education Network, proponents of open and distance education have expanded the scope of their activities. Governments and institutions must find the best ways to use technology to integrate traditional and distance…

  15. Urban activism in Central and Eastern Europe: A theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bitušíková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study brings an overview of selected transdisciplinary theoretical approaches to the study of urban movements and activism placed within the framework of civil society and social movements, focused on the region of Central and Eastern Europe, and seen from a social anthropological perspective. It attempts to challenge older academic writings that described civil society in Central and Eastern Europe as underdeveloped and weak, and presents research that points out a specific nature of activism in the countries of the region. It builds primarily on the concepts of civil society, social movements, urban movements and urban activism as presented by scholars both from “Western” and “Central and Eastern” European countries and demonstrates that after more than two decades since the fall of communism it is still important to take different historic, political, economic, social and cultural contexts into account when comparing urban movements and activism within Europe.

  16. The "East" Becomes the "South"? The "Autumn of the People" and the Future of Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Adam

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the fall of communism in eastern Europe. Applies Latin America models to eastern Europe. Suggests that revolutions are shaped by the systems against which they are directed. Concludes that the problems of eastern Europe are not caused by the system so much as by geography. Argues that poor capitalism may lie in the future for eastern…

  17. Personal Bankruptcy Regulations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Hetes-Gavra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from Central and Eastern Europe are in different stages of development andimplementation of personal bankruptcy legislation. Austria has regulations comparable to those inWestern Europe, while the Czech Republic and Poland have recently developed regulationsregarding the bankruptcy of individuals. The solutions identified in countries that have followed asimilar path, namely the abandonment of a centrally planned economy and transition to afunctioning market economy, which consequently led to the problem of individual bankruptcy, canalso be applied selectively in Romania in the next period.

  18. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  19. Specialization and Agglomeration Patterns in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman, Sheila A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates specialization and agglomeration trends in EU-27 NUTS2 regions over 1991-2011 by means of two versions of the relative Theil indicator that use employment data. The paper’s main focus is on Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs regions. As a legacy of central planning, in the early ‘Nineties these regions presented significantly above-average specialization and agglomeration. The paper shows that over 1991-2011 these features change very little; moreover, while disproportions fall in the other EU members, they rise in CEECs, implying growing divergence among the two groups in real terms, notwithstanding EU emphasis on real convergence. Indicators disaggregated by sectors show that for CEECs specialization/agglomeration change most in agriculture, market services and manufacturing. The paper focuses on the last two sectors. It argues that performance in the service sector is largely due to capital regions catching up on previous underdevelopment in the sector, therefore getting closer to Western regions. Non-capital regions instead lag behind, moving away from the EU sectoral average. As far as manufacturing is concerned, CEECs regions continue to specialize in the more traditional lines of production, for which also agglomeration remains extremely high. Consideration of the changes over time gives a partially different picture and shows that the higher specialization in overall manufacturing results from the development of a small but dynamic medium-high technology sub-sector that is significantly disseminated across regions, thus appearing to result from successful industrial restructuring and reconversion.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In Central Eastern Europe (CEE) the transition to market democracy significantly influenced the corporate governance practice. The region, demonstrates much more diversity in corporate governance than expected in generally similar transition economies. This research aims to focus on identifying the similarities and differences of corporate governance in these countries based on four research hypotheses formulated around two corporate governance variables: number of codes issued and years of d...

  1. Locational Strategies of International Hotel Corporations in Eastern Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Colin; Dembinski, Paul; Vanetti, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated expansion strategies of international hotel operators in Eastern Central Europe. Due to the growing importance of services in economic development, there is an impressive body of knowledge on the process of internationalization and service industries. The last comprehensive academic study on internationalization and the hotel industry was undertaken at the beginning of the 1990’s, however, and we believed that with the major changes impacting upon the industry due to t...

  2. The South Eastern Europe Higher Education Area: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Lacrama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Through history, South Eastern Europe has been a difficult and highly heterogeneous area of the continent. Nevertheless, recent developments have proved that a better future is possible. An important component of this genuine healing process is establishing connections and partnerships among universities inside the region. The present paper advocates the use of modern educational technology in order to implement common scientific and educational programs in this area.

  3. FUNDS INVESTMENT STRATEGIES ON CAPITAL MARKETS FROM EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REGEP HORAŢIU DAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the understanding of how to establish investment strategies of investment funds depending on the area, sector of investment, and time horizon, and the management involvement in investment decisions making. There have been considered funds from Trustnet, investing in Eastern Europe. For each investment fund, the sector and also a set of indicators to measure performance and risks have been analyzed: dynamics, beta, alpha, Sharpe ratio, info ratio and R-Squared.

  4. Enhancing Environmental Higher Education in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, E.; Caporali, E.; Valdiserri, J.

    2010-12-01

    recognition of degree titles was defined. The DEREL Project, as logical continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate two-year curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at some Universities in FYR Macedonia, Serbia and Albania following the criteria and conditions for setting up a Joint Postgraduate Degree. The modernisation of higher education implies new educational requirements that, stimulated by the innovative telecommunication technologies together with novel educational materials and methodologies, lead to the development of distance learning environments. In order to provide the basis for the development of a distance learning environment based on video conferencing systems and develop a blended learning courses methodology, the TEMPUS Project VICES Videoconferencing Educational Services (2009-2012) was launched in 2009. The project is being carried out by the University of Florence and the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje with the co-operation and expertise of consortium members in Europe and Western Balkans and it foresees the implementation of videoconferencing educational modules in the frame of the DEREC Curriculum. In all above projects, the technical and methodological aspects related to environment protection and natural resources enhancement is highlighted.

  5. Environmental applications of ion chromatography in Eastern and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund

    2010-08-01

    Environmental analytics is one of the most important applications of ion chromatography. It includes determination of ions in water and wastewater as well as in gaseous and solid ones. Nowadays, ion chromatography has almost completely displaced the classical methods of ion determination in these areas. In spite of the fact that the ion chromatography has been officially present in the scientific world for 36 years, its role and popularity is highly diversified in various countries and regions of the world. In highly industrialized countries, it has been a reference method of water and wastewater analysis for years. In other parts of the world, it is not used and appreciated sufficiently despite its undeniable advantages. The following paper is a short overview of the most highly cited scientific and research institutions that conduct research in terms of environmental applications of ion chromatography in Eastern and Central Europe. Furthermore, the paper presents a list of a number of scientific papers referring to the discussed area, published in the years 1996-2009 in some of the most highly cited international scientific journals, and concerning publications of scientists from Eastern and Central Europe seen against the background of Europe and the world.

  6. Europeanization in making policies against domestic violence in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at how Europe matters in the development of policies against domestic violence, a gender equality field outside the core European Union (EU) conditionality criteria. By analyzing the concrete workings and uses of Europe's domestic violence policy-making in five Central and Eastern European countries, it identifies three mechanisms of Europeanization in the field and shows how together they work to expand the reach of the EU to this policy realm. The findings point toward an understanding of Europeanization based on social learning and dynamic, interactive processes of constructing what membership in the EU means in terms of domestic violence policy processes.

  7. The Impact of Eastern Europe on Soviet Policy Toward Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    and his Institute colleagues for providing a stimulating research environment. The author is also indebted to Alexander Alexiev, Charles Andras...The East European Factor," in Sarah Meiklejohn Terry (ed.), Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1984. 6See J. F. Brown...equally hard position on the Polish crisis for similar reasons. Hungary, 3See Alexander Alexiev, A. Ross Johnson, and S. Enders Wimbush, "Poland

  8. FDI and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe H. Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the major trends in scholarship about the role of FDI and exports on economic growth, the effect of tax policies on FDI, the formation of the economic catch up of the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE region and the determinants of FDI inflows in CEE nations. I am specifically interested in how previous research investigated the influence of FDI on host country economic growth, the inward FDI stock as a percentage of GDP, the features and restrictions of fiscal schemes in CEE economies and the institutional soundness displayed in policies towards FDI. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to research on FDI as a mechanism in the transition to the market, the dissimilarities in the FDI-assisted development methods among the CEE nations, the impact of FDI inflows for productivity convergence in CEE and the current slowing of growth in emerging Europe.

  9. INTRODUCTION. TRANSITION INTO RETIREMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Krzyżowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue of “Contributions to Humanities” presents various aspects of transitions to retirement in Europe, particularly in post-communist countries. The process of retirementis analysed from various points of view; to name afew: the political perspective and the challengesfaced by current public pension systems in ageing societies, the macro perspectivewhich analyses the structural reasons for (early retirement, and the micro perspective ofindividuals and their ways of experiencing and dealing with exit from the labour market.Therefore, for this issue we sought out an array of papers that extensively discuss the problemof retirement, and inevitably the problem of aging, in Eastern and Central Europe. Obviously,this publication examines only afraction of this broad problem and is by no means exhaustive,thus we hope that it will serve to stimulatethe further discussion.

  10. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...... of host country location factors. In particular, we investigate to what extent knowledge-seeking is a relevant investment motive, which has been documented as a key determinant for OFDI from other emerging economies. We apply a discrete choice approach to model foreign location choice of firms from CEE...

  11. Assessing the health benefits of improved air quality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.J.; Harrison, K.W.; Nickell, E.J.; Toman, M.A.

    Assessments of the benefits of improvements in environmental quality in Central and Eastern Europe are needed to determine priorities for pollution abatement activities in the region. A recent study conducted by researchers at Resources for the Future suggests that the human health benefits attributable to reductions in emissions of three air pollutants in five of the region's countries are potentially large. However, the study also highlights the uncertainties surrounding measurements of decreases in adverse health effects and economic valuations of improved air quality. Attempts to account for these uncertainties yield findings that strengthen the researchers' assertion that air pollution control should be a target of environmental and economic policies in Central and Eastern Europe.

  12. The HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHovitz, Jack; Uuskula, Anneli; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia represent one of the few regions globally where there is a continued increase in the incidence of HIV infection. For example, in Eastern Europe the rate of diagnosed cases of HIV infection per 100 000 population has increased from 11.7 in 2004 to 22.5 in 2011. Initially propelled by injection drug use, heterosexual transmission has now become a major driver of new infections in the region. Nonetheless substance use remains an important factor, with its control limited by challenges in scaling up harm reduction efforts. While most countries have implemented opioid substitution therapy programs, their scale remains very limited. Similarly, coverage of needles syringe programs across the region is variable. Complicating the control of HIV has been the emergence of non-injection drugs and inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy. In addition, structural barriers and stigma toward HIV infected people may contribute to the high proportion of late presentations for HIV care. Finally in the wake of the HIV epidemic, high rates of hepatitis C infection and tuberculosis have been noted.

  13. Fiscal Descentralization in Eastern Europe: Trends and Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander ARISTOVNIK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to provide an overview of the fiscal decentralization process in emerging market economies in Eastern Europe in the last 20 years. Using the methodology developed by Vo (2009, the article assesses the degree of fiscal decentralization in the region. Conceptually, the measurement of fiscal decentralization focuses on fiscal autonomy and on the fiscal importance of subnational governments. The empirical analysis reveals that the highest level of fiscal decentralization (centralization is found in Russia (Armenia among non-EU members and in Estonia (Slovak Republic among EU members of the Eastern European countries. In addition, the empirical results show that, in general, the degree of fiscal decentralization is higher in developed OECD countries than in most Eastern European countries (EECs. However, in contrast to our expectations, there has been an alarming downward trend of the fiscal decentralization index (FDI in most countries of the region over the last two decades. Moreover, the article also examines the effects of fiscal decentralization on growth and public sector size in EECs. The analysis provides some evidence that increases in public sector decentralization are associated with higher income levels. Finally, our results suggest that fiscal decentralization in EECs generally leads to an increase in the size of government, albeit there are some significant differences between EU and non-EU member states.

  14. Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Futo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The analytical and statistical services of border management organizations in Central and Eastern European countries have registered and accumulated a vast body of knowledge on the demographics and mechanisms of illegal migration over the last one-and-a-half decade. This paper attempts to tap this resource by summarising the results of a yearly survey among border guards of 17 countries. A set of quantitative indicators of illegal migration is developed, presented and interpreted, based on the answers of the border services to a series of quantitative and qualitative questions. This empirical material is used to evaluate the dynamics and pattern of illegal migration in Central and Eastern Europe on the one hand, and to examine the development of border management strategies on the other. The impacts of legal and institutional reforms are investigated in light of the temporal and spatial variations of border apprehension statistics. The interdependence of the two processes is reviewed from the point of view of national border management authorities, perhaps the most authoritative source of information on the issue. The results of the authors’ annual survey indicate that the progressive development of migration control mechanisms at national and international levels seems to have a significant impact on irregular migration flows as most indicators of illegal migration have significantly decreased after the turn of the century. At the same time, the geographical distribution of illegal migration flows in Central and Eastern European countries has become more complex over the years.

  15. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  16. When do people want to retire? The preferred retirement age gap between Eastern and Western Europe explained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter de Tavernier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Debates surrounding working longer focus mainly on increasing legal and effective retirement ages, leaving the preferred retirement age largely overlooked. There is a large East-West divide in Europe regarding the latter, with individuals in Eastern Europe wanting to retire earlier. We aim to explain this gap in terms of differences in working conditions and state-level legal conditions. Using the 2010 European Social Survey data on employed individuals aged 50-70 in 24 countries enriched with country-level information, we find that part of the explanation is found in the lower levels of job control found in Eastern Europe. Moreover, the results suggest that Karasek’s job demand/control model fits better in Western than Eastern European countries. Another explanation is found at the country level, where the legal retirement age accounts for a major part of the gap in preferred retirement ages between East and West.

  17. Comparative politics in central and eastern europe: Mapping publications over the past 20 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Carsten Q; Bochsler, Daniel; Chiru, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a new empirical perspective on the state of Comparative Politics (CP) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). We present findings on the authors, methods, and epistemology of CP publications in the most relevant journals from eleven countries in the region. The major finding...... is that CP is rather marginal in CEE Political Science. Furthermore, CP articles predominantly focus on the authors' country of origin, use off-the-shelf data, apply mostly qualitative data analysis techniques, and rarely take a historical perspective. © 2013 European Consortium for Political Research....

  18. Advocacy Networks and Romani Politics in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vermeersch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of the activity of international solidarity and human rights organizations on the political involvement of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe. It will conclude that the increase of an international advocacy network focussing on the plight of the Roma has offered new opportunities to domestic Romani organizations for pressuring governments to change state behaviour or to introduce new policy. In some cases, governments have even appointed Romani personalities from well-known advocacy organizations to advisory positions. However, the influence of a growing advocacy network has not been able yet to create a better democratically elected representation of the Roma in the central arenas of political decision-making on domestic level. Moreover, within domestic Romani movements there is growing discussion about the legitimacy and accountability of Romani advisors.

  19. Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Neculita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement has become a fundamental priority of the European Union after the 90’s. Up to now seven rounds have been held for enlarging the Community which initially was made up of six Member States (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Among all EU enlargements, the eastward enlargement from 2004 was the biggest challenge, both due to the number of new Member States which joined - the number of EU inhabitants increasing to approximately from 380 to 485 million, but also due to the difference of Gross Domestic Product between the old and new EU members. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration and absorption of European funds into the newest that joined the European Union. The paper proposes an analysis of integration and specialization in Eastern Europe by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions.

  20. Beyond Ethnic Politics in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wolff

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In his article 'Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East', Will Kymlicka argues, among others that a key condition for the success of legal and political reforms in the area of minority rights is a fundamental change in public attitudes towards and acceptance of the legitimacy and normality of nationalist mobilization by substate national groups. Following a brief overview of the complexity of ethnic relations in Central and Eastern Europe and the intricacy of minority-state relations, the author of this article contends that, contrary to Kymlicka, the region might even be better off if political spaces were constructed around other than ethnic identities. In line with Kymlicka, it is nevertheless conceded that there may be a need in several cases for lengthy transition periods in which ethnic identities are given institutional space ans security to play an important role in everyday politics.

  1. Voicing women in Eastern Europe-an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Judit; Borgos, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This special issue maps out real and symbolic spaces of women who are attracted to women in Eastern Europe, and highlights some of the challenges they face. One of the main themes emerging from the articles is that constructing spaces for women outside the heterosexual mainstream can be a useful political strategy in societies where non-conventional sexual interests, attractions, and gender expression have discriminative consequences. All of the eight articles in this special issue represent different voices, while demonstrating that there are many similar tendencies concerning the main goals and difficulties of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) and lesbian movements of the region, in terms of legal and social developments related to the most heated issues of same-sex marriage and parenting on the one hand, and the violent attacks against pride marches and political backlash on the other.

  2. Comparison Of Patterns Of Convergence Among “Emerging Markets” Of Central Europe, Eastern Europe And Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POZNAŃSKA JOANNA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on analysis of economic growth indicators for 1989-2014, this article distinguishes the “emerging markets” of Central and Eastern Europe (with Russia included, from the other economies that fall in the broad ‘emerging markets’ category. Following the post–1989 reforms, the countries of the region share many of the same typical institutional features as other “emerging economies”, but not necessarily the associated economic outcomes. What characterizes “emerging economies” is that they grow fast enough to systematically close the distance dividing them from the advanced economies, creating convergence. Departing from this pattern, Central and Eastern Europe (and Russia have so far fallen short in terms of the growth rates, and the region as a whole has not made much progress in catching up. By more than doubling its national product Poland is the only notable exception in the region, although Slovenia may fit in the same category. At the other extreme, some of the economies actually lost two decades in terms of reducing the gaps, and some even fell further behind (e.g., Serbia, Ukraine. These findings have potentially serious implications for economic theory in general and for the presumption that globalization processes act as a unifying developmental force.

  3. Institutional Determinants of International Migration from Central-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka FIHEL

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the role of institutional determinants for international migration from Central and Eastern Europe. In the whole post-war period international mobility has been stimulated by economic incentives, such as income disparities and unemployment, and also by particular solutions in migration policies in the receiving countries. Ethnic and asylum procedures, selective labor recruitments, visas barriers, regularization programs have mostly directed and intensified labor migration from CEE countries.Recently the EU enlargement (and, consequently, opening of member states’ labor markets became another institutional enhancement for migrating. The 2004 accession of eight CEE countries has been followed by a massive flow from CEE to the UK and Ireland that, together with Sweden, opened their labor markets for migrant workers. In 2007 Bulgaria and Romania will gain the access into EU, but the directions of mobility has been already established for Romanian and Bulgarian citizens: the main destination countries are Italy and Spain. The dynamics of migration from Romania and Bulgaria to South Europe has been extraordinary high since around 2000, mainly due to low legislative barriers and high demand for low-paid work. Again, the institutional determinant, such as overall acceptance towards illegal, foreign workers and regularization programs, turned out to be decisive.

  4. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients treated for rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The high mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients in Eastern Europe is partly explained by the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB. It remains unclear whether outcomes of HIV/TB patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe differ from those...... regression modelsRESULTS:: Three hundred and forty-one patients were included (Eastern Europe 127, Western Europe 165, Latin America 49). Proportions of patients with disseminated TB (50, 58, 59%) and initiating rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide-based treatment (93, 94, 94%) were similar in Eastern.......023). CONCLUSIONS: Despite comparable use of recommended anti-TB treatment, mortality of patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB remained higher in Eastern Europe when compared with Western Europe/Latin America. The high mortality in Eastern Europe was only partially explained by IDU, use of ART and CD4...

  5. Foreign direct investment and income inequality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilena MIHAYLOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI on income inequality in ten countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE in the period 1990 – 2012. First, the theoretical and empirical literature on the distributional effect of FDI is outlined. Second, we discuss briefly general trends in FDI inflow and income inequality in the countries from CEE after 1990. Third, we estimate several fixed effects regression models and find that FDI has the potential to exert influence on income inequality but this effect varies depending on the level of education and economic development of the host countries.

  6. Environmental noise and annoyance in adults: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Lekaviciute

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work on the adverse effects of noise on annoyance in adults is well documented in Western Europe, but there is a knowledge gap concerning this type of research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The objective of this review was to present findings and to propose future research directions for the studies on the effects of environmental noise on annoyance in adults conducted in these countries. After systematic search in accessible databases, scientific journals, conference proceedings, international and national reports in English and other languages, the authors identified 29 papers to be included to this review: 24 papers related to annoyance due to road traffic noise and 5 papers related to annoyance from other noise sources. In most of the identified studies, a cross-sectional design prevailed and the evaluations were mainly performed subjectively. The lack of recent annoyance studies related to railway and aircraft traffic noise was identified. Only two studies from NIS countries used noise exposure data for the evaluation of population annoyance according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END. Capacity building in CEE, SEE, and NIS countries is necessary to acquire the "know-how" on how to implement and use the different scenarios for evaluating population annoyance by environmental noise, depending on the availability and suitability of noise exposure data. Particular attention should be given to the possible use of END noise exposure data, where applicable.

  7. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  8. Financial services liberalization and international integration in South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prica Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper analyses the regulatory framework for international trade in financial services within the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO, with special attention paid to the open issues including the scope of prudential measures and capital mobility limitations. The process of the international integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE countries is mainly dictated by their goal of EU integration. With regard to the services' sectors, a major liberalization step on the way is WTO accession. Of the countries in the region only Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro are still not WTO members and in order to become members significant liberalization commitments will be demanded of them. For this reason the second part of the paper deals with concrete financial liberalization commitments undertaken by the original WTO members in SEE and the newly WTO acceded SEE member countries. The last part of the paper provides a quantitative analysis of these commitments by means of the measurement of liberalization indices in the banking sectors in SEE countries. This is to provide a general idea of the scope of liberalization that may be required from a SEE country in order to achieve WTO membership on the road to EU integration.

  9. Restoration of forests: environmental challenges in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkowski, R.M.; Winnicki, T. [eds.] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The workshop examined the environmental factors contributing to the rapid depletion of the forests of central and eastern Europe with a goal of determining a research action plan to help abate the impact, while sustaining or expanding the forests, the economy and energy sufficiency of the region. The proceedings contain a total of 34 papers, under the headings: opening presentation, report of Joint Study Tour, situation papers, state-of-the art papers, and position papers from working groups 1. `Environmental factors in forest depletion`, 2. `Forest-growth, expansion and management`; 3. `Forest utilization of raw materials and value added products`; 4.`Socio-economic considerations for the forest resource, technical excursion to the Bavarian forests, and reports of Working Groups 1-4. Also included are 6 Joint Working Group reports, a report of the joint meeting of Working Group leaders, a final conference report, summary observations and conclusions and closing remarks. Two papers have been indexed separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  10. Human Capital and FDI in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dorozynska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the role of human capital in attracting FDI in the light of selected empirical studies conducted in Poland and globally. The literature on factors determining FDI location, including those relating to the importance of human capital, is dominated with studies at national or supranational level. Attracting foreign investment has become a key component of national strategies for the CEE countries. The paper makes an attempt to assess the relevance of human capital for FDI inflow at regional and local levels in Poland. At the same time, results of analyses were contrasted with quantitative surveys conducted in Central and Eastern Europe. Investing in education and human capital is important for creating good climate for investment. Evidence shows that achieving a certain minimum level of education is the precondition for a country to attract and maintain foreign direct investment and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital. We should also stress that such a minimum is different for different sectors of the economy. Results of the study conducted in the Lodz Region demonstrated that human capital is an important factor, which attracts FDI to the region.

  11. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined.

  12. Reading into lesser bibliography of rare mustelids (Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Romanowski

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many research and conservation efforts on rare mustelids in Eastern Europe, Russia and states of CIS are in progress. On a total of 640 publications examined, the otter (428 and the European mink (195 were the most studied species, the Steppe and Marbled polecats (89 and 83 entries, and Honey-badger (24 were less considered. Titles written in national languages dominate, but a recent increase in the ratio of publications written or summarized in English or German was noted. Based on number and profile of publications, it is suggested that conservation of European mink requires more efforts and research. Riassunto Bibliografia poco nota sui Mustelidi rari (Europa orientale - Nei paesi dell'Europa dell'Est, Russia e stati del CIS inclusi, le ricerche e le iniziative di conservazione riguardanti i mustelidi rari sono in progresso. Dall'esame di 640 pubblicazioni, Lutra lutra (428 e Mustela lutreola (195 sono le specie più studiate, mentre meno considerate sono M. erversmanni (89, Vormela peregusna (83 e Mellivora capensis (24. Buona parte dei lavori è in lingua originale, ma recentemente è in incremento il numero di pubblicazioni scritte o riassunte in inglese o tedesco. Sulla base del numero dei lavori e dei temi trattati, si evidenzia che la conservazione del visone europeo richiederebbe maggiori sforzi e ricerche.

  13. Determinants of Banks’ Performance: the Case of ROE Of G-SIBs in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Iwanicz-Drozdowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the paper is to analyse the determinants of the level of ROE (return on equity for two groups of banks, interrelated by capital links, and their banking sectors.Methodology: For the case study, we chose companies that, in 2011–2013, were designated by the Financial Stability Board as global systemically important banks (G-SIBs and their subsidiaries operating in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (CESEE as well as their banking sectors. We sought to identify differences in the performance drivers, taking into account bank-specific and country- (or sector- specific factors.Findings: We found no significant differences in the level of ROE among the analysed groups; however, we identified a different set of determinants and their impact on ROE.

  14. Entrepreneurship Opportunities after Military Career: Practice in Central and Eastern versus Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa SMALIUKIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    differences between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Western Europe (WE practice. The results indicate the lack of entrepreneurship development policies for early retired servicemen, while service in military often provides highly specific competencies that can be adapted as transferable expertise and knowledge for entrepreneurship.

  15. The cattle sector in Central and Eastern Europe : developments and opportunities in a time of transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.J.; Kuipers, A.; Keane, M.G.; Dimitriadou, A.

    2009-01-01

    Countries in Eastern-Europe are in a lengthy period of rapid changes. Ten Central and Eastern European countries entered the European Union in 2004 and two more entered in 2007. Surrounding countries to the east are in a similar process of change following the disintegration of the former Soviet Uni

  16. Health sector reforms in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The political and economic transition of the 1990s in the countries of central and eastern Europe has been accompanied by wide ranging health care reform. The initial Soviet model has given way to a variety of forms of health insurance. Yet, as this paper argues, reform has too often been preoccupied with ideological imperatives, such as provider autonomy and the creation of funds separate from government, and has given much less thought to the contribution that health care can make to population health. The paper begins by examining the changing nature of health care. It recalls how the Soviet model was able to provide basic care to dispersed populations at low cost but notes how this is no longer sufficient in the face of an increasingly complex health care environment. This complexity reflects several factors, such as the growth in chronic disease, the emergence of new forms of infectious disease, and the introduction of new treatments requiring integrated delivery systems. It reviews evidence on how the former communist countries failed to keep up with developments in the west from the 1970s onwards, at a time when the complexity of health care was becoming apparent. It continues by setting out a framework for the organisation of health care based on the goal of health gain. This involves a series of activities that can be summarised as active purchasing, and which include assessment of health needs, designing effective packages of care, and monitoring outcomes. It concludes by arguing that a new relationship is needed between the state and the organisations involved in funding and delivering health care, to design a system that will tackle the considerable health needs of the people who live in this region.

  17. Reliability of public institutions in the transition of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Drogu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of dishonesty and distrust is often unclear phenomena in Eastern Europe. These are common issues discussed not only in print media and television, but also social environments as well. Corruption, so unfair advantage, lies, deceit and abuse of trust are mentioned frequently during the last decades a" er the change of system in the region, especially in Balkan Peninsula. Although dishonesty and distrust (+ corruption have existed in the previous system, however, they have been hidden phenomena or issues for which there is talk in this system. Research in terms of honesty and trust include a more areas in different sectors. International literature on the subject focuses on two fundamental topics. One of which is his faith and relationship with social capital. What do some of these concepts mean in our perception? What are the benefits and harmful effects of faith and are those connected with social equity and democratic consolidation? The search for this topic is interdisciplinary because it includes political sciences, social sciences, political, legal or sociologic-and those of anthropology. As a result this thesis will provide comparative scale impasse that creates two realities of different social complexity, from the countries that have experienced the post-socialist transition, belief in family and society that retains a holding in the operations of public institutions and may create difficulties to succeed the efforts to implement the law impartially. In conclusion: Corruption is an unreliable source, which comprises behavior and violates the trust placed on official- and public officials. It includes the use of public positions for personal benefit and it creates an ill infrastructure for fragile democracies.

  18. Trend detection and analysis in Eastern Europe and European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, K.; Henebry, G. M.; Owsley, B.

    2014-12-01

    A confluence of computing power, cost of storage, ease of access to data, and ease of product delivery make it possible to harness the power of multiple remote sensing data streams to monitor land surface dynamics. Change detection has always been a fundamental remote sensing task, and there are myriad ways to perceive differences. From a statistical viewpoint, image time series of the vegetated land surface are complicated data to analyze. The time series are often seasonal and have high temporal autocorrelation. These characteristics result in the failure of the data to meet the assumption of most standard parametric statistical tests. Failure of statistical assumptions is not trivial and the use of inappropriate statistical methods may lead to the detection of spurious trends, while any actual trends and/or step changes might be overlooked. Methods for the analysis of messy satellite data, which are often influenced by discontinuity, missing observations, non-linearity, and seasonality, are still being developed within the remote sensing community. We have found several examples of research that compares trends from different datasets. However, there is a dearth of information on the comparison of trend detection methods themselves for standardized datasets. Here we describe three different trend detection methods, and compare their results for a set of synthetic time series exhibiting monotonic trends as well as step changes. We will vary the length of the time series, the number of observations per year and the number of missing values. We will also vary the seasonality and the strength of the autocorrelation. We will then discuss a case study for Eastern Europe and European Russia where we investigate time series of MODIS Nadir BRDF-adjusted (NBAR) data at 8-day and 500m resolution between 2001 and 2013. We investigate basic vegetation indices such as NDVI and EVI but also extend the analysis towards a disturbance index which identifies how pixels differ from

  19. A migration-driven model for the historical spread of leprosy in medieval Eastern and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Helen D; Michael Taylor, G; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, Gyorgy; Pap, Ildikó; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Pinhasi, Ron; Erdal, Yilmaz S; Velemínsky, Petr; Likovsky, Jakub; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Mariotti, Valentina; Riga, Alessandro; Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Besra, Gurdyal S; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Bull, Ian D; O'Grady, Justin; Spigelman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy was rare in Europe during the Roman period, yet its prevalence increased dramatically in medieval times. We examined human remains, with paleopathological lesions indicative of leprosy, dated to the 6th-11th century AD, from Central and Eastern Europe and Byzantine Anatolia. Analysis of ancient DNA and bacterial cell wall lipid biomarkers revealed Mycobacterium leprae in skeletal remains from 6th-8th century Northern Italy, 7th-11th century Hungary, 8th-9th century Austria, the Slavic Greater Moravian Empire of the 9th-10th century and 8th-10th century Byzantine samples from Northern Anatolia. These data were analyzed alongside findings published by others. M. leprae is an obligate human pathogen that has undergone an evolutionary bottleneck followed by clonal expansion. Therefore M. leprae genotypes and sub-genotypes give information about the human populations they have infected and their migration. Although data are limited, genotyping demonstrates that historical M. leprae from Byzantine Anatolia, Eastern and Central Europe resembles modern strains in Asia Minor rather than the recently characterized historical strains from North West Europe. The westward migration of peoples from Central Asia in the first millennium may have introduced different M. leprae strains into medieval Europe and certainly would have facilitated the spread of any existing leprosy. The subsequent decline of M. leprae in Europe may be due to increased host resistance. However, molecular evidence of historical leprosy and tuberculosis co-infections suggests that death from tuberculosis in leprosy patients was also a factor.

  20. Noise and children′s health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children′s health in relation to noise exposure.

  1. Integration of Capital Markets from Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for EU Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra HOROBET

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the extent of capital market co-movements between three emerging markets Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland and three developed markets from the European Union – Austria, France and Germany. We test whether an increase in correlations between the six markets took place in recent years, as revealing higher integration of capital markets in the region. We find a statistically significant positive trend in cross-market correlations between 1999 and 2008, before the emergence of the global financial crisis. Movements in national stock markets are not fully synchronized, but increases in market volatilities lead to increases in cross-country correlations. There is a long-term relationship between some of these countries capital markets, and information is transmitted from one market to the other. Our findings confirm previous studies and lead to the conclusion that stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe became more integrated with the developed markets in European Union.

  2. CHALLENGES OF THE PATH TOWARDS AN ENLARGED EUROPE: SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE - INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Oneasca

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available “Challenges of the path towards an enlarged Europe: South Eastern Europe” is a series of articles dedicated to support the improvement of the national strategies for mitigating poverty and promoting social inclusion. It aims to make a better use of existing theories and studies, as well as of the national experiences and to support the co-operation on these topics between the transition countries in the region. This paper opens the series of articles, introducing the inequality and social exclusion problem. An overview of the issue is presented and the challenge of the path towards EU integration is analysed with a strong political focus. The main assistance programmes are identified and the challenge termed: regional learning process on a common social inclusion strategy. Sharing the transition and accession experiences in the region helps countries to strengthen the strategic dimension of their policies. It is a political project that takes into account the density of the developed strategic frameworks and the diversity of social economic trends and traditions in the region. It also considers the proximity of the EU and the transition and accession experience of its member states in the region. General policy guidance and some practical rules of the thumb shed some light on policy recommendations.

  3. The Determinants of FDI in the Central and Eastern Europe: The Impact of the European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Makhavikova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The amount of FDI inflows to the Central and Eastern Europe increased dramatically during the last two decades. This article is aimed at identifying the ability of the Central Eastern European countries to attract FDI in the context of European integration, and at estimating the most important factors that influence the decision of foreign investors to invest in the region. Despite the broad research has been devoted to define the FDI determinants, the literature dealing in particular with the role of the European Union in the mobilization of FDI is rather scarce, and these findings are very discrepant. In order to understand factors that influence the location of FDI, we employ an empirical model for the period of 1992-2013 for twenty CEE countries. This study reveals that the most important determinants of FDI in CEECs are the market size, cost of labor and the European integration. The results of the research can be used to estimate the effect on FDI inflows from a prospective additional Eastern expansion of the EU by the countries currently not within the EU.

  4. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Energy Sectors in Some Countries of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Zaharia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of energy sectors of countries all over the world is vital in a context of globalization and economic, social and environmental crises, because represents a way of identifying the problems and finding solutions that were implemented and worked in other countries. Our paper aims to compare the energetic sector of 6 Eastern European countries by analyzing the trend of energy production, consumption, prices and the main indicators needed to assess the achievement of required targets of 2020 Europe Strategy in the energy sector. The results show that each country has strong points or weaknesses in a smaller or a greater extent, but is important that authorities learn from each one of them and, on their basis, to create a sustainable management in the energy sector in each country.

  6. Mortality from HIV and TB coinfections is higher in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe and Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Mocroft, Amanda; Post, Frank A;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death in HIV-infected patients worldwide. We aimed to study clinical characteristics and outcome of 1075 consecutive patients diagnosed with HIV/TB from 2004 to 2006 in Europe and Argentina. METHODS: One-year mortality was assessed...... in patients stratified according to region of residence, and factors associated with death were evaluated in multivariable Cox models. RESULTS: At TB diagnosis, patients in Eastern Europe had less advanced immunodeficiency, whereas a greater proportion had a history of intravenous drug use, coinfection...

  7. EASTERN EUROPE, A REGION OF INSECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION'S VICINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan – Lucian Cumpanasu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During Cold War, the region of Eastern Europe was formed by European states that were behind the Iron Curtain.Once the communism has fallen and former Warsaw's Pact members have joined EU in 2004 and 2007 along with the Baltic republics, a New Eastern Europe comprising Ukraine, Republic of Moldova and the Caucasian Republics emerged at the border of EU. The north, west and south maritime frontiers of European Union are opposite with Eastern territorial one that are more difficult to control and defend against asymmetrical threats as: organized crime, drugs traffic, arms proliferation and illegal immigration. this paper aims to demonstrate that EU's policies initiated in the framework of Eastern Partnership (EaP that wanted to bring peace in the Eastern neighborhood did not succeed to fulfill the desired goals. One explanation is that EU did not take in consideration the Russian dream of redesigning its sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. Another one is that the cultural, political and social differences between EU and its EaP partners led to the failure of the project. Thus, European Union's actions toward Eastern vicinity led to a clash between two civilizations: East and West as well as to a geopolitical competition between Russian Federation and EU over their shared neighborhood.

  8. The Relationship between Stakeholder Marketing and Reciprocity in Eastern Europe: A Conceptual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Berger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper deals with important implications of ‘reciprocity’ in marketing in emerging and developing business environments, such as Eastern Europe. In mature, developed, high income, business systems, both transaction and relationship based marketing have been well researched. We posit that in less mature business systems, especially transition or emerging economies, there is a third way to look at marketing and exchange, which we call ‘reciprocity-stakeholder marketing.’ We believe that our framework shows the importance of reciprocity, a fundamental concept in business, for marketing in emerging environments such as Eastern Europe. This paper provides a meaningful starting point for empirical research for developing strategies in Eastern Europe.

  9. Perceptions of socioeconomic integration of middle eastern immigrants in Europe : comparing national discourses and subjective experiences

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This panel compares the subjective understanding of success and socioeconomic mobility of immigrants from the Middle East in Europe with national discourses of integration. Despite the abundance of research on Middle Eastern migrants in Europe, not much is known about their subjective understanding of their socioeconomic positions and experience with social mobility. Much of the research looks at objective measures such as educational attainment, occupational status, and reported discriminati...

  10. Nutrition transition and dietary energy availability in Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Koziel, Slawomir

    2007-12-01

    After the economic transition of the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in many countries of Eastern Europe. This article describes changing availability of dietary energy from major dietary components since the transition to free-market economic systems among Eastern European nations, using food balance data obtained at national level for the years 1990-92 and 2005 from the FAOSTAT-Nutrition database. Dietary energy available to the East European nations satellite to the former Soviet Union (henceforth, Eastern Europe) was greater than in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Among the latter, the Western nations of the former Soviet Union had greater dietary energy availability than the Eastern and Southern nations of the former Soviet Union. The higher energy availability in Eastern Europe relative to the nations of the former Soviet Union consists mostly of high-protein foods. There has been no significant change in overall dietary energy availability to any category of East European nation between 1990-1992 and 2005, indicating that, at the macro-level, increasing rates of obesity in Eastern European countries cannot be attributed to increased dietary energy availability. The most plausible macro-level explanations for the obesity patterns observed in East European nations are declines in physical activity, increased real income, and increased consumption of goods that contribute to physical activity decline: cars, televisions and computers.

  11. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed.

  12. Biotechnology policies and performance in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senker, J.; Enzing, C.; Reiss, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how far ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have 'caught up' in biotechnology on the basis of information about the policies and funding for biotechnology research and commercialisation from 2002-2005 and on the research and commercialisation performance of these cou

  13. Security Assistance Rationales: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    function to defray the cost of Soviet arms development. 96 The linkage of arms sales and comercial sales is not a factor in Soviet arms transfer to Eastern...of plant, R&D institution representatives, and politica .’wer over the GOSPLAN mechanism, does have a feedback loop. _.Ae defense ministries must be

  14. Democratic Change in Central and Eastern Europe 1989-90

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the European Parliament’s archival documents (reports, resolutions and debates) undoubtedly demonstrates that the EP has been in the front-row when it comes to debating the events leading to democratic change in Central and Eastern European countries. Clearly voicing its concerns abo

  15. "Aiming at a Moving Target": Social Science and the Recent Rebellions in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrow, Sidney

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the recent wave of mass sociopolitical mobilization in Eastern Europe. Argues that the models and methods developed after the 1960s have made it difficult for Western students to understand recent movements in the East. Compares waves of mobilization such as the Civil Rights Movement in the United States with incomplete waves of…

  16. Paths to policy coherence to create market economies in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana

    2011-01-01

    centralized economies of Central and Eastern Europe into market-driven ones. It shows that government characteristics with likely impact on the quality of policy-making, such as accountability and institutional constraints, are associated with coherent policies only in a limited number of cases. It also shows...

  17. A Candle Lit from Both Sides : The Epidemic of HIV Infection In Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P.C. Grund (Jean-Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractUntil 1995 central and eastern Europe as well as the Asian republics of the former Soviet Union have been more-or-less devoid of epidemic outbreaks of HIV infection. In this region with more than 450 million inhabitants (United Nations 1997), the total number of HIV infections was estima

  18. The KGB in Eastern Europe during the Cold War: on agents and confidential contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.

    2005-01-01

    Ben de Jong from the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, discusses the ways in which the KGB collected information about political developments in Eastern Europe during the Cold War and tries to shed some light on the question whether Soviet intelligence services recruited full-fledged agents to a

  19. Determinants of Parental Stress in Families Adopting Children from Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Investigates sources of variation in parents' assessment of parental stress and the effects of early institutionalization. Participants included 109 mother-father pairs who adopted children from Eastern Europe. Significant differences between mothers and fathers were obtained on child- and parent-related stress. Results indicated that children's…

  20. HIV epidemics and prevention responses in Asia and Eastern Europe: lessons to be learned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Jamie; Lazarus, Jeff; Atun, Rifat

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes characteristics of the HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) and Asia and Central Asia, and draws comparisons between these regions. It focuses on the role that key populations continue to play in HIV transmission in both regions, the challenges that this po...

  1. Select barriers to harm-reduction services for IDUs in eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curth, Nadja Kehler; Hansson, Liv Nanna; Storm, Frederikke;

    2009-01-01

    In eastern Europe, the high prevalence rates of HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are concentrated among injecting drug users (IDUs). Harm reduction programmes such as needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy (OST) have been shown to be effective in preventing these infecti...

  2. HIV/AIDS in eastern Europe: more than a sexual health crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bollerup, Annemarie; Matic, Srdan

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is often described as a sexually transmitted disease. In the former USSR, however, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is being driven by injecting drug use among men. This article addresses several widely circulated assumptions about HIV in eastern Europe: that sexual contact is the primary mode...

  3. The Development of Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe in the Aftermath of Recent Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlak, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact of Marxism-Leninism on higher education in central and eastern Europe after World War II. Contends that the dramatic political changes in recent years call for a profound transformation in higher education. Asserts that, despite numerous difficulties, higher education in these nations has embarked on dramatic improvements.…

  4. Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV positive patients in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Frank A; Grint, Daniel; Efsen, Anne Marie Werlinrud

    2014-01-01

    Observational data from Eastern Europe on the management and outcome of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in HIV positive populations remain sparse in the English-language literature.We compared clinical characteristics and outcomes of 55 patients who were diagnosed with HIV and MDR TB i...

  5. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition...

  6. Farmers, Vertical Coordination, and the Restructuring of Dairy Supply Chains in Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, L.K.E.; Germenji, E.; Noev, N.; Swinnen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The combination of transition and globalization since the early 1990s has caused dramatic changes in the dairy chains in Central and Eastern Europe. This paper uses survey evidence from several Central and East European countries to document the growth of vertical coordination in the dairy chain, it

  7. Issues Raised by Eastern Europe's Attempt at a Market Economy Attract Scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The article reports on efforts of scholars (including historians, political scientists, economists, and sociologists) to study the economic and political transformation taking place in Eastern Europe. Noted are analogies with Latin American development, difficulties of privatization, and contradictions between democracy and economic reform. (DB)

  8. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in the soils of Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks are presented for Central and Eastern Europe. The study uses the soil geographic and attribute data held in a 1:2 500 000 scale Soil and Terrain (SOTER) database, covering Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, P

  9. Improving family and community health in eastern Europe--the lifecycle approach at WHO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bjørk, Christina; Ostergren, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    There are great differences in the health status of young children in the European Region. Central Asia and the Caucasus are the worst-off areas. After reviewing under-five mortality in the eight countries of this part of Eastern Europe, a new WHO strategy to improve child survival is presented...

  10. Media Within and Without the State: Press Freedom in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Karol

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Communist state and the media, and remodeling the media system. Describes stages of media transformation in Central and Eastern Europe, and evaluates their media differentiation. Discusses the Polish model of public service broadcasting, and discusses the many obstacles to media differentiation. (SR)

  11. The Effects of Socio-Political Changes in Eastern Europe on Military Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Vesna

    Reunification of Germany, democratic changes in Eastern European countries, and new government policies of the Soviet Union will lead to the reduction of U.S. troops in West Germany. As a Department of Defense contractor providing associate degrees to soldiers in Europe, Central Texas College (CTC) will be severely affected by the troop…

  12. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Carmina; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pelayo, Virginia; Gazaev, Ismail; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Nieto, Raquel; Fernández-Pacheco, Paloma; Bokhan, Svetlana; Nevolko, Oleg; Drozhzhe, Zhanna; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Kolvasov, Denis; Arias, Marisa

    2014-09-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007.

  13. Communication Development and Differences in Children Adopted from China and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Matsuo, Hisako

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The communication development of children adopted from China and Eastern Europe was compared by region of origin at 6 and 12 months after adoption. Method: Twenty children, recruited before or immediately following their adoption, participated in the study. Measures were collected between 2 and 6 months after adoption (Time 1) and between…

  14. Drivers of forest cover change in Eastern Europe and European Russia, 1985–2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alix-Garcia, Jennifer; Munteanu, Catalina; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    The relative importance of geography, history, and policy in driving forest cover change at broad scales remains poorly understood. We examine variation in forest cover dynamics over the period 1985–2012 across 19 countries in Eastern Europe and European Russia in order to shed light on the role ...

  15. "Aiming at a Moving Target": Social Science and the Recent Rebellions in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrow, Sidney

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the recent wave of mass sociopolitical mobilization in Eastern Europe. Argues that the models and methods developed after the 1960s have made it difficult for Western students to understand recent movements in the East. Compares waves of mobilization such as the Civil Rights Movement in the United States with incomplete waves of…

  16. Structural Dimensions of Roma School Desegregation Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Iulius; Kostka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Scrutiny of the socio-economic exclusion of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has brought attention to the widespread practice of school segregation of Romani children who are automatically placed in classes for the mentally disabled or shunted into separate and inferior schools and classrooms. It is now widely recognised that such practices…

  17. 75 FR 9576 - Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ..., press releases to general and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United...

  18. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing...

  19. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  20. Fertility intentions and risk management: exploring the fertility decline in Eastern Europe during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Johnny

    2011-03-01

    Between 1985 and 1995, fertility in Eastern Europe declined from 2.2 children per woman to merely 1.5 on region-average. Previous research has emphasized mainly the economic turmoil during transition or the influx of new ideas regarding fertility and family relations. This article suggests that applying a risk management perspective on fertility patterns may put additional light on the reasons behind the fertility decline in post-communist Europe. The complexity of modern social systems has made people increasingly dependent on the state for risk evaluation and risk management. The article formulates the hypothesis that transition itself disrupted the mental models that helped people to navigate among the risks associated to having and raising children. Left to their own devices, women in Eastern Europe became more inclined to postpone childbirth or discard this option altogether.

  1. Missing social capital and the transition in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, M.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The transition of the »Old Communist« countries of East and Central Europe has been disappointingly slow given the amount of physical and human capital available at the start of the transition. We argue that this slowness is caused by the lack of social capital, which is an important factor of pr...... collapsed and so did most of the control systems. This allowed a flourishing of the grey/black networks, which can be harmful to the operations of a market economy. The available data are still scanty, but they confirm the argument....... of production. The Communist system replaced it with an official organization of society. Further, the communist system needed a set of grey/black networks of »fixers« to give it the necessary flexibility. These networks were tolerated, but controlled. When the Communist regime ceased the official organizations...

  2. Missing social capital and the transition in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    The transition of the "Old Communist" countries of East and Central Europe has been disappointingly slow given the amount of physical and human capital available at the start of the transition. We argue that this slowness is caused by the lack of social capital, which is an important factor of pr...... organizations collapsed and so did most of the control systems. This allowed a flourishing of the grey/black networks, which can be harmful to the operations of a market economy. The available data are still scanty, but they confirm the argument....... of production. The Communist system replaced it with an official organization of society. Further, the communist system needed a set of grey/black networks of "fixers" to give it the necessary flexibility. These networks were tolerated but nevertheless controlled. When the Communist regime ceased, the official...

  3. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  4. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  5. Resolving Bad Loans in Central and Eastern Europe: The Cases of Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Chul Han

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of transformation in old socialist country in Eastern Europe in 1989, a large scale insolvent debenture emerges. Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic which drove Eastern Europe's economy, use insolvent loan to solve this insolvent debenture and these three countries also make the government bonds as money supply funding patterns. But Hungary and Poland use decentralized solution and leading banks to deal with the bad creditor. On the contrary, Czech has no special way of dealing with that, but let some certain bank mainly focusing on the bad creditor which is called centralized solution. Now, Korean government is using the similar method like Czech. In this point of view, in order avoid insolvent debenture becoming the burden of economy, Korea has to work out the same plan to deal with insolvent debenture with Poland.

  6. Oligarchization, de-Westernization and vulnerability: Media between democracy and authoritarianism in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    What are the major trends of media change in contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)? How do these media transformations relate to economic, political, social and cultural currents in the region? After a decade of democratic optimism from the early 1990s to the 2000s, why did democratic media...... and Eastern Europe", held at the Department of Media, Cognition and Communication at the University of Copenhagen on April 24, 2015. Participants included Auksė Balčytienė (Professor of Journalism, and Vice Rector for Public Communication and International Relations, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania...... influence of Russia, and the war in Ukraine? What could comparative post-communist media studies add to our analysis and understanding of the new CEE realities? These were some of the questions tackled by a recent public roundtable discussion entitled "Media, Democracy and Authoritarianism in Central...

  7. Migration Processes from Eastern and Central Europe in Spain: Legal Status, Social Identity and Job Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ibáñez Angulo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern and Central Europe, the collapse of the socialist model and the incorporation of the neoliberal model plunged the region into a deep economic and social crisis. In this context, emigration came to be viewed as a way out, at least on a temporary basis. Transnational migration from this region has also been interpreted as a response to the crisis of values generated following the collapse of the Socialist States. This text analyses migration flows from Eastern and Central Europe from three perspectives: politics (which defines their legal status; sociocultural (from whence their social identities and imaginaries are derived and the economic (which establishes specific forms of job placement. The aim of the study isto show that choosing migration destinations is not only determined by a rational economic logic, but also by political and socio-cultural factors; the study also stresses the point that social integration is a reciprocal, multidimensional process.

  8. Transport corridors as a factor of integration in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of opening the state borders with the stress on its integration function through the constitution of cross-border regions cannot be achieved without a synchronized transport development. For South Eastern European countries, the top priority project would be the formation of pan-European transport corridors defined on Crete in 1994 and amended later on in Helsinki in 1997. Six of ten corridors pass through the territory of South Eastern Europe. Due to their transport and geographical locations, the capitals of the region should represent the key nodes on the main transport directions. Corridor X with its technical, economic and functional characteristics represents the axis of the entire transport network in SE Europe. Formation of this network has as its ultimate goal the functional inter-regional integration with simplified and accelerated transport lines. This also means the open barriers but at the same time, improved and harmonized transport infrastructures and services.

  9. The Real Economy after Episodes of Financial Crises in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Constantin Apostoaie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the most critical international economical and financial crisis of the 21st century brought into the spotlight the damages that crises can bring to our economy. After its burst in the autumn of 2007, the crisis has spread all over the world through the Contagion Effect, and has led to an accelerated and sharp deterioration of economic activity. The effects of the episodes of financial crises have on the real economy seem to be more important and persistent in some specific countries. For this reason we focused our attention upon eight European transition countries and a sample of thirteen financial crises. The aim of this study is to perform an econometric analysis of the effects of episodes of financial crises on real output (GDP for eight economies from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE using an ARDL equation and an impulse response function. The main findings of the paper suggest that, in the case of the CEE economies analyzed, financial crises have an important and long-lasting effect, lowering the real output by about 12-14%.

  10. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-06

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states.

  11. THE SCOPE OF DUE DILIGENCE IN CROSS-BORDER ACQUISITIONS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Sacek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border acquisitions play an important role in the corporate strategic development and international expansion. The paper summarizes the results of the dissertation, which intends to establish vital link between research and practice, deeply exploring the risk assessment methods and the scope of due diligence audit in the pre-acquisition phase. The central hypothesis of the comprehensive model stated that thorough due diligence in the pre-acquisition phase is necessary to make successful cross-border acquisition. The empirical evidence has been drawn on data sample of acquisitions made by automotive firms in cross-border acquisitions in the Central and Eastern Europe. The main results support the proposition that the thorough due diligence audit is necessary pre-requisite for successful acquisition. The findings further support the clear trend: In the past few years, several big automotive leaders strategically gain more control over their supply chains by acquiring technology specialists. From a practical standpoint, the research results provide acquisition management with a simple method of performing the pre-acquisition evaluation of potential acquisition candidates.

  12. Women's participation in the medical profession: insights from experiences in Japan, Scandinavia, Russia, and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Sambuco, Dana; Jagsi, Reshma

    2014-11-01

    Although much literature has focused on the status of female physicians in the United States, limited English-language studies have examined the role of women in the medical profession elsewhere in the world. This article synthesizes evidence regarding the status of female physicians in three purposively selected regions outside the United States: Japan, Scandinavia, and Russia and Eastern Europe. These three regions markedly differ in the proportion of female physicians in the workforce, overall status of the medical profession, cultural views of gender roles, and workforce policies. Through a review of studies and articles published between 1992 and 2012 examining women's representation, status measures such as salary and leadership positions, and experiences of female physicians, the authors discuss potential relationships between the representation of female physicians, their status in medicine, and the overall status of the profession. The findings suggest that even when women constitute a high proportion of the physician workforce, they may continue to be underrepresented in positions of leadership and prestige. Evolving workforce policies, environments, and cultural views of gender roles appear to play a critical role in mediating the relationship between women's participation in the medical profession and their ability to rise to positions of influence within it. These insights are informative for the ongoing debates over the impact of the demographic shifts in the composition of the medical workforce in the United States.

  13. Economic Growth and the Public Deficit in EU Member States in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of economic growth and the role of the public budget in European Union (EU) member states in Central and Eastern Europe, that joined the European Union in 2004, with a balanced data set from 1996 until 2012. A special focus is set on the relationship between growth and the public deficit and their behavior before and after the accession is studied. The outcome reveals a significant negative relationship between the deficit ratio and subsequent economic grow...

  14. The KGB in Eastern Europe during the Cold War: on agents and confidential contacts

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Ben de Jong from the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, discusses the ways in which the KGB collected information about political developments in Eastern Europe during the Cold War and tries to shed some light on the question whether Soviet intelligence services recruited full-fledged agents to acquire the necessary information in the same way as they did in the West. De Jong concentrates on Poland but also tries to grasp the bigger picture and focusses on the distinction between fully-fle...

  15. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central and ...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  16. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central and ...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  17. Lights Out? The Outlook for Energy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    It is very likely that an energy crunch could hit several countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) in the next five or six years. Before the financial crisis of 2008, several electricity importing countries in the region had begun to experience difficulties with supply; however, the crisis has reduced demand and created some breathing room. It has also created a window of opportu...

  18. Hydroclimatology and Comparative Soil Erosion in Eastern North America and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Stanley

    2010-05-01

    Extreme soil erosion and hydrologic disruption during the historical period of European agricultural occupance has been well documented for several regions of the US. Why was it so much more severe in the US than in Western Europe, the place of origin of most settlers? While choice of crops, agricultural practices, literacy, tenancy and economic factors were all contributing factors, differences of hydroclimatology, specifically rainfall intensities and amounts, also played a strong role. The climate of Western Europe is Marine West Coast (Koeppen:Cfb)while that of Eastern North America is Humid Subtropical or Humid Continental(Cfa, Dfa). While both regions are humid, Western Europe tends to have well-distributed rainfall occurring in moderate storms whereas Eastern North America has more erratic rainfall occurring in often intense storms. A comparison of long-term frequency-magnitude relationships of storms shows much lower values for Europe than for America. For example, a 100-year-24 hour event in the southeastern US is about 2-4 times as great as that in lowland England. European settlers simply did not have the agronomic and engineering techniques to deal with this excessive rainfall and such techniques were not developed in he US until the 1930s. . Agricultural fields in Britain generally require no engineering such as terracing, contour strip cropping, or even contour plowing to handle excess water but they are absolutely required in the eastern US. There is evidence that climate change will affect these features. For example, intense rainstorms in southern England in recent years have flooded roads (because the drains were inadequate), eroded fields (no conservation measures), and flooded villages (storm channels were too small).For future projects, Europeans may well have to look to the engineering practices developed and used in the eastern US.

  19. The export of pollution control equipment to Mexico and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, T. [Thompson, Gow & Associates, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Several interrelated factors, in particular the increasing number of international and national laws and standards, relating to air pollution, water pollution, and waste management are driving the growth of the global environmental industry and creating a huge international demand for environmental equipment and services. The environmental market and some of the market opportunities in Mexico and Eastern Europe and the requirements for developing an export marketing strategy are discussed. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  1. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  2. ‘Rethinking the geography of art history’, Jerzy Malinowski (ed., History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rampley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the conference proceedings History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. It focuses on the importance of the publication, and the fact that it highlights the almost complete ignorance of the historiography of art of central and eastern Europe, and also identifies a recurrent methodological deficit in many of the contributions, namely, their tendency to rely on a positivistic documentation of writers and texts with little analysis of their conceptual, aesthetic and ideological implications. The conference is thus an invaluable platform for further study, and also makes clear the need for more sophisticated critical interpretations.

  3. [Socialist escapes. Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Socialist escapes: Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989, co-edited with Cathleen M. Giustino and Catherine J. Plum (New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2013).

  4. The 8200 calBP ‘climate event’ and the process of neolithisation in south-eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Budja

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate anomalies between 8247–8086 calBP are discussed in relation to the process of transition farming and to demographic dynamics and population trajectories in south-eastern Europe.

  5. [Socialist escapes. Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Socialist escapes: Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989, co-edited with Cathleen M. Giustino and Catherine J. Plum (New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2013).

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe: legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeika, M; Hallen, A; Karabanov, L; Chudomirova, K; Gruber, F; Unzeitig, V; Poder, A; Deak, J; Jakobsone, I; Lapinskaite, G; Dajek, Z; Akovbian, V; Gomberg, M; Khryanin, A; Savitcheva, A; Takac, I; Glazkova, L; Vinograd, N; Nedeljkovic, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge concerning genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe is scarce. Data on the legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection have never been collected, summarised, and presented to the international scientific community. The aim of this study was to present the current situation on the main aspects of chlamydial infections in the countries of eastern Europe. Methods: Written questionnaires concerning legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection were distributed among national STI operating administrators as well as researchers who had presented papers at earlier meetings of European chlamydia or STI societies. Results: Most of the countries have not legalised reporting of chlamydial infections and in those who have done so, the quality of the reporting system is poor. Contact tracing is mostly done on a voluntary basis. Reported chlamydia incidence varies from 21 to 276 per 100 000 inhabitants. The most commonly used diagnostic test remains the direct immunofluorescence test; however, some tendencies towards nucleic acid amplification are in evidence. Diagnostic services are paid for by the patient himself, while treatment in many countries is partially or completely covered by public insurance. Conclusions: This is the first report summarising data concerning the situation on C trachomatis infections in eastern Europe. The reporting system and diagnosis of C trachomatis infections remain suboptimal, which allows neither control of the epidemiological situation nor optimal treatment of the patients. The most urgent work currently necessary is the education of professionals and the general population. PMID:12081171

  7. First Mover Advantages in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Businesses entering early into new markets are believed to attain crucial competitive advantages over later entrants. However, this contention receives only mixed support in the empirical literature, in part because performance is measured in different ways. We reexamine the performance difference...... between early movers and followers entering new geographical markets based on a sample of foreign entrants in Poland, Hungary and Lithuania. We contrast market share with two other measures of firm performance that are based on the managers' perception of their own performance relative to their own prior...... expectations and relative to industry standards. We find that market share is strongly related to order of entry, but we did not find a positive relationship between order of entry and perceived performance. We found general support for early mover advantages in Hungary and Poland but a strongly negative...

  8. USA, Russia and the Geopolitical Theatre in the South-Eastern Europe: The Place of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pintescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Core issues addressed in this article are: the existing threats to address the interests of the US geopolitical and geostrategical, particularly in South-Eastern Europe; the resources available to the American State for the protection of those interests; main features (elements geopolitical of Romania; importance for Romania's Alliance with US. Only states or groups of states that may threaten the economic interests of the U.S. military are originated from Eurasia: China, Russia, the Organization of Shanghai cooperation, the European Union. The main opponent of the U.S. in South-Eastern Europe is Russia. Geostrategical interests of Russia remains fundamentally the attempt to divide alliance NATO (in particular by providing the economic benefits of Germany and France and isolate Eastern Europe; in this way, the US military presence in Europe would become problematic. Currently, the US has enough economic and military means in order to avoid this situation.Geopolitical and geostrategical problems of Romania are of two kinds: external and internal. Externally, Romania has some diplomatic disagreements with Ukraine. At the same time, Romania was not able to resolve in the manner of the former Federal Republic of Germany, a consequence of the Second World War: the unification with the Republic of Moldova, the State created artificially by former USSR after the Second World War. Internally, the main geopolitical problems of Romania are the following: underdevelopment and the absence of real economic competitiveness of industry and agriculture; the demographic decline, lowering the standard of living of population. In the absence of support of the USA for Romania, this country will increase the degree of economic dependence towards Russia.

  9. A New Approach to the Economic Integration between South and North Korea: A Comparative Study with the Transition Economies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Chul Cho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to find the enlightenment that the experience of state system transition in Eastern Europe offers to the economic integration of Korea and DPRK if leave DPRK as an independent economic area to seek its economic transition in a certain period, when the political structure breaks down. The transition policies of economic system of Eastern Europe states could be roughly divided into four types, the policies of liberalization, the policies of stabilization of the macro economy, the policies of privatization and financial reform. This thesis is trying to analyze how to use these types of polices in DPRK. According to the situation in Eastern Europe, compared to the fact that whether the speed of the transition of economic system is radical or gradual, the result of the transition of economic system depends on the condition of the preliminary stage of the transition of economic system and how consistently and ardently the states which plan to change their system promote all kinds of reform policy. The way to minimize the side-effect which the Eastern Europe suffered after the transition is to minimize the cost of the unity of Korea as much as possible. Therefore, the following policies coordination must be carried out. First, do not launch the stabilization policy mainly by restraining the aggregate demand as the Eastern Europe states. Appropriate policy adjustment should follow that. Second, the fruit of the economic reform should be distributed to the class or group which has got the acquired right. Third, appropriate income policy is needed in order to allay the controversy between economic growth and stabilization policy.

  10. PPPs and their perspective in South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taleski Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPPs include the private sector supply of infrastructure assets and services that have traditionally been provided by the government. Additional supply of the private capital and management can make more easier the fiscal constraints on infrastructure investment and the efficiency of the economy should increase. By mentioning all these advantages, PPPs become more and more important instrument around the world and it has to be mentioned that there are programs of PPPs in a number of countries (including Chile, Ireland, Mexico, and the United Kingdom. However, it is important to mention that sometimes PPPs are not more efficient than public investment and government supply of services. The point is to find the reasons for the less efficiency of this kind of projects in some countries. One particular concern is that PPPs could usually be used to by pass the spending controls, and to move public investment off budget and debt off the government balance sheet, while the government still is involved in the risk and faces potentially large fiscal costs.

  11. Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and comparison with Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertical ozone profiles measured in the period 1996–2002 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft for flights connecting Central Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Heraklion, Rhodes; Antalya were analysed in order to evaluate the high rural ozone levels recorded in the Mediterranean area during summertime. The 77 flights during summer (JJAS showed significantly (10–12 ppb, 20–40% enhanced ozone mixing ratios in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean frequently exceeding the 60 ppb, 8-h EU air quality standard, whereas ozone between 700 hPa and 400 hPa was only slightly (3–5 ppb, 5–10% higher than over central Europe. Analysis of composite weather maps for the high and low ozone cases, as well as back-trajectories and vertical profiles of carbon monoxide, suggest that the main factor leading to high tropospheric ozone values in the area is anticyclonic influence, in combination with a persistent northerly flow in the lower troposphere during summertime over the Aegean. On the other hand the lowest ozone levels are associated with low-pressure systems, especially the extension of the Middle East low over the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  12. Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and comparison with Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Kalabokas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical ozone profiles measured in the period 1996–2002 in the framework of the MOZAIC project (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft for flights connecting Central Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean basin (Heraklion, Rhodes, Antalya were analysed in order to evaluate the high rural ozone levels recorded in the Mediterranean area during summertime. The 77 flights during summer (JJAS showed substantially (10–12 ppb, 20–40% enhanced ozone mixing ratios in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean frequently exceeding the 60 ppb, 8-h EU air quality standard, whereas ozone between 700 hPa and 400 hPa was only slightly (3–5 ppb, 5–10% higher than over Central Europe. Analysis of composite weather maps for the high and low ozone cases, as well as back-trajectories and vertical profiles of carbon monoxide, suggest that the main factor leading to high tropospheric ozone values in the area is anticyclonic influence, in combination with a persistent northerly flow in the lower troposphere during summertime over the Aegean. On the other hand the lowest ozone levels are associated with low-pressure systems, especially the extension of the Middle East low over the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  13. Land Reform and Land Consolidation in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    The countries in Central and Eastern Europe began a remarkable transition in 1989. Land reforms were high on the political agenda in most of the countries. In many countries in the region, land reforms have resulted in farm structures dominated by small and fragmented farms, which are not competi......The countries in Central and Eastern Europe began a remarkable transition in 1989. Land reforms were high on the political agenda in most of the countries. In many countries in the region, land reforms have resulted in farm structures dominated by small and fragmented farms, which...... are not competitive in the globalized economy. Drawing on the classical theory on land fragmentation, this PhD study explores the coherence between the land reform approaches applied in 25 study countries and the outcome in form of farm structures and land fragmentation. Most of the Central and Eastern European...... countries have introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems in agriculture. The PhD study analyses the experiences from introduction of land consolidation and land banking instruments and provides the first full overview of the experiences achieved. While land consolidation...

  14. Implementation of harm reduction in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Anya; Stuikyte, Raminta; Bykov, Roman

    2007-03-01

    Harm reduction (HR) interventions began in Central-Eastern Europe and Central Asia in the mid-1980s with the establishment of substitution treatment (ST) in Yugoslavia. In the mid-1990s, the first needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) opened in selected countries following the outbreaks of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs). The number of NSPs continues to increase via a combination of international and state funding with large expansions made possible via the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. While ST is still unaccepted in several countries, others have made some progress which is especially visible in South Eastern and Central Europe and the Baltic States. Development of regional networking including Central and Eastern European HR Network and a number of national networks helped to coordinate joint advocacy effort and in some cases sustain HR services. Activism of drug users and people living with HIV (PLWH) increased in the region in the last several years and helped to better link HR with the affected communities. Still a number of challenges remain important for the movement today such as repressive drug policies; stigma and discrimination of IDUs, PLWH, sex workers and inmates, including poor access to prevention and treatment; lack of important components of HR work such as naloxone distribution and hepatitis B vaccination, prevention in prisons; issues of quality control; sustaining services after finishing of major international projects; reaching of adequate coverage and others.

  15. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  16. [Jörg Hackmann (Hrsg.). Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context] / Rüdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ritter, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Wien: Böhlau Verlag 2012

  17. [Jörg Hackmann (Hrsg.). Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context] / Rüdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ritter, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Wien: Böhlau Verlag 2012

  18. Seismic assessment and upgrading of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katona, T.; Kostov, M.

    1997-03-01

    The basic findings of the seismic re-qualification programmes going on recently at all VVER plants in Eastern Europe can be summarised. The problems of the seismic safety have to be solved taking into account the general concept of the nuclear safety enhancement of the units. There are cases where the system improvements lead to better and more effective solution of the problem than the structural upgrading. The equipment and piping of the primary system have sufficient capacity. The viscous dampers are considered usually for the upgrading. The equipment anchorage especially the electrical and I and C equipment anchorage have to be upgraded. There are general consideration for replacement of the hydraulic snubbers by viscous dampers in the primary circuit of the VVER 440/V230. The considerations are not only because of the better seismic behaviour but mainly because of the better operational performance. There is relatively good seismic instrumentation at the plants considered. The definition of the scram level of the units not designed for an OBE is an essential problem. More effort needed for the definition of this level on the basis of re-evaluation experience of the plant equipment and after the proper definition of post-earthquake activities. The seismic re-evaluation and re-qualification of the VVER units is a general safety issue in Easter European countries. This rather complex problem can be solved adopting the experience, methods and requirements of western countries and taking into account the design features of the VVER units as well as the as built and as it is conditions. (J.P.N.)

  19. Volatility Spillovers between Stock and Currency Markets: Evidence from Emerging Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Fedorova; Kashif Saleem

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we look at the linkages between Eastern European emerging equity markets and Russia. Second, we investigate the relationships between the currency markets of Poland, Hungary, Russia, and the Czech Republic. Finally, we examine the interdependence between Emerging Eastern European and Russian equity and currency markets. We estimate a bivariate GARCH-BEKK model proposed by Engle and Kroner (1995) using weekly returns. We find evidence of direct li...

  20. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S;

    2017-01-01

    ) and neighbouring countries were represented at the conference: Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey. EACS guidelines version 7.1 were used in 14 (87%) countries. In 11 (69%) countries, national...... implementation across the region and neighbouring countries and to present the current obstacles in benchmarking HIV care in Europe. METHODS: During a 2-day meeting, there were country-based presentations using a predefined template so as to make the data comparable and focus the discussion. Areas covered were...... country epidemiology, surveillance, national strategy for treatment and prevention, standards of care, access to care and treatment availability. Each participant filled in a questionnaire investigating HIV guidelines usage per country. RESULTS: In total, 16 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE...

  1. Motivational and Ideological Underpinnings of Welfare Preferences in Eastern and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarics, Márton

    2016-02-01

    In our study we investigated the motivational and ideological correlates of the approval of welfare services in postsocialist Central Eastern and Western Europe. In the centre of our inquiry stood how the motivations of selflessness and conventionality, along with distributional justice principles, are related to our welfare preferences beyond our rational self-interest, furthermore, how these associations depend on social-cultural circumstances. We have found that the motivational background of egalitarian economic and welfare attitudes are substantially different in the two regions. While beside of the rationalisation of self-interest, it seems to be related to selflessness-driven solidarity in Western Europe, pro-welfare and egalitarian distributional views are primarily motivated by conventionality-driven norm adherence in postsocialist countries in the form of the mechanism of postsocialist economic system nostalgia. Our results highlight the benefits of a context-specific 'motivated social cognition' approach to ideological and political attitudes.

  2. An analysis of blogs from medical students on "English Parallel" courses in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, John F

    2013-12-01

    During the last 20 years, there has been a significant growth in the training of overseas students especially within the European Union. Informal discussions with past and present students revealed a marked reluctance to take part in interviews about the nature of "English Parallel" courses. Alternative sources of information include blogs and commentaries written on the internet by present and former students at these schools. Such blogs are relatively limited in number and of variable length. They have been written for a variety of reasons and range in content from commentaries on training to wider discussion of life in Central and Eastern Europe. Six blogs were identified from an internet search, and a qualitative approach was adopted for the analysis of text content. Their experience is assessed, and potential approaches to greater integration of training across Europe are considered.

  3. Motivational and Ideological Underpinnings of Welfare Preferences in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Hadarics

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In our study we investigated the motivational and ideological correlates of the approval of welfare services in postsocialist Central Eastern and Western Europe. In the centre of our inquiry stood how the motivations of selflessness and conventionality, along with distributional justice principles, are related to our welfare preferences beyond our rational self-interest, furthermore, how these associations depend on social-cultural circumstances. We have found that the motivational background of egalitarian economic and welfare attitudes are substantially different in the two regions. While beside of the rationalisation of self-interest, it seems to be related to selflessness-driven solidarity in Western Europe, pro-welfare and egalitarian distributional views are primarily motivated by conventionality-driven norm adherence in postsocialist countries in the form of the mechanism of postsocialist economic system nostalgia. Our results highlight the benefits of a context-specific ’motivated social cognition’ approach to ideological and political attitudes.

  4. Evaluating the risk of air pollution to forests in central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Oleksyn, J. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Kornik (Poland). Institute of Dendrology

    1996-09-01

    Foliar damage to trees by air pollution in Central and Eastern Europe has been a major scientific and political issue. Emissions of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can have wide-ranging effects on local and regional vegetation that can be compounded by other environmental stresses to plant growth. Since uptake and physiological effects of these gases on tree leaves we largely, mediated by stomata, surrogate methods for estimating pollutant conductances into leaves and forest canopies may lead to risk assessments for major vegetation types that can then be used in regional planning. Management options to ameliorate or mitigate air pollutant damage to forests and losses in productivity are likely to be more difficult to widely implement than on-the-stack emissions abatement. Informed management and policy decisions regarding Central and Eastern European forests are dependent on the development of quantitative tools and models for risk assessment of the effects of atmospheric pollutants on ecosystem health and productivity.

  5. Relocation of Business Services into Central and Eastern Europe (Evidence from Trade and Location Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN GÁL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Relocation of business service offshoring-related activities measured by foreign direct investments and exports in services have grown rapidly after the Millennium in the new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Besides Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, trade statistics support the assumption that an expanding export in business and in ICT services has been associated with relocation of shared services centres created by FDI in the six new member states (NMS. The service export data collected between 1996/2002 and 2012 gives a good proxy to identify those segments of service trade, which are considered to be offshorable. The paper examines the additional location factors selecting Central and Eastern European locations and summarises the effect of crisis on this industry. It concludes that the sector has demonstrated market resilience in the NMS and continued to expand rapidly.

  6. The Normalization of Party Systems and Voting Behaviour in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Eastern European elections are regarded as outlying cases in international research. According to scholars, the reason for it lies in a low institutionalisation of political parties. In this article, I focus on the developments which occur in the institutionalisation of party systems in the course...... of the first multiparty elections. Theories about party system formation and strategic voter behaviour let suggest that the party system stabilises and nationalises after several elections. It is only with sufficient experience that political parties and voters have enough information to act strategically...... and to adjust their behaviour to the new electoral systems. A novel database on electoral results on the district level that I constructed allows me to test those hypotheses by measuring "party nationalisation" and "wasted votes" for the first time for Eastern Europe. Both indicators are calculated...

  7. Oligarchization, de-Westernization and vulnerability: Media between democracy and authoritarianism in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav;

    2015-01-01

    variation in the level of media freedom within and across the former communist countries? What are the direct and indirect effects of the global financial crisis on the trends of democratization vs. authoritarianism in CEE? How could eminent newly democratized countries in CEE backslide dramatically to semi...... and Eastern Europe", held at the Department of Media, Cognition and Communication at the University of Copenhagen on April 24, 2015. Participants included Auksė Balčytienė (Professor of Journalism, and Vice Rector for Public Communication and International Relations, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania...

  8. Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Forman, Steven L; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Kuz'mina, I E; Burova, N D; Goldberg, Paul; Macphail, Richard I; Giaccio, Biagio; Praslov, N D

    2007-01-12

    Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating and magnetic stratigraphy indicate Upper Paleolithic occupation-probably representing modern humans-at archaeological sites on the Don River in Russia 45,000 to 42,000 years ago. The oldest levels at Kostenki underlie a volcanic ash horizon identified as the Campanian Ignimbrite Y5 tephra that is dated elsewhere to about 40,000 years ago. The occupation layers contain bone and ivory artifacts, including possible figurative art, and fossil shells imported more than 500 kilometers. Thus, modern humans appeared on the central plain of Eastern Europe as early as anywhere else in northern Eurasia.

  9. Eastern Europe as the source of horror and humor: Examples films, "Hostel" and "Euro Trip"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Trifunović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 2004. to 2007. three films belonging to two different genres were complete in the American production-a horror and a comedy. These being, Hostel (I and II and Euro Trip. The only similarity found in these films is the same stimulus that motivates the horror and the humor segment in them. That stimulus was identifies where all three films are placed, and that is Eastern Europe, more precisely Slovakia. This phenomenon was considered in Noel Carroll’s theory concerning the relationship of horror and humor in order to explain and understand their existence.

  10. The Normalization of Party Systems and Voting Behaviour in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    of the first multiparty elections. Theories about party system formation and strategic voter behaviour let suggest that the party system stabilises and nationalises after several elections. It is only with sufficient experience that political parties and voters have enough information to act strategically...... and to adjust their behaviour to the new electoral systems. A novel database on electoral results on the district level that I constructed allows me to test those hypotheses by measuring "party nationalisation" and "wasted votes" for the first time for Eastern Europe. Both indicators are calculated...

  11. Economic Growth and the Public Deficit in EU Member States in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bökemeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the determinants of economic growth and the role of the public budget in European Union (EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, that joined the European Union in 2004, with a balanced data set from 1996 until 2012. A special focus is set on the relationship between growth and the public deficit and their behavior before and after the accession is studied. The outcome reveals a significant negative relationship between the deficit ratio and subsequent economic growth for the group of the eight selected countries. This effect indicates to be stronger after EU accession than before.

  12. THE MACRO-RISK OF DOING BUSINESS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BODISLAV DUMITRU-ALEXANDRU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available What happens when the company that creates country and company rankings is guilty of fraud? The economymust re-evaluate the way it is establishing the hierarchy of business “heroes” and how it classifies the transnationalcorporations and how countries rank after they are screened for their intermediate ranks at political, economic,financial and country level.This paper studies the phenomenon of transnational relations and the pressure of multiculturalism on corporategovernance done in countries that are situated in the Central and Eastern part of Europe and have as commoneconomic characteristic the fact that they are emergent markets.

  13. Key issues of public relations of Europe: Findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Vercic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with the digital evolution and social web, building and maintaining trust, dealing with the demand for more transparency and active audiences, and dealing with the speed and volume of information flow. Perception of the importance of various issues for the practice of public relations is largely dependent on the gender, geography (division between Northern and Western vs. Southern and Eastern Europe, and sector in which a practitioner works (corporate, government, NGO or agency. While gender and sectorial differences studied in academic public relations literature, divisions in public relations practice between North-Western and South-Eastern Europe are largely ignored.

  14. Trade Facilitation Indicators and their Potential Impact on Trade Between the Countries of South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toševska-Trpčevska Katerina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we base our analysis on previous OECD findings and analysis of trade facilitation indicators for assessing relative economic and trade impact of specific trade facilitation measures for the countries of South-Eastern Europe. In the analysis we plan to include all CEFTA-2006 members, except Moldova, and other countries which are part of this region: Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. We plan to construct twelve trade facilitation indicators (TFIs that correspond to the main policy areas under negotiations at the WTO. The indicators are composed from seventy-eight variables, whose values are drawn from publicly available data. We plan to use these indicators in gravity model in order to estimate the impact of those policy areas on trade volumes between the countries of the region. The use of individual trade facilitation indicators should also enable countries to better assess which trade facilitation measures deserve priority.

  15. Monetary Policy and Inflation: Is there a Neo- Fisher Effect? Evidence from Inflation Targeting Countries in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleșcău Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we empirically investigate the influence of the low interest rate environmentadopted by inflation targeting countries from Central and Eastern Europe as a rescue measureafter the outbreak of the financial crisis. Moreover, we focus on examining the existence of a NeoFishereffect that may explain the positive relation between interest rates and inflation, withcausality from interest towards inflation rate. We employ a Vector Autoregressive model, togetherwith an impulse response analysis and a variance decomposition technique, to capture theresponse of economic growth and inflation to shocks to the monetary policy. Our main results pointto a negative relation between policy rates and economic growth, as predicted by the economicliterature. However, results show a significant positive relation between interest rates andinflation, meaning that negative shocks to interest rates lead to lower inflation. Also, we find thatthe response of inflation and economic growth is the same, regardless of the crisis or non-crisisperiod.

  16. Measuring Central and Eastern Europe's Socio-Economic Development Using Time Lags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprotny, Dominik

    This paper applies the 'time lag' method to a set of social and economic indicators, examining the development of Central and Eastern Europe since the first world war. Originally used to assess technology diffusion, this method allows comparison of levels of development between states and through a long period of time. It presents how many years have elapsed between achieving a certain level of development between countries. The results show that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have only narrowly converged with a set of 23 highly-developed 'benchmark' states. Development in monetary terms (gross domestic product per capita) is the indicator where this region lags most. Employment structure, life expectancy or infant mortality show much smaller lags. Communist states were closest to the West in the 1960s-early 1970s and struggled thereafter. They are still mostly lagging more today than at their peak before transformation despite the progress achieved in absolute terms after the fall of centrally-planned economy.

  17. Aid programmes in eastern Europe. Can we learn from Third World experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, G

    1995-06-01

    This article opens for debate and discussion the topic of how health-care professionals in the UK can contribute to the improvement of health in developing countries and learn from the process. In 1994, the 50th anniversary of the Bretton Woods agreement which established the World Bank, British and European government aid agencies had substantial funds to support projects aimed at developing countries. Today, the challenges of working in developing countries to create a modern health infrastructure are being mimicked in the newly-independent countries of eastern Europe. Thus, lessons learned in developing countries can be applied to Europe, although huge challenges remain as do questions about the direction of aid programs, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The Western perception is that the provision of aid also provides ways for individuals to supplement their income through schemes that would be considered corrupt in the West. In order to draw useful conclusions from the African experience, it must first be recognized that the situation has improved recently and also that practices viewed as corrupt in the West may simply be the way of doing business in Third World countries. Justification for replacing commission-based systems of local aid with modern management techniques rests in the efficiency of the modern systems. It may be a form of neocolonialism simply to impose Western values on other cultures. The upcoming efforts in eastern Europe will also challenge heretofore unquestioned assumptions about the way we do things. The most pressing challenges will arise from the sheer magnitude of the need to provide health care in an atmosphere which engenders apathy towards inadequate services. We must learn from our successes and recognize that without our aid efforts, millions of people, particularly women and children, would have suffered and died.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA signals of late glacial recolonization of Europe from near eastern refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Maria; Olivieri, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Accetturo, Matteo; Metspalu, Ene; Reidla, Maere; Tamm, Erika; Karmin, Monika; Reisberg, Tuuli; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Carossa, Valeria; Gandini, Francesca; Pereira, Joana B; Soares, Pedro; Angerhofer, Norman; Rychkov, Sergei; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Carelli, Valerio; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Houshmand, Massoud; Hatina, Jiři; Macaulay, Vincent; Pereira, Luísa; Woodward, Scott R; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Baird, Douglas; Semino, Ornella; Villems, Richard; Torroni, Antonio; Richards, Martin B

    2012-05-01

    Human populations, along with those of many other species, are thought to have contracted into a number of refuge areas at the height of the last Ice Age. European populations are believed to be, to a large extent, the descendants of the inhabitants of these refugia, and some extant mtDNA lineages can be traced to refugia in Franco-Cantabria (haplogroups H1, H3, V, and U5b1), the Italian Peninsula (U5b3), and the East European Plain (U4 and U5a). Parts of the Near East, such as the Levant, were also continuously inhabited throughout the Last Glacial Maximum, but unlike western and eastern Europe, no archaeological or genetic evidence for Late Glacial expansions into Europe from the Near East has hitherto been discovered. Here we report, on the basis of an enlarged whole-genome mitochondrial database, that a substantial, perhaps predominant, signal from mitochondrial haplogroups J and T, previously thought to have spread primarily from the Near East into Europe with the Neolithic population, may in fact reflect dispersals during the Late Glacial period, ∼19-12 thousand years (ka) ago.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Signals of Late Glacial Recolonization of Europe from Near Eastern Refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Maria; Olivieri, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Accetturo, Matteo; Metspalu, Ene; Reidla, Maere; Tamm, Erika; Karmin, Monika; Reisberg, Tuuli; Kashani, Baharak Hooshiar; Perego, Ugo A.; Carossa, Valeria; Gandini, Francesca; Pereira, Joana B.; Soares, Pedro; Angerhofer, Norman; Rychkov, Sergei; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Carelli, Valerio; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Houshmand, Massoud; Hatina, Jiři; Macaulay, Vincent; Pereira, Luísa; Woodward, Scott R.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Baird, Douglas; Semino, Ornella; Villems, Richard; Torroni, Antonio; Richards, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    Human populations, along with those of many other species, are thought to have contracted into a number of refuge areas at the height of the last Ice Age. European populations are believed to be, to a large extent, the descendants of the inhabitants of these refugia, and some extant mtDNA lineages can be traced to refugia in Franco-Cantabria (haplogroups H1, H3, V, and U5b1), the Italian Peninsula (U5b3), and the East European Plain (U4 and U5a). Parts of the Near East, such as the Levant, were also continuously inhabited throughout the Last Glacial Maximum, but unlike western and eastern Europe, no archaeological or genetic evidence for Late Glacial expansions into Europe from the Near East has hitherto been discovered. Here we report, on the basis of an enlarged whole-genome mitochondrial database, that a substantial, perhaps predominant, signal from mitochondrial haplogroups J and T, previously thought to have spread primarily from the Near East into Europe with the Neolithic population, may in fact reflect dispersals during the Late Glacial period, ∼19–12 thousand years (ka) ago. PMID:22560092

  20. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  1. Individual and Country Level Determinants of (PostMaterialist Values in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Pavlović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analyzing the level of postmaterialist values in Eastern European countries as well as the main individual and country level predictors of the postmaterialist value preference. The data from the World Values Survey (WVS and the European Values Survey (EVS, conducted on the nationally representative samples in the period from 1990 to 2008, were used. The main analysis was performed on the data from the fourth wave of EVS (2008/2010, on the total of twenty countries and 30,393 respondents. A number of individual (age, education, income level, size of town, economic hardship in formative years as well as country level variables (inflation and unemployment rate, Human Development Index and GINI index values were used. The results have shown that the level of postmaterialist values in Eastern Europe, measured by the standard four-item index, is relatively low and relatively stable in the period 1990–2008. Younger, urban and more educated respondents as well as the citizens from more developed and economically stable Eastern European nations are more inclined towards postmaterialism. The significance of the current socio-economic conditions for the variation in postmaterialism as well as the insignificance of economic security during the formative period of political maturation calls into question the assumptions of Inglehart’s original model. The possible alternative mechanisms of value change as well as of the (postmaterialist conception are discussed.

  2. China’s Trade Policy Towards Central and Eastern Europe in the 21St Century, Example of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drelich-Skulska Bogusława

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present China’s economic model and discuss, in this context, bilateral trade and investment relations between China and Poland. The analysis presented herein is based on the strategy of cooperation with countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as presented by China’s Prime Minister, and on the growing importance of Poland as a main partner of China in the Central and Eastern Europe region. The paper describes main premises of the Chinese economic model, followed by a diagnosis of Chinese economy. The authors analyze the main directions of China’s foreign cooperation, placing the emphasis on relations with Poland.

  3. Danish environmental support fund for Eastern Europe. Co-operation development 1991-1996 and programme priority areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The publication gives an account of environmental co-operation between Denmark and 12 countries in Eastern Europe. The basis of co-operation is a country programme, describing present and future priority areas in the recipient countries, as an expression of common understanding between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment in the recipient countries. The publication also describe the environmental efforts made in 1991-1996 under the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) administered by the DEPA. (au)

  4. Analysis of Energy Resources and Programs of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Appendix E: Other Hydrocarbons and Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    In 1970 it accounted for 5 60 percent in the fuels balance of Estonia , The major production of oil shale occurs...reported cost of hard coal delivered in Estonia is 1H to 20 rubles per ton. The reported cost of mining oil shale is...Europe. This appendix discusses oil shale , peat, Reothcrmal and uranium resources of energy in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. I d

  5. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  6. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  7. Major challenges in clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients in Eastern Europe compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Anne Marie; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rates of both TB/HIV co-infection and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). Data on the clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients are scarce. Our aim was to study the clinical characteristics of TB/HIV patients in Europe and Latin America (LA...... identified in logistic regression models. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between EE (n=844), WE (n=152), SE (n=164) and LA (n=253) for use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at TB diagnosis (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, pculture and/or PCR positive...

  8. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE AND THE ACTORS OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Eduard GROSARU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt regarding the importance that south-eastern Europe has gained over the past years in geopolitical and geostrategic terms. Due to its history and considering the changes that have taken place here after the fall of the Iron Curtain, and also as a consequence of the “hot spots” emerged here on ideological, political, economic and terrorist grounds, this part of the continent still is an area of control and interests confrontations orchestrated by the actors that provide the international affairs with a multipolar dimension. All the aforementioned factors lead to various phenomena in which individual or group interests result in regional as well as global consequences.

  9. A PVAR MODEL BUILT ON THE RICARDIAN APPROACH TO DEFICITS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BELINGHER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current times, the issue of the deficits became very problematic for the economists, as well as for the practitioners and theoreticians. The purpose of this paper consists in the construction of a Panel VAR model, which has the role to test the Ricardian approach to deficits in several countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The analyzed countries are Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine and the time interval starts in 1998 and it ends in 2013.  The used variables are the gross national saving rate and the budget balance for each of the six countries. Our results show that in this geographical-economical area, the Ricardian approach to deficits does not hold as a valid macroeconomic theory.

  10. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, A.S. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  11. Cytisine in the treatment of tobacco dependence: safety, efficacy, market in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Herbec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytisine is a generic partial agonist of nicotine receptors α4β2 that has been available in Eastern Europe since 1960s. Through decades of observations and clinical studies, with much research conducted in Poland, cytisine has been shown to be safe and highly cost-effective medication in treatment for tobacco dependence, with a profile potentially more favourable than that of varenicline. Poland remains among few European countries allowing for sales of cytisine. Currently, cytisine-based treatment is available over-the counter in Poland, where it is the dominant form of cessation pharmacotherapy. This presentation will outline the current state of knowledge on cytisine, as well as discuss the observations on sales and use of cytisine in treatment of smoking cessation in Poland. A case will be made for cytisine emerging as an ‘aspirin’ in smoking cessation, and an important element of future tobacco control worldwide.

  12. Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bashmakov, I. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)]|[Center for Energy Efficiencies (CENEf), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-01

    This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

  13. Compulsory Purchase in the Transitional Countries of Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Grover

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the ending of Communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the objective of compulsory purchase was the achievement of a socialist society in which the ownership of the means of production, including land, was to be collective rather than private. Compulsory purchase legislation and laws on ownership were used to expropriate private property. After 1990 the newly elected democratic governments changed the constitutions to permit and protect private ownership of land. However, compulsory purchase is essential in a market economy to deal with certain aspects of market failure. These include the need to facilitate the provision of collective goods, such as infrastructure and utility networks, and regeneration where the state may need to disrupt a prisoners’ dilemma situation. In spite of their commitment to the inviolability of private property, the transitional economies have had to develop compulsory purchase procedures and means of assessing compensation.

  14. Secularization versus religious revival in Eastern Europe: Church institutional resilience, state repression and divergent paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northmore-Ball, Ksenia; Evans, Geoffrey

    2016-05-01

    Despite continuing for over two decades, the debate about the nature of the trends in religiosity in post-Communist Eastern Europe remains unresolved: some arguing that these countries are undergoing the same process of secularization as the West, while others insist that the entire region is experiencing a religious revival. Using national sample surveys from the early 1990s to 2007 to examine the change in demographic predictors of religiosity, we show that Catholic and Orthodox countries are experiencing different trends, the first group displaying evidence of secularization and the second of revival, and that these two different trends are likely to derive from the legacies of state repression and the differing abilities of the churches to resist such repression. We argue that the current literature has thus taken a mistakenly general approach, and that the post-Communist region consists of at least two distinct groups of societies with different trends in religiosity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Age at First Birth and Later Life Health in Western and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else

    2016-01-01

    MUCH OF THE research on life-course determinants of later life health has focused on cumulated effects of socioeconomic disadvantage (Ben-Shlomoand Kuh 2002; Luo and Waite 2005). Family life courses also involve differential exposures to stresses and supports and interact with other health relevant...... domains including socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and social support (Barban 2013; Grundy and Read 2015). The transition to parenthood is a pivotal life-course event whose timing and context may have implications for subsequent family and socioeconomic trajectories and for health (Knoester...... reduced disadvantages resulting from early parenthood. In this article we extend the literature on long-term health implications of early parenthood by comparing associations in Western and Eastern Europe using retrospective life-course data for 11 countries included in the Generations and Gender Surveys...

  16. Determinants of Catch-Up Growth in International Adoptees from Eastern Europe

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    Iverson SandraL

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Children raised in orphanages frequently experience growth suppression due to multiple risk factors. Placing such children in more nurturing environments through adoption leads to significant catch-up growth (CUG, the determinants of which are not entirely understood. The goal of this study was to perform an auxological evaluation and examine the degree and correlates of CUG in international adoptees. Children adopted from Eastern Europe, (, 71 males, 7 to 59 months of age, were recruited within 3 weeks of their arrival to the US. At baseline, mean height SDS was and 22% were +0.5 in height SDS, was seen in 62% of adoptees at 6 months after adoption; 7% of children remained

  17. Reproductive health in eastern Europe: a collaborative training project in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdicke, F; Horga, M; Campana, A

    2001-11-01

    Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, fundamental political changes in eastern Europe have affected the Soviet-style health care systems that formerly provided basic care for everyone. Many of these systems have collapsed, and the new systems of social insurance that have replaced them often are inadequate. Advanced Training in Reproductive Health in Romania aimed to create an authority in family planning and reproductive health in selected Romanian university centers and to improve training and research capabilities. Initially, the project had 2 main goals: to provide advanced training in reproductive health and family planning to Romanian obstetrics-gynecology specialists from the main university centers-which would allow them to train other physicians (obstetricians, gynecologists, and general practitioners) and medical students-and to develop, test, and finalize specific training materials in Romanian to be used by the new trainers.

  18. Foreign Direct Investment and Government Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Jensen, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    , this chapter discusses how aspects of the institutional framework and FDI policy affect diverse types of investment projects. Acquisition and Greenfield investors are concerned with different aspects of government policy: privatization and regulatory policies for acquirers and investment incentives, regional......The 1990s have been a period of extraordinary politics in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). This chapter discusses how the transition from state to market has created bureaucratic barriers to entry, but also windows of opportunity for foreign direct investment (FDI). The high costs and high...... investment risks associated with FDI in CEE are a reflection the institutional development. Thus, inflows of FDI have been largest in those countries that made most progress in establishing a market-oriented institutional framework. After outlining trends of institutional change and their impact on FDI...

  19. Analyses of climate and extreme indices in Central and Eastern Europe within the CECILIA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Boberg, F.; Christensen, O. B.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Stepanek, P.; Wp4 Members, Cecilia

    2009-04-01

    The EU-project CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and VulnerabiLIty Assessment) aims at delivering a climate change impacts and vulnerability assessment in targeted areas of Central and Eastern Europe. This region appears particularly vulnerable with regard to future changes in extremes (Christensen and Christensen 2003, Schär et al. 2004), likely due to regional specificities such as highly varying topography and continentality, and due to changes in soil moisture content (Seneviratne et al. 2006). In the project, emphasis is given to applications of regional climate modeling studies at a resolution of 10 km for local impact studies in key sectors of the region. The project includes the analysis of extreme weather events in present day and future climate in the target region. For this purpose, an extensive list of precipitation and temperature indices was defined. Observational data used for the indices calculation comes from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset project (ECA&D, Klein Tank et al. 2002), from the ENSEMBLES gridded observations (E-Obs, Haylock et al. 2008), and from station data of the local partners in Central and Eastern Europe. Moreover, the same indices were calculated consistently for a selection of pre-existing RCM datasets (PRUDENCE, ENSEMBLES), and for the CECILIA driving models. Later on, the 10 km high-resolution climate simulations from CECILIA will be included in the analysis. Here we focus on the analysis of a selection of temperature indices, and on the validation of the model-derived indices with the observations. Generally, the spatial agreement between the models and the observations is very good for mean, maximum and minimum temperature (both in terms of the spatial variability and the spatial correlation). The spread between the models is larger for the daily temperature range, with most models showing larger spatial variability compared to the observations. When it comes to heat and cold wave indices

  20. PROJECTED PRECIPITATION CHANGES IN CENTRAL/EASTERN EUROPE ON THE BASIS OF ENSEMBLE SIMULATIONS

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    Erika Miklos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected precipitation changes in Central/Eastern Europe on the basis of ENSEMBLE simulations. For building appropriate local/national adaptation and mitigation strategies, detailed analysis of regional climate change is essential. In order to estimate the climate change for the 21st century, both global and regional models may be used. However, due to the coarse horizontal resolution, global climate models are not appropriate to describe regional scale climate processes. On the other hand, regional climate models (RCMs provide more realistic regional climate scenarios. A wide range of RCM experiments was accomplished in the frame of the ENSEMBLES project funded by the EU FP6 program, which was one of the largest climate change research project ever completed. All the RCM experiments used 25 km horizontal resolution and the A1B emission scenario, according to which CO2 concentration by 2100 is estimated to exceed 700 ppm, i.e., more than twice of the preindustrial level.The 25 km spatial resolution is fine enough to estimate the future hydrology-related conditions in different parts of Europe, from which we separated and analyzed simulated climate data sets for the Central/Eastern European region. Precipitation is an especially important climatological variable because of agricultural aspects and flood-related natural hazards, which may seriously affect all the countries in the evaluated region. On the basis of our results, different RCM simulations generally project drier summers and wetter winters (compared to the recent decades. The southern countries are more likely to suffer more intense warming, especially, in summer, and also, more intense drought events due to the stronger Mediterranean impact.

  1. Mammal diversity during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzachenko, Andrei Yurievich; Markova, Anastasia Konstantinovna

    2014-08-01

    Fossil record data on the mammal diversity and species richness are of importance for the reconstruction of the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition. In Eastern Europe, the transformations during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition consisted mainly in changes in zonal structure and local fauna composition (Markova & Kolfschoten 2008). We investigated the species richness and the analogues of the α, β diversity indexes (in the sense of Whittaker 1972) of large and medium size mammals for 13 climate-stratigraphic units dating to the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, from the Hasselo Stadial (44-39 kBP) to the Subatlantic period and the present day. The biological diversity of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene thermal optimum was investigated in more detail using information about all mammalian taxa (PALEOFAUNA database; Markova 1995). One of our results show that the α, β diversity values show only a negative correlation with the temperature conditions during the Late Pleistocene, the period that is characterized by the so-called 'Mammoth Fauna' complex. For the Holocene faunas the diversity indexes are nearly independent from physical conditions; the α diversity index decreased and the β diversity index increased. The relatively low α diversity and high β diversity indexes for the present-day faunas are referred to the decrease of the population number of some forest species in historical time and the increase of the dominance of unspecialized species or the species connected with intra-zonal ecosystems. The study shows furthermore the occurrence of several East European 'centers' with a high mammal diversity, which are relatively stable during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The orientation of the boundaries between the large geographical mammal assemblages depended, particularly in the northwestern part of Eastern Europe, on the expansion of the Scandinavian ice sheet. © 2013 International

  2. Health Care Performance and Health Financing Systems in Countries from Central and Eastern Europe

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    Sorin Gabriel ANTON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of all health systems from emerging economies is the shortage of financial resources. This fact is currently exacerbated by the economic crisis that has led many governments to reconsider the level of public spending in the health sector. Starting from the Romanian experience, the paper aims to highlight the linkage between the performance of the health system and the total health spending for selected countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Romania has the lowest level of health expenditure as percentage of GDP in Europe, even if its growth rate for 2003-2008 was the highest. In addition, empirical evidence shows that these resources are used inefficiently. Despite the increasing resources allocated to the health sector, statistical analysis shows that health system efficiency, as measured by under-5 (child mortality rate, is still low. We use regression analysis based on crosssection data in order to explain the differences in health expenditure and their implication on the system efficiency. Health data have been provided by international organizations. Crosssection regression results suggest that totalhealth spending and GDP per capita are the most important factors explaining differences in health status across Central and Eastern European countries, though other lifestyle factors could play important roles.

  3. Welfare regimes in Central and Eastern Europe: Incorporating post-communist countries in a welfare regime typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.M. Fenger (Menno)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article uses hierarchical cluster analysis to empirically assess if the postcommunist welfare states of Central and Eastern Europe can be classified according to any of Esping-Andersen’s well-known welfare types, or if they form a distinct group of their own. It shows that

  4. Major methodological challenges for the economic theory of the firm in the economies of Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Boehlke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the major methodological challenges in microeconomic theory of the firm in theeconomies of Central and Eastern Europe. The methodological weaknesses of the theory are not only thecause of cognitive limitation but also an important condition for an effective economic policy during thetransition period.

  5. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  6. Harmonising Private Enforcement of Competition Law in Central and Eastern Europe: The Effectiveness of Legal Transplants Through Consumer Collective Actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to critically analyze the manner of harmonizing private enforcement in the EU. The paper examines the legal rules and, more importantly, the actual enforcement practice of collective consumer actions in EU Member States situated in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).

  7. Re-emerging diversity : Rapid fertility changes in central and eastern Europe after the collapse of the Communist regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobotka, T

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a detailed analysis of recent fertility changes in 15 countries of central and eastern Europe and in the former East Germany. It focuses on the period after 1989, which witnessed a profound transformation in childbearing patterns, including a rapid decline in fertility rates, t

  8. Teaching the Social Construction of Regions in Regional Geography Courses; Or, Why Do Vampires Come from Eastern Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the difficulty of teaching about the construction of regions in regional geography courses, which are themselves built on a metageography that often goes unquestioned. The author advocates the use of popular culture to make this very complex issue palpable for undergraduates. Thus, the construction of Eastern Europe within a…

  9. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  10. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training…

  11. The Impact of Changes in the TOEFL® Examination on Teaching and Learning in Central and Eastern Europe: Phase 2, Coping with Change. TOEFL iBT Research Report. TOEFL iBT-05. ETS RR-08-37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dianne; Horák, Tania

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present the findings of the second phase in a longitudinal study of the impact of changes in the TOEFL® test on teaching and learning in test preparation classrooms. The focus of this phase was to monitor six teachers from five countries in Central and Eastern Europe as they received news about changes in the TOEFL and…

  12. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  13. Non-Territorial Autonomy and Political Community in Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe

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    David J. Smith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen the adoption of laws on non-territorial autonomy (NTA by several states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, as well as debates on the applicability of this concept to other countries of the region. This development has in turn elicited a growing interest from international organisations in the potential of NTA as a modality of minority rights provision in the New Europe. In spite of this interest, relatively little is known about the practical implementation of NTA within this setting and its reception by ethnonational minorities and majorities alike. This article offers a preliminary comparative analysis of debates and practices around NTA in four countries-Hungary, Romania, Estonia and Russia-and seeks to link these cases to broader Central and East European-focused debates on state and nation-building, democratisation and participation in public life. By way of conclusion, it makes a case for further research on NTA 'from the ground up', focusing more squarely on the everyday practice of autonomy from a minority perspective and how this might inform and deepen understandings of minority agency within current processes of political community building in CEE and-ultimately-beyond.

  14. Vestiges of an Ancient Border in the Contemporary Genetic Diversity of North-Eastern Europe.

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    Anu M Neuvonen

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that the advance of the Neolithic Revolution from the Near East through Europe was decelerated in the northernmost confines of the continent, possibly as a result of space and resource competition with lingering Mesolithic populations. Finland was among the last domains to adopt a farming lifestyle, and is characterized by substructuring in the form of a distinct genetic border dividing the northeastern and southwestern regions of the country. To explore the origins of this divergence, the geographical patterns of mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups of Neolithic and Mesolithic ancestry were assessed in Finnish populations. The distribution of these uniparental markers revealed a northeastern bias for hunter-gatherer haplogroups, while haplogroups associated with the farming lifestyle clustered in the southwest. In addition, a correlation could be observed between more ancient mitochondrial haplogroup age and eastern concentration. These results coupled with prior archeological evidence suggest the genetic northeast/southwest division observed in contemporary Finland represents an ancient vestigial border between Mesolithic and Neolithic populations undetectable in most other regions of Europe.

  15. TAX COMPOSITION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH. A PANEL-MODEL APPROACH FOR EASTERN EUROPE

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    MURA PETRU-OVIDIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of tax composition on economic growth, based on a panel-model approach. The dataset includes six East-European countries and covers the period 1995-2012. Specifically, the study explores the relative impact of different components of tax revenue (direct and indirect tax revenue, as percentage of total tax revenue on economic growth. The paper adds marginally to the empirical literature, showing how the two types of tax revenue influence economic growth in Eastern Europe, under an extended set of economic and sociopolitical control variables. The most important empirical output, for the 6 investigated East-European countries during 1995-2012, suggests that direct taxes are significant and negatively correlated with economic growth, while indirect taxes exert a positive influence on the dependent variable, though insignificant. As for the control variables, it seems that only freedom from corruption and political stability have a significant impact on economic growth. The study suggests that the design of tax systems in Eastern European countries is in accordance with the Commission’s priorities regarding its growth-friendliness. As for policy implications, governments should continue shifting the tax burden away from labour on to tax bases linked to consumption, property, and combating pollution, with potential positive effects both for growth and for fighting against tax evasion.

  16. CABINETS OPERATING RULES AND COALITIONN FORMATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA IRINA IONITA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of communism in the late ’80 in Central and Eastern Europe, due to the appearance of several political parties in each state, there was the need to form coalitions in order to provide support for the governments. This paper aims to identify the institutional features that influence the coalition formation process using the rational choice institutionalism approach. In this case, the political parties, who seek to optimize their benefits in the government formation process, are constrained by the institutional environment. The institutional environment comprises the rules that determine how the governments are formed. Particularly, this paper aim is to identify how the cabinet operating rules affect the outcomes of the coalition formation process. In order to do so, I will develop a quantitative analysis of 110 cabinets in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria formed after the first free elections subsequent to the communist fall until the beginning of 2010. These countries represent the post-communist states that joined the European Union, finalizing the democratization process at least from a formal point a view. This cross-country comparison tries to explain how some institutional features influence the formation of coalitions in new democracies. This research is valuable due to the lack of this type of comparative studies on Central and Eastern European states.

  17. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  18. Geochemistry And U-Pb Dating Of The Magmatism In Eastern Srednogorie Zone, SE Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, S.; von Quadt, A.; Heinrich, C. A.; Peytcheva, I.

    2006-05-01

    In the Carpathian-Balkan segment of southeastern Europe a prominent magmatic belt of Upper Cretaceous calc-alkaline rocks extends from southern Romania through eastern Serbia and all across Bulgaria. This more than 1000 km belt is known as the ABTS (Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie) magmatic and metallogenic belt and it hosts most of the major Cu-(Au) porphyry deposits in Europe. The formation of this belt is broadly related to the northwards subduction of former Tethyan Ocean beneath the European continental margin, but the complex regional geodynamic evolution remains not well understood. We present new geochemical and geochronological data for the Eastern Srednogorie zone - the easternmost parts of the ABTS belt that displays specific features in terms of tectonics, magmatism and metallogeny. Magmatism in this zone is the most voluminous, basic and K-rich, compared to the other parts of the ABTS belt. Mafic igneous rocks prevail in this zone with mostly intrusive varieties to the south and mostly volcanic rocks in the northern part. Across the belt from south to north a compositional change can be traced from tholeiitic, Ca-alkaline, high-K Ca-alkaline, shoshonitic to high-K transitional rocks. This is interpreted to represent different parts of the former island-arc system: from south to north the fore-arc, axial part and back- arc part. The absolute abundances and ratios of trace and REE elements are consistent with this petrochemical zonality. Trace element chondrite normalized patterns display a marked Nb-Ta trough. The REE elements patterns show light-REE enrichment and a relatively weak Eu anomaly. We conducted LA-ICPMS and high precision TIMS U-Pb dating of single zircon grains from different plutons in the southern intrusive part. The results show that the intrusive bodies crystallized during the Campanian in a relatively narrow time span: from 81 to 78 Ma, with the exception of one diorite (Monastery Heights) pluton dated at 86 Ma. Inherited concordant

  19. Equality of opportunities for next generation researchers: bridging the gap between theory and practice in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Nedjeljka; Alkauskas, Audrius; Gyürky, György; Heiri, Oliver; Robinson, Nathaniel D.; Schäfer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-five years after the fall of the Berlin wall and the historical opening of the European Union to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, there is still a striking difference in the success of European countries in attracting research funds and talented researchers. A number of indicators document the differences in research success and research opportunities between Eastern and Western European countries, and even between Northern and Southern Europe. Differences, as described for example by a number of secured ERC grants, apply to all research fields and to researchers at all stages of their careers. While statistical analysis document large gradients in research performance across the continent, the underlying issues that young researchers struggle with are common across Europe, although they impact research environment to a different extent. These issues are presently being discussed within Sci-Generation, a COST Targeted Network that aims to enhance the European research environment for the next generation of young researchers. The major goal of the network is to contribute ideas towards overcoming these differences in opportunities across Europe. Targeting researchers in the early stage of their independent carrier or in the transition to independence, Sci-Generation is devoted to inclusiveness in order to represent a diversity of issues in science policy in Europe. In particular, the network's Working Group 1 focuses on the countries of Eastern and Southern Europe with less success in attracting European research funding. Among other issues, we considered the involvement of young researchers in decision-making processes at all levels important in order to increase the systems' transparency. As shown by an ongoing study of how language affects the evaluation of research applications, the use of the local language serves, in some cases, as one of the last stands of "science-managing elites" that grew up in systems before 1990. We discuss how a lack

  20. Labrador Sea surface temperature control on the summer weather in the Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatiuk, Natalia; Vihma, Timo; Bobylev, Leonid

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have addressed the linkages between the Arctic Amplification and mid-latitude weather patterns. Most of them have focused on the effects of changes in sea ice, terrestrial snow or open ocean SST on the air temperature in selected mid-latitude areas. However, when analysing such potential linkages, one should be aware that from the point of view of the atmosphere it is almost the same whether the thermal forcing originates from the sea ice melt, snowmelt, or changes in SST. Most important is to quantify how the atmosphere responds to anomalies in the surface temperature and then affects weather patterns in remote areas. For this purpose, we studied the hemispheric-scale relationships between anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere Earth surface temperature (Ts) and 2-m air temperature (T2m) in mid-latitudes (Central and Eastern Europe). Using regression analyses based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis data, we assessed the said temperature relationships with focus on the lagged monthly and inter-seasonal linkages. Technically we divided the Northern Hemisphere in equal areas with a size of 15x10 degrees and calculated correlation coefficients for the monthly mean temperatures between all defined regions from one side and the Central/East European study regions from another side over the period 1979-2014. Using this approach, we found that the strongest links in the considered kind of relationships take place between spring sea surface temperature in the Labrador Sea and summer air (T2m) temperature in the Eastern Europe. In order to confirm the correlation results obtained, to identify thermal forcing factors and to assess their relative importance, we analysed the multiyear averages and anomalies of various meteorological parameters for 10 coldest and 10 warmest springs and summers in the period 1979-2014: surface pressure, total precipitation, sea-ice and total cloud cover, wind components, surface solar radiation downwards, surface heat fluxes and air

  1. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  2. Assessing the effect of agricultural land abandonment on bird communities in southern-eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkak, Sylvia; Radovic, Andreja; Nikolov, Stoyan C; Shumka, Spase; Kakalis, Lefteris; Kati, Vassiliki

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is recognized as a major environmental threat in Europe, being particularly pronounced in south-eastern Europe, where knowledge on its effects is limited. Taking the Balkan Peninsula as a case study, we investigated agricultural abandonment impact on passerine communities at regional level. We set up a standard methodology for site selection (70 sites) and data collection, along a well-defined forest-encroachment gradient that reflects land abandonment in four countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece. Regardless the different socio-economic and political histories in the Balkans that led to diverse land abandonment patterns in space and time, rural abandonment had a consistent negative effect on bird communities, while regional-level analysis revealed patterns that were hidden at local level. The general trends were an increase of forest-dwelling bird species at the expense of farmland birds, the decline of overall bird species richness, as well as the decline of Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) richness and abundance. Many farmland bird species declined with land abandonment, whereas few forest species benefited from the process. In conclusion, our results support CAP towards hampering rural land abandonment and preserving semi-open rural mosaics in remote upland areas, using a suite of management measures carefully tailored to local needs. The maintenance of traditional rural landscapes should be prioritized in the Balkans, through the timely identification of HNV farmland that is most prone to abandonment. We also suggest that coordinated transnational research is needed, for a better assessment of conservation options in remote rural landscapes at European scale, including the enhancement of wild grazers' populations as an alternative in areas where traditional land management is rather unlikely to be re-established.

  3. Public health research needs and challenges in transitional countries of South Eastern Europe

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    Genc Burazeri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The former communist countries of Southeastern Europe (SEE are undergoing a rapid process of transformation from state-enforced rigid economies to market-oriented societies. Compared with European Union, SEE countries are characterized by higher death rates including not only infant mortality and maternal death, but also cardiovascular mortality and injuries. Yet, there is no sufficient research in SEE countries directed towards gaining a clear understanding of the health effects of transition and the fluctuations in health outcomes. A general characteristic in almost all SEE countries relates to the comparable problems they face for engaging in research work which include: (i lack of funds; (ii lack of expertise, and; (iii lack of “good data”. Nevertheless, there is an emergent need to improve research capacities in order to address and analyze on a scientific basis the health problems and challenges in SEE countries. From this point of view, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fph-see seems a suitable network to promote, provide guidance and support different research activities and research projects in SEE countries. To increase the visibility of FPH-SEE network and to enhance its collaboration and active communication with European academic institutions and donors, it was decided to establish an office near the Department of International Health, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, which will be responsible for the coordination of the research network for SEE countries. This will help to promote research funding and to develop and strengthen research capacities in the SEE region.

  4. Mental health policy in Eastern Europe: a comparative analysis of seven mental health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhy, Martin

    2014-01-27

    The objective of this international comparative study is to describe and compare the mental health policies in seven countries of Eastern Europe that share their common communist history: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. The health policy questionnaire was developed and the country-specific information was gathered by local experts. The questionnaire includes both qualitative and quantitative information on various aspects of mental health policy: (1) basic country information (demography, health, and economic indicators), (2) health care financing, (3) mental health services (capacities and utilisation, ownership), (4) health service purchasing (purchasing organisations, contracting, reimbursement of services), and (5) mental health policy (policy documents, legislation, civic society). The social and economic transition in the 1990s initiated the process of new mental health policy formulation, adoption of mental health legislation stressing human rights of patients, and a strong call for a pragmatic balance of community and hospital services. In contrast to the development in the Western Europe, the civic society was suppressed and NGOs and similar organizations were practically non-existent or under governmental control. Mental health services are financed from the public health insurance as any other health services. There is no separate budget for mental health. We can observe that the know-how about modern mental health care and about direction of needed reforms is available in documents, policies and programmes. However, this does not mean real implementation. The burden of totalitarian history still influences many areas of social and economic life, which also has to be taken into account in mental health policy. We may observe that after twenty years of health reforms and reforms of health reforms, the transition of the mental health systems still continues. In spite of many reform efforts in the past, a

  5. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

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    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  6. Characterization of aerosol particle episodes in Finland caused by wildfires in Eastern Europe

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    J. V. Niemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the sources, compositions and size distributions of aerosol particles during long-range transport (LRT PM2.5 episodes which occurred on 12–15 August, 26–28 August and 5–6 September 2002 in Finland. Backward air mass trajectories, satellite detections of fire areas and dispersion modelling results indicate that emissions from wildfires in Russia and other Eastern European countries arrived in Finland during these episodes. Elemental analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyses (EDX showed that the proportions of S-rich particles and agglomerates (agglomeration was caused partly by the sampling method used increased during the episodes, and they contained elevated fractions of K, indicating emissions from biomass burning. These aerosols were mixed with S-rich emissions from fossil fuel burning during transport since air masses came through polluted areas of Europe. Minor amounts of coarse Ca-rich particles were also brought by LRT during the episodes, and they probably originated from wildfires and/or from Estonian and Russian oil-shale-burning industrial areas. Ion chromatography analysis showed that concentrations of sulphate (SO42-, total nitrate (NO3-+HNO3(g and total ammonium (NH4++NH3(g increased during the episodes, but the ratio of the total amount of these ions to PM10 concentration decreased, indicating unusually high fractions of other chemical components. Particle number size distribution measurements with differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS revealed that concentrations of particles 90–500 nm increased during the episodes, while concentrations of particles smaller than 90 nm decreased. The reduction of the smallest particles was caused by suppressed new particle formation due to vapour and molecular cluster uptake of LRT particles. Our results show that emissions from wildfires in Russian and other Eastern European countries deteriorated air quality of

  7. Social care and changes in occupational accidents and diseases - the situation in Eastern Europe in general and for skin diseases in particular

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    Nienhaus Albert

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a consequence of the disintegration of the state systems and the expansion of the European Union, there have been marked changes in the political and social affiliations of the countries of Eastern Europe. Of the 22 countries in Northeastern, Centraleastern, Southeastern and Eastern Europe, 12 are now members and 10 are "new" neighbours of the European Union. The accident insurance systems and changes in occupational accidents and occupational diseases in eastern European countries are described. Changes since EU and visible differences from non-EU countries are analysed. Special emphasis is given to occupational skin diseases. Methods The available data from the European Union (MISSOC and MISSCEEC Studies on the Social Protection Systems, the database "Social Security Worldwide" (SSW of the International Social Security Association (ISSA, the International Labour Office Database (LABORSTA, the World Health Organization (WHO and the annual statistical reports of the different countries were analysed with respect to changes in occupational accidents and occupational diseases. To find missing data, 128 ministries and authorities in the 22 countries in eastern Europe were researched and 165 persons contacted. Results The social insurance systems were very different in the different countries and some were better established than others. Moreover, not all data were available. For these reasons, detailed comparison was not always possible. The occupational accident rates are decreasing in more than half the countries. In contrast, the fatal accident rates have increased in half the countries. The number of newly registered occupational diseases is decreasing in more than half the countries. The rates for occupational skin diseases in 2006 were particularly high in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia. In half the countries (four out of eight, the number of occupational skin diseases is decreasing. A reliable analysis of any

  8. Mapping of SPI drought index in South-Eastern Europe, theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Z.; Szentimrey, T.; Lakatos, M.; Gregorič, G.; Likso, T.

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades drought has a major impact on the economy in South-Eastern Europe (SEE). The annual precipitation has decreased from the beginning of 20th century. Additional problem is that the intensity of precipitation increases in average. The part of runoff became larger, and greater part of the precipitation runs to the rivers, streamlets, and less part infiltrates into the soil. Therefore, the available water reduces for vegetation. Summarized, the drought tendency increases in the region. The Drought Management Centre for South East Europe was established to deal with these events and try to improve drought management and policy. One method to calculate the extent of a drought event is the application of drought indices. Several indices are used for this purpose, one of them is the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) developed by McKee et al. The SPI is based only on precipitation and can be used to monitor conditions on a variety of time scales. The SPI calculation for any location is based on long-term precipitation record for a desired period. This long-term record is fitted to a gamma probability distribution, which is then transformed into the standard normal distribution. In the practice SPI is calculated mainly for 1, 3, 6 months. The SPI calculator which is offered on the project page of DMCSEE is applied for SPI calculations in this study. For the interpolation of SPI we use the MISH interpolation method developed at Hungarian Meteorological Service (Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenized Data Basis; Szentimrey, Bihari, 2007). The interpolation can be realized in to ways: 1. The SPI values are calculated in grid points after gridding (by gridding part of MISH) the station precipitation data series 2. The station based SPI values are interpolated by method MISH One of the main feature of MISH is that it use longtime data series for modelling of the necessary climate statistical parameters while the SPI calculations are also based

  9. Characterization of a Novel Chimeric Swine Enteric Coronavirus from Diseased Pigs in Central Eastern Europe in 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Normann, Preben

    2016-01-01

    During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both of these co......During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both...... and contain the S-gene and 3a sequences from PEDV within a backbone of TGEV, but the viruses are clearly distinct from each other. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that pigs from within the SeCoV-infected herd seroconverted against PEDV but tested negative in a TGEV-specific ELISA that detects...

  10. Immigrants from Eastern Europe: Ukrainian in Spain / Inmigrantes de Europa del Este: ucranianos en España

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    Antonia Sánchez Urios

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article means an approach to one of the most relevant and unknown migratory flow in Spain. This article begins expounding the main causes that triggered the Eastern bloc countries population movements to Europe. After the incorporation of these countries to European Union, Ukrainian people have become one of the most greatest representatives in our country that are called Eastern Europe immigrants. In general, Ukraine is an unknown country to the public opinion, but being a border area between West and Orient, and between European Union and Russia, it has a special meaning. In the other hand, the development and evolution of this migratory movement are reviewed in this article through the main statistical sources of access to the information about immigrants in Spain. Likewise the main sociodemographic characteristics of Ukrainians resident in our country are also presented in this text.

  11. Evolution of the Water Vapor Plume over Eastern Europe during Summer 2010 Atmospheric Blocking

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    Sergei A. Sitnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of water vapor (WV plume evolution over Eastern Europe (EE during atmospheric blocking in the summer of 2010, carried out on the basis of satellite (MODIS and MLS instruments, aerological, and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The obtained results show that the development of blocking was accompanied by the development of a positive anomaly of total column water vapor (TCWV content over the northern part of EE. Local TCWV content from 28 July to 6 August 2010 reached 3.35 cm, a value that exceeded by 3.3 times its content before the block. The surplus of WV was mainly conditioned by the advection of WV due to transfer of moist air from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea into northern EE and also due to increased evaporation from the surface enriched with water due to increased temperature and wind. We hypothesize that the influx of latent heat in the block area can contribute to the energy supply of the blocking anticyclone and prolong the existence of block. Strong humidification of the troposphere and some dehumidification of the lower stratosphere during the block were accompanied by warming of the troposphere and cooling of the lower stratosphere.

  12. Impact of wild forest fires in Eastern Europe on aerosol composition and particle optical properties

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    Tymon Zielinski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors discuss the changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD in the region of eastern Europe and the Baltic Sea due to wild fire episodes which occurred in the area of Belarus and Ukraine in 2002. The authors discuss how the biomass burning aerosols were advected over the Baltic area and changed the composition of aerosol ensemble for a period of several summer weeks. The air pressure situation and slow wind speeds also facilitated the development of such conditions. As a consequence very high AOD levels were recorded, by an order of 3–4 higher versus normal conditions and they significantly increased the annual averages. On particular days of August 2002 the AOD values reached a level of over 0.7. On these days fine particles fully dominated the entire ensemble of aerosol particles. They were either sulfates or smoke particles. Such situation was unique over a period of many years and it had its serious consequences for the region and especially for the Baltic Sea.

  13. Welfare State Development in Central and Eastern Europe: A State of the Art Literature Review

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    Dragos Adascalitei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The welfare states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE have undergone massive changes since the beginning of the 1990s. This paper reviews the literature on welfare state development in CEE in light of the theories that have been used to study advanced capitalist democracies. Its purpose is to critically assess the extent to which different theories can explain changes in the welfare state during and after transition. It argues that until now two strands of literature have crystallised: institutionalism and actor-centred explanations. Institutionalists agree that welfare reforms are limited by the path dependence of the national welfare state structures though this framework is biased towards explaining stability. Recent literature seeks to overcome this bias by adding variables that traditionally belong to the actor-centred paradigm. This essay will argue that the gains from such an approach are exceeded by losses in the accuracy and parsimony of explanations. Further, in the actor-centred camp the welfare state is seen as a product of bargaining between various national and international actors. Yet the debate about who is responsible for the present welfare state arrangements is far from over. Unanswered questions revolve around the impact of political parties and ideologies on welfare reforms, the role of bureaucracies, the efficiency of international financial institutions in advocating retrenchment and the precise mechanisms through which all the above actors defend their interests.

  14. Cyclicality of bank capital buffers in South-Eastern Europe: endogenous and exogenous aspects

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    Ana Kundid Novokmet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interdependence between the regulatory capital ratio and macroeconomic indicators, with reference to the phenomena cyclicality and pro-cyclicality is a widely emphasized disadvantage of the capital adequacy concept. Redesign of the aforementioned concept towards the countercyclical capital requirements is a kind of recognition of the creators of the Basel standards of the previous oversights in its development. This paper aims to explore empirically the direction, intensity and significance of endogenous and exogenous determinants of the changes in banks’ capital buffers by taking into consideration both the impact of the macroeconomic properties and the bank-specific characteristics of South-Eastern Europe. More than 80 commercial banks in the period from 2000-2010 have been encompassed by the research. Use of a dynamic panel analysis led to the conclusion that the bank capital buffers decreased during the observed period, with the exception of certain years during the economic expansion, which confirms the appropriateness of regulatory requirements considering the countercyclical capital buffers. Nevertheless, it might be that capital building and spending in the future will not follow the pattern from the last decade due to the specificities of the observed period, as well as the banking sector ownership transformations, economic and credit growth as well as asset prices growth in the post-transitional period, and finally, the real crisis which spilled over onto the financial sectors.

  15. Palliative Care Information Needs in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Saskia; Klose, Jasper; Brearley, Sarah; Hegedus, Katalin; Payne, Sheila; Radbruch, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    In a cross-national survey, we examined the information needs and barriers to accessing palliative care information in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In total, 584 healthcare professionals from 22 countries completed the questionnaire. Information on legislation and official papers (67 percent) and information on education courses in palliative care (65 percent) were the most frequently reported information needs. Major barriers to accessing palliative care information were language and a lack of easily accessible and affordable, clinically relevant information. An informative Web site, an electronic newsletter, and regular meetings or conferences were rated as the most important information channels. We concluded that access to reliable and well-structured information should be facilitated for healthcare professionals in CEE and CIS countries to assist them in their clinical decision making. Most importantly, more in-depth qualitative research and dialogue with stakeholders in the different countries are needed to develop context-specific, tailor-made strategies.

  16. Interest Rate Policy Of Selected Central Banks In Central And Eastern Europe

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    GRABIA TOMASZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present and evaluate interest rate policies of three selected central banks in Central and Eastern Europe (Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary from 2001 to 2013. The study consists of an introduction (Section 1 and three main parts. The introduction contains a theoretical description of the role of interest rate policy, the dilemmas connected with it, as well as an analysis of the strategies and goals of monetary policies of the National Bank of Poland (NBP, the Czech National Bank (CzNB, and the National Bank of Hungary (NBH in the context of existing legal and institutional conditions. In turn, the first empirical part (Section 2 examines how the analysed central banks responded to changes in inflation, unemployment, and economic growth rates. The tools of the analysis are the nominal and real interest rates of those banks. The subsequent research part (Section 3 attempts to evaluate the degree of the contractionary nature of interest rate policies in specific countries in the context of the Taylor rule. The text ends with a summary (Section 4 encompassing concise conclusions drawn from the earlier analyses.

  17. Material Deprivation, Social Class and Life Course in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

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    Alexi Gugushvili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the factor analysis technique and data from the UNDP/UNICEF Social Inclusion Survey to construct a material deprivation index for fi ve transitional societies in the Balkans (FYR Macedonia and Serbia, Eastern Europe (Moldova and Ukraine and Central Asia (Kazakhstan. The distribution of deprivation between these societies can be largely explained by their level of economic development, but within-county variance is not limited to monetary dimension. Controlling for settlement type, human capital and employment status in multivariate settings, the paper tests the hypothesis of the continuous importance of occupational social class and the emerging role of diff erent life phases in individuals’ welfare outcomes. The results reveal that all specifi ed social classes and most of the defi ned life phases have diverse and statistically signifi cant eff ects on the constructed deprivation index and the likelihood of being under 70 per cent of the median deprivation threshold. Belonging to non-skilled manual, farmers and skilled manual social class as well as being a child or lone parent were revealed to have the highest risk of material deprivation. These fi ndings are in line with the conclusions made for the Western welfare democracies on the complementary nature of social class and life course dimensions in explaining social hardship.

  18. Causes of fertility decline in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, J

    1970-07-01

    Abstract The first part of this study (which appeared in the preceding issue of Population Studies) assessed the extent of the decline in fertility in the countries of the area during the last 10-15 years, and analyzed the purely demographic aspects ofthis phenomenon. Part II examines the socio-economic differentials in fertility, with regard to such variables as urban-rural residence, socio-occupational and employment status of women, educational attainment, income and housing conditions, and the consequent impact of structural changes in these characteristics of the population on observed fertility trends. The broad conclusion is that the fertility differentials usually found in western societies are also relevant to the socialist countries of eastern Europe, and that the dramatic falls in fertility in the 1950's and the 1960's have largely been the outcome ofthe deep and rapid structural changes, particularly those associated with urbanization, educational attainment and the incidence of female employment. The last part of the study is concerned with the impact on post-war fertility trends of social legislation and of general economic policies, particularly in the fields of employment and income. An appraisal of the extent of family planning is followed by a discussion of the recent pro-natalist measures introduced in most countries of the area and of their effectiveness.

  19. Fertility and culture in Eastern Europe: a case study of Riga, Latvia, 1867-1881.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, C; Plakans, A

    1997-01-01

    This case study examined the influence of cultural and economic conditions on fertility decline in Eastern Europe. Cultural influence on fertility is conceived as the agent with which individuals change behavior which is specific to different ethnic groups and contexts. This study focused on measures of nuptiality and fertility among language and religious groups in Riga, Latvia, in 1867 and 1881. Data were obtained from censuses for Coale's measures of general fertility, marital fertility, the index of illegitimate fertility, and the proportion married. Each variable is a measure of Hutterite fertility as socially unrestrained fertility. Marriage includes the singulate mean age of marriage and the median age at marriage. An average of the urban multipliers for Bavaria, Prussia, Finland, and Sweden, was used to adjust infant mortality. Fertility estimates were higher than the European Fertility Projects. Nuptiality followed the Western European marriage pattern. Nuptiality reflected Hajnal's Western European pattern of late marriage and substantial singlehood. Fertility varied by language group. Fertility was highest among Yiddish speakers and lowest among Latvians. 12.5% of marriages were interfaith marriages. Protestants were the most likely to enter interfaith unions. However, opportunity in the marriage market may have affected mixed marriages. Catholics had the lowest marital fertility. Jews were the most different on a variety of factors. Jews had higher marital fertility and proportion married, and lower female workers, illegitimacy, and proportion single. The authors conclude that the mixed results are insufficient to untangle the effects of culture due to lack of individual level data.

  20. Genome size and phenotypic variation of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae species from Eastern Europe and temperate Asia

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    Magdalena Anna Dąbrowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite long-term research, the aquatic genus Nymphaea still possesses major taxonomic challenges. High phenotypic plasticity and possible interspecific hybridization often make it impossible to identify individual specimens. The main aim of this study was to assess phenotypic variation in Nymphaea taxa sampled over a wide area of Eastern Europe and temperate Asia. Samples were identified based on species-specific genome sizes and diagnostic morphological characters for each taxon were then selected. A total of 353 specimens from 32 populations in Poland, Russia and Ukraine were studied, with nine biometric traits being examined. Although some specimens morphologically matched N. ×borealis (a hybrid between N. alba and N. candida according to published determination keys, only one hybrid individual was revealed based on genome size data. Other specimens with intermediate morphology possessed genome size corresponding to N. alba, N. candida or N. tetragona. This indicates that natural hybridization between N. alba and N. candida is not as frequent as previously suggested. Our results also revealed a considerably higher variation in the studied morphological traits (especially the quantitative ones in N. alba and N. candida than reported in the literature. A determination key for the investigated Nymphaea species is provided, based on taxonomically-informative morphological characters identified in our study.

  1. Territorial expansion of hotel chains in countries of South-eastern Europe

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    Petrović Marko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the market of Serbia and neighboring nine countries: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece. The aim is to present a comparison with the number of hotel chains, brands and facilities in the surveyed countries in South-eastern Europe. While Serbia, Slovenia, Macedonia and Romania almost exclusively attractive as the continental areas, countries such as Greece, Croatia, Bulgaria and Montenegro are popular mass bathing tourism destinations. This fact directly indicates the types of international hotel facilities (in first case there are city and conference types and in the other case there are resorts. The results show that a total of 21 international hotel chains are operating in the observed region, with the dominance of the markets of Bulgaria, Greece and Romania. Among them, Bulgaria has the largest number of individual hotel chains (11 chains, but Greece prevails when it comes to international hotel brands (19 brands and individual objects (71 facilities. On the other side, the Serbian market has relatively modest offer with a total of seven hotel chains and eight brands, while the number of individual objects are significantly lower of the region maximum (only 13 objects. Based on the above, the observed countries are relatively new and potentially important macro market for future investments in hotel facilities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  2. Geothermal resources in eastern European countries. Higashi Europe shokoku no chinetsu shigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanehara, K. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-12-20

    In this article, a survey is made on the geothermal resources in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria on the basis of documents and its outline is introduced. First, the outline of geology needed at least for understanding the geothermal resources of these countries is stated, the division of Europe into Eo-Europa, Palaeo-Europa, Meso-Europa and Neo-Europa is shown and the geothermal resources in the above eastern European countries are mentioned in detail in the order of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Rumania and Bulgaria. Each country above is rich in the geothermal resources of low enthalpy of about 100 {degree} C with mainly carbonate layers from the Paleozoic era to the mesozoic era and cenozoic sandstone layers, etc. as reservoir layers, centering around the sedimentation belts which have been formed since the orogonic movements of the Alps. In these countries, naturally gushing out hot springs have positively been used for the recuperation purposes since the Roman era, but the development and utilization of the hot water resources in t e deep subterranean location has started only recently. 32 refs., 16 figs.

  3. The Integration of MEPs from Central and Eastern Europe into the European Parliament

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    Radko Hokovský

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the level of integration of Members of the European Parliament from Central and Eastern Europe in the European Parliament after the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. The main objective is to address the puzzle of how the European Parliament’s political groups could maintain or even increase their voting cohesion after the influx of a significantly large number of new MEPs coming from countries with different historical experience, socio-economic characteristics, and political and party systems. Three indicators of MEP integration are defined: integration into parliamentary leadership, integration into parliamentary work, and integration into voting patterns. The article uses data from the VoteWatch.eu website on MEPs’ activities and voting between the years 2004-2011, as well as data from official documents of the European Parliament and its political groups. Analysis of the data reveals that the new member states’ MEPs were significantly under-represented in parliamentary leadership and key legislative activities, despite the fact that their voting loyalty to their political groups was greater than that of their colleagues from older member states.

  4. Central and Eastern Europe After the Boom - Time for a Stragegy Change for Foreign Multinationals?

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    Arnold Schuh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the global financial and economic crisis ended a six-year-long boom period with an average growth rate well above 5% in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Although not the originators of the crisis some CEE countries such as the Baltic States and Ukraine were among the worst hit by this economic downturn. The crisis did not only shatter the financial markets, banks and the real economy but also the growth image of CEE. The huge market potential and expected higher growth rates resulting from the catching-up process to West European standards have been the main reason for the flood of foreign direct investments into the countries of the region in the two decades before. Suddenly, foreign direct investors were confronted with stalled and even collapsing market growth, shrinking disposable household income, business customers and partners on the verge of bankruptcy and no real sign of a quick recovery. While the situation improved a little in 2011, the economic outlook and the sentiment of foreign investors have remained gloomy, at least for parts of the region. It is obvious that when faced with such a huge economic downturn companies stop geographic expansion and put the brakes on investments.

  5. Opportunities and constraints of adopting market governance in protected areas in Central and Eastern Europe

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    Ilona M. Otto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the transition from the traditional hierarchical governance of natural resources in Central and Eastern Europe towards the new forms of market governance of protected areas, including the introduction of fees and compensation. Our conceptual framework suggests that markets can be effective in governing transactions that involve low asset specificity and low frequency of disturbances. However, the introduction of markets should be accompanied by appropriate rules of market organization that particularly regulate their monitoring and impose sanctions in cases of mismanagement. The analysis of market governance in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia reveals that in the face of decreasing funding for biodiversity protection and state budgetary problems, markets are more a necessity than a means to improve resource management. Although markets should complement rather than substitute traditional forms of governance, for certain types of transactions, markets are useful. They can be effectively implemented, provided that property rights are recognized and legal settings that regulate the monitoring and enforcement of market rules are set up.

  6. Challenges in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: An Evaluation of 18 Years of Swiss Economic Cooperation

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    Guy Bonvin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanSwitzerland’s State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO has been working in the energy sectors of Eastern Europe and Central Asia since 1992, financing 41 projects to the value of CHF 316 million. In 2009 an independent evaluation was commissioned to assess the effects of these projects in the region and to draw lessons for future project funding. The evaluation found the projects to be highly satisfactory in terms of relevance, satisfactory in terms of effectiveness and sustainability, and — because of external factors relating to governance, transparency and political stability in a country — generally unsatisfactory in terms of efficiency.Lessons drawn from the successful projects will be used to further improve them in the future. With limited financial resources governments are attempting to find a balance between energy security and environmental sustainability. SECO will support this mission by helping to reduce inefficient consumption, to increase the share of renewable energy, to strengthen the sustainability of utility companies and to develop effective energy policies.

  7. Balassa-Samuelson Meets South Eastern Europe, the CIS and Turkey: A Close Encounter of the Third Kind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Égert

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the importance of the Balassa-Samuelson effect for two acceding countries (Bulgaria and Romania, two accession countries (Croatia and Turkey and two CIS countries (Russia and Ukraine. The paper first studies the basic assumptions of the Balassa-Samuelson effect using yearly data, and then undertakes an econometric analysis of the assumptions on the basis of monthly data. The results suggest that for most of the countries, there is either amplification or attenuation, implying that any increase in the open sector's productivity feeds onto changes in the relative price of non-tradables either imperfectly or in an over-proportionate manner. With these results as a background, the size of the Balassa-Samuelson effect is derived. For this purpose, a number of different sectoral classification schemes are used to group sectors into open and closed sectors, which makes a difference for some of the countries. The Balassa-Samuelson effect is found to play only a limited role for inflation and real exchange rate determination, and it seems to be roughly in line with earlier findings for the eight new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe

  8. Pear to Pear in Social Economy through Social Technologies, some Perspectives on this New Challenge in the Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan ȘERBU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic environment is now in a difficult situation and it is looking for way to overrun this low. There are more and more examples that this time people find a solution through sharing economy. We will present here the potential and some barriers for the eastern part of Europe, for Romania. We will present here also some cultural lag that influence and will influence a more and more the economic system and will show some aspects that happens in socio-economic world due to the changes in technology and especially because those changes are happening more quickly than other changes creating some gaps. So, this period of time between the appearance of the new social technologies and the whole process of implementation of its forces will have a great impact within the economy. There will be highlighted some dissimilarities about the limitation and advantage that the share economy through social technologies will have into the rural compare to urban area.

  9. Portuges, Catherine and Peter Hames, eds. 2013. Cinemas in Transition in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 279 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Tőke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Portuges, Catherine and Peter Hames, eds. 2013. Cinemas in Transition in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 279 pp. Reviewed by Lilla Tőke, Assistant Professor, CUNY, LaGuardia Community College

  10. Boom and Bust in Central and Eastern Europe: Lessons on the Sustainability of an Externally Financed Growth Model’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Galgóczi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary shows the patterns of a production model in Central Eastern Europe (CEE that was based on a specific division of labour within the enlarged Europe. Its foundation was a newly emerged manufacturing base in Central Eastern Europe (CEE and it was seen as a prerequisite for economic renewal in post-communist countries. This production model seems to be in danger now. The first section highlights the main elements of the process where CEE production locations became integrated into the value chains of western European manufacturing enterprises. The example of the automobile industry demonstrates the principles of this production model of with its particular pattern of division of labour between the East and west of Europe. The foundations of the past success have however proved to be fragile, as the dramatic effects of the economic crisis show us these days. The second part of the paper shows, how the particular pattern of the division of labour between East and West have become a risk factor and its sustainability is being questioned.

  11. The evaluation of public health in South Eastern Europe: from transition to progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Gjorgjev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The public health services project of the South-eastern Europe health network has undertaken an evaluation of public health services in its nine member countries. The purpose of the evaluation of public health services provision in the South-eastern European (SEE countries is to understand where these countries now stand in public health, the institutional, organisational, legislative and service delivery developments that are taking place and to identify strengths and weaknesses in their public health systems and services in order to inform decision making about investment and future reform.

    Methods: The evaluation was orientated around “essential public health operations” that are deemed to form the core of public health activities and services and to be indispensable to the delivery of modern public health services in any country. The evaluation analysed these activities and services within the structure of the health system functions of stewardship, resource generation, financing and service delivery, as developed by WHO.

    Results: The results demonstrate a mixed picture of strengths and weaknesses within the context of significant social, economic and political challenges in the region. Among the many visible and significant strengths in public health services in the region are well developed networks of public health institutes with well defined surveillance systems, highly experienced and well educated public health professionals as well as many positive examples of service delivery. But there are also many concerns and challenges, not the least of which is political focus, direction and support for modern public health services, as well as funding. Collaboration and partnership among sectors is weak and information and communication systems are inadequate and not sufficiently integrated.

    Conclusions: Having emphasized the main weak and

  12. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE Projec

  13. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  14. New Bangalores? The role of Central and Eastern Europe in business and IT services offshoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Gal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses how the second global shift in business services provision and corporate restructuring open up new offshoring opportunities into Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. It explores three issues: First, it builds upon the theoretical framework of the ‘new paradigm of globalization, which considers offshoring as one of the most important globalizing forces of recent time. This results in a shift in global trade, namely from ‘trade in goods’ to ‘trade in tasks’ determined by the changing trends in the division of labour. Second, the paper gives an overview of services relocation into CEE in comparison with its Asian counterparts. As the EU expanded eastwards, the opportunities for European corporations to offshore their business services to these ‘nearshore’ locations increased. Building on the region’s nearshoring advantages such as geographical-cultural proximity and on their multilingual graduate sup ply, CEE is likely to utilise more value added quality-driven BPO and KPO services. Third, the paper examines the implications of offshoring for the home markets in CEE assessing its impact on their locations. It reveals the role of offshoring activities in the metropolitan transformation and discusses the factors that make the capital cities an increasingly attractive option for companies to relocate their services. Despite CEE has taken advantage on the trend supported by the global service delivery models reducing dependency on any single location, its further growth may be influenced by the worsening macro-conditions, and future prospect of the region depends largely on government incentives and on the success of exploiting talent pools offered by its provincial cities.

  15. Considerations on the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Economies from Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Belașcu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the causes and consequences of the 2007-2008 global financial crisis on five Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Russia, with the purpose of identifying the common points and the differences between these economies in terms of crisis impact, with an accent on their capital markets. Our findings indicate that although the countries under scrutiny have displayed somehow different paths of economic development before the crisis, they were affected, to a higher or smaller extent, by the financial crisis. Also, the crisis was felt in these countries, at least in terms of impact on capital markets, with different lags: in some of these countries the crisis hit at beginning of 2008, while in others signs of the crisis were visible only towards the end of 2008.

  16. The Current Evolution of Slavic Languages in Central and Eastern Europe in the Context of the EU Multilingualism Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Current Evolution of Slavic Languages in Central and Eastern Europe in the Context of the EU Multilingualism Policy The respect for and protection of cultural and linguistic diversity have long been guaranteed in various international and European legislative acts. More recently, the European Union has also developed laws aimed at the preservation and promotion of multilingualism. Linguistic diversity has long been seen as an obstacle to the effective functioning of EU institutions. Recently, however, it has been considered as a valuable “heritage” of the EU. In our article, we will present a brief overview of policies promoting multilingualism in Europe, and more specifically, in the EU. Subsequently, we will compare this framework to the changes occurring presently in modern Slavic languages of Central and Eastern Europe. The tendency of these languages towards increased analitism transforms these predominantly synthetic languages into more analytical ones. These conclusions have led us to the following question: What is the current state of modern Slavic languages and how far may their evolution be addressed by policies promoting multilingualism? Our analysis consists of two parts: first, we scrutinised various European legislative acts promoting multilingualism; second, we analysed modern Slavic languages by means of the parallel corpora of chosen languages from the Common Language Resources and Technology Infrastructure project (including UNESCO and EU legislation, etc..

  17. Cooperation in the nuclear field among the states of Eastern Europe; Die kerntechnische Zusammenarbeit der Staaten Osteuropas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H. [Tetra Energie Technologie Transfer GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kraemer, J. [Tetra Energie Technologie Transfer GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Since the re-orientation of the societies of Central and Eastern Europe on the basis of a free and democratic order, the West has launched a number of support programs for safe operation of the nuclear power plants run in these countries. It should not be overlooked, however, that a traditionally close cooperation in all areas of the military and peaceful uses of nuclear power had existed among the Socialist countries, mostly dominated by the Soviet Union, i.e. Russia. After the initiation of the process of democratization, the turnaround to the West was overemphasized initially, but in the meantime the old ties of cooperation have been strengthened again, though with more sovereignty of the participating nations. Russia is striving to maintain her hegemony and exploit the findings of recent nuclear research in order to boost her balance of trade by exports. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit sich die Gesellschaften der Staaten Mittel- und Osteuropas neu orientieren, und das auf der Basis einer freiheitlich-demokratischen Grundordnung, wurden im Westen unterschiedlichste Unterstuetzungsprogramme fuer einen sicheren Betrieb der in diesen Laendern betriebenen Kernkraftwerke aufgelegt. Dabei darf nicht ausser acht gelassen werden, dass traditionell eine enge Zusammenarbeit auf allen Gebieten der militaerischen und friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie in den sozialistischen Staaten existierte, zumeist unter Dominanz der Sowjetunion, und hier Russlands. Nach Einleitung des Demokratisierungsprozesses wurde die Hinwendung zum Westen zunaechst ueberbetont; inzwischen aber wurden die gewachsenen Kooperationen wieder gefestigt, allerdings unter groesserer Souveraenitaet der beteiligten Nationen. Russland ist bestrebt, seine Hegemonie zu behaupten und die Ergebnisse neuerer kerntechnischer Forschung zu nutzen, um durch Exporte seine Handelsbilanz zu verbessern. (orig.)

  18. Advancing human rights in patient care through higher education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tamar; Overall, Judy

    2013-12-12

    In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, for society's most marginalized people, health systems are too often places of violations of basic rights, rather than of treatment and care. At the same time, health practitioners are largely unaware of how to incorporate human rights norms in their work. Additionally, they may face abuses themselves, such as unsafe working conditions and sanctions for providing evidence-based care. Similarly, legal professionals have limited experience working in the health sector, trying to address abuses that occur. Republics of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia have emerged from communism and experienced continued restructuring of their health care systems. As faculties of law, public health, and medicine have sought to incorporate these rapid changes into their curricula, this period of reform and openness to new approaches presented a particular opportunity to integrate human rights education. The Open Society Foundations have attempted to respond to the need to build health and human rights capacity by supporting the development of over 25 courses in human rights in patient care in nine countries. Targeted at different audiences, these courses are now part of the regular offerings at the academic institutions where they are taught. Student evaluations point to the strength of the interdisciplinary approach and the need to integrate practical examples and exercises. Faculty response has led to the development of a virtual community of practice and series of workshops to gain exposure to new ideas, strengthen interactive teaching, and share materials and experiences. Critical to this initiative has been working with faculty champions in each university, who shaped this initiative to meet the needs in their context. It quickly became apparent that teaching methodology is as important as content in human rights education. Meaningful engagement with health practitioners has entailed connections to day-to-day practice, participatory

  19. Energy Use and Energy Efficiency in Selected Arable Farms in Central and South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Moitzi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the project “Mechanization and Energy use in selected arable farms in Central and South Eastern Europe (CASEE” was to analyse energy characteristics of arable farming in Slovak Republic, Romania, Serbia and Austria, to compare results and identify possibilities of its improvements. The large scale farms are: the university farm of the Slovak University of Agriculture (SK with 1.112 ha arable land, a cooperative farm in Risnovice (SK with an arable land of 1.266 ha, a family farm in Apahida-Transylvania (RO with 400 ha, a farm in Viisoara-Transylvania (RO with 600 ha, a family farm in Sremska Mitrovica (SRB with an arable land of 115 ha, a family farm near Novi Sad (SRB with an arable land of 450 ha and a family farm in Ansfelden/Linz (A with 368 ha. The farms were visited by the interviewer once or more times and the relevant data, used machinery, quantity of inputs, e.g. fuel, pesticides, fertilizer, seed and yields of harvested crops, were recorded, for the production season 2012. After collection of the basic data all energy inputs and outputs, energy content of crops, were calculated in accordance with data and procedure defined by CIGR (International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Handbook Volume V – Energy and Biomass Engineering (1999. Energy input and net energy gain, expressed in MJ/ha, were used to calculate energy characteristics of crops’ production: energy productivity - kg/MJ, energy efficiency index, energy ratio, energy intensity - MJ/kg, fuel intensity - L/kg. The intensity of all used farm inputs (fuel, seeds, fertilizer and pesticide in crop production systems influences the energy efficiency. The fuel consumption for winter wheat production of the analysed farms ranges between 54 and 91 l/ha. The mean energy ratio (energy-output/energy-input for winter wheat is 5.6 with ranges between 4.8 and 7.1. Besides the fuel consumption the energy-input via the nitrogen-fertilizer is

  20. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  1. AN ATTEMPT TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Szuba-Barańska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the progress of implementation of selected assumptions on sustainability of agriculture in countries of CentralEastern Europe in relation to environmental protection. Data from the input-output balance sheets and the European Environmental Accounts were used to realize the aim of the study. The analysis considered material fl ows to and from agriculture, pollution, and the production and consumption of biomass. The share of the participation of agribusiness sphere I, including mainly services, as well as the fuel, energy and chemical industries, has been increasing in the material infl ows to agriculture in the countries of CentralEastern Europe. This indicates production modernization, associated with a higher load on the environment. The highest emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants into the environment per 1,000 euro GDP were recorded in Lithuania, Romania and Latvia. The Czech Republic, Slovenia and Slovakia have the lowest values of emissions. In Latvia, there was no overall reduction in pollution emitted by agriculture in 2008–2012. Emission of these pollutants per 1,000 euro GDP and 1 ha UAA (utilized agricultural area of agricultural land decreased in most countries in the analysis. In EU countries of Central-Eastern Europe, a reduction in direct material input and domestic consumption of biomass from agriculture per one euro of GDP is reported. These changes indicate a decrease in the intensity of use of natural resources (dematerialising economy, which is consistent with the objectives of sustainable development. In countries where agriculture is better developed, the implementation of pro-environmental goals of sustainable development takes place to a greater extent than in countries with lower levels of socio-economic development.

  2. Measuring the Effects of Customs and Administrative Procedures on Trade: Gravity Model for South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Toševska-Trpčevska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the effects of certain customs and administrative procedures on trade between the countries of South-Eastern Europe in the period 2008-2012. Following OECD methodology, we employ the augmented gravity model. The empirical results suggest that the number of days spent at the border and costs paid in both importer and exporter countries had significant negative influence on the volume of trade in the period 2008-2012. In addition, the model underlines that sharing the same border and being part of the former Yugoslav market are important determinants of trade in the region.

  3. Are mixed electoral systems the best choice for central and Eastern Europe or the reason for defective party systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    incentives of mixed electoral systems might hamper the stabilization and institutionalization of party systems in young democracies. Empirical results from 19 democracies in Central and Eastern Europe suggest that the learning and stabilization effect that is exerted through simple electoral systems fails...... under mixed systems. Using a variance model analysis, this study rejects the common belief that mixed systems lead to more moderate party systems with regards to party system fractionalization. Rather, outcomes under mixed systems vary much more widely than under proportional representation...

  4. Project Radiation Protection East. Swedish cooperation program for radiation protection in Eastern and Central Europe. Status Report, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snihs, J.O.; Johansson, Mai [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Grapengiesser, S. [STEGRA Consultants (Sweden); Bennerstedt, T. [Tekno Telje (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    Until now the Swedish program for radiation protection work in central and Eastern europe has been granted 55 MSEK by the Swedish government. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994, radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in Radiation Protection East. The government has granted 8 MSEK for this purpose. This report presents a summary over some 150 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. The presentation is updated up to March 1996. 7 figs.

  5. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Anne Marie W; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank A;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients......), SE (N = 164), and LA (N = 253) in the proportion of patients with a definite TB diagnosis (47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, pMDR-TB (40%, 5%, 3% and 15%, p...% CI 1.00-4.09), prior anti-TB treatment (3.42 (1.88-6.22)), and living in EE (7.19 (3.28-15.78)) were associated with MDR-TB. Among 585 patients with drug susceptibility test (DST) results, the empiric (i.e. without knowledge of the DST results) anti-TB treatment included ≥3 active drugs in 66...

  6. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G.H.; Ditiu, L.; Migliori, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... of isoniazid for treatment of LTBI, with an estimated median (range) uptake of 55% (5-92.5%). Symptoms and sputum examination could be used more widely when screening for active tuberculosis. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection might be better focused by targeted use of interferon-gamma release assays...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...

  7. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G H; Ditiu, L; Migliori, G B

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...... and in-patient contacts. Screening of immigrants is related to their contribution to national rates of tuberculosis. Only 25 (50%) out of 50 advise a request for symptoms in their guidelines. A total of 36 (72%) out of 50 countries recommend sputum examination for those with a persistent cough; 13...

  8. Power's promise: electricity reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampietti, J. (ed.)

    2004-06-01

    This study analyzes the fiscal, efficiency, social, and environmental impact of power sector reforms in seven countries in the Europe and East Asia region - Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Hungary; Kazakhstan and POland. It finds sector deficits have been falling over the last decade and that the savings from lower sector deficits did not translate into higher social spending. More emphasis must be placed on monitoring deficits and tailoring policy reform to country specific circumstances. The impact of reform on utility efficiency, as measured by the cost of generation, system loss collections, and operational efficiency, is ambiguous. While overall revenue per kilowatt hour increased in almost all countries, problems continue with losses, collection rates, and staffing. In terms of social impacts, electricity spending as a share of income increased, especially for the poor, while consumption stayed the same. In terms of environmental impacts, reforms did slightly improve energy efficiency in power plants though this has little direct impact on human health because the electricity sector's share of the total health damage from air pollution is negligible. Several lessons emerge from the analysis. Undertaking simple ex ante simulations of reform impacts will allow better identification of potential reform benefits and costs. Placing more emphasis on outcome-based indicators of service quality would help ensure that future operations produce the intended end-user benefits. In many cases, tariff increases can and should be explicitly timed to coincide with service quality improvements. 24 figs., 15 tabs., 10 annexes.

  9. Crop Management as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Early Modern Era: A Comparative Study of Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Pei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective adaptation determines agricultural vulnerability to climate change, especially in the pre-industrial era. Crop management as an agricultural adaptation to climate change in recent human history, however, has rarely been systematically evaluated. Using Europe as our study area, we statistically compared yield ratio of wheat, rye, barley, and oats (an important performance indicator of an agrarian economy between Eastern and Western Europe in AD 1500–1800. In particular, a statistical comparison was made of crop yield ratio in the two regions during the warm agricultural recovery period AD 1700–1800. The general trend of crop yield in Eastern and Western Europe basically followed the alternation of climatic epochs, in which the extreme cooling period in AD 1560–1660 drastically reduced the crop yield ratio. The yield ratio of rye in Eastern and Western Europe was very similar throughout the entire study period. However, the yield ratio of wheat, barley, and oats showed different patterns in the two regions and increased drastically in Western Europe in the warm agricultural recovery period, which might have contributed to rapid socio-economic development in Western Europe and eventually the East–West Divide in Europe in the following centuries.

  10. Strategic challenges in upgrading the population’s health in the transition countries of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the devastating nineties of the last century a slow but steady improvement of the living conditions in the region of South Eastern Europe (SEE has be observed. However, so far only three countries, i.e. Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia, have managed to ascent to the European Union and only Slovenia has joined the European currency. All others are still struggling with a difficult heritage of inappropriate vertical management structures, overstaffing and outmigration of the well educated young. This résumé applies also to the field of public health where, for example, the old hygienic tradition remained dominant, often maintaining huge laboratory facilities in the institutes of public health and very small numbers of staff being allocated to health promotion and modern participative management. This situation cannot be overcome easily nor in short term. Supported by funds from the German contribution to the European Stability Pact, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fphsee has established a permanent collaboration between the public health institutions in the region, including foremost the Schools of Public Health (SPH, the National Public Health Associations (PHA and some national Institutes of Public Health (IPH.

  11. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie W Efsen

    Full Text Available Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE. We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients in EE, Western Europe (WE and Latin America (LA.Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1413 TB/HIV patients (62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, WE, Southern Europe (SE, and LA were enrolled.Significant differences were observed between EE (N = 844, WE (N = 152, SE (N = 164, and LA (N = 253 in the proportion of patients with a definite TB diagnosis (47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p<0.0001, MDR-TB (40%, 5%, 3% and 15%, p<0.0001, and use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p<0.0001. Injecting drug use (adjusted OR (aOR = 2.03 (95% CI 1.00-4.09, prior anti-TB treatment (3.42 (1.88-6.22, and living in EE (7.19 (3.28-15.78 were associated with MDR-TB. Among 585 patients with drug susceptibility test (DST results, the empiric (i.e. without knowledge of the DST results anti-TB treatment included ≥3 active drugs in 66% of participants in EE compared with 90-96% in other regions (p<0.0001.In EE, TB/HIV patients were less likely to receive a definite TB diagnosis, more likely to house MDR-TB and commonly received empiric anti-TB treatment with reduced activity. Improved management of TB/HIV patients in EE requires better access to TB diagnostics including DSTs, empiric anti-TB therapy directed at both susceptible and MDR-TB, and more widespread use of cART.

  12. [Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann] / Sir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamul, Sirje, 1951-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context (Quellen und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, 20; Veröffentlichungen der Aue-Stiftung, 26). Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann. Böhlau Verlag. Köln u.a. 2012

  13. [Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann] / Sir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamul, Sirje, 1951-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context (Quellen und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, 20; Veröffentlichungen der Aue-Stiftung, 26). Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann. Böhlau Verlag. Köln u.a. 2012

  14. Black carbon variability since preindustrial times in the eastern part of Europe reconstructed from Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus, ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Saehee; Faïn, Xavier; Ginot, Patrick; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Kozachek, Anna; Laj, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    Black carbon (BC), emitted by fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, is the second largest man-made contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide (Bond et al., 2013). However, limited information exists on its past emissions and atmospheric variability. In this study, we present the first high-resolution record of refractory BC (rBC, including mass concentration and size) reconstructed from ice cores drilled at a high-altitude eastern European site in Mt. Elbrus (ELB), Caucasus (5115 m a.s.l.). The ELB ice core record, covering the period 1825-2013, reflects the atmospheric load of rBC particles at the ELB site transported from the European continent with a larger rBC input from sources located in the eastern part of Europe. In the first half of the 20th century, European anthropogenic emissions resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in the ice core rBC mass concentrations with respect to its level in the preindustrial era (before 1850). The summer (winter) rBC mass concentrations increased 5-fold (3.3-fold) in 1960-1980, followed by a decrease until ˜ 2000. Over the last decade, the rBC signal for summertime slightly increased. We have compared the signal with the atmospheric BC load simulated using past BC emissions (ACCMIP and MACCity inventories) and taken into account the contribution of different geographical regions to rBC distribution and deposition at the ELB site. Interestingly, the observed rBC variability in the ELB ice core record since the 1960s is not in perfect agreement with the simulated atmospheric BC load. Similar features between the ice core rBC record and the best scenarios for the atmospheric BC load support anthropogenic BC increase in the 20th century being reflected in the ELB ice core record. However, the peak in BC mass concentration observed in ˜ 1970 in the ice core is estimated to occur a decade later from past inventories. BC emission inventories for the period 1960s-1970s may be underestimating European anthropogenic emissions

  15. Factors of Development of Far Eastern Martial Arts in Central Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cynarski, Wojciech J; Sieber, Lothar; Obodyński, Kazimierz; Ďuriček, Milan; Król, Paweł; Rzepko, Marian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to indicate the main factors of development declared by the practitioners of the different disciplines of martial arts and combat sports in selected countries of Central Europe...

  16. Energy Use and Energy Efficiency in Selected Arable Farms in Central and South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Moitzi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false DE-AT X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The main objective of the project “Mechanization and Energy use in selected arable farms in Central and South Eastern Europe (CASEE” was to analyse energy characteristics of arable farming in Slovak Republic, Romania, Serbia and Austria, to compare results and identify possibilities of its improvements. The large scale farms are: the university farm of the Slovak University of Agriculture (SK with 1.112 ha arable land, a cooperative farm in Risnovice (SK with an arable land of 1.266 ha, a family farm in Apahida-Transylvania (RO with 400 ha, a farm in Viisoara-Transylvania (RO with 600 ha, a family farm in Sremska Mitrovica (SRB with an arable land of 115 ha, a family farm near Novi Sad (SRB with an arable land of 450 ha and a family farm in Ansfelden/Linz (A with 368 ha. The farms were visited by the interviewer once or more times and the relevant data, used machinery, quantity of inputs, e.g. fuel, pesticides, fertilizer, seed and yields of harvested crops, were recorded, for the production season 2012. After collection of the basic data all energy inputs and outputs, energy content of crops, were calculated in accordance with data and procedure defined by CIGR (International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Handbook Volume V

  17. Motivational factors for the adoption of ISO 9001 standards in Eastern Europe: the case of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Georgiev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the motivational factors for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria from the internal/external motivations perspective, or the so-called dual model.Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a mixed method research approach, which employed two interviews with experts in the field of quality management at the exploratory stage, and a survey involving 127 companies at the descriptive stage.Findings: This study claims that enhanced company image and competitiveness – an external motivation - is the leading motivational factor for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria. At the same time, our primary investigation reveals that Bulgarian firms are not predominantly externally driven, for internal motivations including process improvement and product quality improvement seem to be an important driver for ISO 9001 certification. Last but not least, this research asserts that enhanced company image and competitiveness has a stronger impact on the motivations for ISO 9001 certification than customer and supplier pressure, which is in line with previous research works on developing economy economies such as Bulgaria. Finally, our study indicates a moderate, yet positive correlation between motivations for and benefits of ISO 9001 certification.Social implications: This research work casts some light on the evolution of quality management in Bulgaria since the end of communism, which can serve as an important foundation for the better understanding of quality management in former communist economies in general and Eastern European states in particular.Originality/value: Derived from the acute gap between ISO studies in Western and former communist economies, this research work presents one of the first official, international studies in the field of ISO certification in Bulgaria, and more precisely, a paper describing the motives for ISO 9001 certification among Bulgarian businesses.

  18. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  19. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  20. HIGHER EDUCATION MARKET IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IN THE POST-CRISIS PERIOD. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS.

    OpenAIRE

    HALANGESCU CONSTANTIN

    2015-01-01

    With a target (failed, by the way) to become the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world, Europe has scaled the market of higher education. Adopting a questioning approach in research methodology, based on interrogations such as „How the economic crisis has affected the Higher Education market in Emerging Europe?”, „How much the European Union regulations in the field of student fees, ante, during and post-crisis time affecting the employment market and equitable access at fair educ...

  1. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  2. Decadal resolved leaf wax δD records of the Younger Dryas in central and eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichner, Bernhard; Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Wulf, Sabine; Brauer, Achim; Sachse, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Annually laminated (varved) sediments with defined event-based age anchor points such as tephra layers enable the establishment of precise chronologies in lacustrine climate archives. This is especially useful to study subtle temporal differences in the consequences of mechanisms and feedbacks during abrupt climatic changes such as the Younger Dryas over larger spatial areas. To decipher the drivers of ecological changes across the Allerød/Younger Dryas transition in central Europe, we analyzed leaf wax biomarkers from Trzechowskie paleolake in northern Poland. Samples were taken in 10 years intervals across the onset of the Younger Dryas, with the Laacher See Tephra (12,880 yrs BP) as anchor point for age-calibration. Further, we applied compound specific hydrogen isotope analysis to infer past hydrological changes, in comparison to results from the well-dated Meerfelder Maar record located up 900 km to the southwest [1]. Between 12,750 and 12,600 yrs BP, ratios of terrestrial n-alkanes show a transition from a tree-dominated lake catchment (Pinus, Betula) to an environment mainly covered by Juniperus and grasses, which is in agreement with palynological data. δD values of n-alkanes indicate a rapid cooling and/or a change of moisture source together with a slight aridification between 12,680 and 12,600 yrs BP. This is synchronous to a rapid and strong aridification inferred for the beginning of the Younger Dryas at Meerfelder Maar (western Germany) [1] but ca. 170 yrs after the inferred onset of cooling at both Meerfelder Maar and the NGRIP ice core at 12,850 yrs BP. This highlights a different temporal succession and impact of hydrological and climatic changes in eastern compared to western Europe which could potentially be related to the stronger influence of the Fennoscandian icesheets and/or the Siberian High on atmospheric circulation patterns in the more continental climate influenced parts of eastern Europe. [1] Rach O, Brauer A, Wilkes H, Sachse D

  3. Why Digital Memory Studies Should Not Overlook Eastern Europe's Memory Wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.; Blacker, U.; Etkind, A.; Fedor, J.

    2013-01-01

    n the last decades of the twentieth century, the humanities and social sciences in Western Europe and North America experienced a 'memory boom' that gave rise to new research agendas and provoked interdisciplinary exchange. Less known are the ways in which academic practices of Memory Studies have

  4. Kaizen-Driven Approach While Managing Industrial Projects. A Scandinavian Company Succeeds in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European companies have experienced various and radical transformations, as resultof the economic crises and turbulences, which exposed structural weaknesses. In the meantime, long-term challenges - such as globalization, shift of power centers from the nationallevel to international structures or scarcity of resources - intensify. Given this context, it ismandatory for companies to develop strategies aiming at being competitive.

  5. Foreign bank entry and performance with a focus on Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaborg, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since the Fall of the Wall in 1989, large international banks have been opening branches in former Eastern Bloc countries with high expectations. Ilko Naaborg investigated how these banks function in eleven different countries. In 1995, on average, foreign banks made up about 25 percent of the total

  6. The Role of the State in the Repression and Revival of Religiosity in Central Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Tim; Neundorf, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present two different roles of the state affecting individuals' religiosity. First, we provide evidence for the effectiveness of socialist regimes in influencing citizens' opinions by comparing religious beliefs among several generations of Eastern Europeans. Second, the article explores whether the democratization…

  7. Institutions, social capital and agricultural change in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Kooten, van G.C.; Suchanek, P.

    2004-01-01

    Data from a survey of agricultural stakeholders are used to demonstrate that institutions and social capital play an important role in agricultural success in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Protection of private property, freedom of exchange, consistency in monitoring environmental

  8. The Transformation of University Governance in Central and Eastern Europe: its Antecendents and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Bergan, Sjur; Egron-Polak, Eva; Kohler, Jürgen; Purser, Lewis; Spyropoulou, Athanassia

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the change in governance and management of universities in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries from a multi-level perspective, discussing the impact of changing institutional logics on university management capacities and university structures. The author draws on

  9. THE IMPACT OF THE CREDIT EXPANSION PROCESS ON SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE AREA OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav PERCIC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at performing an econometric analysis of the credit expansion process and social welfare from a comparative perspective, with a focus on eight developing and advanced economies from Central and South-Eastern Europe (including the case of Romania. The author aims to better understand the real impact of the credit expansion process on social welfare through the financial dimension. In order to achieve this aim, the research seeks to analyze the short-term dynamics (from one quarter to the other of the relationships between the total volume of credits given to the non-banking private sector by the credit institutions (highlighting thus the credit expansion process and the GDP per capita and GDP per person employed (proxies for social welfare. The usefulness of the present study becomes higher given the fact that nowadays the socio-economic development is often assisted by a stronger and more acute crisis.

  10. HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY'S COMPETITION IN TERMS OF ATTRACTING AND RETAINING VALUABLE HR IN EASTERN EUROPE – THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra CIULU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The particularity of hospitality industries in Eastern Europe is that, although most the officials consider tourism & hospitality a strategic priority, a vast majority of researchers and industrialists agree that not enough steps have been taken. Our research focused on the case of Romania, a country facing the challenge of limited qualified personnel in the field, and was built upon qualitative and quantitative tools, examining three groups of potential, part-time & full-time employees, as well as employers, as a fourth group. Results largely support literature in terms of employees being underpaid, undertrained and insufficiently motivated. Still, they can be considered rather suprising in terms of decreasing interest of graduates for the hospitality sector over time and migration to other sectors.

  11. Ideological Bases of Institutional Trust in Eastern and Western Europe and the Effect of Motivated Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Hadarics

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates the assumption that citizens expect the democratic institutional system to operate in accordance with values and norms that are deeply embedded in public thinking of their country. As individual-level trust towards the institutional system is built mainly on these norms and values, our results show that differences between Eastern and Western European public thinking lead to asymmetries regarding the bases of institutional trust. Specifically, degree of income inequalities and perceived quality of welfare services seem to be more important factors in the postsocialist region in comparison with Western Europe. Furthermore, in accordance with the approach of motivated social cognition, we could also confirm that those with a higher level of conventionality motivation lean on normative ideological elements to a greater extent when they are indicating their personal level of institutional trust.

  12. WELL-BEING INEQUALITY AND THE ECONOMIC CRISIS: EVIDENCE FROM LIFE IN TRANSITION SURVEYS IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Botezat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between well-being inequality and the economic crisis for countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Using data from Life in Transition Surveys waves 2006 and 2010, we assess the level of happiness gap by computing the instrument-effect-corrected standard deviation. Our results indicate that the dispersion in self-reported well-being levels increased after the economic crisis in all considered countries. We also show that the life satisfaction variation is not necessarily higher for those who report being poor compared to those from the upper part of the income hierarchy. Results also suggest that in general the gaps are higher in the case of those who report being not affected at all by the economic crisis compared to those who report being affected to a large extent by the crisis.

  13. Strengthening the Regional Integration in Central and Eastern Europe through Cohesion Policy Instruments and Cooperation among Stock Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA STEFANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is focused on the analysis of two ways of strengthening the regional integration in the Central and Eastern Europe – through the Cohesion policy instruments and cooperation among stock exchanges. Substantial benefits from the regional integration through cohesion policy include economic and social prosperity, political understanding. It should be further intensified, as it contributes to reduce regional disparities, exchange knowledge and best practices, ensure economic development. On the other hand, the deepening intra-regional cooperation among CEE stock exchanges leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in the course of their consolidation. Some assumptions are reached regarding expected changes on the Bulgarian capital market in the course of intensifying its intra-regional integrational links to CEE capital markets in conformity with set strategic priorities.

  14. REAL CONVERGENCE IN ROMANIA - A COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO NON-ERM II COUNTRIES FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA SOCOL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to survey the issue of real convergence in Central and Eastern Europe, based our approach on the literature review in the field and intended to develop a comparative approach of the main criteria of real convergence. We comparatively study Romania’s situation face to European Union Member States that did not adhere until now to ERM Exchange Rate Mechanism II and that do not benefit of special opt-outs stipulations - Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria. The challenges of the paper consisted in identification and choose of the criteria which properly characterize the real convergence issue of the national economies. This approach is imposed by the widespread concept of real convergence and its different meanings or measurement manners.

  15. The Political Psychology in the Transatlantic Perspective – A Strategy Framework for Eastern Europe: the Case of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Veljanovska Blazhevska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Each nation tends to rationalize the situation, the past – the present and the future – in order to ensure normal living conditions and possible welfare. However, some internally and externally created policies aim to focus or defocus the public’s attention in order to distort the real picture. In political psychology, lies and intrigues are often associated with political effects. All these additional attributes guide the policy into the desired direction. The situation in Ukraine is a real example of a kind of "psychological warfare" of citizens caused as a result of claims made by the neighbouring Russian Federation, political steps and tactics of the European Union and the NATO Alliance. In order to prevent future negative development in this field, there is a need to create a common security strategy for Eastern Europe, as a result of the creation of successful Trans-Atlantic relations and good-neighbourly relations with the Russian Federation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the need for encouraging the creation of a rational attitude of the nations in order to strive for the improvement of the region in which they are located. The theory of public choice is applied as a basis of encouraging a better future in public policies and strategies in a country/region. Political psychology is the main thread utilised to disclose the real picture of relations in Ukraine, and the final results need to be used in the area of ​​creating a new security strategy for Eastern Europe. This work includes empirical research conducted within the Republic of Macedonia. The same applies to the theoretical frame of the paper.

  16. Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics - the flood event in eastern Europe in May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winschall, A.; Pfahl, S.; Sodemann, H.; Wernli, H.

    2014-07-01

    Moisture convergence from different sources is an important prerequisite for a heavy-precipitation event. The contributions from different source regions can, however, hardly be quantified from observations, and their assessment based on model results is complex. Two conceptually different numerical methods are widely used for the quantification of moisture sources: Lagrangian approaches based on the analysis of humidity variations along backward trajectories and Eulerian methods based on the implementation of moisture tracers into a numerical model. In this study the moisture sources for a high-impact, heavy-precipitation event that affected eastern Europe in May 2010 are studied with both Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics. The precipitation event was connected to a cyclone that developed over northern Africa, moved over the Mediterranean towards eastern Europe and induced transport of moist air towards the Carpathian Mountains. Heavy precipitation and major flooding occurred in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia between 16 and 18 May 2010. The Lagrangian and Eulerian diagnostics consistently indicate a wide spatial and temporal range of moisture sources contributing to the event. The source with the largest share is local evapotranspiration from the European land surface, followed by moisture from the North Atlantic. Further contributions come from tropical western Africa (10-20° N) and the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to what could be expected, the Mediterranean contribution of about 10% is relatively small. A detailed analysis of exemplary trajectories corroborates the general consistency of the two approaches, and underlines their complementarity. The Lagrangian method allows for mapping out moisture source regions with computational efficiency, whereas the more elaborate Eulerian model requires predefined moisture sources, but includes also processes such as precipitation, evaporation and turbulent mixing. However, in the Eulerian model

  17. Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics – the flood event in eastern Europe in May 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Winschall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moisture convergence from different sources is an important prerequisite for a heavy-precipitation event. The contributions from different source regions can, however, hardly be quantified from observations, and their assessment based on model results is complex. Two conceptually different numerical methods are widely used for the quantification of moisture sources: Lagrangian approaches based on the analysis of humidity variations along backward trajectories and Eulerian methods based on the implementation of moisture tracers into a numerical model. In this study the moisture sources for a high-impact, heavy-precipitation event that affected eastern Europe in May 2010 are studied with both Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics. The precipitation event was connected to a cyclone that developed over northern Africa, moved over the Mediterranean towards eastern Europe and induced transport of moist air towards the Carpathian Mountains. Heavy precipitation and major flooding occurred in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia between 16 and 18 May 2010. The Lagrangian and Eulerian diagnostics consistently indicate a wide spatial and temporal range of moisture sources contributing to the event. The source with the largest share is local evapotranspiration from the European land surface, followed by moisture from the North Atlantic. Further contributions come from tropical western Africa (10–20° N and the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to what could be expected, the Mediterranean contribution of about 10% is relatively small. A detailed analysis of exemplary trajectories corroborates the general consistency of the two approaches, and underlines their complementarity. The Lagrangian method allows for mapping out moisture source regions with computational efficiency, whereas the more elaborate Eulerian model requires predefined moisture sources, but includes also processes such as precipitation, evaporation and turbulent mixing. However

  18. "Bringing Learning Closer to Home": The Value and Impact of the Lisbon Strategy for Strengthening the Role of Local Learning Centres and Partnerships in South-Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifis, George K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative examination of four local learning centres that provide learning opportunities throughout life in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece and Turkey. The paper aims to assess some of the strengths and weaknesses of different types of local learning centres and partnerships in South-Eastern Europe--in line with the value and…

  19. Increasing Access to Higher Education and the Reproduction of Social Inequalities: The Case of Roma University Students in Eastern and Southeastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaz, Stela; Torotcoi, Simona

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how elitist elements are preserved within an expanding higher education. It analyzes whether the choice of field of study may be one of these elements and focuses on the case of Roma students in Eastern and Southeastern Europe. The analysis reveals that Roma in the region are not only underrepresented in higher education in…

  20. The public perception of the nuclear energy in Eastern Europe: past and present; La percepcion publica de la energia nuclear en Europa del Este: pasado y presente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Jimenez, G.

    2010-07-01

    In Eastern Europe, people associate nuclear energy to the idea of progress, and prestige of the nuclear industry is very high. This article sets the use of nuclear technology to produce energy in a historical context that is particular to these countries. Results of interviews and surveys are analyzed in order to provide an insight on the level of acceptance among population. (Author)

  1. Major challenges in clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients in Eastern Europe compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Efsen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rates of both TB/HIV co-infection and multi-drug-resistant (MDR TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE. Data on the clinical management of TB/HIV co-infected patients are scarce. Our aim was to study the clinical characteristics of TB/HIV patients in Europe and Latin America (LA at TB diagnosis, identify factors associated with MDR-TB and assess the activity of initial TB treatment regimens given the results of drug-susceptibility tests (DST. Material and Methods: We enrolled 1413 TB/HIV patients from 62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, Western Europe (WE, Southern Europe (SE and LA from January 2011 to December 2013. Among patients who completed DST within the first month of TB therapy, we linked initial TB treatment regimens to the DST results and calculated the distribution of patients receiving 0, 1, 2, 3 and ≥4 active drugs in each region. Risk factors for MDR-TB were identified in logistic regression models. Results: Significant differences were observed between EE (n=844, WE (n=152, SE (n=164 and LA (n=253 for use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART at TB diagnosis (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p<0.0001, a definite TB diagnosis (culture and/or PCR positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p<0.0001 and MDR-TB prevalence (34%, 3%, 3% and 11%, p <0.0001 among those with DST results. The history of injecting drug use [adjusted OR (aOR = 2.03, (95% CI 1.00–4.09], prior TB treatment (aOR = 3.42, 95% CI 1.88–6.22 and living in EE (aOR = 7.19, 95% CI 3.28–15.78 were associated with MDR-TB. For 569 patients with available DST, the initial TB treatment contained ≥3 active drugs in 64% of patients in EE compared with 90–94% of patients in other regions (Figure 1a. Had the patients received initial therapy with standard therapy [Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol (RHZE], the corresponding proportions would have been 64% vs. 86–97%, respectively (Figure 1b. Conclusions: In EE, TB

  2. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszlányi, Július; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described.

  3. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oszlanyi, Julius; Grodzinska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described. - Current status of nature protection in countries of the Carpathian Region is described.

  4. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.

  5. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE IMPACT OF THE EU ENLARGEMENT TOWARDS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ON THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Viorel MIHAI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While the European Union keeps taking pride in putting forward the existence of a European Social Model, no study or project was carried out in order to foresee the enlargement effects on this model and mainly how the latter could be successfully implemented by the new Member States, having regard to their own characteristics. It is no coincidence that the references to the European Social Model multiplied during the period when the EU was facing its own enlargement. More and more questions were raised concerning the new Member States convergence capacity, as regards Central and Eastern Europe countries in particular, with all the European Union social rules. The trends in the new Member States, as well as their convictions or their lack of conviction, concerning the European Social Model, have major implications on the tomorrow’s social Europe. In which direction is it heading in an enlarged 25 or 27 nations European Union? This study is aimed at answering at this question having regard, in particular, to the economical and social characteristics of the new Member States and to the possible sources that might give rise to blockings in the social field.

  6. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis. Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and Ixodes ricinus.

  7. The Migration of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in Eastern Europe - A Ringing Recovery and Direct Observation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounas Anastasios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined ringing recovery data of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in order to analyse its migration patterns and philopatry rates in Eastern Europe. In addition, we extracted counts of migrating birds from online databases and studied the use of the flyway as well as the phenology of both spring and autumn migrations through Greece. Birds appeared to migrate in the same mean direction in spring and autumn through the Italian and Balkan Peninsulas. During spring, movements took place on a broad front from March until mid- May with a peak in mid-April; in autumn, birds migrated through Greece on a narrower front from early August to early October, with most of individuals passing through Greece in mid-September. Finally, philopatry rates were higher for adults, while juvenile birds dispersed more often and at longer distances, up to 974 km away. Our results on migration patterns generally agree with those in other studies, but we found some evidence of long-distance premigratory movements towards mainland Greece that could also shape the narrower front migration in autumn. In addition, long distance dispersal movements of juveniles in southeastern Europe, where Lesser Kestrel populations show a fragmented distribution, could facilitate gene flow between populations, thus avoiding the negative effects of mating with genetically similar individuals.

  8. Systematic study and stratigraphic correlation of the Grandispora complex in the Famennian of northwest and eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs; Avkhimovitch; Loboziak; Maziane-Serraj; Stempien-Salek; Streel

    2000-11-01

    In northwest and eastern Europe different miospore zonation schemes have been erected for the Famennian rocks, and correlation of these has proved problematical. However, in both regions of Europe Grandispora taxa are common elements in the respective Famennian spore successions, and it appears these taxa may have important intra-continental correlation potential. In order to assess this potential, a C.I.M.P. working group has undertaken a taxonomic study of the Grandispora complex in the Famennian of both regions. Representative material from Belarus, Poland, Germany, Belgium, France and Ireland has been exchanged, and then jointly studied, at four workshop meetings. A consensus of agreement has been reached on the morphological delineation and nomenclature of 13 species of Grandispora, and a description of each taxon is presented. One new species Grandispora tamarae is erected, and six new generic combinations are proposed. The stratigraphic range of each species in both regions is documented and calibrated with the respective conodont zonation schemes. It can be shown that many of the Grandispora species seem to have their first occurrence at similar stratigraphic levels. These new data allow detailed correlations of the Famennian miospore zonation schemes to be proposed.

  9. Macromycetes of beech forests within the eastern part of the Fagus area in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lisiewska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the author's view on the habitat if individual forest communities based on the fungi she has collected and gives a comparison of the mycoflora of beech forest in Poland and in south and central Europe. The beech forest were studied by the phytosociological method. Fruit bodies occurring on the soil, in the litter and on rotten wood were studied.

  10. Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Central and Eastern Europe: Self-Reported Practice of Primary Care Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    PALKA, Małgorzata; KRZTOŃ-KRÓLEWIECKA, Anna; TOMASIK, Tomasz; SEIFERT, Bohumil; WÓJTOWICZ, Ewa; WINDAK, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal disorders account for 7–10% of all consultations in primary care. General practitioners’ management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern European countries is largely unknown. Aims To identify and compare variations in the self-perceived responsibilities of general practitioners in the management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern Europe. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a randomized sample of primary care physicians from 9 countries was conducted. An anonymous questionnaire was sent via post to primary care doctors. Results We received 867 responses; the response rate was 28.9%. Over 70% of respondents reported familiarity with available guidelines for gastrointestinal diseases. For uninvestigated dyspepsia in patients under 45 years, the “test and treat” strategy was twice as popular as “test and scope”. The majority (59.8%) of family physicians would refer patients with rectal bleeding without alarm symptoms to a specialist (from 7.6% of doctors in Slovenia to 85.1% of doctors in Bulgaria; pmanagement. Numerous efforts should be undertaken to establish and implement international standards for digestive disorders’ management in general practice. PMID:27669515

  11. Effective use of marketing technology in Eastern Europe: Web analytics, social media, customer analytics, digital campaigns and mobile applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dureen Jayaram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition economies of Eastern Europe present both the opportunities and challenges for companies operating in these markets. On one hand, these countries have a large number of technology savvy young consumers, and on the other, the markets must also take into consideration the macro-environment of a country and market conditions which make the use of certain market technologies more feasible and attractive compared to others. It is certainly true in terms of the timing for introduction of various technologies in a country. Drawing analogy for the “IDITAROD RACE” we develop three different “Sled Dog Team layouts” for market characteristics and technologies for three Eastern European countries, namely, Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Albania. The ten market characteristics included in our research are: digital connectivity divide, economic power, demand type, privacy laws, demographics, and competitive conditions, attitude towards technology, institutional maturity, corporate social responsibility, and corruption. The ten marketing technologies included in our research are: digital profiling, segmentation, websites, and search engines marketing, campaign management, content management, social media, mobile application, digital collaborations, and analytics. Company case studies are analyzed and reported for each of these three countries which support the three models presented in our research.

  12. RECENT CONTROVERSIES REGARDING THE DELAYS IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRIES FROM EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Richiter Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The European integration is the best way for the poor Eastern European societies to follow in order to progress. Gathering contacts with the Occident cannot push the former communist societies to the status of chronically backward peripheries. The theory of "modernization" claims that the mere contact with the western modernity is sufficient to remove the elements of the traditional societies which hinder the development and generate progress automatically. Countries, which suffered from th...

  13. The Second Economy in the USSR and Eastern Europe: A Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Joseph S. Factory and Manager in the USSR. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1957. Berman, Harold J. Justice in Russia. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press...Hustling on Gorky Street. New York: Dial Press, 1975. Brus, Wlodzimierz, and Kazimierz Laski . "Repressed Inflation and Second Economy under Central Planning...the volume is devoted to Western countries and situations. The three papers devoted to Eastern countries are by Galasi, Brezinski, and Brus/ Laski ; they

  14. The Impact on Strategic Stability of Ballistic Missile Defense in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    the final chapter of the Eastern European missile defense saga has yet to be written, this study can contribute to the field of knowledge even at...Canada at the USSR Academy of Sciences. This publication is invaluable in examining how strategic stability was viewed at the twilight of the Cold...the Czech Republic are carrying out deliberations and how Russia is reacting to each particular new wrinkle in the missile defense saga ; and

  15. Making business with giants- impact of retail internationalization in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Jon Henrich; Dautzenberg, Kirsti; Pall, Zsombor

    2009-01-01

    Due to increasingly globalized markets and internationalization, the food retail business has undergone a number of structural changes. Former nationally oriented retailers have suddenly become global. This process in the retail sector affects also new structures in the agribusiness, most notably as general retailers export their business models. A comparison of the development and the impact of globalization in the retail sectors of different Central and Eastern European countries reveal var...

  16. HAVE THE RECENT CRISIS AFFECTED FOREIGN BANKS’ POSITIONS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE? (I – GENERAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Petria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the extension to what foreign banks reacted during recent crisis in supporting their subsidiaries and thus the host economies. The analysis focuses on a brief theoretical overview and an analysis in terms of foreign claims regarding selected Central and Eastern European countries. We are also interested in finding if the entry mode (acquisition of a existing local bank, greenfield investment, non-resident office did matter in this issue.

  17. Using the Landsat data archive to assess long-term regional forest dynamics assessment in Eastern Europe, 1985-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turubanova, S.; Potapov, P.; Krylov, A.; Tyukavina, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Radeloff, V. C.; Hansen, M. C.

    2015-04-01

    Dramatic political and economic changes in Eastern European countries following the dissolution of the "Eastern Bloc" and the collapse of the Soviet Union greatly affected land-cover and land-use trends. In particular, changes in forest cover dynamics may be attributed to the collapse of the planned economy, agricultural land abandonment, economy liberalization, and market conditions. However, changes in forest cover are hard to quantify given inconsistent forest statistics collected by different countries over the last 30 years. The objective of our research was to consistently quantify forest cover change across Eastern Europe from 1985 until 2012 using the complete Landsat data archive. We developed an algorithm for processing imagery from different Landsat platforms and sensors (TM and ETM+), aggregating these images into a common set of multi-temporal metrics, and mapping annual gross forest cover loss and decadal gross forest cover gain. Our results show that forest cover area increased from 1985 to 2012 by 4.7% across the region. Average annual gross forest cover loss was 0.41% of total forest cover area, with a statistically significant increase from 1985 to 2012. Most forest disturbance recovered fast, with only 12% of the areas of forest loss prior to 1995 not being recovered by 2012. Timber harvesting was the main cause of forest loss. Logging area declined after the collapse of socialism in the late 1980s, increased in the early 2000s, and decreased in most countries after 2007 due to the global economic crisis. By 2012, Central and Baltic Eastern European countries showed higher logging rates compared to their Western neighbours. Comparing our results with official forest cover and change estimates showed agreement in total forest area for year 2010, but with substantial disagreement between Landsat-based and official net forest cover area change. Landsat-based logging areas exhibit strong relationship with reported roundwood production at national

  18. Is intensification a viable way for pond culture in Central and Eastern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergő Gyalog

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s Central and Eastern European aquaculture is based on low production intensity pondculture dominated by traditional extensive and semi-intensive carp-based polyculture technologies, useof complete feeds in pond culture is not prevalent. Meanwhile pond culture in other parts of the Worldhas gone through an intensification process, nowadays high-intensity monoculture technologies dominatein pond farming. Use of complete feeds and application of higher stocking rates have doubled-tripledyields compared to traditional extensive, semi-intensive farming methods. Economic analysis of Asianfarms shows that intensification leads to increased profits per unit area and decreased profitability. Thecalculation of financial results of fish farming technologies of different intensity level show the sameeffect of intensification on viability in Hungary as in Asia: high feeding and stocking rate result inoutstanding profit per unit area and decreased profit margin at the same time. Rising land prices (andrents, fees for usage of water, decrease in area-based subsidies can push the Central and EasternEuropean pond aquaculture toward intensification as high intensity fish rearing in ponds may offer goodalternative for those farmers who have limited access to land (pond area and water. However one musttake the increased risks of high intensity and must have good managing abilities and farming expertisewith special regard to water quality and biomass management.

  19. Reasons for Low Part-Time Employment in Eastern Europe – Any Role for Low Wages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerly Krillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Eastern European countries are characterized by high wage inequalities and a relatively low proportion of labour force being employed on a part-time basis, yet there seem not be so far made any studies on the part time pay penalty. In this article we analyse whether there are any differences in the average wages of part-time and full-time employed in Estonia, a small Eastern European catching up economy. We use Estonian Labour Force Survey data from years 1997-2007; the part time wage gap is estimated by using Oaxaca-Blinder wage decompositions and propensity score matching. The results are quite different for males and females. For females the raw wage gap is in favour of part-timers. After taking into account various worker characteristics, the wage gap becomes even larger. For males the full-time raw premium exists, but it is to a large extent explained by the different labour market characteristics.

  20. The impact of social change on child mental health in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, O; Sargent, J; Friedrich, W; Chaffin, M; Cunningham, N; Cantor, P S

    2001-10-01

    The transition of the Eastern European countries in the past 12 years from totalitarian, communist societies to democratic societies has had a broad impact on children's mental health, both positively and negatively. This transition has not been without economic difficulties. All countries in the region experienced a significant deterioration of output that has affected the availability of commodities and services. Although recovery has been achieved in some Eastern European countries and is in progress in other countries, reversal of the cutbacks in allocations to necessary services that protect children and families may take longer to achieve. Movement toward a free market economy and greater individualism also has focused attention away from the role of society to protect and provide care for its citizens, especially the most vulnerable. On the positive side, mental health, as a concept for children and adults, comes to be appreciated only in a society that values and safeguards individual rights. Democratic process within the family, the depoliticization of mental illness, the passage of laws assuring basic children's rights, services for and public awareness about children abuse, reforms in education, the proliferation of mental health clinics and support centers, and the resumption of training of mental health professionals all set a tone to first consider, then assure, the positive development of children's mental health.

  1. Homonationalism before Homonationalism: Representations of Russia, Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union in the U.S. Homophile Press, 1953-1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Dasha

    2017-01-17

    This essay focuses on representations of Russia, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. Extending the application of Jasbir Puar's concept of homonationalism to the Cold War period, the essay examines 126 articles and other items that were published in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder and demonstrates that these periodicals often engaged in homonationalist discourses when constructing the Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European "other." Negative constructions of these regions were sometimes used to affirm the political alignment of the homophile authors with the American nation. At other times, negative constructions were used in comparative assessments that critiqued both the United States and the Soviet and Eastern European regions. In contrast, positive constructions of Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European peoples and cultures were used as evidence that non-heteronormative desires and bodies had legitimate places in many "primitive" cultures and existed across all nations and periods.

  2. Health reform in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechel, Bernd; McKee, Martin

    2009-10-03

    In the two decades since the fall of the Berlin Wall, former communist countries in Europe have pursued wide-ranging changes to their health systems. We describe three key aspects of these changes-an almost universal switch to health insurance systems, a growing reliance on out-of-pocket payments (both formal and informal), and efforts to strengthen primary health care, often with a model of family medicine delivered by general practitioners. Many decisions about health policy, such as the introduction of health insurance systems or general practice, took into account political issues more than they did evidence. Evidence for whether health reforms have achieved their intended results is sparse. Of crucial importance is that lessons are learnt from experiences of countries to enable development of health systems that meet present and future health needs of populations.

  3. Why AGU is important in Eastern Europe and should increase its role even more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V.

    2007-12-01

    After the fall of the ex-communist system about twenty years ago, the East European countries faced a significant, multilateral challenge in all aspects of their economical, financial, military, scientific and especially educational and professional life. They had a pretty robust tradition in classic education and research, but had to prepare their young generation and specialists for a hard competition for grad-, post grad- and professional level competing with colleagues from other parts of the world. They had to restructure their systems and re-discovered the professional societies. AGU represented a certain model of efficiency on handling various aspects of geoscientific activities: integration of geophysics with other related disciplines like atmospheric sciences, hydrology and hydrogeology, volcanism, geochemistry etc., from deep Earth to the intergalactic space. Close cooperation with other boundary sciences, regular and very well organized meetings dedicated more to Solid earth (AGU Fall Meeting) or Near-Surface Geophysics (AGU Spring Meetings), its very close cooperation with the sister societies from Europe, other North, Central and South American countries as well as the Far East and Australia, permanent opening towards a strong international cooperation with all countries and societies world- wide, very active interest in education and career orientation, strong publication policy represented a certain attraction and a very tempting model for the East European countries. Their very quick development has to be joined by transformation of their higher education and research system in such a way that they become more and more competitive with other countries worldwide. They have to develop their own system so that it attracts more and more youngsters to remain/return home and contribute to the advance of their home countries and, in close partnerships with other developed and developing countries, with the guidance of the professional societies like AGU

  4. Electricity generation development of Eastern Europe. A carbon technology management case study for Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalvatzis, Konstantinos J. [School of Environmental Sciences and Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Energy and electricity in particular, are of unquestionable value for the welfare of all modern societies. The electricity sectors of Eastern European countries have undergone several phases of development between the post-WWII days within the CEMA and USSR frameworks and today's EU and global energy and environmental regimes. The present paper examines the progress of the Polish electricity sector throughout the last decades, providing useful information regarding not only the technical generation and distribution infrastructure but also the policies that have been and are currently implemented. The results are discussed in the context of indicators such as the electricity intensity and per capita consumption, and show that although the Polish electricity sector has gone a long way, there still are several necessary technology management steps to be taken if Poland is to adequately address the challenges of international competition, electricity supply security and environmental sustainability. (author)

  5. Land Reform and Land Consolidation in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    instruments are well on the way in the region, land banking instruments have largely failed in the region, at least as tools for supporting land consolidation programs. Based on the limited theory available, the analysis has revealed how limited land mobility is often hampering the outcome of land...... are not competitive in the globalized economy. Drawing on the classical theory on land fragmentation, this PhD study explores the coherence between the land reform approaches applied in 25 study countries and the outcome in form of farm structures and land fragmentation. Most of the Central and Eastern European...... countries have introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems in agriculture. The PhD study analyses the experiences from introduction of land consolidation and land banking instruments and provides the first full overview of the experiences achieved. While land consolidation...

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACTIVITY OF BANKS WITH FOREIGN CAPITAL IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU MAGDALENA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The privatization has as purpose to reestablish the functionality of a type of property under the public agreement. The privatization of banks brings both positive and beneficial aspects, but also some notions with a negative impact that influence the capital markets and banking system. Among the benefits we can include: the increase of the effectiveness and performance of the banking operations, the implementation of some effective structures that lead to the gradual integration of the banking system into the greatly developed economies, the improvement and perfecting of the bank services. In Romania, the privatization of banks started rather late and in some cases it turned up to be very difficult. Romanian banking system is dominated by the Austrian and Greek investors. The Romanian banking system is very concentrated, but the intermediation level is still lower than in other European or Eastern European countries.

  7. Comparative Analysis of South Eastern Europe Economies facing the Crisis. Future Prospects for the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Paul (Vass

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effects of the global economic crisis in ten South Eastern European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, within a European perspective. It also points out the main transmission channels of the economic crisis, by outlining the strong economic and financial ties with the EU, acting like contagion corridors in the event of global downturns. In terms of macroeconomic policy responses of the countries, these mainly led to increased fiscal deficits and public debts. Taking as benchmark the Romanian experience during the crisis, we outline several important structural reforms intended to boost competitiveness in the area. The paper concludes that, in spite of the recent negative evolutions, the SEE-10 region has an important economic potential for the future. In the final recommendations we explore the creativity potential of the region, as a strategic opportunity for putting the region on the global competitiveness map.

  8. The investment development path in a globalised world: implications for Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guimón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article summarises recent revisions to the investment development path(IDP as postulated by Narula and Dunning (2010. The IDP provides a framework to understand the dynamic interaction between foreign direct investment (FDI and economic development. The revisions take into account some recent changes in the global economic environment. This paper argues that studies based on the IDP should adopt a broader perspective, encompassing the idiosyncratic economic structure of countries as well as the heterogeneous nature of FDI. It is critical to understand the complex forces and interactions that determine the turning points in a country’s IDP, and to more explicitly acknowledge the role of historical, social and political circumstances in hindering or promoting FDI. We discuss some of the implications for EasternEuropean countries and provide some guidelines for future research.

  9. Determinants of banks’ net interest margins in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Rizdak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the main determinants of the net interest margin of banks operating in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries in the period from 1999 to 2010. The results reveal several main drivers of net interest margins in the CEE. Prior to 2008 the net interest margins declined primarily due to strong capital inflows and stable macroeconomic environment. In the crisis period, significant rise in government debt accompanied by the increase in macroeconomic risks and abating capital inflows were pushing margins up while other factors such as low credit demand, higher capitalization and significantly increased share of non-performing loans pressured banks’ margins down. The results also confirm the important contribution of higher efficiency to lowering banks’ margins.

  10. POPE study: rationale and methodology of a study to phenotype patients with COPD in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbozinkova Z

    2016-03-01

    of COPD exacerbation ≥4 weeks. Medical history, risk factors for COPD, comorbidities, lung function parameters, symptoms, and pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical treatment are recorded. The POPE project is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier NCT02119494.Outcomes: The primary aim of the POPE study was to phenotype patients with COPD in a real-life setting within CEE countries using predefined classifications. Secondary aims of the study included analysis of differences in symptoms, and diagnostic and therapeutic behavior in participating CEE countries.Conclusion: There is increasing acceptance toward a phenotype-driven therapeutic approach in COPD. The POPE study may contribute to reveal important information regarding phenotypes and therapy in real-life CEE.Keywords: COPD, phenotypes, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, study, GOLD, comorbidity

  11. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobranici, M; Buzea, A; Popescu, R

    2012-12-15

    Estimated number of the Roma people in central-eastern Europe cannot be precisely appreciated, but official data suggest that in the 2004 they were approximately 4.2 million. At this time, there are few available data about the health status of the Roma people, mostly assessing genetic and infectious diseases, which reflect poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education. There is even less data regarding non-communicable and chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. We searched the published literature on the cardiovascular risk factors in Roma people using PubMed from January 2000 to July 2011. The searching criteria were: (1) randomized, prospective observational, retrospective and meta-analysis; (2) adult patients with cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors (3) data available for cardiovascular patients. Search terms included dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Twenty-five studies were identified. Approximately 75% of them were related to just four countries: Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, and Serbia. This paper is a review based on existing literature concerning classical risk factors in Roma people with emphasis on their ethnical features. Despite limited data, the results showed that this ethnicity has the incriminated risk factors more frequently than the majority and consequently a higher cardiovascular morbidity rate. Quantification of the cardiovascular risk factor and their implication in the shortening of life expectancy in Roma population was a provocation due to a paucity of reliable data. At this time, we should pay more attention on the Roma health issues and the cultural concerns that might affect them in the context of borderless Europe.

  12. A Systematic Content Analysis of Policy Barriers Impeding Access to Opioid Medication in Central and Eastern Europe: Results of ATOME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjow, Eugenia; Papavasiliou, Evangelia; Payne, Sheila; Scholten, Willem; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Reliable access to opioid medication is critical to delivering effective pain management, adequate treatment of opioid dependence, and quality palliative care. However, more than 80% of the world population is estimated to be inadequately treated for pain because of difficulties in accessing opioids. Although barriers to opioid access are primarily associated with restrictive laws, regulations, and licensing requirements, a key problem that significantly limits opioid access relates to policy constraints. To identify and explore policy barriers to opioid access in 12 Eastern and Central European countries involved in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe project, funded by the European Community's Seventh Framework (FP7/2007-2013, no. 222994) Programme. A systematic content analysis of texts retrieved from documents (e.g., protocols of national problem analyses, strategic planning worksheets, and executive summaries) compiled, reviewed, approved, and submitted by either the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe consortium or the national country teams (comprising experts in pain management, harm reduction, and palliative care) between September 2011 and April 2014 was performed. Twenty-five policy barriers were identified (e.g., economic crisis, bureaucratic issues, lack of training initiatives, stigma, and discrimination), classified under four predetermined categories (financial/economic aspects and governmental support, formularies, education and training, and societal attitudes). Key barriers related to issues of funding allocation, affordability, knowledge, and fears associated with opioids. Reducing barriers and improving access to opioids require policy reform at the governmental level with a set of action plans being formulated and concurrently implemented and aimed at different levels of social, education, and economic policy change. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Replacing animal use in physiology and pharmacology teaching in selected universities in Eastern Europe--charting a way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, David G; Kojic, Zvezdana Z

    2011-03-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the use of animals in teaching and the implementation of innovative technology-based teaching practices across a small sample of universities in Eastern Europe. The research methods used were a questionnaire circulated four weeks before a workshop took place (in October 2009, in Belgrade, Serbia), as well as focused, face-to-face group discussions, led by one of the authors during the workshop. Twenty-two faculty (physiologists and pharmacologists), from 13 Eastern European countries, attended the meeting. Fourteen of the eighteen schools represented at the workshop were making use of animals, in some instances in quite large numbers, for their teaching. For example, a single department at a Romanian university used over 250 animals per annum, and at least 1130 animals were used, per annum, across all of the institutions. The species used in largest numbers were the rat (34%), frog/toad (29%), mouse (22%), rabbit (10%), guinea-pig (4%) and dog (1%). None of the universities sampled had implemented institution-wide virtual learning environments (VLEs), although there were isolated instances of local use of VLEs. There was relatively little current use of technology-based teaching and learning resources, but there was considerable enthusiasm to modernise teaching and to introduce innovative learning and teaching methods. The major perceived barrier to the introduction of replacement alternatives was the lack of versions in local languages. There was a consensus view that developing local language exemplars and evaluating their usefulness was likely to have the greatest impact on animal use, at least in the short-term.

  14. Genetic and demographic features of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in Eastern and Central Europe: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Beáta; Volokha, Alla; Mihas, Alexander; Pac, Malgorzata; Bernatowska, Ewa; Kondratenko, Irina; Polyakov, Alexander; Erdos, Melinda; Pasic, Srdjan; Bataneant, Michaela; Szaflarska, Anna; Mironska, Kristina; Richter, Darko; Stavrik, Katarina; Avcin, Tadej; Márton, Gabriella; Nagy, Kálmán; Dérfalvi, Beáta; Szolnoky, Miklós; Kalmár, Agnes; Belevtsev, Michael; Guseva, Marina; Rugina, Aurica; Kriván, Gergely; Timár, László; Nyul, Zoltán; Mosdósi, Bernadett; Kareva, Lidija; Peova, Sonja; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Gherghina, Ioan; Serban, Margit; Conley, Mary Ellen; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Smith, C I Edvard; van Dongen, Jacques; van der Burg, Mirjam; Maródi, László

    2009-06-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders are a recognized public health problem worldwide. The prototype of these conditions is X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) or Bruton's disease. XLA is caused by mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene (BTK), preventing B cell development and resulting in the almost total absence of serum immunoglobulins. The genetic profile and prevalence of XLA have not previously been studied in Eastern and Central European (ECE) countries. We studied the genetic and demographic features of XLA in Belarus, Croatia Hungary, Poland, Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, and Ukraine. We collected clinical, immunological, and genetic information for 122 patients from 109 families. The BTK gene was sequenced from the genomic DNA of patients with a high susceptibility to infection, almost no CD19(+) peripheral blood B cells, and low or undetectable levels of serum immunoglobulins M, G, and A, compatible with a clinical and immunological diagnosis of XLA. BTK sequence analysis revealed 98 different mutations, 46 of which are reported for the first time here. The mutations included single nucleotide changes in the coding exons (35 missense and 17 nonsense), 23 splicing defects, 13 small deletions, 7 large deletions, and 3 insertions. The mutations were scattered throughout the BTK gene and most frequently concerned the SH1 domain; no missense mutation was detected in the SH3 domain. The prevalence of XLA in ECE countries (total population 145,530,870) was found to be 1 per 1,399,000 individuals. This report provides the first comprehensive overview of the molecular genetic and demographic features of XLA in Eastern and Central Europe.

  15. Khatyrka, a new CV3 find from the Koryak Mountains, Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Bindi, Luca; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Eiler, John M.; Guan, Yunbin; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2013-08-01

    A new meteorite find, named Khatyrka, was recovered from eastern Siberia as a result of a search for naturally occurring quasicrystals. The meteorite occurs as clastic grains within postglacial clay-rich layers along the banks of a small stream in the Koryak Mountains, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of far eastern Russia. Some of the grains are clearly chondritic and contain Type IA porphyritic olivine chondrules enclosed in matrices that have the characteristic platy olivine texture, matrix olivine composition, and mineralogy (olivine, pentlandite, nickel-rich iron-nickel metal, nepheline, and calcic pyroxene [diopside-hedenbergite solid solution]) of oxidized-subgroup CV3 chondrites. A few grains are fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with mineral oxygen isotopic compositions again typical of such objects in CV3 chondrites. The chondritic and CAI grains contain small fragments of metallic copper-aluminum-iron alloys that include the quasicrystalline phase icosahedrite. One grain is an achondritic intergrowth of Cu-Al metal alloys and forsteritic olivine ± diopsidic pyroxene, both of which have meteoritic (CV3-like) oxygen isotopic compositions. Finally, some grains consist almost entirely of metallic alloys of aluminum + copper ± iron. The Cu-Al-Fe metal alloys and the alloy-bearing achondrite clast are interpreted to be an accretionary component of what otherwise is a fairly normal CV3 (oxidized) chondrite. This association of CV3 chondritic grains with metallic copper-aluminum alloys makes Khatyrka a unique meteorite, perhaps best described as a complex CV3 (ox) breccia.

  16. IDENTIFYING THE INDUSTRY BUSINESS CYCLE USING THE MARKOV SWITCHING APPROACH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristi SPULBĂR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use a Markov Switching model with two lags to identify and to compare the business cycle in Romania, Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland using data on industrial production for the 1991-2011 period. We use a model with two regimes that reflect the economic expansions and contractions. The Markov Switching models have been widely used in order to detect and to date the business cycle turning points. However, it should be pointed out that the industrial production may have a little bit different dynamics than the quarterly gross domestic product which is the main measure of economic activity. Based on the smoothed regime probabilities the model track three recessionary periods of the Romanian economy in 1991, 1997 and 2009 and two recessionary periods for the other countries in 1991 and 2009. Mean yoy growth of IPI is 5.01% during expansion periods, while it switches to -18.6% during contraction periods for the Romanian economy. In comparison, mean yoy growth of IPI is 7.25% during expansion periods, while it switches to -13.4% during contraction periods for the Poland economy. Furthermore, in Romania, the duration of the three recessions in months was 25, 25 and 9 months. In Poland, the duration of the two recessions was 16 and 10 months. The results of the study may be used in order to compare the business cycle in Central and Eastern European countries with the Euro Area business cycle.

  17. SOVEREIGN WEALTH FUNDS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: SCOPE AND METHODS OF FINANCIAL PENETRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wiśniewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central and Eastern European (CEE capital markets (of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine and, to a limited extent, Belarus are gradually evolving towards increased breadth (diversity and depth (liquidity, however, they are still exposed to considerable cross-country volatility and interdependence spill-overs – especially in times of capital flight to more established asset classes (“safe havens”. Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs have widely been censured for their undesirable political interference and chronic operational opacity. This paper demonstrates that in CEE, contrary to widespread perceptions attributable to developed markets, SWFs can act as natural and powerful risk mitigators (contributing to a more stable capital base and reduced systemic volatility. Such a proposition is premised on several factors specific to SWFs oriented to CEE. They comprise: strategic long-termism and patience in overcoming interim pricing deficiencies, commitments to elements of a broadly interpreted infrastructure, and absence of overt conflicts of interest with the CEE host economies. The paper, besides reviewing the utilitarianism of SWFs in the CEE’s risk mitigation context, highlights regulatory and technical barriers to more SWF funding for CEE. It also recommends policy measures to the CEE economies aimed at luring more host-friendly SWF investment into the region.

  18. The environmental catastrophe of Eastern Europe. La catastrofe ambientale nei paesi dell'est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatar, P.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental data presented stress the evidence that Czechoslovakia is one of the world's most polluted countries. CFC production in 1988 amounted to about 7,000 tons, while carbon dioxide emissions, due mainly to the use of low-quality solid fossil fuels, amount to about 60.4 million tons/year. One of the main causes of environmental devastation in Czechoslovakia is the country's weak economy, which consumes excessive quantities of raw materials and energy, has ecologically inadequate technologies and produces articles with inadequate ecological parameters. According to opinion polls recently conducted in Eastern European countries, 25% of the population believes environmental damage is the major problem facing their nations, but only 11% considers environmental improvement a high priority issue. This can be explained by the great economic and social uncertainty in this period and the lack of information on the causes and consequences of a degraded environment. The interventions of the Czechoslovakian government's ecological program, may be grouped in the following categories: programs relating to the system of environmental control; programs relating to specific parts of the environment; environmental education programs; sectorial ecological programs; environmental research and development programs.

  19. Three Concepts of Competitiveness Measures for Livestock Production in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the overview of competitiveness measures applied in measuring competitiveness of livestock production in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. Three concepts of competitiveness are presented that are based on (i Porter’s diamond of competitive advantage, (ii competitiveness measures based on accountancy data and Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM approach, and (iii competitiveness measures based on international trade data. On the basis of the presented results the paper evaluates competitiveness of livestock production in CEE countries focusing on policy implications of transition and integration of CEE’s countries livestock sectors into the Single European Market. Low international competitiveness In CEE countries is for beef and milk, but with some indices of most recent improvements. Pork production (e.g. in Bulgaria and sheep production (e.g. in Slovakia may become internationally competitive. Less clear pattern is for the poultry sector. Some improvements may arise as result of a deep restructuring, quality, technology and efficiency improvements and rationalisation of costs, including in food processing.

  20. Ancient Paleo-DNA of Pre-Copper Age North-Eastern Europe: Establishing the Migration Traces of R1a1 Y-DNA Haplogroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Semenov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the problems of paleogenetics and anthropology connected with problem of pre-Copper Age after-Glacial repopulation process of the North-Eastern Europe. The unified data, obtained in various laboratories in 2010-2016, collects a certain amount of the ancient mt-DNA and Y-DNA haplogroup samples of the considered period, what allows establishing the connection between some of them, comparing them with the data of neighboring regions, and attributing them to certain migration flows traceable in archeology. The paper makes an attempt to build a picture of the population of North-Eastern Europe in pre-Copper Age time and to systemize the paleo DNA genotyping results into clusters corresponding to different migration waves. The paper can be of use for biomedical purposes also, as some correlations between diseases and haplogroups were noticed in various medical works.

  1. Welfare State Retrenchment in Central and Eastern Europe: The Case of Pension Reforms in Poland and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Guardiancich

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper endeavours to shed some light on the mechanisms that led to the divergence of welfare state arrangements across Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. In particular, pension system reforms displayed a great deal of variance, which surprised both institutionalists and convergence theorists. The Polish and Slovenian cases are thus presented and compared in a political economy perspective. Theories of retrenchment, recent studies on the dynamics of CEE pension reforms and consultations with some of the relevant actors, were employed in order to account for the divergence of reform outcomes in the two countries. The study focused on three main explanations: partisan competition, the interaction between relevant external (World Bank and internal actors (Minister of Labour and Minister of Finance and the trade-off. between power concentration and accountability concentration. The latter yielded the best explanation. While Polish reformers managed to internalise most veto actors’ reservations, Slovenian politicians excluded from consultation the country’s main trade union. Its opposition determined the rejection of radical reforms recommended by the World Bank.

  2. An Empirical Analysis Of Stock Returns And Volatility: The Case Of Stock Markets From Central And Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okičić Jasmina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to investigate the behaviour of stock returns in the case of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, focusing on the relationship between returns and conditional volatility. Since there is relatively little empirical research on the volatility of stock returns in underdeveloped stock markets, with even fewer studies on markets in the transitional economies of the CEE region, this paper is designed to shed some light on the econometric modelling of the conditional mean and volatility of stock returns from this region. The results presented in this paper provide confirmatory evidence that ARIMA and GARCH processes provide parsimonious approximations of mean and volatility dynamics in the case of the selected stock markets. There is overwhelming evidence corroborating the existence of a leverage effect, meaning that negative shocks increase volatility more than positive shocks do. Since financial decisions are generally based upon the trade-off between risk and return, the results presented in this paper will provide valuable information in decision making for those who are planning to invest in stock markets from the CEE region.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS ON EMPLOYMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. FOCUS ON ROMANIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Raluca Georgiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Central and Eastern Europe has become a player on the international market of foreign direct investment (FDI with the fall of communism in 1990. Liberalization of markets has brought both advantages and disadvantages to new states in transition. Despite modest values of FDI received, the share of the region in total global FDI is increasing. Any type of investment, foreign or domestic one, is considered crucial as it generates employment and contributes to the economic growth .This paper tries to provide an analysis of the effects of FDI on the labor force of this region, and specifically in Romania and Poland. We analyzed the quantitative effect on the labor force, more precisely the effect on the employment. Foreign subsidiaries hold an important part of the occupied population, although the number of foreign firms is lower than the domestic ones. Despite the destruction of jobs in the early transition in the process of restructuring, foreign subsidiaries, both directly and indirectly create jobs and usually at a higher rate than the domestic companies manage to do. During the recent financial crisis, foreign subsidiaries proved to be more resilient and the cut off jobs was lower than in domestic firms.

  4. The Impact of Sovereign Credit Ratings on the Issuance of Government Bonds in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STANCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research paper aims to assess the impact of sovereign credit ratings on the issuance of government bonds in Central and Eastern Europe. The personal analysis is performed on a sample of government bonds issued by Turkey, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia between 2000-2010. The sample includes issues in several currencies (EUR, USD, GBP, JPY, CHF, CZK, PLN, TRY, RUB, RON, HUF. The research paper consists of two different analyses. The first one assesses the degree in which the variation in the initial yield of government bonds issued in one particular currency can be explained by using explanatory variables such as: inflation, sovereign rating corresponding to the issuing country, and the state of crisis (this analysis is performed for each currency separately. The second analysis assesses the degree in which the variation in the maturity of the government bonds issued by a certain country can be explained by using explanatory variables such as: inflation, sovereign rating on the date of issuance, and the state of crisis.

  5. Public Health Aspects of the Family Medicine Concepts in South Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Hadziahmetovic, Miran; Donev, Doncho; Pollhozani, Azis; Ramadani, Naser; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Roshi, Enver; Zunic, Lejla; Zildzic, Muharem

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Family medicine as a part of the primary health care is devoted to provide continuous and comprehensive health care to the individuals and families regardless of age, gender, types of diseases and affected system or part of the body. Special emphasis in such holistic approach is given to the prevention of diseases and health promotion. Family Medicine is the first step/link between doctors and patients within patients care as well as regular inspections/examinations and follow-up of the health status of healthy people. Most countries aspire to join the European Union and therefore adopting new regulations that are applied in the European Union. Aim: The aim of this study is to present the role and importance of family medicine, or where family medicine is today in 21 Century from the beginning of development in these countries. The study is designed as a descriptive epidemiological study with data from 10 countries of the former Communist bloc, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, just about half of them are members of the EU. We examined the following variables: socio-organizational indicators, health and educational indicators and health indicators. The data used refer to 2002 and as a source of data are used official data from reference WebPages of family medicine doctors associations, WONCA website (EURACT, EQuiP, EGPRN), WebPages of Bureau of Statistics of the countries where the research was conducted as well as the Ministries of Health. Results: Results indicates that the failures and shortcomings of health care organizations in Southeast Europe. Lack of money hinders the implementation of health care reform in all mentioned countries, the most of them that is more oriented to Bismarck financing system. Problems in the political, legal and economic levels are obstacles for efficient a problem reconstructing health care system toward

  6. Herbaceous Plants for Climate Adaptation and Intensely Developed Urban Sites In Northern Europe: A Case Study From the Eastern Romanian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöman Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the increasingly compact city, services currently provided for in parks will in future be compressed into smaller green unit-structures, often associated with paved surfaces. Left-over spaces in urban environments, such as traffic roundabouts and strips along paths, roads and other corridors, will be important in the future city in order to deliver different eco-system services, especially stormwater management. It is therefore essential to start now to develop the knowledge and experience needed to create sustainable plantings for these sites. This paper presents the findings of a field survey in eastern Romania that sought to identify potential species for urban paved plantings in the Scandinavian region (northern Europe. The research approach is rooted in the hypothesis that studies of natural vegetation systems and habitats where plants are exposed to environmental conditions similar to those in inner-city environments can: 1 identify new or non-traditional species and genotypes adapted to urban environments; and 2 supply information and knowledge about their use potential concerning growth, flowering, life form, etc. In total, 117 different herbaceous species, all of which experience water stress regimes comparable to those in urban paved sites in Scandinavia. The initial information obtained from this field survey present a base of knowledge of which species that have a future potential for use in urban environment, which is of great importance in the following work within this project instead of testing species randomly without this knowledge of the species tolerance and performance in similar habitats.

  7. Stock Splits and Liquidity for Two Major Capital Markets from Central–Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Rudnicki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the stock market there occur some events that contradict the efficient market hypothesis therefore they are called anomalies. One of the mysterious corporate events which has attracted the attention of numerous researchers is a stock split. I perform the review of implications of splitting the stock for market liquidity of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange and the Vienna Stock Exchange. I use event study, in particular Market model method and Market adjusted return method, to inspect the behavior of abnormal changes in daily trading volume for stock splits performed between 2000 through 2011 over a short run and assuming a longer time interval. Moreover, I juxtapose the results for both stock exchanges to examine whether the stock split phenomenon for two major capital markets from this part of Europe can be better explained by means of existing theories on stock splits. The research is aimed at analyzing the implications of the split for market liquidity, i.e. whether there occurs an immediate effect following the split as well as whether this corporate event improves the level of market liquidity over long run. Furthermore, the goal of the paper is to investigate whether the investors can cash in on the stock split, more specifically, whether they can profit from lower transaction costs. I document a significant growth in the market liquidity of stock splitting firms over 36 months following the split for both capital markets what is indicative of lower transaction costs for investors. The 1–percent significant results are consistent with the liquidity hypothesis on stock splits.

  8. Health impact assessment of Roma housing policies in Central and Eastern Europe: A comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Agnes, E-mail: molnar.agnes@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Adam, Balazs, E-mail: adam.balazs@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Antova, Temenujka, E-mail: t.antova@ncphp.government.bg [National Center of Public Health Protection, 15, Ivan Ev. Geshov blvd, 1431 Sofia (Bulgaria); Bosak, Lubos, E-mail: bosak@centrum.sk [Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Care and Social Work, Trnava University, 1 Univerzitne namestie, 917 00 Trnava (Slovakia); Dimitrov, Plamen, E-mail: p.dimitrov@ncphp.government.bg [National Center of Public Health Protection, 15, Ivan Ev. Geshov blvd, 1431 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mileva, Hristina, E-mail: hmileva@yahoo.com [Ministry of Health, 5 Sveta Nedelya Square, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Pekarcikova, Jarmila, E-mail: jkorcova@truni.sk [Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Care and Social Work, Trnava University, 1 Univerzitne namestie, 917 00 Trnava (Slovakia); Zurlyte, Ingrida, E-mail: ingrida@post.omnitel.net [State Environmental Health Center, Kalvariju str. 153, 08221 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gulis, Gabriel, E-mail: GGulis@health.sdu.dk [Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9, 6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Adany, Roza, E-mail: adany.roza@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Kosa, Karolina, E-mail: karolina.kosa@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2012-02-15

    Marginalised Roma communities in European countries live in substandard housing conditions the improvement of which has been one of the major issues of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the ongoing intergovernmental European Roma programme. The paper presents EU-funded health impact assessments of national Roma housing policies and programmes in 3 Central and Eastern European countries in light of the evaluation of a completed local project in a fourth CEE country so as to compare predicted effects to observed ones. Housing was predicted to have beneficial health effects by improving indoor and outdoor conditions, access to services, and socioeconomic conditions. Negative impacts were predicted only in terms of maintenance expenses and housing tenure. However, observed impacts of the completed local project did not fully support predictions especially in terms of social networks, satisfaction with housing and neighbourhood, and inhabitant safety. In order to improve the predictive value of HIA, more evidence should be produced by the careful evaluation of locally implemented housing projects. In addition, current evidence is in favour of planning Roma housing projects at the local rather than at the national level in alignment with the principle of subsidiarity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictive validity of HIA of national Roma housing policies - in light of current evidence - is low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implemented housing projects should be comprehensively evaluated to improve reliability of HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Roma housing projects should be planned at the local rather than at the national level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA should be used to plan Roma housing projects at the local level.

  9. Small Arms of the Scythians. On the Time of Sigmoid Bow Appearance in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyashko Sergey Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse archers well-known in the ancient world used composite sigmoid bows for shooting (archery, the specific constructive features of which have been studied by the researchers. This type of a bow was convergently formed in Eastern China in the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. and in the North Caucasus in the middle of the 4th millennium B.C. It gets transferred to the Northern Black Sea Region by the Scythians in the late 7th - early 6th centuries B.C. that resulted in the dramatic transformation of arrowheads’ types. The Greeks became aware of this weapon in the last third of the 6th century B.C. Bows can be divided into simple and complex ones. The simple bows are made from one solid bar, while the complex bows are made of several layers of different wood species. Composite bows are constructed from a few consequently connected bars. These types also include a reinforced bow – the bow springing qualities of which are reinforced by bone or tendon plates. Since the ancient masters combined different production methods, the definition of a composite reinforced bow can be found in the literature. European small arms development was focused on improving a simple bow. The strength of such bow was achieved by its size. However, massive bows are unsuitable for firing from a horse. Therefore, in cultures associated with the development of riding the search of methods of bow strength increase at the condition of reducing its size, was going on. In Asia, the focus was made on the material rather than shoulders design. As a result, complex composite bows appear in the East, which were made from several pieces of wood, connected with the central part of the handle at an angle. After the appearance of the Scythians in the middle East the angular design of bows was replaced by a sigmoid shape (scythicus acrus.

  10. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: access in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-02-14

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries.

  11. Autosomal SNPs study of a population sample from north of Portugal and a sample of immigrants from the Eastern Europe living in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurdes Pontes, M; Pinheiro, M F

    2014-03-01

    The use of autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for forensic research has been widely discussed in recent years, mainly because SNPs have important advantages compared to short tandem repeats (STRs). In this study a total of 131 non related individuals from the North of Portugal and 85 immigrant individuals from the Eastern Europe, mainly Ukrainians, equally non related and residing in Portugal, were typed for 52 loci included in the in the SNP for ID 52plex with the SNaPshot™ assay.

  12. Contestation in multi-level party systems with institutional constraints: A look at ethnically divided countries in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    of party systems restricts party plurality at the local or regional level, non-partisan candidates and groups will emerge. Hypotheses are tested, looking at the political representation and plurality of representation in minority regions in Central and Eastern Europe, investigating ethnic minorities...... in Romania, Slovakia, Moldova, and Macedonia. The effect of national electoral laws in these countries allows for substantial variation in its degree of restrictiveness...

  13. BULGARIA’S MULTI-VECTOR FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH TO SECURITY CHALLENGES IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    catastrophe . In support of this strategic approach, this paper finds a theoretical explanation in the realist school of study and presents an analysis of the...exploiting all prudent opportunities for mitigating the threat of energy supply catastrophe . In 6 support of this argument, it finds a theoretical...for the bombing of hospitals, schools and residential buildings in Syria.28 The former President, who also stepped down in January, was even more

  14. The fertility response to abortion reform in Eastern Europe: demographic and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, R J

    1972-01-01

    This preliminary appraisal examines the extent to which abortion reform by itself explains the abruptness of the decline and the ensuing uniformly low level of all important fertility indicators for the Eastern European countries over the last 15 years. The fertility pattern of these countries has changed from the upper to the very lower end of the fertility spectrum of developed countries. Detailed consideration of events in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary indicate that this decline cannot be explained by war-induced changes in the age structure of the population, by rapid urbanization, or by changes in nuptuality patterns. On an a priori basis, legalization of abortion would be expected to have at least 2 distinct effects on the fe rtility decision-making process. First, abortion reform completely tran sforms the cost side of the conception control problem. Any attempt to measure "desired family size" must assume a given cost structure, modification of which should naturally be expected to alter measured "desired family size." In addition to this direct cost mechanism, abortion availability may also have a demonstration effect which results in a further modification of parental "tastes". The appearance of many 1 and 2 child families may change ideas of what is the "normal" and desired number of children. Availability of legal abortion can be expected to influence observed fertility through the specific cost and "taste" factors operating on the desired number of births and also through at least partial elimination of the inability to adjust the "realized" to the "desired" number of children. To some extent the avai lability of abortion may only change the timing and spacing of births, rather than the ultimate family size. However, such an effect would have a distinct retarding influence on any aggregate indicator of fertility as well as on the rate of population growth. Inspection of age-specific fertility rates and statistics on the distribution of births

  15. SOSPES: SPIRIVA® observational study measuring SGRQ score in routine medical practice in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fležar M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Matjaž Fležar,1 Karina Jahnz-Rózyk,2 Gloria Enache,3 Tatiana Martynenko,4 Peter Kristufek,5 Sanda Škrinjaric-Cincar,6 Pavla Kadlecová,7 Goran Martinovic81University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik, Golnik, Slovenia; 2Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Immunology and Allergology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Saint John Clinical Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania; 4Municipal Medical Institution City Hospital, Barnaul, Russian Federation; 5SACCME, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia; 6Clinical Hospital Center, Osijek, Croatia; 7ADDS Sro, Jana Uhra, Brno, Czech Republic; 8Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Vienna, AustriaPurpose: The long-acting inhaled anticholinergic agent, tiotropium, is recommended as first-line maintenance therapy for moderate to very severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD to improve symptoms, exercise tolerance, health status, and to reduce exacerbations. Few studies have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of tiotropium in patients in routine clinical conditions. The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of tiotropium delivered via the HandiHaler® device on the health status of patients with COPD with Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD disease classification 2–4 in six central and eastern European countries in a real-life clinical setting.Methods: The study was an open-label, prospective, uncontrolled, and single-arm surveillance study with three clinic visits during a 6-month observation period (baseline, and months 3 and 6. Health status was measured using the disease-specific St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change from baseline in SGRQ total score at the end of the 6-month observational period.Results: Patients treated with tiotropium 18 µg once daily showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful reduction (improvement of 21

  16. Toward Improved Data on Student Mobility in Europe: Findings and Concepts of the Eurodata Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelo, Maria; Teichler, Ulrich; Wachter, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This article on student mobility data in Europe has a double objective: First, it investigates which data on international mobility of students are being compiled and made available--and which are not--both at the international, the national, and the programme level. Second, it presents some of the student mobility data identified, and--based on…

  17. Toward Improved Data on Student Mobility in Europe: Findings and Concepts of the Eurodata Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelo, Maria; Teichler, Ulrich; Wachter, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This article on student mobility data in Europe has a double objective: First, it investigates which data on international mobility of students are being compiled and made available--and which are not--both at the international, the national, and the programme level. Second, it presents some of the student mobility data identified, and--based on…

  18. Political Change in Eastern Europe and Conceptual Approaches to Media Communication: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John

    1994-01-01

    Discusses media-related changes in Russia, Poland, and Hungary since the 1980s. Reviews current media theories in the United States for their ability to guide research into media processes in these three countries. Finds that much media research has paid insufficient attention to economic forces, international relations, the state, political…

  19. New findings of Neurospora in Europe and comparisons of diversity in temperate climates on continental scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, David J; Dettman, Jeremy R; Adams, Rachel I; Boesl, Cornelia; Sultana, Shahana; Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha; Duarte, Margarida; Marques, Isabel; Ushakova, Alexandra; Carneiro, Patrícia; Videira, Arnaldo; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Olmedo, María; Corrochano, Luis M; Taylor, John W

    2006-01-01

    The life cycles of the conidiating species of Neurospora are adapted to respond to fire, which is reflected in their natural history. Neurospora is found commonly on burned vegetation from the tropic and subtropical regions around the world and through the temperate regions of western North America. In temperate Europe it was unknown whether Neurospora would be as common as it is in North America because it has been reported only occasionally. In 2003 and 2004 a multinational effort surveyed wildfire sites in southern Europe. Neurospora was found commonly from southern Portugal and Spain (37 degrees N) to Switzerland (46 degrees N). Species collected included N. crassa, N. discreta, N. sitophila and N. tetrasperma. The species distribution and spatial dynamics of Neurospora populations showed both similarities and differences when compared between temperate Europe and western North America, both regions of similar latitude, climate and vegetation. For example the predominant species in western North America, N. discreta phylogenetic species 4B, is common but not predominant in Europe, whereas species rare in western North America, N. crassa NcB and N. sitophila, are much more common in Europe. The meiotic drive element Spore killer was also common in European populations of N. sitophila and at a higher proportion than anywhere else in the world. The methods by which organisms spread and adapt to new environments are fundamental ecosystem properties, yet they are little understood. The differences in regional diversity, reported here, can form the basis of testable hypotheses. Questions of phylogeography and adaptations can be addressed specifically by studying Neurospora in nature.

  20. Social security reform in Central and Eastern Europe: variations on a Latin American theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique

  1. Challenges in finding and measuring behavioural determinants of childhood obesity in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, D; Rigby, MJ; Di Mattia, P; Zscheppang, A.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Childhood obesity is an important concern for child health. However, despite widespread concern about the increase in childhood obesity, its causes are not monitored systematically in Europe. In 2007, the Scientific Platform Project on Lifestyle Determinants of Obesity identified routine data sources nationally available in European countries to measure childhood obesity. This work was revisited in 2014 to monitor any progress made. SUBJECT AND METHODS: In 2007, a literature review and p...

  2. Funding Biodiversity Protection in Central and Eastern Europe A Case Study of Bosnia Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza DAUTBASIC

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation has drawn considerable attention as to where the funding is available in order for governments concerned with the conservation of biodiversity to fulfil their obligations. This paper examines if financing resources provided through Global Environmental Facility (GEF in Bosnia Herzegovina could be supplemented with locally voluntary provided funding to lead to an appropriate protection level of threatened species. A study was conducted on a 1189 persons sample to establish the local population willingness to contribute to GEF sponsored biodiversity conservation projects. It was found that the local people are willing to contribute positively higher than the actual spending of the GEF and findings can be used to argue for more attention to preferences of the public in decision making on biodiversity protection activity and spending in Bosnia Herzegovina.

  3. William L. Wolfe, 1989 President of SPIE, encourages scientists from Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Joanna

    2012-10-01

    In 1990 Professor Wolfe after his SPIE presidency trekked the world, even making it as far as post-communist Poland, to see (in the visible and maybe in infrared - who knows) the work of optical scientists hidden behind the iron curtain. I am not sure if he was ready for how different that world was at this time, but for sure he was very inquisitive and eager to learn about the nuances of Poland right after the fall of communism. He met, visited with and encouraged young and old scientists from Poland, Russia, Hungary and Lithuania to add their expertise to the scientific conversations happening in the West. His mission in Poland was to invite us all, and he was ready to help us achieve our dreams. I was one of those he encouraged. This talk is my personal reflection of Professor Wolfe as an encouraging and sometimes brave SPIE pioneer - a stranger in a strange land - and as an energetic, caring SPIE president, Optical Sciences professor and human being. Disclaimer: Professor Bill Wolfe's contributions to the field of radiometry are well known and very well recognized. This conference is a tribute to him. However, my paper is not on radiometry; rather, I wish to illustrate the adventurous, caring and positive Bill Wolfe that helped me find my way to the American desert Southwest.

  4. Oil-Price Volatility and Macroeconomic Spillovers in Central and Eastern Europe: Evidence from a Multivariate GARCH Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegerty Scott W.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent commodity price declines have added to worldwide macroeconomic risk, which has had serious effects on both commodity exporters and manufacturers that use oil and raw materials. These effects have been keenly felt in Central and Eastern Europe—particularly in Russia, but also in European Union member states. This study tests for spillovers among commodity-price and macroeconomic volatility by applying a VAR(1-MGARCH model to monthly time series for eight CEE countries. Overall, we find that oil prices do indeed have effects throughout the region, as do spillovers among exchange rates, inflation, interest rates, and output, but that they differ from country to country—particularly when different degrees of transition and integration are considered. While oil prices have a limited impact on the currencies of Russia and Ukraine, they do make a much larger contribution to the two countries’ macroeconomic volatility than do spillovers among the other macroeconomic variables.

  5. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses.

  6. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1: Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Hill

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  7. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  8. Miospores from the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary deposits in Eastern Europe (the Pripyat Depression, Belarus and the Timan-Pechora Province, Russia) and comparison with Western Europe (Northern France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhovskaya; Avkhimovitch; Streel; Loboziak

    2000-11-01

    A zonal subdivision of the Frasnian-Famennian transitional deposits in the Pripyat Depression and Timan-Pechora Province, based on a detailed palynological study, has been completed. The data obtained on miospores and conodonts from the Timan-Pechora Province enable a correlation to be made with the Standard Conodont Zonation. The lateral extent of the palynozones in Eastern Europe and the correlation with Western Europe are discussed. The following previously published new combinations are validated: Auroraspora speciosa (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Corbulispora viminea (Nekriata) Obukhovskaya and Nekriata, comb. nov., Cristatisporites imperpetuus (Sennova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Cymbosporites acanthaceus (Kedo) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Grandispora subsuta (Nazarenko) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., and Verrucosisporites evlanensis (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov.

  9. Societal characteristics and health in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Martin; Murphy, Mike; Rose, Richard; Marmot, Michael

    2007-11-01

    To examine whether, in former communist countries that have undergone profound social and economic transformation, health status is associated with income inequality and other societal characteristics, and whether this represents something more than the association of health status with individual socioeconomic circumstances. Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data. 13 Countries from Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Population samples aged 18+ years (a total of 15 331 respondents). Poor self-rated health. There were marked differences among participating countries in rates of poor health (a greater than twofold difference between the countries with the highest and lowest rates of poor health), gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity (a greater than threefold difference), the Gini coefficient of income inequality (twofold difference), corruption index (twofold difference) and homicide rates (20-fold difference). Ecologically, the age- and sex-standardised prevalence of poor self-rated health correlated strongly with life expectancy at age 15 (r = -0.73). In multilevel analyses, societal (country-level) measures of income inequality were not associated with poor health. Corruption and gross domestic product per capita were associated with poor health after controlling for individuals' socioeconomic circumstances (education, household income, marital status and ownership of household items); the odds ratios were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.29) per 1 unit (on a 10-point scale) increase in the corruption index and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.93) per $5000 increase in gross domestic product per capita. The effects of gross domestic product and corruption were virtually identical in people whose household income was below and above the median. Societal measures of prosperity and corruption, but not income inequalities, were associated with health independently of individual

  10. Sweeping Changes in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing in Central and Eastern Europe: New Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter

    2009-01-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe following the political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s there were dramatic declines in marriage and childbearing, significant increases in nonmarital cohabitation and childbearing, and a movement from reliance on abortion to a reliance on contraception for fertility limitation. Although many explanations have been offered for these trends, we offer new explanations based on ideational influences and the intersection of these ideational influences with structural factors. We focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural histories of the region, with particular emphasis on how countries in the region have interacted with and been influenced by Western European and North American countries. Our explanations emphasize the role of developmental models in guiding change in the region, suggesting that developmental idealism influenced family and demographic changes following the political transformations. Developmental idealism provides beliefs that modern family systems help to produce modern political and economic accomplishments and helps to establish the importance of freedom and equality as human rights in both the public and private spheres. The disintegration of the governments and the fall of the iron curtain in the late 1980s and early 1990s brought new understanding about social, economic, and family circumstances in the West, increasing consumption aspirations and expectations which clashed with both old economic realities and the dramatic declines in economic circumstances. In addition, the dissolution of the former governments removed or weakened systems supporting the bearing and rearing of children, and, the legitimacy of the former governments and their programs was largely destroyed, removing government support for old norms and patterns of behavior. In addition, the attacks of previous decades on the religious institutions in the region had in many places left these institutions weak. During this

  11. Ciudadanos del este de Europa consumidores de drogas en Barcelona Injecting drug users from Eastern Europe in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde mayo de 1999 hasta mayo de 2001, hemos contactado en el SAPS (Servicio de Atención Social y Sanitaria de Barcelona con usuarios de drogas de países del este de Europa. Acuden a centros terapéuticos gratuitos, aunque pagan por la organización del viaje unos 500 euros. Son jóvenes entre 18 y 30 años y mantienen el contacto con sus familiares. Conocen los riesgos de transmisión de enfermedades, pero suelen reutilizar las jeringas. Es alta la prevalencia de hepatitis C (92% y B (62% y menor la de infección por el VIH (19%. Si no abandonan las drogas, el retorno es un fracaso y tienen dificultades para proseguir los tratamientos con metadona o antirretrovirales. La respuesta asistencial ha de adecuarse a sus necesidades. Se debe procurar la mediación cultural y la información en los lugares de origen, supervisar los centros terapéuticos y diseñar alternativas a los abandonos. Hay que desarrollar la colaboración internacional, estimular programas de disminución de riesgos derivados del consumo y evitar que del tratamiento se haga un comercio.From May 1999 to May 2001, we made contact with injecting drug users from Eastern Europe in the healthcare and prevention service of the Red Cross (servicio de atención y prevención sociosanitaria [SAPS] in Barcelona (Spain. The users attended free therapeutic centers, but paid approximately 500 € for the trip. The users were aged between 18 and 30 years old and maintained family contact. The knew the risk of disease transmission, but often exchanged needles. The prevalence of hepatitis C (92% and B (62% was high but less than that of HIV (19%. If they did not stop taking drugs their return would be a failure and they would have difficulties in following methadone and antiretroviral treatments in their countries of origin. The healthcare provided in these centers should respond to user' needs: cultural mediation should be sought, as well as information from users' countries of origin

  12. Beech bark necrosis: partitioning the environmental and spatial variation of the damage severity in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Jarčuška

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The beech bark necrosis (BBN infestation severity of Europeanbeech (Fagus sylvatica L. was assessed in regions of Central (CE andSouth-Eastern Europe (SE. Altogether more than 10,000 trees were sampled at 114 sites. Using variation partitioning method, we examined the pure and shared effects of stand, site, climate and spatial sets of variables on mean BBN severity. Our rating included (i the whole stand, (ii tree social status classes, (iii canopy (C and (iv understory (U trees separately. We found that C trees were less affected by BBN than sub-canopy and U trees in both regions. There were found inter-regional differences in amount of explained variability (25.4–73.9% for whole stand BBN and in the sensitivity of C and U trees to the environmental gradients. The analysisrevealed that the climate and spatial variables followed by stand variables had the largest marginal effects on mean BBN severity in all models, while the site set of variables had the weakest one. More than half of the explained variation was shared among four sets of variables in SE, contrary to CE. Except to U trees in SE, the effect of climate – pure or spatially structured – remained the highest also after partitioning of variance; more in SE than in CE. Taking into account positive association between mean annual temperature and mean BBN severity in C trees in SE, reinforced negative effect of climate change on the necrosis might be expected to be more seriousmainly in low situated beech forests there. Promoting the tree speciesdiversity in forested areas with higher incidence of beech bark necrosis, i.e. in low altitudes in SE, could reduce the susceptibility of forests to the necrosis at regional level in the future. For better understanding of the relative importance of environmental and spatial variables on BBN severity, further research performed on finer spatial scale (extent and grain is necessary, along with accounting for pathogens involved in the

  13. Arctic smoke record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Burkhart, J. F.; Fjæraa, A. M.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Hov, Ø.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Simpson, D.; Solberg, S.; Stebel, K.; Ström, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.

    2006-10-01

    In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB) was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near NyÅlesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3) and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also enhanced. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing - black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin -, and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at NyÅlesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly enhanced levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the deposition of the smoke

  14. Ancient DNA analysis of 8000 B.C. near eastern farmers supports an early neolithic pioneer maritime colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genetic impact associated to the Neolithic spread in Europe has been widely debated over the last 20 years. Within this context, ancient DNA studies have provided a more reliable picture by directly analyzing the protagonist populations at different regions in Europe. However, the lack of available data from the original Near Eastern farmers has limited the achieved conclusions, preventing the formulation of continental models of Neolithic expansion. Here we address this issue by presenting mitochondrial DNA data of the original Near-Eastern Neolithic communities with the aim of providing the adequate background for the interpretation of Neolithic genetic data from European samples. Sixty-three skeletons from the Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB sites of Tell Halula, Tell Ramad and Dja'de El Mughara dating between 8,700-6,600 cal. B.C. were analyzed, and 15 validated mitochondrial DNA profiles were recovered. In order to estimate the demographic contribution of the first farmers to both Central European and Western Mediterranean Neolithic cultures, haplotype and haplogroup diversities in the PPNB sample were compared using phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to available ancient DNA data from human remains belonging to the Linearbandkeramik-Alföldi Vonaldiszes Kerámia and Cardial/Epicardial cultures. We also searched for possible signatures of the original Neolithic expansion over the modern Near Eastern and South European genetic pools, and tried to infer possible routes of expansion by comparing the obtained results to a database of 60 modern populations from both regions. Comparisons performed among the 3 ancient datasets allowed us to identify K and N-derived mitochondrial DNA haplogroups as potential markers of the Neolithic expansion, whose genetic signature would have reached both the Iberian coasts and the Central European plain. Moreover, the observed genetic affinities between the PPNB samples and the modern populations

  15. Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Eva; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Gamba, Cristina; Prats, Eva; Cuesta, Pedro; Anfruns, Josep; Molist, Miquel; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Turbón, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The genetic impact associated to the Neolithic spread in Europe has been widely debated over the last 20 years. Within this context, ancient DNA studies have provided a more reliable picture by directly analyzing the protagonist populations at different regions in Europe. However, the lack of available data from the original Near Eastern farmers has limited the achieved conclusions, preventing the formulation of continental models of Neolithic expansion. Here we address this issue by presenting mitochondrial DNA data of the original Near-Eastern Neolithic communities with the aim of providing the adequate background for the interpretation of Neolithic genetic data from European samples. Sixty-three skeletons from the Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) sites of Tell Halula, Tell Ramad and Dja'de El Mughara dating between 8,700–6,600 cal. B.C. were analyzed, and 15 validated mitochondrial DNA profiles were recovered. In order to estimate the demographic contribution of the first farmers to both Central European and Western Mediterranean Neolithic cultures, haplotype and haplogroup diversities in the PPNB sample were compared using phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to available ancient DNA data from human remains belonging to the Linearbandkeramik-Alföldi Vonaldiszes Kerámia and Cardial/Epicardial cultures. We also searched for possible signatures of the original Neolithic expansion over the modern Near Eastern and South European genetic pools, and tried to infer possible routes of expansion by comparing the obtained results to a database of 60 modern populations from both regions. Comparisons performed among the 3 ancient datasets allowed us to identify K and N-derived mitochondrial DNA haplogroups as potential markers of the Neolithic expansion, whose genetic signature would have reached both the Iberian coasts and the Central European plain. Moreover, the observed genetic affinities between the PPNB samples and the modern populations of Cyprus and

  16. 莫言在中东欧的译介、传播与接受%Translation, Dissemination and Reception of Mo Yan in Central and Eastern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖进

    2015-01-01

    本文尝试以莫言作品在中东欧的翻译和出版为对象,考察小语种国家对莫言的接受及存在的问题。以笔者搜集的中东欧国家译介莫言作品的第一手资料入手,就莫言获得诺贝尔文学奖后中东欧出现的“莫言旋风”现象,分析其作品在这一地区得到传播和接受的原因,同时展望中国当代文学在中东欧接受的前景、存在的问题并提出解决的方法。%This article is an examination of Mo Yan’s reception in small-language countries, based on the translation and publication of his works in Central and Eastern Europe, and of the existing problems. With the first-hand information the author has gained on the translation of his works in the afore-mentioned countries, I analyze the reasons that his works were disseminated and received in the regions following the“Mo Yan Whirlwind”that appeared in Central and Eastern Europe after he won the Nobel Prize in Literature and I look forward into the prospect of reception of contemporary Chinese literature in Central and Eastern Europe and the existing problems therein, apart from proposing ways of resolving them.

  17. Never satisfactory, according to the Finnish standards”. From optimism and interest to disappointment and disillusion: Finnish views on the nations in Eastern Central Europe between the word wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Vares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions of national prejudices, xenophobia and enemy images have been lately popular issues. The creation of the ”Other” has been evident in racial issues, like in the ideologies of imperialism or anti-Semitism. However, it is important to see the same mentality inside the European political culture itself, because the images often did and still do divide the nations into different categories. This mentality gained even more impetus after the collapse of the empires in 1918 and yet again in the discussion about ”Old Europe” and ”New Europe”. My purpose is to study how Finland saw Eastern Europe and its political systems and national peculiarities between the World Wars. Finland formed an interesting hinge between Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. On the one hand it wanted to emphasize how Western its mental heritage was; on the other, it had to fight off assumptions that it was still ”half-Russian” and behaving in a ”Balkan” manner. In the early 1920s there were also ideas of similar interests in European politics and similarities of the social structure. In the longer run, the Finns saw Eastern Europe as an area which was not ready for democracy, because it lacked the elements of national cohesion and basic people’s education. Argumentation resembles the German one, but was not necessarily decided by it – rather by own experience or Scandinavian and sometimes Hungarian information. For the Finns, Hungary formed some sort of exception of the prejudiced view because it was considered to be a kindred nation, but the experts could see little similarities even between Finland and Hungary.

  18. Kardiovize Brno 2030, a prospective cardiovascular health study in Central Europe: Methods, baseline findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Kunzová, Šárka; Homolka, Martin; Jaresova, Jana; Cífková, Renata; Sochor, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in Eastern and Central Europe, where the incidence is the highest in the world. The Kardiovize Brno 2030 study was designed as a prospective cohort study to investigate the complex relationships of cardiovascular disease and outcomes with a range of biological, psychosocial, environmental, behavioral, and economic factors in an urban population of the Czech Republic. Methods We randomly selected a 1% sample of the city of Brno residents aged 25-64 years stratified by sex and age. The study assessed traditional and novel cardiovascular disease risk factors, including sociodemographic and smoking status, physical activity, diet, depression, stress, body fat, cardio-ankle vascular index, and intima media thickness, complemented by blood tests; biological samples were stored for future analyses. Results The study enrolled 2160 participants (54.8% women), with a mean age of 47 ± 11.3 years. They were mostly full-time employed (75.6%) and married (62.1%). Hyperlipidemia was highly prevalent (70.7% in men, and 67.1% in women, NS). Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in men than in women (54.3% vs. 38.7% and 7.1% vs. 3.5%, respectively, P 2030 study will provide unique multidimensional and longitudinal cardiovascular health data from a region where epidemiological studies are scarce.

  19. Policies to enhance prescribing efficiency in Europe: findings and future implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eGodman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: European countries need to learn from each other to address unsustainable increases in pharmaceutical expenditures. Objective: To assess the influence of the many supply and demand side initiatives introduced across Europe to enhance prescribing efficiency in ambulatory care. As a result provide future guidance to countries. Methods: Cross national retrospective observational study of utilisation (DDDs - Defined Daily Doses and expenditure (Euros and local currency of Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs and statins among 19 European countries and regions principally from 2001 to 2007. Demand side measures categorised under the ‘4Es’ – education engineering, economics and enforcement. Results: Instigating supply side initiatives to lower the price of generics combined with demand side measures to enhance their prescribing is important to maximise prescribing efficiency. Just addressing one component will limit potential efficiency gains. The influence of demand side reforms appears additive, with multiple initiatives typically having a greater influence on increasing prescribing efficiency than single measures apart from potentially ‘enforcement’. There are also appreciable differences in expenditure (€/1000 inhabitants/ year between countries. Countries that have not introduced multiple measures to counteract commercial pressures to enhance the prescribing of generics have seen expenditures up to ten fold or more greater than countries that have instigated multiple demand side measures, although in selected populations. Conclusions: There are considerable opportunities for European countries to enhance their prescribing efficiency, with countries already learning from each other. The 4E methodology allows European countries to concisely capture the range of current demand side measures and plan for the future knowing that initiatives can be additive to further enhance their prescribing efficiency.

  20. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar: best practice in climate technology and energy efficiency in central and eastern Europe. Seminar Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, P. [ed.

    2000-08-01

    The Capacity Building Seminar on 'Best Practice in Climate Technology and Energy Efficiency in Central and Eastern Europe', held 6-10 December 1999 in Marienthal/Ostritz in Germany, was a very successful event in the framework of the CLIMATE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE (CTI). One reason for that is that the seminar allowed delegates from 22 nations, from Kazakhstan to Estonia, come together for an exchange of opinions about 'Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection' and all related issues. A reason is that this seminar provided an excellent starting point for future networking in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia. The colleagues who got to know each other at the seminar will meet again in future workshops and seminars. They can now contact a colleague from abroad to get information about special questions of Energy Efficiency when they need it. A third reason - and the most important one for the entire co-operation within the CTI organisation - is the special character of the seminar as a starting point for multitude of activities on Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection. At the end of the Ostritz seminar eleven delegations stated that they would organise follow up workshops in their own countries to go deeper into the details and to co-operate on a higher level. It may be that these workshops will be followed by others in other European regions. (orig./GL)

  1. Liberalization and enlargement: impacts on the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe; Liberalisation et elargissement: impacts sur l'organisation industrielle des marches du gaz naturel en Europe de l'Est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirovska, M

    2004-12-01

    In 2004, the EU has opened its commercial natural gas industry to competition, 'while eight former socialist countries have become member states. This ongoing institutional evolution is expected to have a great impact on the industrial organisation of the East European natural gas markets. Specificities and rigidities of the transport networks, as well as strong import dependency may in fact weaken the security of supply and confirm that natural gas is strongly affected by geopolitical constraints. By levering on an analysis of structure and strategies across natural gas markets in Eastern Europe, this dissertation explores the stakes of integration and liberalization on the industrial organisation of European natural gas and reveals the risk of an emerging oligopoly, and the cooperation between dominant players. Our main contention is that this evolution could possibly hinder network interconnection thereby thwarting the achievement of an integrated and single competitive natural gas market in the Union. (author)

  2. Europe's Second Demographic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kaa, Dirk J.

    1987-01-01

    By 1985, fertility rates in Europe were below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman in all but Albania, Ireland, Malta, Poland, and Turkey, following a steady decline from a 1965 postwar peak well above 2.5 in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe and an erratic trend from a lower level in Eastern Europe. Natural decrease (fewer births…

  3. Pollen-based paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change at Lake Ohrid (south-eastern Europe) during the past 500 ka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadori, Laura; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Masi, Alessia; Bertini, Adele; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Francke, Alexander; Kouli, Katerina; Joannin, Sébastien; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Peyron, Odile; Torri, Paola; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sinopoli, Gaia; Donders, Timme H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872

    2016-01-01

    Lake Ohrid is located at the border between FYROM (Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia) and Albania and formed during the latest phases of Alpine orogenesis. It is the deepest, the largest and the oldest tectonic lake in Europe. To better understand the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental evol

  4. Building public health associations in the transition countries of south-eastern Europe: the example of Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc; Bjegovic, Vesna; Georgieva, Lidia; Donev, Doncho; Scintee, Gabriela; Hysa, Bajram; Laaser, Ulrich

    2006-06-01

    The Albanian Forum of Public Health (AFPH), an umbrella organization including different public health associations operating in Albania, was established in March 2004 with the support of the European Public Health Association (EUPHA) and the Open Society Institute (OSI). Ever since its establishment the AFPH has been an open arena wherein opinions and options for rational health policies comprising all relevant issues of the New Public Health are discussed, formulated, and documented near the Albanian Ministry of Health. Notwithstanding the laudable mission of the AFPH, there is an emerging need to establish a regional Public Health Forum in south-east Europe as a basic prerequisite for sustainable development of public health in these countries. Most conveniently, this regional umbrella organization should have a supporting Secretariat based in one of the south-east European countries. Nevertheless, there is a clear call for international funding with participation of different agencies and bodies (OSI, EUPHA, Canadian International Development Agency, and the Stability Pact). A regional association in the south-east Europe would enable the organization of annual conferences in the most renowned institutions in the region. Also, a regional collaboration among public health associations would be a suitable start for the development of research in south-east Europe. Furthermore, the existence of a regional public health association would make feasible the establishment of a scientific public health journal for south-east Europe in the English language.

  5. The labour market intentions and behaviour of stay-at-home mothers in Western and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.; Emery, T.; Bartova, A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent increases in female labour force participation across Europe, a non-negligible proportion of women continue to remain out of the labour force for short or longer periods of time. Among the six countries included in this paper, stay-at-home mothers represent on average 33% of all mothe

  6. Wing Membrane Biopsies for Bat Cytogenetics: Finding of 2n = 54 in Irish Rhinolophushipposideros (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera, Mammalia) Supports Two Geographically Separated Chromosomal Variants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzyk, Joanna; Teeling, Emma C; Kelleher, Conor; Volleth, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, 2 different diploid chromosome numbers, 2n = 54 and 2n = 56, have been described in the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophushipposideros). The eastern form with 2n = 56 extends from the Czech Republic to Greece. To date, specimens with 54 chromosomes have been reported only from Spain and Germany. This study expands the distributional area of the western variant to Ireland. Strikingly, this distribution of European chromosomal variants is in contrast to the available molecular data that indicate little genetic differentiation of R. hipposideros populations spanning Northwestern to Central Europe. Further, we have developed an optimized protocol for establishing fibroblast cell cultures, suitable for karyotype analyses, from 3-mm wing membrane biopsies. This is a useful technique for cytogenetic studies of endangered bat species, as this non-lethal sampling method imposes only minimum stress to the animal without lasting adverse effects and is routinely used to sample tissue probes for molecular genetic studies in bats.

  7. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Keyser, Peter; Turner, Roland; Rosengaard, Ulf; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Andersson, Sarmite; Sandberg, Viviana; Olsson, Kjell; Stenberg, Tor

    2009-10-15

    INSC. TACIS focussed on the former Soviet Union states while the INSC will have a global scope - including substantial f unds earmarked for projects in Eastern Europe

  8. School Effectiveness and Educational Management: Towards a South­-Eastern Europe Research and Public Policy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfirevic, N., Ed.; Burušic, J., Ed.; Relja, R., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This book analyzes educational management in the context of developing effective schools in SouthEastern European countries and situates the discussion within ongoing education debates in EU countries. The book revolves around the specific role and practices of school principals, who are positioned as a nexus of educational management in each…

  9. Effect of nursery habitat degradation on flatfish population: Application to Solea solea in the Eastern Channel (Western Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, S.; Rivot, E.; Morin, J.; Mackinson, S.; Riou, P.; Le Pape, O.

    2010-07-01

    Estuaries and coastal waters are essential nursery habitats for many marine species, and especially for flatfishes. Thus, investigating how anthropogenic disturbances affect the quality of these habitats is of major importance to understand their consequences on the population renewal of marine species. The aim of the present study was to analyse the effects of estuarine habitat degradation on the population of the common sole in the Eastern Channel, a key species in the fish community and fisheries in this area. We especially focused on the drastic drop in the surface area and on the low water quality of the Seine estuary, the main river of the Eastern Channel. A geographic Information System (GIS) was used to develop quantitative maps of sole nursery habitats in the Eastern Channel by using a habitat suitability model based on bathymetry and sediment structure. This approach indicated that juvenile densities are low in the Seine estuary with regards to other nursery sectors. Then, thanks to historical maps of the Seine estuary, habitat suitability maps were built for key dates in the modifications of this estuary since 1850. This backward predictive approach suggests that habitat loss in the Seine estuary has led to a 42% decrease of its nursery capacity. As the density of juvenile sole in the Seine estuary is low in comparison to other sectors, this represents only a 3% loss at the sole population scale, in the Eastern Channel. However, when we assumed that prior to anthropogenic disturbance the juvenile density in the Seine estuary might have been equivalent to the current density of adjacent sectors with higher quality, the loss in abundance could be nearly 23% (8-36%). Results suggest that the loss in habitat surface combined with habitat degradation has led to an important loss in the contribution of the Seine estuary nursery to the whole sole population in the Eastern Channel.

  10. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries.

  11. Making the market right for environmentally sound energy-efficient technologies: US buildings sector successes that might work in developing countries and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

    1991-12-01

    Between 1973 and 1985, when energy prices were high, all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries improved their E/GNP by about 2.5% annually. Increased energy efficiency accounted for 2/3rds of this improvement; the remaining portion was due to structural changes in the economy. In the US, analytic and policy tools that have successfully promoted energy efficiency include integrated resource planning, energy use labels, energy use standards, ``Golden Carrot`` incentive programs, and revenue-neutral ``feebates.`` In addition, a number of low cost, environmentally sound, energy-efficient technologies, such as electronic ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows, have recently been developed. We discuss how many of these policies and technologies are probably exportable to developing countries and Eastern Europe, giving examples of successful starts in India, the ASEAN countries, and Brazil.

  12. Tectono-stratigraphic reconstruction of the Keban metamorphites based on new fossil findings, Eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Keban metamorphites located at the orogenic belt of the Eastern Taurides is an allochtonous union metamorphized at the greenschist facies comprised of several nappes. Contrary to the massives around it, the aging of the union is not quite satisfactory due to the lack of fossil data. Permo-Triassic/Permo-Carboniferous ages have been used until now for the age of the metamorphites that are stated to be located only at a single location, the species of which have not been determined and which are based on two fossil data. However, for the first time in this study, "microgastropods" have been found at Early Triassic age related with The Great Dying at the end of the Permian inside the clastic limestones at the base levels of the Nimri Formation which is one of the lower nappes of the Keban metamorphites. Again, trace fossils Planolites, Rhizocorallium, Thalassinoides, Helminthopsis and (?)Protovirgularia have been determined for the first time in the layered crystallized limestones at the medium levels of the Nimri Formation. This ichnofabric is frequently observed in the Middle Triassic aged limestones at Germany, Poland, Austria, Italy and the Taurides and is known as the "vermicular limestone facies". The ages of Keban marble, Delimehmet and Süleymanlı Formations, tectonically located on the Nimri Formation, are evaluated by regional correlations as Middle-Late Devonian, Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous, respectively. In addition, probably pre-Triassic aged, dark green colored metadiabase dykes have been inserted in the Delimehmet formation in relation with the Variscan Orogeny. Regional correlations with other units and massives indicate that the Keban metamorphites that have deposited at the farthest north of the south branch of the Neo-Tethys ocean paleogeographically may be the continuation of the Bolkardağı Union at the east rather than the Alanya and Geyikdağı Unions.

  13. Analysis of long-range transport of particulate matters in connection with air circulation over Central and Eastern part of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Sabina; Necula, Cristian; Georgescu, Florinela

    The aim of this paper is to establish a practical methodology for examining the long-range transport of particulate matters (PM), named TSP. The daily concentration values of TSP from years 2001 and 2002, for three sites, Baia Mare (RO), Vienna (AU), Aosta (IT), were analyzed. In order to connect the main air circulation types with the aerosol concentrations at the selected sites, the catalogues of Circulation and Weather type Classification (COST733) were used. Spectral analysis was made using spectrum software based on Lomb-Scargle periodograms, and multiresolution analysis (MRA) technique based on Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) with Fejer-Korovkin in 22 points wavelet filter (waveslim package). Spectral analysis shows a dominant one-year periodicity for all the time series with a variance around 22% for each time series. In addition, several winters TSP pollution episodes from each city were analyzed using a back trajectory model (HYSPLIT4), in order to compare with the resulted air circulation types. Two important concluding remarks emerge: (i) the Eastern part of Europe shows a dominant easterly air circulation and central Europe is characterized by south-west air circulations, which drive the maxima of pollutant concentrations; (ii) the choice of the domain for analysis of the circulation types is very important.

  14. Corporate Governance In Transition Economies- Comparative Analysis Of Contemporary Corporate Governance Issues In Selected Of This Economies In South-Eastern Europe. The Albanian Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezart Dibra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at introducing the main corporate governance mechanism’ influence on governance in South Eastern Europe (Western Balkans transition economies: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. The implementation of corporate governance in transition economies, where Albania is one of the countries that have implemented such corporate governance principles, require a suitable legal framework and relevant protection of minority shareholders. In 2008 the new law “On entrepreneurs and commercial companies”was enacted.The latter introduced new practices and concepts, some of them not familiar to the Albanian legal system. This paper discusses comparative insight on the most pressing issues of corporate governance in selected economies of South-East Europe (Western Balkans. It is widely accepted that both private sector and governments can benefit from identification of the most important determinants and implications of good corporate governance. Corporate governance systems have a common goal – protection of investor’s rights and transparency of the system in which transactions take place. However, it is also well recognized that systems of corporate governance in attempt to gain necessary level of harmonization and consistency rely heavily on contextual factors of specific economy. Specifically, the research covers corporate governance in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. 

  15. The role of IAEA in the seismic assessment and upgrading of existing NPPs. Seismic safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerpinar, A.; Godoy, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (IAEA). Div. of Nuclear Installation Safety

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the work performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in the areas of safety reviews and applied research in support of programmes for the assessment and enhancement of seismic safety in Eastern Europe and in particular WWER type nuclear power plants during the past seven years. Three major topics are discussed; engineering safety review services in relation to external events, technical guidelines for the assessment and upgrading of WWER type nuclear power plants, and the Coordinated Research Programme on `Benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER type nuclear power plants`. These topics are summarized in a way to provide an overview of the past and present safety situation in selected WWER type plants which are all located in Eastern European countries. Main conclusion of the paper is that although there is now a thorough understanding of the seismic safety issues in these operating nuclear power plants, the implementation of seismic upgrades to structures, systems and components are lagging behind, particularly for those cases in which the re-evaluation indicated the necessity to strengthen the safety related structures or install new safety systems. (author)

  16. THE INDEPENDENCE OF CENTRAL BANKS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE-A MONETARY POLICY STRATEGY BASED APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu Iulian Vasile

    2013-01-01

    The present paper aims to examine the trends of the last decade and a half of central banks independence (CBI) in Central and Eastern European countries on the road to the euro adoption and to compare the results with those identified in the case of the European Central Bank (ECB). We approached CBI from the perspective of monetary policy strategies central banks (CBs) use. The main results show increasing independence during the selected time frame for all monetary authorities subject to ana...

  17. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Nitu Antonie Renata,; Feder Emoke Szidonia

    2008-01-01

    The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs) from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE) countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania) is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions) and internal type (Greenfield investments) in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy fo...

  18. An integrated assessment of regional air pollution and climate change in Europe: findings of the AIR-CLIM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcamo, J.; Mayerhofer, P.; Guardans, R.; Harmelen, T. van; Minnen, J. van; Onigkeit, J.; Posch, M.; Vries, B. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of an assessment of the linkages between regional air pollution and climate change in Europe (the AIR-CLIM Project). The main research tool was an integrated modeling framework and the main product was a consistent set of long-term scenarios covering Europe between 1995 a

  19. An integrated assessment of regional air pollution and climate change in Europe: findings of the AIR-CLIM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcamo, J.; Mayerhofer, P.; Guardans, R.; Harmelen, T. van; Minnen, J. van; Onigkeit, J.; Posch, M.; Vries, B. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of an assessment of the linkages between regional air pollution and climate change in Europe (the AIR-CLIM Project). The main research tool was an integrated modeling framework and the main product was a consistent set of long-term scenarios covering Europe between 1995

  20. HIV-1 A1 Subtype Epidemic in Italy Originated from Africa and Eastern Europe and Shows a High Frequency of Transmission Chains Involving Intravenous Drug Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Lai

    Full Text Available Subtype A accounts for only 12% of HIV-1 infections worldwide but predominates in Russia and Former Soviet Union countries of Eastern Europe. After an early propagation via heterosexual contacts, this variant spread explosively among intravenous drug users. A distinct A1 variant predominates in Greece and Albania, which penetrated directly from Africa. Clade A1 accounts for 12.5% of non-B subtypes in Italy, being the most frequent after F1 subtype.Aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of A1 subtype in Italy and trace its origin and diffusion through phylogenetic and phylodynamic approaches.The phylogenetic analysis of 113 A1 pol sequences included in the Italian ARCA database, indicated that 71 patients (62.8% clustered within 5 clades. A higher probability to be detected in clusters was found for patients from Eastern Europe and Italy (88.9% and 60.4%, respectively compared to those from Africa (20% (p < .001. Higher proportions of clustering sequences were found in intravenous drug users with respect to heterosexuals (85.7% vs. 59.3%, p = .056 and in women with respect to men (81.4% vs. 53.2%, p < .006. Subtype A1 dated phylogeny indicated an East African origin around 1961. Phylogeographical reconstruction highlighted 3 significant groups. One involved East European and some Italian variants, the second encompassed some Italian and African strains, the latter included the majority of viruses carried by African and Italian subjects and all viral sequences from Albania and Greece.Subtype A1 originated in Central Africa and spread among East European countries in 1982. It entered Italy through three introduction events: directly from East Africa, from Albania and Greece, and from the area encompassing Moldavia and Ukraine. As in previously documented A1 epidemics of East European countries, HIV-1 A1 subtype spread in Italy in part through intravenous drug users. However, Eastern European women contributed to the penetration of

  1. The beginnings of the "Cracow School of Art History" from Jerzy Malinowski (ed., History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Muthesius

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Because Polish art history, that is, art history written by Polish scholars, has tended to be rather inward-looking as a whole, its first and most important school, that of Cracow, has not received the attention it deserves. The term ‘school’ is here used in a way akin to that of ‘Vienna School’. Cracow modern art history originated in the 1860s to 1880s in the small but culturally extremely vigorous capital of Austrian Poland, as a co-operation between the newly-founded art history section at the Academy of Sciences and the Department at the Jagiellonian University. It pursued two principal, interlinked aims: the investigation of Polish art and architecture and the use of new methods that were being developed in Western and Central Europe. What comes across most strongly is the constantly foregrounded ethos of scientific, empirical exactitude and the intense institutional togetherness. All are united in an absolute devotedness to their academic task. One of the results was the way in which recruitment has remained within the school until this day. It has to be remembered though that other Polish centres only started teaching the history of art after WW I. This article is a- preliminary attempt to characterise, firstly, some of the chief factors of institutionality and, secondly, some methodological aspects of the work of the two chief protagonists, Władysław Łuszczkiewicz and Marian Sokołowski.

  2. HIV/hepatitis coinfection in eastern Europe and new pan-European approaches to hepatitis prevention and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Shete, Priya B; Eramova, Irina

    2007-01-01

    throughout Europe and central Asia has changed comorbidity and mortality patterns among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) as liver disease has increasingly replaced AIDS as the cause of death in PLWHA in western European countries. The average prevalence of HCV among PLWHA is 40 per cent, and much higher....... To expand access to hepatitis prevention and treatment, public awareness needs to be raised and national political leaders need to address hepatitis as a public health issue. Effective public health measures include price reductions for anti-hepatitis drugs; targeted testing, counselling and prevention...

  3. Reforms in Higher Education Disappoint Eastern Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollag, Burton

    1999-01-01

    Reviews changes in higher education in Eastern Europe since the fall of communism and finds less than expected change, although enrollment has increased and there is minimal government interference. Obstacles to change include lack of quality controls, falling financial support, and emigration of scholars to other countries or business fields. (DB)

  4. Endenese Fisheries: Exploratory Findings on Environmental Perceptions, Fish Effort, and Overfishing in Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C. Ramenzoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fishing fleets in South East Asia have recently experienced unprecedented expansion. Consequently, catches and regional diversity have dramatically decreased throughout the Indian Ocean. Regional governments and conservation organizations blame the local fishermen and their use of damaging fishing practices for the present state of resources. However, many of these institutions endorse a narrow perspective on bioeconomic governance and human action (rational action choice that compromises the understanding of resource use and exploitation among small-scale fisheries. Over the last few decades, there is a growing recognized tradition that points to the importance of ecological systems of knowledge, uncertainty representation, and traditional skills, in conceptualizing processes of environmental decision-making and the likelihood of introducing successful sustainability practices. In line with this perspective, this article presents preliminary findings regarding resource use decision-making processes among Endenese fishing villages in central Flores Island, Indonesia. Grounded on 22 months of ethnographic, experimental and ecological research (semistructured interviews, participant observation, visual surveys, probability and uncertainty assessments, and exploring local cognitive representations of marine processes, climate, ichthyology and the role of luck, this article discusses the current economic representations of small-scale fishers as avid maximizers. It concludes by emphasizing the need to further explore the role of mental models and beliefs regarding uncertainty in motivating fishing effort to design adequate conservation and governance programs. 

  5. L’Europa dell’Est: il racconto di una periferia attraverso alcune testimonianze letterarie / Eastern Europe: the tale of a periphery through some literary evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cardini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nella testimonianza letteraria in lingua italiana di alcuni autori dell’Est Europa - Elvrira Mujčić, Ornela Vorpsi, Anilda Ibrahimi, Mihai Butcovan, Marina Sorino - approdati nel nostro paese in seguito alle guerre nazionaliste dell’ex Jugoslavia o alla caduta di regimi totalitari, si delinea un’immagine collettiva dell’Est Europa come periferia dimenticata, come non luogo della politica comunitaria incapace di intervenire se non quando il conflitto è degenerato in guerra. Il trasferimento dalla periferia al centro dà luogo a una forma di straniamento che risulta la cifra comune di tutte le narrazioni e che di fatto rivitalizza la critica nei confronti dell’identità centroeuropea sostanziata di consumismo, cultura dell’apparenza e portatrice di un messaggio democratico che è in realtà etnicamente selettivo.Il viaggio dalla Est all’Ovest europeo coincide invece con una richiesta di libertà e di inclusione da parte di soggetti intellettuali che spesso proseguono il loro percorso in direzione di nuovi luoghi elettivi non più corrispondenti alla originaria mappatura centro-periferia. Nonostante la marcata matrice autobiografica, qui non si vuole investigare la verità dei percorsi esistenziali di autori accomunati dall’esperienza della migrazione, ma la capacità simbolica di tracciare all’interno di uno spazio storico-geografico condiviso delle linee di unione e di rottura, di inclusione e di esclusione, per  ridiscutere la validità simbolica di alcuni luoghi comuni della geografia europea.   The literary testimony of some Eastern European expatriate authors who write in Italian – Elvira Mujcic, Ornela Vorpsi, Anilda Ibrahimi, Mihai Butcovan, Marina Sorino – offers a coherent image of Eastern Europe, which collectively emerges as the forgotten outskirts of the continent: the site where the Community policy is either absent or behind time, as it only intervenes when conflicts escalate into a war. While claiming to

  6. Spot Markets Indices as Benchmarks of Formation of Future Price Trends in the Power Exchanges of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polikevych Nataliya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with a theoretical generalization of the use of indices for electric power at the European spot exchanges and elaborating proposals on establishment of a similar spot index for the Ukrainian power exchange. 16 indices that are published daily by the power exchanges BSP Regional Energy Exchange, Power Exchange Central Europe, Polish Power Exchange and Opcom have been analyzed. It has been indicated that these indices are used for electricity price forecasting and monitoring the situation in the power market. The article examines the way spot indices are calculated by power exchanges, based on the value of the arithmetic average of market prices «day ahead». Imperfection of such way of calculation for price index values has been substantiated. The key characteristics of the future price index for Ukrainian spot market as benchmarks within the introduction of futures contracts for electricity have been identified.

  7. The constraints to the economic development in the former socialist EU countries from the Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last 25 years, most Central and Eastern European states have become detached from the centralized economy system thus demonstrating the reliability of the market economy. The unequivocal effect of the free market, with ups and downs, forces researchers to undertake increasingly complex economic analysis and further the profile of the new economy. With the accession of a number of countries from this region to the European Union there were some constraints and limitations in adopting the European acquis, whose knowledge and solution involves the use of specific policies and tools. We consider the problems related to the resolution of economic, social and technological discrepancies and gaps, of mitigating the negative impact of unfavourable demographic trends, of elucidating the role of the state amid the erosion of its duties due to the process of integration and globalization, of increasing pressure interdependencies interstate and others.

  8. Last Interglacial (Eemian) hydrographic conditions in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, NE Europe, based on dinoflagellates and pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Head, Martin J.; Seidenkrantz, Marit Solveig Louise Schramm; Janczyk-Kopikowa, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    of arctic waters. Warm and saline conditions of 15–20 psu or more, at least twice present levels, persisted throughout the early Eemian. A rise in sea level at Licze appears to correlate with a similar event in eastern Denmark, as both coincide with the increase in Corylus (ca. 750 years...... into the interglacial). This sea-level rise might therefore have a basinwide extent, and has been attributed to an opening of the Danish Belts. Whereas dinoflagellate cysts reflect sustained high salinites within the upper water column, a concomitant increase in abundance of the chlorococcalean alga Pediastrum within......A rich organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and pollen record from the Licze borehole in northern Poland has been used to reconstruct the hydrographic history of the southeastern Baltic Sea during the Eemian Stage (Last Interglacial) of the Upper Pleistocene. Warm and saline waters (ca. 10–15 psu...

  9. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    , and Finland and Iceland from year 2006, the other Nordic countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. The results based on a differences-in-differences estimator show that the estimated effect of the opening of the Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic labour markets on migration from......In this paper we look at migration flows from 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2007. We exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement...... the CEECs that entered the EU in 2004 is not significantly different from zero. However, the effect of the opening of the Swedish and Finnish labour markets in 2007 on migration from the 2007 EU entrants, Bulgaria and Romania, is significantly positive. Further, we are interested in the overall effect...

  10. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitu Antonie Renata

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions and internal type (Greenfield investments in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy for the owned market shares through increasing the efficiency of the production network at global level. This paper aims to present the less evident aspects of tax optimization of the applied business strategy by implemented MNEs in the automobile industry in CEE, and in this context, the necessity to establish transfer prices in accordance with the OECD recommendations, as an obligation assessed by the tax legislations of the considered countries, but also from the necessity of efficient run of these enterprises.

  11. Changes in the importance of work-related values in Central and Eastern Europe: Slovenia and Hungary against the trend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Borgulya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen significant political, economic and social changes in several Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. The reasons for the most important transformation processes were the EU membership and the global recession of the late 2000’s. Our study focuses on the effects of these circumstances on people’s work-related values and attitudes. This longitudinal comparative analysis is based on the results of the European Values Study of 1999/2000 and 2008/2009. Our aim is to detect the priorities that determine employees' attitudes to work in ten CEE countries of the EU. Slovenia and Hungary will be paid special attention since these two countries seem not to be followingthe main direction of changes found in the CEE region.

  12. 中东欧民主化与市场化关系初探%A Primary Study of Relations between Democratization and Marketization in Central & Eastern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高歌

    2014-01-01

    In Central & Eastern Europe, the democratization and marketization are in a malignant interactive relationship when both of them are caught in difficult positions. Marketization during political unrest and democratization under economic recession bring adverse effects to each other and intensify difficulties for each other. However, the two sides have a benign interaction when both democratization and marketization processes are in smooth development. The higher degree of democratization and marketization makes the two sides promote each other and makes them step forward together. Therefore, generally speaking, countries with fast democratization, solid democratic systems and stable political situation have a faster pace of marketization, a more mature market economy and more rapid economic development. In addition to the compatibility between democratic systems and market economies, the positive relationship between the democratization and marketization of Central & Eastern Europe also benefits from the regulating and driving functions of the European Union.%中东欧国家的民主化与市场化遭遇困境时呈恶性互动关系,政治动荡中的市场化和经济衰退中的民主化给彼此带来不利影响,加剧各自的困难;民主化与市场化发展顺畅时呈良性互动关系,民主化和市场化程度越高,越是相互促进,共同进步。因此,民主化进度较快、民主制度较为巩固、政局较为稳定的国家一般也是市场化步子较大、市场经济较为成熟、经济发展较为迅速的国家。中东欧国家民主化与市场化的这种正相关关系得益于民主制度与市场经济之间的兼容性,更得益于欧盟在其中所起的规范和推动作用。

  13. Neogene sedimentary history of the Outer Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey, Tiffany; Akhun, Selin; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; Ćifçi, Günay

    2010-05-01

    The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focussed on erosion in the sediment source area, and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is intended to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we obtained km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic profiles radiating out from the river delta across the basin. Many of the profiles are processed and images of the data are presented. Interpretation of the available industry seismic reflection profiles show that during the the Miocene the northeastern Mediterranean, including the Cilicia Basin, experienced regional compression, which resulted in the formation of a broad and arcuate fold-thrust belt extending from the Taurides in the north, across the Troodos ophiolite complex into the Cyprus Arc in the south. Two prominent culminations were developed: one was located along the Misis-Kyrenia Fault Zone, another developed in the Amanos-Larnaka-Troodos Fault Zone. Stratigraphic and structural relationships demonstrated that the late Pliocene-Quaternary Cilicia-Adana Basin complex evolved as an asymmetric piggyback basin on the hanging-wall of the south-verging Misis-Kyrenia thrust culmination. Detailed mapping demonstrated that the S/SE-directed contraction culminated in the latest Miocene, and is followed in the early Pliocene by a progressive transition to partitioned contraction and extension related to the initiation of strike slip along the eastern Anatolian Transform Fault and its marine extensions. The shift in kinematics is expressed by the development of major NE-SW trending (Inner Cilicia Basin) and E-W trending (Outer Cilicia Basin) steep faults with extensional separations bounding the

  14. From national to regional plans – the Integrated Drought Management Programme of the Global Water Partnership for Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bokal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades it has become evident that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE are affected by droughts which are becoming more and more lasting and severe. The region׳s vulnerability to this natural hazard alerted the public, governments, and operational agencies to the many socio-economic problems accompanying water shortage and to the need for drought mitigation measures. In addition, climate change amplifies the frequency and severity of droughts in the region. In this context, the CEE region of the Global Water Partnership (GWP recently launched the regional Integrated Drought Management Programme (IDMP as part of the global joint World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GWP IDMP. The purpose of this paper is to present the work plan of the GWP CEE IDM Programme which is being implemented in the years 2013–2015. The planning process for this Programme carried out in 2012 included national and regional reviews of existing drought risks, policies and strategies. The programme inception phase was summarized in October 2012 by a regional workshop organized jointly by GWP and WMO, with the participation of representatives of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD Secretariat, the Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe (DMCSEE, the EU Joint Research Centre, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and the European Drought Centre. The Programme was launched in February 2013 and involves more than 40 organizations from 9 CEE countries. The basic four elements of the Programme include policy advice, demonstration projects, capacity building knowledge management and regional cooperation (from national to regional plans. The major output, building upon national initiatives, shall be a coordinated regional framework for drought monitoring, early warning, prediction and management, accompanied by a set of guidelines and tools for the development of regional, national and local

  15. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Seme, Katja; Maver, Polona J; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Cuschieri, Kate S; Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-12-31

    negative public perception. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A speleothem perspective on millennial-scale climate change in south-eastern Europe during the last glacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael STAUBWASSER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution stable O isotope data from two U-Th dated speleothems from Romania, one from Tăuşoare cave in N Romania spanning the last 68 ka, and one from Ascunsă cave in S Romania spanning the interval between  47 ka and  30 ka BP record a regional N-S climate contrast in SE Europe during marine isotope stage 3.  The Tăuşoare data-set records "Heinrich-stadial" type cold events (low δ18O throughout MIS 3. While the magnitude of speleothem δ18O variability in N Romania is much less pronounced in comparison to Sofular cave in NW Turkey, the pacing is generally similar. That suggests a common response to Atlantic millennial scale climate variability as observed in the Greenland record, but without the magnification of the δ18O signal observed in NW Turkey due to a local Black Sea source effect. The short time-interval recorded in Ascunsă cave (S Romania, however, shows virtually no similarity in δ18O with the corresponding section at Tăuşoare in N Romania, but instead resembles the record from Soreq cave (Israel.

  17. Invasive alien plants in Croatia as a threat to biodiversity of South-Eastern Europe: distributional patterns and range size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Toni; Mitić, Božena; Milašinović, Boris; Jelaska, Sven D

    2013-02-01

    During the analysis of alien and invasive flora of Europe, as a threat to biodiversity, data for Croatia were missing. The aim of our research was to analyse distributional patterns and range size of all invasive alien plants (64) for the state area (57,000 km(2)). They were detected on 49% of the state territory, averaging five taxa per 35 km(2). The greatest number of invasive plants (>30 per grid cell) was recorded in the major urban centres, increasing in the south-east direction and reflecting positive correlation with temperature and negative with altitude. The most endangered areas are in the Mediterranean region, especially on islands. The number of invasive plants increased with habitat diversity and almost 75% of all sites with invasive plants are located within a few habitats with direct anthropogenic influence. The results should provide a reliable regional and global basis for strategic planning regarding invasive alien plants management. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The value of health benefits from ambient air quality improvements in Central and Eastern Europe. An exercise in benefits transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.; Harrison, K.; Nickell, E.; Toman, M. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The study on the title subject is an initial effort to estimate the effects of air pollution on human health in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. The estimates are derived from data on ambient air quality in those countries, together with a model that links these ambient conditions to physical impacts on health and attaches economic values (dollars) to these impacts. The focus is on particulates, SO{sub 2} and Pb. Dose response functions, taken from the clinical and epidemiological literature in the USA, Canada, and Western Europe are used to generate estimates of the change in physical effects. These effects then are given an economic value by applying two approaches for scaling unit valuation figures, applicable to the USA. A Monte Carlo model is constructed to propagate the uncertainties of the dose-response functions and unit values to obtain confidence intervals on the total benefits from pollutant reductions in each country. Scenarios are examined where the above-mentioned countries improve ambient conditions for the pollutants in question to meet the European Community standards and then compare these scenarios to ones involving uniform percentage ambient reductions across locations in each country. 3 figs., 9 tabs., 33 refs.

  19. Gold and Displacement in Eastern Europe: Risks and Uncertainty at Roşia Montană

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILIP ALEXANDRESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian-Romanian gold mining project at Roşia Montanǎ in Romania is known as the largest opencast gold mine being planned now in Europe. It involves the displacement of several thousand inhabitants, mostly former gold miners and a smaller number of farmers. The land and houses of more than three quarters of this population have already been acquired by the project owners, although the project has not yet received its formal environmental clearance. The paper analyzes the risks facing the displaced population of Roşia Montană, employing as analytical methodology the Impoverishment Risks and Reconstruction (IRR model, developed by Michael M. Cernea. The paper argues for an expansion of the IRR model. By taking into account the macro (extralocal forces that shape displacement and paying closer attention to the micro (subjective experience of this process, it becomes possible to understand the effects of uncertainty and vulnerability in displacement. The author's participant observations and in-depth interviews with local families are complemented with secondary analyses of data from several other socio-economic surveys and with the analysis of the Resettlement and Relocation Action Plan of the project owners.

  20. Implications of Market Frictions : Serial Correlations in Indexes on the Emerging Stock Markets in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Olbrys

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implications of market frictions in the context of serial correlations in indexes on the Central and Eastern European (CEE stock markets have been analysed. Market frictions, such as non-trading effects, bid/ask spreads, other transaction costs, etc., may be detected by direct measurement, or by indirect identification. Direct measurement of frictions is difficult as intraday trading data are unavailable in the case of most of the emerging CEE stock markets. Indirect identification may be conducted by detecting some empirical phenomena. One of them is evidence of serial correlations in indexes, the so-called the Fisher effect. We explore the problem of serial correlations in indexes on the eight CEE stock markets using data samples from each CEE market separately, as well as a "common trading window" approach, which is widely applied in the case of databases with multivariate time series. The evidence is that nonsynchronous trading effect II between markets may substantially disrupt the analysis of index returns on a domestic market. Using a synchronized database, one may erroneously conclude that the Fisher effect does not exist, although it is present. (original abstract

  1. The global financial crisis and fiscal policy in Central and Eastern Europe: the 2009 Croatian budget odysey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Mihaljek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two main questions: first, what is the scope for domestic and external market-based financing of Croatia’s government budget deficit; and second, what is the scope for expansionary fiscal policy in Croatia. Both questions are addressed from a broader Central and Eastern European perspective, in the context of the economic and financial crisis unfolding in the region since October 2008. The paper analyses how the crisis had spread through financial markets in the region and how it affected the cost and availability of budget financing. It shows that the reliance on market-based financing increased significantly in successive revisions of the 2009 budget despite rising bond yields and interest rates; that government borrowing from domestic banks led to a severe crowding-out of the private sector; and that the sovereign eurobond placement in 2009 was costlier than earlier placements in similar circumstances and other sovereign debt issues in CEE in the first half of 2009. On this basis, the paper argues that expansionary fiscal policy in Croatia would not be effective and would undermine fiscal sustainability and financial stability.

  2. THE INDEPENDENCE OF CENTRAL BANKS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE-A MONETARY POLICY STRATEGY BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Iulian Vasile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to examine the trends of the last decade and a half of central banks independence (CBI in Central and Eastern European countries on the road to the euro adoption and to compare the results with those identified in the case of the European Central Bank (ECB. We approached CBI from the perspective of monetary policy strategies central banks (CBs use. The main results show increasing independence during the selected time frame for all monetary authorities subject to analysis, regardless of the applied monetary policy strategy; superior average levels of CBI in CEE countries oriented to inflation targeting compared to those using the exchange rate as nominal anchor; higher degree of independence of ECB in relation to monetary authorities that use an inflation targeting strategy; the simultaneous presence of a significant level of independence, low inflation and stronger economic development in CEE members where CB is geared towards inflation targeting compared to CBs that implement a strategy of exchange rate targeting.

  3. Social suffering and marginalisation among Eastern European students in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Dahlberg, Mette Ginnerskov

    2016-01-01

    back lessons from the country which allegedly fostered the happiest people in the world. Upon arrival to Denmark, many of the students from Eastern Europe find it difficult to navigate the Danish system and to settle into society. They find it difficult to get regular jobs and are often trapped in semi-legal...... (Sayer 2005, Lamont & Mólnar 2002) of nations in Europe when explaining the positions they feel they have in relation to other university students and how East, West, Europe and the EU are invested with meaning. We find that this can make an interesting and relevant contribution to a discussion...

  4. Health, alcohol and psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe study: dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic factors in the Lithuanian urban population of Kaunas city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Daugeliene, Evelina; Kranciukaite, Daina

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns in the Lithuanian urban population and to determine their association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008. Factor analysis of the main dietary patterns revealed a five-factor solution, which accounted for 47.8% of the variance: "fresh vegetables and fruit"; "sweets"; "porridge and cereals"; "potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs"; "chicken and fish". "Fresh vegetables and fruits" factor and "sweets" factor were inversely associated with age both in men and women: older people consumed less frequent than average of the particular food groups. Dietary patterns of people with good self-rated health and university education were healthier than among people with lower education and poorer health. Nutrition education efforts should focus on improving food diversity, with particular targeting of lower educated, single and older people.

  5. Perception and research of soil erosion by water until the mid-20th century - examples from central Europe and south-eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, many phases of agricultural expansion and regression occurred with associated land clearance and reforestation. As a result, soil has been washed downslope by soil erosion and gullies have incised, leading to the development of colluvial and alluvial deposits in many areas worldwide. While an increasing number of studies on past soil erosion shows significant loss of soil as an effect of human activity and extreme rainfall events, only little is known about the knock-on effects on soil fertility, possibly triggering crop failures and land abandonment until the beginning of the coordinated research programmes on soil conservation. Based on historical documents and literature reviews this paper gives examples on how soil erosion had been perceived previously by farmers, land owners, researches, and policy makers in central Europe and south-eastern USA. It presents different types of problem solving strategies and their long term efficiency - a helpful tool to evaluate the long term effects of current soil conservation practices under changing climatic conditions and increasing land use pressure.

  6. A tale of two commons. Some preliminary hypotheses on the long-term development of the commons in Western and Eastern Europe, 11th-19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Laborda Pemán

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present our hypotheses regarding the divergence in the development of common-property regimes between Eastern and Western Europe. The latter area developed formalized arrangements for the collective exploitation of natural resources particularly early, and it was chosen not only by farmers, but also in the cities – by craftsmen – to deal with the economic and social problems during the late medieval and early modern times. In the East the development of such institutions for collective action started – we believe – much later, due to a number of factors. Whereas in the West population growth and urbanization occurred together with a speedy commercialization of the economy, putting pressure on natural resources and hence leading to an increasing demand by peasants to formalize the collective use of their land, the peasants east of the Elbe River lacked the agency to demand such change in the governance regime of their land. They were limited in their behaviour by the strictures of the second serfdom, which was accompanied by lesser urbanization and commercialization. In this article, we offer some explanatory frameworks to understand and study this long-term development – or lack thereof – of institutions for collective action across the European continent.

  7. Land reclamation in the lignite open pit mining industry of Central and Eastern Europe - a comparative discourse; Rekultivierung im Braunkohlenbergbau Mittel- und Osteuropas - eine vergleichende Betrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    This comparative discourse on land reclamation in the Central and East European lignite mining regions is based on a complex analysis of the prevailing natural, geological, technological and social conditions. Considering the above conditions, the reclaimed land in the mined-out lignite mines of Central and Eastern Europe will predominantly be used as forests, although farming is also possible under particularly suitable conditions. Some of the land is given over to recreational purposes and integrated into the relevant landscape. Large lakes in residual holes of former lignite mines have only been created in Germany so far, where the special requirements of nature preservation have also been given attention. As regards the planning and financing regulations and the regulations coordinating the use of the post-mining land, there are differences between the individual countries which must be attributed to the rather diverse legal conditions. In general, the tasks associated with recultivation are defined similarly, are based on scientific investigations and are implemented at a very high level. The exchange of experience should be continued also in the future. (orig.)

  8. Modernisation of power plants in central and eastern Europe: High demand for creativity; Modernisierung von Kraftwerken in Mittel- und Osteuropa: Viel Kreativitaet gefragt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegmann, P.

    1998-07-01

    The retrofitting of old power plants in central and eastern Europe is a task of enormous dimensions and great importance. As all governments there are low in funds, measures to extend service life of the plants are an essential economic alternative to erecting new plants. The demand for retrofitting work opens up good marketing chances for power plant manufacturers of the West on the basis of cooperation agreements with domestic plant manufacturers in those countries, as is shown by the activities of Siemens/KWU. Now as before, creativity is much in demand for solving a substantial problem, the financing of retrofitting projects. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Rekonstruktion alter Kraftwerke in Mittel- und Osteuropa ist eine Aufgabe von enormem Ausmass und grosser Bedeutung. Lebensdauerverlaengernde Massnahmen sind angesichts knapper Finanzen eine wirtschaftliche Alternative zum Anlagenneubau. Gute Marktchancen eroeffnen sich westlichen Firmen durch Kooperationen mit oestlichen Anlagenbauern, wie das Beispiel Siemens/KWU zeigt. Bei der Finanzierung von Projekten ist nach wie vor Phantasie gefragt. (orig.)

  9. The impact of the financial crisis under the effects of increasing global economic interdependence. The case of Eastern and Central Europe Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bușega Ionuț

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological progress that arose in areas such as transportation, communication and information exchange has led to a series of consequences that forced national economies to converge into a global, market based economy. In addition to the aforementioned causes, increased liberalisation amidst financial markets has supplemented the initiation of this metamorphosis that had several benefits in terms of general commercial exchange (trade, capital flows, and investment opportunities for business organisations. Simultaneously with the financial leverage resulted from the expansion of these interconnections, a series of channels that are detrimental to the financial welfare of entities has emerged, which, in consequence elevated the vulnerability and susceptibility to external economic shocks. The major debate elicited by this trade-off mainly concerns the costs and benefits of the international liberalisation of capital flows and trade. The purpose of this article is to examine the methods through which globalisation has affected the expansion of the international financial crisis back in 2008, by identifying and assessing the subsequent transfer routes, to and from the United States, where it was initially triggered. This article also aims to evaluate the repercussions experienced by Central and Eastern Europe and how they re-established economic growth following the financial crisis.

  10. Pivot Tables - Toolkit: the Constraints to the Business Development in the Former Socialist EU Countries from the Central and Eastern Europe between (2008-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela Zeca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When cooperation between countries is in harmony, trade and investment patterns are based on economic considerations. However, in times of geopolitical reconfiguration of ranking supremacy, economic events held on a stage that sums up all the world, with everything that means material resources, financial resources, polarized areas of intervention, causation so "equation", sometimes with many and unpredictable variables, may not be so easy to solve it. The measurements and econometric calculation are indisputable correct, analysis and the economic forecasts must be accompanied by correct investment strategies on international road map being important to not overlook tension that may weaken national strategy. Informational abundance is as dangerous, or more correctly ineffective, like is the shortage of information. I approached the topic " Pivot tables - toolkit: the constraints to the business development in the former EU socialist countries from the Central and Eastern Europe" in terms of the possibility of accessing easy, accurate and timely a lot of sources of information because, this aspect is desirable, that the result of research overcome the academic space and to become a useful and efficient tool both to researchers, the decision makers and for vectors of economic policy. How large were the constraints and limitations which occurred, which is architecture of their evolution curve for the horizon 2008, 2016, all of these are coagulated aspects in this paper and accessible with one click.

  11. Re-examining the Role of Transport Infrastructure in Trade, Regional Growth and Governance: Comparing the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS and Central Eastern Europe (CEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bafoil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to question the hypothesis of the role of transport infrastructures in regional economic growth by comparing Central Eastern Europe (supported by the EU structural and cohesion funds and the Greater Mekong Subregion (mainly supported by the “economic corridors” of the ADB. Three main components of trade efficiency are scrutinized and compared: (1 the historical development of trade agreements, (2 the supra-national (regional capacity of trade regulation, and (3 the micro level of governance between the different actors involved in trade. The comparison between CEE and the GMS is all the more warranted because of two paradoxes that need to be explained: The first one results from the existing link between transport and growth in the case of the GMS, and the lack of a link in the case of CEE. The second paradox insists on the fact that despite their very different institutional frameworks, both subregions continue to face similar challenges concerning the implementation of trade agreements and the exchange of facilities at the local level – pointing towards the issue of governance.

  12. The many faces of rare diseases (RD): meeting report on Rare Disease in South-Eastern Europe, 15-16 November 2013, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Z; Tasic, V; Polenakovic, M

    2014-03-01

    The Second meeting on Rare Diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skope, Macedonia on November 15-16, 2013. Objective and main data: Rare diseases (RD) are a major problem in developed and especially in countries without affluence. 6-8% of every population suffers from RD. The cumulative effect of RDs on the health system of a country is increasing. Diagnosis often remains a challenge and requires international collaboration. Treatment in diseases for which medication exist is often inaccessible to patients because of the high costs. All countries of SEE need screening programs that address more diseases. Patient organizations play a major role in increasing awareness and providing the needed pressure on society to treat treatable RDs. On the other hand, RDs are frequently a source of valuable new molecular insights not only on mechanisms of their etiology and pathology, but sometimes provide an insight on mechanisms of frequent diseases in man. Further efforts are needed in improving all the RD aspects mentioned.

  13. Spatial genetic analyses reveal cryptic population structure and migration patterns in a continuously harvested grey wolf (Canis lupus population in north-eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Hindrikson

    Full Text Available Spatial genetics is a relatively new field in wildlife and conservation biology that is becoming an essential tool for unravelling the complexities of animal population processes, and for designing effective strategies for conservation and management. Conceptual and methodological developments in this field are therefore critical. Here we present two novel methodological approaches that further the analytical possibilities of STRUCTURE and DResD. Using these approaches we analyse structure and migrations in a grey wolf (Canislupus population in north-eastern Europe. We genotyped 16 microsatellite loci in 166 individuals sampled from the wolf population in Estonia and Latvia that has been under strong and continuous hunting pressure for decades. Our analysis demonstrated that this relatively small wolf population is represented by four genetic groups. We also used a novel methodological approach that uses linear interpolation to statistically test the spatial separation of genetic groups. The new method, which is capable of using program STRUCTURE output, can be applied widely in population genetics to reveal both core areas and areas of low significance for genetic groups. We also used a recently developed spatially explicit individual-based method DResD, and applied it for the first time to microsatellite data, revealing a migration corridor and barriers, and several contact zones.

  14. Viewls - Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios. Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. (and others)

    2006-01-15

    The EU has set ambitious targets to increase the use of Renewable Energy Sources from which a large part has to come from biomass To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed which requires large areas of land in the EU. This article discusses a methodology and results for a regional biomass potential assessment in Central and Eastern European Accession countries (CEEC). The biomass potential assessment is implemented for a defined set of scenarios. The scenarios are based on the main drivers in Europe relevant for agriculture and land use change, i.e. World Trade Negotiations or Common Agricultural Policy. The methodology for the biomass potential assessment is based on land use changes over time. A certain amount of land is needed to meet the required production for food (derived from agricultural crops and livestock) and wood products. The surplus available land can possibly be used for biomass production. Results of the biomass potential assessment are available on a Nuts-3 region level in the CEEC for different scenarios. As the concept of large-scale biomass production is only feasible when production is profitable for the stakeholders involved, price and cost-relations are included in the assessment. Final deliverable are cost-supply curves from different sources (energy crops, residues) and scenarios for the CEEC. (au)

  15. Trade patterns of the tree nursery industry in Europe and changes following findings of citrus longhorn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis Forster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Eschen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The trade in plants for planting is a major pathway for the introduction and further spread of alien plants, pests and diseases. Information about the structure of plant trade networks is not generally available, but it is valuable for better assessing the potential risks associated with the trade in live plants and the development of prevention and mitigation measures and policy. The discovery of two larvae of Anoplophora chinensis (citrus longhorn beetle – CLB in 2009, at a nursery importing Acer palmatum from China in one of the major Dutch tree nursery areas, has resulted in the creation of a detailed dataset on the intra-European Union trade in its potential hosts. This study describes European imports of the primary host of A. chinensis, Acer spp., into the Netherlands (1998-2012 and the effects of the finding in a tree nursery area. In addition, shipments of Acer spp. from 138 producers in the nursery area in 2009 were analysed in a one-off analysis of intra-EU trade. The volume of Acer spp. imports from Asia was stable early during the studied period, and declined to 5% of the initial imports after a period of interceptions, illustrating the effect of regulations. The number of notifications of A. chinensis infestations in imported consignments of Acer spp. increased sharply in the years up to 2007, then declined as imports also reduced. Although plants were shipped to destinations throughout Europe, each producer shipped plants only to few destinations in few countries. Most of the plants were shipped to nurseries in EU countries. These patterns could make it easier to target these high risk destinations for control measures. The lack of transaction records makes it difficult to trace the destination of plants. More systematic electronic record keeping by traders and growers and the data being collated in a database that can be made available to regulatory authorities, together with further studies of plant trade data using network

  16. Latino MSM and HIV in the rural south-eastern USA: findings from ethnographic in-depth interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Aronson, Robert E.; Bloom, Fred R.; Felizzola, Jesus; Wolfson, Mark; Vissman, Aaron T.; Alonzo, Jorge; Allen, Alex Boeving; Montaño, Jaime; McGuire, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    A community-based participatory research partnership explored HIV risk and potentially effective intervention characteristics to reduce exposure and transmission among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men living in the rural south-eastern USA States. Twenty-one participants enrolled and completed a total of 62 ethnographic in-depth interviews. Mean age was 31 (range 18–48) years, and English-language proficiency was limited; 18 participants were from Mexico. Four participants reported having sex with men and women during the past three months; two participants self-identified as male-to-female transgender. Qualitative themes that emerged included a lack of accurate information about HIV and prevention; the influence of social-political contexts to sexual risk; and barriers to healthcare services. We also identified eight characteristics of potentially effective interventions for HIV prevention. Our findings suggest that socio-political contexts must be additional targets of change to reduce and eliminate HIV health disparities experienced by immigrant Latino men who have sex with men. PMID:20582764

  17. Mitochondrial haplogroup C in ancient mitochondrial DNA from Ukraine extends the presence of East Eurasian genetic lineages in Neolithic Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Newton, Jeremy R; Potekhina, Inna D

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR.

  18. A frailty instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2010-01-01

    A frailty paradigm would be useful in primary care to identify older people at risk, but appropriate metrics at that level are lacking. We created and validated a simple instrument for frailty screening in Europeans aged ≥50. Our study is based on the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, http:\\/\\/www.share-project.org), a large population-based survey conducted in 2004-2005 in twelve European countries.

  19. A review of neogene and quaternary snakes of Central and Eastern Europe. Part 11: natricinae, elapidae, viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyndlar, Z.

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Remains of Neogene and Quaternary "natricine" colubrids, elapids and viperids, including snakes previously described and those undescribed yet, coming from Poland, Ukraine, Moldavia, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece are discussed. The following taxa, including 11 extinct species, were recognized: "Natricinae": Neonatrix nova, Neonatrix sp., Palaeonatrix silesiaca, Palaeonatrix lehmani, Natrix longivertebrata, Natrix cf. N. longivertebrata, Natrix natrix, Natrix tesselata, Natrix cf. N. tesselata, Natrix sp., "Natricinae" indet.; Elapidae: Naja romani, Naja sp., cf. Naja sp.; Viperidae: Vipera platyspondyla, Vipera sarmatica, Vipera burgenlandica, Vipera gedulyi, Vipera kuchurganica, Vipera antiqua, Vipera cf. V. ammodytes, Vipera berus, Vipera sp ('Oriental vipers' group, Vipera sp. ('aspis' group, Vipera sp. ('berus' group, Vipera sp. . (status unknown. Taxonomic status of two other extinct species, Natrix parva and Laophis crotaloides, is uncertain. Modern species appeared fírst in Central and East Europe in the middle Pliocene (MN 15. Older snakes belonged to extinct species of either extinct or extant genera; taxonomic distinction of most extinct genera is, however, not fully demonstrated. Best recognized oldest snakes from the area (Elapidae, Viperidae, and sorne Colubridae are clearly referable to modern genera and intrageneric subdivisions occurring today are observed in oldest (Iower Miocene remains; closest living relatives of these fossils are presently distributed in the Oriental Realm.Se revisan y estudian los restos neógenos y cuaternarios de colúbridos «natricinos», elápidos y vipéridos, incluyendo tanto serpientes previamente descritas como- otras inéditas. Los materiales analizados proceden de Polonia, Ukrania, Moldavia, Checoslovaquia, Austria, Hungría, Rumania, Bulgaria y Grecia. Se reconocen los siguientes taxones, incluyendo 11 especies extinguidas: Natricinae: Neonatrix nova

  20. Neogene sedimentary history of the Inner Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Susan; Kurtboǧan, Bahar; Akhun, Selin; Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy; Ćifçi, Günay

    2010-05-01

    The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focused on erosion in the sediment source area and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is focused to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we collected ~2000 km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic reflection profiles radiating out from the present-day mouth of the Göksu River across the basin. The Göksu River delta is located on a narrow shelf at the junction of the Inner and Outer Cilicia Basins. The Inner Cilicia Basin consists of a 40 km-wide shelf linking to the onshore Adana Basin and a slope down to the deeper water (~ 1 km) of the Outer Cilicia Basin. The shelf is built out of a >2.5 km-thick sequence of Pliocene-Quaternary sediment overlying Messinian evaporites or older Miocene sediments. The evaporites have been mobilised to move down slope during the Pliocene-Quaternary so that the shelf is located above an extensional fault fan, complemented by a salt-cored fold/thrust belt in deeper water (see poster by Piercey et al., this meeting). The 2008 seismic reflection profiles show that the western margin of the Inner Cilicia Basin seaward of the mouth of the Göksu River is constructed by numerous vertically stacked and east-prograded delta successions. Detailed mapping in this region revealed that the sediment input from the Göksu River can be readily distinguished from the larger influxes from the coalescing Tarsus, Seyhan and Ceyhan Rivers to the north. The bases of major delta packages supplied by the Göksu River are marked by strong reflections, defining shelf-crossing unconformities, which can be correlated across the Inner Cilicia Basin. Industry exploration wells in the

  1. Burden of Diarrhea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990–2013: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Colombara, Danny V.; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Troeger, Christopher; Daoud, Farah; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Rao, Puja C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Charara, Raghid; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; El Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Akseer, Nadia; Alam, Khurshid; Alasfoor, Deena; Ali, Raghib; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad Salem; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Awasthi, Ashish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Butt, Zahid A.; Danawi, Hadi; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Faghmous, Imad D. A.; Farid, Talha; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson; Gibney, Katherine B.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Jahanmehr, Nader; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B.; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kissoon, Niranjan; Koyanagi, Ai; Lal, Aparna; Latif, Asma Abdul Abdul; Lunevicius, Raimundas; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mehari, Alem; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Misganaw, Awoke; Mohamed, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim; Nachega, Jean B.; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Platts-Mills, James A.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Ur Rahman, Sajjad; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rana, Saleem M.; Ranabhat, Chhabi L.; Rao, Sowmya R.; Refaat, Amany H.; Riddle, Mark; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Setegn, Tesfaye; Sliwa, Karen; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Westerman, Ronny; Wubshet, Mamo; Yenesew, Muluken A.; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0–1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245–763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520–989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540–65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden. PMID:27928080

  2. Burden of Diarrhea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Colombara, Danny V; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Troeger, Christopher; Daoud, Farah; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Bcheraoui, Charbel El; Rao, Puja C; Afshin, Ashkan; Charara, Raghid; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd El; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Akseer, Nadia; Alam, Khurshid; Alasfoor, Deena; Ali, Raghib; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad Salem; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Altirkawi, Khalid A; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Awasthi, Ashish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bensenor, Isabela M; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abdulhak, Aref A Bin; Butt, Zahid A; Danawi, Hadi; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Faghmous, Imad D A; Farid, Talha; Farvid, Maryam S; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson; Gibney, Katherine B; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Hsairi, Mohamed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Jahanmehr, Nader; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kissoon, Niranjan; Koyanagi, Ai; Lal, Aparna; Latif, Asma Abdul Abdul; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd El; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mehari, Alem; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Misganaw, Awoke; Mohamed, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim; Nachega, Jean B; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Platts-Mills, James A; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rana, Saleem M; Ranabhat, Chhabi L; Rao, Sowmya R; Refaat, Amany H; Riddle, Mark; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Setegn, Tesfaye; Sliwa, Karen; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Sykes, Bryan L; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Uthman, Olalekan A; Westerman, Ronny; Wubshet, Mamo; Yenesew, Muluken A; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Rabeeah, Abdullah A Al; Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-12-07

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0-1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245-763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520-989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540-65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden.

  3. Recent findings of Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae in the eastern Mediterranean and the implication on its range expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii is found circumglobally in subtropical, temperate waters and sustains important fisheries in the North Pacific, but it is rarely encountered in the Mediterranean Sea. During the last decade, and particularly since 2004, the frequency of its presence in the Aegean Sea and nearby regions has increased, raising a question about a change in the species distribution and abundance in this area. In this study, we reviewed the literature on O. bartramii findings in the Mediterranean Sea and present new data describing body and beak morphometry, diet and the maturity of specimens recently collected from the easternmost basins. According to data from the entire Mediterranean Sea, collected individuals reached 66 cm in mantle length (ML, wherein only females were larger than 32 cm in ML. An isometric growth in body weight (BW was shown, whereas the lower beak rostral length (LRL was allometrically positive in relation to the ML. Occasional catches by jigs during experimental cruises provided most of the individuals recorded in the period from 1982-1992. In contrast, the most recent records are primarily comprised of mature females collected on or near the shore in the eastern basin and of predominantly smaller individuals from the western basin caught by professional jigging fisheries. The distribution of the specimen recorded from the Aegean Sea indicates an association between the species distribution and the circulation of the warm Levantine Intermediate Water. The more frequent observations of moribund spawning females at the periphery of the Cretan Sea are indicative of a spawning ground at this area. The suspected recent increase of O. bartramii abundance in both the northeastern and northwestern basins might be due to the warming of upper sea layers, which has been observed since the mid-1980s and is considered to be the main factor driving the northward expansion of the warm-water species’ range within

  4. Recent findings of Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae in the eastern Mediterranean and the implication on its range expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii is found circumglobally in subtropical, temperate waters and sustains important fisheries in the North Pacific, but it is rarely encountered in the Mediterranean Sea. During the last decade, and particularly since 2004, the frequency of its presence in the Aegean Sea and nearby regions has increased, raising a question about a change in the species distribution and abundance in this area. In this study, we reviewed the literature on O. bartramii findings in the Mediterranean Sea and present new data describing body and beak morphometry, diet and the maturity of specimens recently collected from the easternmost basins. According to data from the entire Mediterranean Sea, collected individuals reached 66 cm in mantle length (ML, wherein only females were larger than 32 cm in ML. An isometric growth in body weight (BW was shown, whereas the lower beak rostral length (LRL was allometrically positive in relation to the ML. Occasional catches by jigs during experimental cruises provided most of the individuals recorded in the period from 1982-1992. In contrast, the most recent records are primarily comprised of mature females collected on or near the shore in the eastern basin and of predominantly smaller individuals from the western basin caught by professional jigging fisheries. The distribution of the specimen recorded from the Aegean Sea indicates an association between the species distribution and the circulation of the warm Levantine Intermediate Water. The more frequent observations of moribund spawning females at the periphery of the Cretan Sea are indicative of a spawning ground at this area. The suspected recent increase of O. bartramii abundance in both the northeastern and northwestern basins might be due to the warming of upper sea layers, which has been observed since the mid-1980s and is considered to be the main factor driving the northward expansion of the warm-water species’ range within

  5. Dental Education in Europe: The Challenges of Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John

    2003-01-01

    Finds that dental education varies considerably across Europe, with differing traditions of stomatology and odontology. The European Union's Dental Directives are often poorly followed by individual schools, and differences will likely intensify as Eastern/Central European countries join. The DentEd Thematic Network Project, which aims to promote…

  6. Dental Education in Europe: The Challenges of Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John

    2003-01-01

    Finds that dental education varies considerably across Europe, with differing traditions of stomatology and odontology. The European Union's Dental Directives are often poorly followed by individual schools, and differences will likely intensify as Eastern/Central European countries join. The DentEd Thematic Network Project, which aims to promote…

  7. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Dimitris P; Whitfield, D Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms) than currently (operating wind farms), equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals) if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW). Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW), cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population) and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2%) caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our 'win-win' approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten wildlife

  8. Universal salt iodization in the Central and Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS) Region during the decade 2000-09: experiences, achievements, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Frits; Gerasimov, Gregory; Tyler, Vilma Qahoush; Timmer, Arnold

    2011-12-01

    By 2000, the global track record on universal salt iodization (USI) indicated 26% access to adequately iodized salt in the Central and Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/ CIS) Region. Aimed at extracting lessons learned, this study examined experiences, achievements, and outcomes of USI strategies in CEE/CIS countries during the subsequent decade. Information from the design, timing, execution, outputs, multi-sector management and results of actions by national stakeholders yielded 20 country summaries. Analysis across countries used a LogFrame Analysis typical for public nutrition development. By 2009, USI strategies had reached the target and population iodine nutrition shown adequate levels in 9 countries, while in 6 others, USI was close and/or population iodine status showed only minor imperfection. True USI, i.e., iodization of salt destined both for the food industry and the household, had been made mandatory in 13 of these 15 countries. In the Balkan area, USI and iodine nutrition advanced more than in CIS. Of the 20 sample countries, 17 (85%) had exceeded the mark of 50% adequate access, while the overall regional score reached 55% by 2010. Experience from this region suggests that strong partnership collaboration, a new concept in post-Soviet societies, was a major success factor. Voluntary iodization or focusing on household salt alone was less likely conducive for success. Achieving optimum iodine nutrition required the setting of proper iodine standard Weak political leadership insistence in the Russian Federation and Ukraine to embrace USI is the main factor why the region remains behind in the global progress.

  9. FINANCIAL SECTOR AND GROWTH PROCESS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE'S FORMER SOCIALIST COUNTRIES: COULD A KALDORIAN CUMULATIVE CAUSATION APPROACH HELP TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE LINKS BETWEEN THEM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula DIMKOU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The reform and development of the financial sector was one of the most significant challenges that the former socialist countries faced during their transition to a market economy. At the start of this transition, their financial system was underdeveloped and centralised (monobank, where the central bank of each economy also functioned as a commercial bank. The restructuring, integration and development of the financial sector to enhance viability and enable it to respond to new demands was imperative, particularly for economic growth and the convergence of these economies with the developed economies of the region. This process of financial integration suffered a powerful shock with the economic crisis transmitted to the region in 2009. The initial aim of this paper is to highlight the problems created after the global economic crisis affecting the financial institutions of the former socialist countries of South-eastern Europe, as well as the problems that already existed, though not apparent, and were nevertheless exacerbated by the outbreak of the crisis. An attempt to investigate the role of the financial sector, dominated by the banking sector, follows, with regard to achieving macroeconomic equilibrium among the economies of the countries in the region and the potential for sustaining it in future as part of a path to growth. To fully satisfy this goal, we propose that it is preferable to avoid a linear approach to the issue, abandoning equilibrium theory to adopt an analysis inspired by the method of cumulative causation, based on the work of Nicholas Kaldor. Our analysis allows us to postulate that, in a post-crisis period, conditions prevail for the potential appearance of future structural impasses of a cumulative nature, which could lead to a systemic crisis and leave the development process of the region's economies exposed.

  10. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, D. Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations’ persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms) than currently (operating wind farms), equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals) if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW). Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW), cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population) and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2%) caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our ‘win-win’ approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten wildlife

  11. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  12. Iron deficiency after arrival is associated with general cognitive and behavioral impairment in post-institutionalized children adopted from Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Georgieff, Michael K; Iverson, Sandra L; Miller, Bradley S; Petryk, Anna; Johnson, Dana E; Kroupina, Maria G

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the role of iron deficiency in general cognitive and behavioral development in post-institutionalized (PI) children during the early post-adoption period. PI children (N = 57) adopted from Eastern Europe or Central Asia (9-46 months of age) were seen at baseline around 1 month after arrival into the US and at follow-up 6 months later. Measures included anthropometry, iron status, the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire-R (TBAQ-R), the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, and examiner-rated behaviors during testing. 26 % were iron deficient at baseline; 18 % were iron deficient at follow-up. There was a trend for those with iron deficiency at baseline to be more fearful on the TBAQ-R. Those with iron deficiency at follow-up displayed more hyperactivity on both the TBAQ-R and the examiner-rated behaviors. Those with iron deficiency at follow-up were more likely to score below average on the Mullen Early Learning Composite (iron deficient: 80 %; good iron status: 32 %). The association between iron status at follow-up and the Mullen Early Learning Composite was mediated by inattention and hyperactivity behaviors during testing. Iron deficiency is associated with neurobehavioral alterations months after arrival, mediated by the effect on attention and activity levels. Iron status needs to be monitored at least through the first half-year post-adoption, particularly in children exhibiting rapid catch-up growth. Additionally, developmental evaluation is recommended in those with iron deficiency, even in children with good iron status at arrival.

  13. The perfect storm: incarceration and the high-risk environment perpetuating transmission of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altice, Frederick L; Azbel, Lyuba; Stone, Jack; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Dvoriak, Sergii; Taxman, Faye S; El-Bassel, Nabila; Martin, Natasha K; Booth, Robert; Stöver, Heino; Dolan, Kate; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-09-17

    Despite global reductions in HIV incidence and mortality, the 15 UNAIDS-designated countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 constitute the only region where both continue to rise. HIV transmission in EECA is fuelled primarily by injection of opioids, with harsh criminalisation of drug use that has resulted in extraordinarily high levels of incarceration. Consequently, people who inject drugs, including those with HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis, are concentrated within prisons. Evidence-based primary and secondary prevention of HIV using opioid agonist therapies such as methadone and buprenorphine is available in prisons in only a handful of EECA countries (methadone or buprenorphine in five countries and needle and syringe programmes in three countries), with none of them meeting recommended coverage levels. Similarly, antiretroviral therapy coverage, especially among people who inject drugs, is markedly under-scaled. Russia completely bans opioid agonist therapies and does not support needle and syringe programmes-with neither available in prisons-despite the country's high incarceration rate and having the largest burden of people with HIV who inject drugs in the region. Mathematical modelling for Ukraine suggests that high levels of incarceration in EECA countries facilitate HIV transmission among people who inject drugs, with 28-55% of all new HIV infections over the next 15 years predicted to be attributable to heightened HIV transmission risk among currently or previously incarcerated people who inject drugs. Scaling up of opioid agonist therapies within prisons and maintaining treatment after release would yield the greatest HIV transmission reduction in people who inject drugs. Additional analyses also suggest that at least 6% of all incident tuberculosis cases, and 75% of incident tuberculosis cases in people who inject drugs are due to incarceration. Interventions that reduce

  14. Industrial Growth Rates and Instability: An Historical Analysis of the Former Centrally Planned Economies of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan E. ANDERSON

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the central tenets of socialism and central planning economics, as practiced by the East European countries, was that this organization of employment, production and activity could achieve higher growth rates than market economies. This paper presents an historical analysis of economic performance of seven countries: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia during the crucial period of socialism (1960-80. It studies the relationship between industry output growth rates and output instabilities in approximately twenty-five industries. Using empirically estimated models it was found that the instability (volatility of industry output increased with growth rates and at an increasing rate. Since instability creates substantial costs, these findings imply that the true value of income and product streams in East European countries, after discounting for instability, was lower than otherwise believed. A decomposition of instability into two sources, systemic structure versus operational implementation is suggested.

  15. An Integrated Analysis of Changes in Water Stress in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichs, T.; Lehner, B.; Alcamo, J.

    2002-01-01

    that today high water stress exists in one-fifth of European river basin area. Under a scenario projection, increases in water use throughout Eastern Europe are accompanied by decreases in water availability in most of Southern Europe--combining these trends leads to a marked increase in water stress......Future changes in water availability with climate change and changes in water use due to socio-economic development are to occur in parallel. In an integrated analysis we bring together these aspects of global change in a consistent manner, and analyse the water stress situation in Europe. We find...

  16. Screening and rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis in prisons in Russia and Eastern Europe: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Winetsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prisons of the former Soviet Union (FSU have high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and are thought to drive general population tuberculosis (TB epidemics. Effective prison case detection, though employing more expensive technologies, may reduce long-term treatment costs and slow MDR-TB transmission. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a dynamic transmission model of TB and drug resistance matched to the epidemiology and costs in FSU prisons. We evaluated eight strategies for TB screening and diagnosis involving, alone or in combination, self-referral, symptom screening, mass miniature radiography (MMR, and sputum PCR with probes for rifampin resistance (Xpert MTB/RIF. Over a 10-y horizon, we projected costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, and TB and MDR-TB prevalence. Using sputum PCR as an annual primary screening tool among the general prison population most effectively reduced overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.31% and MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.63%, and cost US$543/QALY for additional QALYs gained compared to MMR screening with sputum PCR reserved for rapid detection of MDR-TB. Adding sputum PCR to the currently used strategy of annual MMR screening was cost-saving over 10 y compared to MMR screening alone, but produced only a modest reduction in MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.69% and had minimal effect on overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.74%. Strategies based on symptom screening alone were less effective and more expensive than MMR-based strategies. Study limitations included scarce primary TB time-series data in FSU prisons and uncertainties regarding screening test characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: In prisons of the FSU, annual screening of the general inmate population with sputum PCR most effectively reduces TB and MDR-TB prevalence, doing so cost-effectively. If this approach is not feasible, the current strategy of annual MMR is both more effective and less expensive than strategies

  17. 78 FR 61045 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... include caves and abandoned mines (e.g., limestone, coal, iron). Because they tolerate colder temperatures..., small numbers of adult and juvenile eastern small-footed bats have been observed using caves and mines... Park Service (NPS); the largest number observed was 157 in one of the NPS mines (NPS 2011, unpublished...

  18. 77 FR 27403 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... rattlesnake roundups. Size records for thousands of eastern diamondbacks purchased by the Ross Allen Reptile... found in the Service's files (Timmerman and Means 2003, entire; America's Longleaf Regional Working... are a remnant of their former 90 million ac (36.4 million ha) (America's Longleaf Regional...

  19. Cross-national time trends in bullying behaviour 1994-2006: findings from Europe and North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Due, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify trends over 12 years in the prevalence of bullying and associated victimization among adolescents in North American and European countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional self-report surveys were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11-15 year old school children...... in 21 countries in 1993/94 and in 27 countries in each of 1997/98, 2001/02 and 2005/06. Measures included involvement in bullying as either a perpetrator and/or victim. RESULTS: Consistent decreases in the prevalence of bullying were reported between 1993/94 to 2005/06 in most countries. Geographic...... patterns show consistent decreases in bullying in Western European countries and in most Eastern European countries. An increase or no change in prevalence was evident in almost all English speaking countries participating in the study (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Canada, but not in the USA...

  20. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP ...

  1. Social Inequalities in Self-Reported Health in Eastern European Countries: Findings from the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    According to the WHO in all countries – whether low-, middle- or high-income – there are wide differences in the health status of different social groups. The purpose of this paper is to identify the possible socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health among the population of seven Eastern...... European countries (Bulgaria, Czech republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Russian Federation) by exploring the associations of the socio-economic determinants of health with poor self-reported health. Data for this study is derived from the European Social Survey. Respondents from six collected...... of this research show the existence of some socio-demographic and socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health among the population of seven Eastern European countries...

  2. 400 years of summer climatic conditions in the N Carpathian Mts. (eastern Europe) based on O and C stable isotopes in Pinus Cembra L tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagavciuc, Viorica; Popa, Ionel; Kern, Zoltán; Persoiu, Aurel

    2016-04-01

    For a better understanding of how the climate is changing and how the environment responds to these changes, it is necessary to understand how the climate has varied in the past. Romania's virgin forests have a great potential to obtain long tree-ring chronologies with annual resolution; but so far, only a few studies resulted in quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions. In this context, the aim of this study is 1) to calibrate the relationship between the stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon in tree rings and the main climatic parameters and determine the potential of Pinus cembra (Cǎlimani Mts., N Romania, Eastern Europe) for paleoclimatic reconstructions; 2) to provide the first palaeoclimatic reconstitution in Romania based on the isotopic composition of oxygen and carbon in tree ring cellulose, and 3) to test the hypothesis that nearby sulphur mines have not altered the climatic signal recorded by the stable isotopic composition of tree rings, contrary to the similar signal recorded by TRW. For this study, we have analysed wood samples of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) from living and dead trees from Cǎlimani Mts., NE Romania, aged between 1600 and 2012 AD. The isotopic composition of oxygen and carbon from the cellulose was analysed at the Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, Budapest, Hungary, using a high-temperature pyrolysis system (Thermo Quest TC-EA) coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finningan Delta V) following a ring by ring (i.e., non-pooled) approach. The average level of δ18O and δ13C in cellulose for the period 1600-2012 was 28.83‰ and -22.63 ‰. The tree ring cellulose δ18O and δ13C values showed a strong positive correlation with maximum air temperature (r = 0.6 for δ18O and r = 0.5 for δ13C), mean temperature (r = 0.6 for δ18O and r = 0.45 for δ13C), and sunshine duration (r = 0.69 for δ18O) and negatively correlated with precipitation amount (r = -0.5 for δ18O and r = 0.3 for δ13C) and

  3. Correlation and petrogenesis of silicic pyroclastic rocks in the Northern Pannonian Basin, Eastern-Central Europe: In situ trace element data of glass shards and mineral chemical constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harangi, Szabolcs; Mason, Paul R. D.; Lukács, Réka

    2005-05-01

    The Neogene volcanism of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region, Eastern-Central Europe started with repeated explosive eruption of silicic magmas. Volcanic products consist mostly of non-welded and partially to densely welded ignimbrites, which cover large areas in the Pannonian Basin. Since this volcanism occurred during a long time interval, from 21 Ma to 13.5 Ma ago, these pyroclastic deposits have great stratigraphic importance, as well as providing valuable information about petrogenetic processes during the formation of the back-arc basin area. In this study, we used in situ trace element data of glasses (glass shards, pumice and fiamme glass) determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), combined with microprobe geochemical data of the main mineral phases (plagioclase, biotite), to correlate the scattered outcrops of the ignimbrite units. Based on these data, we distinguished four ignimbrite units in the Bükkalja Volcanic Field, Northern Pannonian Basin. Each of these units is characterized by specific geochemical fingerprints. Thorium, Nb, Y and the rare earth elements are the most effective discriminator elements in glasses. The modal composition of mineral phases (occurrence or lack of certain minerals) and chemistry of plagioclases and biotites are also good correlation tools, especially the Fe, Mg and Ti contents of biotites. We suggest that these correlation criteria, particularly the grain-specific LA-ICP-MS data, could be effectively used also in other ignimbrite fields and in wider tephrochronological studies. The in situ trace element composition of glasses, representing the liquid part of the erupted magma, can be also used to constrain the petrogenesis of the rhyolitic magmas. Trace element ratios such as La/Nb, La/Y and Th/Nb suggest the importance of minor (e.g., hornblende and ilmenite) and accessory (e.g., zircon, allanite) minerals controlling the composition of the erupted melt. Rhyolitic magmas probably

  4. Beech bark necrosis: partition- ing the environmental and spatial variation of the damage severity in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Jarčuška

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The beech bark necrosis (BBN infestation severity of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. was assessed in regions of Central (CE and South-Eastern Europe (SE. Altogether more than 10,000 trees were sampled at 114 sites. Using variation partitioning method, we examined the pure and shared effects of stand, site, climate and spatial sets of variables on mean BBN severity. Our rating included (i the whole stand, (ii tree social status classes, (iii canopy (C and (iv understory (U trees separately. We found that C trees were less affected by BBN than sub-canopy and U trees in both regions. There were found inter-regional differences in amount of explained variability (25.4–73.9% for whole stand BBN and in the sensitivity of C and U trees to the environmental gradients. The analysis revealed that the climate and spatial variables followed by stand variables had the largest marginal effects on mean BBN severity in all models, while the site set of variables had the weakest one. More than half of the explained variation was shared among four sets of variables in SE, contrary to CE. Except to U trees in SE, the effect of climate – pure or spatially structured – remained the highest also after partitioning of variance; more in SE than in CE. Taking into account positive association between mean annual temperature and mean BBN severity in C trees in SE, reinforced negative effect of climate change on the necrosis might be expected to be more serious mainly in low situated beech forests there. Promoting the tree species diversity in forested areas with higher incidence of beech bark necrosis, i.e. in low altitudes in SE, could reduce the susceptibility of forests to the necrosis at regional level in the future. For better understanding of the relative importance of environmental and spatial variables on BBN severity, further research performed on finer spatial scale (extent and grain is necessary, along with accounting for pathogens involved in the

  5. Arctic smoke – record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near Ny Ålesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3 and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also elevated. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing – black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin – and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at Ny Ålesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly elevated levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the

  6. Quantification of carbon dioxide emissions of Ciomadul, the youngest volcano of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (Eastern-Central Europe, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercédesz; Ionescu, Artur; Cardellini, Carlo; Harangi, Szabolcs; Baciu, Călin; Caracausi, Antonio; Viveiros, Fátima

    2017-07-01

    We provide the first high-resolution CO2 flux data for the Neogene to Quaternary volcanic regions of the entire Carpathian-Pannonian Region, Eastern-Central Europe, and estimate the CO2 emission of the seemingly inactive Ciomadul volcanic complex, the youngest volcano of this area. Our estimate includes data from focused and diffuse CO2 emissions from soil. The CO2 fluxes of focused emissions range between 277 and 8172 g d- 1, corresponding to a CO2 output into the atmosphere between 0.1 and 2.98 t per year. The investigated areas for diffuse soil gas emissions were characterized by wide range of CO2 flux values, at Apor Baths, ranging from 1.7 × 101 to 8.2 × 104 g m- 2 d- 1, while at Lăzărești ranging between 1.43 and 3.8 × 104 g m- 2 d- 1. The highest CO2 focused gas fluxes at Ciomadul were found at the periphery of the youngest volcanic complex, which could be explained either by tectonic control across the brittle older volcanic edifices or by degassing from a deeper crustal zone resulting in CO2 flux at the periphery of the supposed melt-bearing magma body beneath Ciomadul. The estimate of the total CO2 output in the area is 8.70 × 103 t y- 1, and it is consistent with other long (> 10 kyr) dormant volcanoes with similar age worldwide, such as in Italy and USA. Taking into account the isotopic composition of the gases that indicate deep origin of the CO2 emissions, this yields further support that Ciomadul may be considered indeed a dormant, or PAMS volcano (volcano with potentially active magma storage) rather than an inactive one. Furthermore, hazard of CO2 outpourings has to be taken into account and it has to be communicated to the visitors. Finally, we suggest that CO2 output of dormant volcanic systems has to be also accounted in the estimation of the global volcanic CO2 budget.

  7. Beech bark necrosis: partition- ing the environmental and spatial variation of the damage severity in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Jarčuška

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The beech bark necrosis (BBN infestation severity of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. was assessed in regions of Central (CE and South-Eastern Europe (SE. Altogether more than 10,000 trees were sampled at 114 sites. Using variation partitioning method, we examined the pure and shared effects of stand, site, climate and spatial sets of variables on mean BBN severity. Our rating included (i the whole stand, (ii tree social status classes, (iii canopy (C and (iv understory (U trees separately. We found that C trees were less affected by BBN than sub-canopy and U trees in both regions. There were found inter-regional differences in amount of explained variability (25.4–73.9% for whole stand BBN and in the sensitivity of C and U trees to the environmental gradients. The analysis revealed that the climate and spatial variables followed by stand variables had the largest marginal effects on mean BBN severity in all models, while the site set of variables had the weakest one. More than half of the explained variation was shared among four sets of variables in SE, contrary to CE. Except to U trees in SE, the effect of climate – pure or spatially structured – remained the highest also after partitioning of variance; more in SE than in CE. Taking into account positive association between mean annual temperature and mean BBN severity in C trees in SE, reinforced negative effect of climate change on the necrosis might be expected to be more serious mainly in low situated beech forests there. Promoting the tree species diversity in forested areas with higher incidence of beech bark necrosis, i.e. in low altitudes in SE, could reduce the susceptibility of forests to the necrosis at regional level in the future. For better understanding of the relative importance of environmental and spatial variables on BBN severity, further research performed on finer spatial scale (extent and grain is necessary, along with accounting for pathogens involved in the

  8. Arctic smoke - record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Burkhart, J. F.; Fjæraa, A. M.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Hov, Ø.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Simpson, D.; Solberg, S.; Stebel, K.; Ström, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB) was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near Ny Ålesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3) and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also elevated. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing - black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin - and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at Ny Ålesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly elevated levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the deposition of the smoke

  9. Multiple policies to enhance prescribing efficiency for established medicines in Europe with a particular focus on demand-side measures: findings and future implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eGodman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The appreciable growth in pharmaceutical expenditure has resulted in multiple initiatives across Europe to lower generic prices and enhance their utilisation. However, considerable variation in their use and prices. Objective: Assess the influence of multiple supply and demand-side initiatives across Europe for established medicines to enhance prescribing efficiency before a decision to prescribe a particular medicine. Subsequently utilise the findings to suggest potential future initiatives that countries could consider. Method: Analysis of different methodologies involving cross national and single country retrospective observational studies on reimbursed use and expenditure of PPIs, statins and renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs among European countries. Results: Nature and intensity of the various initiatives appreciably influenced prescribing behaviour and expenditure, e.g. multiple measures resulted in reimbursed expenditure for PPIs in Scotland in 2010 56% below 2001 levels despite a 3 fold increase in utilisation and in the Netherlands, PPI expenditure fell by 58% in 2010 vs. 2000 despite a 3-fold increase in utilisation. A similarly picture was seen with prescribing restrictions, i.e. (i more aggressive follow-up of prescribing restrictions for patented statins and ARBs resulted in a greater reduction in the utilisation of patented statins in Austria vs. Norway and lower utilisation of patented ARBs vs. generic ACEIs in Croatia than Austria. However, limited impact of restrictions on esomeprazole in Norway with the first prescription or recommendation in hospital where restrictions do not apply. Similar findings when generic losartan became available in Western Europe. Conclusions: Multiple demand-side measures are needed to influence prescribing patterns. When combined with supply-side measures, activities can realise appreciable savings. Health authorities cannot rely on a ‘spill over’ effect between classes to affect

  10. Multiple policies to enhance prescribing efficiency for established medicines in Europe with a particular focus on demand-side measures: findings and future implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godman, Brian; Wettermark, Bjorn; van Woerkom, Menno; Fraeyman, Jessica; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Berg, Christian; Bishop, Iain; Bucsics, Anna; Campbell, Stephen; Finlayson, Alexander E.; Fürst, Jurij; Garuoliene, Kristina; Herholz, Harald; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Piessnegger, Jutta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Vlahović-Palčevski, Vera V.; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Vončina, Luka; Malinowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The appreciable growth in pharmaceutical expenditure has resulted in multiple initiatives across Europe to lower generic prices and enhance their utilization. However, considerable variation in their use and prices. Objective: Assess the influence of multiple supply and demand-side initiatives across Europe for established medicines to enhance prescribing efficiency before a decision to prescribe a particular medicine. Subsequently utilize the findings to suggest potential future initiatives that countries could consider. Method: An analysis of different methodologies involving cross national and single country retrospective observational studies on reimbursed use and expenditure of PPIs, statins, and renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs among European countries. Results: Nature and intensity of the various initiatives appreciably influenced prescribing behavior and expenditure, e.g., multiple measures resulted in reimbursed expenditure for PPIs in Scotland in 2010 56% below 2001 levels despite a 3-fold increase in utilization and in the Netherlands, PPI expenditure fell by 58% in 2010 vs. 2000 despite a 3-fold increase in utilization. A similar picture was seen with prescribing restrictions, i.e., (i) more aggressive follow-up of prescribing restrictions for patented statins and ARBs resulted in a greater reduction in the utilization of patented statins in Austria vs. Norway and lower utilization of patented ARBs vs. generic ACEIs in Croatia than Austria. However, limited impact of restrictions on esomeprazole in Norway with the first prescription or recommendation in hospital where restrictions do not apply. Similar findings when generic losartan became available in Western Europe. Conclusions: Multiple demand-side measures are needed to influence prescribing patterns. When combined with supply-side measures, activities can realize appreciable savings. Health authorities cannot rely on a “spill over” effect between classes to affect changes in

  11. Marina Caparini and Otwin Marenin (Eds, Transforming Police in Central and Eastern Europe – Process and Progress, DCAF – Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces/ LIT, 2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Lobnikar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The book is divided in two parts: the introduction and conclusion (by Marina Caparini and Otwin Marenin and several case studies of individual police organizations in Central and Eastern Europe. In the introduction, Caparini and Marenin emphasise the importance of the police in a democratic society. The main function of the police – the provision of security – is one of the basic demands laid against the state by its society. Democratic policing is described in the first part of the introduc...

  12. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in "smoke-free" bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in “smoke-free” bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2015-01-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers’ predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3,147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44% respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

  14. Learning and Work in the Risk Society: Lessons for the Labour Markets of Europe from Eastern Germany. Anglo-German Foundation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen; Behrens, Martina; Kaluza, Jens

    The education-to-labor market transitions experienced by young people in England and in eastern and western Germany were compared. The eastern German portion of the study was based on a 1996 study that included a survey of 100 trainers and 1,000 apprentices in 12 companies; in-depth interviews with 18 trainers, career advisers, and others; and…

  15. A Frailty Instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Ortuno Roman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A frailty paradigm would be useful in primary care to identify older people at risk, but appropriate metrics at that level are lacking. We created and validated a simple instrument for frailty screening in Europeans aged ≥50. Our study is based on the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, http://www.share-project.org, a large population-based survey conducted in 2004-2005 in twelve European countries. Methods Subjects: SHARE Wave 1 respondents (17,304 females and 13,811 males. Measures: five SHARE variables approximating Fried's frailty definition. Analyses (for each gender: 1 estimation of a discreet factor (DFactor model based on the frailty variables using LatentGOLD®. A single DFactor with three ordered levels or latent classes (i.e. non-frail, pre-frail and frail was modelled; 2 the latent classes were characterised against a biopsychosocial range of Wave 1 variables; 3 the prospective mortality risk (unadjusted and age-adjusted for each frailty class was established on those subjects with known mortality status at Wave 2 (2007-2008 (11,384 females and 9,163 males; 4 two web-based calculators were created for easy retrieval of a subject's frailty class given any five measurements. Results Females: the DFactor model included 15,578 cases (standard R2 = 0.61. All five frailty indicators discriminated well (p N = 10,420; 66.9%, pre-frail (N = 4,025; 25.8%, and frail (N = 1,133; 7.3%. Relative to the non-frail class, the age-adjusted Odds Ratio (with 95% Confidence Interval for mortality at Wave 2 was 2.1 (1.4 - 3.0 in the pre-frail and 4.8 (3.1 - 7.4 in the frail. Males: 12,783 cases (standard R2 = 0.61, all frailty indicators had p N = 10,517; 82.3%, pre-frail (N = 1,871; 14.6%, and frail (N = 395; 3.1%; age-adjusted OR (95% CI for mortality: 3.0 (2.3 - 4.0 in the pre-frail, 6.9 (4.7 - 10.2 in the frail. Conclusions The SHARE Frailty Instrument has sufficient construct and

  16. Assessment of clinical efficacy and safety in a randomized double-blind study of etanercept and sulfasalazine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis from Eastern/Central Europe, Latin America, and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanov, Nemanja; Shehhi, Waleed Al; Huang, Feng; Kotak, Sameer; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Shirazy, Khalid; Bananis, Eustratios; Szumski, Annette; Llamado, Lyndon J Q; Mahgoub, Ehab

    2016-05-01

    Despite the demonstrated efficacy of etanercept for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), sulfasalazine is often prescribed, especially in countries with limited access to biologic agents. The objective of this subset analysis of the ASCEND trial was to compare the efficacy of etanercept and sulfasalazine in treating patients with AS from Asia, Eastern/Central Europe, and Latin America. A total of 287 patients, 190 receiving etanercept 50 mg once weekly and 97 receiving sulfasalazine 3 g daily, from eight countries were included in this subset analysis. Differences in disease activity and patient-reported outcomes assessing health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) parameters in response to treatment were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for categorical efficacy endpoints and analysis of covariance model for continuous variables. At week 16, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving etanercept achieved ASAS20 (79.0 %) compared with patients receiving sulfasalazine (61.9 %; p = 0.002). At week 16, treatment with etanercept also resulted in significantly better responses than sulfasalazine for ASAS40 (64.7 vs. 35.1 %; p Asia, Central/Eastern Europe, and Latin America.

  17. Instituciones de mercado, reforma en Europa del Este y teoría económica Market institutions, reforms in eastern Europe and economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koslowski Rey

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available El derrumbe de los estados totalitarios ha renovado el interés por las instituciones. Este trabajo muestra que la transición del socialismo a economías de mercado exige desarrollar muchas instituciones, incluido el mercado mismo. Se requiere establecer un nuevo sistema de derechos de propiedad para construir un mercado donde estos se transfieran en forma rutinaria. La rutinización requiere una estructura legal del Estado para regular las transferencias y resolver los conflictos entre las partes. La experiencia de Europa de Este muestra la pobreza del enfoque neoclásico que supone dadas a las instituciones: no puede considerar en forma adecuada la estructura legal que provee el Estado para establecer y legitimar los derechos de propiedad, ni la regulación estatal generalizada inherente al capitalismo del siglo veinte. Al suponer el comportamiento económico puede separarse de las especifidades de cada sociedad, cae en errores conceptuales que llevan a un optimismo infundado sobre la reforma económica y a una visión ingenua de la privatización. En las fases iniciales, la construcción del Estado puede ser la mejor estrategia de una reforma económica exitosa. Irónicamente, la mejor ayuda que puedan prestar los gobiernos occidentales es apoyar el desarrollo de las instituciones estatales que fijen las reglas para organizar el intercambio.The crumbling of the totalitarian States has renewed interest in the institutions. This article shows that the transition from socialism to a market economy entails the development of a number of institutions, including the market itself. A new system of ownershíp has to be worked out to form a market where ownership can be easily transferred. The ease of transfer is a matter for the State to provide a legal structure to regulate transfer and resolve disputes. Experience in Eastern Europe has shown the poverty of the neo-classical approach which the institutions are supposed to possess.
    There is no

  18. How prepared individuals and communities are for evacuation in tsunami-prone areas in Europe? Findings from the ASTARTE EU Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine; Goeldner-Gianella, Lydie; Karanci, Nuray; Dogulu, Nilay; Kanoglu, Utku; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Constantin, Angela; Moldovan, Iren; El Mouraouah, Azelarab; Benchekroun, Sabah; Birouk, Abdelouahad

    2016-04-01

    Understanding social vulnerability to tsunamis provides risk managers with the required information to determine whether individuals have the capacity to evacuate, and therefore to take mitigation measures to protect their communities. In the frame of the EU programme ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), we conducted a questionnaire-based survey among 1,661 people from 41 nationalities living in, working in, or visiting 10 Test Sites from 9 different countries. The questions, which have been translated in 11 languages, focused on tsunami hazard awareness, risk perception, and knowledge of the existing warning systems. Our results confirm our initial hypothesis that low attention is paid in Europe to tsunami risk. Among all type of hazards, either natural or not, tsunami rank first in only one site (Lyngen fjord in Norway), rank third in 3 other sites (Eforie Nord in Romania, Nice and Istanbul), rank 4 in Gulluk Bay, 5 in Sines and Heraklion, and 10 in Siracusa (Sicily) and San Jordi (Balearic Islands). Whatever the respondent's status (i.e. local population, local authorities, or tourists), earthquakes and drawdown of the sea are cited as tsunami warning signs by 43% and 39% of the respondents, respectively. Therefore self-evacuation is not expected for more than half of the population. Considering that most European countries have no early warning system for tsunamis, a disaster is likely to happen in any coastal area exposed to this specific hazard. Furthermore, knowledge of past tsunami events is also very limited: only 22% of people stated that a tsunami has occurred in the past, whereas a deadly tsunami occurs every century in the Mediterranean Sea (e.g. in AD 365, 1660, 1672 or 1956 in the eastern part, 1908, 1979 or 2003 in the western part), and high tsunami waves devastated the Portugal and Moroccan coasts in 1755. Despite this lack of knowledge and awareness of past events, 62% of the respondents think that the site of

  19. Coming to EUrope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Ginnerskov Hansen, Mette

    Over the past ten years the number of students who go abroad to pursue tertiary education has more than doubled, from 1, 9 million in 2000 to 4.3 million in 2012 (OECD 2012, xxx 2014). More than half of these mobile students study in Europe and an increasing number of students from “the global...... south” and from outside of the EU aspire to study in the old EU. This paper aims at exploring how students from Eastern Europe and Africa make sense of themselves and EUrope while studying in Denmark. With reference to data from a study of international students at Aarhus University we discuss how...

  20. Understanding Education in Europe-East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Tamas; Polonyi, Tunde

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests possible frames of reference for understanding education and educational policy in the Eastern part of Europe. (a) According to the geographical frame, the concept of "Eastern Europe" and its education reflects a struggle for political power and self-identity. (b) According to the political frame, the transition of…

  1. Human papillomavirus types distribution in eastern Sicilian females with cervical lesions. A correlation with colposcopic and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Maria; Giuffrè, Giuseppe; Caruso, Carmela; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Alibrandi, Angela; Scalisi, Rosalba; Simone, Angela; Chiofalo, Benito; Triolo, Onofrio

    2013-07-01

    To determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types distribution in cervical lesions in a Southern Italian female population in Messina and their relationship between HPV type and grade of colposcopic and histopathological abnormality, a total of 253 women aged 17-68 years, with previous cytological abnormalities, were included in this study. HPV-DNA testing, colposcopy and biopsy were performed. For each sample, cervical cells were collected by centrifugation and DNA was extracted, followed by a PCR-based HPV-DNA assay and reverse dot blot genotyping. HPV-16 was found the most common type (46.6 %) followed by HPV-31 (26.9 %), -6 (18.6 %), -58 (8.8 %), -18 (6.7 %), -66 (5.7 %), -52 and -53 (4.7 %). Out of 62 women with abnormal transformation zone (ATZ) area compatible with squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) or cervical cancer (CC), 64.5 % was found high risk (HR) HPV-positive. Moreover the severity of the colposcopic diagnosis was positively correlated with the higher HPV oncogenicity risk (HPV-16 P = 0.023; and HPV-53 P = 0.047). The HPV-16 was found the most prevalent type within each histological category: 66.7 %, 31.2 %, 44 % and 37.2 % of CC, high grade (H)SIL, low grade (L)SIL and chronic cervicitis respectively; followed by HPV-31 present in 25 %, 8 %, and 13.3 % of HSIL, LSIL and chronic cervicitis respectively. A higher HPV incidence than the rest of Italy was found, in agreement with that detected by other authors for the South of the country. These data provide further information about the types prevalence in women with cervical lesions living in Eastern Sicily, suggesting the introduction of new targeted vaccines against a wider spectrum of HPV.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii in stranded marine mammals from the North Sea and Eastern Atlantic Ocean: Findings and diagnostic difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velde, Norbert; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Leopold, Mardik; Begeman, Lineke; IJsseldijk, Lonneke; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; IJzer, Jooske; Brownlow, Andrew; Davison, Nicholas; Haelters, Jan; Jauniaux, Thierry; Siebert, Ursula; Dorny, Pierre; De Craeye, Stéphane

    2016-10-30

    The occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 European otters (Lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of Scotland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Germany, were tested for the presence of T. gondii. Brain samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of parasite DNA. Blood and muscle fluid samples were tested for specific antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT), a commercial multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Out of 193 animals tested by PCR, only two harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) cerebrum samples, obtained from animals stranded on the Dutch coast, tested positive. The serological results showed a wide variation depending on the test used. Using a cut-off value of 1/40 dilution in MAT, 141 out of 292 animals (41%) were positive. Using IFA, 30 out of 244 tested samples (12%) were positive at a 1/50 dilution. The commercial ELISA yielded 7% positives with a cut-off of the sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio≥50; and 12% when the cut-off was set at S/P ratio≥20. The high number of positives in MAT may be an overestimation due to the high degree of haemolysis of the samples and/or the presence of lipids. The ELISA results could be an underestimation due to the use of a multispecies conjugate. Our results confirm the presence of T. gondii in marine mammals in The Netherlands and show exposure to the parasite in both the North Sea and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. We also highlight the limitations of the tests used to diagnose T. gondii in stranded marine mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Slowinski

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore the current reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the article, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In addition, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union policy through the role of lobby organizations and activities. I explore the influence of these practices on education with an emphasis on the emerging importance of Western language skills. In addition, I focus on the European Union and its efforts to expand into Central and Eastern Europe in order to provide a focal point for analysis.

  4. Ten Years After and Looking Ahead: A Review of the Transformations of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bucharest (Romania). European Centre for Higher Education.

    This volume consists of representative case studies from institutions in Central and Eastern European countries engaged in the reform of higher education. The case studies are structured with the aid of a questionnaire completed by the contributors. The studies are: (1) "Bulgaria: The University of Ruse--Institutional Change in the Bulgarian…

  5. Supporting Reform in Science Education in Central and Eastern Europe--Reflections and Perspectives from the Project TEMPUS-SALiS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanadze, Marika; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, many Central and Eastern European countries underwent significant change in their political and educational systems, among them Georgia and Moldova. Reforms in education sought to overcome the highly centralized educational system of the former Soviet Union as well as to conquer the teacher-centred…

  6. 24 May 2013 - Rector of the Polish Stanislaw Staszic AGH University of Science and Technology T. Slomka in the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Senior Polish Staff Member A. Siemko, in LHCb experimental cavern with LHCb Collaboration Spokesperson P. Campana and signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer. Adviser for Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    24 May 2013 - Rector of the Polish Stanislaw Staszic AGH University of Science and Technology T. Slomka in the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Senior Polish Staff Member A. Siemko, in LHCb experimental cavern with LHCb Collaboration Spokesperson P. Campana and signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer. Adviser for Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka present.

  7. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  8. China’s foreign policy towards Central and Eastern Europe: The “16+1” format in the South–South cooperation perspective. Cases of the Czech Republic and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kowalski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the “16+1” format initiated in 2012 as a platform for economic, trade, and cultural cooperation between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and China. As Chinese authorities claim, the “16+1” initiative is complementary to the “New Silk Road” strategy, being a pragmatic formula without political goals, whose main rationale is to bring mutual benefits to all of its participants (win–win. However, despite the Chinese narratives concerning cooperation with the CEE countries as an economic bridgehead of the “One Road, One Belt” (OBOR initiative, some signs of the political dimension of the project can be noticed. Since at least the 1950s, active participation and promotion of the South–South cooperation has become an important component of China’s foreign relations. Although for Chinese policy makers Sino–South relations have been traditionally defined within the frame of, mostly postcolonial, developing countries of Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Africa, and Latin America, this article tries to examine the “South–South” pattern of China’s diplomacy towards Central and Eastern European states with a focus on the Czech Republic and Hungary.

  9. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking.

  10. New finding of micro-diamonds in eclogites from Dabie-Sulu region in central-eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Micro-diamonds were only found ten years ago in eclogite associated with marble at Xindian in the Dabie Mountains. This paper reports our new finding of micro-diamonds not only in eclogites at Maobei in the Sulu region and at Xindian and Laoyoufang in the south part of the Dabie Mountains (South Dabie), but also in eclogites at Baizhangya and Huangweihe in the northern part of the Dabie Mountains (North Dabie) that has usually been considered not to experience ultrahigh pressure metamorphism. Except the micro-diamond at Huangweihe that was found from the artificial heavy sands of zircons used for isotopic dating, the micro-diamonds from other localities were identified in thin sections of the eclogites. Besides a few interstitial grains, most of the micro-diamond grains in thin sections occur as inclusion in garnet. Three crystals of micro- diamond at Maobei in the Sulu region are sized in 120, 60 and 30 (m, respectively. Crystal forms look like octahedron and the composite of octahedron and hexahedron. The largest micro-diamond crystal comes from Xindian, which is measured to be 180 (m in diameter with distinct zonal structure and inclusions. The zonal structure occurs as an inclined octahedron inside rounded by an incomplete hexagonal girdle. A smaller micro-diamond inclusion occurs inside the central octahedron, and a larger graphite inclusion is within the outer zone. The Laoyoufang micro-diamond is partially retrograded to graphite. Micro-diamond from the Baizhangya eclogite in the ultramafic rock belt of North Dabie is an aggregate of 70 (m×90 (m in size. All the micro-diamonds are confirmed by the Raman spectrum analysis. The occurrence of the micro-diamonds from the eclogites in the ultramafic rock belt of North Dabie demonstrates that this region was also subjected to ultrahigh pressure metamorphism as well as the South Dabie did.

  11. The contribution of leading diseases and risk factors to excess losses of healthy life in eastern Europe: burden of disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Hoorn Stephen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The East/West gradient in health across Europe has been described often, but not using metrics as comprehensive and comparable as those of the Global Burden of Disease 2000 and Comparative Risk Assessment studies. Methods Comparisons are made across 3 epidemiological subregions of the WHO region for Europe – A (very low child and adult mortality, B (low child and low adult mortality and C (low child and high adult mortality – with populations in 2000 of 412, 218 and 243 millions respectively, and using the following measures: 1. Probabilities of death by sex and causal group across 7 age intervals; 2. Loss of healthy life (DALYs to diseases and injuries per thousand population; 3. Loss of healthy life (DALYs attributable to selected risk factors across 3 age ranges. Results Absolute differences in mortality are most marked in males and in younger adults, and for deaths from vascular diseases and from injuries. Dominant contributions to east-west differences come from the nutritional/physiological group of risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol concentration, body mass index, low fruit and vegetable consumption and inactivity contributing to vascular disease and from the legal drugs – tobacco and alcohol. Conclusion The main requirements for reducing excess health losses in the east of Europe are: 1 favorable shifts in all amenable vascular risk factors (irrespective of their current levels by population-wide and personal measures; 2 intensified tobacco control; 3 reduced alcohol consumption and injury control strategies (for example, for road traffic injuries. Cost effective strategies are broadly known but local institutional support for them needs strengthening.

  12. Revival of nuclear power engineering in the Central-Eastern Europe in response to rising power demand and the problem of CO2 emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozkosz, Grazyna; Kaszowski, Bartosz

    2010-09-15

    Safety and reliability of electric power supply is guarantee for stable development. Necessity of decommissioning of largely depreciated power plants and rising power demands (average ca. 3% per year) may cause energy deficit in CE Europe. Decision on construction new power plants is determined mainly by power energy generation costs. Nuclear power generation cost forecast is significantly lower than cost of energy from fossil fuels. Such factors offer a new view on source of ''clean and safe'' nuclear energy.

  13. Revival of nuclear power engineering in the Central-Eastern Europe in response to rising power demand and the problem of CO2 emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozkosz, Grazyna; Kaszowski, Bartosz

    2010-09-15

    Safety and reliability of electric power supply is guarantee for stable development. Necessity of decommissioning of largely depreciated power plants and rising power demands (average ca. 3% per year) may cause energy deficit in CE Europe. Decision on construction new power plants is determined mainly by power energy generation costs. Nuclear power generation cost forecast is significantly lower than cost of energy from fossil fuels. Such factors offer a new view on source of ''clean and safe'' nuclear energy.

  14. Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania) - Implications for dust accumulation in south-eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeden, C.; Kels, H.; Hambach, U.; Schulte, P.; Protze, J.; Eckmeier, E.; Marković, S. B.; Klasen, N.; Lehmkuhl, F.

    2016-12-01

    Recent investigations of the Semlac loess section in the south-eastern Carpathian Basin, which is situated at an undercut slope position on the right bank of the Mureş River in its lower reaches (Banat region, western Romanian), are presented and discussed. Dating back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 10, the more than 10 m thick loess sequence includes four fossil soil-complexes developed in homogenous and relatively fine silty loess. Because of the good preservation of the sediment, Semlac is regarded as a key section for the Carpathian Basin, which offers possibilities to a) improve the understanding of the type and composition (loess homogeneity and pedogenic alteration) of the lowland loess sequences in the Carpathian Basin also beyond the last interglacial palaoesol complex, b) to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the local loess-palaoesol successions, c) gain better insight into the regional paleoenvironments of the last 300 ka and d) to compare the loess of the region to loess-sequences in adjacent areas and to dust proxy data in the northern hemisphere. An integrated age model based on correlation to reference records and luminescence dating is compiled. Applying this age model we compare climate proxy data from Semlac to both global data and to data from the very southeast of the Carpathian Basin (Vojvodina, Serbia). The obtained results provide new insight into the dust accumulation regime for the eastern Carpathian Basin and offer new palaeoenvironmental information for the region and are an important step towards establishing a catena from the thin loess-like sediments of the Banat foothills in the East towards the thicker and seemingly more complete loess sections of the south-eastern and central Carpathian Basin. Disentangling grain size data from soil formation proxies is used to investigate patterns of non-local dust. Patterns of non-pedogenetic fine material are similar to grain size proxies from China and other parts of the northern hemisphere

  15. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested.

  16. Conceptual Readings into the Cold War: Towards Transnational Approaches from the Perspective of Latin American Studies in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Manke

    Full Text Available Abstract This bibliographical and conceptual essay summarizes recent research in Cold War Studies in Europe and the Americas, especially on smaller states in historiographical studies. Against the background of an increasing connectedness and globalization of research about the Cold War, the authors highlight the importance of the full-scale integration of countries and regions of the 'Global South' into Cold War Studies. Critical readings of the newly available resources reveal the existence of important decentralizing perspectives resulting from Cold War entanglements of the 'Global South' with the 'Global North.' As a result, the idea that these state actors from the former 'periphery' of the Cold War should be considered as passive recipients of superpower politics seems rather troubled. The evidence shows (at least partially autonomous and active multiple actors.

  17. A Comparison of the USAF Projected A-10 Employment in Europe and the Luftwaffe Schlachtgeschwader Experience on the Eastern Front in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    IT. Cj..,s.IICATI...W or THIS PAGE("., n.t. EI **,..) Ŗ A Comparison of the USAF Projected A-10 Employment in Europe and the Luftwaffe...Luftwaffe, and Goering’s sarcasm into the bargain (’You always stand in front of the Ftthrer like a schoolboy--like a little - I subaltern with his hands on...d *Is 𔄀 AV, e At IN. A ~ 1( A a EI I I I 10614 Owl M1 lUAI’l 1 0,~ 4611lmovfi~ 3QJ.Z..405 ju~.,jr. ly-V3geih.Ib+.*14 Nr. 5o3o/43 goh.(1) vm7.1.0.43 f

  18. Local Self-Government in Central and Eastern Europe: a Strong and Independent Local-Level Management Tool or Just a Paper Tiger?

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    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The onset of the independence process in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries during the 1990s was marked by tremendous optimism and a declared wish for stronger fiscal decentralisation and the transfer of powers, responsibilities and resources to the units of local and regional self-government that were supposed to be closest to citizens in resolving their daily problems. However, this has not happened in these countries, at least not according to the basic financial decentralisation indicators, and this is the main thesis of this work. Despite numerous adjustments made in the local self-government organisation in the observed countries, an optimum level of local and regional self-government organisation has still not been achieved. The units of local and regional self-government are still heavily dependent on, or rather restricted by, the strong central governments, which reduces their autonomy and their influence on the local social and economic development.

  19. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most....... In comparison,Western European retailers prefer doing business with suppliers that are capable of supplying all shops in a chain. Also the question about traceability is decisive.Retailers also prefer doing business with suppliers that are interested in a long-term trade relationship and who are from their own...

  20. Risk factors and outcomes for late presentation for HIV-positive persons in Europe: results from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe Study (COHERE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mocroft

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have monitored late presentation (LP of HIV infection over the European continent, including Eastern Europe. Study objectives were to explore the impact of LP on AIDS and mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: LP was defined in Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE as HIV diagnosis with a CD4 count <350/mm(3 or an AIDS diagnosis within 6 months of HIV diagnosis among persons presenting for care between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2011. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with LP and Poisson regression to explore the impact on AIDS/death. 84,524 individuals from 23 cohorts in 35 countries contributed data; 45,488 were LP (53.8%. LP was highest in heterosexual males (66.1%, Southern European countries (57.0%, and persons originating from Africa (65.1%. LP decreased from 57.3% in 2000 to 51.7% in 2010/2011 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.96; 95% CI 0.95-0.97. LP decreased over time in both Central and Northern Europe among homosexual men, and male and female heterosexuals, but increased over time for female heterosexuals and male intravenous drug users (IDUs from Southern Europe and in male and female IDUs from Eastern Europe. 8,187 AIDS/deaths occurred during 327,003 person-years of follow-up. In the first year after HIV diagnosis, LP was associated with over a 13-fold increased incidence of AIDS/death in Southern Europe (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 13.02; 95% CI 8.19-20.70 and over a 6-fold increased rate in Eastern Europe (aIRR 6.64; 95% CI 3.55-12.43. CONCLUSIONS: LP has decreased over time across Europe, but remains a significant issue in the region in all HIV exposure groups. LP increased in male IDUs and female heterosexuals from Southern Europe and IDUs in Eastern Europe. LP was associated with an increased rate of AIDS/deaths, particularly in the first year after HIV diagnosis, with significant variation across Europe. Earlier and more widespread testing