WorldWideScience

Sample records for eastern euopean countries

  1. Strategies to address climate change in central and Eastern Euopean countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonova, K. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents analyses based on information mainly from the National Communications of nine Central and Eastern European countries that are undertaking radical transition from centrally planned to market driven economics (EIT). It is designed primarily to provide an overview of the policies and measures to address climate change that have been implemented, or under implementation or planned. In order to better understand the objective of policies and measures and the way they have been implemented in EIT countries that analysis has been supplemented by a review of the national circumstances and overall policy contexts in EIT countries that are relevant to climate change policies and measures problems. Therefore, these issues will be discussed in the paper along with analysis of mitigation policies and measures by sector.

  2. Eastern countries - WIN activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela

    1998-01-01

    Women can play this important role in informing people about nuclear energy. WIN is a world-wide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application who want to devote their time to public information. The main goal of the WIN is to establish an objective and effective communication with the public through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. The membership includes women working in medicine and health care, in regulatory authorities, in industry and as independent researches at Universities. They want to contribute to objectively informing the public by making presentation, discussing and giving information materials on subjects such as; radiation, radioactivity and health effects medical applications nuclear energy nuclear power plants and their safety nuclear and environment uranium mining radiation protection energy sustainable development WIN is also open to men, supporting the goals of WIN. The intention of this paper was to underline the main aspects which reflect WIN activity in some Eastern and Central countries. There are common features and also specific elements for each country. But the goal is the same: to assure an effective and a real information of the public related to the nuclear field

  3. Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berglund, T.; Hanousek, Jan; Mramor, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2006), s. 280-282 ISSN 1566-0141. [ Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries. Prague, 26.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial markets * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  4. CIS/Eastern countries. A curtain raising on eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Slowly and laboriously a new russian petroleum industry is setting in. To illustrate this new scenery, statistical data and maps, giving the production and consumption rates are presented. Two big companies (Shell and B.P.) stand for the privatization of Rosneft, the russian petroleum group. The legal and financial petroleum aspects of Russian are changing but very slowly, attracting the western companies around the petroleum industry. But this interest remains careful. The european bank of investment (BEI) decided to take a financial share in the eastern energy. (A.L.B.)

  5. Socioeconomic Gradients in Eastern European Countries: Evidence from PIRLS 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Mirazchiyski, Plamen

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses educational inequalities related to socioeconomic status (SES) in 12 Eastern European countries that participated in the International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006. Economies and educational systems of these countries have undergone critical transformations since the fall of communism. The authors' analyses, using data…

  6. Dementia in Eastern Mediterranean countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmour, Sara Mahmoud; Bartlett, Ruth; Brannelly, Tula

    2018-01-01

    Globally, there is an increase in the older population, whose lives are affected by local cultural norms. In Eastern Mediterranean countries, dementia is conventionally hidden from view with few dedicated services or recognition for diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the limited literature on dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in Eastern Mediterranean countries to present an evaluation of current practices and to consolidate knowledge for future planning. Thirty-three studies were identified for inclusion in the review, and four themes were apparent. Firstly, prevalence, comorbidity and gender: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, many studies identify that the prevalence of dementia is high. As is the case elsewhere, many older adults in Eastern Mediterranean countries have at least one coexisting long-term condition, and some experience low life-satisfaction. Secondly, culture: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, the older adult is highly respected, and placement outside of the family home is considered an abandonment of family duty. The term dementia carries stigma, and it is widely believed that dementia is caused by 'fate'. Thirdly, recognition and tools: There is a lack of verified assessment instruments to assess for dementia. Despite concerns about the cultural appropriateness of the Mini-Mental State Exam, particularly for people who have low literacy levels, and low literacy being the norm in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Mini-Mental State Examination is the main assessment instrument. Translation and transition of non-Arabic assessment instruments and tools with psychometric properties presents a challenge for clinicians. Finally, workforce issues: health care workers lack knowledge about dementia, as dementia care is a relatively recent addition to the nursing and medical syllabi. While there were some inconsistencies in the papers published, many of the articles call for increasing educational programmes

  7. Double Taxation Conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a qualitative overview regarding the panacea of double taxation conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries. Double taxation paradigm highlights some serious problems arising from multiple taxation of the same income or capital. In the European Union these problems suggest that there is a strong need of a “best practice” construction of an optimal fiscal space in order to eliminate or reduce this problem. Central and Eastern European Countries have some special features: on one hand these countries have been influenced by the communist and postcommunism era, and on the other hand there are specific particularities for each country which must be economically and judicially understood and explained. This article highlights the structure, construction and appliance of the double taxation conventions in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The conclusions of this article enact the solutions of the potential problems of double taxation, especially in these former communist countries, with respect to the strengthening of the new fiscal space in the European Union.

  8. HTA Implementation Roadmap in Central and Eastern European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Gheorghe, Adrian; Huic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior to health......The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior......, use of local data, scope of mandatory HTA, decision criteria, and international collaboration in HTA. Although HTA implementation strategies from the region can be relevant examples for other CEE countries with similar cultural environment and economic status, HTA roadmaps are not still fully...

  9. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  10. Evaluating palliative care needs in Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, Michael; Fink, Regina M; Min, Sung-Joon; Mancuso, Mary P; Brant, Jeannine; Hajjar, Ramzi; Al-Alfi, Nesreen; Baider, Lea; Turker, Ibrahim; ElShamy, Karima; Ghrayeb, Ibtisam; Al-Jadiry, Mazin; Khader, Khaled; Kav, Sultan; Charalambous, Haris; Uslu, Ruchan; Kebudi, Rejin; Barsela, Gil; Kuruku, Nilgün; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Ozalp-Senel, Gulsin; Oberman, Amitai; Kislev, Livia; Khleif, Mohammad; Keoppi, Neophyta; Nestoros, Sophia; Abdalla, Rasha Fahmi; Rassouli, Maryam; Morag, Amira; Sabar, Ron; Nimri, Omar; Al-Qadire, Mohammad; Al-Khalaileh, Murad; Tayyem, Mona; Doumit, Myrna; Punjwani, Rehana; Rasheed, Osaid; Fallatah, Fatimah; Can, Gulbeyaz; Ahmed, Jamila; Strode, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Cancer incidence in Middle Eastern countries, most categorized as low- and middle-income, is predicted to double in the next 10 years, greater than in any other part of the world. While progress has been made in cancer diagnosis/treatment, much remains to be done to improve palliative care for the majority of patients with cancer who present with advanced disease. To determine knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and resources regarding palliative care services in Middle Eastern countries and use findings to inform future educational and training activities. Descriptive survey. Fifteen Middle Eastern countries; convenience sample of 776 nurses (44.3%), physicians (38.3%) and psychosocial, academic, and other health care professionals (17.4%) employed in varied settings. Palliative care needs assessment. Improved pain management services are key facilitators. Top barriers include lack of designated palliative care beds/services, community awareness, staff training, access to hospice services, and personnel/time. The nonexistence of functioning home-based and hospice services leaves families/providers unable to honor patient wishes. Respondents were least satisfied with discussions around advance directives and wish to learn more about palliative care focusing on communication techniques. Populations requiring special consideration comprise: patients with ethnic diversity, language barriers, and low literacy; pediatric and young adults; and the elderly. The majority of Middle Eastern patients with cancer are treated in outlying regions; the community is pivotal and must be incorporated into future plans for developing palliative care services. Promoting palliative care education and certification for physicians and nurses is crucial; home-based and hospice services must be sustained.

  11. A comparative study of gender pay gaps in nordic countries and eastern european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Linling

    2007-01-01

    Under the compressed wage structure and generous family policies, Nordic countries have been regarded as leaders of gender equality in terms of low gender pay gaps and high rates of female labor force participation; after the fundamental restructuring of the economic system in Eastern European countries, women have experienced a remarkable change with respect to the labor market positions and economic status facing the increased wage inequality and significant declines in labor force particip...

  12. Contribution of Arab countries to breast cancer research: comparison with non-Arab Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancers affecting women worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess and compare research activity in breast cancer in Arab countries with non-Arab Middle Eastern countries. Publications about "breast cancer" as a research topic were retrieved using the ISI Web of Science database. Analysis was confined to original research and review articles. Research productivity was assessed by assessing number of publications and time trend of these publications, names of journals, citation analysis, top 10 active institutions as well as country contribution to breast cancer research. The quantity and quality of publications from Arab countries in addition to 3 other Middle East countries (Turkey, Iran and Israel) were assessed and compared using the h-index tool. A total of 1658 original research and review articles about "breast cancer" were published from Arab countries. Annual research productivity from Arab countries in the field of "breast cancer" was negligible but showed a significant increase in the last decade. Retrieved documents had relatively high citation parameters as measured by h-index of 61 and average citations of 17.46 per document. The highest research productivity was from Egypt with a total publication of 582 (35.10%). Cairo University with a total of 149 (8.99%) publications had the highest research productivity among institutions in Arab world. Forty four documents (2.65%) of breast cancer documents were published in Saudi Medical Journal. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from the United States of America (305; 18.40%) in breast cancer research. Compared with other non-Arab Middle Eastern countries, Arab countries had higher research productivity than some countries and lower than others, particularly Israel. The present data reveals a good contribution of some Arab countries to the field of "breast cancer" research. There is a gap between Arab countries and Israel in

  13. Determinants of debt rescheduling in Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laušev Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes Panel Logit Models applied to a set of macroeconomic, financial, and political variables to estimate the debt rescheduling probabilities of 15 Eastern European countries during the transition period from 1990-2005. These transition economies became a very attractive region for foreign investment. Specifically, the region became the largest recipient of net non-FDI flows among all emerging market regions in 2005. Therefore, it is relevant for policy makers and institutional and private foreign investors to investigate factors that influence debt rescheduling probabilities, as these may directly affect the size of and return on investments in these countries. Our findings suggest that policy efforts focused on reducing government expenditure, attracting foreign direct investment, increasing export revenues, and keeping a good repayment record result in low debt rescheduling probabilities and, in turn, decrease the cost of debt for these countries. This is a common finding for all countries in the sample, including those that have become EU members.

  14. Nuclear safety in eastern countries. Background of IPSN's actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this document, IPSN presents its opinion about the safety level that might be reached by the nuclear power plants situated in the former-USSR countries. In these countries 2 types of fission reactors are operating: VVER and RBMK with respectively 46 units and 14 units. 3 generations of VVER-type reactors are coexisting: 440 MWe-230, 440 MWe-213 and 1000 MWe-320. The first generation (440 MWe-230) which involves 11 operating units are the least safe and by no means is it possible to make them reach the western standard of safety. The second generation (440 MWe-213) require technical modifications to near western safety standards. The last generation (1000 MWe-320) has safety levels very similar to PWR's if operating procedures are modified and adapted. RBMK-type reactors have been designed in the years 60-70, they suffer from generic defects due to their design, the poor quality of materials and their low reliability. IPSN fears that any incident in such reactors might turn into a major accident. In order to improve nuclear safety in eastern countries, the European Union has launched an international cooperation, the programmes PHARE and TACIS are presented. (A.C.)

  15. Coastal Tsunami and Risk Assessment for Eastern Mediterranean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.; Yavuz, C.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunamis are rarely experienced events that have enormous potential to cause large economic destruction on the critical infrastructures and facilities, social devastation due to mass casualty, and environmental adverse effects like erosion, accumulation and inundation. Especially for the past two decades, nations have encountered devastating tsunami events. The aim of this study is to investigate risks along the Mediterranean coastline due to probable tsunamis based on simulations using reliable historical data. In order to do this, 50 Critical Regions, CRs, (i.e. city centers, agricultural areas and summer villages) and 43 Critical Infrastructures, CIs, (i.e. airports, ports & marinas and industrial structures) are determined to perform people-centered risk assessment along Eastern Mediterranean region covering 7 countries. These countries include Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Cyprus, and Libya. Bathymetry of the region is given in Figure 1. In this study, NAMI-DANCE is used to carry out tsunami simulations. Source of a sample tsunami simulation and maximum wave propagation in the study area for this sample tsunami are given in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.Richter magnitude,, focal depth, time of occurrence in a day and season are considered as the independent parameters of the earthquake. Historical earthquakes are used to generate reliable probability distributions for these parameters. Monte Carlo (MC) Simulations are carried out to evaluate overall risks at the coastline. Inundation level, population density, number of passenger or employee, literacy rate, annually income level and existence of human are used in risk estimations. Within each MC simulation and for each grid in the study area, people-centered tsunami risk for each of the following elements at risk is calculated: i. City centers ii. Agricultural areas iii. Summer villages iv. Ports and marinas v. Airports vi. Industrial structures Risk levels at each grid along the shoreline are

  16. Improved outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia in an Eastern European country: Lithuanian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairiene, Igne; Pasauliene, Ramune; Lipunova, Nadezda; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Rageliene, Lina; Rascon, Jelena

    2017-10-01

    The reported treatment outcomes of children treated for cancer in Eastern European countries are inferior to those in Northern/Western Europe. We hypothesized that recent survival rates could be comparable to the current standards and performed a population-based analysis of treatment outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Lithuania, a small Eastern European country. Children  80% in high-income countries. The difference in survival rates between Northern/Western and Eastern European countries as well as between high- and middle-/low-income countries is as much as 20%. Recently, the 5-year event-free survival rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has reached > 60% in high-income countries. The survival rates for myeloproliferative diseases were the lowest in Eastern European countries. • The reported inferior survival rates were calculated based on outcome data of patients treated until 2007. The recent survival rates in Eastern European countries are unknown. What is New: • Being a small Eastern European country, Lithuania has experienced good economic growth during the last decade. We hypothesized that economic growth and gain of experience could result in better survival rates of children treated for cancer in our country in recent years. • A population-based analysis of treatment outcome of childhood AML treated in Lithuania in the recent years was performed for the first time. The survival rates of childhood AML in Lithuania are comparable to those of other high-income countries. Current survival rates of children treated for cancer in Eastern European countries could be comparable to the best current standards contributing to better European survival rates of childhood cancer in general.

  17. Development tendencies of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesner, W.; Stuits, I.; Zeltins, N.

    1999-01-01

    The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1997. It outlines the changes in economical situation during this period. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country taken separately. (author)

  18. The Possibility of Central and Eastern European Countries' Joining the EMU: Prospects and Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Cheol Han

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The old socialistic states of Middle and Eastern Europe is positively trying to accede to the EMU in order to enjoy the manifold rights of joining currency combination, not mention the political and diplomatic purposes. The EU brought forward the regulation of macro-economic reduction, system and law terms as the requirement of the entrance of those Middle and Eastern Europe countries. According to a survey, including Poland and Hungary, countries which took the lead in reforming agreed with EU on most of EU’ requirements about acceding to EMU. However, because of the domestic and foreign economic conditions, in the next 1 or 2years, none of the Middle and Eastern Europe countries could meet the requirement of reducing macro-economy. Whereas the degree of fulfillment of the economy reducing requirement and the factor that the Middle and Eastern Europe countries could accede to EU after 2003, it was predicted that those countries could accede to EMU only after 2005. With the coming on of EMU, the Middle and Eastern countries will accelerate the activity of currency combination. The South Korean government and enterprises also should intensify the prediction and precaution to the systems, policy change and other economic effects of these Middle and Eastern Europe countries.

  19. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pampuri, O.; Czabanowska, K.; Hysa, B.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2015-01-01

    Pampuri O, Czabanowska K, Hysa B, Roshi E, Burazeri G. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country (Original research). SEEJPH 2015, posted: 10 February 2015. DOI 10.12908/SEEJPH-2014-40

  20. Reports submitted by participants from central and eastern european countries and the new independent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nersesyan, V.; Rozdyalovskaya, L.; Yatsevich, V.; Soljan, V.; Valcic, I.; Saar, J.; Abraitis, M.; Bieliauskas, V.; Szkultecka, E.; Cutoiu, D.; Chirica, M.T.; Karasev, A.V.; Pospisil, M.; Zlatnansky, J.; Kot, Y.; Shvytai, V.

    2000-01-01

    In this communication are grouped the reports submitted by participants from central and eastern European countries and the new independent states, concerning their government legislation relative to the nuclear liability in the event of a nuclear accident. (N.C.)

  1. Development tendencies in the energy industries of the EU accession candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesner, W.

    2000-01-01

    The present work considers development problems of energy facilities in Central and Eastern European Countries being in transition in the period from 1990 to 1999 and outline the changes in their economic situation. The paper also shows the development dynamics for economic indicators in 11 countries and analyses them for each country of the Central and Eastern European countries taken separately. (author)

  2. Marlboro and Other Usual Brand Choices by Youth Smokers in Middle Eastern Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed data from 118,743 adolescents completing 30 different Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 15 different Middle Eastern countries between 1999 and 2007 to determine the proportion of young smokers who usually smoked Marlboro, other cigarette brands, or no usual brand smoked in these countries. Marlboro was the most…

  3. Epidemiological studies of cognitive impairment and dementia across Eastern and Middle European countries (epidemiology of dementia in Eastern and Middle European Countries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiejna, A; Frydecka, D; Adamowski, T; Bickel, H; Reynish, E; Prince, M; Caracciolo, B; Fratiglioni, L; Georges, J

    2011-02-01

    To determine the availability and the consistency of prevalence findings of epidemiological studies on cognitive impairment and dementia conducted in Eastern and Middle Europe. We adopted a stepwise multimethod study approach consisting of iterative literature searches for epidemiological articles published between 1990 and 2006 and subsequent data analyses of published material, reanalyses of existing accessible epidemiological data sets and expert inquiries in Eastern and Middle European countries. Systematic computer-assisted searches used the keywords: "dementia", "Alzheimer", "cognitive impairment", "incidence", "prevalence", "epidemiology" in combination with the name of the relevant countries or "Europe" in English and Polish language. We supplemented the literature search with a review of the references in the articles that were identified during the initial search. We were able to find few regional and country-specific epidemiological studies of various kinds (population-based, cohort, cross-sectional studies) and conducted on different restricted population groups of patients (from neurological units, out-patients units, residential homes). No studies were identified from most of the countries taken under consideration and the ones we found were characterized by an immense diversity with a considerable degree of clinical and methodological variations. The few studies that there are suggest prevalence rates of dementia in Eastern Europe similar to those in Western Europe. There is strong need for epidemiological studies in Eastern and Middle Europe, as well as for greater coordination and standardization of methods to improve the quality and comparability of epidemiological data to determine the prevalences' rates of dementia in all the EU countries. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Membership of Eastern European countries of the European Union -environmental perspectives. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Ten central and eastern European countries have made association agreements with the EU and submitted applications for EU membership. The countries are: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria. Accession to the EU by the central and eastern European countries requires that the countries accept the acquis communautaire (the rules of the EU) as well as the acquis politique (the political aims of the EU), including environmental issues. Accession to the EU is expected to result in substantial environmental improvements both in the central and eastern European countries and in the countries which are exposed to pollution originating from these countries. The extent of the environmental improvements when the 10 countries implement and use the rules laid down by the EU is an important issue. Another important approximation related problem is how the countries will secure the human and financial resources to meet the EU requirements. The purpose of this publication is to provide a first analysis of the tasks ahead in the environmental field during the current approximation process, including the environmental consequences/gains and the costs of accession of the 10 associated countries to the EU. This analysis deals both with general and sectoral problems, focusing on sectors with special adaptation problems which thus need targeted assistance. The analysed sectors are: air pollution, ozone depleting substances, waste, water pollution, agriculture, chemical substances, biodiversity, energy - including nuclear energy. (LN) 119 refs

  5. Measuring Corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia : A Critique of the Cross-Country Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Knack, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses corruption levels and trends among countries in the transition countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) based on data from several sources that are both widely used and cover most or all countries in the region. Data from firm surveys tend to show improvement in most types of administrative corruption, but little change in "state capture" in the region. Broader, subjective corruption indicators tend to show somewhat greater improvement in ECA than in non-ECA coun...

  6. How have the Eastern European countries of the former Warsaw Pact developed since 1990? A bibliometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozak, M.; Bornmann, L.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change

  7. The opening up of Middle Eastern Oil Producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannesini, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    Between them, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and Kuwait control nearly 56 % of the world's oil reserves. They account for almost 25 % of production. There are signs that they are opening their territories to foreign companies in different ways and to various degrees, according to the country. The reasons are technical (decline of production and human resources), economic (increasing state budgetary requirements and growing oil production investment costs) and geopolitical (protective military isolation of territories and regimes). The opening up to these countries will in the future, have a major impact on the strategies of large western company operators. (authors)

  8. Digital Muslimas: ICT Skills of Females in Middle Eastern Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, L. Heidi

    2010-01-01

    This article examines women in Islamic countries with regard to sustainable futures, equity, and social justice. Some barriers to ICT use for women in the Middle East include access to computers, gender discrimination by employers, marginalized political participation, high rates of illiteracy, and lack of independence. Distance education offers a…

  9. The competitiveness through taxes in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pîrvu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, many countries Central and Eastern European countrieshave reduced their corporate income tax rates with the purpose of attractingmultinational companies. Various studies indicate the fact that the level of the corporateincome tax represents an important advantage that drives the decisions to place foreigndirect investments. Many European Union member states have initiated corporateincome tax reforms, in order to generate the increase in the competitiveness of nationaleconomies. In the case of the Central and Eastern European countries, where thedecrease in the corporate income taxes was higher, these reforms brought profoundchanges in the economic environment.

  10. Effectiveness of macroprudential policies in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Dumicic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the available datasets on the use of macroprudential policies in CEE countries, and provides an econometric assessment of the effectiveness of these policies in mitigating financial stability risks associated with excessive credit growth before the global financial crisis. The model results imply that macroprudential policies were more effective in slowing credit to households than credit to the non-financial corporate sector, mainly because the latter had access to nonbank and cross-border credit in addition to domestic bank credit.

  11. Income inequality in post-communist Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ROSE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Income inequality has become an important issue in Central and Eastern European countries during their transition process. This study constructs a model incorporating different categories of factors that impact inequality and tests whether the wealth of a country makes a difference in these relationships. This article shows that different income categories of Central and Eastern European transition countries do experience different relationships between income inequality and its contributing factors: economic, demographic, political, and cultural and environmental. The resulting Random Effects models of the best fit incorporate economic and political factors and show differences in magnitude, direction, and in their significance. These findings add to the literature by taking a cross-country and cross-income view on the impact of various factors.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON THE ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUCOŞ PAULA – ROXANA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to highlight the positive impact that foreign direct investments have on occupancy rate, on government revenue and economic growth of Central and Eastern Europe countries. The period of time that was analyzed is conducted from 1993 to 2012. Results have validated what the literature says, namely that FDI exerts a positive influence on economic growth in the FDI receiving countries.

  13. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate

  14. Safety of nuclear power reactors in the former Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the safety of nuclear power plants in the former Eastern European countries (including the former Soviet Union). The current international design, fabrication, construction, operation, safety, regulatory standards and practices, and ways to resolve plant problems are addressed in light of experience with the Western nuclear power development programs

  15. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing...

  16. Evidence-Informed Health Policies in Eastern Mediterranean Countries: Comparing Views of Policy Makers and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Lavis, John N.; Jamal, Diana; Ataya, Nour; Dimassi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to conduct comparative analysis about the views and practices of policy makers and researchers on the use of health systems evidence in policy making in selected Eastern Mediterranean countries. We analysed data from two self-reported surveys, one targeted at policy makers and the other at researchers. Results show a…

  17. Strengthening of radiation and waste safety infrastructures in the countries of Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Mrabit, K.; Bilbao, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA's integrated management approach and the establishment of a model project of technical cooperation to upgrade the radiation and waste safety infrastructures in its Member States is reviewed. The project today involves more than 50 countries many of which belong to Eastern Europe. (A.K.)

  18. Strengthening of radiation and waste safety infrastructures in the countries of Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G A.M.; Mrabit, K; Bilbao, A V [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-12-31

    The IAEA`s integrated management approach and the establishment of a model project of technical cooperation to upgrade the radiation and waste safety infrastructures in its Member States is reviewed. The project today involves more than 50 countries many of which belong to Eastern Europe. (A.K.) 1 tab.

  19. Foreign bank entry, bank efficiency and market power in Central and Eastern European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Poghosyan, Arsen

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) as measured by equity ownership. We show that the mode of foreign entry has a pivotal impact on the post-entry performance of banks in CEECs. Foreign

  20. How have the Eastern European countries of the former Warsaw Pact developed since 1990? A bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin; Bornmann, Lutz; Leydesdorff, Loet

    Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change international collaboration among researchers from the Eastern European countries? Trying to answer these questions, this study aims to shed light on international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia). The number of publications and normalized citation impact values are compared for these countries based on InCites (Thomson Reuters), from 1981 up to 2011. The international collaboration by researchers affiliated to institutions in Eastern European countries at the time points of 1990, 2000 and 2011 was studied with the help of Pajek and VOSviewer software, based on data from the Science Citation Index (Thomson Reuters). Our results show that the breakdown of the communist regime did not lead, on average, to a huge improvement in the publication performance of the Eastern European countries and that the increase in international co-authorship relations by the researchers affiliated to institutions in these countries was smaller than expected. Most of the Eastern European countries are still subject to changes and are still awaiting their boost in scientific development.

  1. Review of Research into Enterprise Bankruptcy Prediction in Selected Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Prusak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, the first studies on forecasting bankruptcy date to the early 20th century. In Central and Eastern Europe, due to, among other factors, the geopolitical situation and the introduced economic system, this issue became the subject of researcher interest only in the 1990s. Therefore, it is worthwhile to analyze whether these countries conduct bankruptcy risk assessments and what their level of advancement is. The main objective of the article is the review and assessment of the level of advancement of bankruptcy prediction research in countries of the former Eastern Bloc, in comparison to the latest global research trends in this area. For this purpose, the method of analyzing scientific literature was applied. The publications chosen as the basis for the research were mainly based on information from the Google Scholar and ResearchGate databases during the period Q4 2016–Q3 2017. According to the author’s knowledge, this is the first such large-scale study involving the countries of the former Eastern Bloc—which includes the following states: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Hungary, Russia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Bulgaria, and Belarus. The results show that the most advanced research in this area is conducted in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Estonia, Russia, and Hungary. Belarus Bulgaria and Latvia are on the other end. In the remaining countries, traditional approaches to predicting business insolvency are generally used.

  2. Central and Eastern European Countries Focus on the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt, a strategic priority of the Chinese foreign policy in 2015, draws the attention to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe through the multiple benefits that it displays (investments, economic growth, trade between the countries along its corridors, job creation, infrastructure development, the strategic importance of being part of a grandiose multi-continental project. Among these benefits an important one is represented by the opportunities of Chinese investments in infrastructure, since the EU is suffering from a credit restraint. Also, The Silk Road Economic Belt could lead to a potential increase in the bilateral trade. Analyzing the literature in the field and the various official information available online, this paper aims to depict the Chinese project form the Eastern European perspective, identifying local priorities, conflicting interests, possible infrastructure projects, routes, focusing on two strategic countries in the region: Romania and Serbia, both displaying advantages and disadvantages.

  3. Undergraduate teaching of nuclear medicine: a comparison between Central and Eastern Europe and European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Scheffler, J.; Bandurski, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper overviews the curricula of nuclear medicine (NM) undergraduate training in 34 Central and Eastern European (CEE) and 37 European Union (EU) medical faculties. The data show enormous variation in the number of hours devoted to nuclear medicine, varying between 1-2 to 40 hours and highly differentiated concepts/ideas of nuclear medicine training in particular countries. In most EU countries this teaching is integrated with that of radiology or clinical modules, also with training in clinical physiology. In many CEE countries teaching and testing of NM are independent, although integration with other teaching modules is frequent. The paper discusses the differences in particular approaches to nuclear medicine teaching. (author)

  4. The economic recovery in the Central and Eastern European EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena GURGU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the recession in 2008-09, the economies of the eight EU countries in central and Eastern Europe outside the euro area (CEE are recovering gradually, albeit with significant differences across countries. The expansion in economic activity is currently being driven primarily by exports as domestic demand remains subdued. Those countries that accumulated relatively more substantial internal and external imbalances before the financial crisis suffered more severe contractions in output during the crisis, and most of them face a more sluggish economic recovery.

  5. Middle Eastern Conflicts: Implications for Refugee Health in the European Union and Middle Eastern Host Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, Michael; Daher, Michel; Kebudi, Rejin; Nimri, Omar; Al-Jadiry, Mazin; Baider, Lea

    2016-12-01

    Until very recently, health care in conflict settings was based on a model developed in the second half of the twentieth century. Things have changed, and present civil wars, such as those that are currently taking place in the Middle East, do not address the complexity of the ongoing armed conflicts in countries such as Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan. These conflicts have caused a significant increase in the number of refugees in the region, as well as in Europe. Hundreds of thousands of refugees succeed in settling in mid- and north-European countries, and their health issues are becoming of great importance. Refugees in Europe in the twenty-first century do not suffer so much from infectious diseases but more from noninfectious chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiac disease, and cancer. These facts profoundly alter the demographics and disease burden of hostility-derived migrants. Thus, host European countries face situations they have never faced before. Hence, new approaches and strategies are urgently needed to cope with this new situation. The efforts to absorb refugees of different traditions and cultural backgrounds often cause increasing ethnic and religious tensions, which frequently escort the emergence of social violence. To date, little attention has been paid to the overall load of distress being experienced, especially among the first-generation refugees. The current ongoing hostilities in the Middle East induce a long-term health impact on people expelled from their homes, communities, traditions, and cultural environment. The realization of collective suffering forces communities and governmental health agencies to develop new programs that include social determinants to overcome the severe cultural gaps of the newcomers in their new European host countries.

  6. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence rate among Eastern Mediterranean and middle eastern countries; A systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaie Niya, Mohammad Hadi; Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Ranaei, Alireza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) as a hepatotropic virus is one of the major global health concerns. Autochthonous HEV transmitted by oral fecal-route in poor sanitation conditions as well as vertical and rarely blood transfusion. HEV occurrence is more common in developing countries and recently increased in developed countries too. Middle East (ME) and Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) of WHO have been an endemic region for HEV infection. In this regard, we aimed to design a systematic review and pooled analysis to determine seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibody in ME and EMR countries. By using PRISMA guideline, data were collected from papers identified through PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus and also from some national and regional databases from January 1990 to June 2016. Serum anti-HEV antibody (IgG) used for HEV prevalence estimation. HEV prevalence in the ME, WHO EMR countries, and in total, calculated by each country population size based on 2015 UN report. overall, 62 papers with a total sample size of 31,673 were fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included in our project. Considering anti-HEV antibody (IgG), prevalence of HEV infection in the countries of ME, WHO EMR and in total were 12.17% (95% CI: 11.79-12.57), 11.81% (95% CI: 11.43-12.21), and 11.87% (95% CI: 11.52-12.23) respectively. HEV seroprevalence in WHO EMR and ME countries has high rate and more considerations are needed for the prevention and control of this infection especially in high-risk groups such as pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia, Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and i AA homozygote (n = 650, giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588; the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559, mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819; the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410. Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791, between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17. We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  8. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Grażyna; Clark, Jeremy S C; Loniewska, Beata; Czerska, Ewa; Salkic, Nermin N; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2012-05-01

    The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia), Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine) and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria) European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y) from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and 1 AA homozygote (n = 650), giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588); the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559), mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819); the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410). Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791), between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17). We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  9. Properly pricing country risk: a model for pricing long-term fundamental risk applied to central and eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Revoltella

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The private sector has used proxies such as sovereign credit ratings, spreads on sovereign bonds and spreads on sovereign credit default swaps (CDS to gauge country risk, even though these measures are pricing the risk of default of government bonds, which is different from the risks facing private participants in cross-border financing. Under normal market conditions, the CDS spreads are a very useful source of information on country risk. However, the recent crisis has shown that the CDS spreads might lead to some underpricing or overpricing of fundamentals in the case of excessively low or excessively high risk aversion. In this paper we develop an alternative measure of country risk that extracts the volatile, short-term market sentiment component from the sover eign CDS spread in order to improve its reliability in periods of market distress. We show that adverse market sentiment was a key driver of the sharp increase in sovereign CDS spreads of central and eastern European (CEE countries during the most severe phase of the crisis. We also show that our measure of country risk sheds some light on the observed stability of cross-border bank flows to CEE banks during the crisis.

  10. Ethical Leadership Styles of Future Managers in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Remišová; Anna Lašáková

    2013-01-01

    There is a limited understanding what the constituent elements of the ethical leadership are. Although various researchers defined ethical leadership as a specific leadership style, with typical personality traits and behaviors, the precise instantiation of the content of ethical leadership was only seldom investigated. The body of empirical research on ethical leadership is only slowly beginning to build up. Furthermore, the ethical leadership in Central and Eastern European countries (CEE c...

  11. Trade Union Practices in the EU and Latvia: Experience for Eastern Partnership Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacenko Sergejs

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article will show major dimensions in the experience of EU Member States that could be shared with the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries. The framework of the study is the EU concept of trade unions in social dialogue and social partnership in the public sector. This study outlines the concept of social dialogue as a core element of industrial relations and will focus on industrial relations specifically in the public sector.

  12. Systematic review on the evaluation criteria of orphan medicines in Central and Eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zelei, Tam?s; Moln?r, M?ria J.; Szegedi, M?rta; Kal?, Zolt?n

    2016-01-01

    Background In case of orphan drugs applicability of the standard health technology assessment (HTA) process is limited due to scarcity of good clinical and health economic evidence. Financing these premium priced drugs is more controversial in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region where the public funding resources are more restricted, and health economic justification should be an even more important aspect of policy decisions than in higher income European countries. Objectives To e...

  13. THE IMPACT OF FISCAL POLICY ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    BOLDEANU Florin Teodor; TACHE Ileana; ION Mădălin-Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of fiscal policy on economic growth in 10 countries of Eastern Europe. For this analysis we to use two regression models. The results of the first model provide information on the factors that influence economic growth. Thus, direct taxes, indirect taxes, total income taxes, social contributions and the economic crisis had an effect on economic growth. Of these variables, total taxable income had a positive effect and indirect taxes and social contributions h...

  14. The Impact of Bribery on Firm Performance: Evidence from Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Kochanova

    2012-01-01

    I examine the relation between bureaucratic corruption ('to get things done') and firm performance in Central and Eastern European countries. While previous re- search relies on data from the BEEPS survey, which suffers from excessive non- reporting of corporate performance, I combine the information on bribery practices from the BEEPS with reliable firm performance data from the Amadeus database. The estimates, identified from within-firm variation, suggest that bureaucratic cor- ruption neg...

  15. Acquits communautaire in quality management in the energy sector -Central and Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristikj, Julija

    1997-01-01

    Energy is considered as one of the main infrastructure components, and efficient energy sectors are corner stones for the economic growth of the Central and Eastern European Countries on their way towards gaining EU membership. Therefore, energy is considered as one of the main directions of action within the PHARE Programme with trans-European dimensions. Five years ago started the implementation of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Programme, the efforts of which have been oriented to three main strategic axes: energy policy, energy supply, as well as energy efficiency and environment. (author)

  16. Obesity and education in three countries of the Central and Eastern Europe: the HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikhart, Hynek; Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubínová, Růzena; Marmot, Michael

    2007-12-01

    The international pattern of obesity is only partly understood. While in developed countries the association between education and obesity is inverse, in the developing world social distribution of obesity is less predictable. We examined obesity patterns in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE): Russia, Poland and the Czech Republic, middle-income post-communist countries undergoing social and economic transition. The prevalence of obesity was inversely associated with education of individuals in our three samples of Central and Eastern European populations. In agreement with previous findings, the inverse socioeconomic gradient was more pronounced in the Czech Republic and Poland, countries with higher Gross National Product (GNP) than Russia. In addition, obesity was more common in Russian women than in Czech or Polish women while Russian men were less obese than Czech or Polish men. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the social gradient in obesity differs between populations--it is more likely to find a reverse association between socioeconomic position and prevalence of obesity in the more westernized countries with higher population income.

  17. Determinants of non-performing loans in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Škarica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of the changes in the non-performing loan (NPL ratio in selected European emerging markets. The model was estimated on a panel dataset using a fixed effects estimator for seven Central and Eastern European (CEE countries between Q3:2007 and Q3:2012. The countries analyzed are Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Romania and Slovakia. Although the literature on NPLs is quite extensive, this is the first empirical research on the countries of CEE region using aggregate, country-level data on problem loans. The results suggest that the primary cause of high levels of NPLs is the economic slowdown, which is evident from statistically significant and economically large coefficients on GDP, unemployment and the inflation rate.

  18. DOES THE HIGHER EDUCATION PROMOTE STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMITAR NIKOLOSK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a widespread recognition that business start-ups are a driving force of economic growth and significant job creation. Given the segmented characteristics of the labour markets, youth population is among those segments that are disproportionally affected by high and sustained unemployment. The situation with youth unemployment is particularly unfavourable in developing countries such as South-Eastern European countries where almost half of the active young population is jobless. Even though the governments in these countries have repeatedly undertaken measures for improving the position of youth on the labour markets, it seems that these endeavours have not reached the planned goals. From this perspective, it is important to analyse the potential contribution of education, and particularly the higher education to the development of entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the higher education in South-Eastern European countries in fostering the students’ entrepreneurial potential. For this purpose we have carried out a survey on representative samples of students in two universities: “St. Kliment Ohridski” (Macedonia and “Aleksander Xhuvani” (Albania. We found that considerable number of surveyed students have ideas for starting own businesses, but only a small portion of them attempted to develop their business ideas in practice. As a consequence, we can conclude that there exists a wide room for further policy recommendations that will shape directions for future reforms in the SEECs higher education systems and will improve the students’ entrepreneurial potential

  19. Present status of practical aspects of individual dosimetry. Pt. 2. Eastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeksu, H.Y.; Regulla, D.; Drexler, G.

    1995-01-01

    The report is prepared in a historically rather unstable period concerning the Eastern European countries. Many independent states are formed which brought political, economical and administrative changes in the region. However such changes had not direct effect on the radiation protection practices concerning the occupationally exposed persons. In general all the newly formed states have adopted the former laws and regulation. Therefore we kept the names of the country of the origin. In near future laws and regulations are expected to be altered in many of these new states. The present laws and regulations are in great extent very similar to each other. However there are variations in practical aspects of the individual dosimetry due to the size of the country and their involvement with nuclear activities. Almost all countries based their regulations on International Safety Standards of IAEA and ICRP-26 recommendations. Since the Chernobyl accident, very many bilateral agreements have been concluded between Eastern European and OECD for the transfer of technology on the radiation safety of the public as well as occupationally exposed persons. (orig./HP)

  20. Occupational radiation exposure in Central and Eastern European countries - ESOREX EAST -. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Anatschkowa, E.

    1999-02-01

    On behalf of the European Commission, the BfS is currently executing a project entitled 'European Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure - ESOREX'. The project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In each of these countries the - 1. administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, - 2. numbers and dose distributions of occupationally radiation exposed persons in 1995 are surveyed. The aim is to describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the distributions of the workers and their doses. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyse the possibilities for a European harmonization. Because of the intention of numerous Central and Eastern European countries to join the European Community, the harmonization theme is also of considerable importance for these countries. The workshop served the preparing works to execute the ESOREX study also in ten Central and Eastern European countries. In order to establish the necessary contacts and to prepare the co-operation with the respective institutions of these states, the BfS organised, together with the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, an international introductory workshop in Prague in September 1998. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.) [de

  1. Electromagnetic field standards in Central and Eastern European countries: current state and stipulations for international harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J

    2002-04-01

    Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.

  2. Publication ethics in biomedical journals from countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broga, Mindaugas; Mijaljica, Goran; Waligora, Marcin; Keis, Aime; Marusic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Publication ethics is an important aspect of both the research and publication enterprises. It is particularly important in the field of biomedical science because published data may directly affect human health. In this article, we examine publication ethics policies in biomedical journals published in Central and Eastern Europe. We were interested in possible differences between East European countries that are members of the European Union (Eastern EU) and South-East European countries (South-East Europe) that are not members of the European Union. The most common ethical issues addressed by all journals in the region were redundant publication, peer review process, and copyright or licensing details. Image manipulation, editors' conflicts of interest and registration of clinical trials were the least common ethical policies. Three aspects were significantly more common in journals published outside the EU: statements on the endorsement of international editorial standards, contributorship policy, and image manipulation. On the other hand, copyright or licensing information were more prevalent in journals published in the Eastern EU. The existence of significant differences among biomedical journals' ethical policies calls for further research and active measures to harmonize policies across journals.

  3. Micronutrient intake and status in Central and Eastern Europe compared with other European countries, results from the EURRECA network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Bekkering, G.E.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Glibetic, M.; Golesorkhi, M.; Warthon-Medina, M.; Satalic, Z.; Geelen, A.; Serra Majem, L.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare micronutrient intakes and status in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) with those in other European countries and with reference values. Design: Review of the micronutrient intake/status data from open access and grey literature source

  4. Educational Systems and Inequalities in Educational Attainment in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ʽdivertedʼ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more likely to be dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the patterns of negative selection among students from lower social backgrounds into lower vocational programs. This diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.

  5. Performance Audit in Public Sector Entities - A New Challenge for Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana TIRON TUDOR

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement provides an objective basis for evaluating how efficiently public resources are being used and how effectively public service outcomes are being achieved. It is a process used to support government selfanalysis and provide a basis for more informed and publicly defensible decision-making. In this context an important role is reserved to performance external audit performed by external audit institutions. The performance audit analyses the quality of financial administration from the point of view of the three elements of performance: economy, efficiency and effectiveness. We intend to realize a comparative study for some Eastern European countries regarding the performance audit, knowing the fact that since countries differ at the level of individual reforms, there is no single model of reform. Nonetheless, reform strategies have many points in common emphasizing the international character of public management reform. By cross-national comparisons we intend to analyze the impact of implementing the new performance audit in certain Eastern European Countries, and in Romania, focused on the external audit institutions.

  6. Patients' management of type 2 diabetes in Middle Eastern countries: review of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsairafi, Zahra Khalil; Taylor, Kevin Michael Geoffrey; Smith, Felicity J; Alattar, Abdulnabi T

    2016-01-01

    The increased prevalence of diabetes in Middle Eastern countries is a health policy priority. Important risk factors for diabetes have been identified. Lifestyle interventions and adherence to medications are central to disease prevention and management. This review focuses on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Middle Eastern countries. The aim is to identify the ways in which knowledge, health beliefs, and social and cultural factors influence adherence to medication and lifestyle measures. Thirty-four studies were identified following a systematic search of the literature. The studies describe the influence of knowledge, health beliefs, culture, and lifestyle on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Middle East. Findings indicate a lack of health knowledge about diabetes among populations, which has implications for health behaviors, medication adherence, and treatment outcomes. Many identified health beliefs and cultural lifestyle factors, such as religious beliefs, beliefs about fasting during Ramadan, and sedentary lifestyles played a role in patients' decisions. For better management of this disease, a collaborative approach between patients, their families, health care professionals, and governments should be adopted. Implementing behavioral strategies and psychological interventions that incorporate all health care professionals in the management process have been shown to be effective methods. Such services help patients change their behavior. However, the utilization of such services and interventions is still limited in Arabian countries. Physicians in the Middle East are the health care professionals most involved in the care process.

  7. Developing a palliative care service model for Muslim Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awamer, Ahmed; Downar, James

    2014-12-01

    Palliative Care (PC) was first introduced to Muslim Middle Eastern (MME) countries in 1992, but growth of PC has been slow and access to PC is still limited in the region. While most PC models have been developed in Western countries, MME societies have different cultural and religious values that are not incorporated in Western models. We conducted a qualitative study to look at these differences, in order to inform a culturally acceptable model of PC that meets the needs of MME patients and their families. We conducted semi-structured interviews of PC physicians and nurses with experience in both Western and MME countries. Participants were identified by snowball sampling. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. We achieved conceptual saturation after 13 interviews. Participants identified four differences between PC practice in Western and MME countries including: cultural differences, legal and policy differences, stances on PC philosophy, and the availability of resources and support for PC. Participants identified five barriers to advancing PC in the MME: shortage of resources, unclear laws and policies, healthcare system barriers, unfamiliarity with the role and benefits of PC, and cultural barriers. Respondents suggested many facilitators at the institutional, regional, and societal levels. We identified a number of important differences in PC practice, as well as common barriers and facilitators for developing PC services in MME countries. This information can help clinicians who are developing PC services in a MME country.

  8. Enresa's Participation in the Technical Assistance Programmes to the Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A. R.; Vico, E.

    2000-01-01

    This article briefly describes the participation of ENRESA in the technical assistance programmes to the Central and Eastern European countries (PHARE) and to the New Independent States (TACIS) as well as in the co-operation programmes all of them established by the European Commission. It is worth to point out the active role of ENRESA within the European Consortium CASSIOPEE, formed in 1993 by the six radioactive waste management companies in existence in the European Union at that time. CASSIOPEE was created to assist the European Commission in the area of radioactive waste management of the PHARE and TACIS technical assistance programmes. (Author)

  9. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-08-20

    Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary

  10. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors’ affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Results Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews

  11. Analysis of Fertility in Ten Central And Eastern European Countries After 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ-Vasile JEMNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of democracy in the communist countries, which generated profound social and economic transformation, was accompanied by a decline in fertility. We attempt to provide an overall survey on fertility since 1989 in ten Central and Eastern European Countries, members of the European Union, and to identify the variables which explain the fertility decline. We will use univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to identify disparities between the ten countries, and the variables which explain these differences. Also, we developed a panel econometric model to confirm the hypothesis of a similar pattern of evolution for fertility in these countries and that the decline in fertility can be explained both through demographic and economic variables. The decline in fertility can be explained by economic growth, marriage, divorce, abortion, and migration. The empirical evidence presented in this paper supports the view that the decline in fertility over the 1989s represents the continuation of a longstanding trend of the previous period, according to the demographic transition theory, but its speed and magnitude has been influenced by the new social and economic landscape. These results can be useful for public authorities of the CEE countries to rethinking demographic policies and to ensure the sustainability of demographic growth.

  12. Effective Exchange Rates in Central and Eastern European Countries: Cyclicality and Relationship with Macroeconomic Fundamentals

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    Stavárek Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.

  13. Inequality, Economic Growth and Trade Openness: a Study Case for Central and Eastern Countries (ECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the phenomenon of income inequality in ten countries from Eastern and Central Europe (ECE, by highlighting two aspects: (1 the link between growth and income inequality; (2 the effects of trade openess and other key factors on income inequality, such as: foreign direct investment (FDI, market capitalization and educational level of labour force. The method used was the Panel Data Analysis with statistical data from the period of 2000-2014. An increasing effect in income inequality was identified due to the trade openess, the inward stock of ISD and the market capitalization and an equalizing effect in the income distribution generated by the educational level of labour force. A positive association was also found between the growth of PIB per capita level and the increase of income inequality in the examined countries.

  14. Determinants of FDI into Central and Eastern European Countries: Pull or Push Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Polat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.

  15. Clinical nursing and midwifery research in Middle Eastern and North African Countries: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Alashal Alhusaini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The professions of nursing and midwifery currently face many challenges, such as an increasing number of patients with communicable and non-communicable diseases, which strains resources and requires nurses and midwives to develop their knowledge and skills to a higher level. This is also true in the Middle East, including the Mediterranean East and North African regions, which means it is vitally important that nurses and midwives have access to and use current research to inform their practice, with research targeting the most relevant issues, including complex humanitarian emergency situations that increase health issues and challenge health infrastructure. For this to be achieved, a scoping review of the indexed clinical nursing and midwifery literature in the Middle East was performed to identify gaps in clinical nursing and midwifery research and areas requiring focus. A search of PubMed, CINAHL/EBSCO, EMBASE, the Jordanian Database for Nursing Research resulted in 210/1398 articles which met the inclusion criteria: (1 original research, (2 conducted in Middle Eastern countries as defined by the World Health Organization, (3 had at least one nurse or midwife author (but not limited to nurses in Middle Eastern countries, (4 published in an indexed, peer-reviewed journal between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015, (5 included patient outcomes in the results, (6 written in English or Arabic and (7 included an abstract. Studies were found from 10 of the 22 countries; the majority (n = 199; 94.76% was conducted in three countries: Jordan, Iran and Lebanon. Most studies (n = 158, 75.24% used quantitative designs, primarily cross-sectional, descriptive studies (n = 106 and the most frequently researched topics were related to maternal child health and women′s health (n = 95, 48.5%. Strategies are needed to encourage collaboration between nursing and midwifery faculty members including clinicians to assure that clinical research is

  16. Comparing alcohol consumption in central and eastern Europe to other European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Zatonski, Witold

    2007-01-01

    To give an overview of the volume of alcohol consumption, beverage preference, and patterns of drinking among adults (people 15 years and older) in central and eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) and to compare it to southern and western Europe, Russia and Ukraine. Secondary data analysis. Consumption and preferred beverage type data for the year 2002 were taken from the WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol and the WHO Global Alcohol Database. Average consumption in central and eastern Europe is high with a relatively large proportion of unrecorded consumption ranging from one litre in Czech Republic and Estonia to 10.5 l in Ukraine. The proportion of heavy alcohol consumption (more than 40 g of pure alcohol per day) among men was the lowest in Bulgaria (25.8%) and the highest in Czech Republic (59.4%). Among women, the lowest proportion of heavy alcohol consumption was registered in Estonia (4.0%) and the highest in Hungary (16.0%). Patterns of drinking are detrimental with a high proportion of binge drinking, especially in the group of countries traditionally drinking vodka. In most countries, beer is now the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Other studies suggest that the population drinking levels found in central and eastern Europe are linked with higher levels of detrimental health outcomes. Known effective and cost-effective programs to reduce levels of risky drinking should, therefore, be implemented, which may, in turn, lead to a reduction of alcohol-attributable burden of disease.

  17. The Scientific and Technological Reserve of the Far Eastern Federal District and the Northeast Asia Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor Leonidovich Domnich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological reserve is a key element of the Russian technological modernization especially in the Russian Far East. The competitive advantages of the regional scientific and technological reserve in comparison with foreign developments induce heated debates, which arise due to the integration of the regional economy into the system of world economic relations. Firstly, on the basis of patent statistics this study details the territorial, institutional and sectoral structure of the scientific and technological reserve of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD and the North-East Asia countries. Secondly, the article presents an interpretation of the economic forces shaping the scientific and technological reserve in FEFD and the NEA countries, including the economic motivation behind scientific and technological exchange between Far Eastern and Asianactors. The study finds the current state of science and technology development in the FEFD to be a limiting factor for the region’s participation in international cooperation in this area. If the existing institutional and structural layout of the scientific and technological reserve of the FEFD is maintained in the future, it will serve to only reinforce the region’s disadvantageous position ininternational technological exchange, which – in the long term – will limit the region’s ability to expand its productive capacity

  18. Web of science coverage and scientific performance of Central and Eastern European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploszaj, A.; Olechnicka, A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper put forward the hypothesis that changes in the list of journals, particularly in the number of periodicals published in specific Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, have a significant impact on bibliometric indicators and, consequently, on the convergence levels they are used to measure. The analyses presented in the article support the argument that countries from Central and Eastern Europe, despite showing fairly consistent convergence trends, achieve noticeably weaker results than Western Europe regarding research and development and scientific activity. The evident impact made by the inclusion of numerous CEE journals in WoS on the values of the indicator analysed, directly supports the hypothesis put forward in this article. The results of the study are important because data on the number of publications and citations in the Web of Science are increasingly used as development indicators of national R&D sectors. By showing how modifications in these databases influence the results obtained, we can better understand and thus make better use of data from these sources. The article concludes with listing the possibilities for furthering and deepening selected themes pointed out in the paper. (Author)

  19. PUBLIC POLICY, QUALITY OF INTITUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    DOGARU DORIN-MADALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between economic performance and institutional development in several Central and Eastern European Countries. Our meta-argument is that the structural transformations at the levels of the quantitative variables and mechanisms are only a part of the transition processes. In order to view the big picture, the qualitative aspects related to public policies and institutions should also be considered. We test the linkages between the quality of public policies and institutions for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia and Romania for a time span between 2001 and 2011. These countries are displaying a certain degree of heterogeneity in terms of economic performances and the design and implementation of public policies. We use for our analysis the World Bank indicators from World Wide Governance Indicators. In order to deal with the potential reverse causality issues, we employ Generalized Method of Moments Framework (GMM by using the lagged variables as instruments. The impact of governance indicators is statistically significant even if we use several control variables: exchange rate, unemployment, current account deficit, taxes burden and price stability. The corresponding Sargan and Arellano-Bond test for zero autocorrelation in first-differenced errors tests shows that the results display a corresponding robustness. The main policy implications for our findings may be synthesized by the thesis, according to which a proper design of public policies, a high degree of their effectiveness and accountability, a stable social and political environment together with the rule of law and efficient anticorruption mechanisms are critical determinants of economic growth even in emerging markets. The impact of the government “size , economic structure and markets” mechanisms , monetary policy and price stability , ownership structure and legal rights

  20. STUDY ON THE WORDS AND MUSICAL PATTERNS OF THE NATIONAL ANTHEMS OF THE MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Filiz ONAL

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthems are poetic verses sung in a melodic harmony expressing a nation’s feelings, enthusiasm, hopes, joy of coexistence and determination to survive. Thanks to anthems, people reflect their national values, historical background of their countries, and their way of thinking. In this direction national anthems have a unifying power creating a common ground for individuals that sustain continuity and the sense of belonging to a country. This study deals with the national anthems of the Middle Eastern countries where major conflicts have taken place for years in terms of music and lyrics. The random method was used to form the sample group. The sample group is composed of the United Arab Emirates, Israel, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria and Turkey. Some basic musical elements of the national anthems of the countries involved in the study have been investigated (tone, tempo, meter signatures and rhythm patterns. It has been found that four of them are composed in major tones, while two of them are composed in minor tones. All of these anthems are in 4/4 meter with walking pace tempo. As for the rhythm patterns; 3 different patterns are used in one anthem, while 4 different patterns are used in two, 5 different patterns in one, and 6 different patterns in two. The words of these anthems as literary verses focus on many topics, mainly soldiers, flags, and homelands as well as political developments, national heroes...

  1. IS TAXATION AFFECTING THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES FOR FDI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovici Oana Cristina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of this paper is to determine whether taxation affects the attractiveness of Central and EasternEurope (CEE countries for foreign investors. In this scope, the paper analyzes the impact of taxation for thelocation decision of foreign direct investment (FDI in CEE countries both in 2007 and 2010. A taxation indexinvesting the effect of multiple host country taxes is developed in order to draw the attractiveness matrix for thecountries taken into account. The taxation level comprises the corporate income tax rate, representing directtaxation, the value-added tax (VAT and the social security contributions expressing indirect taxation and finally theease of paying taxes, as provided in Doing Business report. The results indicate that relieving the burden of payingtaxes by tackling the taxation issue is a mean for improving the FDI attractiveness of a country. Still, there are otherfactors that have higher influence on FDI inflows. The main finding is that there is no perfect correspondencebetween the shifts in taxation rankings and the FDI inflows performance.

  2. Pricing and Reimbursement of Biosimilars in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł; Stawowczyk, Ewa; Tesar, Tomas; Skoupa, Jana; Turcu-Stiolica, Adina; Dimitrova, Maria; Petrova, Guenka I.; Rugaja, Zinta; Männik, Agnes; Harsanyi, Andras; Draganic, Pero

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the requirements for the reimbursement of biosimilars and to compare the reimbursement status, market share, and reimbursement costs of biosimilars in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 among experts from the following CEE countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania. The requirements for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars were reviewed for each country. Data on the extent of reimbursement of biologic drugs (separately for original products and biosimilars) in the years 2014 and 2015 were also collected for each country, along with data on the total pharmaceutical and total public health care budgets. Results: Our survey revealed that no specific criteria were applied for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars in the selected CEE countries; the price of biosimilars was usually reduced compared with original drugs and specific price discounts were common. Substitution and interchangeability were generally allowed, although in most countries they were at the discretion of the physician after a clinical assessment. Original biologic drugs and the corresponding biosimilars were usually in the same homogeneous group, and internal reference pricing was usually employed. The reimbursement rate of biosimilars in the majority of the countries was the same and amounted to 100%. Generally, the higher shares of expenditures were shown for the reimbursement of original drugs than for biosimilars, except for filgrastim, somatropin, and epoetin (alfa and zeta). The shares of expenditures on the reimbursement of biosimilar products ranged from 8.0% in Estonia in 2014 to 32.4% in Lithuania in 2015, and generally increased in 2015. The share of expenditures on reimbursement of biosimilars in the total pharmaceutical budget differed between the

  3. How Can Eastern/Southern Mediterranean Countries Resolve Quality and Safety Issues in Transfusion Medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Haddad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike their Western counterparts, some of the Eastern/Southern Mediterranean countries lack centralized coordinated blood transfusion services leading to an unequal blood safety level. This was recently highlighted by a recent World Health Organization (WHO regional committee report in which WHO urges these countries to establish and implement a national blood system with well-coordinated blood transfusion activities and to make attempts to reach 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. The objective is thus to meet the same levels or standards as Western countries in term of self-sufficiency and blood safety. This raises the question whether these countries can either comply with Western countries’ guidelines and experiences or develop their own safety scheme based on proper sociopolitical and economic features. Another option is to identify efficient and cost-effective strategies setup successfully in neighbor countries sharing cultural and economic features. To address this issue—and make an attempt to achieve this goal—we designed a number of surveys specifically addressed to Mediterranean countries, which were sent out to the national authorities; so far, five surveys aim at covering all aspects in blood collection, processing, testing, inventory and distribution, as well as patient immune-hematological testing and follow-up (including surveillance and vigilances. It is anticipated that such practice can help identifying and then sharing the more successful and cost-effective experiences, and be really focused on Mediterranean areas while not necessarily copying and pasting experiences designed for Western/Northern areas with significantly distinct situations.

  4. How Can Eastern/Southern Mediterranean Countries Resolve Quality and Safety Issues in Transfusion Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Antoine; Bou Assi, Tarek; Garraud, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Unlike their Western counterparts, some of the Eastern/Southern Mediterranean countries lack centralized coordinated blood transfusion services leading to an unequal blood safety level. This was recently highlighted by a recent World Health Organization (WHO) regional committee report in which WHO urges these countries to establish and implement a national blood system with well-coordinated blood transfusion activities and to make attempts to reach 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. The objective is thus to meet the same levels or standards as Western countries in term of self-sufficiency and blood safety. This raises the question whether these countries can either comply with Western countries’ guidelines and experiences or develop their own safety scheme based on proper sociopolitical and economic features. Another option is to identify efficient and cost-effective strategies setup successfully in neighbor countries sharing cultural and economic features. To address this issue—and make an attempt to achieve this goal—we designed a number of surveys specifically addressed to Mediterranean countries, which were sent out to the national authorities; so far, five surveys aim at covering all aspects in blood collection, processing, testing, inventory and distribution, as well as patient immune-hematological testing and follow-up (including surveillance and vigilances). It is anticipated that such practice can help identifying and then sharing the more successful and cost-effective experiences, and be really focused on Mediterranean areas while not necessarily copying and pasting experiences designed for Western/Northern areas with significantly distinct situations. PMID:29536009

  5. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    This paper discusses the food distribution systems of six Eastern European countries. It considers the macro and task environments of distribution systems, discussing the constraints and opportunities the environments present to companies. The institutional structure of retailing and wholesaling...... are analysed and important developments in the institutional structure are noted. The internal political economy of distribution channels in Eastern Europe is analysed and the modernisation of distribution systems discussed. Finally, some conclusions are offered and areas for future research suggested....

  6. The HBsAg Prevalence Among Blood Donors From Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanejad, Mehran; Izadi, Neda; Najafi, Farid; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-03-01

    The world health organization (WHO) recommends that all blood donations should be screened for evidence of infections, such as hepatitis B. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood donors at the eastern Mediterranean region office (EMRO) of the WHO and middle eastern countries. A meta-analysis was carried out based on the results of an electronic literature search of PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles published from January 1, 2000, to August 31, 2015. In accordance with a significant homogeneity test and a large value of I2, the random effects model was used to aggregate data from the studies and produce the pooled estimates using the "Metan" command. We included 66 eligible studies. The pooled prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors of both EMRO and middle eastern (E and M) countries was 2.03% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79 - 2.26). In addition, the prevalence rates in the EMRO countries was 1.99% (95% CI: 1.84 - 2.14) and 1.62% in the Middle Eastern countries (95% CI: 1.36 - 1.88). The prevalence among blood donors with more than one study was 1.58% in Egypt, 0.58% in Iran, 0.67% in Iraq, 2.84% in Pakistan, 3.02% in Saudi Arabia, 1.68% in Turkey, and 5.05% in Yemen. Based on the WHO classification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, the prevalence of HBsAg in blood donors from E and M countries reached an intermediate level. However, there were low prevalence levels in some E and M countries.

  7. Survey of otolaryngology services in Ukraine and neighbouring Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, M M; Wagner, R; Fishchuk, R; Fagan, J J

    2017-11-01

    The present humanitarian crisis in Ukraine is putting strains on its healthcare system. This study aimed to assess services and training in otolaryngology, audiology and speech therapy in Ukraine and its geographical neighbours. Survey study of 327 otolaryngologists from 19 countries. Fifty-six otolaryngologists (17 per cent) from 15 countries responded. Numbers of otolaryngologists varied from 3.6 to 12.3 per 100 000 population (Ukraine = 7.8). Numbers of audiologists varied from 0, in Ukraine, to 2.8 per 100 000, in Slovakia, and numbers of speech therapists varied from 0, in Bulgaria, to 4.0 per 100 000, in Slovenia (Ukraine = 0.1). Ukraine lacks newborn and school hearing screening, good availability of otological drills and microscopes, and a cochlear implant programme. There is wide variation in otolaryngology services in Central and Eastern Europe. All countries surveyed had more otolaryngologists per capita than the UK, but availability of audiology and speech and language therapy is poor. Further research on otolaryngology health outcomes in the region will guide service improvement.

  8. Integrative review of cervical cancer screening in Western Asian and Middle Eastern Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Suhailah; Skirton, Heather; Clark, Maria T; Donaldson, Craig

    2017-12-01

    Population-based screening programs have resulted in minimizing mortality and morbidity from cervical cancer. The aim of this integrative review was to explore the factors influencing access of women from Western Asian and Middle Eastern Arab countries to cervical cancer screening. A systematic search for studies conducted in Arab countries in those regions, and published in English between January 2002 and January 2017, was undertaken. Thirteen papers were selected and subjected to quality appraisal. A three step analysis was used, which involved a summary of the evidence, analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data, and integration of the results in narrative form. Few population-based cervical cancer screening programs had been implemented in the relevant countries, with low knowledge of, and perceptions about, cervical screening among Arab women, the majority of whom are Muslim. Factors affecting the uptake of cervical cancer screening practices were the absence of organized, systematic programs, low screening knowledge among women, healthcare professionals' attitudes toward screening, pain and embarrassment, stigma, and sociocultural beliefs. Policy changes are urgently needed to promote population-based screening programs. Future research should address the promotion of culturally-sensitive strategies to enable better access of Arab Muslim women to cervical cancer screening. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Assessing trade in health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean from a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Shennawy, Azza; Mirza, Zafer; Drager, Nick; Sabri, Belgacem

    2010-01-01

    Assessing trade in health services (TiHS) in developing countries is challenging since the sources of information are diverse, information is not accessible and professionals lack grasp of issues. A multi-country study was conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR)--Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Yemen. The objective was to estimate the direction, volume, and value of TiHS; analyze country commitments; and assess the challenges and opportunities for health services.Trade liberalization favored an open trade regime and encouraged foreign direct investment. Consumption abroad and movement of natural persons were the two prevalent modes. Yemen and Sudan are net importers, while Jordan promotes health tourism. In 2002, Yemenis spent US$ 80 million out of pocket for treatment abroad, while Jordan generated US$ 620 million. Egypt, Pakistan, Sudan and Tunisia export health workers, while Oman relies on import and 40% of its workforce is non-Omani. There is a general lack of coherence between Ministries of Trade and Health in formulating policies on TiHS.This is the first organized attempt to look at TiHS in the EMR. The systematic approach has helped create greater awareness, and a move towards better policy coherence in the area of trade in health services. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Agriculture of central and eastern European countries in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepagić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture posed considerable tensions for the processes of enlargement of the European Union, because of its continuing importance both in the economies of the applicant countries of Central and Eastern European countries which have joined EU on the 1st may 2004., and in the EU budget and acquits communautaire. The preparation of agriculture in the candidate countries to join the EU was rendered more complex by the fact that the Community's Common Agricultural Policy was a moving target. The aim of this paper is to show the bases elements of the Common Agricultural Policy, but also to provide a survey of recent developments relating to agriculture in the EU and new member states of the EU before their accession to EU and their preparation to access on the enlarged market, in order to indicate the main challenges and difficulties posed by enlargement. It seems likely that agricultural policy in the enlarged EU will attach increased priority to objectives such as rural development and the environment. However, these new priorities may be expensive to realize, and may impose a growing burden on the national budgets of EU member states.

  11. Studying the Factors of Economic Growth in Countries of Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkas Nataliia I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the impact of macroeconomic, technological and institutional indicators on economic growth of countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE using a panel data model. A sample of 12 CEE countries for the period 2006-2015 is analyzed. The following methods are used: 1 ordinary least squares (OLS, 2 fixed effects model (FE; 3 random effects model (RE. As a dependent variable there selected GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity, as an independent one — the exchange rate, export of high- and low-tech products, import of high-tech products, innovations. There used additional control variables: foreign direct investment, government efficiency, human capital, the Gini index, and public debt. The results of the study show that the devaluation of the monetary unit adversely affects the economic growth. Asymmetric results of the impact of high-technology and low-technology exports on GDP are obtained. The development of innovation and the improvement of the quality of human capital demonstrate a positive significant impact in terms of all specifications. The obtained results confirm that European integration supports non-price competition of CEE countries in the world market of high-tech products through participation in production networks of the EU-15.

  12. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND IMPACT FACTORS IN COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Florin FILIP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the premise that the performance of the economies of different countries, respectively their economic growth, is sinthtically expressed by the GDP growth indicator, whose dynamics evolves under the impact of a variety of determining factors, including some of financial-monetary nature. Thus, there are highlighted specific causal linkages and influences of economic and financial factors represented by certain indicators (inflation, unemployment, exports as percentage of GDP, imports as percentage of GDP, domestic credit as percentage of GDP, non-performing loans rate to GDP growth rate, by using econometric methods. Much of the paper is focused on on shaping an econometric model in which GDP growth rate is dependent variable and the other mentioned indicators are impact factors, respectively determinant variables. Along the mentioned determining factors, in our model is evaluated also the impact of the manifestation of the recent financial crisis, considering it as an additional determinant dummy variable. By processing the data for a group of countries of Central and Eastern Europe over the period 2000-2013, there result findings on the impact of each of the determining factors on the economic growth in the countries concerned and are formulated the appropriate assessments and conclusions.

  13. Dog rabies data reported to multinational organizations from Southern and Eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-06-08

    Rabies is one of the viral diseases with the highest case fatality rate in humans. The main transmission route to humans is through bites, especially of infected dogs. Decisions on the allocation of resources to control and reduce the socio-economic impacts of rabies require reliable data. Several national, regional and international organizations have been gathering rabies data for more than a decade. The objective of this paper was to examine the consistencies in the number of dog rabies cases reported to different multinational organizations by Southern and Eastern African countries and to explore the presence of any time trend among the reported rabies data. Data was systematically extracted from the databases of the Southern and Eastern African Rabies Group-SEARG and the World Organization for Animal Health/World animal health information-OIE/WAHID. Despite differences in entities by which data have been reported to the two organisations, reported numbers were significantly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.52, P rabies outbreaks. Inconsistencies in the reported numbers were observed between the databases, possibly due to the fact that human and animal health authorities report separately to the organisations involved in addition to the use of indefinite definitions of report categories set by report receiving organizations.

  14. Co-operation with Eastern Europe countries taking ENAC as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    1994-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the European Community launched an ambitious programme of nuclear safety assistance. The purpose of this programme is to improve the safety of the Nuclear Power stations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union plants. It was felt in the Western European nuclear industry that the emphasis should be on finding practical solutions to improve the most urgent problems. To achieve this objective, the nuclear industry in Western Europe founded a consortium called ENAC (European Nuclear Assistance Consortium) comprising companies form seven European countries ( Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands). The co-operation between theses companies and the Russian designers would ensure that the solutions developed meet the approval of all interested parties. This presentation outlines the overall objectives of ENAC. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Cultural perspectives in cancer care: impact of Islamic traditions and practices in Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, Michael; Hassan, Esmat A

    2011-10-01

    People's attitudes to cancer and its treatment are influenced by the patient's and his family's faith, beliefs, societal traditions, and cultural taboos and stigmatism. In most Middle Eastern countries Islam is the dominant religion, yet there are differences as to people's acceptance of cancer, starting with the realization of the diagnosis and the subsequent treatment planning. In many societies in the Middle East, patients prefer that their families will be the first to know about the disease and to agree to the planned treatment protocols. Whereas in Western societies the patient is usually the first to know, understand, and agree to the proposed therapeutic procedures; this is not the case in various Muslim societies. Health care professionals have to accept these kinds of practices and find ways to cope with their patients' sensitivities, thereby preserving their dignity and faith.

  16. Is the Perspective of a Closer French Policy toward Russian a threat for Eastern European Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim BELGACEM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current world is not moving as all specialists predicted. Brexit, Trump, everyone was wrong. This paper will have two targets: describing the French policy toward Russia, making a perspective on the future policy, whatever the new French presidency in 2017, Francois Hollande will transmit the key to his successor with new election. He refused to compete for a second mandate. It is good to remind that Hollande was involving in the Ukrainian affairs and had managed with Germany the Minsk I and II agreements. He also had suspended Mistral ships selling and approving sanctions against Russia. How will be the future with François Fillon, Marine Le Pen or other? The analysis will be focusing on the future relationships toward Russia and Eastern European Countries.

  17. The energy system of Central and Eastern European Countries: what does the future hold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have inherited an energy supply and demand system that was forged by centralized command planning and an administrative-type organization and management mode. The two strongest features of this landscape are without doubt the energy-intensive economic growth and over-investment in the energy sector, that is becoming more and more difficult to sustain in light of declining economic performance. In this context, one of the stakes in the economic transition and reforms is to push for new energy management on both the supply and demand sides. Although the objectives are clear, the ways and means of achieving them are less so, because they depend essentially on the broader economic reform options that are currently in the making

  18. Participation of CASSIOPEE in the EU technical assistance programmes to Eastern countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A.R.; Vico, E.; Deconinck, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    CASSIOPEE, established in 1993, is a European Economic Interest Group formed by ANDRA (France), COVRA (the Netherlands), DBE (Germany), ENRESA (Spain), NIREX (United Kingdom) and ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium). CASSIOPEE provides assistance to the Central and Eastern European countries and to the New Independent States through the EU Programmes in two different ways: developing radioactive waste management strategies and advising on the implementation of adequate engineering resources.The advisory role of CASSIOPEE in the EU assistance programmes and main projects defined and/or developed by CASSIOPEE are presented. The activities in the area of low and intermediate level waste related to safety assessment of existing repositories, site selection, waste acceptance criteria ect. are given

  19. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjola Pampuri

    2015-12-01

    the overall scores and the subscale scores of the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals. Results: Mean value of the overall summary score for the 52 items of the instrument was significantly lower for the current leadership competency level compared with the required leadership competency level (138.4±11.2 vs. 159.7±25.3, respectively; P<0.001. Most of the subscales’ scores were significantly higher for the required than for the current leadership competency level. Conclusion: Our study provides useful evidence about the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals in transitional Albania. Findings of this study may help policymakers in Albania to identify the gap between the required and the current level of leadership competencies among health  professionals. Furthermore, findings of this study should be expanded in the neighbouring countries of the South Eastern European region and beyond.

  20. Stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in central and eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giray Gozgor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in eleven central and eastern European (CEE countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The heterogeneous panel unit root tests are used to account for cross-sectional dependence and the Modified Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test over the period March 1997-September 2012. The half-lives are also calculated as to find the strong mean-reversion in the consumption income ratio for nine of eleven CEE economies; and the exceptions are Croatia and Slovenia. In other words, empirical findings provide significant support for the existence of hypothesis that the consumption-income ratio is a mean reversion. Accordingly, the policy implications have permanent effects on the consumption of households only in Croatia and Slovenia.

  1. Health Care Performance and Health Financing Systems in Countries from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel ANTON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of all health systems from emerging economies is the shortage of financial resources. This fact is currently exacerbated by the economic crisis that has led many governments to reconsider the level of public spending in the health sector. Starting from the Romanian experience, the paper aims to highlight the linkage between the performance of the health system and the total health spending for selected countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Romania has the lowest level of health expenditure as percentage of GDP in Europe, even if its growth rate for 2003-2008 was the highest. In addition, empirical evidence shows that these resources are used inefficiently. Despite the increasing resources allocated to the health sector, statistical analysis shows that health system efficiency, as measured by under-5 (child mortality rate, is still low. We use regression analysis based on crosssection data in order to explain the differences in health expenditure and their implication on the system efficiency. Health data have been provided by international organizations. Crosssection regression results suggest that totalhealth spending and GDP per capita are the most important factors explaining differences in health status across Central and Eastern European countries, though other lifestyle factors could play important roles.

  2. Attractiveness of Central and Eastern European Countries for Foreign Direct Investment in the Context of European Integration: The Case of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Andresson, Kairi; Reiljan, Janno; Reiljan, Ele

    2001-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in the world have increased rapidly during the last decade. Most of the FDI inflows are targeted to developed countries (78% in 1999, about fifth of the flows are going to developing countries and Central and Eastern European transition countries are the host countries for only 2% of the world FDI. The necessity of foreign investments in the transition countries is the result of industrial restructuring in post-socialist Eastern Europe and the Baltic coun...

  3. Subjective well-being among young people in five Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, M S C; Cappa, C; Patton, G C

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being incorporates elements of life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. It is increasingly relevant in the assessment of population health and economic development. There are strong continuities in well-being from youth into later life. Despite its significance, few global surveys capture subjective well-being. This paper describes patterns of well-being among young people in five Eastern European countries [Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Ukraine] and investigates association between demographic factors and well-being. Nationally representative household surveys, including large Roma population samples, were conducted as part of UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey programme. Young people aged 15-24 years ( N  = 11 944) indicated their satisfaction with life, happiness and expectations about the future. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to determine the impact of individual-level predictors while accounting for country- and cluster-level variability. Around 40% of young people considered themselves very happy or very satisfied with their life overall. Three quarters reported optimism. Yet well-being varied greatly between countries, with youth in BiH and Ukraine reporting lowest levels of well-being. Current marriage, increasing wealth, higher education, rural residence and not having children were associated with greater well-being. Patterns of well-being in youth vary substantially between countries and are only partly accounted for by standard demographic characteristics. Despite higher rates of adolescent marriage and childbearing, and lower levels of educational attainment and employment, Roma youth had similar levels of well-being to the general population.

  4. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  5. ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: AN INVESTIGATION FOR SIX EU CANDIDATE AND POTENTIAL CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Tache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The South Eastern European region (SEE has seen major beneficial transformation in the recent years. Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 became members of the European Union and registered significant economic growth rates. This paper investigates some important factors that influence economic growth in 6 EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia and offers to policy makers in those countries key insights for stimulating the economy. The paper proposes a dynamic growth model which will be developed using the Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation. This model is suited for this type of analysis because of the small T sample and also to cope with missingness. The results indicate that nine out of the fourteen variables were statistically significant. The number of non-resident tourists, the number of passenger cars, the number of children in pre-primary and primary-education are positive factors for economic growth. In contrast, government debt, inflation, all energy imports, railway transportation and primary production of coal and lignite are hindering development.

  6. High-Speed Rail for Central and Eastern European Countries: A Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandová Monika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European transport strategy promotes the role of railways and expects that the key role in passenger transport should be played by high-speed rail (HSR. Although the core network of high-speed lines has already been built and is operating in Western Europe, there has been little coverage so far in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. The aim of the conference “High-Speed Rail for CEE Countries” that took place in Prague in June 2016 was to put together academics, policy-makers, and practitioners interested in HSR and to formulate recommendations for CEE countries based on West European countries’ experience. Based on the conference presentations and subsequent discussion, the following conclusions were formulated. Firstly, there are many crucial differences in national HSR build-up and operation, which means that former experience of Western Europe is not directly applicable to CEE countries. Secondly, in comparing presentations discussing experiences in France, Britain, Italy, and Germany, it was concluded that the German approach-upgrading existing lines where possible and only building new lines for bottleneck sections-was the most likely appropriate solution in CEE. Lastly, CEE has the additional problem of many border crossings, with a reduction of traffic in comparison with purely domestic routes, and this effect has to be taken into account.

  7. Specifics of IFRS Adoption by Central and Eastern European Countries: Evidence from Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procházka David

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews recent literature on the specifics of adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS by the new EU members from the Central and Eastern Europe. Despite being members of the EU or OECD, the transition to a standard developed economy has not yet finished. The first part of the paper presents macroeconomic statistics and capital market data, which underline a unique economic structure of the region (relative unimportance of capital markets for raising capital, strong dependence on foreign direct investments combined with the lacks in institutional environment. Under such conditions, the economic consequences of IFRS adoption can be unpredictable and adverse. The second part of the paper analyses the reflection of specifics of the IFRS adoption in the CEE region in research studies covered by the Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science database. The analysis reveals (a cross-country disproportion in the research coverage of the area; (b relatively low coverage of the IFRS research focusing on these transition countries in top journals.

  8. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Correlates in 25 Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European Countries: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Lee, John Tayu; Millett, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among young people in some settings. There is an absence of nationally representative prevalence studies of waterpipe tobacco use and dual use with other tobacco products in young people. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional study of students aged 13-15 years. Of 180 participating countries, 25 included optional waterpipe tobacco smoking questions: 15 Eastern Mediterranean and 10 Eastern European countries. We calculated the prevalence of current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco use, including dual waterpipe and other tobacco use, and used logistic regression models to identify sociodemographic correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence was highest in Lebanon (36.9%), the West Bank (32.7%) and parts of Eastern Europe (Latvia 22.7%, the Czech Republic 22.1%, Estonia 21.9%). These countries also recorded greater than 10% prevalence of dual waterpipe and cigarette use. In a meta-analysis, higher odds of waterpipe tobacco smoking were found among males (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18% to 1.59%), cigarette users (AOR = 6.95, 95% CI = 5.74% to 8.42%), those whose parents (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.31% to 1.82%) or peers smoked (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI = 2.97% to 4.20%) and those whose parents had higher educational attainment (Father, AOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.14% to 1.89%; Mother, AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07% to 2.46%). We report on regional- and country income-level differences. Waterpipe tobacco smoking, including dual waterpipe and cigarette use, is alarmingly high in several Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. Ongoing waterpipe tobacco smoking surveillance is warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All

  9. IMPACT OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS UPON EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES: STILL A PROBLEM FOR THE ECONOMY OF THE REGION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA-ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the impact of the global economic and financial crisis on a number of central, eastern and south-eastern European countries. The global crisis can be viewed as three interdependent and mutually reinforcing crises: a financial crisis, a liquidity crisis, and a crisis in the real economy. The financial crises that have emerged and developed in the recent decades have been characterized, mostly of an international dimension, with shocks quickly propagating through capital markets, through the international banking activities and, through the money markets.East Europe was hit first by the global liquidity crisis, then by declines in capital inflows and plunging demand for their exports.Before the crisis, the Eastern region was experiencing an economic boom with rapid GDP and credit growth, but in the future East European countries will have to rely relatively more on internally-generated sources of productivity growth.

  10. Agreement for the Establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-18

    On 14 September 1962 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for the establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern regional radioisotope centre for the Arab countries. The text of this Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  11. Agreement for the Establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    On 14 September 1962 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for the establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern regional radioisotope centre for the Arab countries. The text of this Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  12. Legal Barriers in Accessing Opioid Medicines : Results of the ATOME Quick Scan of National Legislation of Eastern European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Lisman, John; Scholten, Willem; Payne, Sheila; Lynch, Tom; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Overregulation of controlled medicines is one of the factors contributing to limited access to opioid medicines. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify legal barriers to access to opioid medicines in 12 Eastern European countries participating in the Access to Opioid

  13. Systematic review on the evaluation criteria of orphan medicines in Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelei, Tamás; Molnár, Mária J; Szegedi, Márta; Kaló, Zoltán

    2016-06-04

    In case of orphan drugs applicability of the standard health technology assessment (HTA) process is limited due to scarcity of good clinical and health economic evidence. Financing these premium priced drugs is more controversial in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region where the public funding resources are more restricted, and health economic justification should be an even more important aspect of policy decisions than in higher income European countries. To explore and summarize the recent scientific evidence on value drivers related to the health technology assessment of ODs with a special focus on the perspective of third party payers in CEE countries. The review aims to list all potentially relevant value drivers in the reimbursement process of orphan drugs. A systematic literature review was performed; PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched for relevant publications until April 2015. Extracted data were summarized along key HTA elements. From the 2664 identified publications, 87 contained relevant information on the evaluation criteria of orphan drugs, but only 5 had direct information from the CEE region. The presentation of good clinical evidence seems to play a key role especially since this should be the basis of cost-effectiveness analyses, which have more importance in resource-constrained economies. Due to external price referencing of pharmaceuticals, the relative budget impact of orphan drugs is expected to be higher in CEE than in Western European (WE) countries unless accessibility of patients remains more limited in poorer European regions. Equity principles based on disease prevalence and non-availability of alternative treatment options may increase the price premium, however, societies must have some control on prices and a rationale based on multiple criteria in reimbursement decisions. The evaluation of orphan medicines should include multiple criteria to appropriately measure the clinical added value of orphan

  14. Carbon emissions-income relationships with structural breaks: the case of the Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Montasser, Ghassen; Ajmi, Ahdi Noomen; Nguyen, Duc Khuong

    2018-01-01

    This article revisits the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions-GDP causal relationships in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries by employing the Rossi (Economet Theor 21:962-990, 2005) instability-robust causality test. We show evidence of significant causality relationships for all considered countries within the instability context, whereas the standard Granger causality test fails to detect causal links in any direction, except for Egypt, Iran, and Morocco. An important policy implication resulting from this robust analysis is that the income is not affected by the cuts in the CO 2 emissions for only two MENA countries, the UAE and Syria.

  15. [Problem issues related to HIV/AIDS in Eastern European and Central Asian countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    HIV has been spreading over the territories of our countries for 18 years, and it is still possible to resist the epidemic in a unique and efficient way. In June 2001, the UNO General Assembly Special Session was devoted to the problem of HIV/AIDS in full. Its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (Resolution S-26/2) defines main directions of this work both in world-wide, regional, and international scopes. It should be stressed that first of all the Declaration emphasizes the necessity to improve management and coordination of efforts at the global, regional, and national levels, which is of special importance to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where a new phase of HIV infection epidemic has begun and the spread of the virus grows and very soon may gain uncontrollable character. As for the countries of our region, here the epidemic process has been developing mostly through sexual way of transmission for 8 years since 1987, when the first case of HIV infection was revealed. More than 350000 HIV-infected people, including more than 15,000 children, have been registered in Russian Federation. More than 9000 people have died. The proportion of childbearing age women constantly grows, and the number of children born to mothers with AIDS has now exceeded 15,000. To realize the component "Prevention of HIV infection, B and C hepatitis, and revealing and treatment of HIV patients" of the priority national health project, 3.1 billion rubles are allocated for the prophylaxis of and fight against HIV and AIDS. The measures that are planned to take will allow for principle changes in the present situation with medical aid providence of contemporary antiretroviral medicines. Russian Orthodox Church with its parishes, monasteries etc. carries out numerous projects of primary HIV prophylaxis among children and young people in different regions; these projects are directed towards forming moral values.

  16. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered. Five NUTS-2 (Nomenclature d'Unites Territoriales Statistiques) regions with high biomass production potentials in Poland, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic were analysed for biofuel export options. From these regions pellets from willow can be provided to destination areas in Western European countries (WEC) at costs of 105.2-219.8 EUR t -1 . Ethanol can be provided at 11.95-20.89 EUR per GJ if the biomass conversion is performed at the destination areas in the WEC or at 14.84-17.83 EUR GJ -1 J if the biomass to ethanol conversion takes place (at small scale) at the CEEC region where the biomass is produced. Short sea shipping shows most cost advantages for longer distance international transport compared to inland waterway shipping and railway. Another reason for lower biofuel supply costs are shorter distances between the regions of biomass production and the destination areas. Therefore the Szczecin region in Poland, closely located to the Baltic Sea, shows a better economic performance for long distance trade of biomass production than the selected region in Hungary ('land-locked'). It is concluded that in future key CEEC regions can supply (pre-treated) biomass and biofuels to the European market at cost levels, which are sound and attractive to current and expected diesel and gasoline prices. (author)

  17. The Impact of International Financial Crisis on Bank Performance in Eastern and Central European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin-Marius Andrieș

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the determinants of bank profitability in 10 countries from Central and Eastern Europe, in the period between 2004 and 2013. We proxy the profitability of banks with more commonly used ratio: the return on assets (ROA, computed as a ratio of the net profit to the total bank assets. We used multiple regression with bank specific variables, banking industry variables and macroeconomic variables. Moreover, we added a global financial crisis dummy to highlight the crisis impact on asset return. OLS is the main estimation method, but we also used difference-in-difference in order to test if the crisis impact was amplified or diminished by the bank specific characteristics. The evidence shows significant differences between the profit levels of the CEEC banks. Our results are in line with the empirical literature. The impact of the international financial crisis on ROA was negative and statistically significant, as expected. The second part of the analysis we separate the banks sample in three categories: banks with high capital adequacy, large banks by total assets and foreign-owned banks. Our findings show that the three selected variables both amplified and decreased the crisis effect.

  18. Retail and wholesale buying behaviour for two different food products in six Eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    1999-01-01

    1. The structure of retailing and wholesaling in Eastern Europe has been significantly altered by privatisation and liberalisation in the transition from central planning to market economy. Furthermore, many western retailers faced with saturated domestic markets have expanded into Eastern Europe in an attempt to take advantage of the opportunities created by the liberalisation. 2. The aim of this study is to increase our knowledge of retail and wholesale buying behaviour in Eastern Europe by...

  19. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  20. Interethnic Variations and Clinical Features of Spondyloarthropathies in a Middle Eastern Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Mohammed Kamil; Badsha, Humeira; Khan, Bhavna; Shahzeb, Muhammad; Hegde, Srilakshmi; Mofti, Ayman; Ooi, Kong Kok

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to demonstrate the interethnic differences and clinical features of Spondyloarthropathy(SpA) patients in a diverse Middle Eastern Country. A retrospective review of medical records to collect the required data was conducted for SpA patients at two study institutions in the United Arab Emirates. Of 141 SpA patients found, 88 AS(Ankylosing Spondylitis) patients and 53 'other SpA' patients were identified. Males constituted 81% of AS and 55% of 'other SpA' patients. Patients with AS and 'other SpA' had a mean age of symptom onset of 28 and 34 years, respectively.49% and 40% of AS and 'other SpA' patients had a history of Anti-TNF therapy usage. Enthesitis and Uveitis were noted in 16% and 18% of AS patients whilst 53% and 11% in 'other SpA' patients, respectively.Caucasian, Indian Subcontinent and Arabs constituted 93% of our cohort. Mean age of onset of symptoms in the Indian Subcontinent 'other SpA' group was much greater than the other two ethnicities. Duration of symptoms to diagnosis was 3.5 and 4 years in AS and other SpA patients' respectively. HLA-B27 positivity was found in 53%, 80% and 93% of Arab, Indian Subcontinent and Caucasian AS patients, respectively, whilst seen in 50%, 25% and 33% of the same respective ethnicties in 'other SpA' patients. This study on 141 patients is the largest to analyse inter-ethnic variations in SpA patients in the region. Our cohort shows a short delay in diagnosis with a relatively higher Anti-TNF usage.

  1. Dairy products and colorectal cancer in middle eastern and north African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kinany, K; Deoula, M; Hatime, Z; Bennani, B; El Rhazi, K

    2018-03-01

    This systematic review was conducted to explain the association between dairy products and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Middle Eastern and North African countries (MENA). The database consulted were PubMed, Clinical Trials, and Cochrane to extract the relevant studies published till the 31stof December 2016, using inclusion and exclusion criteria according to Prisma Protocol. The characteristics of these studies comprised the consumption of all types of dairy products in relation to CRC risk. Seven studies were included in this review. For dairy products overall, no significant association was found. Regarding modern dairy products, included studies found controversial results with OR = 9.88 (95% CI: 3.80-24.65) and OR a  = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.02-0.71). A positive association was reported between traditional dairy products and CRC risk, to OR = 18.66 (95% CI: 3.06-113.86) to OR = 24 (95% CI: 1.74-330.82) to ORa = 1.42 (95% CI: 0.62-3.25), p trend  = 0.03. Calcium was inversely associated with the CRC risk with OR a  = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04-0.17). This is the first systematic review which illustrated the association between dairy consumption and CRC risk in MENA region. The results were inconsistent and not always homogeneous. Further specified studies may be warranted to address the questions about the association between CRC and dairy products in a specific context of MENA region.

  2. Ecological study of road traffic injuries in the eastern Mediterranean region: country economic level, road user category and gender perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoelge, Mathilde; Laflamme, Lucie; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-02-13

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has the second highest number of road traffic injury mortality rates after the African region based on 2013 data, with road traffic injuries accounting for 27% of the total injury mortality in the region. Globally the number of road traffic deaths has plateaued despite an increase in motorization, but it is uncertain whether this applies to the Region. This study investigated the regional trends in both road traffic injury mortality and morbidity and examined country-based differences considering on income level, categories of road users, and gender distribution. Register-based ecological study linking data from Global Burden of Disease Study with the United Nations Statistics Division for population and World Bank definition for country income level. Road traffic injury mortality rates and disability-adjusted life years were compiled for all ages at country level in 1995, 2005, 2015 and combined for a regional average (n = 22) and a global average (n = 122). The data were stratified by country economic level, road user category and gender. Road traffic injury mortality rates in the Region were higher than the global average for all three reference years but suggest a downward trend. In 2015 mortality rates were more than twice as high in low and high income countries compared to global income averages and motor vehicle occupants had a 3-fold greater mortality than the global average. Severe injuries decreased by more than half for high/middle income countries but remained high for low income countries; three times higher for males than females. Despite a potential downward trend, inequalities in road traffic injury mortality and morbidity burden remain high in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Action needs to be intensified and targeted to implement and enforce safety measures that prevent and mitigate severe motor vehicle crashes in high income countries especially and invest in efforts to promote public, active transport

  3. Venture Capital and Leveraged Buyout: What Is the Difference in Eastern Europe? – A Cross-Country Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Precup

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the determinants of leveraged buyout activity, respectively venture capital activity in Eastern European countries. Additionally, this paper presents the main highlights in terms of evolution of leveraged buyout investments and venture capital investments during the recent crisis in the European emerging countries. The panel data analysis used in this paper will include determinants consecrated in previous studies such as GDP growth, market capitalization or R&D expenditures, as well as new variables such as productivity and corruption index. In order to estimate a panel data model with fixed and random effects, we collected data on leveraged buyout activity, respectively venture capital activity in Eastern European countries over the period 2000-2013. This paper will follow the methodology developed by Gompers and Lerner (1998, Jeng and Wells (2000, Romain and de La Potteria (2004, Félix (2007 and Bernoth and Colavecchio (2014. The present research paper shows that the LBO and the venture capital are differently affected by macroeconomic conditions. Based on our empirical results, we have pointed several strategic directions that are meant to support the development of the leveraged buyout and venture capital markets in Eastern Europe. 

  4. Migration and mental health: a study of low-income Ethiopian women working in Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbesse, Birke; Hanlon, Charlotte; Alem, Atalay; Packer, Samuel; Whitley, Rob

    2009-11-01

    Few studies have explored influences on mental health of migrants moving between non-Western countries. Focus group discussions were used to explore the experiences of Ethiopian female domestic migrants to Middle Eastern countries, comparing those who developed severe mental illness with those remaining mentally well. Prominent self-identified threats to mental health included exploitative treatment, enforced cultural isolation, undermining of cultural identity and disappointment in not achieving expectations. Participants countered these risks by affirming their cultural identity and establishing socio-cultural supports. Mental health of migrant domestic workers may be jeopardized by stressors, leading to experience of social defeat.

  5. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  6. Trade Facilitation Indicators and their Potential Impact on Trade Between the Countries of South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toševska-Trpčevska Katerina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we base our analysis on previous OECD findings and analysis of trade facilitation indicators for assessing relative economic and trade impact of specific trade facilitation measures for the countries of South-Eastern Europe. In the analysis we plan to include all CEFTA-2006 members, except Moldova, and other countries which are part of this region: Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. We plan to construct twelve trade facilitation indicators (TFIs that correspond to the main policy areas under negotiations at the WTO. The indicators are composed from seventy-eight variables, whose values are drawn from publicly available data. We plan to use these indicators in gravity model in order to estimate the impact of those policy areas on trade volumes between the countries of the region. The use of individual trade facilitation indicators should also enable countries to better assess which trade facilitation measures deserve priority.

  7. TESTING STOCK MARKETS’ INTEGRATION FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WITHIN EURO ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stock market integration gives the opportunity of risk diversification on international level. The main effects of this integration are the development of stock markets and economic growth. This paper analyses the integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe using convergence. Beta-convergence gives us information about integration’s speed and sigma-convergence presents information about the degree of integration of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe on the stock market of Euro Zone.

  8. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, R Clive; Carmichael-Simmons, Kelly; Hambleton, Ian R; Best, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama). VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples. A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2%) mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001). We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  9. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Clive Landis

    Full Text Available Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service.Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama. VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples.A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2% mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001.We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  10. Transferability of results of cost utility analyses for biologicals in inflammatory conditions for Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulácsi, László; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Brodszky, Valentin; Lopert, Ruth; Hevér, Noémi V; Baji, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Several Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries require cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to support reimbursement formulary listing. However, CUAs informed by local evidence are often unavailable, and the cost-effectiveness of the several currently reimbursed biologicals is unclear. To estimate the cost-effectiveness as multiples of per capita GDP/quality adjusted life years (QALY) of four biologicals (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab) currently reimbursed in six CEE countries in six inflammatory rheumatoid and bowel disease conditions. Systematic literature review of published cost-utility analyses in the selected conditions, using the United Kingdom (UK) as reference country and with study selection criteria set to optimize the transfer of results to the CEEs. Prices in each CEE country were pro-rated against UK prices using purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted per capita GDP, and local GDP per capita/QALY ratios estimated. Central and Eastern European countries list prices were 144-333% higher than pro rata prices. Out of 85 CUAs identified by previous systematic literature reviews, 15 were selected as a convenience sample for estimating the cost-effectiveness of biologicals in the CEE countries in terms of per capita GDP/QALY. Per capita GDP/QALY values varied from 0.42 to 6.4 across countries and conditions (Bulgaria: 0.97-6.38; Czech Republic: 0.42-2.76; Hungary: 0.54-3.54; Poland: 0.59-3.90; Romania: 0.77-5.07; Slovakia: 0.55-3.61). While results must be interpreted with caution, calculating pro rata (cost-effective) prices and per capita GDP/QALY ratios based on CUAs can aid reimbursement decision-making in the absence of analyses using local data.

  11. Effect of culture on acceptance of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries: case study of Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajlani, Mohannad; Clarke, Malcolm

    2013-04-01

    We investigated issues that affect the use and adoption of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries, taking the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic as case studies. Our study is based on interviews with key stakeholders (including doctors, technicians, engineers, and decision makers) and questionnaires administered to key stakeholders (including patients), ensuring opinion was gained from people from a full range of backgrounds and roles in the healthcare system. We found doctor and patient resistance was a major issue preventing the adoption of telemedicine in both countries, followed by poor infrastructure, lack of funding, and lack of information technology training. Our research identifies that culture is a greater issue than technical matters for the adoption of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries. Based on our preliminary results we developed a guideline framework for each country that might be applied to telemedicine projects at the pre-implementation phase. The proposed guideline framework was validated through a return visit to the stakeholders and seeking further opinion.

  12. Mapping health research capacity in 17 countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Alessio; Glonti, Ketevan; Bertollini, Roberto; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Policies to improve health status, tackle disease and ensure equitable access to healthcare should be informed by evidence derived from high-quality research. However, health research capacity is unevenly distributed across countries, as revealed by mapping exercises that have been undertaken to provide a basis for concerted action to strengthen capacity. This study systematically describes capacity to undertake health research in the countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe and identifies the elements required to create a national health research system. The mapping exercise comprised two elements: a survey of key informants in the respective countries and a bibliometric analysis of scientific publications in the field of public health. Our results confirm that health research remains a low priority in some countries of the WHO European Region. In these countries, most of the literature was produced by researchers outside the country, often to inform international donors. This study provides important information for countries seeking to initiate action to strengthen their research capacity. There is a need for a comprehensive strategy with sustained investment in training and career development of researchers. There is also a need to create new funding systems to provide financial support to those undertaking policy-relevant research. International collaboration and investment in mechanisms to bridge the gap between research and policy are urgently required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman ERDAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 % for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the youth unemployment rate in the country. It is recommended that the global and country-specific policies which are effective, result-driven on youth (Un employment and labour market issues, should be developed. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on unemployment and social conflict.

  14. The Penetration of Foreign Capital into the Banking Sector in Central and Eastern Europe’s Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mariana CALINICA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the degree of the penetration of foreign banks in the banking system of some countries in Central and Eastern Europe, with special reference to Romania. This is done using two significant indicators, such as: the share of foreign banks in the total of the banks in a country and the share of foreign bank assets in the total bank assets in a country. It will also analyze the global character of the activity of foreign banks in Romania and their international character, with the focus on how these two aspects have evolved over time. This will be achieved by analyzing the indicator: FOREIGN claims of BIS reporting banks towards Romania.

  15. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we look at migration flows from 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2007. We exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement......, and Finland and Iceland from year 2006, the other Nordic countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. The results based on a differences-in-differences estimator show that the estimated effect of the opening of the Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic labour markets on migration from...... the CEECs that entered the EU in 2004 is not significantly different from zero. However, the effect of the opening of the Swedish and Finnish labour markets in 2007 on migration from the 2007 EU entrants, Bulgaria and Romania, is significantly positive. Further, we are interested in the overall effect...

  16. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Pedersen, Peder J.

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE CONTEXT OF E.U. ADHERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian\tLiviu\tSCUTARIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a negative phenomenon that manifests itself in any economy with varying degrees of intensity. In this paper we propose to analyze the evolution of unemployment in the EU. There are countries where economic recession was felt more intense and harder recovered from it, such as Greece or Spain. Within the European Union one notes some differences in unemployment between Member States but also in terms of age groups. In the EU youth unemployment rate is approximately double that the general unemployment rate, but the situation is worse in some countries where youth unemployment rate is even higher. Our analysis also focuses on trends recorded at regional level in Central and Eastern Europe countries in the context of their accession to the EU, highlighting positive developments, which were maintained in the coming years. The unemployment rate decrease is one of the objectives followed by the EU through its policies.

  18. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrobičić, Ana; Chaudhry, Nauman; Ghaffar, Abdul; Marušić, Ana

    2012-05-11

    Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006-2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006-2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient's privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community.

  19. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006–2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Results Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006–2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient’s privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Conclusion Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community. PMID:22577965

  20. DYNAMIC TRENDS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTEMENTS AND MACROECONOMIC CHANGES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN COUNTRIES DURING 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENISIA VINTILA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the transition economies, foreign direct investments (FDI were considered the engine of theireconomic transformation. The purpose of this article is to highlight the evolution of FDI during 2000-2010 for 7countries of Central and Eastern Europe, precisely: Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia,Romania and Bulgaria (CEE-7 and the changes in the patterns of the FDI received. There are large differencesamong these countries regarding the investments received and we tried to identity the determinants thatcontributed to this uneven distribution of FDI .We analyzed the boom of FDI registered by these countriesduring 2000-2008 and the structure and dynamics of FDI after the break out of the crisis in 2008. FDI inCentral and Eastern Europe experienced a collapse in 2009, after 8 year of impressive increase, which followeda strong economic growth. Poland was the most attractive country of the region, even during the financial crisis.Romania and Bulgaria, which experienced an impressive increase of FDI during 2004-2008, were severelyaffected by the crisis. The collapse of FDI, which coincides with the economic recession, brought also somechanges in the structure and form of the FDI received.

  1. Trend in environmental education images of textbooks from Western and Eastern European countries and non-European countries

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Textbook analysis is seen as a major element for studying environmental education addressing pupils, being image analysis rather relevant when studying textbooks written in 11 languages. We analysed 25 textbooks from 14 countries addressed to 14-16 years old pupils, focusing on: (i) local and foreign/global images; (ii) urban/rural and nature images; (iii) negative impact, human management and the beauty of nature; and (iv) men and women in images with negative and positiv...

  2. Comparative care and outcomes for acute coronary syndromes in Central and Eastern European Transitional countries: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fraser G D; Brogan, Richard A; Alabas, Oras; Laut, Kristina G; Quinn, Tom; Bugiardini, Raffaele; Gale, Chris P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to compare quality of care and outcomes following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Central and Eastern European Transitional (CEET) countries. This was a review of original ACS articles in CEET countries from PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Medline and Embase databases published in English from November 2003 to February 2014. Seventeen manuscripts fulfilled the search criteria. Of 19 CEET countries studied, there were no published ACS management or outcome data for four countries. In-hospital mortality for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) ranged from 6.3% in the Czech Republic to 15.3% in Latvia. In-hospital mortality for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) ranged from 3.0% in Poland to 20.7% in Romania. For STEMI, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ranged from 1.0% to over 92.0%, fibrinolytic therapy from 0.0% to 49.6%, and no reperfusion therapy from 7.0% to 63.0%. Many CEET countries do not have published ACS care and outcomes data. Of those that do, there is evidence for substantial geographical variation in early mortality. Wide variation in emergency reperfusion strategies for STEMI suggests that acute cardiac care is likely to be modifiable and if addressed could reduce mortality from ACS in CEET countries. The collection of ACS care and outcomes data across Europe must be prioritised. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  3. Comparison of perceived barriers to entrepreneurship in Eastern and Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovleva, T.A.; Kolvereid, L.; M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); Sørhaug, Ø

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis qualitative study among 591 business students from four European countries investigated cross-country differences in the kind of barriers people perceive to business start-up. In line with institutional theory, the most important perceived barriers in all countries related to

  4. How Taxes Can Contribute to The Implementation of The Public Governance Strategy? – An Analysis for Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a short literature review regarding the public governance concept in the EU approach and its methods for establishing a common way to manage different situations for all member states; we discovered that the problems they confront with have to do with good governance and qualitative public administration. In the second part, we developed an econometric model for three Eastern European countries and we found a strong correlation between the total revenues from taxes and social contributions and total gross debt in 2002-2014 period. We ended the paper by emphasizing the conclusions obtained.

  5. Correlates of male circumcision in Eastern and Southern African countries: establishing a baseline prior to VMMC Scale-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Hoan Tram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. METHODS: Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006-2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. RESULTS: MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older, religion (being Muslim and ethnicity. DISCUSSION: These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk.

  6. Diagnostic and management practices for phenylketonuria in 19 countries of the South and Eastern European Region: survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giżewska, Maria; MacDonald, Anita; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Burlina, Alberto; Cleary, Maureen; Coşkun, Turgay; Feillet, François; Muntau, Ania C; Trefz, Friedrich K; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Blau, Nenad

    2016-02-01

    To avoid potentially severe outcomes, phenylketonuria (PKU) must be detected as soon as possible after birth and managed with life-long treatment. A questionnaire-based survey was performed to document diagnosis and management practices for PKU in a region of Southern and Eastern Europe. Prevalence and management data were obtained from 37/59 (63 %) centres within 19/22 (86%) contacted countries (N = 8600 patients). The main results' analysis was based on completed questionnaires obtained from 31 centres (53%) within 15 countries (68%). A median of 10 % of patients per centre had been diagnosed after the newborn period. Metabolic dieticians and specialised adult PKU clinics were lacking in 36 and 84% of centres, respectively. In 26% of centres, treatment initiation was delayed until >15 days of life. Blood phenylalanine (Phe) thresholds to start treatment and upper Phe targets were inconsistent across centres. Ten percent of centres reported monitoring Phe every 2 weeks for pregnant women with PKU, which is insufficient to minimise risk of neonatal sequalae. Sapropterin dihydrochloride treatment was available in 48% of centres, with 24-h responsiveness tests most common (36%). Only one centre among the five countries lacking newborn screening provided a completed questionnaire. Targeted efforts by health care professionals and governments are needed to optimise diagnostic and management approaches for PKU in Southern and Eastern Europe. PKU must be detected early and optimally managed throughout life to avoid poor outcomes, yet newborn screening is not universal and diagnostic and management practices for PKU are known to vary widely between different centres and countries. Targeted efforts by health care professionals and governments are needed to optimise diagnostic and management approaches. PKU management practices are documented in 19 South and Eastern European countries indicating a heterogeneous situation across the region. Key areas for improvement

  7. A Scopus-based examination of tobacco use publications in Middle Eastern Arab countries during the period 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main health-care problem in the world. Evaluation of scientific output in the field of tobacco use has been poorly explored in Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries to date, and there are few internationally published reports on research activity in tobacco use. The main objectives of this study were to analyse the research output originating from 13 MEA countries on tobacco fields and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database. Data from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding the tobacco field as 'keywords' in the title in any 1 of the 13 MEA countries. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Five hundred documents were retrieved from 320 peer-reviewed journals. The greatest amount of research activity was from Egypt (25.4%), followed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (23.2%), Lebanon (16.3%), and Jordan (14.8%). The total number of citations for the 560 documents, at the time of data analysis (27 August 2013), was 5,585, with a mean ± SD of 9.95 ± 22.64 and a median (interquartile range) of 3(1-10). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. This study identified 232 (41.4%) documents from 53 countries in MEA-foreign country collaborations. By region, MEA collaborated most often with countries in the Americas (29.6%), followed by countries in the same MEA region (13.4%), especially KSA and Egypt. The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research productivity in the tobacco field in the Arab world. Research output is low in some countries, which can be improved by investing in more international and national collaborative research projects in the field of tobacco.

  8. A Scopus-based examination of tobacco use publications in Middle Eastern Arab countries during the period 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the main health-care problem in the world. Evaluation of scientific output in the field of tobacco use has been poorly explored in Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries to date, and there are few internationally published reports on research activity in tobacco use. The main objectives of this study were to analyse the research output originating from 13 MEA countries on tobacco fields and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database. Methods Data from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding the tobacco field as 'keywords’ in the title in any 1 of the 13 MEA countries. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Results Five hundred documents were retrieved from 320 peer-reviewed journals. The greatest amount of research activity was from Egypt (25.4%), followed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (23.2%), Lebanon (16.3%), and Jordan (14.8%). The total number of citations for the 560 documents, at the time of data analysis (27 August 2013), was 5,585, with a mean ± SD of 9.95 ± 22.64 and a median (interquartile range) of 3(1–10). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. This study identified 232 (41.4%) documents from 53 countries in MEA-foreign country collaborations. By region, MEA collaborated most often with countries in the Americas (29.6%), followed by countries in the same MEA region (13.4%), especially KSA and Egypt. Conclusions The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research productivity in the tobacco field in the Arab world. Research output is low in some countries, which can be improved by investing in more international and national collaborative research projects in the field of tobacco. PMID:24885706

  9. Retail and wholesale buying behaviour for two different food products in six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    implications and areas for future research. We propose that in the long term, the best strategy for Danish food exporters is to approach a number of key retailers and establish close relationships with these retailers in order to fulfil their specific requirements. Theoretically, we conclude that retail...... in an attempt to take advantage of the opportunities created by the liberalisation. 2. The aim of this study is to increase our knowledge of retail and wholesale buying behaviour in Eastern Europe by examining the buying behaviour for fish and cheese products in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Estonia....... 5. The most important criteria used by retail buyers in Eastern Europe to evaluate products and suppliers of fish and cheese are price and financial conditions, the suppliers' range of products, the way the supplier does business as well as quality. 6. The differences in the organisation of buying...

  10. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-11-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance.

  11. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-01-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance. PMID:17143460

  12. MONETARY POLICY BEFORE AND AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS. EVIDENCE FROM INFLATION TARGETING COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Plescau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to review the monetary framework and instruments adopted by the inflation-targeting countries in Central and Eastern Europe, from 2005-ownwards. We employ a qualitative approach and develop a comparative analysis of the changes that occurred in the conduct of monetary policy after the 2008 financial crisis. The results highlight that the central banks in our sample have adjusted their policy in order to counteract the effects of the financial crisis and adopt different instruments to fulfill this aim. The contribution of our study is twofold. First, we offer a review of the literature regarding the adjustments in the monetary policy after the crisis and their effectiveness. Second, we make a comparative analysis between countries with respect to the path of monetary policy from conventional to unconventional and assess the (potential way back.

  13. A view on ''On-the-Job Training'' in the central and eastern European countries, Russia and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffrennes, M.

    1996-01-01

    The G-24 Training Working Group visited the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEESs), Russia and Ukraine in the course of 1993/94, in order to define priorities for further financial support by the Donor Countries. As a result, it appeared that Nuclear Training needed strong improvements since it is mainly based on OJT (On the Job Training), not SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) oriented and relying essentially on the line supervisor of the trainee. Recommendations were provided to support a SAT based approach development and to provide adequate equipment. In view of the importance of OJT in the training courses, and that probably for some more years, a specific effort should be made in better defining the goals and objectives of the OJT and its coherent integration in the overall training system. In addition, the OJT ''instructors'' have to be trained in the specific teaching skills required to successfully run OJT. (author). 3 figs

  14. Forensic data and microvariant sequence characterization of 27 Y-STR loci analyzed in four Eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Giuseppe; D'Atanasio, Eugenia; Marini, Ornella; Coppa, Alfredo; Sellitto, Daniele; Trombetta, Beniamino; Berti, Andrea; Cruciani, Fulvio

    2017-03-01

    By using the recently introduced 6-dye Yfiler ® Plus multiplex, we analyzed 462 males belonging to 20 ethnic groups from four eastern African countries (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya). Through a Y-STR sequence analysis, combined with 62 SNP-based haplogroup information, we were able to classify observed microvariant alleles at four Y-STR loci as either monophyletic (DYF387S1 and DYS458) or recurrent (DYS449 and DYS627). We found evidence of non-allelic gene conversion among paralogous STRs of the two-copy locus DYF387S1. Twenty-two diallelic and triallelic patterns observed at 13 different loci were found to be significantly over-represented (peastern African ethnic groups, and suggests caution in the use of country-based haplotype frequency distributions for forensic inferences in this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Economics of the Security Dilemma in the Eastern Baltic Economic Dilemmas of the Security Policy of the Eastern Baltic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers military security in the Eastern Baltic. The research focuses on the economic sustainability of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in the context of military spending. The authors maintain that an increase in military spending can either strengthen or weaken national economic and technological potential. In Germany or Sweden, military spending accounts for a smaller proportion of the GDP or budget revenues, but it is integrated into the general model of innovative and technological development. In the case of the Baltics, it is advisable to estimate military spending as a proportion of budget revenues rather than that of GDP — this recommendation applies to all smaller states. The authors stress that the central component of any national military and economic development is a focus on general national objectives rather than solely military ones. Economically advanced countries integrate defence spending into their investment and innovation strategies and industrial policies. Smaller countries — and the Baltics are no exception — do not apply this principle. Their military spending does not contribute to the technological and economic agenda. The article shows that the military spending of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia undermines their investment potential and serves as a critical factor in their national and governmental development. The authors suggest estimating military spending as a proportion of budget revenues rather than that of GDP.

  16. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested.

  17. Distribution and clinal trends of the ABO and Rh genes in select Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Afshan, K; Malik, S

    2015-09-09

    An understanding of the ABO and Rh blood group systems is important for blood transfusions and is also pertinent due to their potential association with certain morbidities and susceptibilities to infections. To investigate the diversity and differentiation of the ABO and Rh loci in Middle Eastern populations, data from twelve representative Middle Eastern populations were analyzed. Six populations were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the ABO locus. The pooled heterozygosity at both loci was calculated to be highest in the sample from Jordan and lowest in Bahrain. Heterogeneity was pronounced in the Northern compared to the Southern Middle Eastern populations. Overall, the absolute gene diversity was 0.0046 and gene differentiation was calculated to be 0.0100. Genetic diversity of the studied loci across all populations (HT) was estimated to be 0.4594, while the diversity within the populations (HS) was 0.4548. Nei's genetic distance analyses revealed highest affinities between the populations of Kuwait and Qatar, Oman and Yemen, and between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. These results were displayed through a UGPMA dendrogram and principal component analyses, which established clustering of certain populations. Clinal trends of the allelic systems were observed by generating contour maps that allow a detailed appreciation of the distributions of alleles across the geography of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. Taken together, these analyses are helpful in understanding the differentiation of blood group loci and for designing prospective studies for establishing the associations of these loci with health variables in the populations studied.

  18. Economic analysis of different supporting policies for the production of electrical energy by solar photovoltaics in eastern European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusonchet, Luigi; Telaretti, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Today, photovoltaic (PV) attracts considerable interest in relation to renewable energy technologies, because of its potential to contribute significantly to the future of renewable energy. However, PV market development is related strongly to the support policies introduced by national governments, defined in national laws. The modification or fading out of such incentive schemes can strongly influence the development of the PV market in any given country. In this paper, after a brief review of national support policies in PV technology in eastern European Union (EU) countries, the authors perform an economic analysis of the main support mechanisms that are implemented in these countries. The comparative analysis is based on the calculation of the cash flow, the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) indices. The analysis shows that in some situations, support policies can be inconvenient for the owner of the PV system and that, in many cases, the differences between the implementation of the same support policy in different countries, can give rise to significantly different results. (author)

  19. Access to Strong Opioid Analgesics in the Context of Legal and Regulatory Barriers in Eleven Central and Eastern European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B; Scholten, Willem K; Jünger, Saskia; Medic, Dr Rer; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2018-04-06

    In 2011-2013, >95% of the global opioid analgesics consumption occurred in three regions, accounting for 15% of the world population. Despite abundant literature on barriers to access, little is known on the correlation between actual access to opioid analgesics and barriers to access, including legal and regulatory barriers. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and barriers to access in national legislation and regulations in 11 central and eastern European countries that participated in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. Two variables were contrasted to assess their correlation: the country level of access to strong opioid analgesics indicated by the Adequacy of Consumption Measure (ACM) and the number of potential legal and regulatory barriers identified by an external review of legislation and regulations. A linear correlation was evaluated using a squared linear correlation coefficient. Evaluation of the correlation between the ACM and the number of potential barriers produces an R 2 value of 0.023 and a correlation plot trend line gradient of -0.075, indicating no correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and the number of potential barriers in national legislation and regulations in the countries studied. No correlation was found, which indicates that other factors besides potential legal and regulatory barriers play a critical role in withholding prescribers and patients essential pain medication in the studied countries. More research is needed toward better understanding of the complex interplay of factors that determine access to strong opioid analgesics.

  20. Population aging from 1950 to 2010 in seventeen transitional countries in the wider region of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Population aging has profoundly reshaped demographic landscapes in all South Eastern European (SEE countries. The aim of this study was to provide a thorough comparative inter-country assessment on the speed of population aging in the entire SEE region for the period 1950-2010. Methods: Descriptive observational analysis of long-term trends on core primary and composite indicators of population aging across seventeen countries of the wider SEE region, with panel data sets at a national level. Results: During the past six decades, the entire SEE region has experienced a rapid increase in the median age (from 25.2 years in 1950 to 37.9 years in 2010, with a simultaneous fall of fertility rates for two children per woman (from 3.55 children per each childbearing woman in 1950 to 1.49 in 2010, coupled with significant rise in the population of elderly citizens. The speed of population aging has vastly accelerated (with a 2.5 fold increase over the past three decades. The percentage of individuals over 65 years has doubled from 7% in 1950 to 14% in 2010. Conclusion: Complex national strategies are needed to cope with the shrinking labour force coupled with the growing proportion of the older population. With all likelihood, population aging will further accelerate in the near future. This profound long-term demographic transition will threaten financial sustainability of current health systems in all SEE countries.

  1. A reform strategy of the energy sector of the 12 countries of North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Doukas, Haris; Kagiannas, Argyris G.; Askounis, Dimitris Th.

    2006-01-01

    The development of an energy reform strategy based on the market economy so as to introduce competition in the market segments is of crucial importance for provision of a stable and favourable environment for energy investments. Reform strategies have begun developing in most of the 12 Mediterranean Countries of North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean, especially in the context of the Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Even though energy sector reforms have been initiated, they are still at an early stage in most of these countries. The majority of energy utilities remain state owned, vertically integrated monopolies. Few of these countries have established energy regulators, and where they have, these institutions have many difficulties in effective development. In addition, competition is virtually absent from the sector, and private participation has been confined to independent power plants, which tend to be introduced into unreformed sectors. The aim of this paper is to propose energy reform strategies for the reform of the sector by 2010 in terms of the development of the regional oil, gas and electricity sectors in these countries

  2. Legal barriers in accessing opioid medicines: results of the ATOME quick scan of national legislation of eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Lisman, John; Scholten, Willem; Payne, Sheila; Lynch, Tom; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2014-12-01

    Overregulation of controlled medicines is one of the factors contributing to limited access to opioid medicines. The purpose of this study was to identify legal barriers to access to opioid medicines in 12 Eastern European countries participating in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europa project, using a quick scan method. A quick scan method to identify legal barriers was developed focusing on eight different categories of barriers. Key experts in 12 European countries were requested to send relevant legislation. Legislation was quick scanned using World Health Organization guidelines. Overly restrictive provisions and provisions that contain stigmatizing language and incorrect definitions were identified. The selected provisions were scored into two categories: 1) barrier and 2) uncertain, and reviewed by two authors. A barrier was recorded if both authors agreed the selected provision to be a barrier (Category 1). National legislation was obtained from 11 of 12 countries. All 11 countries showed legal barriers in the areas of prescribing (most frequently observed barrier). Ten countries showed barriers in the areas of dispensing and showed stigmatizing language and incorrect use of definitions in their legislation. Most barriers were identified in the legislation of Bulgaria, Greece, Lithuania, Serbia, and Slovenia. The Cypriot legislation showed the fewest total number of barriers. The selected countries have in common as main barriers prescribing and dispensing restrictions, the use of stigmatizing language, and incorrect use of definitions. The practical impact of these barriers identified using a quick scan method needs to be validated by other means. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in HIV prevalence among young people in seven countries in eastern and southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Davey, Calum; Fearon, Elizabeth; Hensen, Bernadette; Krishnaratne, Shari

    2015-01-01

    In Eastern and Southern Africa, HIV prevalence was highest among higher socioeconomic groups during the 1990s. It has been suggested that this is changing, with HIV prevalence falling among higher-educated groups while stable among lower-educated groups. A multi-country analysis has not been undertaken. We analysed data on socio-demographic factors and HIV infection from 14 nationally representative surveys of adults aged 15-24 (seven countries, two surveys each, 4-8 years apart). Sample sizes ranged from 2,408-12,082 (72,135 total). We used logistic regression to assess gender-stratified associations between highest educational level attended and HIV status in each survey, adjusting for age and urban/rural setting. We tested for interactions with urban/rural setting and age. Our primary hypothesis was that higher education became less of a risk factor for HIV over time. We tested for interaction between survey-year and the education-HIV association in each country and all countries pooled. In Ethiopia and Malawi, HIV prevalence was higher in more educated women in both surveys. In Lesotho, Kenya and Zimbabwe, HIV prevalence was lower in higher educated women in both surveys. In Ethiopia, HIV prevalence fell among no and secondary educated women only (interaction pHIV changed over time (p=0·07). Pooled analysis found little evidence for an interaction between survey year and the education-HIV association among men (p=0·60) or women (p=0·37). The pattern of prevalent HIV infection among young adults by level of education in different sub-Saharan African countries was heterogeneous. There was little statistical evidence that this pattern changed between 2003-5 and 2008-12. Explanations for the social epidemiology of HIV in Africa will need to account for time-trends and inter-country differences.

  4. Review of national research ethics regulations and guidelines in Middle Eastern Arab countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Research ethics guidelines are essential for conducting medical research. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to establish national clinical research documents in the countries of the Middle East. This article analyzes these documents. Methods Thirteen Arab countries in the Middle East were explored for available national codes, regulations, and guidelines concerning research ethics, and 10 documents from eight countries were found. We studied these documents, considering the ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) guidelines, and the International Conference of Harmonization - Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP). Our paper comprises a complete list of protections, such as confidentiality, informed consent, ethics committees, and others. Results This study found different levels and kinds of research ethics regulations and guidelines in the countries examined. Two groups can be distinguished: the countries in the first group have one or more research ethics regulations or guidelines, while the countries in the second group have not yet established any. Most of the documents showed various degrees of deficiencies in regard to ethical protection. The majority of the documents that were examined refer to one or more international documents on biomedical research ethics. Conclusions Recently, a lot of efforts have been made in many countries in the Middle East. However, compared with international documents, most of the research ethics documents in use in this region demonstrate numerous deficiencies. As it relates to these documents, extensive differences could be observed in regard to development, structure, content, and reference to international guidelines. PMID:23234422

  5. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Nan Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366 This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-Wei Su, Meng-Nan Zhu, published in our journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, 2011, vol. 29 (1, pp. 51-63 and almost concurrently published in the journal Eastern European Economics, 2011, vol. 49 (3, pp. 54-65. Being in contact with Josef C Brada, Professor Emeritus, Editor of the journal Eastern European Economics (EEE, we realized that the paper had been sent to both journals, although first published in the EEE and then in our Journal. According to professor Brada’s and our analysis, the paper published in these two journals is exactly the same, except for minor differences in wording, most likely due to editing the text before publication. The outstanding differences are in the title and the fact that the paper published in our Journal has three authors and in EEE journal has two. Whatsoever, owing to the fact that the article had been sent to both journals almost at the same time, it had been impossible to find out the case during the review procedure. Due to this unpleasant situation, our Editorial Board would like to inform our valuable readers that all the necessary measures to retract the paper from our publication have been undertaken and according to publishing ethical principles, cooperation with the authors of the retracted paper have been stopped. Although, in this case neither EEE nor our Journal had any

  6. Biosimilars in rheumatology: recommendations for regulation and use in Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zorkany, Bassel; Al Ani, Nizar; Al Emadi, Samar; Al Saleh, Jamal; Uthman, Imad; El Dershaby, Yasser; Mounir, Mohamed; Al Moallim, Hani

    2018-05-01

    The increasing availability of biosimilar medicines in Middle Eastern regions may provide an opportunity to increase the number of rheumatology patients who have access to traditionally more expensive biologic medicines. However, as well as a lack of real-world data on the use of biosimilar medicines in practice, the availability of intended copies in the region may undermine physician confidence in prescribing legitimate biosimilar medicines. There is a need for regional recommendations for healthcare professionals to ensure that biosimilar drugs can be used safely. Therefore, a literature search was performed with the aim of providing important recommendations for the regulation and use of biosimilar medicines in the Middle East from key opinion leaders in rheumatology from the region. These recommendations focus on improving the availability of relevant real-world data, ensuring that physicians are aware of the difference between intended copies and true biosimilars and ensuring that physicians are responsible for making any prescribing and switching decisions.

  7. The safety of nuclear power plants in eastern Europe and countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Luis

    1996-01-01

    A particular type of pressurized light water reactors, WWERs, (water cooled, water moderated energy reactors) is the only Soviet designed nuclear power reactor which have been built outside the former Soviet Union. There are 45 such units in operation and 14 under construction, including those outside Eastern Europe. There are 11 first generation 440 MW(e) WWER model 110 (WWER-440/230) plants in operation. One of the two units in Armenia shut down since 1989, following a devastating earthquake near the site was restarted in 1995. Four units in the eastern part of Germany were shut down permanently in 1990. Four of the operating units are in Bulgaria, two are in the Slovak Republic and four are in Russia. All of these units had been designed before formal nuclear safety standards were issued in the Soviet Union, and lack safety features basic to other pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Their shortcomings reported in the assessments made by the IAEA and others include reactor pressure vessel embrittlement problems, limited emergency core cooling capability, insufficient redundancy and separation of safety equipment, deficient instrumentation and control systems, insufficient internal and external hazards protection, the lack of a containment, and the absence of comprehensive accident analysis and safety analysis reports. Of the second generation, 440 MW(e) WWER model 213 (WWER 440/213), 16 units are in operation: four in the Czech Republic, four in Hungary, two in Russia, two in the Slovak Republic, two in Ukraine and two in Finland. The two reactors in Finland have undergone significant safety improvements, particularly in the fitting of non-Soviet instrumentation and of a containment structure

  8. Impact of financial liberalization on banking sectors performance from central and eastern European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Marius Andries

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the impact of financial liberalization and reforms on the banking performance in 17 countries from CEE for the period 2004-2008 using a two-stage empirical model that involves estimating bank performance in the first stage and assessing its determinants in the second one. From our analysis it results that banks from CEE countries with higher level of liberalization and openness are able to increase cost efficiency and eventually to offer cheaper services to clients. Banks from non-member EU countries are less cost efficient but experienced much higher total productivity growth level, and large sized banks are much more cost efficient than medium and small banks, while small sized banks show the highest growth in terms of productivity.

  9. Impact of Financial Liberalization on Banking Sectors Performance from Central and Eastern European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andries, Alin Marius; Capraru, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the impact of financial liberalization and reforms on the banking performance in 17 countries from CEE for the period 2004–2008 using a two-stage empirical model that involves estimating bank performance in the first stage and assessing its determinants in the second one. From our analysis it results that banks from CEE countries with higher level of liberalization and openness are able to increase cost efficiency and eventually to offer cheaper services to clients. Banks from non-member EU countries are less cost efficient but experienced much higher total productivity growth level, and large sized banks are much more cost efficient than medium and small banks, while small sized banks show the highest growth in terms of productivity. PMID:23555745

  10. Treatment patterns of schizophrenia based on the data from seven Central and Eastern European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkultecka-Dębek, Monika; Miernik, Katarzyna; Stelmachowski, Jarosław; Jakovljević, Miro; Jukić, Vlado; Aadamsoo, Kaire; Janno, Sven; Bitter, István; Tolna, Judit; Jarema, Marek; Jankovic, Slobodan; Pecenak, Jan; Vavrusova, Livia; Tavčar, Rok; Walczak, Jacek; Talbot, Darren; Augustyńska, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    The aim is to analyze how schizophrenia is pharmacologically treated in seven CEE countries: Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia. Psychiatrists from selected centers in each of participating countries were asked to complete a pre-defined questionnaire on their current clinical practice. Information on protocols and resource utilization in schizophrenia treatment was included and derived from randomly selected patient medical records. Expert opinions on country-wide treatment patterns were additionally sought. This sub-analysis focuses on pharmacological treatment patterns in the last six months and over the course of the disease. 961 patients' data show that during last six months the most commonly prescribed medications were oral atypical antipsychotics: olanzapine (n=268), clozapine (n=234) and risperidone (n=160). The most frequently prescribed atypical antipsychotics over course of disease were: risperidone (54.5%), olanzapine (52.4%) and clozapine (35.1%), along with haloperidol (39.3%). Experts reported risperidone (four countries) and olanzapine (three countries) as first-line treatment, with the same two medications prescribed as second-line treatment. Clozapine was the most reported medication for refractory patients. Approximately 22% of patients received polypharmacy with antipsychotics in at least one period over the disease course. Mean time since diagnosis was 13.1 years and on average 4.8 treatment courses received during that period. Anxiolytics (70%), antidepressants (42%), mood-stabilizers (27%) were also prescribed, with diazepam (35.4%), sertraline (10.5%), valproic acid (17.5%) the most commonly reported, respectively, in each group. The most frequently reported treatment change was switch from one oral atypical antipsychotic to another (51%). Oral atypical antipsychotics, mostly older drugs (risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine), were most commonly prescribed for schizophrenia treatment in participating countries

  11. Who Decides: Me or We? Family Involvement in Medical Decision Making in Eastern and Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Lee, Ping Yein; Lee, Yew Kong; Trevena, Lyndal; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Lim Abdullah, Khatijah; Tanaka, Miho; Limpongsanurak, Supanida

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that desired family involvement (FI) in medical decision making may depend on cultural values. Unfortunately, the field lacks cross-cultural studies that test this assumption. As a result, providers may be guided by incomplete information or cultural biases rather than patient preferences. Researchers developed 6 culturally relevant disease scenarios varying from low to high medical seriousness. Quota samples of approximately 290 middle-aged urban residents in Australia, China, Malaysia, India, South Korea, Thailand, and the USA completed an online survey that examined desired levels of FI and identified individual difference predictors in each country. All reliability coefficients were acceptable. Regression models met standard assumptions. The strongest finding across all 7 countries was that those who desired higher self-involvement (SI) in medical decision making also wanted lower FI. On the other hand, respondents who valued relational-interdependence tended to want their families involved - a key finding in 5 of 7 countries. In addition, in 4 of 7 countries, respondents who valued social hierarchy desired higher FI. Other antecedents were less consistent. These results suggest that it is important for health providers to avoid East-West cultural stereotypes. There are meaningful numbers of patients in all 7 countries who want to be individually involved and those individuals tend to prefer lower FI. On the other hand, more interdependent patients are likely to want families involved in many of the countries studied. Thus, individual differences within culture appear to be important in predicting whether a patient desires FI. For this reason, avoiding culture-based assumptions about desired FI during medical decision making is central to providing more effective patient centered care.

  12. Breast cancer in South-Eastern European countries since 2000: Rising incidence and decreasing mortality at young and middle ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Nadya; Znaor, Ariana; Agius, Dominic; Eser, Sultan; Sekerija, Mario; Ryzhov, Anton; Primic-Žakelj, Maja; Coebergh, Jan Willem

    2017-09-01

    Marked variations exist in the incidence and mortality trends of major cancers in South-Eastern European (SEE) countries which have now been detailed by age for breast cancer (BC) to seek clues for improvement. We brought together and analysed data from 14 cancer registries (CRs), situated in SEE countries or directly adjacent. Age-standardised rate at world standard (ASRw) and truncated incidence and mortality rates during 2000-2010 by year, and for four age groups, were calculated. Average annual percentage change of rates was estimated using Joinpoint regression. Annual incidence rates increased significantly in countries and age groups, by 2-4% (15-39 years), 2-5% (40-49), 1-4% (50-69) and 1-6% (at 70+). Mortality rates decreased significantly in all age-groups in most countries, but increased up to 5% annually above age 55 in Ukraine, Serbia, Moldova and Cyprus. The BC data quality was evaluated by internationally agreed indicators which appeared suboptimal for Moldova, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Romania. The observed variations of incidence trends reflect the influence of risk factors, as well as levels of early detection activities (screening). While mortality rates were mostly decreasing, probably due to improved cancer care and introduction of more effective systemic treatment regimens, the worrying increasing mortality trends in the 55-plus age groups in some countries have to be addressed by health professionals and policymakers. In order to assess and monitor the effects of cancer control activities in the region, the CRs need substantial investments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Technical cooperation with Central and Eastern European countries with special focus on engineering aspects of lifetime optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trampus, P.

    2002-01-01

    A regional Technical Cooperation project for Central and Eastern European countries was established and funded by the IAEA as a response to the region's need. Majority of these countries are now in the process of establishing/strengthening their infrastructure for assessment of structural integrity of primary circuit components for an appropriate level of safety and reliability. Moreover, extension of the operational life of the WWER nuclear power plants (NPPs) became part of the generation strategy in most of these countries. The overall objective of the project is to improve long term integrity of primary circuit components as a fundamental technical prerequisite to ensure plant operation until and beyond the design lifetime. In a series of workshops and technical meetings issues relevant to primary circuit component structural integrity with special regard to operational life optimization have been being addressed. The works under the project are coordinated with the European Commission's integrity related assistance projects, and some of the activities are jointly organized with the WANO Moscow Center. Main conclusions of the central topics are summarized in this paper

  14. Substance abuse In Middle Eastern adolescents living in two different countries: spiritual, cultural, family and personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Taha, Asma; Dee, Vivien

    2014-08-01

    It is estimated that the percentage of students using illicit substances by sixth grade has tripled over the last decade not only in developed countries but in developing countries as well probably due to the transition to a more Western society. Although much has been done to understand the mechanisms underlying substance abuse, few studies have been conducted with minority ethnic and religious groups such as Middle Eastern Youth. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether there are differences in factors contributing to substance abuse in adolescents from Lebanon versus the U.S.A. and to decipher the role of spirituality, religion, and culture among other factors that may influence substance abuse. A correlational cross-sectional design was used with adolescents living in two different countries: Los Angeles, California and Beirut, Lebanon. Muslim adolescents had significantly less rates of alcohol and substance use than Christians in both Lebanon and Los Angeles. More years lived in the U.S.A. increases the likelihood of abuse for both Muslims and Christians. Attachment to God and family was negatively associated with substance abuse. These results among others facilitate a better understanding of the influence of culture, religion, family and personal factors on substance abuse. Culturally sensitive interventions could benefit from the findings of this pilot study.

  15. THE USE OF CAPITAL AND CONDITION OF ECONOMICALLY WEAK FARMS IN THE SELECTED CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona SKARŻYŃSKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the economic situation of economically weak farms in 8 countries of Central and Eastern Europe(CEE in 2010. The data were obtained from the survey on EU farms carried out under the FADN system. The studyincluded countries in which economically weak farms were the dominant farm type (i.e. Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary,Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. The aim of the study was to assess the economic performance ofthose farms and indicate advantages of the competing farm types. The analysis was performed in terms of totalfactor productivity, income levels, assets and debt level. The influence of CAP instruments on managementefficiency was also demonstrated. The study found a high diversity in terms of production potential as well asfinancial condition of farms in particular countries, whereas one point of correspondence between farms is theprevalence of fixed assets, i.e. an excessive assets-to-area ratio, and the dominance of own capital in financingthose assets. Romanian, Polish and Bulgarian farms are characterised by the highest efficiency of use of currentoutlays and, in turn, a lower cost of the production unit, which accounted for 66%, 86% and 87% of the outputvalue respectively. In Latvia, Estonia and Slovenia, the costs exceeded the output value by 6%, 7% and 23%respectively and, as a result, the income of those farms was generated exclusively due to subsidies.

  16. Strategic challenges in upgrading the population’s health in the transition countries of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the devastating nineties of the last century a slow but steady improvement of the living conditions in the region of South Eastern Europe (SEE has be observed. However, so far only three countries, i.e. Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia, have managed to ascent to the European Union and only Slovenia has joined the European currency. All others are still struggling with a difficult heritage of inappropriate vertical management structures, overstaffing and outmigration of the well educated young. This résumé applies also to the field of public health where, for example, the old hygienic tradition remained dominant, often maintaining huge laboratory facilities in the institutes of public health and very small numbers of staff being allocated to health promotion and modern participative management. This situation cannot be overcome easily nor in short term. Supported by funds from the German contribution to the European Stability Pact, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fphsee has established a permanent collaboration between the public health institutions in the region, including foremost the Schools of Public Health (SPH, the National Public Health Associations (PHA and some national Institutes of Public Health (IPH.

  17. Foot and mouth disease in turkey and middle eastern countries: Epizootiological situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Slavoljub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic outbreaks of epizooties of foot-and-mouth disease in countries of the Middle East and Africa pose a serious health threat to European states, in particular countries of the Mediterranean region and the Balkan peninsula. There are multiple reasons for the frequent appearance of this disease in Africa and the territory of the Middle East, and they are all a consequence of the insufficient development of the states in these geographic regions. More precisely, epizooties of foot-and-mouth disease are difficult to control in these regions due to the limited possibilities for activities by veterinary services, insufficiently developed diagnostic capacities for speedy and precise laboratory diagnostics, the lack of more advanced knowledge among the village populations, and the traditional manner of breeding ruminants. As a result of intensive traffic in goods, services and people, the cultural and tourist links between the Middle East and European countries, there is a constant and real danger of a swift and uncontrolled spreading of foot-and-mouth disease to the territory of Europe. This is why it is a priority of epizootiological services of the majority of European countries constantly to monitor the epizootiological situation in the Middle East and in Africa.

  18. Rural Schools in Developing Countries: A Case of Donon Manga in Eastern Tandjile in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoutorlengar, Médard; Djangrang, Man-na; Mamgue, Bassinang; Yongsi, H. B. Nguendo; Groza, Octavian

    2014-01-01

    The schools in rural areas in developing countries are often confronted with difficulties which are, in general, related to poverty, the quantitative and qualitative insufficiency of the professionals and the organization. Consequently, every year, the examinations results are unsatisfactory playing on the curriculum and excellence in the…

  19. Viewls - Possibilities and performance of international biofuel trade from CEEC to WEC[Central and Eastern European Countries; Western European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zeebroeck, B. van [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Falkenberg, D.; Hein, M.; Schroeder, G.; Thraen, D.; Weber, M. [Inst. of Energy and Environment, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-05-13

    The EU has set high targets to increase the use of renewable energy sources from which a large part has to come from biomass. To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed, which requires large areas of land in the EU for energy crop production. However, the availability of good land for energy crop production is limited in Western European countries (WEC). This means that the potential from indigenous biomass resources is not sufficient to meet the set bioenergy targets. At the same time, the expansion of the EU and the inclusion of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) in agricultural and energy EU policies create potential difficulties as well as opportunities. Agriculture plays an important role in the CEEC furthermore, the share of agricultural employment is still large. In the future rationalization of the current agriculture in the CEEC is expected. This will lead to increased productivity and economic performance. On the other hand, unemployment and an increase in abandoned land are expected as well. A study of the technical biomass production potentials in the CEEC shows that in some scenarios the biomass production potential exceeds the current final energy consumption on a country level. The main objectives of this study are: 1) Define the critical factors to set up a stable international biofuel trade between CEEC and WEC, 2) Estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered in the WEC from the CEEC, 3) Analyze the regional differences in cost performance of the energy carriers in the CEEC. (BA)

  20. The constraints to the economic development in the former socialist EU countries from the Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last 25 years, most Central and Eastern European states have become detached from the centralized economy system thus demonstrating the reliability of the market economy. The unequivocal effect of the free market, with ups and downs, forces researchers to undertake increasingly complex economic analysis and further the profile of the new economy. With the accession of a number of countries from this region to the European Union there were some constraints and limitations in adopting the European acquis, whose knowledge and solution involves the use of specific policies and tools. We consider the problems related to the resolution of economic, social and technological discrepancies and gaps, of mitigating the negative impact of unfavourable demographic trends, of elucidating the role of the state amid the erosion of its duties due to the process of integration and globalization, of increasing pressure interdependencies interstate and others.

  1. Do Countries Export Their Corruption? A Micro Analysis of Russia’s Trade Partners in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Belostecinic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a probit and dprobit model to examine the domestic determinants of corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In addition, it also looks at whether economic links with a country that is perceived as corrupt—Russia—leads to an increase or decrease in the level of domestic corruption. Using a dataset at the firm level provided by the World Bank, this paper finds that the “Control Rights Hypothesis,” the “Bargaining Power Hypothesis”, and the “Grease the Wheels Hypothesis” are statistically significant at the domestic level and also shows that increased commerce links with Russia leads to a statistically significant correlation with the instance of corruption via the “Grease the Wheels Hypothesis” channel.

  2. The impact of the crisis on the energy demand and energy intensity in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila HUGYECZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to analyze the impact of the recent crisis on the oil and electricity demand and the energy intensity of different Central and Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Furthermore, we would like to reveal whether there is a lag in the adjustment of energy consumption. In analyzing energy intensity, we use motor gasoline, diesel oil and electricity consumption data and ignore coal and natural gas data. By so doing, we avoid failures arising from changing coal/gas consumption due to changing weather conditions. Our results show that the crisis did impact energy consumption and reveal that the improvement of energy intensity halted in 2009, implying that the economic players did not immediately adjust their energy consumption according to their economic activity. The gasoline and diesel intensity, however, deteriorated (increased only in the Czech Republic and in Hungary. In Slovakia and Poland there were no significant changes.

  3. Harmonisation of Excise Duties on Energy Products and Electricity in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ma?cu Simona; Burlacu Valentin; Cojocaru Diana

    2013-01-01

    The field of excise duty taxes focuses on the use of these economic instruments designed by the European law in the context of protecting the environment and public health and to establish a prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources. Focusing mainly on deriving and explaining economic impacts of the minimum energy taxes rates corresponding to the EU Directive (2003/96/EC) in CEE countries, this article outlines the degree of harmonisation of excise duty on energy products among th...

  4. The future of FDI in south eastern European countries: Messages from new EU member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Slavica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the interlinking of inward FDI, EU accession, and transition-related structural reform processes, and identifies the largest lags of SEE-6 countries in EU accession and transition processes, whose removal would have a positive impact on inward FDI. The analysis is based on EBRD Transition Indicators, the World Bank Doing Business Index, and the World Bank Governance Index. We find an obvious correlation of inward FDI, transition, and EU accession processes of NMS-10 countries and claim that SEE-6 countries will broadly follow the same pattern: their relative position as FDI recipients will gradually improve along with the progress of EU accession and transition processes. The analysis identifies the following main gaps of the SEE-6 in these processes: (i in terms of economic system development - enterprise restructuring and governance, and sectoral reforms in energy, infrastructure, capital markets, and private equity; (ii in terms of the governance of economy and society at large - regulatory quality and rule of law; and (iii in terms of the business environment - dealing with construction permits, enforcing contracts, and registering property. Progress in narrowing down these gaps would mean a step forward in EU accession and transition, and consequently an improvement of SEE-6 countries’ positions as locations for inward FDI.

  5. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Stoffer, A.; De Kruijk, H.; Salamonova, A.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for Slovakia. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in Slovakia and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Slovak SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs but high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, lower wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  6. Health Policy and Systems Research in Twelve Eastern Mediterranean Countries: a stocktaking of production and gaps (2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Saja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study are to: (1 profile the production of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR published between 2000 and 2008 in 12 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; (2 identify gaps; and (3 assess the extent to which existing HPSR produced in the region addresses regional priorities pertaining to Health Financing, Human Resources for Health and the Role of the Non-State Sector. This is the first stocktaking paper of HPSR production and gaps in the EMR. Methods Articles indexed on Medline between years 2000 and 2008 for the 12 study countries were selected. A MeSH term based search was conducted using country names. Articles were assessed using a coding sheet adapted for the region which included themes on: Governance Arrangements, Financial Arrangements, Delivery Arrangements, and Implementation Strategies. Identified articles were matched against regional research priorities to assess the extent to which research production aligns with priorities. Results A total of 1,487 articles (11.94% fit the criteria in the coding sheet. Results showed an increase in HPSR production which peaked after 2005. Most identified articles focused on Delivery Arrangements (68.1%, and Implementation Strategies (24.4%. Most HPSR addressed priorities in Human Resources for Health (39%, and some articles focused on Health Financing (12% and Role of the Non-State Sector (6.1%. Conclusions Despite global calls for producing and translating HPSR into policy, there are still significant gaps in the EMR. More efforts are needed to produce HPSR and align production and translation with the demand for evidence by policymakers. Findings can help inform and direct future plans and activities for the Evidence Informed Policy Network- EMR, World Health Organization- EMR, and the Middle East and North Africa Health Policy Forum

  7. Health Policy and Systems Research in Twelve Eastern Mediterranean Countries: a stocktaking of production and gaps (2000-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Ataya, Nour; Jaafar, Maha; Raouf, Saned; Matta, Claudia; Michael, Saja; Smith, Colette

    2011-10-07

    The objectives of this study are to: (1) profile the production of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR) published between 2000 and 2008 in 12 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR): Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; (2) identify gaps; and (3) assess the extent to which existing HPSR produced in the region addresses regional priorities pertaining to Health Financing, Human Resources for Health and the Role of the Non-State Sector. This is the first stocktaking paper of HPSR production and gaps in the EMR. Articles indexed on Medline between years 2000 and 2008 for the 12 study countries were selected. A MeSH term based search was conducted using country names. Articles were assessed using a coding sheet adapted for the region which included themes on: Governance Arrangements, Financial Arrangements, Delivery Arrangements, and Implementation Strategies. Identified articles were matched against regional research priorities to assess the extent to which research production aligns with priorities. A total of 1,487 articles (11.94%) fit the criteria in the coding sheet. Results showed an increase in HPSR production which peaked after 2005. Most identified articles focused on Delivery Arrangements (68.1%), and Implementation Strategies (24.4%). Most HPSR addressed priorities in Human Resources for Health (39%), and some articles focused on Health Financing (12%) and Role of the Non-State Sector (6.1%). Despite global calls for producing and translating HPSR into policy, there are still significant gaps in the EMR. More efforts are needed to produce HPSR and align production and translation with the demand for evidence by policymakers. Findings can help inform and direct future plans and activities for the Evidence Informed Policy Network- EMR, World Health Organization- EMR, and the Middle East and North Africa Health Policy Forum, in addition to being useful for countries that host or are

  8. Energy efficiency in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries - Overview of policies and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyevre, Nicolas; Salama, Anna Maria; Agrebi, Hassen; Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Taussat, Thibaut

    2012-04-01

    A development of the Mediterranean region solely based on fossil fuels is unsustainable: 582 million inhabitants in 2030 will consume 40% more energy than today, from 80% of fossil fuels, 10% of nuclear and 10% of renewable energy. These figures are based on OME trend scenario considering that economic growth will follow on the same pattern that has prevailed so far. This increase in demand will come mainly from the South and East Mediterranean Countries (SEMC), whose energy intensity is constantly growing: energy consumption is, in fact, growing faster than the economy measured by the gross domestic product. There is also a great potential for energy savings in different consuming sectors (industry, building, transport, agriculture..). Such a trend scenario has adverse consequences on different plans: energy, economic, social or environmental. It is, therefore, necessary to lower these trends. Exploiting the tremendous potential of energy efficiency of the region seems to be a key element in energy strategy, as targeted by the Mediterranean Solar Plan along with its goal of an installed capacity of renewable electricity of 20 GW for 2020. The scope of work to be done has already led to the development of energy efficiency policies at the national level both in North and South: laws, regulations, institutional arrangements, training and awareness campaigns, decision aids, investment financial incentives, etc. All these mechanisms are integral parts of an energy policy that applies to both the system of production, transmission and distribution of energy- supply- and to all social and economic activities that constitute energy demand which are treated in this work. An overall perspective of policies is presented, especially implemented energy efficiency measures in the SEMCs. This overview reflects the diversity of available policy actions and strategic choices of different countries, focusing on the most innovative and significant measures. The feedback of

  9. Western-style fast food intake and cardiometabolic risk in an Eastern country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Andrew O; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D; Pereira, Mark A

    2012-07-10

    Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999-2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions.

  10. Western-Style Fast Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in an Eastern Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions. PMID:22753304

  11. The Analysis of the Real Convergence of the Countries from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Badircea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This thesis treats extremely present aspects regarding the evolutions of the emerging economies within the new member states of the European Union insisting on the analysis of the convergence process from a real perspective. Beside the achievement of a monetary union, one of the fundamental objectives of the European Union is represented by the reducing of the disparities regarding the level of development among the member states. One of the ways of appreciating the reduction of the disparities between the economies involve a reduction of the gap as far as the GDP level/inhabitant is concerned or in other words, a real convergence. A series of statistic data are analysed in order to point out the extent to which the central ad East-European states have managed to reduce the gap in report to the developed member states of the EMU, using indicators for the appreciation of the real convergence: the GDP per inhabitant, the monthly average salary, the poverty rate, the contribution of the main sectors of the economy in the formation of the GDP and the unemployment rate. From the analysis of the statistic data one can observe that the highest degree of real convergence is held by Slovenia, which distanced a lot from the other EEC states, followed by the Czech Republic. Regarding from the point of view of the evolution of the EEC countries during the entire analysed period, based on the dynamics of the indicators and of the speed of catching up the gaps we can also notice the performance of the Baltic countries. Unfortunately, Romania and Bulgaria are way behind the other EEC countries.

  12. Central and Eastern European countries between the 16+1 platform and Chinese OBOR - One Belt, One Road - Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cornel Dumitrescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the projects and the initiatives of the Central and Eastern European countries that have been finalised, are in progress or will be developed in the near future with the help of the existing or future financial instruments specific to the 16+1 platform and the One Belt, One Road complex program. For our research we selected four countries, namely: Poland, Romania, Serbia and Hungary, the group being relevant from the perspective of the transportation corridors connected to the ”One Belt, One Road” initiative: (1 - Piraeus, Skopje, Belgrade, Budapest, Western Europe; (2 - Suez Canal, Constanta and then Danube, Western Europe, or through Moldova towards Ukraine and Poland; (3 – Constanta, through the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and then the corridors mentioned at the previous point. We based our analysis on the data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China-CEEC think-tank network and the literature in the field.

  13. EUROPEAN UNION STRATEGIC NARRATIVE TOWARDS THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP COUNTRIES AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION’S ESCALATION: STOP, SLOW OR GO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita LOBANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The narrative dimension of the EaP programme was considered by the European policy makers of secondary relevance as it was focused on the bureaucratic aspects of the economic and judicial convergence of the target countries with the European Union through “regulation setting”. The importance of these aspects has clearly increased after the Russian Federation used hybrid war tactics in Ukraine since 2013 based on a fabricated Strategic Narrative that relied on the “Reflexive Control” and “Informational Warfare” principles to a great effect. The growingly opposing information spheres, the Russian and the European, have an enormous importance for the political discourse in the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries. By drawing on a closer examination of a number of primary and secondary sources – including important events, official texts, and excerpts from interviews – this paper aims at comprehending the formation, projection and reception in the EaP states of the Strategic Narratives of the Russian Federation and the European Union since 2013.

  14. Positive parenting attitudes and practices in three transitional Eastern European countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Marija; Vasic, Vladimir; Petrovic, Oliver; Santric-Milicevic, Milena

    2016-06-01

    To identify potential predictors of using only non-violent forms of discipline for children aged 2-14 years and of being against physical punishment among Roma and non-Roma parents/caregivers in Eastern European countries with similar cultural-historical backgrounds. UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data collected in 2010-2011 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia (total of 9973 respondents) were analysed using multivariate logistic regression modelling with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Approximately 27 % of the respondents practiced only non-violent child discipline. Roma children experienced only non-violent discipline less than half as often as their non-Roma counterparts. Household wealth index and child sex were significant predictors of positive parenting attitudes and practice. For Roma respondents, rural residence also contributed to being against physical punishment. Parents\\caregivers from more affluent households are more likely than those who are less affluent to be against physical punishment of children and are more likely to practice only non-violent discipline. Evidence-based interventions are required to support existing positive forms of child rearing. These should target less affluent households from Roma settlements in the studied countries.

  15. Multivariate granger causality between electricity consumption, exports and GDP: Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the causal relationship between electricity consumption, exports and gross domestic product (GDP) for a panel of Middle Eastern countries. We find that for the panel as a whole there are statistically significant feedback effects between these variables. A 1 per cent increase in electricity consumption increases GDP by 0.04 per cent, a 1 per cent increase in exports increases GDP by 0.17 per cent and a 1 per cent increase in GDP generates a 0.95 per cent increase in electricity consumption. The policy implications are that for the panel as a whole these countries should invest in electricity infrastructure and step up electricity conservation policies to avoid a reduction in electricity consumption adversely affecting economic growth. Further policy implications are that for the panel as a whole promoting exports, particularly non-oil exports, is a means to promote economic growth and that expansion of exports can be realized without having adverse effects on energy conservation policies

  16. The Finance Growth Link: Comparative Analysis of Two Eastern African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanta Ashenafi Beyene

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the finance growth link of two low-income Sub-Saharan African economies – Ethiopia and Kenya – which have different financial systems but are located in the same region. Unlike previous studies, we account for the role of non-bank financial intermediaries and formally model the effect of structural breaks caused by policy and market-induced economic events. We used the Vector Autoregressive model (VAR, conducted impulse response analysis and examined variance decomposition. We find that neither the level of financial intermediary development nor the level of stock market development explains economic growth in Kenya. For Ethiopia, which has no stock market, intermediary development is found to be driven by economic growth. Three important inferences can be made from these findings. First, the often reported positive link between finance and growth might be caused by the aggregation of countries at different stages of economic growth and financial development. Second, country-specific economic situations and episodes are important in studying the relationship between financial development and economic growth. Third, there is the possibility that the econometric model employed to test the finance growth link plays a role in the empirical result, as we note that prior studies did not introduce control variables.

  17. A bibliometric analysis of toxicology research productivity in Middle Eastern Arab countries during a 10-year period (2003–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Bibliometric studies are increasingly being used for research assessment by involving the application of statistical methods to scientific publications to obtain the bibliographics for each country. The main objective of this study was to analyse the research productivity originating from 13 Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries with articles published in toxicology journals. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 till December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words in the toxicology field as a “source title” in any one of the 13 MEA countries. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Research productivity was adjusted to the national population and nominal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Results Documents (n = 1,240) were retrieved from 73 international peer-reviewed toxicology journals. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 39. Of the 73 journal titles, 52 (69.9%) have their IF listed in the ISI Journal Citation Reports 2012; 198 documents (16.0%) were published in journals that had no official IF. After adjusting for economy and population power, Egypt (193.6), Palestine (18.1), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (13.0), and Jordan (11.5) had the highest research productivity. Countries with large economies, such as the Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman, tended to rank relatively low after adjustment of GDP. The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (August 4, 2013) was 10,991, with a median (interquartile range) of 4 (1–11). MEA collaborated more with countries in the MEA regions (16.7%), especially KSA, Egypt, and UAE, followed by Europe (14.4%), especially with the United Kingdom and Germany. Conclusions The present data show a promising rise and a good start for toxicology research activity in toxicology journals in the Arab world. Research output is low in some countries, which can be improved by investing in more

  18. A bibliometric analysis of toxicology research productivity in Middle Eastern Arab countries during a 10-year period (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2014-01-21

    Bibliometric studies are increasingly being used for research assessment by involving the application of statistical methods to scientific publications to obtain the bibliographics for each country. The main objective of this study was to analyse the research productivity originating from 13 Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries with articles published in toxicology journals. Data from January 1, 2003 till December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words in the toxicology field as a "source title" in any one of the 13 MEA countries. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Research productivity was adjusted to the national population and nominal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Documents (n = 1,240) were retrieved from 73 international peer-reviewed toxicology journals. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 39. Of the 73 journal titles, 52 (69.9%) have their IF listed in the ISI Journal Citation Reports 2012; 198 documents (16.0%) were published in journals that had no official IF. After adjusting for economy and population power, Egypt (193.6), Palestine (18.1), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (13.0), and Jordan (11.5) had the highest research productivity. Countries with large economies, such as the Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman, tended to rank relatively low after adjustment of GDP. The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (August 4, 2013) was 10,991, with a median (interquartile range) of 4 (1-11). MEA collaborated more with countries in the MEA regions (16.7%), especially KSA, Egypt, and UAE, followed by Europe (14.4%), especially with the United Kingdom and Germany. The present data show a promising rise and a good start for toxicology research activity in toxicology journals in the Arab world. Research output is low in some countries, which can be improved by investing in more international and national collaborative research

  19. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in HIV prevalence among young people in seven countries in eastern and southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Hargreaves

    Full Text Available In Eastern and Southern Africa, HIV prevalence was highest among higher socioeconomic groups during the 1990s. It has been suggested that this is changing, with HIV prevalence falling among higher-educated groups while stable among lower-educated groups. A multi-country analysis has not been undertaken.We analysed data on socio-demographic factors and HIV infection from 14 nationally representative surveys of adults aged 15-24 (seven countries, two surveys each, 4-8 years apart. Sample sizes ranged from 2,408-12,082 (72,135 total. We used logistic regression to assess gender-stratified associations between highest educational level attended and HIV status in each survey, adjusting for age and urban/rural setting. We tested for interactions with urban/rural setting and age. Our primary hypothesis was that higher education became less of a risk factor for HIV over time. We tested for interaction between survey-year and the education-HIV association in each country and all countries pooled.In Ethiopia and Malawi, HIV prevalence was higher in more educated women in both surveys. In Lesotho, Kenya and Zimbabwe, HIV prevalence was lower in higher educated women in both surveys. In Ethiopia, HIV prevalence fell among no and secondary educated women only (interaction p<0·01. Only among young men in Tanzania there was some evidence that the association between education and HIV changed over time (p=0·07. Pooled analysis found little evidence for an interaction between survey year and the education-HIV association among men (p=0·60 or women (p=0·37.The pattern of prevalent HIV infection among young adults by level of education in different sub-Saharan African countries was heterogeneous. There was little statistical evidence that this pattern changed between 2003-5 and 2008-12. Explanations for the social epidemiology of HIV in Africa will need to account for time-trends and inter-country differences.

  20. Patterns and Trends of Liver Cancer Incidence Rates in Eastern and Southeastern Asian Countries (1983-2007) and Predictions to 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Yang, Shigui; Xu, Kaijin; Ding, Cheng; Zhou, Yuqing; Fu, Xiaofang; Li, Yiping; Deng, Min; Wang, Chencheng; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Lanjuan

    2018-05-01

    We examined temporal trends in liver cancer incidence rates overall and by histological type from 1983 through 2007. We predict trends in liver cancer incidence rates through 2030 for selected Eastern and Southeastern Asian countries. Data on yearly liver cancer incident cases by age group and sex were drawn from 6 major selected Eastern and Southeastern Asian countries or regions with cancer registries available in the CI5plus database, including China, Japan, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. We also analyzed data for the United States and Australia for comparative purposes. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated and plotted from 1983 through 2007. Numbers of new cases and incidence rates were predicted through 2030 by fitting and extrapolating age-period-cohort models. The incidence rates of liver cancer have been decreasing, and decreases will continue in all selected Eastern and Southeastern Asian countries, except for Thailand, whose liver cancer incidence rate will increase due to the increasing incidence rate of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Even though the incidence rates of liver cancer are predicted to decrease in most Eastern and Southeastern Asian countries, the burden, in terms of new cases, will continue to increase because of population growth and aging. Based on an analysis of data from cancer registries from Asian countries, incidence rates of liver cancer are expected to decrease through 2030 in most Eastern and Southeastern Asian countries. However, in Thailand, the incidence rate of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas is predicted to increase, so health education programs are necessary. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Price-Quality Competition in the Exports of the Central and Eastern European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    In the decade since the fall of the Berlin Wall the number of CEEC products able to compete in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level of these products still lags substantially behind that of EU products, however. The quality level of new CEEC products coming into the markeet is......, in fact, lower than that of older surviving products, indicating that the CEEC countries are increasingly specialising in price-sensitive sectors. The following article uses the concept of unit value to analyse the changes in the price-quality competitiviness of CEEC exports.......In the decade since the fall of the Berlin Wall the number of CEEC products able to compete in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level of these products still lags substantially behind that of EU products, however. The quality level of new CEEC products coming into the markeet is...

  2. [Eating disorders after the political changes in the formerly communist Eastern-European countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathner, G; Túry, F; Szabó, P

    2001-06-24

    The authors summarize the Central and East European epidemiological data of eating disorders. These demonstrate that eating disorders are not exclusively characteristic to Western societies. In this respect the comparison of newer data to those which were performed before the political changes in 1989-1990 is especially valuable. Formerly in a Hungarian university sample the prevalence of bulimia was 1-1.3% among females, 0-0.8% among males, and this was higher than the prevalence of 0.6% in Austrian females, or 0% in German Democratic Republic. After the social changes similar data were found in several East European countries. This corroborates the culture-change idea of eating disorders. The transition to a Western market economy and the process of globalization is an experiment to evaluate the effect of sociocultural factors. The values and norms (e.g. thinness ideal) come closer to the Western culture, and mass media have a significant impact in this process.

  3. International assistance to upgrade the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Selected activities in Eastern and Central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.

    1993-12-01

    The overview is merely a snapshot of nuclear safety activities to assist the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. While many other activities are planned or ongoing, this publication is meant to provide a general overview of the world community's commitment to improving the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

  4. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Methods Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers’ abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Conclusion Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of

  5. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2012-05-06

    Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers' abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of opportunity for moving towards more evidence informed policymaking.

  6. Country of birth modifies the association of fatty liver index with insulin action in Middle Eastern immigrants to Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Louise; Groop, Leif; Franks, Paul W

    2015-10-01

    Non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a strong risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of NAFLD varies across populations of different ethnic backgrounds but the prevalence in Middle Eastern populations, which are at high risk of type 2 diabetes, is largely unknown. Using fatty liver index (FLI) as a proxy for NAFLD the aim was to calculate the odds of NAFLD (FLI≥70) given country of origin and further to investigate the associations between ISI and FLI. In 2010-2012 we conducted a population-based study of individuals aged 30-75 years born in Iraq or Sweden, in whom anthropometrics, fasting blood samples and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed and sociodemography and lifestyle behaviors characterized. A higher proportion of Iraqis (N=1085) than Swedes (N=605) had a high probability of NAFLD (FLI≥70, 32.5 vs. 22.6%, p<0.001, age- and sex-adjusted data) and ISI was more severely impaired (70.7 vs. 95.9%, p<0.001). Independently of traditional risk factors for NAFLD, being born in Iraqi increased the risk of FLI≥70 (OR 1.59: 95% CI 1.15, 2.20). Furthermore, country of birth presented a stronger association between ISI and FLI≥70 in Iraqis than in Swedes (P(interaction)=0.019). Our data indicate that immigrants from Iraq are at higher risk of NAFLD. The finding that country of birth modifies the relationship of FLI with ISI, suggests that liver fat may be a stronger determinant of impaired insulin action and increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Iraqis than in Swedes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Middle Eastern Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi-Zefrehi, Hossein; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad; Sharafi, Heidar; Sadeghi, Farzin; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-09-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is classified into seven genotypes and more than 100 subtypes. The treatment regimen, duration and efficacy of HCV therapy may vary according to the HCV genotype. Therefore, the HCV genotype should be determined prior to antiviral therapy. The objective of the current study was to review systematically all studies reporting the distribution of HCV genotypes in the countries that make up the Middle East. Articles were identified by searching electronic databases, including Scopus, PubMed and Google scholar, with timeline limits (articles published between 1995 and 2016). We carried out a systematic search regarding the distribution of HCV genotypes in Middle Eastern countries. A total of 579 studies were identified by the electronic search. Of these, a total of 187 were identified as eligible papers including 60,319 patients who were meta-analyzed for pooled distribution of HCV genotypes. In Turkey, Israel, Cyprus, and Iran, genotype 1 was the most prevalent HCV genotype with rates of 82% (95% CI, 82%-83%), 68% (95% CI, 67%-69%), 68% (95% CI, 59%-77%), and 55% (95% CI, 54%-55%), respectively. In Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Syria, HCV genotype 4 was the most common genotype with rates of 86% (95% CI, 85%-88%), 60% (95% CI, 56%-64%), 56% (95% CI, 54%-55%), and 57% (95% CI, 54%-61%), respectively. On the basis of adjusted data, HCV genotype 4 was the most prevalent genotype in the Middle East region, with a rate of 74.7% (95% CI, 73.4%-76%), followed by genotype 1 at 15.1% (95% CI, 14.1%-16%). Our results showed that HCV genotype 4 is the most prevalent genotype in the Middle East region. However, HCV genotype 1 is the most prevalent among non-Arab countries in the region including Turkey, Iran, Cyprus, and Israel.

  8. Modelling sustainable bioenergy potentials from agriculture for Germany and Eastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Sonja; Wiegmann, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for analyzing the sustainable potential of agricultural biomass for energy production. Available land and residue potentials are assessed up to 2030 for Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Two scenarios are presented: a ''business as usual'' scenario is compared to a sustainability scenario. The latter implements a comprehensive sustainability strategy, taking also into account non-agricultural land use such as building activity and nature conservation. On the one hand our model quantifies the conflict of objectives between enhanced extensification in agriculture and increased area for nature conservation. On the other hand the synergies in restricting built up area and increased mobilisation of agricultural residues are assessed. Additionally the impact of reduced subsidized agricultural exports from the EU is calculated, also as an indicator for the influence of world food markets on bioenergy potentials. Our results show that the sustainable energy potential from agricultural biomass is strongly restricted for Germany and the Czech Republic compared to their energy demand. But in Poland and Hungary native agricultural biomass provides a much higher potential for energy supply, even if sustainability is comprehensively considered. However, this is strongly influenced by the amount of agricultural exports of each country. For bioenergy from agricultural cultivation to remain a sustainable option in the energy sector, its influence on the food markets must be respected more thoroughly and a comprehensive approach to sustainable development in land use is a prerequisite. (author)

  9. TRUST, CORRUPTION, BRIBES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Iolanda Voda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the Western world has drawn on theoretical structures of classical and neoclassical liberalism for its explanatory support and sources of inspiration for centuries. Against this ideological background, institutionalists aim at showing that growth is a process of transformation, a double change: an economic and an institutional one. In this analysis, our purpose is to highlight the importance of informal institutional arrangements and their quality in explaining the disparities of revenues and developments between countries. In our approach, we will consider several indicators meant to highlight various aspects of research. The approach proposed is a transversal-comparative one and static methods pertain to uni- and multivariate analysis. The results obtained suggest the existence of major differences within the Central and East European area as far as informal institutions are concerned; moreover, the analysis conducted confirms the existence of a significant relation between the level of development and the structure of informal arrangements such as: trust level, bribe culture and corruption control.

  10. Palliative cancer care in Middle Eastern countries: accomplishments and challenges †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, M.; Arnaout, M.; Daher, M.; Nestoros, S.; Pitsillides, B.; Charalambous, H.; Gultekin, M.; Fahmi, R.; Mostafa, K.A.H.; Khleif, A.D.; Manasrah, N.; Oberman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background In larger parts of the Middle East palliative care is still misunderstood among health professionals, cancer patients and the public at large. One reason to that is because the term does not obviously communicate the intent of this clinical discipline, which is lending better quality of life while combating cancer. Further, culture, tradition and religion have contributed to this misgiving and confusion especially at the terminal stage of the disease. Methods The Middle East Cancer Consortium jointly with the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Oncology Nursing Society, the San Diego Hospice Center for Palliative Medicine and the Children's Hospital & Clinics of Minnesota initiated a series of training courses and workshops in the Middle East to provide updated training to physicians, nurses, social workers and psychologists from throughout the region with basic concepts of palliative care and pain managements in adults and children cancers. Results During the past 6 years hundreds of professionals took part in these educational and training activities, thereby creating the core of trained caregivers who start to make the change in their individual countries. Conclusions The outcome of consecutive training activities can overcome geopolitical instabilities, and yield a genuine change in approach of both regulators, medical administrators, medical staff and the public; as to the important contribution of palliative care services to the welfare of the patient and his/her family. PMID:22628412

  11. Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Adam, Taghreed; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2014-12-01

    Systems Thinking (ST) has recently been promoted as an important approach to health systems strengthening. However, ST is not common practice, particularly in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). This paper seeks to explore the barriers that may hinder its application in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and possible strategies to mitigate them. A survey consisting of open-ended questions was conducted with a purposive sample of health policy-makers such as senior officials from the Ministry of Health (MoH), researchers, and other stakeholders such as civil society groups and professional associations from ten countries in the region. A total of 62 respondents participated in the study. Thematic analysis was conducted. There was strong recognition of the relevance and usefulness of ST to health systems policy-making and research, although misconceptions about what ST means were also identified. Experience with applying ST was very limited. Approaches to designing health policies in the EMR were perceived as reactive and fragmented (66%). Commonly perceived constraints to application of ST were: a perceived notion of its costliness combined with lack of the necessary funding to operationalize it (53%), competing political interests and lack of government accountability (50%), lack of awareness about relevance and value (47%), limited capacity to apply it (45%), and difficulty in coordinating and managing stakeholders (39%). While several strategies have been proposed to mitigate most of these constraints, they emphasized the importance of political endorsement and adoption of ST at the leadership level, together with building the necessary capacity to apply it and apply the learning in research and practice.

  12. Prevalence of asthma among the adult general population of five Middle Eastern countries: results of the SNAPSHOT program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarraf, Hesham; Aydin, Omur; Mungan, Dilsad; Albader, Mohammad; Mahboub, Bassam; Doble, Adam; Lahlou, Aaicha; Tariq, Luqman; Aziz, Fayaz; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2018-05-11

    Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease leading to morbidity, mortality and impaired quality of life worldwide. Information on asthma prevalence in the Middle East is fragmented and relatively out-dated. The SNAPSHOT program was conducted to obtain updated information. SNAPSHOT is a cross-sectional epidemiological program carried out in five Middle Eastern countries (Egypt, Turkey, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, the latter three grouped into a Gulf cluster) to collect data on asthma, allergic rhinitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia and bipolar disorder. The survey was carried out by telephone in a random sample of the adult general population with quotas defined according to country demographics. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on asthma. Subjects were screened for asthma based on criteria from the global Asthma Insights and Reality studies. Current prevalence (last 12 months) was estimated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate risk factors related to asthma and the association with allergic rhinitis and other co-morbidities. Quality of life was assessed using the three-level EQ-5D questionnaire. 2124 out of the 33,486 subjects enrolled in the SNAPSHOT program fulfilled the criteria for asthma. The adjusted prevalence of asthma ranged from 4.4% [95% CI: 4.0-4.8%] in Turkey, to 6.7% [95% CI: 6.2-7.2%] in Egypt and 7.6% [95% CI: 7.1-8.0%] in the Gulf cluster. Prevalence was higher (p Middle East ranges from 4.4% to 7.6%, which is comparatively lower than the reported prevalence in Europe and North America. Asthma has a negative impact on quality of life, and is associated with high levels of co-morbid diseases, indicating a need for physicians to check for co-morbidities and ensure they are managed correctly in all asthma patients.

  13. Overall satisfaction of health care users with the quality of and access to health care services: a cross-sectional study in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepurko, Tetiana; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2016-08-02

    The measurement of consumer satisfaction is an essential part of the assessment of health care services in terms of service quality and health care system responsiveness. Studies across Europe have described various strategies health care users employ to secure services with good quality and quick access. In Central and Eastern European countries, such strategies also include informal payments to health care providers. This paper analyzes the satisfaction of health care users with the quality of and access to health care services. The study focuses on six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). We use data on past experience with health care use collected in 2010 through uniform national surveys in these countries. Based on these data, we carry out a multi-country analysis to investigate factors associated with the satisfaction of health care users in the six countries. The results indicate that about 10-14 % of the service users are not satisfied with the quality of, or access to health care services they used in the preceding year. However, significant differences across countries and services are observed, e.g. the highest level of dissatisfaction with access to outpatient services (16.4 %) is observed among patients in Lithuania, while in Poland, the level of dissatisfaction with quality of outpatient and inpatient services are much lower than dissatisfaction with access. The study also analyses the association of users' satisfaction with factors such as making informal payments, inability to pay and relative importance of service attributes stated by the service users. These multi-country findings provide evidence for health policy making in the Central and Eastern European countries. Although the average rates of satisfactions per country are relatively high, the results suggest that there is ample room for improvements. Specifically, many service-users still report dissatisfaction especially those

  14. Hukum Lingkungan dan Pertanggungjawaban Strict Liability dalam Sistem Hukum Common Law (Studi Kasus Cambridge Water Co. Ltd v. Eastern Countries Leather Plc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud Mahfud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The possibilities for pollution control still offered today Blackburn J.’s celebrated rule of strict liability, now almost 130 years old, has ensured its continuing popularity. There can be few tort lawyers, however, who have not increasingly wondered how much time should be devoted to a case which has received little judicial attention in recent years, and which was last subjected to detailed consideration by the House of Lords nearly 50 years ago, until, that is, the much-published decision of the House of Lords in Cambridge Water Co. Ltd v. Eastern Countries Leather Plc.   (Environmental Law and The Strict Liability Application In the Common Law System (The Case Study of Cambridge Water Co. Ltd V. Eastern Countries Leather Plc

  15. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) in a Middle Eastern country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Therese; Sauvage, Stéphane; Afif, Charbel; Borbon, Agnès; Locoge, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    NMVOCs, emitted from various sources, are of particular interest since they contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone, PAN and secondary organic aerosols resulting in negative impacts on human health, climate and on the environment. To identify abatement measures, a profound knowledge of emission sources and their composition is a prerequisite. Air pollution in the Middle East region remains difficult to assess and understand because of a lack of ground-based measurements and the limited information on NMVOC chemical speciation and source apportionment. Based on a large database of NMVOC observations obtained in Beirut, the capital of Lebanon (a developing country in the Middle East region, located in Western Asia on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea), the overall objective of this work is to apportion the sources of NMVOCs encountered in Lebanon. First, source profiles were determined with field measurements close to the main potential emitters namely the road transport, gasoline vapour, power generation and solvent uses. The results obtained are compared to other studies held in other regions and are used to assess the emission inventory developed for Lebanon. Secondly, two intensive field campaigns were held in a receptor site in Beirut during summer 2011 and winter 2012 in order to obtain a large time resolved dataset. The PMF analysis of this dataset was applied to apportion anthropogenic sources in this area. In both seasons, combustion (road transport and power generation) and gasoline evaporation, especially in winter, were the main sources contributing to the NMVOCs in Beirut. The results will support model implementation especially by completing the emission inventory established for the year 2010 by Waked et al. 2012 according to the EEA/EMEP guidelines because of the lack of Lebanon-specific emission factor.

  16. Results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-12-01

    We used Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected over time to monitor articles of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The GYTS is a school-based survey, conducted in 23 countries in WHO EMR countries from 1999-2008. The prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was high compared to cigarette use in all countries. In general, the following changes were observed between baseline and repeated surveys: in five countries fewer youth supported a ban on smoking in public places. In four countries more youth saw actors smoking on TV and were exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) outside of home. Fewer youth were offered free cigarettes in ten countries; in eight countries youth saw less advertisement on TV; in seven countries youth had fewer items with a tobacco logo, discussed more reasons for smoking and dangers of smoking, and were less exposed to SHS at home; in six countries youth saw less advertisement at sports events. The GYTS data can be used for monitoring, evaluation of national tobacco control plans and defining future directions for tobacco control. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Training-related activities for nuclear power plant personnel in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A Technical Cooperation Meeting on Training-Related Activities for NPP Personnel in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union was held at the IAEA, Vienna. The main objective of the meeting was to identify, through information exchange and discussion, possible TC projects and assistance related to nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel training, which would meet overall coherent national goals and would demonstrate and important impact and relevance for national policy priorities. An array of such projects were identified for each participating country of the CEEC and FSU as were a number of regional cooperation projects. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. A new hereditary colorectal cancer network in the Middle East and eastern mediterranean countries to improve care for high-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanoghli, Zeinab; Jabari, Carol; Sweidan, Walid; Hammoudeh, Wail; Cortas, George; Sharara, Ala I; Abedrabbo, Amal; Hourani, Ijad; Mahjoubi, Bahareh; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Tözün, Nurdan; Ziada-Bouchaar, Hadia; Hamoudi, Waseem; Diab, Osama; Khorshid, Hamid Reza Khorram; Lynch, Henry; Vasen, Hans

    2018-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a very high incidence in the western world. Data from registries in the Middle East showed that the incidence of CRC is relatively low in these countries. However, these data also showed that CRC incidence has increased substantially over the past three decades and that a high proportion of cases are diagnosed at an early age (Middle East was discussed and the idea was conceived to establish a network on hereditary colorectal cancer (HCCN-ME) with the goal of improving care for high-risk groups in the Middle East and (Eastern) Mediterranean Countries.

  19. Research Ethics in the Context of Transition: Gaps in Policies and Programs on the Protection of Research Participants in the Selected Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famenka, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the ability of countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) to ensure appropriate protection of research participants in the field of increasingly globalizing biomedical research. By applying an analytical framework for identifying gaps in policies and programs for human subjects protection to four countries of CEE-Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, substantial gaps in the scope and content of relevant policies and major impediments to program performance have been revealed. In these countries, public policies on the protection of research participants lack consistency and reliable mechanisms for their implementation. Impediments to program performance most often relate to inadequacies in the national research ethics systems with regard to organizational structure, budgetary support, supervision, and training. The level of research ethics capacity varies from country to country and depends on socio-economic and political factors of post-communist transition. The breadth and depth of the problems identified suggest that the current level of protection for research participants in CEE might be inadequate to the challenges posed by the globalization of biomedical research. In CEE countries, there is a need for strengthening research ethics capacity through modification of relevant policies and improvement of program management. The differences among the countries call for further research on identifying the best approaches for filling the gaps in the policies and programs aimed at ensuring effective protection of research participants.

  20. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  1. European Association for Palliative Care: Forging a Vision of Excellence in Palliative Care in Central and Eastern European and Former Soviet Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch, Lukas; Ling, Julie; Hegedus, Katalin; Larkin, Philip

    2018-02-01

    The European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) represents many thousands of health care workers and volunteers working in or with an interest in palliative care. In 2016, the EAPC has individual members from 48 nations across the world, and collective members from 57 national palliative care associations in 32 European countries. Throughout its history, the EAPC has produced guidance on a range of palliative care issues. The biennial congresses and research congresses and the comprehensive Web site (www.eapcnet.eu) are renowned and well utilized platforms for dissemination and exchange of palliative care information. The EAPC has also published a newsletter specifically for Eastern European and Central Asian countries that has been available in both English and Russian from 2005 to 2012. In addition, for a period of time, a Russian Web site (www.eapcspeaksrussian.eu) was also available. A survey of palliative care in Central and Eastern European nations sponsored by Open Society Foundation's International Palliative Care Initiative found that in most countries, the national language is preferred rather than using English or Russian for the provision of information. Accordingly, the EAPC Web site provides translations of white papers, position papers, and blog posts in a number of languages. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  3. Coronary artery disease prevalence and outcome in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure: an observational report from seven Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Amar M; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Aljaraallah, Mohammed; Al Faleh, Husam; Elasfar, Abdelfatah; Panduranga, Prasanth; Singh, Rajvir; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report prevalence, clinical characteristics, precipitating factors, management and outcome of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) in seven Middle Eastern countries and compare them to non-CAD patients. Data were derived from Gulf CARE (Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry), a prospective multicenter study of 5005 consecutive patients hospitalized with acute HF during February-November 2012 in 7 Middle Eastern countries. The prevalence of CAD among Acute Heart Failure (AHF) patients was 60.2% and varied significantly among the 7 countries (Qatar 65.7%, UAE 66.6%, Kuwait 68.0%, Oman 65.9%, Saudi Arabia 62.5%, Bahrain 52.7% and Yemen 49.1%) with lower values in the lower income countries. CAD patients were older and more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease. Moreover, CAD patients were more likely to have history of cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease when compared to non-CAD patients. In-hospital mortality rates were comparable although CAD patients had more frequent re-hospitalization and worse long-term outcome. However, CAD was not an independent predictor of poor outcome. The prevalence of CAD amongst patients with HF in the Middle East is variable and may be related to healthcare sources. Regional and national studies are needed for assessing further the impact of various etiologies of HF and for developing appropriate strategies to combat this global concern.

  4. THE FLAT TAX EFFECTS a€“ THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moga Aura Carmen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a close look at the advantages and disadvantages of the flat tax and looks at its proven benefits and failings in some European countries which adopted it and its theoretical or possible effects on the economies of other European countrie

  5. Large-Scale Evaluation of Quality of Care in 6 Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia Using Clinical Performance and Value Vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, John W; DeMaria, Lisa; Smith, Owen; Hoth, Angela; Dragoti, Edmond; Luck, Jeff

    2017-09-27

    A significant determinant of population health outcomes is the quality of care provided for noncommunicable diseases, obstetric, and pediatric care. We present results on clinical practice quality in these areas as measured among nearly 4,000 providers working at more than 1,000 facilities in 6 Eastern European and Central Asian countries. This study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2013 in Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirov Province in Russia, and Tajikistan. Using a probability proportional-to-size sampling technique, based on number of hospital beds, we randomly selected within each country 42 hospitals and their associated primary health care clinics. Physicians and midwives within each clinical area of interest were randomly selected from each hospital and clinic and asked how they would care for simulated patients using Clinical Performance and Value (CPV) vignettes. Facility administrators were also asked to complete a facility survey to collect structural measures of quality. CPV vignettes were scored on a scale of 0% to 100% for each provider. We used descriptive statistics and t tests to identify significant differences in CPV scores between hospitals and clinics and rural vs. urban facilities, and ANOVA to identify significant differences in CPV scores across countries. We found that quality of care, as concurrently measured by performance on CPV vignettes, was generally poor and widely variable within and between countries. Providers in Kirov Province, Russia, had the highest overall performance, with an average score of 70.8%, while providers in Albania and Tajikistan had the lowest average score, each at 50.8%. The CPV vignettes with the lowest scores were for multiple noncommunicable disease risk factors and birth asphyxia. A considerable proportion (11%) of providers performed well on the CPV vignettes, regardless of country, facility, or structural resources available to them. Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia are

  6. Willingness to pay for publicly financed health care services in Central and Eastern Europe: evidence from six countries based on a contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Rechel, Bernd; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The increased interest in patient cost-sharing as a measure for sustainable health care financing calls for evidence to support the development of effective patient payment policies. In this paper, we present an application of a stated willingness-to-pay technique, i.e. contingent valuation method, to investigate the consumer's willingness and ability to pay for publicly financed health care services, specifically hospitalisations and consultations with specialists. Contingent valuation data were collected in nationally representative population-based surveys conducted in 2010 in six Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine) using an identical survey methodology. The results indicate that the majority of health care consumers in the six CEE countries are willing to pay an official fee for publicly financed health care services that are of good quality and quick access. The consumers' willingness to pay is limited by the lack of financial ability to pay for services, and to a lesser extent by objection to pay. Significant differences across the six countries are observed, though. The results illustrate that the contingent valuation method can provide decision-makers with a broad range of information to facilitate cost-sharing policies. Nevertheless, the intrinsic limitations of the method (i.e. its hypothetical nature) and the context of CEE countries call for caution when applying its results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patient Access, Unmet Medical Need, Expected Benefits, and Concerns Related to the Utilisation of Biosimilars in Eastern European Countries: A Survey of Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Inotai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This policy research aims to map patient access barriers to biologic treatments, to explore how increased uptake of biosimilars may lower these hurdles and to identify factors limiting the increased utilisation of biosimilars. A policy survey was developed to review these questions in 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS countries. Two experts (one public and one private sector representative from each country completed the survey. Questions were related to patient access, purchasing, clinical practice, and real-world data collection on both original biologics and biosimilars. Restrictions on the number of patients that can be treated and related waiting lists were reported as key patient access barriers. According to respondents, for both clinicians and payers the primary benefit of switching patients to biosimilars would be to treat more patients. However, concerns with therapeutic equivalence and fear of immunogenicity may reduce utilisation of biosimilars. Similar limitations in patient access to both original biologics and biosimilars raise concerns about the appropriateness and success of current biosimilar policies in CEE and CIS countries. The conceptual framework for additional real-world data collection exists in all countries which may provide a basis for future risk-management activities including vigorous pharmacovigilance data collection.

  8. Did Inequality Increase in Transition? An Analysis of the Transitional Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rozsas, Tamas

    2002-01-01

    ... from centrally-planned to a market-oriented economy. Since the behavior of these countries contradicted previous models of inequality, researchers analyzing the transition process linked the increase in income inequality to the egalitarian values...

  9. Patterns of death in the first and second generation immigrants from selected Middle Eastern countries in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Kiumarss; Moulton, Lawrence H

    2011-04-01

    Migrant studies in the United States (US) have rarely covered the Middle Eastern population (ME), and have never distinguished the first and second generations born in the US. This study aims to describe the mortality patterns of ME immigrants by origin, acculturation, and generation. Death certificates issued from 1997 through 2004 were used to calculate, for Middle Eastern immigrants, the proportional odds ratios (POR) for major causes of death, with comparison to non-Hispanic Whites born in the US to US-born parents. First generation immigrants had higher odds for colorectal cancers, diabetes, and diseases of the heart, while their odds for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and suicide were lower. Men had higher odds for all cancers combined, cancers of the lymphatics, and pancreas. Women had lower odds for lung cancer, and dementia, and higher odds for breast cancer. The second generation men had higher odds for all cancers combined, and diseases of the heart, whereas women had lower odds for lung cancer and cerebrovascular accidents. Higher odds for colorectal cancers and lower odds for COPD were noted in both sexes. Some of the observed differences may be based on ethnic characteristics, including genetic makeup, early exposures, and culturally determined values. Time since immigration is associated with convergence of most odds to that of the native population.

  10. Barriers to access to opioid medicines for patients with opioid dependence: a review of legislation and regulations in eleven central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Scholten, Willem; Lisman, John A; Subataite, Marija; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2017-06-01

    Barriers linked to drug control systems are considered to contribute to inequitable access to controlled medicines, leaving millions of people in pain and suffering. Most studies focus on access to opioids for the treatment of severe (cancer) pain. This study aims to identify specific access barriers for patients with opioid dependence in legislation and regulations of 11 central and eastern European countries. This study builds on a previous analysis of legislation and regulations as part of the EU 7th Framework Access To Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. An in-depth analysis was undertaken to determine specific barriers for patients with opioid dependence in need of opioid analgesics or opioid agonist therapy (OAT). For each country, the number and nature of specific potential barriers for these patients were assessed according to eight categories: prescribing; dispensing; manufacturing; usage; trade and distribution; affordability; penalties; and other. An additional keyword search was conducted to minimize the omission of barriers. Barriers in an additional category, language, were recorded qualitatively. Countries included Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey. Ten of the 11 countries (all except Estonia) showed specific potential barriers in their legislation and regulations. The total number of barriers varied from two (Slovenia) to 46 (Lithuania); the number of categories varied from one (Slovenia) to five (Lithuania). Most specific potential barriers were shown in the categories 'prescribing', 'usage' and 'other'. The total number in a single category varied from one to 18 (Lithuania, prescribing). Individual differences between countries in the same specific potential barrier were shown; for example, variation in minimum age criteria for admission to OAT ranging from 15 (Lithuania, in special cases) to 20 years (Greece). All countries had stigmatizing language in their legislation

  11. Societal characteristics and health in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Martin; Murphy, Mike; Rose, Richard; Marmot, Michael

    2007-11-01

    To examine whether, in former communist countries that have undergone profound social and economic transformation, health status is associated with income inequality and other societal characteristics, and whether this represents something more than the association of health status with individual socioeconomic circumstances. Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data. 13 Countries from Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Population samples aged 18+ years (a total of 15 331 respondents). Poor self-rated health. There were marked differences among participating countries in rates of poor health (a greater than twofold difference between the countries with the highest and lowest rates of poor health), gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity (a greater than threefold difference), the Gini coefficient of income inequality (twofold difference), corruption index (twofold difference) and homicide rates (20-fold difference). Ecologically, the age- and sex-standardised prevalence of poor self-rated health correlated strongly with life expectancy at age 15 (r = -0.73). In multilevel analyses, societal (country-level) measures of income inequality were not associated with poor health. Corruption and gross domestic product per capita were associated with poor health after controlling for individuals' socioeconomic circumstances (education, household income, marital status and ownership of household items); the odds ratios were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.29) per 1 unit (on a 10-point scale) increase in the corruption index and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.93) per $5000 increase in gross domestic product per capita. The effects of gross domestic product and corruption were virtually identical in people whose household income was below and above the median. Societal measures of prosperity and corruption, but not income inequalities, were associated with health independently of individual

  12. Access to hepatitis C treatment for people who inject drugs in low and middle income settings: Evidence from 5 countries in Eastern Europe and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Niklas; Champagnat, Julie; Golovin, Sergey; Maistat, Ludmila; Agustian, Edo; Inaridze, Ina; Myint, Wai Moe; Butsashvili, Maia; Bouscaillou, Julie

    2015-11-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionately affected by the hepatitis C (HCV) epidemic. Of the estimated 16 million PWID worldwide, approximately 8 million live with chronic HCV, and around 26% and 23% of the global HCV infections among PWID occur in East/Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe respectively. Globally, few PWID have access to treatment for HCV. We conducted a systematic literature review and internet survey in 2014 to document the burden of disease, access to diagnosis and treatment and the existence of national policy and treatment guidelines for HCV. We included Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, Myanmar and Indonesia as countries with injection drug use epidemics. HCV antibody prevalence among the general population ranged from 0.80% in Indonesia to 5% in Georgia, and among PWID from 48.1% in Myanmar to 92% in Georgia. PWID carried a significant burden of disease, ranging from 2.7% in Indonesia to 40.4% in Russia. Yearly treatment uptake was under 1% for the general population and PWID in all countries. Diagnostic tools and disease staging investigations as well as pegylated interferon/ribavirin treatment were available at a range of prices. Despite policy and treatment protocols for HCV in the majority of countries, strategies focusing on PWID were largely absent. PWID are a priority group for treatment, and access to treatment should be based on sound national policy, accessible public treatment programmes and functional surveillance systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Policy-Relevant Context of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among University Students in Six Countries Across the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Hamadeh, Randah; Thomas, Justin; Mostafa, Aya; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Macauda, Mark M; Theis, Ryan P; Kadi, Lama El; Johnson, Evan J; Darawad, Muhammad W; Nakkash, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean region are some of the highest worldwide, especially among young people. This study aimed to improve our knowledge of the policy-relevant context of waterpipe smoking among six countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted in Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates. Participants were young adult university students (18-29 years) from both genders who had ever smoked the waterpipe, recruited from universities participating in this study. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: A total of 53 in-depth interviews were conducted in Arabic in 2016. Findings were organized around 5 themes: waterpipe product characteristics; patterns of waterpipe smoking; the waterpipe café setting; perceived health consequences; and health warning labels. Waterpipe smoking was commonly perceived as a safe alternative to cigarettes. Waterpipe tobacco was reported to be widely accessible and affordable to young participants. There is a lack of knowledge among waterpipe smokers about the associated health effects. Warning labels are effective at communicating health risks associated with waterpipe smoking. Conclusions: Regulatory frameworks for waterpipe tobacco smoking should be developed and enforced, including waterpipe-specific health warning labels that elucidate the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. PMID:28952296

  15. The uranium industry in the former eastern block countries-present status and new challenges associated with remediation work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vels, B.Dr.; Ruhrmann, G.Dr.

    1994-01-01

    The main uranium producing countries and the individual production centres are briefly described, including their production status. In particular, an analysis of their present situation is given. The challenge of required remediation work lies in the successful handling of the complex transformation from the old to the new socio-economic environment within a tight financial framework

  16. THE LEVEL AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. CONVERGENCE OR DIVERGENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Karmowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyse certain aspects of poverty and the operation of the safety system before the limiting social exclusion and poverty. In the paper an attempt to answer the question: Is social policy between the new Member States and the countries of the “old Union” (EU15 the phenomenon of convergence or divergence? Research material were data from Eurostat and European Commission reports. The results of the comparative analysis of macroeconomic indicators of countries belonging to the European Union have not given a clear reply to the question. In turn, poverty rate analysis has shown that the most vulnerable population is living in sparsely populated rural areas. Also the problem of system solutions used in order to reduce poverty and, in particular, the level and dynamics of changes in the minimum wages was discussed. Besides, size and fi nancial structure were analysed for the implementation of operations in the framework of social policy. On the basis of the obtained research results, it was found that in the new Member States, the fi nancial assistance granted in the framework of social protection is about half lower than in the EU15 countries. There is still a large variation between EU countries in terms of economic development and the level of social services that directly impact the living conditions of the inhabitants.

  17. Is transferability an issue? : Use of health economics studies in Ukraine and other Central and Eastern European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The aim of this thesis, which is in two parts, is to explore transferability of health economic studies in CEE and former Soviet countries, using Ukraine as the primary example. To reach this aim, the following objectives were addressed: 1. To assess the use of

  18. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AS COMPARED WITH OTHER SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rimbu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using textual and contextual analyses method, this paper approaches first the labour market policies in the EU and Romania, then the efficiency of the Romanian National Employment Agency. With the comparative analysis method, the paper also investigates the performance of Romania’s economy as compared with Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece’s economies during 2007-2016, using indicators associated with population and social conditions. The labour market data reveals visible differences between the analysed countries. The paper concludes that, as compared with the other three countries, Romania has broadly a better performance on the labour market, but still the employment rate is below the Europe 2020 Strategy target. Romania is making limited and small progress to support the young people activation and to improve the labour market conditions, implementing measures with low impact. New tailored strategies and innovative approaches are necessary in order to support the young people integration into the labour market.

  19. A cost effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in four Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mason

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy. All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30% resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. CONCLUSION: Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives.

  20. A Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Salt Reduction Policies to Reduce Coronary Heart Disease in Four Eastern Mediterranean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Helen; Shoaibi, Azza; Ghandour, Rula; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Khatib, Rana; Jabr, Samer; Unal, Belgin; Sözmen, Kaan; Arfa, Chokri; Aissi, Wafa; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Fouad, Fouad; Al-Ali, Radwan; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. Methods and Findings Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG) over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy). All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30%) resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. Conclusion Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives. PMID:24409297

  1. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; De Kruijk, H.; Stoffer, A.; Maly, M.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for the Czech Republic. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in the Czech Republic and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Czech SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs, but at high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal, that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, low wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  2. LiDAR, geophysical and field surveys at Ancient Epomanduodurum site and its surrounding country (Doubs, Eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplaige, Clement; Bossuet, Gilles; Thivet, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Integrated geophysical studies were carried out over several years, at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. The site is of major scientific interest to understand the territorial structure of earlier agglomerations in Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered rating second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through the Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site of the Ancient town includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins stretch on more than 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the Doubs River. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and non invasive geophysical methods (magnetic mapping and Automatic Restivity Profiling (ARP) were performed on large scale, both on the terrace and in the floodplain). Excavations associated to geophysical prospection allow to produce a general plan of the Gallo roman structures and to reconstruct the settlement evolution. While human occupation on open land is certified by a lot of indications, on the contrary, the forest-covered zones on table-land appear as less documented areas. The explanation is that some of the classic methods (such as aerial reconnaissance and field walking) are less efficient in the archaeological prospection of table-lands and hills, naturally marked by omnipresent forest. In our new research program (LIEPPEC and PCR Mandeure, 2008-2010), it appears necessary to better

  3. Il commercio estero dei paesi est europei e dell'URSS negli anni ottanta.(The foreign trade of Eastern European and USSR countries in the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. MASTROPASQUA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Il commercio dei paesi europei e URSS orientale è caratterizzato da una fondamentale asimmetria . Da una parte , vi è commercio intra-area ( intra - COMECON che costituisce la parte prevalente ma è tuttavia meno importante per la crescita . D' altra parte, vi è il commercio con i paesi industrializzati ( est-ovest , che , anche se rappresenta una porzione più piccola , attraverso l'importazione di manufatti ad alto contenuto tecnologico , è fondamentale per il processo di accumulazione interna . Il presente lavoro analizza il commercio le due aree negli ultimi dieci anni . L'autore esamina le principali caratteristiche del commercio intra - Comecon , il commercio est-ovest , le riforme del commercio estero e il problema della convertibilità delle valute in Unione Sovietica .The trade of Eastern European and USSR countries is characterised by a fundamental asymmetry. On the one hand, there is intra-area trade (intra-COMECON which constitutes the prevalent part but is, however, less important for growth. On the other hand, there is trade with industrialised countries (east-west which, although it represents a smaller portion, through the importation of highly technological manufactured goods, is crucial to the process of internal accumulation. The present work analyses the trade to the two areas over the past decade. The author looks at the principal characteristics of intra-COMECON trade, east-west trade, foreign trade reforms and the problem of currency convertibility in the Soviet Union. JEL: F14, P23

  4. Pivot Tables - Toolkit: the Constraints to the Business Development in the Former Socialist EU Countries from the Central and Eastern Europe between (2008-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela Zeca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When cooperation between countries is in harmony, trade and investment patterns are based on economic considerations. However, in times of geopolitical reconfiguration of ranking supremacy, economic events held on a stage that sums up all the world, with everything that means material resources, financial resources, polarized areas of intervention, causation so "equation", sometimes with many and unpredictable variables, may not be so easy to solve it. The measurements and econometric calculation are indisputable correct, analysis and the economic forecasts must be accompanied by correct investment strategies on international road map being important to not overlook tension that may weaken national strategy. Informational abundance is as dangerous, or more correctly ineffective, like is the shortage of information. I approached the topic " Pivot tables - toolkit: the constraints to the business development in the former EU socialist countries from the Central and Eastern Europe" in terms of the possibility of accessing easy, accurate and timely a lot of sources of information because, this aspect is desirable, that the result of research overcome the academic space and to become a useful and efficient tool both to researchers, the decision makers and for vectors of economic policy. How large were the constraints and limitations which occurred, which is architecture of their evolution curve for the horizon 2008, 2016, all of these are coagulated aspects in this paper and accessible with one click.

  5. Development, features and application of DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP) software in supporting public health nutrition research in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Nikolić, Marina; Zeković, Milica; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet growing public health nutrition challenges in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and Balkan countries, development of a Research Infrastructure (RI) and availability of an effective nutrition surveillance system are a prerequisite. The building block of this RI is an innovative tool called DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP), which is a platform for standardized and harmonized food consumption collection, comprehensive dietary intake assessment and nutrition planning. Its unique structure enables application of national food composition databases (FCDBs) from the European food composition exchange platform (28 national FCDBs) developed by EuroFIR (http://www.eurofir.org/) and in addition allows communication with other tools. DAP is used for daily menu and/or long-term diet planning in diverse public sector settings, foods design/reformulation, food labelling, nutrient intake assessment and calculation of the dietary diversity indicator, Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women (MDD-W). As a validated tool in different national and international projects, DAP represents an important RI in public health nutrition epidemiology in the CEEC region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE MARKETS EFFICIENCY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoş Horia Mircea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of the Global financial crisis on the efficiency of four Central and Eastern European emerging unit-linked insurance markets, applying the automatic variance ratio (AVR test of Kim (2009 and variance ratio tests using ranks and signs by Wright (2000 for entire, pre-crisis and crisis periods. This study contributes to the existing literature on efficient market hypothesis with several distinct features: it provides a systematic review of the weak-form market efficiency literature that examines return predictability of the daily ING unit-linked funds prices; also the article aims at monitoring any improvement in the degree of efficiency in time and also examines the relative efficiency of unit-linked insurance markets in pre-crisis and crisis periods. Unit linked insurance are life insurance policies with investment component. In the literature there are few studies investigating the effects of a financial crisis on the potential of predictability and implicitly on the degree of efficiency of financial markets. The occurrence of a market crash or financial crisis is a possible contributing factor of market inefficiency. Most of the studies are focused on the Asian crisis in 1997: Holden et al. (2005 examined the weak-form efficiency of eight emerging Asian stock markets using VR tests before, during and after the Asian crisis; Kim and Shamsuddin (2008 used three different types of multiple VR tests for nine Asian stock markets; the findings reported by Lim et al. (2008 are consistent with those reported by Cheong et al. (2007, in which the highest inefficiency occurs during the crisis period. Todea and Lazar (2010 investigated the effects of the Global crisis on the relative efficiency of ten CEE stock markets, using Generalized Spectral test of Escanciano and Velasco (2006. Wright (2000 proposes the alternative non-parametric variance ratio tests using ranks and signs of return and demonstrates that

  7. HLA B27 antigen in Middle Eastern and Arab countries: systematic review of the strength of association with axial spondyloarthritis and methodological gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziade, Nelly Raymond

    2017-06-29

    Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) is a relatively frequent and debilitating disease, with a prevalence ranging from 0.1 to 2% in the Caucasian population. Current Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) classification criteria of AxSpA rely either on sacroiliitis on imaging plus one SpA feature or positive HLAB27 antigen plus two SpA features, in a patient with chronic low back pain and age at onset of less than 45 years. Therefore, HLA-B27 is a central feature in SpA classification and plays a pivotal role in referral strategies and early diagnosis. The primary objective of the study is to review the prevalence of HLA-B27 in normal and AxSpA populations in Middle Eastern and Arab Countries and to assess the strength of association between HLA-B27 antigen and AxSpA. The secondary objective is to identify the gaps in the methodology of the studies and suggest a framework for future research. Studies were included in the analysis if they reported prevalence of HLA-B27 in AxSpA and/or general population and if they covered geographical location in the Middle East or Arab countries in the Mediterranean basin. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for each country, as a measure of the strength of association between HLA-B27 and AxSpA, compared to the normal population, using the two-by-two frequency table. Available data from the literature were analyzed according to the following quality indicators: sample size, method of HLA-B27 testing, presence of control group and external validity. Twenty-seven studies were analyzed. HLAB27 prevalence in the normal population ranged from 0.3% (Oman) to 6.8% (Turkey). HLA-B27 prevalence in AxSpA ranged from 26.2% (Lebanon) to 91% (Turkey). HLA-B27 prevalence in all SpA ranged from 13.87% (Lebanon) to 69.43% (Kuwait). Peripheral SpA was less associated with HLA-B27 than AxSpA, indicating the need of differentiating between the two entities when calculating prevalence. When available (8 studies), the OR ranged from 21

  8. IS THERE A LINK BETWEEN MONETARY POLICY AND RISK PERCEPTION IN EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IMPLEMENTING INFLATION TARGETING REGIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan Kansu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent financial crisis of August 2007 in US, economists and policy makers hold the view that monetary policy may have an effect on real economic activity through ‘risk taking channel’ which indicates the risk behavior of economic agents and the linkages between monetary policy and perception of risk. In this study, we examine whether changes in monetary policy stance influence the risk perceptions and generates any impact on the real side of the economy in Czech Republic, Poland, Russian Federation and Turkey implementing inflation targeting. In the context of a SVAR model, we find that monetary policy does not affect risk perception reflected by stock price variability and any attempt by central banks to stimulate real economic activity through monetary policy also appears to be ineffective in these countries.

  9. Image quality and dose in mammography in 17 countries in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe: Results from IAEA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Avramova-Cholakova, Simona; Beganovic, Adnan; Economides, Sotirios; Faj, Dario; Gershan, Vesna; Grupetta, Edward; Kharita, M.H.; Milakovic, Milomir; Milu, Constantin; Muhogora, Wilbroad E.; Muthuvelu, Pirunthavany; Oola, Samuel; Setayeshi, Saeid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective is to study mammography practice from an optimisation point of view by assessing the impact of simple and immediately implementable corrective actions on image quality. Materials and methods: This prospective multinational study included 54 mammography units in 17 countries. More than 21,000 mammography images were evaluated using a three-level image quality scoring system. Following initial assessment, appropriate corrective actions were implemented and image quality was re-assessed in 24 units. Results: The fraction of images that were considered acceptable without any remark in the first phase (before the implementation of corrective actions) was 70% and 75% for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique projections, respectively. The main causes for poor image quality before corrective actions were related to film processing, damaged or scratched image receptors, or film-screen combinations that are not spectrally matched, inappropriate radiographic techniques and lack of training. Average glandular dose to a standard breast was 1.5 mGy (mean and range 0.59–3.2 mGy). After optimisation the frequency of poor quality images decreased, but the relative contributions of the various causes remained similar. Image quality improvements following appropriate corrective actions were up to 50 percentage points in some facilities. Conclusions: Poor image quality is a major source of unnecessary radiation dose to the breast. An increased awareness of good quality mammograms is of particular importance for countries that are moving towards introduction of population-based screening programmes. The study demonstrated how simple and low-cost measures can be a valuable tool in improving of image quality in mammography

  10. IAEA laboratory activities. The IAEA laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. 3rd report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This third 'IAEA Laboratory Activities' report describes development and work during the year 1965. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo

  11. Agreement for the Establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries. Acceptances of the Agreement and Pledges of Additional Contributions to the Centre. Information Received up to 31 December 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The Government of the United Arab Republic, the Host State of the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, has notified the Agency that on the dates shown the following Arab States deposited with the Government instruments of acceptance of the Agreement establishing the Centre

  12. IAEA Laboratory activities. The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. Sixth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This sixth 'IAEA Laboratory Activities' report describes development and work during the year 1968. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo. (author)

  13. IAEA Laboratory activities. The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. Fourth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    This fourth 'IAEA Laboratory Activities' report describes development and work during the year 1966. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo. (author)

  14. Budget impact analysis of biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodszky, Valentin; Baji, Petra; Balogh, Orsolya; Péntek, Márta

    2014-05-01

    The first biosimilar monoclonal antibody (infliximab, CT-P13) was registered by the European Medicines Agency in 2013 for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biosimilar infliximab is first being marketed in the Central and Eastern European countries. This paper presents the estimated budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab in RA over a 3-year time period in six selected countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. A prevalence-based model was constructed for budget impact analysis. Two scenarios were compared to the reference scenario (RSc) where no biosimilar infliximab is available: biosimilar scenario 1 (BSc1), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is disallowed, and only patients who start new biological therapy are allowed to use biosimilar infliximab; as well as biosimilar scenario 2 (BSc2), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is allowed, and 80% of patients treated with originator infliximab are interchanged to biosimilar infliximab. Compared to the RSc, the net savings are estimated to be €15.3 or €20.8 M in BSc1 and BSc2, respectively, over the 3 years. If budget savings were spent on reimbursement of additional biosimilar infliximab treatment, approximately 1,200 or 1,800 more patients could be treated in the six countries within 3 years in the two biosimilar scenarios, respectively. The actual saving is most sensitive to the assumption of the acquisition cost of the biosimilar drug and to the initial number of patients treated with biological therapy. The study focused on one indication (RA) and demonstrated that the introduction of biosimilar infliximab can lead to substantial budget savings in health care budgets. Further savings are expected for other indications where biosimilar medicines are implemented.

  15. Towards a stakeholders' consensus on patient payment policy: the views of health-care consumers, providers, insurers and policy makers in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2015-08-01

    Although patient charges for health-care services may contribute to a more sustainable health-care financing, they often raise public opposition, which impedes their introduction. Thus, a consensus among the main stakeholders on the presence and role of patient charges should be worked out to assure their successful implementation. To analyse the acceptability of formal patient charges for health-care services in a basic package among different health-care system stakeholders in six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). Qualitative data were collected in 2009 via focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health-care consumers, providers, policy makers and insurers. The same participants were asked to fill in a self-administrative questionnaire. Qualitative and quantitative data are analysed separately to outline similarities and differences in the opinions between the stakeholder groups and across countries. There is a rather weak consensus on patient charges in the countries. Health policy makers and insurers strongly advocate patient charges. Health-care providers overall support charges but their financial profits from the system strongly affects their approval. Consumers are against paying for services, mostly due to poor quality and access to health-care services and inability to pay. To build consensus on patient charges, the payment policy should be responsive to consumers' needs with regard to quality and equity. Transparency and accountability in the health-care system should be improved to enhance public trust and acceptance of patient payments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH – EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Cornel Dumiter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization and globalization of economical problems, industrial manufacturing, and the movement of financial capital, determine the investment activities to become a global one, with implications for all the national and world wide economies. As a result, the foreign direct investments, throughout their economical constitution and substance, form a part of the economical relationships and international cooperation, which bring an essential contribution to the economical growth, creating work places, optimize the allocation of resources, enabling technology transfer and stimulate trading. Foreign Direct Investments have presently become the most important source of external funding for all the countries, regardless of their level of development. This kind of investments proved to be a more stable and used source of funding than the portfolio investments or the bank loans, as they are less affected by the financial crisis. Against this background, global direct financial investments flows remain one of the main manifestations of globalization, which is easily demonstrated if we reflect on the fact that currently over 50% of everything that happens in the world, be it product or services, is carried out by subsidiaries of transnational corporations, namely companies resulting from direct financial investments. It is estimated that the volume, structure and geographical distribution of foreign direct investments will be "patterned" in the proportion of 50% by the international economic situation, the implications of the crisis on the global financial system.

  17. Islamic fundamentalism and future situations in Middle Eastern countries; Isuramu `genri shugi` to kongo no Chuto josei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.

    1996-11-01

    This paper is a record of the special lecture given at the Institute of Energy Economics in July 1996. Significance of the Islamic fundamentalism, reasons for its rapid growth and proliferation, and measures thereto are described as plainly as in spoken lecture language. This fundamentalism is a borrowing from the Christianity terminology meaning the fundamentalism, which is referred to as returning to the original doctrine of the Bible or the Koran. Having become controlled by the industrialized countries in Europe and America is because of taking actions contrary to the ways instructed in the Koran (not, however, denying utilization of modern science and technology). The Islamic ideology feels symbolic victory in Third Middle East War, the Iranian Revolution, the war in Lebanon, and blocking the invasion of the Soviet Union into Afghanistan. The ideology takes actions to achieve political requests by entrusting the issues to religion, which are furthered by incompetence of the governments and poverty of people. In this sense, there should be roles to be played by Japan whose history of exploitation differs from that in Europe and America.

  18. The Relationship between Livestock Ownership and Child Stunting in Three Countries in Eastern Africa Using National Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily M; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Thumbi, Samuel M; Montgomery, Joel M; Palmer, Guy H; May, Susanne; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; Walson, Judd L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock ownership has the potential to improve child nutrition through various mechanisms, although direct evaluations of household livestock and child stunting status are uncommon. We conducted an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets from Ethiopia (2011), Kenya (2008-2009), and Uganda (2010) among rural children under 5 years of age to compare stunting status across levels of livestock ownership. We classified livestock ownership by summing reported household numbers of goats, sheep, cattle and chickens, as well as calculating a weighted score to combine multiple species. The primary association was assessed separately by country using a log-binomial model adjusted for wealth and region, which was then stratified by child diarrheal illness, animal-source foods intake, sub-region, and wealth index. This analysis included n = 8079 children from Ethiopia, n = 3903 children from Kenya, and n = 1645 from Uganda. A ten-fold increase in household livestock ownership had significant association with lower stunting prevalence in Ethiopia (Prevalence Ratio [PR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98) and Uganda (PR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97), but not Kenya (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.07). The weighted livestock score was only marginally associated with stunting status. The findings varied slightly by region, but not by wealth, diarrheal disease, or animal-source food intake. This analysis suggested a slightly beneficial effect of household livestock ownership on child stunting prevalence. The small effect size observed may be related to limitations of the DHS dataset or the potentially complicated relationship between malnutrition and livestock ownership, including livestock health and productivity.

  19. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%. Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2% and policymakers in the government (40.5%. Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%, disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%, interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%, and involved them in their research (19.8%. Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%, practical constraints to implementation (66%, non-receptive policy environment (61.3%, and politically sensitive findings (57.7% hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Conclusions Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to

  20. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE CULTURAL HERITAGE, TRAVEL n TOURISM, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugulan Diana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultural heritage, including, according to the UNESCO definition, the assembly of monuments, groups of buildings, and sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view, represents an important asset that can be engaged and capitalized in order to support the sustainable development. Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs in order to provide a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come, has become a concern and, in the same time, a priority for all the stakeholders of the society. Turning to the best account of the cultural heritage also represents an important driver for the sustainable development of the travel and tourism industry, as the cultural sites, institutions, goods and services, appropriately capitalized, represent significant attractions for the international and domestic tourists. The integration of the principles of sustainable development in the current functioning of the travel and tourism industry led to the development and implementation of the concept of sustainable tourism. The paper explores in a distinctive manner the relationships between the cultural heritage and the travel and tourism industry, respectively the cultural heritage and the sustainable development based on a set of related statistical indicators, and the specific secondary data, expressing the extent of the cultural heritage, the development of the travel and tourism industry, and the attained level of sustainable development in ten Central and Eastern European countries, members of the European Union. There are two major research questions the paper aims to answer: (1 How significant is the relationship between the cultural heritage and the development of the travel and tourism industry? (2 Is there a noteworthy connection between the cultural heritage and the sustainable

  1. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Lavis, John N; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana

    2012-01-11

    Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen) were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%). Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2%) and policymakers in the government (40.5%). Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%), disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%), interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%), and involved them in their research (19.8%). Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%), practical constraints to implementation (66%), non-receptive policy environment (61.3%), and politically sensitive findings (57.7%) hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to improve the use of research evidence emphasize two

  2. Clinical presentation, Quality of care, Risk factors and Outcomes in Women with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI): An Observational Report from Six Middle Eastern Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Abdulla; AlHabib, Khalid F; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Hersi, Ahmad; Alfaleh, Hussam; Alshamiri, Mostafa Q; Ullah, Anhar; Sulaiman, Khadim; Almahmeed, Wael; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alwai A; Amin, Haitham; Al Jarallah, Mohammed; Salam, Amar M

    2018-03-14

    Most of the available literature on ST-Elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) in women was conducted in the developed world and data from Middle-East countries was limited. To examine the clinical presentation, patient management, quality of care, risk factors and in-hospital outcomes of women with acute STEMI compared with men using data from a large STEMI registry from the Middle East. Data were derived from the third Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-3Ps), a prospective, multinational study of adults with acute STEMI from 36 hospitals in 6 Middle-Eastern countries. The study included 2928 patients; 296 women (10.1%) and 2632 men (89.9%). Clinical presentations, management and in-hospital outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. Women were 10 years older and more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia compared with men who were more likely to be smokers (all p<0.001). Women had longer median symptom-onset to emergency department (ED) arrival times (230 vs. 170 min, p<0.001) and ED to diagnostic ECG (8 vs. 6 min., p<0.001). When primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) was performed, women had longer door-to-balloon time (DBT) (86 vs. 73 min., p=0.009). When thrombolytic therapy was not administered, women were less likely to receive PPCI (69.7 vs. 76.7%, p=0.036). The mean duration of hospital stay was longer in women (6.03 ± 22.51 vs. 3.41 ± 19.45 days, p=0.032) and the crude in-hospital mortality rate was higher in women (10.4 vs. 5.2%, p<0.001). However, after adjustments, multivariate analysis revealed a statistically non-significant trend of higher in-hospital mortality among women than men (6.4 vs. 4.6%), (p=0.145). Our study demonstrates that women in our region have almost double the mortality from STEMI compared with men. Although this can partially be explained by older age and higher risk profiles in women, however, correction of identified gaps in quality of care should be attempted to reduce

  3. Regional seminar on approaches and practices in strengthening radiation protection and waste management infrastructure in countries of Eastern Europe and the former USSR. Programme, book of extended synopses, list of participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication contains 30 extended synopses of presentations given by the participants of the seminar. The scope of the presentations included development of radiation protection laws, radioactive waste management technologies, radiation protection infrastructure and constitution of national regulatory bodies. Recent developments in these areas in a number of Eastern Europe and former USSR countries were presented. The role of international co-operation in development of safe radioactive waste management technologies and in establishing legislative and regulatory frameworks was shown

  4. IAEA Laboratory Activities. The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. Fifth Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    This fifth report describes development and work during the year 1967. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo. Contents: The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf: Introduction; Standardization of measurement and of analytical methods related to peaceful applications of nuclear energy; Services to Member States and International Organizations; Chemical and physico-chemical investigations relevant to the Agency's programme; Nuclear techniques in hydrology; Nuclear techniques in medicine; Nuclear techniques in agriculture; Nuclear electronics service and development; Administrative matters. — The International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco: Introduction; Research; Administrative matters. — The International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste: Assistance to developing countries; Research activities; Administrative matters; Annexes. — The Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo: Introduction; The scientific programme of the Centre; Publications on work done at the Centre; Finance; Annex. Entirely in English. (author)

  5. Educational inequalities in mortality in four Eastern European countries: divergence in trends during the post-communist transition from 1990 to 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Stirbu, Irina; Vågerö, Denny; Kalediene, Ramune; Kovács, Katalin; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wróblewska, Wiktoria; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-communist transition has had a huge impact on mortality in Eastern Europe. We examined how educational inequalities in mortality changed between 1990 and 2000 in Estonia, Lithuania, Poland and Hungary. METHODS: Cross-sectional data for the years around 1990 and 2000 were used.

  6. IAEA laboratory activities. The IAEA laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries. 2nd report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Second Report 'IAEA Laboratory Activities' describes developments and scientific work during the year 1964. It reports on the activities of the Agency's Laboratory Vienna - Seibersdorf, the Marine Biological Project at Monaco, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries. In addition, it contains a first, short review on the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste. This Centre was established in October 1963 and started its operations in 1964. The Report is similar to the first one published at the beginning of 1964, and is intended as a source of current information

  7. Report on the control of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. Part 2: the reconversion of military plutonium stocks. The use of the helps given to central and eastern Europe countries and to the new independent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birraux, C.

    2002-01-01

    This report deals with two different aspects of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. The first aspect concerns the reconversion of weapon grade plutonium stocks: the plutonium in excess, plutonium hazards and nuclear fuel potentialities, the US program, the Russian program, the actions of European countries (France, Germany), the intervention of other countries, the unanswered questions (political aspects, uncertainties), the solutions of the future (improvement of reactors, the helium-cooled high temperature reactor technology (gas-turbine modular helium reactor: GT-MHR), the Carlo Rubbia's project). The second aspect concerns the actions carried out by the European Union in favor of the civil nuclear facilities of central and eastern Europe: the European Union competencies through the Euratom treaty, the conclusions of the European audit office about the PHARE and TACIS nuclear programs, the status of committed actions, the coming planned actions, and the critical analysis of the policy adopted so far. (J.S.)

  8. State budget transfers to Health Insurance Funds for universal health coverage: institutional design patterns and challenges of covering those outside the formal sector in Eastern European high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcu, Ileana; Mathauer, Inke

    2016-01-15

    Many countries from the European region, which moved from a government financed and provided health system to social health insurance, would have had the risk of moving away from universal health coverage if they had followed a "traditional" approach. The Eastern European high-income countries studied in this paper managed to avoid this potential pitfall by using state budget revenues to explicitly pay health insurance contributions on behalf of certain (vulnerable) population groups who have difficulties to pay these contributions themselves. The institutional design aspects of their government revenue transfer arrangements are analysed, as well as their impact on universal health coverage progress. This regional study is based on literature review and review of databases for the performance assessment. The analytical framework focuses on the following institutional design features: rules on eligibility for contribution exemption, financing and pooling arrangements, and purchasing arrangements and benefit package design. More commonalities than differences can be identified across countries: a broad range of groups eligible for exemption from payment of health insurance contributions, full state contributions on behalf of the exempted groups, mostly mandatory participation, integrated pools for both the exempted and contributors, and relatively comprehensive benefit packages. In terms of performance, all countries have high total population coverage rates, but there are still challenges regarding financial protection and access to and utilization of health care services, especially for low income people. Overall, government revenue transfer arrangements to exempt vulnerable groups from contributions are one option to progress towards universal health coverage.

  9. Energy conservation potentials in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe - an expose of theses; Die Energiespeicherpotentiale in den Laendern Mittel- und Osteuropas - eine Darstellung der Thesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesner, W. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz FH, Zittau (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    The report compares western and eastern Europe in terms of their supply with fossil energy, the development of their primary and end-use energy consumption, and the development of their gross power generation. The technical state of energy conversion plants and electrothermal power plants, Russia`s energy conservation potential, and the efficacy of measures for enhancing electric energy efficiency in the Ukraine are described. Finally, a comparison of energy input coefficients and energy costs between the old and new federal states of Germany is made. (DG) [Deutsch] Bezueglich der Versorgung mit fossiler Energie, der Entwicklung des Primaer- und Endenergieverbrauchs und der Entwicklung der Brutto-Stromerzeugung werden West- und Osteuropa miteinander verglichen. Der technische Stand der Energieumwandlungsanlagen und der Elektrowaermeanlagen sowie das Energieeinsparungspotential in Russland und die Effektivitaet von Massnahmen zur Elektroenergieeffizienzsteigerung in der Ukraine werden dargestellt. Schliesslich erfolgt ein Vergleich der Energieintensitaets- und Energiekosten zwischen den alten und neuen Bundeslaendern der BRD. (DG)

  10. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  11. Education, material condition and physical functioning trajectories in middle-aged and older adults in Central and Eastern Europe: a cross-country comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaoyue; Pikhart, Hynek; Pająk, Andrzej; Kubínová, Růžena; Malyutina, Sofia; Besala, Agnieszka; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Two competing hypotheses, cumulative advantage/disadvantage and age-as-leveller, have been proposed to explain the contradictory findings on socioeconomic differences in health over the lifespan. To test these hypotheses, this investigation examined the influence of educational attainment and material condition on individual trajectories of physical functioning (PF) in unexplored ageing populations in Central and Eastern Europe. Methods 28 783 men and women aged 45–69 years selected from populations in seven Czech towns, Krakow (Poland) and Novosibirsk (Russia). PF was measured by the Physical Functioning Subscale (PF-10) of the Short-Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) at baseline and three subsequent occasions. The highest educational attainment was self-reported at baseline, and material condition was captured by the sum score of 12 household amenities and assets. Results In all cohorts, participants with a university degree had the highest PF-10 score at baseline and slowest rate of decline in the score during follow-up, while the lowest baseline scores and fastest decline rate were found in participants with less than secondary education in all cohorts and in Russians with secondary education. Similar disparities in the baseline PF-10 score and decline rate were observed across tertiles of material condition, but differences in decline rates across the three tertiles among Czechs or between the lower two tertiles among Russians were not statistically significant. Conclusions Disparities in PF by educational attainment and material condition among middle-aged and older adults in Central and Eastern Europe existed at baseline and widened during ∼10 years of follow-up, supporting the cumulative advantage/disadvantage hypothesis. PMID:27194710

  12. Education, material condition and physical functioning trajectories in middle-aged and older adults in Central and Eastern Europe: a cross-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaoyue; Pikhart, Hynek; Pająk, Andrzej; Kubínová, Růžena; Malyutina, Sofia; Besala, Agnieszka; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Two competing hypotheses, cumulative advantage/disadvantage and age-as-leveller, have been proposed to explain the contradictory findings on socioeconomic differences in health over the lifespan. To test these hypotheses, this investigation examined the influence of educational attainment and material condition on individual trajectories of physical functioning (PF) in unexplored ageing populations in Central and Eastern Europe. 28 783 men and women aged 45-69 years selected from populations in seven Czech towns, Krakow (Poland) and Novosibirsk (Russia). PF was measured by the Physical Functioning Subscale (PF-10) of the Short-Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) at baseline and three subsequent occasions. The highest educational attainment was self-reported at baseline, and material condition was captured by the sum score of 12 household amenities and assets. In all cohorts, participants with a university degree had the highest PF-10 score at baseline and slowest rate of decline in the score during follow-up, while the lowest baseline scores and fastest decline rate were found in participants with less than secondary education in all cohorts and in Russians with secondary education. Similar disparities in the baseline PF-10 score and decline rate were observed across tertiles of material condition, but differences in decline rates across the three tertiles among Czechs or between the lower two tertiles among Russians were not statistically significant. Disparities in PF by educational attainment and material condition among middle-aged and older adults in Central and Eastern Europe existed at baseline and widened during ∼10 years of follow-up, supporting the cumulative advantage/disadvantage hypothesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Cross-cultural challenges for assessing medical professionalism among clerkship physicians in a Middle Eastern country (Bahrain): feasibility and psychometric properties of multisource feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ansari, Ahmed; Al Khalifa, Khalid; Al Azzawi, Mohamed; Al Amer, Rashed; Al Sharqi, Dana; Al-Mansoor, Anwar; Munshi, Fadi M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to design, implement, and evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a multisource feedback (MSF) system to assess interns in their clerkship year in the Middle Eastern culture, the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study was undertaken in the Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 21 interns (who represent the total population of the interns for the given year) were assessed in this study. All of the interns were rotating through our hospital during their year-long clerkship rotation. The study sample consisted of nine males and 12 females. Each participating intern was evaluated by three groups of raters, eight medical intern colleagues, eight senior medical colleagues, and eight coworkers from different departments. A total of 21 interns (nine males and 12 females) were assessed in this study. The total mean response rates were 62.3%. A factor analysis was conducted that found that the data on the questionnaire grouped into three factors that counted for 76.4% of the total variance. These three factors were labeled as professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the full instrument scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.98). The generalizability coefficients for the surveys were estimated to be 0.78. Based on our results and analysis, we conclude that the MSF tool we used on the interns rotating in their clerkship year within our Middle Eastern culture provides an effective method of evaluation because it offers a reliable, valid, and feasible process.

  14. THE FINANCIAL SECTOR OF THE STATE - THE STRUCTURE OF THE BANKING SYSTEM WITH A BANKING SECTOR IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The financial sector of each country in the world has its own specificities that depend on many factors. In this paper we will talk about the structure of the financial system in our country from the aspect of the banking sector. Banks are specialized institutions that have a special role in the development of the country's economic system, as their basic function is to supply the economy with the necessary amount of loans and money. Banking business is a special economic activity. It is determined by the type and content of banking operations. In general terms, banking transactions are divided into two groups: active and passive. The Bank is established as a joint-stock company, which is regulated by the laws on banks and international regulatory frameworks.

  15. Interrelationship among School Characteristics, Parental Involvement, and Children's Characteristics in Predicting Children's Victimization by Peers: Comparison between the United States and Three Eastern Asia Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gang; Kim, Yanghee

    2016-01-01

    To identify ways that national culture, school characteristics, and individual attributes impact the victimization of students in Grade 8, data from the United States and three East Asian countries (i.e., Japan, S. Korea, and Taiwan) were compared using the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Hierarchical Liner…

  16. Addressing Factors Associated with Arab Women's Socioeconomic Status May Reduce Breast Cancer Mortality: Report from a Well Resourced Middle Eastern Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Khater, Al-Hareth; Al Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Abdulmalik, Mariam; Al-Meer, Nabila; Singh, Rajvir; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Differences in socioeconomic status (SES) such as income levels may partly explain why breast cancer screening (BCS) disparities exist in countries where health care services are free or heavily subsidized. However, factors that contribute to such differences in SES among women living in well resourced Middle East countries are not fully understood. This quantitative study investigated factors that influence SES and BCS of Arab women. Understanding of such factors can be useful for the development of effective intervention strategies that aim to increase BCS uptake among Arab women. Using data from a cross-sectional survey among 1,063 Arabic-speaking women in Qatar, age 35+, additional data analysis was performed to determine the relationship between socioeconomic indicators such as income and other factors in relation to BCS activities. This study found that income is determined and influenced by education level, occupation, nationality, years of residence in the country, level of social activity, self-perceived health status, and living area. Financial stress, unemployment, and unfavorable social conditions may impede women's participation in BCS activities in well resourced Middle East countries.

  17. The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Generalizability of Social Comparison Processes over Two Age Cohorts from Western, Asian, and Middle Eastern Islamic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Parker, Philip; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive support for the seemingly paradoxical negative effects of school- and class-average achievement on academic self-concept (ASC)-the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE)--is based largely on secondary students in Western countries or on cross-cultural Program for International Student Assessment studies. There is little research testing the…

  18. The Determinants of European Union (EU Foreign Direct Investments in the EU Countries from Central and Eastern Europe During 1994–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Donny

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the CEECs’ financial market development can explain the EU FDI in the CEECs during 1994–2012. The higher bank credit flows had a positive effect on the FDI in 2005–2012. This can be attributed to the major banking sector reforms undertaken before the CEECs’ EU accession. Second, the stock market size had a positive effect in 1997–2004. This is due to the fact that the EU membership announcement facilitated deeper stock market integration. Third, the higher country income, in interaction with a higher bank credit flow, had only a small positive effect in 2005–2012. The higher income CEECs have pursued much deeper bank liberalization through large-scale privatization of state-owned banks. Finally, the higher country income, in interaction with a larger stock market size, had a negative effect in 2005–2012. A possible reason for this is that the EU countries have started to divert their new FDI to the non-EU countries.

  19. Barriers in access to healthcare in countries with different health systems. A cross-sectional study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; da Silva, Maria Rejane Ferreira; Unger, Jean Pierre; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2014-04-01

    There are few comprehensive studies available on barriers encountered from the initial seeking of healthcare through to the resolution of the health problem; in other words, on access in its broad domain. For Colombia and Brazil, countries with different healthcare systems but common stated principles, there have been no such analyses to date. This paper compares factors that influence access in its broad domain in two municipalities of each country, by means of a cross-sectional study based on a survey of a multistage probability sample of people who had had at least one health problem within the last three months (2163 in Colombia and 2155 in Brazil). The results reveal important barriers to healthcare access in both samples, with notable differences between and within countries, once differences in sociodemographic characteristics and health needs are accounted for. In the Colombian study areas, the greatest barriers were encountered in initial access to healthcare and in resolving the problem, and similarly when entering the health service in the Brazilian study areas. Differences can also be detected in the use of services: in Colombia greater geographical and economic barriers and the need for authorization from insurers are more relevant, whereas in Brazil, it is the limited availability of health centres, doctors and drugs that leads to longer waiting times. There are also differences according to enrolment status and insurance scheme in Colombia, and between areas in Brazil. The barriers appear to be related to the Colombian system's segmented, non-universal nature, and to the involvement of insurance companies, and to chronic underfunding of the public system in Brazil. Further research is required, but the results obtained reveal critical points to be tackled by health policies in both countries. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. FY 1999 report on the results of the investigation of feasibility of joint implementation promotion through plant-related technology transfer to Central/Eastern European countries; 1999 nendo Chu Too nado chiiki ni okeru plant yushutsugata gijutsu iten wo tsujita kyodo jisshi nado suishin kanosei ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility of joint implementation promotion through plant-related technology transfer is investigated for 15 Central and Eastern European countries. Emissions of the greenhouse effect gases can be relatively easily abated in these countries by improving energy utilization efficiency, because they have more advanced infrastructures than developing countries, and are behind the developed countries in modernization of the facilities. Therefore, European and North American countries have been positively promoting the AIJ programs in these countries, and there are fierce competitions for promising projects. It will be necessary for Japan to provide public loans, e.g., environmental yen loans, to promote the plant-related JI/CDM projects in these countries. Many of these countries have not drawn plans for reducing emissions of the greenhouse effect gases, and expect establishment of the international cooperation systems for exchanging information related to global warming problems, and introducing the Japanese technologies and policies. (NEDO)

  1. The effect of FDI and foreign trade on wages in the Central and Eastern European Countries in the post-transition era: A sectoral analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Onaran, Özlem; Stockhammer, Engelbert

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the effect of FDI and trade openness on wages in the CEECs in the post-transition era. We utilize a cross-country sector-specific eceonometric analysis based on one-digit level panel data for manufacturing industry in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, for the period of 2000-2004. The results suggest that the increases in productivity are reflected in wages only to a modest extent, even in the long-term, leading to a steady decline in...

  2. HIV seroprevalence among male prison inmates in the six countries of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean states in the Caribbean (OECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, E V; Trotman, C

    2009-03-01

    To determine HIV prevalence among male prison inmates in the six OECS countries in the Caribbean. Six unlinked, anonymous point prevalence surveys of a total of 1288 male inmates were conducted during a one-year period, August 2004 - August 2005. An oral fluid sample was collected and an interviewer-administered questionnaire and consent form was completed for each survey participant. The overall HIV prevalence was 2.8% (range 2.0-4.1%). Only 39% of all inmates had previously been tested, compared to 67% of the HIV-positive inmates. Of all inmates who previously tested, 61% had their last test less than two years ago, 45% had done so while in prison and 39% had done so in a hospital. Most of those who had not previously been tested had no particular reason for not doing so (57%); 24% of them felt it was not necessary or they were not at risk. HIV prevalence among male prison inmates was three times higher than the estimated OECS population prevalence in 2003, slightly higher than the prevalence among incarcerated males in the United States of America and Canada, and lower than that in other Caribbean countries in earlier years. Health information on prison populations is important as this is a vulnerable group, with frequent movement in and out of the general population. Preventative services, voluntary counselling and testing, and appropriate care and treatment should be available to all inmates as this is an opportunity for many who may not otherwise access these services.

  3. Adaptation and translation of mental health interventions in Middle Eastern Arab countries: a systematic review of barriers to and strategies for effective treatment implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearing, Robin E; Schwalbe, Craig S; MacKenzie, Michael J; Brewer, Kathryne B; Ibrahim, Rawan W; Olimat, Hmoud S; Al-Makhamreh, Sahar S; Mian, Irfan; Al-Krenawi, Alean

    2013-11-01

    All too often, efficacious psychosocial evidence-based interventions fail when adapted from one culture to another. International translation requires a deep understanding of the local culture, nuanced differences within a culture, established service practices, and knowledge of obstacles and promoters to treatment implementation. This research investigated the following objectives to better facilitate cultural adaptation and translation of psychosocial and mental health treatments in Arab countries: (1) identify barriers or obstacles; (2) identify promoting strategies; and (3) provide clinical and research recommendations. This systematic review of 22 psychosocial or mental health studies in Middle East Arab countries identified more barriers (68%) than promoters (32%) to effective translation and adaptation of empirically supported psychosocial interventions. Identified barriers include obstacles related to acceptability of the intervention within the cultural context, community and system difficulties, and problems with clinical engagement processes. Whereas identified promoter strategies centre on the importance of partnering and working within the local and cultural context, the need to engage with acceptable and traditional intervention characteristics, and the development of culturally appropriate treatment strategies and techniques. Although Arab cultures across the Middle East are unique, this article provides a series of core clinical and research recommendations to assist effective treatment adaptation and translation within Arab communities in the Middle East.

  4. THE MAIN TRENDS OF A COMMON ENERGY MARKET OF THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA’S INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Borisovna Gokzhaeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of Russia’s strategy for the EU energy market, cooperation with the countries of the OPEC, to avoid further declines in oil prices and relations with the EU in connection with the operation of the «Third energy package».It presents a forecast of energy consumption, the strategy of relations between the EU and Russia in the energy sphere and has the scientific novelty.The paper is exploratory in nature, expressed in the fact that in-depth studied the structure of energy consumption in the EU and possible transition to new ways of «green energy» and the EU strategy for attracting new energy suppliers.

  5. Counterproliferation, Border Security and Counterterrorism Subject-Related Laws and Regulations, Including Export Control Regimes in South-Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokan, S.

    2007-01-01

    gaps exist, much less fill them. All this suggests that, to fulfil obligations under UNSC Resolutions 1540 and 1373, States must enact harmonized criminal prohibitions and authorization for law enforcement cooperation in order to establish a seamless web of security among all nations. Failure to do so implicitly poses a threat to international peace and security. One of the main issues which deserve to be further addressed and which prompts the continuation of the Southeast Europe Counterproliferation, Borger Security and Counterterrorism (CBSC) Working Group is to harmonize national laws and regulations that deal with deterring, detecting and interdicting WMD. Inventory of relevant CBSC subject-related laws of the Southeast Europe countries, including Export Control Laws was created and prepared for further consideration and harmonization by judiciary experts, with the aim to develop m odel laws . Let me very briefly present you the main features of the SEDM CBSC subject-related laws and regulations. This paper will present that inventory which includes the membership in the international Conventions, Treaties and Arrangements and also the membership in Multilateral Export Control Regimes of Southeast Europe countries. Also, it will be presented the membership in the international legal instruments that play an integral part in the global fight against terrorism. (author)

  6. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, R.; Soler, A.; Pelayo, V.; Fernández-Pinero, J.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Pridotkas, G.; Nurmoja, I.; Granta, R.; Simón, A.; Pérez, C.; Martín, E.; Fernández-Pacheco, P.; Arias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. PMID:26041901

  8. MO-DE-204-01: Radiation Doses in Over 50 Developing Countries of Asia, Africa, Eastern European and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.

    2016-01-01

    The main topic of the session is to show how dose optimization is being implemented in various regions of the world, including Europe, Australia, North America and other regions. A multi-national study conducted under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) across more than 50 less resourced countries gave insight into patient radiation doses and safety practices in CT, mammography, radiography and interventional procedures, both for children and adults. An important outcome was the capability development on dose assessment and management. An overview of recent European projects related to CT radiation dose and optimization both to adults and children will be presented. Existing data on DRLs together with a European methodology proposed on establishing and using DRLs for paediatric radiodiagnostic imaging and interventional radiology practices will be shown. Compared with much of Europe at least, many Australian imaging practices are relatively new to the task of diagnostic imaging dose optimisation. In 2008 the Australian Government prescribed a requirement to periodically compare patient radiation doses with diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), where DRLs have been established. Until recently, Australia had only established DRLs for computed tomography (CT). Regardless, both professional society and individual efforts to improved data collection and develop optimisation strategies across a range of modalities continues. Progress in this field, principally with respect to CT and interventional fluoroscopy will be presented. In the US, dose reduction and optimization efforts for computed tomography have been promoted and mandated by several organizations and accrediting entities. This presentation will cover the general motivation, implementation, and implications of such efforts. Learning Objectives: Understand importance of the dose optimization in Diagnostic Radiology. See how this goal is achieved in different regions of the World. Learn about the global trend

  9. MO-DE-204-01: Radiation Doses in Over 50 Developing Countries of Asia, Africa, Eastern European and Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehani, M. [Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The main topic of the session is to show how dose optimization is being implemented in various regions of the world, including Europe, Australia, North America and other regions. A multi-national study conducted under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) across more than 50 less resourced countries gave insight into patient radiation doses and safety practices in CT, mammography, radiography and interventional procedures, both for children and adults. An important outcome was the capability development on dose assessment and management. An overview of recent European projects related to CT radiation dose and optimization both to adults and children will be presented. Existing data on DRLs together with a European methodology proposed on establishing and using DRLs for paediatric radiodiagnostic imaging and interventional radiology practices will be shown. Compared with much of Europe at least, many Australian imaging practices are relatively new to the task of diagnostic imaging dose optimisation. In 2008 the Australian Government prescribed a requirement to periodically compare patient radiation doses with diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), where DRLs have been established. Until recently, Australia had only established DRLs for computed tomography (CT). Regardless, both professional society and individual efforts to improved data collection and develop optimisation strategies across a range of modalities continues. Progress in this field, principally with respect to CT and interventional fluoroscopy will be presented. In the US, dose reduction and optimization efforts for computed tomography have been promoted and mandated by several organizations and accrediting entities. This presentation will cover the general motivation, implementation, and implications of such efforts. Learning Objectives: Understand importance of the dose optimization in Diagnostic Radiology. See how this goal is achieved in different regions of the World. Learn about the global trend

  10. Middle Eastern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  11. Comprehensive haematological indices reference intervals for a healthy Omani population: First comprehensive study in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and Middle Eastern countries based on age, gender and ABO blood group comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Avinash Daniel; Al-Busaidi, Raiya; Al-Lawati, Rabab H.; Morsi, Magdi

    2018-01-01

    Background Reference intervals for venous blood parameters differs with age, gender, geographic region, and ethnic groups. Hence local laboratory reference intervals are important to improve the diagnostic accuracy of health assessments and diseases. However, there have been no comprehensive published reference intervals established in Oman, the Gulf Cooperation Council or Middle Eastern countries. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for full blood count in healthy Omani adults. Methods Venous blood specimens were collected from 2202 healthy individuals aged 18 to 69 years from January 2012 to April 2017, and analysed by Sysmex XS-1000i and Cell-Dyn Sapphire automated haematology analysers. Results were statistically analysed and compared by gender, age, and ABO blood group. The lower and upper reference limits of the haematology reference intervals were established at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. Results Reference intervals were calculated for 17 haematology parameters which included red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet parameters. Red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), platelet and platelet haematocrit counts of the healthy donors were significantly different between males and females at all ages (p values of RBC, HGB and HCT than females. Other complete blood count parameters showed no significant differences between genders, age groups, instruments, or blood groups. Our study showed a lower haemoglobin limit for the normal reference interval in males and females than the currently used in Oman. Conclusions Data from this study established specific reference intervals which could be considered for general use in Oman. The differences in haematology reference intervals highlights the necessity to establish reference intervals for venous blood parameters among the healthy population in each country or at least in each region. PMID:29621271

  12. Comprehensive haematological indices reference intervals for a healthy Omani population: First comprehensive study in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and Middle Eastern countries based on age, gender and ABO blood group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mawali, Adhra; Pinto, Avinash Daniel; Al-Busaidi, Raiya; Al-Lawati, Rabab H; Morsi, Magdi

    2018-01-01

    Reference intervals for venous blood parameters differs with age, gender, geographic region, and ethnic groups. Hence local laboratory reference intervals are important to improve the diagnostic accuracy of health assessments and diseases. However, there have been no comprehensive published reference intervals established in Oman, the Gulf Cooperation Council or Middle Eastern countries. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for full blood count in healthy Omani adults. Venous blood specimens were collected from 2202 healthy individuals aged 18 to 69 years from January 2012 to April 2017, and analysed by Sysmex XS-1000i and Cell-Dyn Sapphire automated haematology analysers. Results were statistically analysed and compared by gender, age, and ABO blood group. The lower and upper reference limits of the haematology reference intervals were established at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. Reference intervals were calculated for 17 haematology parameters which included red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet parameters. Red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), platelet and platelet haematocrit counts of the healthy donors were significantly different between males and females at all ages (p < 0.05), with males having higher mean values of RBC, HGB and HCT than females. Other complete blood count parameters showed no significant differences between genders, age groups, instruments, or blood groups. Our study showed a lower haemoglobin limit for the normal reference interval in males and females than the currently used in Oman. Data from this study established specific reference intervals which could be considered for general use in Oman. The differences in haematology reference intervals highlights the necessity to establish reference intervals for venous blood parameters among the healthy population in each country or at least in each region.

  13. IAEA laboratory activities. The IAEA laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. 1st report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Since 1958 the General Conferences of the International Atomic Energy Agency have discussed the establishment of scientific centres which would help the Agency to carry out its statutory functions. Subsequently, decisions were taken which have led to the foundation of two laboratories and the establishment under the Agency's auspices of an isotope centre. The plans for the setting up of the Agency's Laboratory Vienna - Seibersdorf were approved by the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency in April 1 959, and the agreement on the Marine Biological Project at Monaco came into force in March 1961. In March 1963 the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab countries was opened. The first comprehensive report on the activities of the laboratories and the isotope centre is now published; it contains information on the development of the centres and their activities carried out in 1963. The Agency expresses its gratitude to the Governments of Austria, Monaco and the United Arab Republic for the generous assistance offered in connection with the establishment of the laboratories and the isotope centre

  14. IAEA/WHO postal dose audits for radiotherapy hospitals in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Vatnitsky, S.; Shortt, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA/WHO TLD programme has been in operation for 34 years. In this period the calibration of approximately 5200 high-energy photon beams in over 1300 radiotherapy hospitals in 115 countries worldwide was checked. Of these, 18% of the audits were performed in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. There are large contrasts in the region; while the results are very good for most countries, a few countries struggle with basic problems in dosimetry. The hospitals operating radiotherapy services without qualified medical physicists or dosimetry equipment have poorer results than those properly equipped and staffed. Only about 2/3 of TLD audit participants in Eastern Europe have the appropriate dosimetry equipment. To achieve consistency of the audit results within Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, strengthening of radiotherapy infrastructure in a few countries would be necessary. (authors)

  15. Air pollution in countries of Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinko, L.

    1994-01-01

    Emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and carbon dioxide in 1988 in Bulgaria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, Romania are discussed. Some data on emissions from the power industry in Russia, the Ukraine and Belorussia in 1990 and 1992 are also given. 4 refs., 7 tabs

  16. Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogubazghi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Member countries of the Eastern and Southern Africa Seismologica Working Group are listed. The presentation also gives the objectives, activities, date of birth and sponsors of the said ESARSWG. Areas of possible cooperation with CTBTO are indicated

  17. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Science Policy Research Unit)

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this article is that of illustrating the experience of the use of nuclear power in Eastern Europe in order to estimate the degree of adequacy or inadequacy of COMECON's nuclear technology. The author examines four areas of interest concerning: the feasibility of new orders for nuclear plants in Eastern Europe; the pros and cons of completing half-built nuclear power plants; current policy towards existing nuclear power plants; and a review of the available evidence on the operating performance of plants in Eastern Europe. The common belief that the nuclear power experience had by old COMECON countries is uniformly bad does not seem to be fully supported by the limited evidence available. In the author's opinion, the prospects for a successful nuclear power industry in these countries depends on a series on interdependent factors among which, human skills hold a prominent position.

  18. In vitro activity of Ceftaroline against bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with skin and soft tissue and respiratory tract infections in African and Middle Eastern countries: AWARE global surveillance program 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hackel, Meredith; Iaconis, Joseph P; Sahm, Daniel F

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this report was to document antimicrobial susceptibility testing surveillance data for ceftaroline and comparative agents from the AWARE (Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation) global surveillance program for bacterial pathogens causing skin and soft tissue and respiratory tract infections in African and Middle Eastern countries from 2012 through 2014. Pathogen identities were confirmed by MALDI-TOF and antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed by CLSI broth microdilution methodology in a central laboratory. All methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (n= 923; MIC90, 0.25 μg/mL) and 91.8% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (n= 1161; MIC90, 1 μg/mL) tested were susceptible to ceftaroline. The maximum ceftaroline MIC observed for isolates of MRSA was 2 μg/mL. All Streptococcus pyogenes (n= 174; MIC90, 0.008 μg/mL), Streptococcus agalactiae (n= 44; MIC90, 0.015 μg/mL), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n= 351; MIC90, 0.25 μg/mL), and Haemophilus influenzae (n= 84; MIC90, ≤0.015 μg/mL) were susceptible to ceftaroline. Rates of susceptibility to ceftaroline among ESBL-negative Escherichia coli (n= 338), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 241), and Klebsiella oxytoca (n= 97) were 89.1% (MIC90, 1 μg/mL), 94.2% (MIC90, 0.5 μg/mL), and 99.0% (MIC90, 0.5 μg/mL), respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Eastern Europe's market role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, trade in nuclear fuel between market economy countries and those with planned economies was limited. The exception to this was in the enrichment market across Western Europe during the 1970s. Most of the nuclear generating plants in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe are light water reactors needing enriched uranium. Under the fuel supply agreements with Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has provided all of the regions' enrichment services, and therefore it has developed the only enrichment facilities. Techsnabexport (TENEX), the USSR foreign trade organization for the nuclear fuel cycle, first appeared in the early 1970s. It was as an alternative supplier to the US government, which had a monopoly in the West regarding enrichment. In 1986 the USSR entered and soon dominated the spot market for enrichment. Political changes in Eastern Europe at the end of 1989 and throughout 1990 opened the nuclear fuel market even wider. In 1990 the USSR began allowing exports of concentrates, as well as enriched product, and a free flow of trade to the Western market is now developing for both enrichment and uranium. (author)

  20. Rural poverty in transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  1. Energy in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The present energy market in Central and Eastern Europe differs strongly from the energy situation in open market economies. Compared to the European Communities, the energy market in Central and eastern Europe is characterized by its high energy intensity, high quantity of imported oil and gas from a one country (the ex-Soviet Union), the dominant role of solid fossil fuels in some countries, and environmental pollution. Expected future developments are the reduction of the energy intensity and the total energy consumption, the reduction of the industrial energy consumption, the reduction of the solid fossil fuels as well as the geographic distribution of energy import. The restructuring of the energy industry has been started by introducing a market orientated policy including privatisation and the promotion of the free play of price-making forces, accompanied by relatively small-scale investments. Recent data indicate a decrease of energy consumption due to the economic decline and the shut-down of companies in the heavy industries. (A.S.) 4 figs. 5 tabs

  2. Who needs credit and who gets credit in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Popov, A.; Yesin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Based on survey data covering 8,387 firms in 20 countries we compare the access to bank credit for firms in Eastern Europe to that in selected Western European countries. Our analysis reveals five main results. First, the firm-level determinants of the propensity to apply are similar in Eastern and

  3. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    are tested using the new members of the EU in Eastern Europe and the candidate country of Croatia as cases. There is no coherent panel data, but by categorizing specific trends in each country and then combining the different trend variables it is possible to identify the most important factors influencing...

  4. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyses the operating experience of nuclear power plants in Eastern and Western Europe, the former Soviet Union and the United States to investigate differences in the effects of learning, technical change and the effect of recent political developments. The performance of Soviet-designed reactors compares favourably with Western reactors on the standard performance measures. However, learning curve estimates reveal a disturbing trend: the former Soviet Union and all countries in Eastern Europe experience increasing unplanned losses as plants age, whereas all Western countries reduce their unplanned losses. A similar ''forgetting'' phenomenon is observable for plant availability and there is some evidence that the recent political and economic reorganization have exacerbated this trend. (Author)

  5. Household appliance data collection and market survey in central and eastern european countries; Raccolta dati e analisi del mercato sugli apparecchi elettrodomestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale e orientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presutto, M. [ENEA, Funzione Centrali Studi, Centro Ricerche Ispra, Vercelli (Italy); Ricci, A. [Istituto di Studi per l' Integrazione dei Sistemi, Rome (Italy); Meli, L. [ANIE, Federazione delle Imprese Elettrotecniche ed Elettroniche, International Affaires Direction, Milan (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Since 1995 the European Commission, through the SAVE programme, and the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations, through the Energy Efficiency 2000 Project, jointly sponsored the so called SACHA projects in Central and Eastern European Countries regarding major household appliances. Consistently, the main objective of the projects was to analyse and interpret the situation of refrigerators, freezers and washing machines in seven CEEC, so as to increase the knowledge and understanding of the issues at stake in the area of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness, and therefore to identify possible scenarios of improvement. This paper describes the work accomplished and the results achieved in this context, focusing more on the data collection and market survey moments and illustrates, with an abundant series of exhibits, the quantitative picture resulting form the analyses carried out. Possibility exists for replication in Latin America, where ENEA and Italian experience could be fruitfully applied. Reliable and complete information is in fact one of the prerequisites to overcome potential barriers and facilitate a successful enforcement of any energy efficiency policy. Effective implementation and regional harmonisation are necessary, even if projects can facilitate the fulfilment of these goals as it provides a consolidated methodology and an integrated scheme for basic data collection and analysis. [Italian] A partire dal 1995 la Commissione Europea e la Commissione Economica per l'Europa delle Nazioni Unite hanno congiuntamente promosso lo studio dei piu' importanti apparecchi domestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale ed orientale. Principale obiettivo di questi progetti, piu' noti come progetti con SACHA, dall'acronimo del titolo, era analizzare e soprattutto interpretare la situazione dei frigoriferi, congelatori e lavatrici in sette PECO, per migliorare da un lato la conoscenza e la comprensione delle problematiche

  6. Eastern Africa Coastal Forest Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Younge, A.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...

  7. The energy question in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    In a first part, this book describes the energetic schemes, energy consumption and centralized economy in Eastern Europe countries. In the second part, the relationships between energy supply and macro-economic disequilibria in USSR is studied: Petroleum and power generation are chosen as example. In the third part, the book shows the energetic stakes in Central and Eastern Europe: the end of the exchange model (imports, exports) and the energetic schemes facing economical reforms

  8. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The cattle sector in Central and Eastern Europe : developments and opportunities in a time of transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.J.; Kuipers, A.; Keane, M.G.; Dimitriadou, A.

    2009-01-01

    Countries in Eastern-Europe are in a lengthy period of rapid changes. Ten Central and Eastern European countries entered the European Union in 2004 and two more entered in 2007. Surrounding countries to the east are in a similar process of change following the disintegration of the former Soviet

  10. Experience in implementing projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichard, A.; Bauer, I.; Rieck, R.; Ziehm, R.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers the present projects and activities in Eastern Europe of Nukem Technologies GmbH. The company's East European business began in 1973 in the field of uranium trading. After difficult negotiations in the period of the ''cold war'' it became possible to enter into an agreement with the Soviet foreign trade organization, Techsnabexport, about purchases of uranium for Western nuclear power plants. In the course of Nukem's realignment in the late 1980s, the focus was shifted more and more to the possibility of exporting into other countries the technologies developed and proven in Germany. This included countries in Eastern Europe. The situation changed abruptly with the political opening of Eastern Europe. A large potential market opened to Nukem as a supplier of technologies and plants for waste treatment and, later, the wider area of decommissioning. The partners in Eastern Europe were interested in proven, modern solutions. The ensuing success was also due to the fact that Nukem, in the early nineties, hired specialists from the new German federal states who had studied in the Soviet Union and were familiar with Russian technology, language, and culture. Soliciting analogous projects in the countries of Eastern Europe other than the former Soviet Union was begun in a parallel process. Very soon it turned out that also the interim storage of spent fuel elements constituted a potential market. (orig.)

  11. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Satish, Karthyayani Priya; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Ibrahim, Halah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restr...

  12. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Satish, Karthyayani Priya; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Ibrahim, Halah

    2016-08-19

    Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restrict, health information access and utilization for those with low literacy. By employing expert panel, Delphi technique, focus group methodologies, and pre-testing using participants (N = 900) from the UAE and India, a survey construct to the Eastern-Middle Eastern cultures was developed. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α and validity using Factor analysis. Kiaser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) sampling adequacy and Bartlett's tests were used to assess the strength of the relationship among the variables. Inclusion of non-health related items were found to be critical in the authentic assessment of health literacy in the Eastern and Middle Eastern population given the influence of social desirability. Thirty-two percentage of the original 19-item construct was eliminated by the focus group for reasons of relevance and impact for the local culture. Field pretesting participants from two countries, indicated overall construct reliability (Cronbach's α =0.85), validity and consistency (KMO value of 0.92 and Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant). The Eastern-Middle Eastern Adult Health Literacy (EMAHL13), screening instrument is brief, simple, a useful indicator of whether or not a patient can read. It assessespatients' ability to comprehend by distinguishing between health and non-health related items. The EMAHL13 will be a useful too for the reliable assessment of health literacy in countries, where culture plays a significant impact. This will be the first steptowards providing

  13. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Markus; Klaassen, Ger; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Soerensen, Lene; Hordijk, Leen

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO 2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO 2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  14. Secondary School Admissions Policies in Eastern Africa: Some Regional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, W. T. S.

    1974-01-01

    This discussion considers some regional issues implicit in current procedures regulating admission to secondary education in four countries of Eastern Africa and places these procedures in their general political context. (Author)

  15. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  16. Activities of Tedizolid and Linezolid Determined by the Reference Broth Microdilution Method against 3,032 Gram-Positive Bacterial Isolates Collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern Europe, and Latin American Countries in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N; Farrell, David J; Mendes, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    Tedizolid and linezolid in vitro activities against 3,032 Gram-positive pathogens collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern European, and Latin American medical centers during 2014 were assessed. The isolates were tested for susceptibility by the current reference broth microdilution methods. Due to concern over the effect of MIC endpoint criteria on the results of testing the oxazolidinones tedizolid and linezolid, MIC endpoint values were read by two methods: (i) reading the MIC at the first well where the trailing began without regard for pinpoint trailing, according to CLSI M07-A10 and M100-S26 document instructions for reading linezolid (i.e., 80% inhibition of growth; these reads were designated tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80), and (ii) at 100% inhibition of growth (designated tedizolid 100 and linezolid 100). All Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group, and Enterococcus faecalis isolates were inhibited at tedizolid 80 and 100 MIC values of 0.25 and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.25, 0.25 and 0.5, 0.12 and 0.25, and 0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Generally, MIC50 and MIC90 results for tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80 were one doubling dilution lower than those read at 100% inhibition. Tedizolid was 4- to 8-fold more potent than linezolid against all the isolates tested regardless of the MIC endpoint criterion used. Despite the differences in potency, >99.9% of isolates tested in this survey were susceptible to both linezolid and tedizolid using CLSI and EUCAST interpretive criteria. In conclusion, tedizolid demonstrated greater in vitro potency than linezolid against Gram-positive pathogens isolated from patients in medical centers across the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe, and Latin America. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H

    1994-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  18. Re-membering Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    -Soviet states into the “Eurovision” has been represented and discussed in Britain and Denmark, two countries with their own complex and complicated relationship to "Europe". Taking the cue from a growing scholarly production that argues for the importance of pop culture in the construction of social...... for analysing (political) memory. It then discusses the ways that the “Eastern enlargement” of the Contest in the 1990s triggered discussions of borders and belonging in both a historical and contemporary perspective. Finally the paper zooms in on British and Danish debates of three post-Soviet states; Estonia...

  19. Prospects of the power industry in central and eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubslaff, E.; Tillmann, H.B.; Lehmann, R.; Denk, P.

    2003-01-01

    The development of the Central and Eastern European countries is dependent to a large extent on the development of their national power industry. Until 1990, the development of the power industry of these countries was comparable to that of East Germany. After presenting an assessment of the upgrading of the power station park and grid in East Germany, we outline, by means of examples, the current situation in several Central and Eastern European countries and particularly in Russia. We discuss both the status quo of liberalisation and privatisation efforts made in these countries and the development of European transmission grids. (orig.) [de

  20. Labor Productivity Growth, Education, Health and Technological Progress: A Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Supachet Chansarn

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to calculate the growth rates of labor productivity of 30 countries categorized into four groups, including G7 countries, western developed countries, eastern developed countries and eastern developing countries, during 1981 – 2005 and examine the influences of education, health and technological progress on the growth rate of labor productivity. The findings reveal that the growth rates of labor productivity of every country, except the Philippines, were greater than four per...

  1. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  2. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  3. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  4. Addressing diabetes at the crossroads of global pandemic and regional culture: Comment on "The curse of wealth - Middle Eastern countries need to address the rapidly rising burden of diabetes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, William C; Gabbay, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    As diabetes and obesity rates continue to climb at astronomical rates in the Middle East, future generations are at an even greater risk for diabetes and the associated complications. Many factors are at play and it is clear that creative solutions are needed to retool provider resources in the Middle East towards prevention of diabetes and its complications while leveraging technology to maximize outreach within the accepted cultural norms. Only by building the capacity to address the current diabetes burden as well focusing on prevention for the future, can Middle East countries create a strong infrastructure for a successful future.

  5. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY ASSESSMENT IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Serrao, Amilcar

    2001-01-01

    This research work examines levels and trends in global agricultural productivity in fifteen European Union countries and four Eastern European countries that have already applied for European Union membership. The study makes use of data collected from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and covers the period 1980-1998. An approach based on Data Envelopment Analysis is used to provide information on the peers of the (inefficient) i-th country and to derive the Malmqui...

  6. Gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  7. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. "Wood already touched by fire is not hard to set alight": Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2015-03-01

    A major constraint to the application of any form of knowledge and principles is the awareness, understanding and acceptance of the knowledge and principles. Systems Thinking (ST) is a way of understanding and thinking about the nature of health systems and how to make and implement decisions within health systems to maximize desired and minimize undesired effects. A major constraint to applying ST within health systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) would appear to be an awareness and understanding of ST and how to apply it. This is a fundamental constraint and in the increasing desire to enable the application of ST concepts in health systems in LMIC and understand and evaluate the effects; an essential first step is going to be enabling of a wide spread as well as deeper understanding of ST and how to apply this understanding.

  9. Application of systems thinking in health: opportunities for translating theory into practice Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: a regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Asmat Ullah

    2015-03-19

    Systems thinking is not a new concept to health system strengthening; however, one question remains unanswered: How policy-makers, system designers and consultants with a system thinking philosophy should act (have acted) as potential change agents in actually gaining opportunities to introduce systems thinking? Development of Comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs) for Immunization System is one such opportunity because almost all Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) develop and implement cMYPs every five years. Without building upon examples and showing practical application, the discussions and deliberations on systems thinking may fade away with passage of time. There are opportunities that exist around us in our existing health systems that we can benefit from starting with an incremental approach and generating evidence for longer lasting system-wide changes. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. Time to shift from systems thinking-talking to systems thinking-action: Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bev J; Noel, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    A recent International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) article by Fadi El-Jardali and colleagues makes an important contribution to the literature on health system strengthening by reporting on a survey of healthcare stakeholders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) about Systems Thinking (ST). The study's main contributions are its confirmation that healthcare stakeholders understand the importance of ST but do not know how to act on that understanding, and the call for collective action by the global community of systems thinkers committed to healthcare improvement. We offer three basic considerations for next steps by this community, derived from our recent work in ST and the related field of Knowledge Translation (KT): resist the temptation to adopt a reductionist approach; recognize not everyone needs to understand ST; and do not wait for everything to be in place before getting started.

  11. Migration from the new EU member countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller; Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    investigates the potentials, limitations and conflicts of interests that are connected with temporary employment of Eastern European migrant workers within the unskilled labour sectors seen from the perspective of Danish labour market actors; politicians, labour marked unions, Danish employers, Danish......During the past four years more than 52.500 Eastern European EU citizens have worked and lived in Denmark. Migrant workers from the new EU countries are characterized by a high degree of mobility, flexibility and eagerness in terms of working and adapting to working conditions. Poorer socioeconomic...... and working conditions in their home countries as well as being of another cultural background than their Danish colleagues brings with it many challenges. This article examines the consequences of low-skilled labour migration to Denmark from the new EU member countries in Eastern Europe. The article...

  12. Exchange Rate Regime and External Adjustment in CEE Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Pietrucha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews effects of exchange rate regime's choice for adjustments processes in current accounts (CA in the Central and Eastern Europe countries between 2008-2012. During the period of global financial crisis, Poland may be treated as a handbook example of the reaction of floating exchange rate to shock and adjustments in the form of expenditure switching. However, the Polish experience is not typical among the Central and Eastern Europe countries. There is no evidence for the positive role of floating exchange rate in macroeconomic adjustments after the crisis in Central and Eastern Europe countries which belong to EU. The adjustments in the countries with fixed regimes were fast and deep. The real exchange rate decreased and export, CA and goods and services balance improved, development distance against EU countries was reduced. However, the experience of Baltic countries, which have internal devaluation, should be very carefully conveyed to other countries.

  13. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  14. Country-of-origin effect and consumer brand perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andreea

    This dissertation investigates the impact of country of origin on the brand perception of consumers from developed and emerging countries. Particularly, the aim is to explore the impact of the country of origin on the Western consumers’ brand perception of high involvement products with multiple...... countries of origin and the Central Eastern European consumers’ brand perception of low involvement products from developed countries. It comprises a summary report, consisting of an introduction, a methodology chapter, a conclusions chapter and four research papers....

  15. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar ...

  16. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013). Afghanistan. Central African Republic. Congo, Brazzaville. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Equatorial Guinea. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Gabon. Guinea-Bissau. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's ...

  17. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali.

  18. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  19. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  20. Implementing health financing reform: lessons from countries in transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kutzin, Joseph; Cashin, Cheryl; Jakab, Melitta

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, the social and economic policies of the transition countries of central and eastern Europe, the Caucasus and central Asia have diverged, including the way they have reformed the financing...

  1. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandrasekhar Nair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restrict, health information access and utilization for those with low literacy. Methods By employing expert panel, Delphi technique, focus group methodologies, and pre-testing using participants (N = 900 from the UAE and India, a survey construct to the Eastern-Middle Eastern cultures was developed. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s α and validity using Factor analysis. Kiaser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO sampling adequacy and Bartlett’s tests were used to assess the strength of the relationship among the variables. Results Inclusion of non-health related items were found to be critical in the authentic assessment of health literacy in the Eastern and Middle Eastern population given the influence of social desirability. Thirty-two percentage of the original 19-item construct was eliminated by the focus group for reasons of relevance and impact for the local culture. Field pretesting participants from two countries, indicated overall construct reliability (Cronbach’s α =0.85, validity and consistency (KMO value of 0.92 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant. Conclusion The Eastern-Middle Eastern Adult Health Literacy (EMAHL13, screening instrument is brief, simple, a useful indicator of whether or not a patient can read. It assessespatients’ ability to comprehend by distinguishing between health and non-health related items. The EMAHL13 will be a useful too for the reliable assessment of health literacy in countries, where culture plays a

  2. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map...... is available in different formats and is accompanied by an extensive documentation of the floristic, physiognomic and other characteristics of the different vegetation types and useful woody species in the 8 countries. It is complemented by a species selection tool, which can be used to 'find the right tree...

  3. Survey report for fiscal 1997 on the survey report on the actual state of technical cooperation on industrial technologies by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiiki ni okeru Obei shokoku no sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru gijutsu kyoryoku jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The actual state was surveyed on the technical cooperation by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region. The U.S.A. is making research cooperation with Thailand on ethylene molecule structures to enhance productivity in rubber production, France on molecule markers for high production rubber clone selection, and Australia on grain storing and drying methods. For the Philippines, America is giving assistance on management of reproducible resources, France on climate information communications systems for local areas, Australia on grain storing and drying methods, and Germany on waste oil recovery and reutilization, and development of pollution-free energy resources. For Malaysia, the Great Britain is cooperating on building engineering research centers, Australia on search for plant patheology genetic organics available in the Pacific region, and Germany on investigative researches on pollution prevention for tin mines and processing areas, and forestry and plant information systems. With respect to the ASEAN, this paper reports its activities placing importance on biology and electronics engineering, while the organization is taking actions in the areas of foodstuffs, animals, electronics, information and material science, energy exploration, marine and earth physics, and resource development. (NEDO)

  4. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola flukes from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Singh, T Shantikumar; Shoriki, Takuya; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Fasciola flukes from eastern India were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear ITS1. Both Fasciola gigantica and aspermic Fasciola flukes were detected in Imphal, Kohima, and Gantoku districts. The sequences of mitochondrial nad1 were analyzed to infer their phylogenetical relationship with neighboring countries. The haplotypes of aspermic Fasciola flukes were identical or showed a single nucleotide substitution compared to those from populations in the neighboring countries, corroborating the previous reports that categorized them in the same lineage. However, the prevalence of aspermic Fasciola flukes in eastern India was lower than those in the neighboring countries, suggesting that they have not dispersed throughout eastern India. In contrast, F. gigantica was predominant and well diversified, and the species was thought to be distributed in the area for a longer time than the aspermic Fasciola flukes. Fasciola gigantica populations from eastern India were categorized into two distinct haplogroups A and B. The level of their genetic diversity suggests that populations belonging to haplogroup A have dispersed from the west side of the Indian subcontinent to eastern India with the artificial movement of domestic cattle, Bos indicus, whereas populations belonging to haplogroup B might have spread from Myanmar to eastern India with domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Report on the control of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. Part 2: the reconversion of military plutonium stocks. The use of the helps given to central and eastern Europe countries and to the new independent states; Rapport sur le controle de la surete et de la securite des installations nucleaires. Deuxieme partie: la reconversion des stocks de plutonium militaire. L'utilisation des aides accordees aux pays d'Europe centrale et orientale et aux nouveaux etats independants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C

    2002-07-01

    This report deals with two different aspects of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. The first aspect concerns the reconversion of weapon grade plutonium stocks: the plutonium in excess, plutonium hazards and nuclear fuel potentialities, the US program, the Russian program, the actions of European countries (France, Germany), the intervention of other countries, the unanswered questions (political aspects, uncertainties), the solutions of the future (improvement of reactors, the helium-cooled high temperature reactor technology (gas-turbine modular helium reactor: GT-MHR), the Carlo Rubbia's project). The second aspect concerns the actions carried out by the European Union in favor of the civil nuclear facilities of central and eastern Europe: the European Union competencies through the Euratom treaty, the conclusions of the European audit office about the PHARE and TACIS nuclear programs, the status of committed actions, the coming planned actions, and the critical analysis of the policy adopted so far. (J.S.)

  6. Report on the control of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. Part 2: the reconversion of military plutonium stocks. The use of the helps given to central and eastern Europe countries and to the new independent states; Rapport sur le controle de la surete et de la securite des installations nucleaires. Deuxieme partie: la reconversion des stocks de plutonium militaire. L'utilisation des aides accordees aux pays d'Europe centrale et orientale et aux nouveaux etats independants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C

    2002-07-01

    This report deals with two different aspects of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. The first aspect concerns the reconversion of weapon grade plutonium stocks: the plutonium in excess, plutonium hazards and nuclear fuel potentialities, the US program, the Russian program, the actions of European countries (France, Germany), the intervention of other countries, the unanswered questions (political aspects, uncertainties), the solutions of the future (improvement of reactors, the helium-cooled high temperature reactor technology (gas-turbine modular helium reactor: GT-MHR), the Carlo Rubbia's project). The second aspect concerns the actions carried out by the European Union in favor of the civil nuclear facilities of central and eastern Europe: the European Union competencies through the Euratom treaty, the conclusions of the European audit office about the PHARE and TACIS nuclear programs, the status of committed actions, the coming planned actions, and the critical analysis of the policy adopted so far. (J.S.)

  7. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  8. Investigación en salud pública: ¿hay diferencias entre los países del norte, el sur y el este de Europa? Una perspectiva desde las asociaciones nacionales de salud pública Public health research: are there differences among northern, southern and eastern European countries? A perspective from national associations of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2010-06-01

    associations of the European Public Health Association. We compared the answers with reference to tree macro-areas: Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe. Results: We gained responses for 22 of 39 European countries (56% country response rate. Current priorities at national level were: health service and patient safety for Northern Europe; infectious disease, health service and cardiovascular disease for Southern Europe; and food safety and nutrition, environmental and occupational health for Eastern Europe. Respondents gave fewer priorities for international research. In the North Europe the priorities empathized were health promotion, prevention and education (26.3% together the injuries and alcohol habits (26.3%. Conclusion: Support for public-health research differs across Europe, and barriers to undertaking better research include structures and sufficient personnel. National public health associations and public authorities should cooperate in order to find effective answers to common problems.

  9. Country Gender Assessment for Ukraine 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is currently classified as a lower-middle income country in 2014. The country experienced a sustained economic growth since the early 2000’s, being associated with a fast reduction in poverty. However, the global financial and economic crisis hit the economy of Ukraine, generating one of the largest economic setbacks in Eastern Europe. To address these issues, this paper is focused...

  10. Country Presentation Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwata, P.K.; SAKI, A.; KAZADI, J.

    2010-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive minerals, precious metals and nuclear materials is generally expanded practice in some parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The phenomenon took place early in 1990 and amplified from 1998. The main causes of this practice are political instability that led to general poverty among population and the lack of legal framework governing the exploitation of minerals. Nuclear Illicit trafficking in Congo concerns radioactive mineral sand precious metals in eastern and southern parts of the country. The unfavorable political environment that took place in Congo in the 1990s resulted in local manpower and mine workers immigrating to neighboring countries. A great fraction of these new jobless started exploiting abandoned mines residues searching for Cu, Co and Au for survival. First cases of illicit exploitation of uranium minerals were reported very soon after rock sliding that occurred in 2004 on Shinkolobwe site in Katanga region. This uncontrolled mineral exploitation got worse when several mining companies were licensed by GECAMINES company to explore, exploit, purchase minerals from individuals and export raw materials and concentrates.

  11. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP...... essentially replicated the main weaknesses of the European Neighbourhood Policy, by offering too little incentive and support to the partners, rendering both conditionality and soft power ineffective as tools for milieu shaping. In promoting the EaP as a policy of soft power, the EU has once again forgotten...

  12. EU, Eastern Europe and Values Imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an idea of'values imperialism'as a helpful way of conceptualising the relationship between the EU and the states that came within its sphere of influence after the end of the Cold War, particularly its 'neighbours' in Eastern Europe. Values imperialism places its emphasis on the 'superstructure', including norms, laws and social practices. EU larger objective was that the assumptions about government and ownership that were favoured by the dominant powers (EU and the West in the broad term should be absorbed and recapitulated by those countries that were subordinate. The broad framework ofsubordination was established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements that began to be concluded from 1994 onwards. Patterns of'values imperialism'could also be discovered in the EU Common Strategies on Russia and Ukraine that were adopted in 1999. Article also points out several cases when the EU intervened directly in the domestic affairs of the Eastern Europe countries in a manner that was not always compatible with the provisions on state sovereignty: a 'European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights', launched in 2006, interventions ofEU representatives in the work of local courts and organisation of exit polls, which could be used to discredit the official election results and in this way to undermine the position of local governments. Finally, the author concludes that the EU used 'values imperialism'practices in order to extend its influence, particularly in the Eastern Europe.

  13. SO2 emission scenarios of eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, L.; Hao, J.; Lu, M.

    1995-01-01

    Under the National Key Project in Eighth Five-year Plan, a study was carried out on forecasting SO 2 emission from coal combustion in China, with a special emphasis on the eastern area. 3 scenarios, i.e. 'Optimistic', 'Pessimistic' and 'Business as Usual' scenarios were developed trying to cover changing scale of coal consumption and SO 2 emission from 1990 to 2020. A 'Top-down' approach was employed, and coal consumption elasticity was defined to project future economic growth and coal consumption. SO 2 emission scenarios were outlined, based on coal consumption, estimated sulfur content level and prospective SO 2 control situation. Emission level for each 1 degree longitude x 1 degree latitude grid cell within eastern China was also estimated to show geographical distribution of SO 2 sources. The results show that SO 2 emission in China will increase rapidly, if the current situation for energy saving and SO 2 control is maintained without improvement; measures enhanced reasonably with economic growth could stop further increase of emission by 2010. Realization of more encouraging objective to keep emission at even below 1990 level needs, however, more stringent options. The share of eastern China in the country's total emission would increase until 2000, while the general changing tendency would principally follow the scenarios of the whole country. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. EU nuclear policy towards countries in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, L.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union has undergone many changes over the last decade as a result of both internal and external pressures. Two successive enlargements have raised the number of Member States to fifteen. Two major Treaty reforms the Single Act and the Treaty on European Union have radically modified the EU's institutional and political framework.(author)

  15. SOCIAL TRUST – DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricea Elena BERTEA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Social trust or the belief that others will not harm us or will look after us, if possible, is a concept of interest for many scientists coming from different areas. It can be important for economists, for sociologists, for psychologists or health researchers. Differences in social trust can predict differences in economic development as well. The present study aims to compare the levels of social trust from Romania, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Poland. To do that, we will use data from the European Social Survey, the 2008 round.

  16. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  17. Eastern European patenting activities in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, D. [Murdoch University, Perth, WA (Australia). Inst. of Sustainability & Technological Policy

    2001-09-01

    The patenting activities of the former centrally planned economies in the US between 1976 and 1999 are examined. The technological performance of Eastern Europe is assessed and compared with that of the OECD countries. A sharp decline is observed as a consequence of the economic changes undergone by these countries in recent years. The study reveals some common technological strengths, such as in the areas of petroleum, coal, chemicals and other related products, and country-specific advantages, such as in mining in the former USSR, Poland and Bulgaria, textiles, clothing, footwear and leather in the former Czechoslovakia, printing, publishing and recorded media in the former East Germany, health in the former Yugoslavia, energy in Romania and design in Slovenia. Recommendations are made for the future use of foreign patents.

  18. An Investigation of Perceptional Differences between Eastern and Western Adolescents in Online Social Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The current study focused on an important issue pertaining to online social communication by investigating perceptional differences between eastern and western adolescents. A total of 309 participants were recruited from three countries: China, Singapore, and the United States. Significant differences were found between eastern and western…

  19. The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality. Assessment GEMs No. 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) carries out large-scale cross-national research studies in member countries in the Southern and Eastern Africa region. It aims to assess the conditions of schooling and performance levels of learners and teachers in the areas of literacy and numeracy. SACMEQ has…

  20. Risk of influenza A(nrH7N9) pandemic in the eastern Mediterranean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nrH7N9) infection in humans (1). Countries from the eastern Mediterranean region have high rates of viral hepatitis infection. The World Health. Organization (WHO) estimates that the HBsAg preva- lence in the eastern Mediterranean region ...

  1. ORTA VE DOĞU AVRUPA ÜLKELERİ AB’YE GİREREK ÜRETİM VE FİNANS KAPİTALİZMİNDE İLERLEME KAYDETTİLER Mİ? (WERE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ABLE TO MAKE PROGRESS BY BEING FULL MEMBERS OF THE EU?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent DOĞRU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Orta ve Doğu Avrupa Ülkeleri (CEE Estonya, Slovakya, Slovenya, Letonya, Polonya, Litvanya, Çek Cumhuriyeti ve Macaristan Avrupa Birliği ile sürdürdükleri müzakere sürecini bitirerek, 1 Mayıs 2004 tarihinde toplu halde Birliğe tam üye oldular. Çoğunluğu eski Sosyalist Bloku üyeleri olan bu ülkeler, AB’ye girerek kapitalist piyasa nimetlerinden faydalanmaya çalıştılar. Bu çalışma, geçen yedi yıllık süreçte bu ülkelerin amaçlarına hangi ölçüde ulaştıklarını incelemektedir. Çalışmada kullanılan kapitalizmin temel göstergeleri Mehmet Altan’ın “Kapitalizm Bu Köye Uğramadı” çalışmasında geçen ve Türkiye için kabul ettiği makroekonomik değişkenlerdir. Bu değişkenler, özel sektör istihdam oranı, özel sektör üretiminin toplam üretim içindeki payı, ticaretin toplam hâsıla içindeki payı, yabancı banka sayısındaki artış, özel yatırımların toplam hâsıla içindeki payı, şehirleşme oranı, borsa kapitalizasyonudur. Özel sektör ve yabancı sermaye itişli bu makroekonomik değişkenlerin CEE ülkeler için 2004 sonrası dönemde pozitif yönde anlamlı bir farklılaşma gösterip göstermediği analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, AB’ye girmek bu ülkelere ticaretlerini arttırma imkânı tanımış ve ticaret kapitalizminde ciddi bir ilerleme kaydetmelerine sebep olmuştur. Ancak üretim kapitalizmi ve finans kapitalizmi alanlarında ilerlemenin olduğuna dair güçlü delil bulunamamıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Kapitalizm, Bölgesel Ekonomik Topluluklar, Orta ve Doğu Avrupa Ülkeleri Ekonomileri. ABSTRACT: Central and Eastern European countries, Estonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Latvia, Poland, Lithuania, the Czech Republic and Hungary, became full members of the European Union on 1 May 2004 after completing the process of accession negotiations. These countries, mostly past member of the Communist Bloc, tried to utilize the benefits of the

  2. Oil exporting countries need nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

  3. Financial structure and monetary policy transmission in transition countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbourne, A.; de Haan, J.

    Using the structural vector autoregressive methodology, we present estimates of monetary transmission for the new and future EU member countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Unlike most previous research we include ten transition countries. We examine to what extent monetary transmission in these

  4. Corporate Finance and Restructuring: Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Köke, F. Jens; Salem, Tanja

    2000-01-01

    After the end of communism enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) were marked by low levels of labor productivity, mainly because of too high employment levels. According to economic theory, the corporate capital structure can be an important element in the restructuring process. But both, empirical evidence on corporate finance in CEE countries and its relation to employment is still sparse. This study describes the patterns of the corporate capital structure for ten CEE countries o...

  5. The changing nature of jobs in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Job polarization can pose serious problems for emerging economies that rely on worker reallocation from low-skilled to middle-skilled jobs to converge toward advanced economies. Evidence from Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries shows that structural change and education expansion can prevent polarization, as they enable a shift from manual to cognitive work and prevent the “hollowing out” of middle-skilled jobs. However, in CEE countries they have also led to a high routine cognitive...

  6. REGIONALIZATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE: OBSTACLES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Horváth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional policy depends on efficient administrative systems for designing and implementing strategies, and places considerable demands on Member States’ public administrations in terms of e.g. financial management and monitoring; project selection procedures; ex ante environmental impact assessments and cost-benefit analyses; and the monitoring and evaluation of outputs, results and impacts. EU member states have taken a range of different approaches to the administration of regional policy.The construction of regions in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe became one of the important debate topics for preparation for EU membership. Despite the numerous similarities in the changes that have taken place in the territorial structures of the Eastern and Central European countries, the differences in the responses individual countries gave to the challenges of regional development and the varied results of their development efforts demonstrate that the “Eastern European Bloc” is at least as heterogeneous as the former member states of the European Union. EU accession opened up a Pandora’s Box in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe. The fundamental issue of how unitarily structured states can be set on a decentralised path became the centre of debate. The paper introduces the Central and Eastern European achievements of region building processes and searches for an explanation of the reasons for the difficulties of Eastern and Central Europe in regional construction; it summarises the administrative and political development pre-requisites of the transition to a regional outline of the possible advantages of a regional institutional system in the creation of the Cohesion Policy ensuring a decrease in regional differences.

  7. Home births and postnatal practices in madagali, North.Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Home births are common in resource poor countries and postnatal practices vary from one community to the other. Objective: To determine the proportion of home births, reasons for home delivery, and evaluate postnatal practices in Madagali, north.eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a ...

  8. Increased mining activities in the eastern Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-20

    Oct 20, 2009 ... to the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, at 38%.9 The relative return to ... mining companies to invest in the eastern provinces of the country, presenting an opportunity to improve the nutritional and overall health status of children in the region. ... services for employees and their beneficiaries, potable water via.

  9. Atomic energy, environment and energy conservation in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Koko

    1990-01-01

    About 12 % of generated electric power is the nuclear power in Eastern European countries. Generally electric power is short in these countries, and as the countermeasures for environment, the promotion of nuclear power generation is considered. However, the public opinion opposing it is also strong. The situation in respective countries is briefly discussed. The prevention of warming of the earth and the reduction of carbon dioxide gas release are the largest environmental problems discussed in western countries, but in Eastern European countries, the far more primitive problem of the damage due to SO 2 is serious. Notwithstanding high sulfur brown coal is the main fuel, the installation of desulfurizing facilities has been neglected. The demand for the countermeasures to environmental pollution by people has become strong. The energy efficiency in Eastern European countries is poor, and it is one of the causes of environmental pollution. The industrial structure is centering around heavy industries which consume much energy, the energy loss arises due to the delay of equipment modernization, and the energy is cheap, so its saving is neglected. Energy conservation is important. (K.I.)

  10. Is tuberculosis crossing borders at the Eastern boundary of the European Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Marieke J.; Hollo, Vahur; Noori, Teymur

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Eastern border of the European Union (EU) consists of 10 countries after the expansion of the EU in 2004 and 2007. These 10 countries border to the East to countries with high tuberculosis (TB) notification rates. We analyzed the notification data of Europe to quantify the impact of cross-border TB at the Eastern border of the EU. Methods: We used TB surveillance data of 2010 submitted by 53 European Region countries to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin of the case (national/foreign). We calculated the contribution of foreign to overall TB notification. Results: In the 10 EU countries located at the EU Eastern border, 618 notified TB cases (1.7% of all notified TB cases) were of foreign origin. Of those 618 TB cases, 173 (28.0%) were from countries bordering the EU to the East. More specifically, 90 (52.0%) were from Russia, 33 (19.1%) from Belarus, 33 (19.1%) from Ukraine, 13 (7.5%) from Moldova and 4 (2.3%) from Turkey. Conclusions: Currently, migrants contribute little to TB notifications in the 10 EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU, but changes in migration patterns may result in an increasing contribution. Therefore, EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU should strive to provide prompt diagnostic services and adequate treatment of migrants. PMID:23813718

  11. The Trading Potential of Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen Kun; Winters, L. Alan

    1991-01-01

    This paper fits a gravity model to the trade of 76 market economies. It then applies the model to data on East European economies to estimate what their trading potential might have been, had behaved like market economies in the mid-1980s. At existing levels of national income, the liberalization of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is unlikely to affect their mutual trade and trade with developing countries, but it will increase trade with industrial counties by factors of three to thirty....

  12. Eastern Europe: pronatalist policies and private behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1982-02-01

    Fertility trends in the 9 Eastern European socialist countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, USSR, Yugoslavia) are reviewed. Official policy in all these countries but Yugoslavia is explicitly pronatalist to varying degrees. Attention is directed to the following areas: similarities and differences; fertility trends (historical trends, post World War 2 trends, and family size); abortion trends (abortion legislation history, current legislation, abortion data, impact on birth rates, abortion seekers, health risks, and psychological aftereffects); contraceptive availability and practice; pronatal economic incentives (impact on fertility); women's position; and marriage, divorce, and sexual attitudes. The fact that fertility was generally higher in the Eastern European socialist countries than in Western Europe in the mid-1970s is credited to pronatalist measures undertaken when fertility fell or threatened to fall below replacement level (2.1 births/woman) after abortion was liberalized in all countries but Albania, following the lead of the USSR in 1955. Fertility increased where access to abortion was again restricted (mildly in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary at various times, and severely in Romania in 1966) and/or economic incentives such as birth grants, paid maternity leave, family and child care allowances, and low interest loans to newlyweds were substantially increased (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland to some extent, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and the German Democratic Republic in 1976). Subsequent declines in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania suggest that policy induced increases in fertility are short-lived. Couples respond to abortion restrictions by practicing more efficient contraception or resorting to illegal abortion. It is evident that the region's low birth rate is realized mainly with abortion, for withdrawal remains the primary contraceptive

  13. Recent Development of Municipal Finance in Selected European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Peter; Kaltschütz, Anita; Nam, Chang Woon

    2004-01-01

    The idea of fiscal decentralisation has become increasingly fashionable world-wide. In some developed countries the systems of intergovernmental finance have evolved gradually and each country has unique features. Transition countries on different continents have had differing reasons and motivations for such reforms. More recently, the acknowledgement of subsidiarity as the basic principle for the European Un-ion, the introduction of the West German federal system in the eastern part of the ...

  14. The Nuclear Power Revival in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayou, Celine

    2007-01-01

    Far from traumatized by the April 1986 Chernobyl accident, the Central and Eastern European countries as well as the CIS are showing a growing interest in nuclear energy: this choice may be explained by increased energy demands and safer supply requirements but also by the battle against global warming. In effect, commitments made on limiting greenhouse gas emissions (particularly for the EU new member states) are becoming increasingly important as these countries return to growth. Thus, nuclear power seems to be a partial but secure means of not endangering the latter while adopting a more respectful stance vis-a-vis the environment. Thus, each country is coming out in favour of the civilian use of nuclear power: Russia has been reviving its nuclear program over the last few years, while countries obliged to close their decrepit or Soviet style power stations (Bulgaria, Slovakia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Armenia) have projects to build new ones. Those who possess reactors (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, the Ukraine) are endeavouring to increase their potential, those which had hitherto no civilian nuclear facilities are now planning to build them (Belarus, Albania) or are contributing to projects in neighbouring countries (Estonia, Latvia, Poland). Within this context, the anti-nuclear argument has difficulty in finding a voice in the East

  15. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  16. «Eastern Partnership» after the Vilnius Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chernova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The third summit of EU's Eastern Partnership held in Vilnius in November 2013 became a real turning point in the development of this organization. And it didn't happen due to signing of the first EU Association Agreement of its kind with the partner states but due to a sudden turn of the largest and most important of them - Ukraine - to the Russia's rival integration project. By doing so Ukraine at least temporarily joined two of the other participating countries: Armenia and Belarus, the latter of which is already in the Custom Union. At the other pole of the Eastern Partnership there are Georgia and Moldavia which initialed the Association and Free Trade agreements with the EU in Vilnius. This widening gap within the Eastern Partnership attracted everybody's attention to the EU - Russia rivalry in the post-Soviet countries which is increasingly interpreted in terms of the clash of civilizations. In this article we'd rather touch upon some of the peculiarities of the Eastern Partnership itself and its participating countries which to a large extent predetermined such an outcome. Among them is the ambiguous legacy of the European Neighbourhood Policy, lack of membership perspective in the EU as well as the nature of societies and elites in these post-Soviet states.

  17. Extreme negative coexceedances in South Eastern European stock markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tevdovski, Dragan

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE) stock markets. We use a multinomial logistic regression to analyze how persistence, asset class and volatility effects are related with negative coexceedances in SEE markets. We find evidence in favor...... of the continuation hypothesis in SEE stock markets. However, the factors associated with the coexceedances differ between the EU member countries from SEE and EU accession countries from SEE stock markets.The EU member countries are more dependent from the signals from major EU economies, while the accession...

  18. Radiation Oncology in the Developing Economies of Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiashvili, Natia

    2017-04-01

    Eastern Europe is represented by 22 countries of significant variability in population density and degree of economic development. They have been affected by past geopolitical isolation due to their association with the "Soviet Block." Currently, all Eastern European countries except Slovenia are low- or middle-income level and 10 of them are part of European Union. Health care systems in Central and Eastern Europe have been influenced by the legacy of centralized soviet-era governance; however, most countries, particularly in European Union zone, have gone through health care reforms directed toward modernizing infrastructure and staffing. The level of health financing available through health insurance has increased in the region, although still lags behind the Western European levels. After adjusting for differing population age structures, overall incidence rates in both sexes are lower in Eastern and Central Europe compared with the Northern and Western European countries; however, mortality remains higher. There is an ongoing shortage of oncology services in Eastern Europe, including radiotherapy equipment and personnel. Eastern European radiotherapy field is highly diverse with large differences among countries regarding staffing structure, training, accreditation, and defined roles and responsibilities. The rapid diffusion of technological innovations has been identified as one of the most important factors driving the escalating health care expenses, and the need for better cost-effective solutions applicable to the local health care systems and levels of economic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Number of Children, Partnership Status, and Later-life Depression in Eastern and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Emily; van den Broek, Thijs; Keenan, Katherine

    2017-05-03

    To investigate associations between number of children and partnership with depressive symptoms among older Europeans and assess whether associations are greater in Eastern than Western countries. We further analyze whether associations are mediated by provision and receipt of emotional and financial support. Using cross-sectional data for five Eastern (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, Romania, and Russia) and four Western European countries (Belgium, France, Norway, and Sweden) (n = 15,352), we investigated variation in depressive symptoms using linear regression. We fitted conditional change score models for depressive symptoms using longitudinal data for four countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, and France) (n = 3,978). Unpartnered women and men had more depressive symptoms than the partnered. In Eastern, but not Western, European countries childlessness and having one compared with two children were associated with more depressive symptoms. Formal tests indicated that partnership and number of children were more strongly associated with depressive symptoms in Eastern than Western Europe. Availability of close family is more strongly associated with older people's depressive symptoms in Eastern than Western Europe. The collapse of previous state supports and greater economic stress in Eastern Europe may mean that having a partner and children has a greater psychological impact than in Western countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  20. MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS AND BANKING CONSOLIDATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Nicoleta Popovici

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquisitions and mergers are the growth and expansion strategies that are commonly used by the companies in all over the world because of several reasons such as increasing the profit, sales and market share, entering into new markets, operating with economics of scale, coping with managerial problems and so on. This article underlines the characteristics of mergers and acquisitions (M&A, the different types of M&A, the challenges and opportunities for the banking system in Central and Eastern Europe and we analyze the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries.

  1. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  2. Shadow economies and corruption all over the world: revised estimates for 120 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Friedrich G.; Buehn, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Estimations of the shadow economies for 120 countries, including developing, Eastern Europe and Central Asian and high income OECD countries over 1999 to 2006 are presented. The average size of the shadow economy (as a percent of "official" GDP) in 2004/05 in 76 developing countries is 35.5%, in 19 Eastern and Central Asian countries 36.7% and in 25 high income OECD countries 15.5%. An increased burden of taxation and social security contributions, combined with labour market regulations are ...

  3. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  4. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana JITARU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Partnership (EaP launched in 2009 as the Eastern dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy introduced the civil society as a new strategic actor in the EU's relations with Eastern Partnership countries. The civil society‟s role is to participate in policy making, to suggest new initiatives and to promote shared values of partnership, such as: democracy, promoting better governance, state law, sustainable development, respect for human rights and for the fundamental freedoms. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, we analyse the role of the civil society in the EaP and we ask whether the increasing role of the civil society in the EaP will lead to the success of this project. In the second part, we analyse the perceptions and the attitudes of civil society towards European integration.

  6. Infrastructure design & road safety : OECD Workshop B3 (Infrastructure design and road safety) for CEE's and NIS held on 15th-18th November 1994, Prague (Czech Republic). Part 1: Summaries, conclusions and recommendations, and statements from Central and Eastern European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The workshop 'Infrastructure design and road safety ' was one of the initiatives which the OECO Steering Committee for Road Transport Research developed with the aim of exchanging information in the road transport sector, in order to respond to the urgent needs expressed by Central and Eastern

  7. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirbu, Irina; Kunst, Anton E.; Mielck, Andreas; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the

  8. Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirbu, I.; Kunst, A.E.; Mielck, A.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia

  9. Foreign bank entry and performance with a focus on Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaborg, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since the Fall of the Wall in 1989, large international banks have been opening branches in former Eastern Bloc countries with high expectations. Ilko Naaborg investigated how these banks function in eleven different countries. In 1995, on average, foreign banks made up about 25 percent of the total

  10. Great Expectations? Variation in Educational Plans of Students in Post-Socialist Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chykina, Volha; Chung, Hee Jin; Bodovski, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Using all available waves of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) from 1995 to 2011, this study examines the factors influencing educational expectations of students in five Eastern European countries (Hungary, Lithuania, the Russian Federation, Romania, and Slovenia). We consistently find across countries and waves…

  11. The Social Consequences of Postcommunist Structural Change: An Analysis of Suicide Trends in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Guided by Durkheim's classic theory of suicide, this article examines suicide trends and determinants in Eastern European countries for the period of 1989-2006, with particular attention given to the association between postcommunist social change and suicide mortality. I find that countries characterized by more drastic structural change…

  12. Dairy chain competitiveness in EU’s new member states, candidate and potential candidate countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.

    2009-01-01

    This comparative analysis of structures and performances of the dairy supply chain in 20 south-eastern and eastern European countries shows that even after many years of structural change, the sector is still dominated by small-scale and subsistence farming, which results in weak vertical

  13. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  14. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  15. Pattern of Occurrence of Leukemia at a Teaching Hospital in Eastern Region of Nepal - A Six Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kulshrestha

    2009-01-01

    The data published in this study reflects the leukemia pattern in the eastern region of Nepal. The pattern and distribution of AML, CML, ALL was similar to that in the developed western countries while the lesser frequency of CLL was similar to that in Southeast Asian region Key Words:leukemia, pattern, eastern Nepal, seasonality.

  16. Middle Eastern solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, M.

    2001-01-01

    The need to consider the Middle East as a group of distinct countries and not as one single market and to tailor the services offered by companies is stressed. The cultures, political and social conditions, forms of the oil and gas industry in the countries making up the Middle East and their technology requirements are different and vary widely. The approach taken by Shell Global Solutions to these differences is described and illustrated with Shell's experiences in Oman and Saudi Arabia. Shell has found that Omanis are keen to work in their oil and gas industry, and to protect their country's natural environment. Saudi also have intense pride in their oil industry and here Shell supports refinery operators reduce costs while maintaining strict quality control. Shell has been selected to help Saudi Arabia develop its natural gas reserves; as part of the Core Venture 3 project, Shell will build a power desalination plant

  17. A study of melanoma in Eastern European migrants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrua, Chiara; Fava, Paolo; Brizio, Matteo; Savoia, Paola

    2017-04-01

    Cancer survival rates are lower in Eastern Europe. To describe, based on a single-centre database in northern Italy, clinical, histopathological, and prognostic features of melanoma in a migrant population from Eastern Europe. We retrospectively analysed data from 18,190 consecutive foreign patients who visited our institution, with 49 cases of melanoma from Eastern Europe. The control group was represented by 1,003 Italian melanoma patients diagnosed and followed at our centre during the same time period. Patients from Eastern Europe were mainly females with lower median age, without significant differences regarding primary melanoma site, relative to the control group. Diagnosis was made at the place of birth in 30.6% and in our centre for the remainder. Median Breslow thickness was greater (p = 0.0178), and aggressive histotypes (p = 0.0017) and ulcerated melanomas (p = 0.002) were significantly over-represented, particularly when diagnosed in the patients' native country. Disease was more advanced at diagnosis (p = 0.0001), regardless of the place of initial diagnosis (51% had a progressive disease within one year which rose to 80% if diagnosed before admission to our centre), and the percentage of patients who died within one year was significantly higher (p = 0.022), relative to the control group. Our study shows a poor prognosis for melanoma patients diagnosed in Eastern Europe. Moreover, for migrant populations moving from Eastern to Western European countries, financial difficulties, poor social integration, and language barriers, with consequent late access to healthcare facilities, may account for a worse prognosis.

  18. Agroecology Development in Eastern Europe—Cases in Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Moudrý

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroecology is a discipline of science that is based on several disciplines, primarily ecology and agronomy. Although the first mention of agroecology was more than 100 years ago, it has recently been more intensely developed throughout Eastern European countries, beginning in the 1990s. Basically, such interest developed due to the intensification of agriculture in the second half of the 20th century, which was based on the premise of agricultural research, and related specifically to production. Agroecology is also strongly associated with sustainable agricultural activities, especially organic farming, which began to develop in Eastern European countries around 1990. Due to the unique environment of Eastern European countries, and a combination of several disciplines within them as well as other factors, agroecology in these differing countries can be perceived as somewhat different from one another. This overview focuses on the current state of agroecology in the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Slovakia.

  19. Development of gas markets in developing countries and in countries in economical transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, J.; Guegan, G.; Guerrini, Y.; Marzeau, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 10 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress was devoted to the study of gas markets in developing countries and in countries in economical transition. This committee comprises three group of studies covering the following topics: natural gas in the less developed countries (environment protection, power production, institutional framework and cooperation), natural gas in countries in economical transition (situation in Eastern Europe, reforms and investments, prices and tariffs, towards the integration to the European Union), natural gas in developing countries (financing and technology transfers, down-side gas development, economical viability, technology transfers, projects financing, recommendations), inter-region development and power production (South America, Asia, role of the worldwide bank). (J.S.)

  20. THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP – A PREMISE FOR AN ENHANCED EU-EASTERN NEIGHBOURS COOPERATION RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mocanu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union towards the Central and Eastern Europe has brought to attention the necessity to reshape the EU institutional framework and specific policies addressing its new neighbourhood. Repeatedly stating that the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP is not a preceding phase for membership, the European Union also embraced the Polish-Swedish initiative for an Eastern Partnership (EaP. Meant at first to counterbalance the Union for Mediterranean project, the EaP has developed into a distinct project, with specific and ambitious cooperation goals, a positive and constructive agenda meant to support six countries (Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Belarus develop and harmonize with the European standards and, at the same, attempting to build and further develop an Eastern dimension of the ENP. The questions of the efficiency of the conditionality derived from the EaP and also the complementarity of this initiative with other regional projects in the area can also be important matters of concern.

  1. Eastern Europe's nuclear power. Buying peace of mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The use of nuclear power to generate electricity is much more widely used in Eastern Europe than it is generally in the West. When these countries were part of the centrally planned economies of the former Soviet Union, many vast reactors were constructed and commissioned. Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and following political independence from Russia, many of these huge reactors are under threat of closure. The energy situation in Eastern Europe is acute. The break down of the old order has left individual countries struggling to maintain a power supply. While the debate over the safety, or otherwise, of these giant nuclear power plants continues, there is a continuing dialogue in the West about how to pay for safety improvements to bring these reactors up to international standards of safety. (UK)

  2. DISQUIETUDE ON THE EASTERN FLANK: AWAITING ALLIANCE RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Manea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The absence of significant and tangible military defensive infrastructure on the Eastern flank generated over time a breach of credibility in the security guarantee provided by NATO under its Article 5 commitment. The main argument of the countries in the New Europe now is that, in order to be credible enough, and not just a paper guarantee, a collective defence commitment must be backed by “boots on the ground” and by military tangible logistics.While assuming this perspective, the present article looks at some of the alarm signals coming from the countries on NATO’s Eastern flank, trying to explain the feeling of insecurity perceived by the states in the region as well as the options available to the Euro-Atlantic community in order to engage in a much-needed process of strategic reassurance.

  3. Cooperation between Eastern and Western Europe in electrical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoz, H.; Remondeulaz, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief historical account of relations between Eastern and Western Europe in matters of electricity and explains why the two blocks developed separately, at the same nominal frequency but with disparate synchronous systems. Then, examining annual electrical energy transfers among the various groups of European countries, the authors show that these exchanges are destined to grow considerably as the development gap between the Eastern and Western countries gradually closes. They wind up with a comparative study of the advantages and disadvantages of alternating and direct current interconnections and raise the question of whether the need for very costly AC-DC conversion stations might be avoided by synchronizing the two existing systems. Answers can be found only in broad international cooperation to lay down the guidelines, and in bilateral negociations to implement them. International organization like UNIPEDE and UCPTE seem to be the perfect framework for this type of concertation. 5 figs

  4. Urban activism in Central and Eastern Europe: A theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bitušíková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study brings an overview of selected transdisciplinary theoretical approaches to the study of urban movements and activism placed within the framework of civil society and social movements, focused on the region of Central and Eastern Europe, and seen from a social anthropological perspective. It attempts to challenge older academic writings that described civil society in Central and Eastern Europe as underdeveloped and weak, and presents research that points out a specific nature of activism in the countries of the region. It builds primarily on the concepts of civil society, social movements, urban movements and urban activism as presented by scholars both from “Western” and “Central and Eastern” European countries and demonstrates that after more than two decades since the fall of communism it is still important to take different historic, political, economic, social and cultural contexts into account when comparing urban movements and activism within Europe.

  5. Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Nuclear safety is one of the critical issues with respect to the enlargement of the European Union towards the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In the context of the enlargement process, the European Commission overall strategy on nuclear safety matters has been to bring the general standard of nuclear safety in the pre-accession countries up to a level that would be comparable to the safety levels in the countries of the European Union. In this context, the primary objective of the project was to develop a common format and general guidance for the evaluation of the current nuclear safety status in countries that operate commercial nuclear power plants. Therefore, one of the project team first undertakings was to develop an approach that would allow for a consistent and comprehensive overview of the nuclear safety status in the CEEC, enabling an equal treatment of the countries to be evaluated. Such an approach, which did not exist, should also ensure identification of the most important safety issues of the individual nuclear power plants. The efforts resulted in the development of the ''Performance Evaluation Guide'', which focuses on important nuclear safety issues such as plant design and operation, the practice of performing safety assessments, and nuclear legislation and regulation, in particular the role of the national regulatory body. Another important aspect of the project was the validation of the Performance Evaluation Guide (PEG) by performing a preliminary evaluation of nuclear safety in the CEEC, namely in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. The nuclear safety evaluation of each country was performed as a desktop exercise, using solely available documents that had been prepared by various Western institutions and the countries themselves. Therefore, the evaluation is only of a preliminary nature. The project did not intend to re-assess nuclear safety, but to focus on a comprehensive summary

  6. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Fedák, András; Baska, Ferenc; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Basso, Walter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. FINDINGS: Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region re...

  7. Eastern Health Board Regional Orthodontic Service: an initial audit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, P A

    1997-01-01

    This initial audit of 600 recently assessed Eastern Health Board orthodontic patients suggests that a large number of them (47 per cent) requires referral for routine restorative and preventive dental care. Closer links are needed with general dental practitioners and community dental surgeons to resolve these needs. The trend for a high referral of females and Class 11 Division 1 malocclusion type correlated well with studies in other countries.

  8. Differential pricing of new pharmaceuticals in lower income European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Annemans, Lieven; Garrison, Louis P

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies adjust the pricing strategy of innovative medicines to the imperatives of their major markets. The ability of payers to influence the ex-factory price of new drugs depends on country population size and income per capita, among other factors. Differential pricing based on Ramsey principles is a 'second-best' solution to correct the imperfections of the global market for innovative pharmaceuticals, and it is also consistent with standard norms of equity. This analysis summarizes the boundaries of differential pharmaceutical pricing for policymakers, payers and other stakeholders in lower-income countries, with special focus on Central-Eastern Europe, and describes the feasibility and implications of potential solutions to ensure lower pharmaceutical prices as compared to higher-income countries. European stakeholders, especially in Central-Eastern Europe and at the EU level, should understand the implications of increased transparency of pricing and should develop solutions to prevent the limited accessibility of new medicines in lower-income countries.

  9. “Institutional Representations” concerning “Eastern Immigrants” in the Portuguese Society

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Maria Manuela

    2010-01-01

    In this discussion will analyse Portugal’s new position in international migratory movements. It used to be an exclusively labour exporter country and is now becoming a destination spot for international migratory fluxes. Our country has been marked by different migration waves, corresponding to time periods and differentiated immigrant groups, from PALOP (African Portuguese Speaking Countries) and Brazil, but since 2000, we knew a new wave immigrants, coming from of Eastern Europe (particula...

  10. Interkosmos the Eastern bloc's early space program

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the Interkosmos program, which was formed in 1967, marking a fundamentally new era of cooperation by socialist countries, led by the Soviet Union, in the study and exploration of space. The chapters shed light on the space program that was at that time a prime outlet for the Soviet Union's aims at becoming a world power. Interkosmos was a highly publicized Russian space program that rapidly became a significant propaganda tool for the Soviet Union in the waning years of communism. Billed as an international “research-cosmonaut” imperative, it was also a high-profile means of displaying solidarity with the nine participating Eastern bloc countries. Those countries contributed pilots who were trained in Moscow for week-long “guest” missions on orbiting Salyut stations. They did a little subsidiary science and were permitted only the most basic mechanical maneuvers. In this enthralling new book, and following extensive international research, the authors fully explore ...

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c in diabetes between Eastern and Western.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuang; Liu, Siying; Zhao, Yashuang; Zhang, Wencui; Sun, Xiaohui; Li, Jianing; Jiang, Fuli; Ju, Jiaming; Lang, Ning; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhou, Weiyu; Li, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, the American Diabetes Association recommended the use of HbA1c as a diagnostic criterion for diabetes. However, HbA1c is not an accepted diagnostic tool for diabetes in Eastern Asia, because genetic differences compromise the standardization of the diagnostic cut-off point. This study evaluated differences in the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes in Eastern and Western populations and investigated whether HbA1c cut-off point of ≥ 6.5% is diagnostic of diabetes in patients from Eastern Asia. Literature was obtained from MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of each HbA1c cut-off point were extracted and compared between Western and Eastern populations. Differences in the cut-off point for diagnosing diabetes in each region were compared by examining differences in the area under summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves. Twelve publications from Eastern countries (n = 59,735) and 13 from Western countries (n = 22,954) were included in the analysis. Areas under SROC curves in the Eastern and Western groups were 0.9331 and 0.9120, respectively (P = 0.98). The cut-off point of the highest Youden index was 6.0%. At the HbA1c cut-off point of 6.5%, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 58.7% and 98.4% for Eastern countries and 65.5% and 98.1% for Western countries, respectively. HbA1c exhibits the same diagnostic value for diabetes in Eastern and Western populations. In both populations, HbA1c levels > 6.0% identify the population at high risk of diabetes, and HbA1c > 6.5% is diagnostic of clinically established diabetes. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  13. Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Futo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The analytical and statistical services of border management organizations in Central and Eastern European countries have registered and accumulated a vast body of knowledge on the demographics and mechanisms of illegal migration over the last one-and-a-half decade. This paper attempts to tap this resource by summarising the results of a yearly survey among border guards of 17 countries. A set of quantitative indicators of illegal migration is developed, presented and interpreted, based on the answers of the border services to a series of quantitative and qualitative questions. This empirical material is used to evaluate the dynamics and pattern of illegal migration in Central and Eastern Europe on the one hand, and to examine the development of border management strategies on the other. The impacts of legal and institutional reforms are investigated in light of the temporal and spatial variations of border apprehension statistics. The interdependence of the two processes is reviewed from the point of view of national border management authorities, perhaps the most authoritative source of information on the issue. The results of the authors’ annual survey indicate that the progressive development of migration control mechanisms at national and international levels seems to have a significant impact on irregular migration flows as most indicators of illegal migration have significantly decreased after the turn of the century. At the same time, the geographical distribution of illegal migration flows in Central and Eastern European countries has become more complex over the years.

  14. Prospects of Nuclear Power for Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourogov, V. M.; Khan, A. M.; Rogner, H-H.; Kagramanian, V. S.

    1998-01-01

    The demand for electricity in developing countries of the world is expected to grow rapidly in the coming decades as these countries undergo the process of industrialization, accompanied by increased urbanization, and seek to improve the living standards of their growing population. The continued heavy reliance of the power sector on fossil fuels will result in an increased dependence of a number of the developing countries on energy imports, with consequentbalance of payment difficulties and implications in terms of reduced energy security, cause severe degradation of the local and regional environment, and will also lead to increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Increasing the share of hydropower in most of the developing countries is constrained by the limited potential of hydro resources as well as environmental considerations. Other renewable energy technologies such as solar PV and wind power are not expected to play a significant role in the commercial supply of electricity in the foreseeable future in the most part of the developing world. Thus nuclear power as a non-fossil alternative with a proven and mature technology may be called upon to play an increasing role in the future supply of electricity to developing countries. The paper discusses the main factors that are likely to affect, both positively and negatively, the deployment of nuclear power in developing countries and presents the results of the recent IAEA projections on nuclear power capacity growth up to the 2020. The paper also briefly reviews the prospects of nuclear power in Central and Eastern European countries. (author)

  15. Danish environmental support fund for Eastern Europe. Co-operation development 1991-1996 and programme priority areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The publication gives an account of environmental co-operation between Denmark and 12 countries in Eastern Europe. The basis of co-operation is a country programme, describing present and future priority areas in the recipient countries, as an expression of common understanding between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment in the recipient countries. The publication also describe the environmental efforts made in 1991-1996 under the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) administered by the DEPA. (au)

  16. Personal Bankruptcy Regulations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Hetes-Gavra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from Central and Eastern Europe are in different stages of development andimplementation of personal bankruptcy legislation. Austria has regulations comparable to those inWestern Europe, while the Czech Republic and Poland have recently developed regulationsregarding the bankruptcy of individuals. The solutions identified in countries that have followed asimilar path, namely the abandonment of a centrally planned economy and transition to afunctioning market economy, which consequently led to the problem of individual bankruptcy, canalso be applied selectively in Romania in the next period.

  17. Biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe. General information, favorable concepts and financing possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellenbroek, R.; Ballard-Tremeer, G.; Koeks, R.; Venendaal, R.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide information on the possibilities to invest and carry out biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe. In the first part of the guide background information is given on countries in Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on bio-energy. A few cases are presented to illustrate different biomass energy concepts. Based on economic calculations an indication is given of the feasibility of those concepts. Also the most relevant sources of information are listed. In the second part an overview is given of Dutch, European and international financial tools that can be used in biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe

  18. Stroke in the young: access to care and outcome; a Western versus eastern European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Ajay; Grieve, Richard; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2008-01-01

    To develop effective strategies to address the needs of young patients with stroke, it is important to recognize what components of stroke care they receive. The aims of this study were to describe the provision of stroke care and the factors associated with 3-month mortality and disability (Barthel Index 0-14) in patients younger than 55 years across Western and Eastern Europe. Data from hospital-based stroke registers in Western Europe (7 centers, 6 countries) and Eastern Europe (4 centers, 3 countries) were analyzed. Of 1735 patients admitted to hospital, 201 (11.5%) patients were younger than 55 years (Western European centers 51%, and Eastern European centers 49%). Stroke department care was higher in Western centers (67%) than in Eastern centers (24%) (P Western centers. At 3 months, case fatalities between Western and Eastern centers were 8% versus 23% (P = .003). Patients in Eastern European centers were more likely to have disability at 3 months (odds ratio = 24.3, confidence interval = 1.2-494, P = .04). Young patients with stroke in Western Europe are more likely to gain access to a number of components of stroke care compared with those in Eastern Europe. The future challenge is to ensure that recommendations are adopted to ensure all young patients receive evidence-based stroke care across Europe.

  19. Financing clean coal projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Trade and Development Program (TDP), a U.S. Government agency, provides funding for US firms to carry out feasibility studies, consultancies, and other planning services related to major projects in developing countries. By providing assistance in project planning, TDP promotes economic development; at the same time, TDP helps US firms get involved in projects that offer significant export opportunities. TDP has programs throughout the developing world, including Central and Eastern Europe, and has recently been authorized to operate in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. The vast size and population of this region, as well as its tremendous infrastructural and basic industrial needs, present new challenges to TDP. The basic TDP program is described below; it is likely to be modified somewhat to meet the specific requirements of the NIS

  20. The development of academic family medicine in central and eastern Europe since 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krztoń-Królewiecka, Anna; Švab, Igor; Oleszczyk, Marek; Seifert, Bohumil; Smithson, W Henry; Windak, Adam

    2013-03-19

    Since the early 1990s former communist countries have been reforming their health care systems, emphasizing the key role of primary care and recognizing family medicine as a specialty and an academic discipline. This study assesses the level of academic development of the discipline characterised by education and research in central and eastern European (CEE) countries. A key informants study, using a questionnaire developed on the basis of a systematic literature review and panel discussions, conducted in 11 central and eastern European countries and Russia. Family medicine in CEE countries is now formally recognized as a medical specialty and successfully introduced into medical training at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Almost all universities have FM/GP departments, but only a few of them are led by general practitioners. The specialist training programmes in all countries except Russia fulfil the recommendations of the European Parliament. Structured support for research in FM/GP is not always available. However specific scientific organisations function in almost all countries except Russia. Scientific conferences are regularly organised in all the countries, but peer-reviewed journals are published in only half of them. Family medicine has a relatively strong position in medical education in central and eastern Europe, but research in family practice is less developed. Although the position of the discipline at the universities is not very strong, most of the CEE countries can serve as an example of successful academic development for countries southern Europe, where family medicine is still not fully recognised.

  1. The Political Business Cycles of EU Accession Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hallerberg; L. Vinhas de Souza

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers whether political business cycles exist in Eastern European accession countries. Section I introduces the overall objectives of the work. Section II provides a short introduction to the political business cycle literature. It also considers the role of exchange

  2. Ecological problems in Central Europe and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1989-01-01

    Owing to the very restrictive information policy of the socialist governments, little is known of the ecological situation in these countries. Attention has been drawn to their ecological problems by a number of accidents (Chernobyl, forest decline along the western frontier of East Germany and Czechoslovakia, pollution of the Elbe river, smog situations in West Germany). Of the Western nations, West Germany is the most concerned as it borders on East Germany and Czechoslovakia. The book intends to help close the information gap concerning ecological problems and environmental policy in the socialist countries. It comprises three sections: Part 1 presents central characteristics of environmental policy in the socialist states, with a view to their specific ideological and administrative aspects. Part 2 compares selected fields of environmental policy in the different socialist countries. Part 3 presents case studies of some countries in Central and Eastern Europe. (orig./HP) [de

  3. A People’s Court? A Bottom-up approach to litigation before the Euopean Court of Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, J.

    2018-01-01

    Each year the European Court of Justice delivers over a thousand decisions on the basis of EU law that affect the Members States as well as the lives of their citizens. Most of these decisions are the result of requests for a preliminary ruling sent by national courts and tribunals seeking an

  4. Exploring Geographic Variability in Cancer Prevalence in Eastern Morocco: A Retrospective Study over Eight Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Abda, Naima; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Malignant diseases have been believed to be more common in some areas of Eastern Morocco, but until now, cancer patterns have not been reported for this region. In this paper we present for the first time the cancer prevalence analysis in Eastern Morocco. Cross-sectional study carried out among all patients diagnosed and/or treated with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was established in October 2005 until December 2012. The ROC is the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 8,508 cases of cancer were registered among residents in Eastern Morocco, with a female to male ratio of 2.1. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 ± 15.2 years (median age = 53 years). Thus, unlike in Western countries, cancer in Eastern Morocco afflicts younger population. The areas of Eastern Morocco did not differ significantly by mean age at diagnosis (p = 0.061). However, these regions differed significantly by sex ratio (p Morocco was observed, both in males and females (p Morocco differed significantly by cancer prevalence (p Morocco. Our study illustrates substantial differences in cancer patterns between areas of Eastern Morocco. These findings are important for cancer control and highlight the need to develop program aiming at controlling and preventing the spread of major cancer sites in Eastern Morocco, particularly in areas with increased cancer prevalence rates.

  5. An empirical application of regional security complex theory on eastern partnership region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila STUPARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Partnership (EaP is a very dynamic region. If a year ago the EaP was seen as an authentic and vibrant „laboratory” of democracy building, overcoming the remains of the totalitarian state and putting the basis of a free and pluralist society, nowadays the Eastern Partnership is seen as an „out-dated” approach of the EU. However, Eastern Partnership is visible on European political arena and the big powers (USA, Russia and the EU pay attention more and more to the evolution of EaP countries. Moreover, it seems to be a confrontation between Russia and Western powers regarding the political and geopolitical orientation of EaP countries. Kremlin tries actively to stop the efforts of the EaP to close to the EU and on the other side, the EU as well as the USA encourage EaP countries to implement reforms in order to build their democracy. This paper aims to analyse the Eastern Partnership in terms of security complex, trying to argue that Eastern Partnership countries at this phase don’t form a Regional Security Complex and the EU and USA should rethink its approach towards this region.

  6. Mortality by country of birth in the Nordic countries - a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkaniemi, Helena; Bacchus-Hertzman, Jennie; Fritzell, Johan; Rostila, Mikael

    2017-05-25

    Immigration to the Nordic countries has increased in the last decades and foreign-born inhabitants now constitute a considerable part of the region's population. Several studies suggest poorer self-reported health among foreign-born compared to natives, while results on mortality and life expectancy are inconclusive. To date, few studies have summarized knowledge on mortality differentials by country of birth. This article aims to systematically review previous results on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by country of birth in the Nordic countries. The methodology was conducted and documented systematically and transparently using a narrative approach. We identified 43 relevant studies out of 6059 potentially relevant studies in August 2016, 35 of which used Swedish data, 8 Danish and 1 Norwegian. Our findings from fully-adjusted models on Swedish data support claims of excess mortality risks in specific categories of foreign-born. Most notably, immigrants from other Nordic countries, especially Finland, experience increased risk of mortality from all causes, and specifically by suicide, breast and gynaecological cancers, and circulatory diseases. Increased risks in people from Central and Eastern Europe can also be found. On the contrary, decreased risks for people with Southern European and Middle Eastern origins are found for all-cause, suicide, and breast and gynaecological cancer mortality. The few Danish studies are more difficult to compare, with conflicting results arising in the analysis. Finally, results from the one Norwegian study suggest significantly decreased mortality risks among foreign-born, to be explored in further research. With new studies being published on mortality differentials between native and foreign-born populations in the Nordic countries, specific risk patterns have begun to arise. Regardless, data from most Nordic countries remains limited, as does the information on specific causes of death. The literature should be expanded

  7. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  8. HTA and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe: Results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mochón, Leticia; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Caro Martinez, Araceli; Martin Ruiz, Eva; Pérez Velasco, Román

    2017-03-31

    To gain knowledge and insights on health technology assessment (HTA) and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe (CESEE) countries. A cross-sectional study was performed. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was developed in a multi-stage process. The questionnaire was arranged according to 5 broad domains: (i) introduction/country settings; (ii) use of HTA in the country; (iii) decision-making process; (iv) implementation of decisions; and (v) HTA and decision-making: future challenges. Potential survey respondents were identified through literature review-with a total of 118 contacts from the 24 CESEE countries. From March to July 2014, the survey was administered via e-mail. A total of 22 questionnaires were received generating an 18.6% response rate, including 4 responses indicating that their institutions had no involvement in HTA. Most of the CESEE countries have entities under government mandates with advisory functions and different responsibilities for decision-making, but mainly in charge of the reimbursement and pricing of medicines. Other areas where discrepancies across countries were found include criteria for selecting technologies to be assessed, stakeholder involvement, evidence requirements, use of economic evaluation, and timeliness of HTA. A number of CESEE countries have created formal decision-making processes for which HTA is used. However, there is a high level of heterogeneity related to the degree of development of HTA structures, and the methods and processes followed. Further studies focusing on the countries from which information is scarcer and on the HTA of health technologies other than medicines are warranted. Reviews/comparative analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  10. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking

  11. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M; Easterly, J L; Mark, P E; Keller, A [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  12. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  13. Atlas on pollution in Eastern Europe. Ecologic-chemical and ecotoxicological case studies of organic trace substances and heavy metals in Central- and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, E.

    1994-01-01

    This book describes production of chlorinated hydrocarbons and their penetration of the ecosystem in different countries of Eastern Europe. Contents of chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals in running waters, groundwater and atmosphere is determined. The effect of heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons on birds and mother's milk is studied. (EF) [de

  14. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... in the area.   The municipalities acknowledge the articulation of the city region and the initiated planning process.  However, the municipalities might see the arena as means to lobby for infrastructure investments in Eastern Jutland, as it is doubtful whether the municipalities will feel encouraged to enter...... a process, which is aiming at increasing the national regulation within their territory.    The result might very well be that the discussion about future infrastructure investments is not linked to discussions about future urban development in Eastern Jutland.  These aspects raises serious questions about...

  15. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  16. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in eastern India: Some new observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs are hereditary, autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorders showing clinical and genetic heterogeneity. They are usually manifested clinically in the third to fifth decade of life although there is a wide variability in the age of onset. More than 36 different types of SCAs have been reported so far and about half of them are caused by pathological expansion of the trinucleotide, Cytosine Alanine Guanine (CAG repeat. The global prevalence of SCA is 0.3-2 per 100,000 population, SCA3 being the commonest variety worldwide, accounting for 20-50 per cent of all cases, though SCA 2 is generally considered as the commonest one in India. However, SCA6 has not been addressed adequately from India though it is common in the eastern Asian countries like, Japan, Korea and Thailand. Objective: The present study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of SCA6 in the city of Kolkata and the eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: 83 consecutive patients were recruited for the study of possible SCAs and their clinical features and genotype were investigated. Results: 6 of the 83 subjects turned out positive for SCA6, constituting therefore, 13.33% of the patient pool. Discussion: SCA6 is prevalent in the eastern part of India, though not as frequent as the other common varieties. Conclusions: Further community based studies are required in order to understand the magnitude of SCA6 in the eastern part, as well as in other regions of India.

  17. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in eastern India: Some new observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B; Pulai, Debabrata; Guin, Deb Shankar; Ganguly, Goutam; Joardar, Anindita; Roy, Sarnava; Rai, Saurabh; Biswas, Atanu; Pandit, Alok; Roy, Arijit; Senapati, Asit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are hereditary, autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorders showing clinical and genetic heterogeneity. They are usually manifested clinically in the third to fifth decade of life although there is a wide variability in the age of onset. More than 36 different types of SCAs have been reported so far and about half of them are caused by pathological expansion of the trinucleotide, Cytosine Alanine Guanine (CAG) repeat. The global prevalence of SCA is 0.3-2 per 100,000 population, SCA3 being the commonest variety worldwide, accounting for 20-50 per cent of all cases, though SCA 2 is generally considered as the commonest one in India. However, SCA6 has not been addressed adequately from India though it is common in the eastern Asian countries like, Japan, Korea and Thailand. The present study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of SCA6 in the city of Kolkata and the eastern part of India. 83 consecutive patients were recruited for the study of possible SCAs and their clinical features and genotype were investigated. 6 of the 83 subjects turned out positive for SCA6, constituting therefore, 13.33% of the patient pool. SCA6 is prevalent in the eastern part of India, though not as frequent as the other common varieties. Further community based studies are required in order to understand the magnitude of SCA6 in the eastern part, as well as in other regions of India.

  18. Building country image process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The same branding principles are used for countries as they are used for the products, only the methods are different. Countries are competing among themselves in tourism, foreign investments and exports. Country turnover is at the level that the country's reputation is. The countries that begin as unknown or with a bad image will have limits in operations or they will be marginalized. As a result they will be at the bottom of the international influence scale. On the other hand, countries with a good image, like Germany (despite two world wars will have their products covered with a special "aura".

  19. Money Demand Features in CEE Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina-Ioana MERA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a stable relationship between money demand and its determinants is important for the efficiency of monetary policy. In this paper we carried a preliminary analysis on the variables that can influence money demand in five Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania in order to determine which characteristics define the evolution of money demand and its determinants, and how volatile they are. The results indicate a number of similarities in terms of monetary development and also suggest that some additional variables that may influence money demand in this specific sample.

  20. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  1. Eastern Europe major opportunity for oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmorgen, T.

    1991-01-01

    The joint effort to overcome the political, technical, and commercial obstacles to adequate energy supply in Eastern Europe may pose one of the biggest entrepreneurial challenges of the decades to come. This article focuses on the former East Germany and Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. They are the markets most likely to be developed in the near future. The best data are available on East Germany. Therefore, the forecast material will concentrate on that region. But the trends seen there will apply to the other countries, keeping in mind though, that East Germany was regarded as the most advanced member of the Former East Bloc in industrial development. A look at some key economic data reveals the potential of the oil markets. Looking at per capita energy consumption, these countries were real world champions. In view of the low standard of living, this is the yardstick of living, this is the yardstick for an unbelievable waste of scarce resources and indicates a total lack of respect for the environment

  2. Financing private power in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Finance is needed for upgrading Eastern Europe's electric power industries. Capacity is not a problem, as all countries have more than adequate capacity in the light of the deep industrial recession. However, much of the capacity is elderly and poorly maintained, so availability is low. Coal fired plant may have electrostatic precipitators, but no desulfurization or de-NO x equipment is present. Price rises in oil and gas imported from Russia have however increased interest in energy efficiency measures. Power generation is mainly coal or lignite based. Commercial banks will be little involved in financing. The best viable sources of large scale financing will be the IBRD, EIB, EBRD, and IFC, among the multilateral investment banks. Loans so far have mainly gone to Poland. The multilateral institutions have great experience in lending to developing countries, but long procurement processes are often involved. Raising finance is inevitably a difficult process. The financing of the Cracow Environmental Project, a model private power venture in Poland is described and discussed, with particular reference to contract, legal and economic problems

  3. Women's reproductive rights in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The women of Eastern Europe currently face the enormous challenges of limited resources, religious opposition to family planning, and negative attitudes towards contraception in an attempt to gain reproductive freedom. These women need to become involved with the policy development and political processes that have recently come to be. Recently these issues were discussed during a workshop held in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Women's health and reproductive rights were highlighted. A representative of the International Planned Parenthood Foundation (IPPF), Karen Newman, attended the workshops and indicated that this meeting of women's organizations emphasized the importance for national development in the region to be led from within. The living conditions of the women of the region are such that this type of organization is severely hampered. There is a lot of effort being expended by these women, but unfortunately they have little or no experience in these matters. Networks and leaders must be found to combat the forces from, the Catholic Church and from government officials that have given these issues a low priority because of financial considerations. Lack of hard currency in countries like the Soviet Union and Poland have made contraceptive availability very scare. The result in both countries has been the use of abortion as a primary method of child spacing. Education and communication are not enough because without the service delivery the raised awareness will only crate disappointment and distrust in family planning.

  4. FEATURES OF THE PUBLIC SPENDING BY FUNCTION IN CEE COUNTRIES -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂDULESCU MAGDALENA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the development of the public expenses by functions in the last decade in some selected Central and Eastern European (CEE countries: Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Bulgaria and Romania. Based on this statistical analysis we can emphasize the main features of the budgetary policy in these countries during the crisis. We can underline the best measures of the budgetary policy adopted in these countries to fight the crisis effects. These countries haven’t adopted euro yet. After adopting euro, these countries won’t have an autonomous monetary policy and should base solely on their fiscal and budgetary policy when they will have to face some economic external shocks, just like they did during the current crisis. The fiscal and budgetary policy is facing political pressures in all countries

  5. THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP AS PART OF THE EU FOREIGN POLICY: A REVIEW OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SCRINIC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Partnership (2009 as a component part of the European Neighbourhood Policy is a tool that aims at the economic integration and political cooperation of the countries that are included in this project by signing association and free trade agreements with the European Union (EU. The recent events in Ukraine have revealed the possibility of these countries to become EU member states depending on the progress made, which is confirmed by many European experts. However, there are big differences among the Eastern Partnership countries on their way to EU integration on the background of the strong pressure from Russia, aimed to suppress any pro-European manifestations of such countries. Despite the sharpening of geopolitical challenges, the EU continues to use the traditional ways of enlargement and deepening of cooperation processes with the Eastern Neighbourhood. This paper aims at reviewing the theoretical approaches through which the EU, as a normative power, exerts major influence on the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries by extending the neofunctional practices, intergovernmental cooperation and the constructivist model. However, in view of reaching the soft power objectives, we aim at transforming and strengthening the EU positions in the context of amplified economic and political-ideological problems at regional level.

  6. Leadership and management principles in libraries in developing countries

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Learn leadership skills from achievements at special libraries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central America! Leadership and Management Principles in Libraries in Developing Countries is a compilation of success stories epitomizing management and leadership strategies from developing nations around the globe. This book focuses on library administrators from Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central America who have significantly transformed their library services in spite of limited funds and a lack of resources. You'll learn about their achievements, their techniques, and t

  7. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  8. Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Dohrn, J; Omoni, G; Malata, A; Klopper, H; Larson, E

    2016-03-01

    This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade. The shortage of published nursing research from African countries severely limits the ability of practicing nurses and midwives to base clinical decisions on solid evidence. However, little is known regarding unpublished or unindexed clinical research ('grey literature'), a potentially rich source of information. Identifying these sources may reveal resources to assist nurses in providing evidence-based care. This scoping review of grey literature on clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries helped to identify gaps in research and assess whether these gaps differ from published research. Systematic searches of grey literature were performed. Research was included if it was conducted by nurses in 1 of 25 southern or eastern African countries, between 2004 and 2014 and included patient outcomes. Data were extracted on location, institution, research topic, institutional connections and author information. Chi-square tests were performed to compare differences between indexed and non-indexed literature. We found 262 studies by 287 authors from 17 southern and eastern African countries covering 13 topics. Although all topics were also found in indexed literature and there were statistically significant differences between the number of times, fewer topics were covered in grey literature vs. indexed. Patient satisfaction and experience and traditional health practices were more likely to be published, whereas chronic disease, assault and paediatric-related research were less often published. Generally, there is a paucity of clinical nursing research in this region. This could reflect the shortage of nurses prepared to conduct research in this region. Nurses may find additional resources for evidence in the grey literature. A complete understanding of the state of nursing

  9. Energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - The first year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first stages of the energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - taking stock of the heritage of the past and conceptualizing the nature of reforms - were accomplished in 1990. While two countries - the USSR and Albania -introduced some market economy elements into central energy planning and basically maintained the latter, all other countries of central and eastern Europe opted for a replacement of central energy planning by market-oriented energy policies and practices. In those latter countries, a typical policy of market adaptation emerged consisting of a change of policies, institutions, economic instruments and relations. Differences in the conditions prevailing in the various countries resulted in the emergence of specific national ''models'' of market adaptation. The reforms, if successful, would imply: greater energy efficiency, reduced pollution, enhanced nuclear safety, a reduced impact on the climate, greater business opportunities, the closure of uneconomic capacities, a decline of coal production, a rise in unemployment; a rise of the energy trade dependence coupled with a rise of gas and oil imports; but practically no change of the net energy exports of the USSR. By the end of 1990 developed market economies agreed to co-ordinate assistance (within the ''Group of 24'') and determined the type and modalities of support. This support would enable and encourage the economies in transition to finalize reform, stimulate their practical implementation and address side effects (disinvestments, unemployment) and systematic risks (e.g. trade dependence) and opportunities (e.g. trade diversification). The business community and lending institutions would have to assess and support investments opportunities more actively. Intergovernmental organizations will play an important role in improving the conditions for business involvement. In 1990, the frameworks for energy reforms in central and eastern Europe, short term assistance, long term business

  10. Fiscal Descentralization in Eastern Europe: Trends and Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander ARISTOVNIK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to provide an overview of the fiscal decentralization process in emerging market economies in Eastern Europe in the last 20 years. Using the methodology developed by Vo (2009, the article assesses the degree of fiscal decentralization in the region. Conceptually, the measurement of fiscal decentralization focuses on fiscal autonomy and on the fiscal importance of subnational governments. The empirical analysis reveals that the highest level of fiscal decentralization (centralization is found in Russia (Armenia among non-EU members and in Estonia (Slovak Republic among EU members of the Eastern European countries. In addition, the empirical results show that, in general, the degree of fiscal decentralization is higher in developed OECD countries than in most Eastern European countries (EECs. However, in contrast to our expectations, there has been an alarming downward trend of the fiscal decentralization index (FDI in most countries of the region over the last two decades. Moreover, the article also examines the effects of fiscal decentralization on growth and public sector size in EECs. The analysis provides some evidence that increases in public sector decentralization are associated with higher income levels. Finally, our results suggest that fiscal decentralization in EECs generally leads to an increase in the size of government, albeit there are some significant differences between EU and non-EU member states.

  11. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most...

  12. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. THE EU’S INTERNAL FRICTIONS AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES ON THE EASTERN NEIGHBOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia LUPU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last couple of years, the EU’s foreign policy was mainly directed towards two regions: the Balkans and the Eastern neighborhood. However, the means and the ends of the EU’s approach were in a sharp contrast. While the Balkan countries witnessed a more straightforward and coherent path towards the EU, the Eastern neighborhood had a different experience. Aiming to avoid future cleavages, the EU developed in 2004 the European Neighborhood Policy. But following Romania and Bulgaria’s accession in the EU, there was still the need for a more comprehensive approach toward the Eastern neighbourhood. Therefore, at the Polish and Swedish overture, the EU inaugurated the Eastern Partnership program which comprises of six ex-Soviet countries. However, the Vilnius Summit was not as effective as it was expected. Instead, it has failed to address the major issues on the agenda. Considering these aspects, this paper asserts that the EU’s gaps in its approach toward the Eastern neighbourhood where mainly determined by systemic incentives and constraints as polarity and ordering principle. After laying out the core arguments, the paper will further develop possible future dynamics concerning the fate of the EU Eastern neighbourhood in the aftermath of the Vilnius Summit.

  14. Nutrition transition and dietary energy availability in Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Koziel, Slawomir

    2007-12-01

    After the economic transition of the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in many countries of Eastern Europe. This article describes changing availability of dietary energy from major dietary components since the transition to free-market economic systems among Eastern European nations, using food balance data obtained at national level for the years 1990-92 and 2005 from the FAOSTAT-Nutrition database. Dietary energy available to the East European nations satellite to the former Soviet Union (henceforth, Eastern Europe) was greater than in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Among the latter, the Western nations of the former Soviet Union had greater dietary energy availability than the Eastern and Southern nations of the former Soviet Union. The higher energy availability in Eastern Europe relative to the nations of the former Soviet Union consists mostly of high-protein foods. There has been no significant change in overall dietary energy availability to any category of East European nation between 1990-1992 and 2005, indicating that, at the macro-level, increasing rates of obesity in Eastern European countries cannot be attributed to increased dietary energy availability. The most plausible macro-level explanations for the obesity patterns observed in East European nations are declines in physical activity, increased real income, and increased consumption of goods that contribute to physical activity decline: cars, televisions and computers.

  15. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Insights into the cystic fibrosis care in Eastern Europe: Results of survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka-Serzysko, Katarzyna; Peckova, Monika; Noordhoek, Jacquelien J; Sands, Dorota; Drevinek, Pavel

    2018-04-19

    The European cystic fibrosis (CF) Society Standards of Care were set to facilitate the delivery of high-quality care throughout Europe. However, their implementation may be difficult for less economically advantaged countries. This survey was performed to explore the gap in the knowledge of the level of CF care in Eastern Europe. Questionnaires were sent online to one CF professional and one CF patient representative for every Eastern European country. Although most respondents indicated the presence of CF centres, disparities in their framework among individual countries and between them and the European CF Standards of Care became apparent. A minority of countries achieved CF centre recognition by the government (6 of 16), provided CF care for adults (6 countries) and had a multidisciplinary team with all team members represented (2 countries). Patients were significantly more critical in the evaluation of various aspects of CF care than physicians, especially in the Balkan region. The survey results indicate that the organization and level of CF care across Eastern Europe is largely variable and lacks some of its fundamental attributes in several countries. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  18. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  19. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  20. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  2. POLITICAL OPTIONS AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS WITHIN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sandu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes in the security environment of Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus have been reshaping the strategies of the six small countries in the proximity of both the EU and Russia. Their attempts to take upon themselves their Soviet heritage and their sensitive geographical position were reflected by a mix of East-West orientations. Some of them chose to create stronger economic bonds with the EU members while others decided to anticipate Russian discontent in separatist areas they shelter and became members of the EEU. Regardless of their option, the Eastern Partnership members embarked? on a long road of political, social and economic changes, so that their stability and growth would become pillars of a stronger role on the regional and international arena in the future. The EU, in turn, has been supporting its partners to the East according to their level of commitment to reform and approximation, although the economic benefits of this relation are imperceptible.

  3. Experience in implementing projects in Eastern Europe; Erfahrungen bei der Realisierung von Projekten in Osteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichard, A.; Bauer, I.; Rieck, R.; Ziehm, R. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The article covers the present projects and activities in Eastern Europe of Nukem Technologies GmbH. The company's East European business began in 1973 in the field of uranium trading. After difficult negotiations in the period of the ''cold war'' it became possible to enter into an agreement with the Soviet foreign trade organization, Techsnabexport, about purchases of uranium for Western nuclear power plants. In the course of Nukem's realignment in the late 1980s, the focus was shifted more and more to the possibility of exporting into other countries the technologies developed and proven in Germany. This included countries in Eastern Europe. The situation changed abruptly with the political opening of Eastern Europe. A large potential market opened to Nukem as a supplier of technologies and plants for waste treatment and, later, the wider area of decommissioning. The partners in Eastern Europe were interested in proven, modern solutions. The ensuing success was also due to the fact that Nukem, in the early nineties, hired specialists from the new German federal states who had studied in the Soviet Union and were familiar with Russian technology, language, and culture. Soliciting analogous projects in the countries of Eastern Europe other than the former Soviet Union was begun in a parallel process. Very soon it turned out that also the interim storage of spent fuel elements constituted a potential market. (orig.)

  4. When do people want to retire? The preferred retirement age gap between Eastern and Western Europe explained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter de Tavernier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Debates surrounding working longer focus mainly on increasing legal and effective retirement ages, leaving the preferred retirement age largely overlooked. There is a large East-West divide in Europe regarding the latter, with individuals in Eastern Europe wanting to retire earlier. We aim to explain this gap in terms of differences in working conditions and state-level legal conditions. Using the 2010 European Social Survey data on employed individuals aged 50-70 in 24 countries enriched with country-level information, we find that part of the explanation is found in the lower levels of job control found in Eastern Europe. Moreover, the results suggest that Karasek’s job demand/control model fits better in Western than Eastern European countries. Another explanation is found at the country level, where the legal retirement age accounts for a major part of the gap in preferred retirement ages between East and West.

  5. Liberalization and enlargement: effects of the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirovska, M.

    2005-01-01

    After half a century of political division within the European continent, and of State control over national energy industries, a new industrial and political organisation model aiming at creating a single natural gas market tends to emerge currently within the enlarged European Union. Yet new member countries are former centrally planned, socialist economies, with very different industrial structures for natural gas. However, those countries should adjust to the institutional framework applicable in the European Union, including bringing their gas industries into compliance with the liberalization process that old member countries initiated years ago. In that unprecedented context, one basic issue is whether the gas industry liberalization, in the framework of the enlargement, will have expected results in terms of competition, efficiency and profits for Eastern countries, whether new members or candidates for membership. The objective of the research work behind this article was to analyse the effects of that complex trend on the industrial organisation of gas markets in eastern Europe. (author)

  6. Energy implications of the move from a command to a market -based economy in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashmakov, I.

    1991-01-01

    Three scenarios of East Europe energy development till 2010 are considered. Calculation results show that in the short and long-term future Eastern Europe will encounter two types of difficulties. Firstly, the USSR can no longer cover strong demand for cheap oil from East European clients for the foreseeable future. Hence, Eastern Europe will need to find another source of oil supply and create corresponding infrastructure. Secondly, introduction of new rules in mutual trade of socialist countries and growth of the unit energy import value will force East European countries to pay substantially larger energy import bills (to 20-30 bln.$ in 1991-2000). Taking into account the difficulties to earn such volumes of hard currency the main conclusion is that the problem of energy supply will be one of the most difficult in Eastern Europe transition from a command to a market economy. (author)

  7. POSSIBLE IMPACT OF RECONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP ON FURTHER INTEGRATION WITHIN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica TODOROVIĆ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The involvement countries of bilateral and multilateral economic relations, global markets, and integration enable the achievement of mutual and multiple benefits which in the case of the Eastern Partnership expressing as security, stability and prosperity, democracy and the rule of law. On the basis of Cost-benefit analysis and SWOT analysis, the paper will analyze the impact of Eastern Partnership on achieving economic objectives of member states of the partnership and the impact of the current situation and issues reconceptualization the mutual relations of partners in foreign trade. As a separate issue, the paper analyzes the relationship between the Republic of Serbia with the member countries of the Eastern Partnership in order to detect potential threats and benefits in international exchanges.

  8. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  9. Extensiveness and Effectiveness of Corporate Governance Regulations in South-Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Bobirca; Paul-Gabriel Miclaus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to illustrate the main characteristics of the corporate governance challenge facing the countries of South-Eastern Europe (SEE) and to subsequently determine and assess the extensiveness and effectiveness of corporate governance regulations in these countries. Therefore, we start with an overview on the subject of the key problems of corporate governance in transition. We then address the issue of corporate governance measurement for SEE coun...

  10. IAEA activities to improve occupational radiation protection in nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, M.; Webb, G.A.M.; )

    1998-01-01

    The following aspects are highlighted: developing standards, ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure), providing assistance, and intercomparisons. By means of these coordinated efforts, the IAEA aims at improving occupational radiation protection in nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern Europe. The objective is not only transfer of knowledge and technology but also encouraging cooperation between health physicists in those countries as well as with health physicists in Western countries. (P.A.)

  11. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TAXATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BOROVINA (COJOCARU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the economic crisis that started in the United States in 2007, economic growth has become of great importance for the countries affected by the crisis further to their confrontation with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. At national level, governments are searching for that mix of optimal economic policies that would revive economies on the upward and also sustainable trend. One of the key policies in this regard, especially for the countries in Central and Eastern Europe which intend to adopt the euro currency, is the tax policy. Its main instruments are taxes. In this paper, we pay special attention to these instruments and to the connection that they have with the economic growth. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part presents a few ideas related to the importance of taxes at national level, the second part is an analysis in terms of taxation of the Central and Eastern Europe countries, while the third part consists of a panel-type assessment of the relation between economic growth and taxation level.

  12. Developing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines to Promote Healthy Diets and Lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Janice L.; Samuda, Pauline M.; Molina, Veronika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the…

  13. Crisis in Eastern Europe : The Downside of a Market Economy Revealed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Herman W.

    After the collapse of communism, the Central and Eastern European countries decided to implement a market economy embedded in a democratic order. A constituent element of the transition was a fully-fledged integration with the global economy. One of the consequences of this integration is that the

  14. EU-China Trade Partnership: Strategic Importance of Central and Eastern European Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Jitaru

    2016-01-01

    the increase of Chinese investment in Europe. This paper aims to analyze trade flows betweenChina and the EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe in the framework of the EU-Chinatrade partnership and how these countries can be considered a strategic partner in EU-Chinatrade relations.

  15. Comparative politics in central and eastern europe: Mapping publications over the past 20 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Carsten Q; Bochsler, Daniel; Chiru, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a new empirical perspective on the state of Comparative Politics (CP) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). We present findings on the authors, methods, and epistemology of CP publications in the most relevant journals from eleven countries in the region. The major finding...

  16. Structural changes in Central and Eastern European economies: breaking news or breaking the ice?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Égert, B.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, R.; Kočenda, Evžen; Morales-Zumaquero, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, 1-2 (2006), s. 85-103 ISSN 1573-9414 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries * multiple structural breaks * volatility Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  17. Symposium on Economic Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Murrell

    1991-01-01

    This symposium examines the economic problems facing the reforming countries of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the interrelationships between these problems, and current knowledge on how to deal with them. The word "reform" is surely a misnomer for what is occurring; "revolution" is more fitting.

  18. The challenges of attracting an retaining academic talent. Central and Eastern European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Rose, Anna-Lena

    2016-01-01

    Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries are currently facing strong imperatives to increase incoming academic staff mobility. In this article, we focus on barriers and facilitators of academic mobility. We provide examples of Lithuanian and Czech higher education systems that are based on

  19. Uncovering Problems and Identifying Coping Strategies of Middle Eastern University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzi, Khaled; Chiodo, John J.

    2006-01-01

    For international college students, the failure to achieve their educational goals regarding their program of study creates a large amount of stress. These international students experience pressure to succeed from their families, sponsoring agencies, or even the communities from their home country. For Middle Eastern students who come to study at…

  20. The Transformation of University Governance in Central and Eastern Europe: its Antecendents and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Bergan, Sjur; Egron-Polak, Eva; Kohler, Jürgen; Purser, Lewis; Spyropoulou, Athanassia

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the change in governance and management of universities in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries from a multi-level perspective, discussing the impact of changing institutional logics on university management capacities and university structures. The author draws on

  1. 76 FR 61978 - Inclusion of the Hellbender, Including the Eastern Hellbender and the Ozark Hellbender, in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...-0033; 96300-1671-0000-R4] RIN 1018-AW93 Inclusion of the Hellbender, Including the Eastern Hellbender... range countries is recommended prior to adding or removing a species to Appendix III. Inclusion of... Article II. Appendix III shall include the names of the Parties submitting the species for inclusion...

  2. Securing Access to Seed: Social Relations and Sorghum Seed Exchange in Eastern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, S.

    2008-01-01

    Access to seed is crucial for farming, though few studies investigate household-level access in the informal `farmer seed systems¿ which still supply most seed in poor countries. This paper uses empirical data of seed exchange practices for sorghum in eastern Ethiopia to analyze how social

  3. The public perception of the nuclear energy in Eastern Europe: past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Jimenez, G.

    2010-01-01

    In Eastern Europe, people associate nuclear energy to the idea of progress, and prestige of the nuclear industry is very high. This article sets the use of nuclear technology to produce energy in a historical context that is particular to these countries. Results of interviews and surveys are analyzed in order to provide an insight on the level of acceptance among population. (Author)

  4. Stroke care in Central Eastern Europe: current problems and call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti, Laura; Brainin, Michael; Titianova, Ekaterina; Morovic, Sandra; Demarin, Vida; Kalvach, Pavel; Skoloudik, David; Kobayashi, Adam; Czlonkowska, Anna; Muresanu, Dafin F; Shekhovtsova, Ksenia; Skvortsova, Veronica I; Sternic, Nadezda; Beslac Bumbasirevic, Ljiljana; Svigelj, Viktor; Turcani, Peter; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2013-07-01

    Stroke is a major medical problem and one of the leading causes of mortality and disability all over in Europe. However, there are significant East-West differences in stroke care as well as in stroke mortality and morbidity rates. Central and Eastern European countries that formerly had centralized and socialist health care systems have serious and similar problems in organizing health and stroke care 20 years after the political transition. In Central and Eastern Europe, stroke is more frequent, the mortality rate is higher, and the victims are younger than in Western Europe. High-risk patients live in worse environmental conditions, and the socioeconomic consequences of stroke further weaken the economic development of these countries. To address these issues, a round table conference was organized. The main aim of this conference was to discuss problems to be solved related to acute and chronic stroke care in Central and Eastern European countries, and also, to exchange ideas on possible solutions. In this article, the discussed problems and possible solutions will be summarized, and introduce 'The Budapest Statement of Stroke Experts of Central and Eastern European countries'. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  5. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  6. Country Presentation Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriada, R.; Byakagaba, A.; Kiza, M.; Magembe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Like Many African countries, Uganda is not Immune to the problem of illicit trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive materials. This has been worsened by the porosity of the Ugandan Borders. There is control on the few Entry points and much of the border line does not have adequate control on what enters and leaves the country. Uganda is also used as a transit route with the neighboring countries like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya,Tanzania.

  7. Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Sayed, Ghada

    2018-04-05

    Optimal breastfeeding practices and appropriate complementary feeding improve child health, survival and development. The countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region have made significant strides in formulation and implementation of legislation to protect and promote breastfeeding based on The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions. To assess the implementation of the Code in the Region. Assessment was conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean using a WHO standard questionnaire. Seventeen countries in the Region have enacted legislation to protect breastfeeding. Only 6 countries have comprehensive legislation or other legal measures reflecting all or most provisions of the Code; 4 countries have legal measures incorporating many provisions of the Code; 7 countries have legal measures that contain a few provisions of the Code; 4 countries are currently studying the issue; and only 1 country has no measures in place. Further analysis of the legislation found that the text of articles in the laws fully reflected the Code articles in only 6 countries. Most countries need to revisit and amend existing national legislation to implement fully the Code and relevant World Health Assembly resolutions, supported by systematic monitoring and reporting. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  8. Scenarios for economy and environment in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, J.C.; Hettelingh, J.P.; Maas, R.J.M.

    1996-10-01

    In 1993 an integrated assessment of the World Bank developed economic scenarios of Central and Eastern European countries was carried out, primarily for emissions, deposition and concentrations of SO x , NO x Particulates, Cadmium en VOCs. Other topics dealt with were quality of soils, groundwater and rivers in Europe. The report forms a background document to the World Bank's 'Environmental Action Programme or Central and Eastern Europe' (EAP). Economic development in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries is far from favorable. Production and consumption have declined by 70% compared to 1990. However, economic prospects seem to be better. The World Bank expects that economic growth will be supported by structural shifts in the production process towards less material-intensive production and reliance on resources. Emissions have been reduced significantly compared to 1990. If in a period of economic recovery, the newly installed capital stock is geared to Western European standards, further reductions may be achieved. To improve the energy efficiency of CEE countries, energy prices will have to increase. It has been assumed that they will harmonize with Western European energy prices. Hot spots are defined as those regions which, by 2010, are still expected to suffer from an exceedance of particulates, SO 2 or cadmium concentrations with respect to WHO air quality guidelines. These regional hot spots can be assisted by locally accelerating investments in new capital equipment in such a way that the whole capital stock will operate with Western European Standards by 2010. Not all environmental problems can be resolved by 2010. Implementation of all best available technologies in CEE is necessary, if all the environmental problems are to be solved. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. Central and eastern European activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Florida State University/Technical University of Budapest environmental research center, Center for Hungarian/American Environmental Research, Studies and Exchanges (CHAERSE), provides a resource base for information and technologies that is used to address near- and long-term environmental problems within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in Central and Eastern Europe. The CHAERSE is used as a technology transfer conduit for environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) problems and solutions. The International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) used the CHAERSE as one source of information for the identification of international ER/WM technologies being developed in Central and Eastern Europe. This was accomplished by matching high-priority problems in that region to high-priority problems in the DOE Complex; conducting symposia, meetings and workshops with international environmental experts; and identifying innovative technologies

  10. Museology History of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia D. Firer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the aspects of the establishment of the first museums and libraries in Eastern Siberia. The author considers the role of the museum in development of culture and public education in Minusinsk, Yeniseysk, notes the valuable contribution of the activities of merchants and intelligentsia to the museum business, as well as the reflection of the present and past of museums in Siberia.

  11. Market Intergration and Border Effects in Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Versailles

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies border efects in Eastern Africa by exploiting a consumer price data set covering 4 out of 5 EAC member states, 39 cities and 24 goods over the period 2004-2008. The Law-of-One-Price (LOP) is tested by running level regressions on relative prices with city-pairs the unit of observation. Unsurprisingly, distance plays an important role in explaining relative price movements, both within and between countries. The border efect as measured by the coef?cient on a border dummy is...

  12. Oil and gas in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeh, D.

    1994-01-01

    A lawyer's view of oil and gas activity in Central and Eastern Europe is presented. General observations include: the regional interdependence which stems from the persistence of the influence of Russian price subsidies and the transport infrastructure; the difference between the region's organization of the oil and gas industry from that of the West; political and historical dimensions; the difficulties of coming to terms with both the cultural elements of the law and the flood of new legislation; the search of the oil companies for a stable legal environment; and taxation. Brief country reports follow this overview. (UK)

  13. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15......The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...

  14. Nuclear Research and Development Institutes in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The science and technology (S and T) sector is faced today with complex and diverse challenges. National science budgets are under pressure, and many countries are changing how research and development (R and D) is funded, reducing direct subsidies and introducing competition for both governmental and alternative sources of revenue. On the other hand, the transition toward knowledge-based economies is creating new opportunities in the S and T sector as governments look to it to foster economic growth through innovation. A number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe have recently joined the European Union (EU) which has defined the Lisbon Strategy to create a 'knowledge triangle' of research, education and innovation to underpin the European economic and social model, and economic growth. This strategy seeks to increase investment in science and technology across the EU to a target of 3% of GDP by 2010, with two-thirds of funds coming from the private sector. By comparison, funding for R and D in most Central and Eastern European countries is only around 1% GDP, of which about 90% is provided by the governments. R and D has become more international, reflecting a more interdependent and globalized world. R and D progress is not only of interest to individual countries but also tries to respond to the needs of a broader society. Governments still maintain national networks, but increasingly emphasize international cooperation, both to avoid duplication of expensive infrastructure, and because scientific excellence requires an exchange of ideas and cooperation that crosses borders. These challenges and opportunities directly impact the research and development institutes (RDIs), including the nuclear RDIs. It is important for the nuclear RDIs to take account of these trends in the broader S and T sector in their vision and strategy. Several nuclear RDIs have become very successful, but others are struggling to adapt. The challenges have been particularly severe

  15. Nuclear legislation in central and eastern europe and the NIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This study presents the current state of legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the central and eastern European countries (CEEC) and the New Independent States (NIS). It also contains information on the national bodies responsible for the regulation and control of nuclear energy. The nuclear energy sector has not escaped from the changes that have affected the political, economic and social climates over the past fifteen years. Under the former socialist regime, activities in this field came within the sole remit of the State administration. In the legal area, it had not been deemed necessary in most of these countries to enact laws guaranteeing democratic control of electronuclear programmes and establishing a clear distinction between activities promoting this source of energy and regulatory control, while ensuring that safety imperatives take priority over all other considerations. With the arrival of new political forces came the will to remedy this situation promptly by creating new regulatory structures and drafting legislative texts based on those used in western countries. This evolution was all the more necessary given that, at the same time, the new policy of accountability had revealed safety defects in numerous nuclear installations in these countries, thus rendering international assistance indispensable. From the legal point of view, the outcome of these years of effort is remarkably positive: almost all countries of Eastern Europe pursuing electronuclear programmes have established institutions capable of exercising efficient control over nuclear power plants and other installations. Accession to the international conventions which form the backbone of nuclear law has become widespread. Modern legislation is henceforth in place in almost all of these states. (author)

  16. Gas price policies in Central and Eastern Europe. Papers and proceedings of the Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The seminar on the topic of gas pricing and its future supply to Central and Eastern European countries was organised by the United Nations Gas Centre, part of the Economic Commission for Europe, and sponsored by the Slovenian gas company Geoplin, the N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie and ABN-AMRO Bank. The purpose was to analyse natural gas pricing as the major prerequisite for further integration of the Eastern, Central and Western European gas markets. Almost 150 representatives of gas industries and government officials of 36 different countries presented and discussed their experiences, know-how and visions on the themes of gas pricing and, in relation to these, future supply options. A total of 19 Central and Eastern European countries were represented, 11 western European countries and two from other parts of the world. The large number of participating countries and the high level of participants present witnessed the general acceptance of the importance of sharing views and information as a step towards further integration of the European gas industry. Establishment of commercial price structures and policies was identified as a main concern of Central and Eastern European countries. At present, in many cases in economies in transition the current end user prices are not sufficient to cover import European border prices. Once introduced, the commercial prices will facilitate a country's diversification, which is not only important for diminishing dependency on one supplier, but its also important for the growth of the European market as a whole. Countries that can rely on a diversified supply will allow themselves to have a larger share of gas in their primary energy supply and will be able to support necessary investment. Future market growth in the European gas market as a whole is of great importance for reducing Europe's environmental burden. Experience over the past 20 years in the western European gas industry demonstrated that the market integration is based

  17. MEDIA MARKET OVERVIEW IN CEE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BURLACIOIU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Every year, in every market and in any country, advertisers spend increasing budgets on advertising to influence consumer behavior. Finding the ideal marketing channel mix is a continuous challenge for every brand on every local market. This paper is aiming to analyze overall media investment in CEE region trying to find patterns of media mix based on economic context and local market status that supports media investment (internet and Facebook statistics, TV audiences. In the paper are used multidimensional methods like: principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering techniques. Thirteen Central and Eastern European countries are clustered based on 2017 data from Media Factbook. Two main patterns are described in the paper based on these data. The first one is characterized by high Internet usage, high Print and Digital advertising share. In terms of inverstment level, these countries have negative evolution of Net Market Spend per Capita in 2016 versus 2008 but high media market sizes. The second one is characterized by high out of home advertising share. In terms of inverstment level, these countries are splited in two subpatterns: one with negative and one with positive evolution of Net Market Spend per Capita in 2016 versus 2008.

  18. Day Care: Other Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartarson, Freida; And Others

    This collection of 5 bilingual papers on day care programs in foreign countries (China, the Soviet Union, and 3 Scandinavian countries) is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Paper I considers day care services in…

  19. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  20. Serbia : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the major constraints on and opportunities for sustaining poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Serbia. The SCD serves as the analytic foundation on which the World Bank Group and the Government of Serbia will define a new Country Partnership Framework for FY2016 to FY2020. It is based on the best possible analysis, drawing on ...